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Sample records for caesalpinia peltophoroides leguminosae

  1. Mortalidade de abelhas visitantes de flores de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth (Leguminosae no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mortality of bees visiting Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth (Leguminosae flowers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marco Antonio Del Lama

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a mortalidade de abelhas (213 fêmeas e 60 machos pertencentes a 20 espécies ao visitarem as inflorescências de Caesalpinia peltophoroides. A presença presumida de um composto tóxico no néctar mostrou grande variação espacial e temporal. Árvores individuais produziram ou não mortalidade de abelhas em diferentes períodos de floração e árvores vizinhas mostraram efeitos distintos em cada floração. A toxicidade sobre as abelhas foi igualmente variável. A maior parte das abelhas morria logo após visitarem as flores; algumas mostravam sinais de narcose, morrendo em seguida; poucas, após um período de narcose, deixaram este estado e voaram. Utilizando o índice de desgaste alar foram observadas abelhas jovens (29%, velhas (26% e de idade intermediária (45% (n = 227 entre as abelhas mortas. Se a presença do presumido composto tóxico afeta ou não o fitness da planta requer inicialmente a identificação de qual(is fator(es elicia(m seu aparecimento. Uma vez que C. peltophoroides é amplamente utilizada em projetos paisagísticos urbanos, é necess��rio estimar o potencial efeito negativo sobre as comunidades de abelhas que vivem em áreas urbanas de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Até que este efeito seja conhecido, recomenda-se aos profissionais do planejamento urbano a não utilização paisagística da sibipiruna em nossas cidades.It is reported the mortality of bees (213 females and 60 males belonging to 20 species when visiting the inflorescences of Caesalpinia peltophoroides. The presumed presence of a toxic compound in the nectar showed considerable spatial and temporal variation. Sibipiruna trees may or may not kill bees during different flowering periods and neighboring trees showed distinct effects on bee mortality. The toxicity effect on bees was quite variable. Most of the bees died immediately after visiting some flowers; a few showed signals of narcosis, but after some time they came out of this state

  2. A new generic system for the pantropical Caesalpinia group (Leguminosae

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    Edeline Gagnon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caesalpinia group is a large pantropical clade of ca. 205 species in subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae in which generic delimitation has been in a state of considerable flux. Here we present new phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid and one nuclear ribosomal marker, with dense taxon sampling including 172 (84% of the species and representatives of all previously described genera in the Caesalpinia group. These analyses show that the current classification of the Caesalpinia group into 21 genera needs to be revised. Several genera (Poincianella, Erythrostemon, Cenostigma and Caesalpinia sensu Lewis, 2005 are non-monophyletic and several previously unclassified Asian species segregate into clades that merit recognition at generic rank. In addition, the near-completeness of our taxon sampling identifies three species that do not belong in any of the main clades and these are recognised as new monospecific genera. A new generic classification of the Caesalpinia group is presented including a key for the identification of genera, full generic descriptions, illustrations (drawings and photo plates of all genera, and (for most genera the nomenclatural transfer of species to their correct genus. We recognise 26 genera, with reinstatement of two previously described genera (Biancaea Tod., Denisophytum R. Vig., re-delimitation and expansion of several others (Moullava, Cenostigma, Libidibia and Erythrostemon, contraction of Caesalpinia s.s. and description of four new ones (Gelrebia, Paubrasilia, Hererolandia and Hultholia, and make 75 new nomenclatural combinations in this new generic system.

  3. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

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    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  4. Storage sites in seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea (Leguminosae with considerations on nutrients flow

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    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea behaved as typical endospermic seeds, despite their different morphological classification (exendospermic seeds were described for C. echinata and endospermic seeds for C. ferrea. Then, the aim of this work was to compare, under ultrastructural and histochemical terms, the nature of the storage substances and their accumulation sites, as well as the nutrient flow in seeds of these species. Cotyledons in C. echinata accumulate carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, which are mobilized from the outer to the inner parts as revealed by the position of plasmodesmata. Endosperm in C. ferrea accumulates carbohydrates and in C. echinata accumulates substances during the initial embryogenic phases. Such tissue develops a chalazal haustorium that is responsible for the transport of substances into the endosperm itself and from it into the embryo, confirmed by the presence of transference cells.As sementes de Caesalpinia echinata e C. ferrea comportam-se como endospérmicas, apesar de descritas na literatura como exendospérmicas e endospérmicas, respectivamente. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar, em termos ultra-estrutural e histoquímico, a natureza das substâncias de reserva e seus tecidos acumuladores, bem como o fluxo de nutrientes nas sementes destas espécies. Os cotilédones em C. echinata acumulam carboidratos, lipídios e proteínas, mobilizados da periferia para o centro, como visto pelo posicionamento dos plasmodesmas. O endosperma em C. ferrea acumula carboidratos e lipídios, e em C. echinata, acumula substâncias nos estádios iniciais da embriogênese. Este tecido desenvolve um haustório calazal agressivo, que transporta substâncias para o endosperma propriamente dito e deste para o embrião, fato confirmado pela presença de células de transferência no endosperma.

  5. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β 0 e β1•E-1), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R2>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12cm in diameter and 550cm3 of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80g•cm-3), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC•ha-1) at the highest density of 2500 trees•ha-1 (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC•ha-1 are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits. PMID:25992905

  6. Temperatura, luz e substrato para germinação de sementes de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae Temperature, light and substrate for germination of seeds of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae

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    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Programas de preservação de Caesalpinia echinata, espécie considerada em risco de extinção, incluem a conservação ex situ, que poderia ser ainda mais intensificada pelo armazenamento, no longo prazo, de suas sementes. Embora já se tenha desenvolvido tecnologia suficiente para preservar a germinabilidade dessas sementes por até dois anos, ainda são insuficientes as informações acerca das condições adequadas para a germinação, mormente as referentes a temperatura, luz e substrato. Este trabalho visou avaliar os efeitos de temperaturas constantes de 10 a 45 °C em presença ou ausência de luz e o tipo (papel, areia e vermiculita e umidade do substrato sobre a germinação das sementes de pau-brasil. Concluiu-se que a semeadura deve ser realizada em rolo de papel, umedecido na relação 1:2,5 a 1:3,0 (substrato:água, em massa, e na temperatura de 25 °C, sem necessidade de luz.Preservation of the Brazilian endangered tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. include the ex situ conservation that could be enhanced by the long term storage of its seeds. In despite of having enough technology to preserve brazilwood seed viability for at least two years, there is scarce information on the optimal conditions for germination, mainly concerning temperature, light and substrate. This research aimed to study the effects of the constant temperatures (10 to 45°C, the presence or absence of light and the moisture content of three substrates (paper, sand and vermiculite on the germination of C. echinata seeds. The results suggested that these seeds should be sowed on paper roll moistened at the ratio 1:2.5 or 1:3.0 (substrate:water, w/w at 25°C, no need for light.

  7. BIOMETRIA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES E SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DE JUCÁ (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINOIDEAE

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    Francisco Augusto Alves Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the characteristics biometrics of the fruit and the effect of the physical and chemical scarification in the germination of seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. Ripe fruits were collected in August of 2007 of existent trees in the campus of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-arid, Mossoró- RN. The evaluations were carried at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Department of Vegetable Sciences of UFERSA. The germination test was constituted of witness and 4 treatments (types of common vinegar: vinegar of alcohol, vinegar of red wine and vinegar of white wine and hot water to 65ºC, with 4 repetitions of 50 seeds. The sowing was in containers plastic with dimensions of 32.5 x 24 x 4 cm (length, width and depth. The used substrates were sand washed sterilized previously and being irrigated with water distilled. The appraised characteristics were: mass of the fresh matter and matter dries of the seedling, germination percentage and index of emergency velocity. The immersion of the seeds in vinegar of white wine favors the germination, the index of germination velocity and the accumulation of fresh and dry matter of the juca seedlings.

  8. Pharmacological profile of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest that the crude ethanolic extract of the plant Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) might possess antinociceptive, antidiarrhoeal andcentral nervoussystem depressantactivities. Keywords: Caesalpinia bonducella, antinociceptive, antidiarrhoeal, central nervous system depressant. West African Journal ...

  9. Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding; Larsen, K.; Larsen, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    In Malesia the family contains 25 indigenous genera and 8 genera with only introduced species, as follows (in brackets the number of native and/or introduced species in Malesia): Acrocarpus (1), Afzelia (2), Amherstia (1), Bauhinia (69), Brownea (4), Caesalpinia (22), Cassia (4), Chamaecrista (5),

  10. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

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    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  11. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

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    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  12. Estrutura de uma Floresta Tropical com Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Pau Brasil

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    Valderes Bento Sarnaglia Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a estrutura da vegetação do componente arbóreo em um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Densa das Terras Baixas com populações naturais de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil no município de Aracruz (ES. Foram instaladas 10 parcelas de 10 x 50 m, de modo sistemático, totalizando 0,5 ha de área amostral. Todos os indivíduos com DAP (Diâmetro à Altura do Peito  ≥10 cm foram amostrados. Amostraram-se 259 indivíduos distribuídos em 119 espécies. As famílias com maior riqueza de espécies foram Leguminosae (22, Sapotaceae (9 e Myrtaceae (9. As espécies com os mais altos valores de importância foram Eriotheca macrophylla (K. Schum. A. Robyns, Caesalpinia echinata Lam. e Astrocaryum aculeatissimum (Schott Burret. O índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 4,51 e a equabilidade (J’ foi de 0,94.  O fragmento apresenta sinais de perturbações antrópicas, porém os altos valores de diversidade e riqueza mostram a importância da conservação, assim como para a preservação de C. echinata.

  13. Inibidores de proteases encontrados em sementes de Caesalpinia echinata (paubrasil: isolamento e caracterização do inibidor de tripsina

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    Lúcio Garcia de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata, o pau-brasil, é uma árvore pertencente à família das Leguminosas, sub-família Caesalpinoidae. Como já foram encontrados inibidores de proteases em sementes de outras Leguminosas, o objetivo do trabalho é purificar e caracterizar o inibidor de tripsina extraído das sementes de C. echinata. Após extração salina e precipitação por acetona, os inibidores foram purificados por cromatografia de troca iônica e filtração em gel, apresentando massas moleculares de 19,5 e 10 kDa e constante de inibição da ordem de nM.

  14. Drug Release Studies from Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Polysaccharide

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    Jeevanandham, Somasundaram; Dhachinamoorthi, Duraiswamy; Bannoth Chandra Sekhar, Kothapalli

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the controlled release behavior of both water-soluble (acetaminophen, caffeine, theophylline and salicylic acid) and water insoluble (indomethacin) drugs derived from Caesalpinia pulcherrima seed Gum isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima kernel powder. It further investigates the effect of incorporating diluents such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose on caffeine release. In addition the effect the gum?s (polysaccharide) partial cross-linking had on release of aceta...

  15. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

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    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  16. Estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração com ocorrência de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil

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    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p75   Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento remanescente de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração no município de Aracruz-ES em uma floresta de tabuleiro com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Foram instaladas 10 unidades amostrais (parcelas de 10 x 50m sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com DAP≥5cm e <10cm. Ao todo foram amostrados 500 indivíduos distribuídos em 181 espécies. As famílias com maior riqueza foram Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18 e Myrtaceae (14. As espécies mais importantes foram Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess. e Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. O índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 4,89 e a equabilidade (J’ foi de 0,94. Essa área é um dos últimos fragmentos remanescentes com pau-brasil nativo do estado do Espírito Santo e a população dessa espécie encontra-se bem preservada no local, ocorrendo com grande frequência, enfatizando a importância da preservação de pequenos fragmentos florestais para conservação da biodiversidade.

  17. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  18. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

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    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Euphorbia hirta and Asystasia gangeticum.

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    Sudhakar, M; Rao, Ch V; Rao, P M; Raju, D B; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2006-07-01

    The ethanolic extracts of the dry fruits of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta and flowers of Asystasia gangeticum were tested for antimicrobial activity. The three plants exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly against Escherichia coli (enteropathogen), Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

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    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  1. Étude ethnobotanique et screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Les informations ethnobotaniques obtenues auprès de dix (10) tradithérapeutes du canton N'Gadié dans le Département d'Adzopé montrent que l'utilisation de Caesalpinia benthamiana (Caesalpiniaceae) (Cb) contribue significativement aux soins de santé primaire pour le traitement des troubles de l'érection. En effet, sur ...

  2. Inhibitory effects of Caesalpinia sappan on growth and invasion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Kim, Kang-Ju; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Jeong, Seung-Il; Cha, Jung-Dan; Kim, Shin-Moo; You, Yong-Ouk

    2004-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia sappan against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and effect of Caesalpinia sappan extract on the invasion of MRSA to human mucosal fibroblasts (HMFs). Chloroform, n-butanol, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the Caesalpinia sappan showed antimicrobial activity against standard methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) as well as MRSA. Methanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan demonstrated a higher inhibitory activity than n-butanol, chloroform, and aqueous extracts. In the checkerboard dilution method, methanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan markedly lowered the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ampicillin and oxacillin against MRSA. To determine whether methanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan inhibits the MRSA invasion to HMFs, the cells were treated with various sub-MIC concentrations of methanol extract and bacterial invasion was assayed. MRSA invasion was notably decreased in the presence of 20-80 microg/ml of Caesalpinia sappan extract compared to the control group. The effect of Caesalpinia sappan extract on MRSA invasion appeared dose-dependent. These results suggest that methanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan may have antimicrobial activity and the potential to restore the effectiveness of beta-lactam antibiotics against MRSA, and inhibit the MRSA invasion to HMFs.

  3. Biflavonoids and other phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahia, Marcus V.; Santos, Jamile B. dos; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M.

    2005-01-01

    The chloroform extract of the leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Caesalpinioidea, Fabaceae) yielded the new biflavonoid named caesalflavone, as well as podocarpusflavone A, agathisflavone, apigenin and kaempferol. The chloroform extract of the trunk wood gave 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone, (-)-syringaresinol, and methyl gallate. Biflavonoids were not found in trunk wood. Until now, C. pyramidalis is the first species in the genus to present biflavonoids. The structural elucidation of the ...

  4. Biflavonoids and other phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Marcus V.; Santos, Jamile B. dos; David, Jorge M. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; David, Juceni P. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2005-11-15

    The chloroform extract of the leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Caesalpinioidea, Fabaceae) yielded the new biflavonoid named caesalflavone, as well as podocarpusflavone A, agathisflavone, apigenin and kaempferol. The chloroform extract of the trunk wood gave 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone, (-)-syringaresinol, and methyl gallate. Biflavonoids were not found in trunk wood. Until now, C. pyramidalis is the first species in the genus to present biflavonoids. The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds and their derivatives were based on MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analyses. (au)

  5. Biflavonoids and other phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahia, Marcus V.; Santos, Jamile B. dos; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P.

    2005-01-01

    The chloroform extract of the leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Caesalpinioidea, Fabaceae) yielded the new biflavonoid named caesalflavone, as well as podocarpusflavone A, agathisflavone, apigenin and kaempferol. The chloroform extract of the trunk wood gave 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone, (-)-syringaresinol, and methyl gallate. Biflavonoids were not found in trunk wood. Until now, C. pyramidalis is the first species in the genus to present biflavonoids. The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds and their derivatives were based on MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analyses. (author)

  6. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  7. Biflavonoids and other phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahia, Marcus Vinicius; Santos, Jamile Batista dos; David, Juceni Pereira de Lima; David, Jorge Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    p. 1402-1405 O reestudo do extrato clorofórmico das folhas de Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Caesalpinioidea, Fabaceae) forneceu, além do novo biflavonóide denominado caesalflavona, podocarpusflavona A, agathisflavona, apigenina, kaempferol, sitosterol e lupeol. Por outro lado, a partir do extrato clorofórmico do caule foram obtidos 4, 4'-diidroxi-2'-metoxi-chalcona, (-)-siringaresinol e galato de metila. Não foram encontrados biflavonóides nesta parte da planta. Até o presente, C. pyramidalis é...

  8. Drug Release Studies from Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandham, Somasundaram; Dhachinamoorthi, Duraiswamy; Bannoth Chandra Sekhar, Kothapalli

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the controlled release behavior of both water-soluble (acetaminophen, caffeine, theophylline and salicylic acid) and water insoluble (indomethacin) drugs derived from Caesalpinia pulcherrima seed Gum isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima kernel powder. It further investigates the effect of incorporating diluents such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose on caffeine release. In addition the effect the gum's (polysaccharide) partial cross-linking had on release of acetaminophen was examined. Applying the exponential equation, the soluble drugs mechanism of release was found to be anomalous. The insoluble drugs showed a near case II or zero order release mechanism. The rate of release in descending order was caffeine, acetaminophen, theophylline, salicylic acid and indomethacin. An increase in the release kinetics of the drug was observed on blending with diluents. However, the rate of release varied with the type and amount of blend within the matrix. The mechanism of release due to effect of diluents was found to be anomalous. The rate of drug release decreased upon partial cross-linking and the mechanism of release was found to be of super case II.

  9. Constituents of antibacterial extract of Caesalpinia paraguariensis Burk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemichael, Girma M; Singh, Maya P; Maiese, William M; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2003-01-01

    The Argentinean legume Caesalpinia paraguariensis Burk. (Fabaceae) was selected for further fractionation work based on the strong antimicrobial activity of its CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v) extract against a host of clinically significant microorganisms, including antibiotic resistant strains. 1D and 2D NMR enabled the identification of the novel benzoxecin derivative caesalpinol along with the known compounds bilobetin, stigma-5-en-3-O-beta-6'-stearoylglucopyranoside, stigma-5-en-3-beta-6'-palmitoylglucopyranoside, stigma-5-en-3-beta-glucopyranoside, oleanolic acid, 3-O-(E)-hydroxycinnamoyl oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, 3-O-(E)-hydroxycinnamoyl betulinic acid, and lupeol from the active fractions. Oleanolic acid was found active against Bacillus subtilis and both methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus with MICs of 8 (17.5 microM), 8 and 64 (140 microM) microg/ml, respectively. The rest of the compounds, however, did not show activity.

  10. Germination, carbohydrate composition and vigor of cryopreserved Caesalpinia echinata seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood seeds stored at negative temperatures. Recently harvested seeds were cryopreserved at -18º or -196ºC and periodically evaluated for germination, seed vigor and carbohydrate composition. The temperatures did not influence the germination percentages or vigor. The germination percentage decreased from 88% in recently harvested seeds to 60% after 730 days of storage. The different temperature and storage times tested did not affect the vigor seed germination as indicated by the measures of plant growth and survival. The different temperatures used did not cause changes in the carbohydrate composition. The tegument cell walls were rich in lignin, arabinose and xylose. The cytoplasm of the cotyledons and embryos had high levels of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The cryopreservation technique here presented was effective in the conservation of Brazilwood seeds for the medium term.

  11. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  12. Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. (East Indian Rosewood) of Leguminosae is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. (East Indian Rosewood) of Leguminosae is a large deciduous or nearly evergreen tree that grows in mixed deciduous forests with teak. Leaves are compound. The creamy white flowers are borne on branched inflorescences. The indehiscent dry pod bears. 1-4 seeds. Inset - a juvenile plant.

  13. Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large deciduous tree with greyish bark and compound leaves. Flowers are greenish-yellow in head inflorescences. Fruit pods are yellowish-brown, flat and carry 6-10 seeds (Inset shows the entire crown of the tree covered with previous season's dry pods).

  14. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  15. Synergy of aminoglycoside antibiotics by 3-Benzylchroman derivatives from the Chinese drug Caesalpinia sappan against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, G Y; Han, Z Q; Hao, X Y; Han, J; Li, Z S; Wang, G C

    2014-06-15

    The in vitro antimicrobial activities of three 3-Benzylchroman derivatives, i.e. Brazilin (1), Brazilein (2) and Sappanone B (3) from Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae) were assayed, which mainly dealt with synergistic evaluation of aminoglycoside and other type of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the three compounds through the Chequerboard and Time-kill curve methods. The results showed that Compounds 1-3 alone exhibited moderate to weak activity against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and other standard strains by MICs/MBCs ranged from 32/64 to >1024/>1024 μg/ml, with the order of activity as 1>2>3. Chequerboard method showed significant anti-MRSA synergy of 1/Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Amikacin, Etimicin and Streptomycin) combinations with (FICIs)50 at 0.375-0.5. The combined (MICs)50 values (μg/ml) reduced from 32-128/16-64 to 4-8/4-16, respectively. The percent of reduction by MICs ranged from 50% to 87.5%, with a maximum of 93.8% (1/16 of the alone MIC). Combinations of 2 and 3 with Aminoglycosides and the other antibiotics showed less potency of synergy. The dynamic Time-killing experiment further demonstrated that the combinations of 1/aminoglycoside were synergistically bactericidal against MRSA. The anti-MRSA synergy results of the bacteriostatic (Chequerboard method) and bactericidal (time-kill method) efficiencies of 1/Aminoglycoside combinations was in good consistency, which made the resistance reversed by CLSI guidelines. We concluded that the 3-Benzylchroman derivative Brazilin (1) showed in vitro synergy of bactericidal activities against MRSA when combined with Aminoglycosides, which might be beneficial for combinatory therapy of MRSA infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Effects of nutrient omission in Caesalpinia echinata plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Valiengo Valeri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, the morphological alterations and the mineral composition of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata plants caused by mineral nutrients omission in a green house experiment. The experimental units were distributed in the green house according to a completely random design. The treatments, each repeated five times, were the following : check (natural soil, complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn and a complete solution but for the omission of one of the nutrients in parenthesis. Each plot was represented by a plant growing in a 7 dm3 vase filled with Quartzarenic Neosol. The analyzed variables were the following: visual nutritional deficiency symptoms, plant height, stem diameter, shoot dry matter, stem, branches and leaves included, and leaf nutrients level. The omission of nitrogen limited plant growth in height and shoot biomass production. The first visual deficiency symptoms were those due to N omission followed by those caused by P, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn omissions. Later on the K and B deficiency symptoms became visible. The omission of a nutrient always caused its level in the leaves to be significantly lower than that found when it was not omitted.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  18. Purificação parcial de inibidores de tripsina de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea e Swartzia polyphylla e o efeito dos extratos protéicos sobre fungos fitopatogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bariani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de leguminosas apresentam alta concentração de inibidores de tripsina; estas proteínas estão envolvidas no metabolismo celular e também em mecanismos de defesa vegetal. A fim de confirmar ou não, a possível ação fungicida destas proteínas a partir de extratos de sementes de leguminosas arbóreas, o objetivo deste estudo foi detectar inibidores de tripsina em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea (CfTI e Swartzia polyphylla (SpTI e testar os extratos contra os fungos fitopatogênicos Colletotrichum guaranicola, Corynespora cassiicola, Fusarium oxysporum e Sclerotium rolfsii, avaliando o crescimento micelial e a esporulação. Para tanto, amostras do material biológico vegetal, sementes finamente pulverizadas, foram submetidas à extração em NaCl 150 mM. Os extratos protéicos foram parcialmente purificados em coluna Sephadex G-100, submetidos à detecção dos inibidores e SDS-PAGE (12,5% e, utilizados nos bioensaios contra os fungos. O perfil eletroforético revelou uma única banda em CfTI e oito bandas em SpTI. Os extratos de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla exibiram efeito na diminuição da esporulação dos fungos testados, mas S. rolfsii foi inibido apenas por C. ferrea. Quanto ao crescimento micelial, os dois extratos tiveram efeito sobre F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii, ao passo que C. guaranicola foi inibido apenas por S. polyphylla, e C. cassiicola por C. ferrea. Concluiu-se que sementes de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla apresentam inibidores de tripsina. Além disso, os resultados sugerem que estas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas são promissoras no que concerne à prospecção de fungicidas naturais, uma vez que os extratos diminuíram o crescimento micelial e a esporulação de C. guaranicola, C. cassiicola, F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of seed extracts and bondenolide from Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simin, K; Khaliq-Uz-Zaman, S M; Ahmad, V U

    2001-08-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities, along with a phytotoxicity test of the newly isolated diterpene bondenolide (1), of a methanol extract, ethylacetate fraction and water soluble part of the methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. were assayed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc (Lin.) Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Tasleem; Mandal, T K; Kumar, Naresh; Bhosale, J D; Hole, Archana; Sharma, G L; Padhi, M M; Lavekar, G S; Dabur, Rajesh

    2009-05-04

    Caesalpinia bonduc (Lin.) Roxb. is a known drug in Ayurveda to treat various diseases specifically tumors, cysts and cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess in vitro as well as in vivo antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia bonduc seeds. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of seed coat and seed kernel extracts were investigated by microbroth dilution assay. In vivo activities of hydro-alcoholic extracts were investigated in rat models of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia mimicking that in patients with cystic fibrosis. Various extracts of plant seeds exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activities in a range of 22-350 microg/ml. The extracts also showed activity against methicillin resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus and ampicillin resistant (AR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa as in the sensitive strains. In rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, hydro-alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonduc seed kernel (CBSK) and Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat (CBSC) were injected subcutaneously in the test groups of animals. The control groups were treated with cortisone and saline. Two weeks after challenge with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the CBSK treated animals showed a significant bacterial clearance from the lungs (PCaesalpinia bonduc may have the potential to be promising natural medicine, with other forms of treatments, for CF patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections.

  1. Enraizamento de estacas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. em hidroponia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Valiengo Valeri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985731O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a necessidade e a concentração apropriada de ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas de Caesalpinia echinata em sistema de hidroponia, para a produção de mudas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da UNESP Jaboticabal, SP. O material vegetal foi constituído de 160 estacas caulinares de 11 a 12 cm de comprimento com dois pares de folhas obtidas de mudas jovens produzidas partindo de sementes. As bases das estacas foram tratadas pelo método de imersão lenta em solução de etanol a 5% durante 14 horas contendo 0, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1 de AIB e via imersão rápida em solução de etanol a 50% durante 5 segundos contendo 0, 1000, 3000 e 5000 mg L-1 de AIB. As estacas permaneceram no sistema de hidroponia por 90 dias e 90 dias adicionais em sacos de polietileno contendo Plantmax® como substrato, sendo mantidas sob nebulização intermitente. Após 90 e 180 dias de enraizamento, foram avaliados a porcentagem de sobrevivência e de estacas enraizadas, o número e o comprimento de raízes adventícias. As estacas devem ser tratadas com ácido indolbutírico na concentração de 100 mg L-1 por 14 horas e colocadas para enraizar em sistema de hidroponia.

  2. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Sunarno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG & OHASHI, HIROSHI. 2002. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula. Reinwardtia 12(1: 117–119. ⎯ A new species, Dalbergia johoriensis from the Malay Peninsula is described. It is close to D. rostrata and D. havilandii but readily distinguished by the grooved midrib beneath, flowers with narrower standard and wings and style hairy in the lower part.

  3. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). 201.56-6 Section 201.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean...

  4. Flavonoids and other bioactive phenolics isolated from Cenostigma macrophyllum (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Clayton Q.; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P.; Villareal, Cristiane F.; Soares, Milena B.P.; Queiroz, Luciano P. de; Aguiar, Rosane M.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of stem bark and leaves of Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. (Leguminosae). Through usual chromatographic techniques were isolated bergenin as the primary compound of the stem bark of and from the leaves gallic acid, methyl gallate, ellagic acid, quercetin, quercetin-3-ο-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-(6 - ο-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (tellimoside), quercetin-3-O-(6 - ο-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (helichrysroside), agathisflavone and vitexin were obtained. The isolates were identified by spectroscopic data analysis, and bergenin showed dose-related antinociception when assessed in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. (author)

  5. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia bonduc (linn) Roxb seeds

    OpenAIRE

    V. Subramani; M. Kamaraj; B. Ramachandran; J. Jerome Jeyakumar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate phytochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and trace metal concentrations of Caesalpinia bonducella. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of leaves of C. bonducella revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as Steroid, Triterpenoids, Reducing Sugar(A), Reducing Sugar(B), Sugars, Flavonoids, Saponin, Amino acids with absence of Alkaloids, Phenolic Compounds, Catachins, Tannins, Anthroquinones.  The ethanol solvent was used for extrac...

  6. Antimicrobial activity and bioautographic study of antistaphylococcal components from Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Marcos Saraiva; Cristiane Lopes Saraiva; Admário Marques Gonçalves; Rogério Ribeiro Soares; Fabrício de Oliveira Mendes; Risonildo Pereira Cordeiro; Haroudo Satiro Xavier; Maria Nelly Caetano Pisciottano

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of dry methanol and ethyl acetate extracts for the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower, fruit and seed of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. (catingueira) was performed against seventeen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multiresistant strains, which included two isolates of S. aureus MSSA and two ATCC strains. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the agar diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined. The dry meth...

  7. Two new cassane diterpene lactams from the fruits of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dewen; Xia, Guanghui; Li, Yuanping; Liang, Xuesong; Zhang, Lanjun; Wang, Liqin

    2018-04-01

    Two new cassane ditepenoid lactams, caesmimotam A (1) and B (2), along with eight known compounds (3-10) were isolated from the fruits of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. Their structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, but they were inactive.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius fruits against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Fábio C; Pereira, Maria do Socorro V; Dias, Celidarque S; Costa, Vicente Carlos O; Conde, Nikeila C O; Buzalaf, Marília A R

    2009-07-15

    In the Amazon region of Brazil, the fruits of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius (Brazilian ironwood) are widely used as an antimicrobial and healing medicine in many situations including oral infections. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius fruit extract against oral pathogens. Polyphenols estimation and spectral analysis ((1)H NMR) of the methanol extract were carried out. The microorganisms Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei were tested using the microdilution method for planktonic cells (MIC) and a multispecies biofilm model. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Polyphenols in the extract were estimated at 7.3% and (1)H NMR analysis revealed hydroxy phenols and methoxilated compounds. MIC values for Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei were 25.0, 40.0, 66.0, 100.0, 66.0 microg/mL, respectively. For the biofilm assay, chlorhexidine and plant extract showed no growth at 10(-4) and 10(-5) microbial dilution, respectively. At 10(-4) and 10(-5) the growth values (mean+/-SD) of the negative controls (DMSO and saline solution) for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sp. and Candida albicans were 8.1+/-0.7, 7.0+/-0.6 and 5.9+/-0.9 x 10(6)CFU, respectively. Caesalpinia ferrea fruit extract can inhibit in vitro growth of oral pathogens in planktonic and biofilm models supporting its use for oral infections.

  9. Las leguminosas en alimentación animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, Luis A.

    2016-06-01

    and the fact that most is genetically modified are barriers to its utilization in the EU. In summary, environmental, health and productive considerations result in a growing interest in legume production in the EU.Desde el punto de vista de su uso en nutrición animal, pueden considerarse dos grupos de leguminosas: leguminosas-forraje (p. ej. la alfalfa, usadas en alimentación de rumiantes y leguminosas-grano (p. ej. habas, guisantes y altramuces, usadas esencialmente para aves y cerdos, y en menor medida para rumiantes. Las leguminosas-grano pueden sustituir parcial o totalmente a fuentes de proteínas tradicionales, de origen animal, como carne, huesos o harina de pescado en los piensos para animales, y representan una alternativa para las harinas de soja y otras oleaginosas. Su contenido en proteína es variable pero elevado (25-45 g/100 g materia seca. No obstante, la presencia de metabolitos secundarios (inhibidores de proteasas, saponinas, glucósidos, lectinas, taninos, alcaloides, así como sus altos niveles de fibra (polisacáridos no amiláceos, ha restringido el uso de leguminosas-grano en la alimentación de animales monogástricos (aves y cerdos y, mucho más en la de rumiantes. Sin embargo, en la actualidad se está incrementando el interés por el uso de estas materias primas como alimentos funcionales, sobre todo en nutrición humana, pero también en nutrición animal, entre otras razones, como consecuencia de la prohibición del uso de proteína animal (harinas de carne y hueso, que tuvo lugar en la Unión Europea tras la crisis de la Encefalopatía Espongiforme Bovina. Para establecer el valor nutritivo de las leguminosas ha de prestarse especial atención a su composición en nutrientes, su contenido en energía y la digestibilidad de los aminoácidos. En rumiantes, es necesario establecer la degradabilidad en el rumen tanto de la proteína como de los aminoácidos individuales y de los carbohidratos, aspectos que determinan la utilización de

  10. Differential radioprotection and free radical scavenging activity of Caesalpinia digyna extracts and the active constituent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Umang; Kunwar, A.; Barik, A.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Mula, S.; Srinivasan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Differential free radical activity of the fractionated extracts (F1: methanolic fraction, F2: acetone soluble fraction and F3: acetone insoluble fraction) of a medicinal plant Caesalpinia digyna, has been studied employing DPPH, superoxide radical and in vitro radioprotecting activity by following their effect on radiation induced protein carbonylation and DNA damage in pBR322. The activity for these fractions is in the order of F1>F2>F3. HPLC analysis indicated that all fractions contain high amount of bergenin, a polyhydroxy isocoumarin derivative and the fractions are more active than isolated bergenin. (author)

  11. Differential radioprotection and free radical scavenging activity of Caesalpinia digyna extracts and the active constituent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Umang; Kunwar, A; Barik, A; Priyadarsini, K I [Radiation and Photochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mula, S [Bio-Organic Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Srinivasan, R [JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund (India)

    2008-01-15

    Differential free radical activity of the fractionated extracts (F1: methanolic fraction, F2: acetone soluble fraction and F3: acetone insoluble fraction) of a medicinal plant Caesalpinia digyna, has been studied employing DPPH, superoxide radical and in vitro radioprotecting activity by following their effect on radiation induced protein carbonylation and DNA damage in pBR322. The activity for these fractions is in the order of F1>F2>F3. HPLC analysis indicated that all fractions contain high amount of bergenin, a polyhydroxy isocoumarin derivative and the fractions are more active than isolated bergenin. (author)

  12. Ocurrencia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick (1909 (Lepidoptero: Tortricidae en Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los derivados de las vainas de tara (Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824, presentan crecientes demandas industriales. En octubre del 2015 en la provincia de San Marcos, región Cajamarca, se verificó la ocurrencia de ataque de Argyrotaenia aphaleropa Meyrick (1909 a vainas de tara, produciendo daños directos, interfiriendo en su desarrollo y crecimiento, depreciando comercialmente el producto, generando restricciones en las exportaciones; por lo que esta plaga demanda su manejo integrado para disminuir la incidencia y evitar el ingreso a otras regiones libres de ataques.

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato alcoólico do fruto da Caesalpinia ferrea Mart

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaz, Klívio Loreno Raulino

    2010-01-01

    O tratamento usual da mastite bovina é realizado com administração de antimicrobianos, que muitas vezes, promovem a resistência bacteriana a esses compostos. Medicamentos fitoterápicos têm sido utilizados, porém nem todas essas opções apresentam comprovação científica acerca da eficácia de ação contra os agentes causadores da enfermidade. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato alcoólico do fruto da Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. frente a bactérias c...

  14. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  15. Substrate in the emergence and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnólia Martins Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia pulcherrima is an exotic species belongs to the Fabaceae family commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and widely used for urban forestry. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the emergence and early seedlings growth of C. pulcherrima . The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba. The experimental design was completely randomized and treatments had 14 substrates: sand, vegetable soil, vermiculite, wood dust, carbonized rice straw, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, sand + wood dust 1:1, sand + carbonized rice straw 1:1, earth + wood dust 1:1, vegetable soil + carbonized rice straw 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + wood dust 1:1, vermiculite + earth 1:1 and vermiculite + carbonized rice straw 1:1. Evaluation of the effect of the treatments was through the following determinations: percentage of emergency, first count, index of germination speed, length and dry weight of roots and shoots. The vermiculite, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + saw dust 1:1, are suitable for emergence and early growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima . Substrates saw dust and carbonized rice straw were responsible for the worst performers on emergence and seedling development.

  16. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston (Fabaceae (CD is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay, mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  17. Actividad antiinflamatoria de flores y hojas de Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers and leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Matiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Partes aéreas de la planta Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz han sido usadas en medicina tradicional al sur del Departamento de Cundinamarca para el tratamiento de afecciones inflamatorias. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de flores, hojas y frutos verdes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima para cuantificar su actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos de inflamación aguda y subcrónica. Metodología: Este estudio cuantificó la actividad antiinflamatoria de diferentes extractos de tejidos aéreos de esta especie encontrada en Colombia por dos modelos de inflamación aguda, el edema auricular inducido por TPA (acetato de 12-O-tetradecanoil-forbol y el edema plantar inducido por carragenina; así como el modelo de inflamación sub-crónico de granuloma inducido por pellet de algodón. Resultados: Los extractos de flores mostraron la mayor actividad antiinflamatoria en el modelo del TPA, en tanto que las hojas fueron más efectivas en disminuir el granuloma, en el modelo del pellet de algodón. No se observó ninguna actividad antiinflamatoria de ningún extracto en el modelo de carragenina. Los frutos verdes no mostraron actividad en ningún modelo. Conclusión: Los resultados demostraron la efectividad que el uso etnobotánico le atribuye a esta planta. Los extractos activos obtenidos mostraron el potencial uso de esta planta en la fabricación fitoterapéuticos efectivos. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (3: 281-287Introduction: Aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz have been used in traditional medicine in southern Cundinamarca Department for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Objective: Evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of flowers, leaves and green fruits of the plant to quantify inflammatory activity of acute and subchronic murine inflammation models. Methodology: This study quantified the anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of aerial tissues of this species for two models of acute

  18. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  19. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, H; Williams, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  20. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  1. Possible mechanisms of action of Caesalpinia pyramidalis against ethanol-induced gastric damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Polyana B F; Ribeiro, Ana Roseli S; Estevam, Charles S; Bani, Cristiane C; Thomazzi, Sara M

    2015-06-20

    Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), known as "catingueira", is an endemic tree of the Northeast region of Brazil. This plant, mainly inner bark and flowers, has been used in traditional medicine to treat gastritis, heartburn, indigestion, stomachache, dysenteries, and diarrheas. The ethanol extract of C. pyramidalis inner bark was used in rats via oral route, at the doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, in the ethanol-induced ulcer model and some of the mechanisms underlying to the gastroprotective effect of this plant investigated. The ethanol extract of C. pyramidalis inner bark (100 mg/kg) produced reduction (P process with imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, supporting the popular usage of this plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidation and N-alkylation of galactomannan extracted from Caesalpinia ferrea var. ferrea seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Clayton F. de; Lucyszyn, Neoli; Ferraz, Fernando A.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was the synthesis and characterization of carboxyl (polyelectrolyte, GMPFOXT) and amino alkylate (amphiphilic, GMPFOXD) derivatives of the galactomannan extracted from the seeds of native specie Pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea - GMPF). The derivatives were obtained by selective modification of GMPF at C-6 in the presence of TEMPO reagent (N-oxil-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine) and dodecylamine showed high yields (∼ 77 and 94% for GMPFOXT and GMPFOXD, respectively). The characteristics of the derivatives were confirmed by spectroscopic techniques of FTIR and 13 C-NMR. By gel permeation chromatography (GPC), was observed a decrease of molar mass values and increase in polydispersity after derivatization, indicating change in the aggregation state in solution, caused by modification on the superficial structure. The development of these products can expand the use of them in different areas such as cosmetics and pharmaceutics, among others. (author)

  3. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

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    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  4. Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Billah, Muhammad Mutassim; Islam, Rafikul; Khatun, Hajera; Parvin, Shahnaj; Islam, Ekramul; Islam, SM Anisul; Mia, Akbar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. Methods The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion m...

  5. Comparative study of in vitro antibacterial activity of leaves, bark, heart wood and seed extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L.

    OpenAIRE

    Arunkumar Naik Bukke; Fathima Nazneen Hadi; Chandramati Shankar Produtur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the maximum antimicrobial activity by screening different parts of Caesalpinia sappan L. extracted in different solvents against Salmonella ebony (MTCC 3384) (S. ebony), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 432) (K. pneumoniae), Escherichia coli (MTCC 443) (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 10619) (B. subtilis). Methods: Dried plant parts were extracted with petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform and water by Soxhlet extraction method. The extracts w...

  6. Maturação de frutos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., pau-brasil Maturation of fruits of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brasil wood

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se parâmetros indicativos da maturação de frutos de árvores de Caesalpinia echinata, visando determinar a melhor época de colheita para propagação. Foram utilizadas 10 plantas-matriz cultivadas em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, nas quais foram etiquetadas 250 inflorescências no pico da floração para acompanhamento da maturação. As coletas de frutos tiveram início a partir da 5ª semana após a antese, prolongando-se até a 9ª, com intervalos de sete dias. Em cada coleta, analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento, largura e teor de água dos frutos; teor de água das sementes (após três dias de exposição ao sol para deiscência do fruto e extração da semente; porcentagem de germinação e peso de matéria seca de frutos, sementes e plântulas. Observou-se, ainda, a coloração dos frutos como parâmetro visual de maturação das sementes. O experimento foi repetido por três anos. Os testes de germinação foram realizados em caixas Gerbox contendo vermiculita umedecida com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara regulada para 30 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, nos anos de 1991, 1992 e 1993. As leituras de germinação foram realizadas nos 4º e 8º dias após a semeadura. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que o momento ideal para coleta dos frutos de C. echinata é no estádio de pré-dispersão (entre a 8º e 9º após a antese visualizado através da coloração, quando estes mudam de verde para castanho.Several indicative parameters regarding fruit maturity of Caesalpinia echinata were studied in order to establish the ideal harvest time. Ten matrix plants were cultivated in Moji-Guaçu, SP (22°11' to 1022°18' S and 47°13' to 47°20' WG, altitude between 600m and 730m. The climate of the region is classified as Cwa. Two hundred and fifty blossoms were tagged during the the peak

  7. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima aerial parts, antimicrobial activity and characterisation of isolated active fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sumitra; Baravalia, Yogesh

    2011-12-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz. is an ornamental plant, shrub or a small tree belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The plant has been used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, skin diseases and so on. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of C. pulcherrima was tested using an Artemia salina (brine shrimp) bioassay. Further, the methanol extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography using a solvent gradient of hexane:ethyl acetate:methanol in different ratios and 56 fractions were collected. On the basis of thin layer chromatography profiles, 13 major fractions were obtained, which were tested for antimicrobial activity against 14 microorganisms using the agar disc diffusion method and also tested for their minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values. In terms of cytotoxicity, the extract caused 26% mortality of brine shrimp larvae after 24 h at a concentration of 1000 µg mL(-1). Fractions 3, 9 and 10 showed significant antimicrobial activities. Phytochemical analysis of these three fractions led to the identification of 11 compounds, and their structures were established by means of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy techniques. These findings suggest that these bioactive compounds may be useful as potential antimicrobials. Further investigation is needed to establish the mode of action of these bioactive compounds.

  8. In vitro antiviral activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and its related flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, L C; Chiang, W; Liu, M C; Lin, C C

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to search for new antiviral agents from Chinese herbal medicine. Pure flavonoids and aqueous extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz were used in experiments to test their influence on a series of viruses, namely herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2) and adenoviruses (ADV-3, ADV-8, ADV-11). The EC50 was defined as the concentration required to achieve 50% protection against virus-induced cytopathic effects, and the selectivity index (SI) was determined as the ratio of CC50 (concentration of 50% cellular cytotoxicity) to EC50. Results showed that aqueous extracts of C. pulcherrima and its related quercetin possessed a broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Among them, the strongest activities against ADV-8 were fruit and seed (EC50 = 41.2 mg/l, SI = 83.2), stem and leaf (EC50 = 61.8 mg/l, SI = 52.1) and flower (EC50 = 177.9 mg/l, SI = 15.5), whereas quercetin possessed the strongest anti-ADV-3 activity (EC50 = 24.3 mg/l, SI = 20.4). In conclusion, some compounds of C. pulcherrima which possess antiviral activities may be derived from the flavonoid of quercetin. The mode of action of quercetin against HSV-1 and ADV-3 was found to be at the early stage of multiplication and with SI values greater than 20, suggesting the potential use of this compound for treatment of the infection caused by these two viruses.

  9. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  10. In vitro propagation of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz from axillary buds of selected trees

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    Jenny E Núñez Núñez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Guarango or tara [Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz] is a tree native to the Andes, with great economic importance and for reforestation programs. The aim of this work was to in vitro propagate this specie from axillary buds of selected trees. During in vitro establishment, the effect of sodium hypochlorite (3.0% with different times of disinfection (5.0, 10, 15 min, as well as the effect of 6-BAP on the in vitro response of buds were studied. For multiplication, different combination of 6-BAP with 0.1 mg l-1 ANA were tested. A free-growth regulator culture medium was used for rooting. The best results for in vitro establishment were achieved with a disinfection treatment with sodium hypochlorite 3.0% for 10 minutes and cultivation in a culture medium with 0.25 mg l-1 6-BAP, which 90% of buds in vitro established, with a length of 6.71 cm. The highest multiplication rate of shoot (2.88 per explant was obtained with 1.0 mg l-1 6-BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 ANA, after 60 days of culture. The 55% of these shoots developed roots in a half-strength basal salts MS culture medium free of regulators of growth.   Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forest plant, guarango, tissue culture

  11. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-dos-Santos, Roberto Robson; López, Jorge A.; Santos, Luciano C.; Zacharias, Farouk; David, Jorge Maurício; David, Juceni Pereira; Lima, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça

    2012-01-01

    Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): negative control (G1) (untreated), positive control (G2) (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w.), and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP). Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC), hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P < 0.05). An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P < 0.05), during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition. PMID:22548117

  12. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

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    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  13. Antidiabetic potential of Caesalpinia sumatrana, a medicinal herbs traditionally used by local tribe in East Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, D. A.; Rosamah, E.; Kusuma, I. W.

    2018-04-01

    The aims of the research was to analyze the content of phytochemicals, to examine the antioxidant and antidiabeticpotentials of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of Caesalpinia sumatrana. Method to measure antioxidant capacity of sample involves the use of the free radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) which is widely used to test the ability of compounds to act as free radical. Analysis the potential of antidiabeticactivity of the extracts was determined by α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory assay. Of all extracts obtained by successive maceration, ethanol maceration gave the highest extract by 2.63% of extract on the dry weigh basis. The result of phytochemicals showed that all extracts contain alkaloid and flavonoid. The highest antioxidant activity was 82.32% with IC50 value of 5.00 µg/ml obtained by ethanol extract. The results of enzyme inhibitory assay of α-glucosidase showed that ethanol extract of C. sumatrana had IC50 value 17.16 µg/mL to inhibit ɑ-glucosidase activity and IC50 value 16.78 µg/mL for ɑ-amylase. The present result displayed potential of the plant to be developed as natural antidiabetic and antioxidant agents.

  14. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

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    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  15. Antimicrobial potential of actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of the Caatinga biome plant Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Lacerda, G R; Santana, R C F; Vicalvi-Costa, M C V; Solidônio, E G; Sena, K X F R; Lima, G M S; Araújo, J M

    2016-03-04

    Actinobacteria are known to produce various secondary metabolites having antibiotic effects. This study assessed the antimicrobial potential of actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. from the Caatinga biome. Sixty-eight actinobacteria isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms by disk diffusion and submerged fermentation, using different culture media, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and chemical prospecting of the crude extract. Of the isolates studied, 52.9% of those isolated at 37°C and 47.05% of those isolated at 45°C had activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Fusarium moniliforme, and Candida albicans. When compared with others actinobacteria, the isolate C1.129 stood out with better activity and was identified by 16S rDNA gene analysis as Streptomyces parvulus. The crude ethanol extract showed an MIC of 0.97 μg/mL for MRSA and B. subtilis, while the ethyl acetate extract showed MIC of 3.9 μg/mL for S. aureus and MRSA, showing the greatest potential among the metabolites produced. Chemical prospecting revealed the presence of mono/sesquiterpenes, proanthocyanidin, triterpenes, and steroids in both crude extracts. This study evaluates S. parvulus activity against multi-resistant microorganisms such as MRSA. Thus, it proves that low-fertility soil, as is found in the Caatinga, may contain important microorganisms for the development of new antimicrobial drugs.

  16. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - BRAZILWOOD: THERMAL BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESISTANCE TO BIODETERIORATION IN STATIC SYSTEMS

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    Ana Paula Pinto Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wood is the best-known biological material used as a raw material since the dawn of mankind until present days. As a natural and renewable composite, its lifetime is limited by the degradation of its basic elements. This degradation can be caused by chemical reactions or by biological agents capable of accelerating the process of deterioration. In this work, the wear, thermal, and micro-structural characteristics, as also the bio-degradation behavior in static systems, of the wood species Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata were studied under laboratory conditions in order to use these woods in design. The results show that Brazilwood has a good visual performance after abrasion test, since it has not shown any representative roughness increase. In addition, Brazilwood has high level of crystallinity of, approximately, 68% and was almost insensitive to fungi attack, forming only 5.3 x 103 CFU/mL. Besides, its texture did not change due to exposure to water or sweat.

  17. Respuesta de cinco leguminosas de cobertura a la fertilización fosfórica

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    Robin Gómez Gómez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de cobertura de especies leguminosas son sembradas para el control de malezas, prevención de la erosión del suelo y aporte de nitrógeno al suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta de las leguminosas de cobertura Mucuna pruriens cv. cinza, Mucuna pruriens cv. preta, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vigna radiata y Pueraria phaseoloides a la fertilización fosfórica, en dos épocas del año. El experimento se realizó en un invernadero en la Estación Experimental Agrícola Fabio Baudrit Moreno (EEAFBM de la Universidad de Costa Rica, en Alajuela, Costa Rica, en el periodo de noviembre del 2012 a enero del 2013, y se repitió de abril a mayo del 2013. Se aplicaron dosis de 0, 30, 60 y 90 kg P2O5/ha en suelo esterilizado con vapor y posteriormente, utilizado para llenar potes de 2 kg de capacidad. Se evaluó altura de planta, número de hojas verdaderas y peso seco luego de 18-26 días de la siembra, según la especie de leguminosa. Tuvieron un mayor crecimiento C. spectabilis Ruth, V. radiata (L Wilczek y P. phaseoloides (Roxb, cuando fueron fertilizadas con 60 kg P2O5/ha, mientras que, los dos cultivares de M. pruriens no incrementaron su crecimiento con la fertilización fosfórica. El fósforo a la siembra de las leguminosas de semilla pequeña aceleró su crecimiento, lo que indica la importancia de validar el empleo de este fertilizante para la obtención de una rápida cobertura del suelo, lo cual podría disminuir la competencia con las malezas.

  18. Avances en la evaluación de leguminosas anuales distintas del T. subterraneum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Cruz, V.; Gallardo Martínez, D.

    2011-01-01

    Dado los problemas actuales de persistencia del T. subterraneum en muchas áreas, debidas en general, al estrecho margen de adaptacóin de las variedades disponibles actualmente, se indican en el presente trabajo otras especies de leguminosas anuales que pueden ser una alternativa, en los pastos del S-O, al referido Trifolium subterraneum. Se incluye, entre las evaluaciones realizadas, las especies Medicago polymorpha, Trifolium glomeratum y Ornithopus compressus, todas ellas presentes en los s...

  19. Antimicrobial activity and bioautographic study of antistaphylococcal components from Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull.

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    Antonio Marcos Saraiva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of dry methanol and ethyl acetate extracts for the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower, fruit and seed of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. (catingueira was performed against seventeen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multiresistant strains, which included two isolates of S. aureus MSSA and two ATCC strains. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the agar diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined. The dry methanol extract of the root showed good antimicrobial activity with a MIC of less than 0.5 mg.mL-1. The dry ethyl acetate extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, which might be explained by solubility problems and less diffusion in the agar medium. Results of the bioautographies also confirmed inhibition halos corresponding to the active substances present in the leaves, as well as in the flower of C. pyramidalis. The phytochemical study of the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower and fruit of extracts from C. pyramidalis confirmed the presence of a number of known antimicrobial agents including ursolic acid, quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid, sitosterol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid.A determinação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos e em acetato de etila da folha, casca do caule, casca da raiz, flor, fruto e semente de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. foi realizada frente a dezessete isolados de Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multirresistentes, dois isolados de S. aureus MSSA e duas cepas padrão, pelas técnicas de poço/difusão em ágar e determinação das CMI pelo método de diluição em agar/multiinoculador de Stears. O extrato metanólico de casca da raiz indicou uma boa atividade, com CMI inferior a 0.5 mg.mL-1. Os extratos secos por extração em acetato de etila apresentaram menor atividade que se poderia explicar por problemas de solubilidade e menor difusão no meio de cultura em ágar. Resultados

  20. Effects of Caesalpinia sappan on pathogenic bacteria causing dental caries and gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Wanachantararak, Penpicha; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-01-01

    The present study explores antimicrobial activities of Caesalpinia sappan extracts against three strains of oral pathogenic bacteria; Streptococcus mutans DMST9567 (Smu9), Streptococcus mutans DMST41283 (Smu4), and Streptococcus intermedius DMST42700 (Si). Ethanol crude extract of C. sappan (Cs-EtOH) was firstly compared to that of other medicinal plants using disc diffusion method. Cs-EtOH showed significantly higher effective inhibition against all tested strains than other extracts and 0.12% chlorhexidine with the inhibition zone of 17.5 ± 0.5, 18.5 ± 0.0, and 17.0 ± 0.0 mm against Smu9, Smu4, and Si, respectively. Three fractionated extracts of C. sappan using hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, respectively, were further investigated. The fractionated extract from ethanol (F-EtOH) presented the strongest activities with the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 125-250 µg/mL. Killing kinetics of F-EtOH was depended on the bacterial species and the concentration of F-EtOH. Two-fold MBC of F-EtOH could kill all tested strains within 12 h whereas its 4-fold MBC showed killing effect against Si within 6 h. Separation of F-EtOH by column chromatography using chloroform/methanol mixture as an eluent yielded 11 fractions (F1-F11). The fingerprints of these fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm revealed that F-EtOH consisted of at least 5 compounds. F6 possessed the significantly highest antimicrobial activity among 11 fractions, however less than F-EtOH. It is considered that F-EtOH is the promising extract of C. sappan for inhibiting oral pathogenic bacteria and appropriate as natural antiseptic for further develop of oral hygiene products.

  1. In vitro Antitubercular Activity of 3-Deoxysappanchalcone Isolated From the Heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hoonhee; Kim, Sukyung; Mahmud, Hafij Al; Islam, Md Imtiazul; Nam, Kung-Woo; Lee, Byung-Eui; Lee, Hanna; Cho, Myoung-Lae; Shin, Heung-Mook; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2017-10-01

    Responsible for nearly 1.5 million deaths every year, the infectious disease tuberculosis remains one of the most serious challenges to global health. The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and, more recently, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis poses a significant threat in our effort to control this epidemic. New drugs are urgently needed to combat the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. To achieve this goal, we screened approximately 500 species of medicinal plant methanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions for potential inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. Using microdilution screening, the ethyl acetate solvent partitioned fraction from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan exhibited strong antitubercular activity. We isolated the active compound and identified it as 3-deoxysappanchalcone. The extracted 3-deoxysappanchalcone possessed activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis at MIC 50 s of 3.125-12.5 μg/mL in culture broth and MIC 50 s of 6.25-12.5 μg/mL inside macrophages and pneumocytes. 3-Deoxysappanchalcone was also found to act in partial synergy with streptomycin/ethambutol against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. 3-Deoxysappanchalcone had no cytotoxicity against the A549 cell line up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL (selectivity index > 8-32). Further studies are warranted to establish the in vivo effect and therapeutic potential of 3-deoxysappanchalcone. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Floating-bioadhesive gastroretentive Caesalpinia pulcherrima-based beads of amoxicillin trihydrate for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombre, Nilima A; Gide, Paraag S

    2016-01-01

    An oral dosage form containing floating bioadhesive gastroretentive microspheres forms a stomach-specific drug delivery system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori. To prepare and evaluate controlled release floating bioadhesive gastroretentive chitosan-coated amoxicillin trihydrate-loaded Caesalpinia pulcherrima galactomannan (CPG)-alginate beads (CCA-CPG-A), for H. pylori eradication. CCA-CPG-A beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation, using 2(3) factorial design with quantity of drug, combination of CPG with sodium alginate and concentration of calcium chloride as variables. Beads facilitated mucoadhesion to gastric mucosa with floating nature caused by chitosan coating for wide distribution throughout GIT. Developed beads were evaluated for characteristics like beads size-morphology, entrapment efficiency, DSC, XRD, FTIR, swelling ratio, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, in vitro floating and in vitro H. pylori growth inhibition studies. CCA-CPG-A beads were studied in Wistar rats for in vivo gastric mucoadhesion, in vivo H. pylori growth inhibition studies using PCR amplification of isolated DNA, rapid urease test. Developed beads possess drug release of 79-92%, entrapment efficiency of 65-89%, mucoadhesion of 61-89%. In vivo mucoadhesion study showed more than 85% mucoadhesion of beads even after 7th hour. In vitro-in vivo growth inhibition study showed complete eradication of H. pylori. CPG-alginate and chitosan in beads interacts with gastric mucosubstrate surface for prolonged gastric residence with floating bioadhesion mechanism for H. pylori eradication in rats. Floating bioadhesive CCA-CPG-A beads offer a promising drug delivery system for H. pylori eradication at lower dose, reduced adverse effect and enhance bioavailability.

  3. Determination of Sugar Composition of Polysaccharides in Caesalpinia pulcherrima Galactomannan Solution Using HPTLC

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    Nilima A. THOMBRE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Galactomannans (GM, a group of neutral nontoxic polysaccharides naturally occurring in the seeds of some legumes, are used in the textile, pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food industries. As to date there are no documented reports on determination of the sugar composition in polysaccharides by HPTLC and the following study is an attempt in this direction. GM from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (CP was isolated and purified by precipitation method using alcohol. A new, simple, sensitive, selective, precise, and robust HPTLC method for analysis of monosaccharides such as galactose, mannose, xylose and glucose in isolated CP GM has been developed and validated. Chromatograms were developed using a mobile phase of acetone: water (9:1 v/v on pre-coated plate of silica gel GF aluminium TLC plate and quantified by UV spectrophotometer at 254nm. The Rf values were 0.45, 0.34, 0.40 and 0.60 for mannose, galactose, xylose and glucose, respectively. The linearity of method was found to be within the concentration range of 2000-10000 ng/spot for all above monosaccharides. The limit of detection for mannose, galactose, xylose and glucose was found to be 0.14986 ng/spot, 0.31973 ng/spot, 0.27569 ng/spot, and 0.36808 ng/spot, respectively. The limit of quantification for mannose, galactose, xylose and glucose was found to be 1.498 ng/spot, 3.197 ng/spot, 2.756 ng/spot, and 3.680 ng/spot, respectively. The method was also validated for precision, specificity and recovery. This developed method was used to analyze CP GM for monosaccharides compositions

  4. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

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    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  5. Leishmanicidal compounds of Nectria pseudotrichia, an endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood

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    Betania Barros Cota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood, is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data. The antileishmanial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis expressing firefly luciferase as reporter gene, and cytotoxicity was determined in Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines by MTT assay. FINDINGS Fractionation of the extract yielded seven compounds: 10-acetyl trichoderonic acid A (1, 6′-acetoxy-piliformic acid (2, 5′,6′-dehydropiliformic acid (3, piliformic acid (4, hydroheptelidic acid (5, xylaric acid D (6, and cytochalasin D (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were more active, with IC50 values of 21.4, 28.3, and 24.8 µM, respectively, and showed low toxicity to Vero and THP-1 cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS N. pseudotrichia produces secondary metabolites that are more toxic to intracellular amastigote forms of L. (V. braziliensis than to mammalian cells.

  6. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

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    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  7. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Adewale; Oderinde, Rotimi Ayodele

    2014-01-01

    The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  (4.72 ± 0.2%), Albizia lebbeck  (6.40 ± 0.60%), and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  (7.2 ± 0.30%). The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food.

  8. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  (4.72±0.2%, Albizia lebbeck  (6.40±0.60%, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  (7.2±0.30%. The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food.

  9. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae); Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo Raul [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  10. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatan, Wannachai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed. PMID:24194667

  11. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

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    Wannachai Chatan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae, namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  12. Dihydronaflavonols from the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Livia T.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Ferreira, Malisson; Silva, Milton N. da; Santos, Alberdan S.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Guilhon, Gisele M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Arruda, Mara Silvia P. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica], e-mail: mspa@ufpa.br; Borges, Rosilvaldo dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia. Inst. de Ciencias

    2009-07-01

    Derris urucu is an Amazonian plant with insecticide and ichthyotoxic properties. Studies with this species show the presence of flavonoids, mainly rotenoids, as well as stilbenes. The ethanol extract of the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae) afforded three new dihydroflavonols named urucuol A (1), B (2) and C (3), and the dihydroflavonol isotirumalin (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, UV and IR spectra and MS data and comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds (1-4) were evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity and showed a relatively lower antioxidant ability compared to the commercial antioxidant trans-resveratrol. (author)

  13. COBERTURAS VIVAS DE LEGUMINOSAS EN EL PLÁTANO (Musa sp.) FHIA 03

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Gutiérrez; G. Pérez; R. Benega; Lourdes Gómez

    2002-01-01

    La necesidad de disminuir el consumo de agrotóxicos en el manejo del cultivo del plátano posibilita la búsqueda de alternativas viables en la esfera agroecológica, razones por las que en la Estación Experimental de la Universidad de Ciego de Avila, entre 1996 y 1998, se desarrolló un experimento para la determinación del efecto de coberturas vivas de leguminosas en una plantación de plátano FHIA-03, que se estableció en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo (Eutric ferralsol), evaluándose los efectos que...

  14. Associações Rhizobium - Leguminosas no Estado de Rondõnia

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães,Fátima M. M.; Silva,Marlene F. da

    1987-01-01

    Verificou-se a ocorrência de nodulação em mudas e/ou individuos adultos de 54 es-pécies da familia Leguminosae em áreas de floresta intacta e áreas perturbadas,no Estado de Rondônia. Das espécies observadas: Acácia polyphyllaÁ. DC., Amburana acreana(Ducke) A. C. Smith, Babieria pinnata(Pers.) Baill., Bauhinia acreanaHarms., BauhiniulongicuspÍ4 Spr. ex Benth., Cassia fastuosaWilld., Dalbergia inundataBenth., Derris ama zonicaKiiiip, Hymenaea reticulataDucke, Machaerium inundaium(Mart. ex Benth...

  15. The endangered Ethiopian endemic Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) and its little-known habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile; van Breugel, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    potential threats, the species is evaluated as Endangered (EN). Crotalaria trifoliolata is a bigger shrub than previously thought (up to c. 2 m high, with stems up to c. 3 cm in diam.). Molecular studies confirm that C. trifoliolata is related to the widespread C. saltiana, as predicted from morphological......Crotalaria trifoliolata Baker f. (Leguminosae: Papilionoidaeae) was, for 120 years, only known from an incomplete holotype from an uncertain Ethiopian locality. In 2013 it was rediscovered in the Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia. Surveys in 2014 and 2015 suggest that the species is restricted...

  16. IDENTIFICACIÓN, USOS Y MEDICIÓN DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS FORRAJERAS EN RANCHOS GANADEROS DEL SUR DEL ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Olivares Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar las especies arbóreas leguminosas, usos, densidad, frecuencia, abundancia y medidas dasométricas en ranchos ganaderos del sur del Estado de México; así como evaluar la producción de follaje (kg materia seca árbol-1ha-1 de Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium —preferidas por los ganaderos como fuente de forraje y con mayor densidad—; y evaluar  la producción de fruto (kg materia seca  árbol-1ha-1 de Acacia  cochliacantha y P. dulce. La información de usos se obtuvo mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a 69 ganaderos, cantidad que representó 83% de la población. Las mediciones de los árboles se realizaron en seis ranchos mediante trabajo de campo. La información se analizó usando estadísticas descriptivas. Se identificaron 12 especies arbóreas (Acacia cochliacantha, Lysiloma divaricata, Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium, las cuales presentaron mayor densidad, frecuencia y abundancia. De 46.6% de las arbóreas, su follaje y fruto es consumido por rumiantes; de 20%, es consumido follaje, fruto y flor. Se proporcionan de cinco a ocho usos en 80% de las especies, además del forrajero, como leña, poste, sombra, cerca viva, medicinal, consumo humano, artesanal y maderable. Las arbóreas con mayor fuste fueron: Caesalpinia coriaria, Pithecellobium dulce, Enterolobium cyclocarpum y Leucaena esculenta, con diámetro basal (DB de 47.11 a 57.2 cm, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP de 49.34 a 50.3 cm y altura (A de 7.4 a 14.5 m,  los cuales son preferidos para sombra. La producción de follaje de Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium fue de 44.5, 8.8 y 8.4 kg MS arbol-1, respectivamente. La producción de fruto de Pithecellobium dulce y Acacia cochliacantha fue 63.9 y 21.7 kg MS árbol-1, respectivamente. Las 12 leguminosas

  17. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Pextract. Also, the texture properties and sensory of sausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from the seed coat of Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Lubna; Saeed, Syed Asad; Ali, Rashida; Saeed, Syed Ghufran; Ahmed, Rahil

    2017-09-26

    Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction. It was interesting to note that the phenolic acid fractions of both samples was found more active against gram-negative bacteria, while gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive towards flavonol fractions. The phenolic acid and flavonol fractions being potent antibacterial were selected to demonstrate the antifungal capacity of two samples. Among them, phenolic acid fraction of both samples was found active towards all the fungal strain.

  19. Pyridine metabolism and trigonelline synthesis in leaves of the mangrove legume trees Derris indica (Millettia pinnata) and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuling; Sasamoto, Hamako; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the pyridine metabolism in leaves of two mangrove legumes, Derris indica (= Millettia pinnata or Pongamia pinnata) and Caesalpinia crista. Radioactivity from [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide supplied exogenously to young leaf disks was recovered in nicotinic acid, nicotinic acid mononucleotide, NAD, NADP, nicotinamide mononucleotide and trigonelline. These mangrove species, especially D. indica, have strong ability to convert nicotinamide to trigonelline, but not to nicotinic acid glucoside. The endogenous trigonelline content in leaves of D. indica was more than 830 microg/g dry weight. This value is 5-12 times greater than that in leaves of Glycine max. There was little short-term effect of 250 and 500 mM NaCl (equivalent to ca. 50% and 100% sea water) on nicotinamide metabolism.

  20. Maturation of seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood, an endangered leguminous tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ferrari Borges

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes changes during the maturation process of seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Individual flowers were tagged in the day of their anthesis and the pods were collected directly from the branches from 32 to 65 days after flowering (DAF. Results obtained suggested that physiological maturity of C. echinata seeds occurred ca. 60-65 DAF, immediately before shedding, when seeds had 30-40% water content.Sementes de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. têm sido consideradas como de curta longevidade. Contudo, quando lotes são submetidos à seleção prévia ao armazenamento, é possível conservar sua viabilidade por até 18 meses. Considerando a falta de informações conclusivas quanto à melhor época de colheita dessas sementes, o presente trabalho descreve as modificações que ocorrem durante o processo de maturação das sementes. Flores foram etiquetadas no dia de sua antese e os frutos foram colhidos diretamente dos ramos dos 32 aos 65 dias após a antese (DAA. Sementes dispersas naturalmente por período não superior a 24 horas também foram coletadas, sendo designadas sementes recém-dispersas. As características externas e as dimensões (comprimento, largura e espessura de frutos e sementes foram registradas. A avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi baseada no teor de água, no conteúdo de matéria seca e na germinação. Os resultados sugerem que a maturidade fisiológica das sementes de C. echinata ocorreu por volta de 60-65 DAA, imediatamente antes da deiscência, quando as sementes tinham 30-40% de água.

  1. Antioxidant properties of extracts from selected plant materials (Caesalpinia spinosa, Perilla frutescens, Artemisia annua and Viola wittrockiana) in vitro and in model food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skowyra, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in plants, are of considerable interest and are increasingly becoming a subject of intensive research due to their bioactive properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-mutagenic, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this research was to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from selected plant materials, namely Caesalpinia spinosa, Perilla frutescens, Artemisia annua and Viola wittrockiana Gams. Plant material extracts we...

  2. Establishment of a clonal bank of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol.) O. Kuntz by selection of plus trees and grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny E Nuñez; Elisa Quiala; Manuel de Feria; Saúl Mestanza; Rafael Gómez-Kosky; Franklin R Cuadrado; Michel Leiva-Mora

    2017-01-01

    In Ecuador, plant propagation techniques are not available commercially to establish clonal banks of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol.) O. Kuntz (guarango) plus trees, which limits the development of in vitro propagation protocols of this specie. The objective of the present work was to establish a clonal bank of C. spinosa by selecting plus trees and grafting. Guarango trees belonging to the province of Chimborazo, Guano canton were selected based on total height, height at the beginning of the crow...

  3. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos and two new distribution records and lectotypification for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand....

  4. Índices de oxidación en aceites de algunas leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation process of crude and refined oils from wild leguminous seeds: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta, (vinorama Olneya tesota, (palo fierro Cercidium praecox (palo de brea and Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde were evaluated during storage for 122 days, using corn and soybean oils as controls. Peroxide, Iodine, Acid and p-Anisidine values were determinated during 122 days of storage at room temperature. The wild leguminous raw oils showed results similar to those for the corn raw oil and lower than those of soybean raw oil. This behavior was similar for refinated oils. The rancid odor was detected after 5 days of storage in soybean oil and 40 days in vinorama oil, on the contrary, mezquite, palo verde and palo of brea oils presented this odor after 62 days, and for gatuña’s oil needed 135 days. Our results indicate that legume seed of Sonoran Desert could be a good alternative as source of oil.El proceso de oxidación fue evaluado durante el almacenamiento de los aceites crudos y refinados de las semillas de leguminosas silvestres: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Olneya tesota (palo fierro, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea y Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde. Los aceites de maíz y soja fueron empleados como controles. Se determinó el índice de peróxido (I.P., de Yodo (I.I., de acidez (I.A, y valor de p-Anisidina (p-A durante 122 días de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Los aceites crudos de leguminosas silvestres mostraron valores de estos índices similares a los del aceite de maíz crudo y menores que los del aceite de soja crudo. Este comportamiento también fue observado para los aceites refinados. El olor a rancio se presentó en el aceite de soja a los 5 días de almacenamiento, en el de vinorama a los 40 días, en el de mezquite, palo verde y palo de brea a los 62 días y en el de gatuña a los 135 días. Los valores

  5. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  6. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva

    2014-01-01

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  7. Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature.

  8. Las leguminosas grano en la agricultura española y europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Bernal, María José

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain legume cultivation is continuously decreasing in Spain in spite of the long tradition of their cultivation and consumption and their well-known environmental benefits by improving soil fertility. Grain legumes have been replaced in rotations by other crops that have adapted more quickly to technological progress and are more profitable for farmers in the short term. A similar change is taking place in Europe. This generates two major dependencies that can only be alleviated by increasing legume cultivation. On the one hand, Europe faces an increasing dependency on nitrogen fertilizers, using up to 10 million tons yearly, of which about 80% are imported. In addition to this, fertilizer production uses large amounts of energy, being highly dependent on natural gas, of which the EU imports 60% of its requirements. On the other hand, EU countries import 70% of their requirements as vegetable protein. In Spain, we import 4.7 million tons of grain legumes yearly, most of which is soybean (95% of the total. The decline in human consumption does not justify the reduction in cultivation, as we import 85% of the dried beans, 60% of the lentils and 75% of the chickpeas consumed in Spain. This dependency on imports, particularly on soybean, poses a serious threat to the economy as it makes the raw feed industry, and therefore most of the meat industry, vulnerable to fluctuations in the world soybean price.A pesar de la larga tradición de cultivo y consumo de leguminosas en España y de sus conocidos beneficios medioambientales mejorando la fertilidad de los suelos, su cultivo ha disminuido constantemente en los últimos 50 años siendo reemplazadas por otros cultivos que se han adaptado mejor a los avances tecnológicos y resultan más rentables al agricultor. El consumo de legumbres ha descendido en España notablemente desde los 13 kg/persona/año en la década de los 60, hasta los poco más de 3 en la actualidad, pero aun así, importamos hoy

  9. SENYAWA KIMIA DAN ARAH WARNA KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan Linn DAN GAMBIR (Uncaria gambir PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI EKSTRAKSI UNTUK PEWARNAAN BATIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Pujilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTumbuhan pembawa warna mengandung senyawa kimia yang berbeda beda baik jumlah maupun jenis senyawanya. Senyawa-senyawa dominan pembawa warna mempunyai ketahanan tertentu pada berbagai kondisi suhu . Suhu ekstraksi zat warna alam dari tumbuhan mempengaruhi arah warna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimia dan arah warna kayu secang dan gambir. Ekstraksi zat warna alam dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu pemanasan yaitu 50 oC, 75 oC, 100 oC dan perendaman dalam alkohol selama 7 (tujuh hari pada suhu kamar. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik pada kain katun dan sutera. Arah warna ditentukan melalui fiksasi menggunakan tawas, kapur dan tujung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh pada senyawa kimia zat warna alam kayu secang dan gambir.  Jumlah senyawa zat warna alam pada kayu secang semakin berkurang seiring dengan peningkatan suhu ekstraksi.  Pada gambir jumlah senyawa zat warna paling banyak diperoleh pada suhu ekstraksi 75 oC. Senyawa zat warna dominan pada kayu secang adalah cyclohexanone sedang pada gambir  adalah methyl 3,4 dideutero 3 nonenoate 3. Arah warna kayu secang merah sampai merah kecoklatan dan pada gambir warna kecoklatan sampai coklat tua.ABSTRACTColor bearing plant contains chemical compounds that vary both the number and types of compounds. Compounds dominant color carriers having different resistance at various temperature conditions. The temperature of the extraction of natural dyes from plants affects the direction of color. This study aims to determine the content of chemical compounds and direction color of Caesalpinia sappan Linn and Uncaria gambir. Extraction of natural dyes made at various heating temperature is 50 ° C, 75 ° C, 100 ° C and soaking in alcohol for seven (7 days at room temperature. Natural dyes obtained is applied to dye batik on cotton and silk. Directions color is determined by fixation using alum, lime and

  10. Taxonomic value of foliar characters in Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae Valor taxonômico de caracteres foliares em Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae is a neotropical genus, native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and comprises two species, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme and D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., although it has been considered a monotypic genus by some authors. Leaf anatomy was compared to verify the presence of anatomical characters to help delimit species. Foliar primordium, leaflet, petiolule, petiole and pulvinus were collected from cultivated plants (Campinas, SP, Brazil and from natural populations (Picinguaba, Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil - D. pinnata; Antonina, PR, Brazil - D. pentaphylla. Studies on leaflet surface assessment (Scanning Electron Microscopy, as well as histology and venation analyses were carried out of dehydrated, fresh and fixed material from two species. Leaflet material was macerated for stomatal counts. Histological sections, obtained by free-hand cut or microtome, were stained with Toluidine Blue, Safranin/Alcian Blue, Ferric Chloride, Acid Phloroglucin. Secretory cavities are present in the lamina, petiolule, petiole, pulvinus and leaf primordium in D. pentaphylla, but not in D. pinnata, and can be considered an important character for species diagnosis. Other leaf characters were uninformative in delimiting Dahlstedtia species. There is cambial activity in the petiolule, petiole and pulvinus. This study, associated with other available data, supports the recognition of two species in Dahlstedtia.Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae é um gênero neotropical, com duas espécies reconhecidas, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme e D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., embora tenha sido considerado monotípico por alguns autores. Seus representantes ocorrem na Floresta Atlântica, nos Estados do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Neste trabalho, realizamos um estudo comparativo da anatomia foliar, para verificar a presença de caracteres que possam auxiliar a identificação das espécies. Primórdio foliar, lâmina foliar, peciólulo, pecíolo e pulvino

  11. Gilbertiodendron grandistipulatum (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), a singular species from West Central Africa and new record for Congo (Brazzaville)

    OpenAIRE

    De La Estrella, Manuel; Devesa, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gilbertiodendron (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic tropical African genus of ca. 30 species, most of which are trees of primary forest. The highest concentration of species and morphological variation is found in the Guineo-Congolian region, particularly in Gabon. One of those species is G. grandistipulatum, which is easily recognized by its stipules (up to 18 cm long) and flowers (adaxial petal up to 12.5 × 14 cm). The taxonomy, habitat and distribution of G. grandistipultaum are ...

  12. Fagaceae tree species allocate higher fraction of nitrogen to photosynthetic apparatus than Leguminosae in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingchao; Cheng, Ruimei; Shi, Zuomin; Xu, Gexi; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Variation in photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) is generally affected by several factors such as leaf nitrogen allocation and leaf diffusional conductances to CO2, although it is still unclear which factors significantly affect PNUE in tropical montane rain forest trees. In this study, comparison of PNUE, photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen allocation, and diffusional conductances to CO2 between five Fagaceae tree species and five Leguminosae tree species were analyzed in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, Hainan Island, China. The result showed that PNUE of Fagaceae was significantly higher than that of Leguminosae (+35.5%), attributed to lower leaf nitrogen content per area (Narea, -29.4%). The difference in nitrogen allocation was the main biochemical factor that influenced interspecific variation in PNUE of these tree species. Fagaceae species allocated a higher fraction of leaf nitrogen to the photosynthetic apparatus (PP, +43.8%), especially to Rubisco (PR, +50.0%) and bioenergetics (PB +33.3%) in comparison with Leguminosae species. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of Leguminosae species was lower than that of Fagaceae species (-15.4%). While there was no significant difference shown for mesophyll conductance (gm), Fagaceae tree species may have greater chloroplast to total leaf surface area ratios and that offset the action of thicker cell walls on gm. Furthermore, weak negative relationship between nitrogen allocation in cell walls and in Rubisco was found for Castanopsis hystrix, Cyclobalanopsis phanera and Cy. patelliformis, which might imply that nitrogen in the leaves was insufficient for both Rubisco and cell walls. In summary, our study concluded that higher PNUE might contribute to the dominance of most Fagaceae tree species in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest.

  13. Fagaceae tree species allocate higher fraction of nitrogen to photosynthetic apparatus than Leguminosae in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruimei; Shi, Zuomin; Xu, Gexi; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Variation in photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) is generally affected by several factors such as leaf nitrogen allocation and leaf diffusional conductances to CO2, although it is still unclear which factors significantly affect PNUE in tropical montane rain forest trees. In this study, comparison of PNUE, photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen allocation, and diffusional conductances to CO2 between five Fagaceae tree species and five Leguminosae tree species were analyzed in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, Hainan Island, China. The result showed that PNUE of Fagaceae was significantly higher than that of Leguminosae (+35.5%), attributed to lower leaf nitrogen content per area (Narea, –29.4%). The difference in nitrogen allocation was the main biochemical factor that influenced interspecific variation in PNUE of these tree species. Fagaceae species allocated a higher fraction of leaf nitrogen to the photosynthetic apparatus (PP, +43.8%), especially to Rubisco (PR, +50.0%) and bioenergetics (PB +33.3%) in comparison with Leguminosae species. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of Leguminosae species was lower than that of Fagaceae species (-15.4%). While there was no significant difference shown for mesophyll conductance (gm), Fagaceae tree species may have greater chloroplast to total leaf surface area ratios and that offset the action of thicker cell walls on gm. Furthermore, weak negative relationship between nitrogen allocation in cell walls and in Rubisco was found for Castanopsis hystrix, Cyclobalanopsis phanera and Cy. patelliformis, which might imply that nitrogen in the leaves was insufficient for both Rubisco and cell walls. In summary, our study concluded that higher PNUE might contribute to the dominance of most Fagaceae tree species in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest. PMID:29390007

  14. Effect of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Pod Powder on the Oxidation and Colour Stability of Pork Meat Batter During Chilled Storage

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    Monika Skowyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The eff ect of dried pods of Caesalpinia spinosa, known as tara, on pH, cooking loss, lipid oxidation, colour stability and texture of model meat systems stored at 4 °C for 21 days was investigated. Tara pod powder showing a potential antioxidant activity was added at 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 % (by mass directly to the pork batt er and compared with a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and control (no added antioxidants. The addition of tara pod powder at 0.02 % was as effective as BHA (0.02 % in retarding lipid oxidation in pork products during storage. Results showed that redness increased after the addition of tara pod powder. Specifically, 0.02 % of tara pod powder was effective in keeping the red colour of meat batter stored under illumination at 4 °C for 48 h. Hardness of pork products was the lowest in samples manufactured with tara pod powder compared with control. Results highlight the potential of using tara pod powder as natural functional ingredient in the development of pork products with enhanced quality and shelf life.

  15. Crescimento de mudas de pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., submetidas a cinco níveis de sombreamento

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento de mudas de pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., submetidas a cinco níveis de sombreamento. As mudas, com 18 meses de idade, foram submetidas aos níveis de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80% de sombreamento, sob estrutura de telados pretos, tipo sombrite. Os maiores valores para altura foram obtidos em plantas cultivadas sob 20, 40 e 60% de sombreamento. Plantas sob pleno sol e sob 20% de sombreamento apresentaram maiores diâmetros do colo e menores relações entre altura e diâmetro do colo, o que revela maior equilíbrio no crescimento. O maior número de folhas foi obtido em plantas sob pleno sol. O aumento da luminosidade ocasionou maiores massas de matéria seca da parte aérea, do sistema radicular e total, além de menores índices entre massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, o que sugere maior investimento de biomassa para as raízes. Os maiores valores do Índice de Qualidade de Dickson (IQD foram observados em mudas cultivadas sob menores índices de sombreamento, sendo um bom indicador da qualidade das mudas.

  16. Extracts of Caesalpinia ferrea and Trichoderma sp. on the control of Colletotrichum sp. transmission in Sideroxylon obtusifolium seeds

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    P.A.F.R. MELO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent research reports the importance of preserving plants in Brazilian semiarid regions, in this context, the scientific literature has reported different pharmacological studies from plant extracts with an antifungal potential, coming from forest species that can contribute as a control and management strategy in the transmission of phytopathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of biotech treatments in controlling the transmission of Colletotrichum sp. in seeds of S. obtusifolium. In this study, 100 seeds were subjected to the following preventive treatments: fungicide Captan®, extract of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul., and biological control with Trichoderma spp. The biological control with Trichoderma spp. and the alternative control using C. ferrea extract provided a greater protection to seeds and seedlings of S. obtusifolium facing the transmissibility of Colletotrichum sp.The treatment based on plant extract is more efficient for this purpose only in large seeds and does not interfere on the germination percentage and speed. Therefore it is necessary to perform other studies with Trichoderma spp. and C. ferrea extract to test different doses of these products.

  17. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on female reproductive system of albino rat: a focus on antifertility efficacy

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    Lilaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on the reproductive system in Wistar female albino rat. Methods: The study was divided into four groups. The group I received distilled water and served as vehicle treated control. Groups II, III and IV were orally administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight dose of seed extract respectively, for 10 consecutive days and subsequently euthanized twenty four hours after the last dose. Results: The treatment prolonged the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage. The analysis of the principal hormones viz. LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone showed significantly decreased levels in dose-dependant manner. Ovarian and uterine weight was significantly reduced as compared to that of the control group. Histoarchitectural observations revealed follicular atresia and degeneration of corpora lutea in ovary. Oviduct showed degeneration of mucosal folds and epithelium cells. Uterus showed evidence of degeneration of endometrial epithelium and endometrial glands. Lamina propria and muscularis layer of vagina were found slightly disorganized. Conclusions: It can be concluded that significant decrease in the hormone levels, reproductive organs weight and alterations in histoarchitecture of reproductive organs might be due to antiestrogenic nature of seed extract.

  18. Historia de la investigación en la simbiosis leguminosa-bacteria: una perspectiva didáctica

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    Ramírez-Bahena, Marta Helena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After cereals, legumes constitute the second most important family of crops for human and animal consumption. However, in contrast to the former, legumes are capable of growing in arid soils of low fertility, due to their ability to establish symbiotic associations with soil bacteria called rhizobia. These microorganisms form special organs in the roots of legumes called nodules, where atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 is transformed into ammonium that is exported to the plant for growth. Since their discovery in legume nodules until today, knowledge of the bacteria capable of establishing symbiosis with these plants has advanced in many aspects. Especially, advances in molecular techniques for bacterial identification and access to unexplored places have confirmed that the interaction of legumes with rhizobia is older, and that N2-fixing bacteria are more abundant and diverse, than considered previously. Here, we attempt to relate the history of an association whose development is key in the history of mankind as we know it now.Después de los cereales, las leguminosas constituyen la segunda familia en importancia para la alimentación humana y animal. Sin embargo, en contraste con ellos, las leguminosas son capaces de crecer en suelos áridos, de escasa fertilidad, lo que se debe a su capacidad para establecer asociaciones simbióticas con bacterias del suelo llamadas rhizobia. Estos microorganismos forman unos órganos especiales en las raíces de las leguminosas, los nódulos, donde el dinitrógeno (N2 atmosférico se transforma en amonio que se exporta a la planta para su crecimiento. Desde su descubrimiento en los nódulos de las leguminosas hasta nuestros días, el conocimiento de las bacterias capaces de establecer simbiosis con estas plantas ha avanzado en múltiples aspectos. Sobre todo, los avances en las técnicas moleculares de identificación bacteriana y el acceso a lugares inexplorados ha permitido confirmar que la interacción de las

  19. A study of the fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of some Fabaceae (Leguminosae plants from Turkey I

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    Sahim, Ahmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol, tocotrienol and plastochromanol-8 contents of some selected Fabaceae (Leguminosae species belonging to different genera (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella from Turkey were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. Some of the studied species are endemic to Turkey. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. Palmitic and stearic acids are the major saturated fatty acids in the seed oils. Vicia and Onobrychis patterns showed high similarity in means of qualitative fatty acid concentration. The tocopherol and tocochromanol patterns of the seed oils were also found to be highly variable among the genera investigated here. The total tocopherols was higher than the total tocotrienols. Alpha and gamma tocopherols were also the highest tocopherols present in the whole species. Beta, gamma and delta-tocotrienols were not found in most of the studied leguminous patterns. The results are discussed in view of renewable sources and chemotaxonomy.En este estudio, los contenidos en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, tocotrienoles y plastocromanol-8 de algunas especies seleccionadas de Fabaceae (Leguminosae, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella de Turquía, fueron determinadas usando técnicas de GLC y HPLC. Algunas de las especies estudiadas son endémicas de Turquía. Los aceites de semillas de los diferentes taxones de leguminosas contenían los ácidos linoleico, oleico y linolénico como principales componentes. Las proporciones de estos ácidos grasos fueron muy variables entre los géneros de leguminosas. Los ácidos palmítico y esteárico son los principales ácidos grasos saturados en los aceites de semillas. Los patrones

  20. Efeito da cobertura viva com leguminosas herbáceas perenes na agregação de um argissolo

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    A. Perin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na área do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, com o objetivo de avaliar a morfologia e a distribuição de raízes de algumas leguminosas herbáceas perenes; os efeitos da cobertura viva no teor de carbono orgânico, e a agregação de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, medida pela estabilidade dos agregados em água. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de três diferentes espécies de leguminosas herbáceas perenes e um tratamento-controle sem cobertura viva (capinado. As leguminosas utilizadas foram amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical(Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium Atropurpureum. Para a estabilidade de agregados, as profundidades de amostragem foram 0-5 e 5-10 cm, enquanto, para a morfologia e distribuição radicular, as avaliações consistiram das profundidades 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. As coberturas com as leguminosas amendoim forrageiro e cudzu tropical propiciaram os maiores valores percentuais na classe de agregados > 2,00 mm, em média 38 % superiores aos obtidos na área capinada. Os valores do diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP dos agregados no solo com cobertura de leguminosas foram superiores aos da área capinada para ambas as camadas, o que demonstra o efeito favorável das coberturas vivas na estabilização dos agregados do solo. A cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro proporcionou incremento no teor de carbono orgânico no solo. Quanto aos atributos morfológicos das raízes, verificou-se que o amendoim forrageiro apresentou raio radicular intermediário entre as demais espécies e área e massa radicular maiores, o que auxiliou na interpretação do efeito positivo da cobertura viva com essa espécie na agregação do solo.

  1. Leguminosas arbóreas introduzidas em pastagem Performance of leguminous trees introduced into pastures

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    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar, por meio de métodos de análise de variância multivariada, o comportamento de 16 espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, introduzidas em pastagem estabelecida de Brachiaria decumbens, a partir de mudas pequenas e em presença de animais, em quatro épocas do ano, em Seropédica, RJ. Nove variáveis relacionadas ao comprimento e ao número de brotos das mudas, antes e após o pastejo dos animais, foram utilizadas nas avaliações. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de quatro agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos Mimosa tenuiflora nas 3ª e 4ª avaliações. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos, para cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que o maior comprimento e o maior número de brotos na muda, após o pastejo, foram encontrados na M. tenuiflora. Esta leguminosa é indicada para ser introduzida, com maior probabilidade de sucesso, nas pastagens de B. decumbens na região, sem a proteção das mudas e em presença de gado.The objective of this work was to analyse, by means of multivariate variance analysis, the behaviour of 16 leguminous tree species introduced into pastures of Brachiaria decumbens from unprotected young plants and under grazing, in four periods of the year, in Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Nine variables, related to length and to number of sprouting, before and after animal grazing, were used for the evaluation. The statistical difference of the means of the principal canonical variable, calculated by the Scott-Knott test, indicated the formation of four groups, and the Mimosa tenuiflora group stood out at the 3rd and 4th evaluations. Difference among treatment means for each variable, calculated by Bonferroni confidence intervals, showed that the greatest sprouting length and the highest number of sprouting, after

  2. Herança e ligação em locos isoenzimáticos de Caesalpinia echinata L. (pau-brasil. Inheritance and linkage in isozyme loci of Caesalpinia echinata L. (pau-brasil.

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    João del GIUDICE-NETO

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o estudo davariação isoenzimática em Caesalpinia echinata L.(pau-brasil. Onze sistemas enzimáticos (ACP,DIA, EST, G6PDH, GOT, LAP, MDH, PGI, PRX,SKDH e 6PGDH codificando dezoito locos (Acp-1,Est-3, Dia-1, G6pdh-1, Got-1, Lap-1, Mdh-1,Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3,Prx-4, Skdh-1, 6pgdh-1 e 6pgdh-2 foraminvestigados. Entre esses locos, Pgi-1 e Got-1foram detectados como monomórficos. Três locos(Mdh-2, G6pdh-1 e 6pgdh-1 não tiveram suaherança analisada devido à ausência de progênies deárvores heterozigotas na amostra. A herançamendeliana simples foi confirmada para dez locos(Acp-1, Dia-1, Est-3, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Prx-1,Prx-3, Skdh-1 e 6pgdh-2. Três locos (Pgi-2, Prx-2e Prx-4 apresentaram desvios altamentesignificativos (P < 0,01 para a hipótese desegregação regular 1:1. As relações dedesequilíbrios de ligações foram avaliadas em 120pares de locos isoenzimáticos. Seis pares de locosapresentaram ligação: Mdh-3:Dia-1, Mdh-3:Prx-3,6pgdh-1:Pgi-2, 6pgdh-1:Prx-1, 6pgdh-2:Prx-3 ePgi-2:Prx-4.This article presents a study of isozymevariation in Caesalpinia echinata L. (brazilwood.Eleven isozyme systems (ACP, DIA, EST,G6PDH, GOT, LAP, MDH, PGI, PRX, SKDH and6PGDH codifying eighteen loci (Acp-1, Est-3,Dia-1, G6pdh-1, Got-1, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2,Mdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3, Prx-4,Skdh-1, 6pgdh-1 and 6pgdh-2 were investigated.Among these loci, Pgi-1 and Got-1 weremonomorphic. Three loci (Mdh-2, G6pdh-1 and6pgdh-1 were not evaluated for inheritance duethe lack of families from heterozygous mothertrees in the sampling. Mendelian inheritance wasconfirmed for ten allozyme loci (Acp-1, Dia-1,Est-3, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Prx-1, Prx-3, Skdh-1,and 6pgdh-2. Three loci (Pgi-2, Prx-2 and Prx-4showed significant deviations (P < 0.01 from expectedsegregation 1:1 hypothesis. Linkage relationshipswere examined for 120 pairs of allozyme loci.Six pairs of loci showed linked: Mdh-3:Dia-1,Mdh-3:Prx-3, 6

  3. Germinação de sementes e formação de mudas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Pau - Brasil: efeito de sombreamento Seed germination and seedling growth of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood: shading effect

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil é a árvore nacional do Brasil, possui grande potencial ornamental, estando atualmente em perigo de extinção devido à exploração extrativista. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação das sementes de C. echinata e o crescimento de mudas sob condições de sombreamento. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Seção de Ornamentais do IBt/SMA, São Paulo, SP. As sementes foram coletadas de frutos maduros, de árvores-matriz no arboreto experimental de C. echinata em Mogi-Guaçu, SP. Os testes de germinação foram realizados nos anos de 1999, 2000 e 2003, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada, sendo avaliadas a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, submetidas a cinco níveis de sombreamento (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80%. Mudas de C. echinata com nove meses de idade foram submetidas aos mesmos tratamentos de sombreamento das sementes, sendo as variáveis analisadas altura da planta, diâmetro do colo e número de folhas. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e 24 plantas por parcela, totalizando 96 mudas por tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a germinação e o IVE não sofreram influência dos níveis de sombreamento testados. O diâmetro do coleto das mudas a pleno sol, a 20 e 40% de sombreamento, não diferiram significativamente entre si, mas dos tratamentos de 60 e 80%.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood, Brazil's national tree, has ornamental potential, and due to years of exploitation this species has been reduced on the verge of extinction. This study was aimed to evaluate seed germination and seedling growth of brazil wood under shading conditions. The experiments were conducted at the IBt/SMA Ornamental Department, São Paulo-SP. Seeds were harvested from ripe fruits, from trees of the experimental arboretum of brazilwood at Mogí-Guaçu-SP. The germination tests were carried out in 1999

  4. Morphology of seeds and seedlings of four species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae

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    Fabiana Soledad Ojeda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four neotropical species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae have potential value as forage crops or ornamentals and could be cultivated in tropical or subtropical areas, even on floodplains. In order to obtain useful data for their culture and taxonomy, the seed morphology, germination pattern (hypogeal or epigeal and seedling development were studied. The studied species belong to different sections of the genus: V. adenantha (G.F.W. Meyer Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Leptospron; V. candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Sigmoidotropis; V. caracalla (L. Verdc. (Sect. Caracallae and V. luteola (Jacq. Benth. (Sect. Vigna. The seeds were collected during fieldwork conducted in northwestern and northeastern Argentina. The qualitative and quantitative characters of the seeds were registered, after which they were sown. The development of the emerged seedlings was followed, first in a greenhouse and thereafter in open field. We recorded the type of germination, the thigmotropic movements of the hypocotyl and of the stem, seedling architecture and plant longevity. These traits allowed us to differentiate the species and construct an identification key that could be useful for agronomic or floricultural purposes. The data obtained partially support the current taxonomic treatment of the genus.

  5. Ecological interpretations of the leaf anatomy of amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae

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    FM Leme

    Full Text Available We present the leaf anatomy of seven amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae, interpreting their structures and ecological functions, and also, providing information on which their taxonomy can be based, especially of morphologically similar species. We evaluated Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis and A. sensitiva. The anatomy corroborates the separation of the series Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae and Sensitivae, with the shape of the petiole, types of trichomes and quantity of vascular units in the petiole as main characteristics to delimit the species. The petiole shape varies from cylindric in A. americana, A. sensitiva and A. fluminensis, to triangular in A. evenia and quadrangular in A. rudis, A. denticulata and A. ciliata. We observed four types of trichomes: hydathode trichome, long conic trichome, short conic trichome and bulb-based trichome. The hydathode trichome was the most common, except for A. americana and A. fluminensis. Species with higher affinity with water share similar adaptive characteristics, including hydathode trichomes described for the first time for the genus. This article adds unseen descriptions for the genus and on the adaptation factors of the amphibious species.

  6. Ecological interpretations of the leaf anatomy of amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae).

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    Leme, F M; Scremin-Dias, E

    2014-02-01

    We present the leaf anatomy of seven amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae), interpreting their structures and ecological functions, and also, providing information on which their taxonomy can be based, especially of morphologically similar species. We evaluated Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis and A. sensitiva. The anatomy corroborates the separation of the series Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae and Sensitivae, with the shape of the petiole, types of trichomes and quantity of vascular units in the petiole as main characteristics to delimit the species. The petiole shape varies from cylindric in A. americana, A. sensitiva and A. fluminensis, to triangular in A. evenia and quadrangular in A. rudis, A. denticulata and A. ciliata. We observed four types of trichomes: hydathode trichome, long conic trichome, short conic trichome and bulb-based trichome. The hydathode trichome was the most common, except for A. americana and A. fluminensis. Species with higher affinity with water share similar adaptive characteristics, including hydathode trichomes described for the first time for the genus. This article adds unseen descriptions for the genus and on the adaptation factors of the amphibious species.

  7. (Glossoscolecidae y Acanthodrilidae y leguminosas (Arachis pintoi en un suelo de traspatio

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    Esperanza Huerta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sureste de la República Mexicana, en el trópico húmedo, se llevó a cabo un estudio en un cultivo de traspatio (huerto familiar con el fin de aumentar la fertilidad del suelo mediante la reproducción e inoculación de individuos de las especies Glossoscolecidae sp y Dichogaster saliens (oligochaeta las cuales tuvieron la mayor tasa de crecimiento diario (3 mg día-1 en sustratos con 1.5 % Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (leguminosa. Cuatro tratamientos con seis repeticiones de 3 x 2 m cada una fueron instalados en el huerto familiar. El contenido de materia orgánica (5.45 ± 1.6%, nitrógeno total (0.27 ± 0.05%, fósforo disponible (40.6 ± 22.5 mg kg-1 y potasio (1.05 ± 0.88 mg kg-1 fueron significativamente superiores (p < 0.05 en aquellas unidades experimentales con lombrices (27 gm-2 en conjunto con Arachis pintoi.

  8. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae).

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    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  9. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

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    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae

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    Isys Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, H. courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of H. courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1 for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2 for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1 var. altissima, (2 var. longifolia, and (3 all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  11. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  12. Neurite Outgrowth and Neuroprotective Effects of Quercetin from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. on Cultured P19-Derived Neurons

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    Napat Tangsaengvit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin has been isolated for the first time from ethyl acetate extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. C. mimosoides Lamk. (Fabaceae or Cha rueat (Thai name is an indigenous plant found in mixed deciduous forest in northern and north-eastern parts of Thailand. Thai rural people consume its young shoots and leaves as a fresh vegetable, as well as it is used for medicinal purposes.The antioxidant capacity in terms of radical scavenging activity of quercetin was determined as IC50 of 3.18 ± 0.07 µg/mL, which was higher than that of Trolox and ascorbic acid (12.54 ± 0.89 and 10.52 ± 0.48 µg/mL, resp.. The suppressive effect of quercetin on both purified and cellular acetylcholinesterase (AChE enzymes was investigated as IC50 56.84 ± 2.64 and 36.60 ± 2.78 µg/mL, respectively. In order to further investigate the protective ability of quercetin on neuronal cells, P19-derived neurons were used as a neuronal model in this study. As a result, quercetin at a very low dose of 1 nM enhanced survival and induced neurite outgrowth of P19-derived neurons. Furthermore, this flavonoid also possessed significant protection against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation. Altogether, these findings suggest that quercetin is a multifunctional compound and promising valuable drugs candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

  13. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  14. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts

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    B N Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer′s disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. Objective: The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Results: Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Conclusions: Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer′s disease.

  15. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  16. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

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    Fernanda Fraga Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae. We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL. Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  17. Establishment of a clonal bank of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz by selection of plus trees and grafting

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    Jenny E Nuñez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, plant propagation techniques are not available commercially to establish clonal banks of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz (guarango plus trees, which limits the development of in vitro propagation protocols of this specie. The objective of the present work was to establish a clonal bank of C. spinosa by selecting plus trees and grafting. Guarango trees belonging to the province of Chimborazo, Guano canton were selected based on total height, height at the beginning of the crown, height of crown, crown surface, crown symmetry, flowering, fruit production and content of tannins in the pod. The patron plants to make the grafts were obtained from scarified seeds, soaked for 48 hours at room temperature and planted in beds of 1.0 x 3.0 m. At 40 days, the seedlings were transplanted into pockets and at 16 months the grafts were made in the patron plants. Three types of graft were used (simple slit in the patron, single slit in the spike and bud grafting. For each, 100 patron were used. Of the eight trees plus collected in the field, the ecotype CHSt03 was used to make the grafts. It was showed the highest total height (6.6m, height at the beginning of the cup (2.2m, cup surface (> 70%, cup volume (> 10%, cup symmetry (1, fruit (40kg / tree and total polyphenol content in pods (5870 μgEAGgMS-1. The graft by simple slit in the patron had the highest stuck percentage (80%. These results allowed to establish a clonal bank of 80 plants grafted of C. spinosa of the ecotype CHSt03, which establish the bases to develop protocols for in vitro propagation of this forest species, native of Ecuador.   Keywords: biodiversity, biotechnology, forestry, industry, tannins

  18. Inventario de Leguminosas activas y evaluación de su potencial de nitrificación, en zonas secas del cantón Paltas.

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Malla, Gloria Esmeralda

    2007-01-01

    Las leguminosas, grupo de plantas muy numeroso, que incluye unas 17000 especies, antes considerado como una única familia y en la actualidad agrupadas en el orden Fabales. Las leguminosas tienen una gran importancia desde el punto de vista económico ya que incluyen muchas especies que se utilizan como alimento, por ejemplo la arveja, el fréjol, el maní; algunas otras que son productoras de aceite, como la soya; otras de interés forrajero como el trébol y la alfalfa o especies ornamentales com...

  19. BALANCE PARCIAL DE NITRÓGENO EN EL SISTEMA DE CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L.) CON COBERTURA DE LEGUMINOSAS EN CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    José David Álvarez-Solís; Ramón Muñoz-Arroyo; Esperanza Huerta-Lwanga; José Nahed-Toral

    2016-01-01

    El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC) en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N) en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1) frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens), 2) frijol arroz (Vig...

  20. El género Ormosia Jacks: (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) en el estado de Guerrero, México

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Jiménez-Ramírez, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez la presencia del género Ormosia para el estado de Guerrero, México, con dos especies: Ormosia carinata y O. oaxacana (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, tribe Sophoreae). Se incluyen las descripciones de ambas, datos referentes a los ejemplares, una clave dicotómica para diferenciarlas, y la ilustración de O. carinata. Ormosia carinata era conocida como elemento endémico de los estados de Veracruz y Oaxaca, en las regiones de Los Tuxtlas y de Uxpanapa. Ormosia carinat...

  1. Detección y caracterización preliminar de lectinas presentes en semillas de leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    de Navarro, Yolanda; Pérez, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    La aglutinación de eritrocitos humanos o animales fue ensayada con 23 especies de leguminosas. Las semillas de Bauhinia picta, marindus indica, Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia poseen lectinas inespecíficas para el sistema ABO; Crotalaria agatifolia, C. spp, Cassia indecora y Ormosia spp, presentan cierto grado de especificidad. Se ensayaron eritrocitos de seis especies animales, observándose aglutinación con las especies ya citadas y además con Cassia fruticosa, C. reticulata, Delon...

  2. Evolution in African tropical trees displaying ploidy-habitat association: The genus Afzelia (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkpegan, Armel S L; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Migliore, Jérémy; Duminil, Jérôme; Dainou, Kasso; Piñeiro, Rosalía; Wieringa, Jan J; Champluvier, Dominique; Hardy, Olivier J

    2017-02-01

    Polyploidy has rarely been documented in rain forest trees but it has recently been found in African species of the genus Afzelia (Leguminosae), which is composed of four tetraploid rain forest species and two diploid dry forest species. The genus Afzelia thus provides an opportunity to examine how and when polyploidy and habitat shift occurred in Africa, and whether they are associated. In this study, we combined three plastid markers (psbA, trnL, ndhF), two nuclear markers (ribosomal ITS and the single-copy PEPC E7 gene), plastomes (obtained by High Throughput Sequencing) and morphological traits, with an extensive taxonomic and geographic sampling to explore the evolutionary history of Afzelia. Both nuclear DNA and morphological vegetative characters separated diploid from tetraploid lineages. Although the two African diploid species were well differentiated genetically and morphologically, the relationships among the tetraploid species were not resolved. In contrast to the nuclear markers, plastid markers revealed that one of the diploid species forms a well-supported clade with the tetraploids, suggesting historical hybridisation, possibly in relation with genome duplication (polyploidization) and habitat shift from dry to rain forests. Molecular dating based on fossil-anchored gene phylogenies indicates that extant Afzelia started diverging c. 14.5 or 20Ma while extant tetraploid species started diverging c. 7.0 or 9.4Ma according to plastid and nuclear DNA, respectively. Additional studies of tropical polyploid plants are needed to assess whether the ploidy-habitat association observed in African Afzelia would reflect a role of polyploidization in niche divergence in the tropics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

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    Xiao-Ning Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC, is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP and supernatant (MSS by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE. The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05, indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and lactic acid (Lac. Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, and malondialdehyde (MDA but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  4. Morphological and agronomical characterization and estimates of genetic parameters of sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae accessions

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    Veasey E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two accessions of seven Sesbania (Leguminosae species: S. emerus, S. rostrata, S. tetraptera, S. exasperata (annuals, S. grandiflora, S. sesban and S. virgata (perennials, used for ruminant fodder, firewood, wood products, soil improvement, and human food, were investigated, with the aim of characterizing both inter- and intraspecific genetic variability, estimating genetic parameters for the characters evaluated and appraising the forage potential of the accessions. These were planted at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with 22 treatments and four replications. Seventeen morphological and 17 agronomic characters were evaluated. Genetic parameters coefficient of intraspecific genetic diversity (bi and coefficient of intraspecific genetic variation (CVgi were obtained for the species represented by more than one accession. Highly significant differences were observed among as well as within species for most characters, showing considerable genetic variability. S. exasperata showed intraspecific genetic variability for the largest number of morphological characters. The same was observed for S. sesban for the agronomic characters. Most of the characters gave high bi values, above 0.80, indicating the possibility of selecting superior genotypes. The CVgi values, on the other hand, which indicate the magnitude of the existing genetic variability relative to the character mean, varied according to the species and character evaluated. Differences between annual and perennial species were observed, with higher biomass yields presented by the annuals at the first cut and by the perennials after the second cut, reaching the highest yield at the third cut. The annual species had higher seed production. Accession NO 934 of S. sesban gave the highest biomass yields and regrowth vigor, showing promise as a forage legume plant.

  5. Classification of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae: A Numerical Re-assessment

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    Adel EL-GAZZAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subdivision of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae into taxa of lower rank was subject for major discrepancies between traditional classifications while more recent phylogenetic studies provided no decisive answer to this problem. As a contribution towards resolving this situation, 81 morphological characters were recorded comparatively for 226 species and infra-specific taxa belonging to 75 genera representing 21 of the 32 tribes currently recognized in this subfamily. The data matrix was subjected to cluster analysis using the Sørensen distance measure and Ward’s clustering method of the PC-ord version-5 package of programs for Windows. This combination was selected from among the 56 combinations available in this package because it produced the taxonomically most feasible arrangement of the genera and species. The 75 genera are divided into two main groups A and B, whose recognition requires little more than the re-alignment of a few genera to resemble tribes 1-18 (Sophoreae to Hedysareae and tribes 19-32 (Loteae to Genisteae, respectively, in the currently accepted classification. Only six of the 21 tribes represented by two or more genera seem sufficiently robust as the genera representing each of them hold together in only one of the two major groups A and B. Of the 29 genera represented by more than one species each 17, 7 and 5 are taxonomically coherent, nearly coherent and incoherent, respectively. The currently accepted circumscription and inter-relationships among the disrupted tribes and genera are in need of much detailed investigation.

  6. Classification of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae: A Numerical Re-assessment

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    Adel EL-GAZZAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subdivision of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae into taxa of lower rank was subject for major discrepancies between traditional classifications while more recent phylogenetic studies provided no decisive answer to this problem. As a contribution towards resolving this situation, 81 morphological characters were recorded comparatively for 226 species and infra-specific taxa belonging to 75 genera representing 21 of the 32 tribes currently recognized in this subfamily. The data matrix was subjected to cluster analysis using the Sørensen distance measure and Ward’s clustering method of the PC-ord version-5 package of programs for Windows. This combination was selected from among the 56 combinations available in this package because it produced the taxonomically most feasible arrangement of the genera and species. The 75 genera are divided into two main groups A and B, whose recognition requires little more than the re-alignment of a few genera to resemble tribes 1-18 (Sophoreae to Hedysareae and tribes 19-32 (Loteae to Genisteae, respectively, in the currently accepted classification. Only six of the 21 tribes represented by two or more genera seem sufficiently robust as the genera representing each of them hold together in only one of the two major groups A and B. Of the 29 genera represented by more than one species each 17, 7 and 5 are taxonomically coherent, nearly coherent and incoherent, respectively. The currently accepted circumscription and inter-relationships among the disrupted tribes and genera are in need of much detailed investigation.

  7. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo

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    Shagun Kalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL. Methods: EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ sensitive (MRC2 and CQ resistant (RKL9 strains. Cytotoxicity (CC 50 of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD 50 was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg and preventive (100-750 mg/kg activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg of extract was also evaluated. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC 50 of 8.2 µg/ml (MRC2 and 5.1 µg/ml (RKL9. CC 50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 µg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD 50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant ( p100 mg/kg. Significant (P<0.001 curative and repository activities were exhibited by 750 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. Interpretation & conclusions: The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED 50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further.

  8. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae) against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Shagun; Walter, Neha Sylvia; Bagai, Upma

    2015-12-01

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae) has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL). EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (MRC2) and CQ resistant (RKL9) strains. Cytotoxicity (CC 50 ) of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD 50 ) was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg) and preventive (100-750 mg/kg) activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg) of extract was also evaluated. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC 50 of 8.2 µg/ml (MRC2) and 5.1 µg/ml (RKL9). CC 50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 µg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI) of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD 50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant ( p50 >100 mg/kg. Significant (P50 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED 50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further.

  9. Morfologia de nectários em Leguminosae senso lato em áreas de caatinga no Brasil Nectary morphology of Leguminosae senso lato in areas of dry seasonal forest in Brazil

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    Yanna Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nectários extraflorais (Nefs são glândulas secretoras de néctar encontradas em diversas espécies de Angiospermas, inclusive Leguminosae. Essas estruturas podem se apresentar sob diferentes formas (elevados, embebidos; com ou sem estipe; cores distintas e posições nas plantas (na raque, no pecíolo, sendo essas características relevantes aos estudos de taxonomia e sistemática. Este trabalho analisou a diversidade morfológica dos Nefs em Leguminosae de uma área prioritária para a conservação da caatinga no Estado de Pernambuco. As 35 espécies de Legumionsae estudadas foram coletadas no Município de Mirandiba, no semi-árido Pernambucano, e submetidas às técnicas usuais para análise e descrição morfológica. Entre essas espécies, foram caracterizados Nefs com origem primária (não substitutivos e secundária (substitutivos. Dois diferentes tipos com onze formatos distintos foram encontrados entre elas. Uma grande variedade de localização, coloração, projeção, e dimensão foram registradas aqui. Uma chave de identificação e ilustrações foram elaboradas também. Os dados apresentados aqui ampliam o número de espécies estudadas com Nefs para a família, e também confirmam a importância taxonômica e ecológica dessas estruturas para os legumes da região do semi-árido do Brasil.Extrafloral nectaries (Efns are nectar secreting glands found in many species of Angiosperms, including Leguminosae. These structures have various forms (elevated, embedded; stalk present or not; different colors and positions on the plants (on the rachis, on the petiole, and these characteristics are relevant to taxonomy and morphology studies. This work analyses the morphological diversity of Efns in Leguminosae from a priority conservation area of caatinga in Pernambuco state. The 35 Leguminosae species studied were collected in Mirandiba municipality, a semi-arid region of Pernambuco and submitted to the usual techniques of anatomy and

  10. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

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    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  11. A study of the morphoanatomical characters of the leaves of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

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    Ítalo Antônio Cotta Coutinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little attention has been paid to species of Chamaecrista sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae, especially regarding anatomical studies. When only vegetative material is available, the identification of such species may be difficult. Additionally, vegetative material of some species of C. sect. Apoucouita may be even harder to identify because they can resemble species of Inga Mill. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae. The present study focused on recognizing morphoanatomical characters of leaves that are taxonomically useful for the species of C. sect. Apoucouita by employing standard anatomical techniques. The arrangement of the vascular system in the petiole/rachis, dorsiventral mesophyll, mucilage idioblasts in the epidermis of leaflets and hypostomatic leaves were some of the characters shared by all species studied. Length of the petiole, position and type of extrafloral nectaries, leaflet venation, presence and type of papillae on the epidermis of the leaflet blades and sclereids in the mesophyll were some of the characters useful in the distinction of taxa. The vascular arrangement of the petiole/rachis is a promising character in the distinction of species of C. sect. Apoucouita and Inga. Based on morphoanatomical data, the taxonomic revision of some species and varieties ascribed to C. sect. Apoucouita is suggested.

  12. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos with two new distribution records and lectotypifications for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum W. Saisorn, Chantar. & Balslev from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum DC. and D. laxiflorum DC. subsp. lacei (Schindl.) H. Ohashi, are reported as new for Thailand. Lectotypes of D. amoenum Wall. e...

  13. Crescimento e acúmulo de nutrientes por plantas espontâneas e por leguminosas utilizadas para adubação verde

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    C. Favero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies vegetais espontâneas, nas áreas de cultivo agrícola, têm sido tratadas como "plantas daninhas", "ervas invasoras", "inços" e outras denominações, do ponto de vista dos prejuízos que podem acarretar às espécies cultivadas. No entanto, as espontâneas podem promover os mesmos efeitos de proteção do solo e ciclagem de nutrientes que espécies cultivadas ou introduzidas para adubação verde. O crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes pela parte aérea de espontâneas e de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes foram medidos em um experimento de campo em Sete Lagoas (MG, na Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. O experimento consistiu de cinco espécies de leguminosas (feijão-de-porco, feijão-bravo do Ceará, mucuna-preta, lab-lab e guandu, submetidas a duas condições de manejo (com e sem capina, e uma testemunha (somente espontâneas. No florescimento das leguminosas, foram obtidos a massa da matéria seca e o teor de nutrientes da parte aérea de cada espécie de leguminosa e das espontâneas presentes nas parcelas. O sistema com apenas as espontâneas produziu menos biomassa e acumulou menos nutrientes que os sistemas com leguminosas. Foram poucas as espontâneas que apresentaram teores de carbono, cálcio e nitrogênio próximos ou superiores aos das leguminosas. No entanto, para potássio, magnésio e fósforo, ocorreu o inverso. A maioria das espontâneas apresentou teores de potássio, magnésio e de fósforo superiores aos das leguminosas, destacando-se: Portulaca oleracea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis e Melanpodium perfoliatum.

  14. Comparative study of in vitro antibacterial activity of leaves, bark, heart wood and seed extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L.

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    Arunkumar Naik Bukke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and compare the maximum antimicrobial activity by screening different parts of Caesalpinia sappan L. extracted in different solvents against Salmonella ebony (MTCC 3384 (S. ebony, Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 432 (K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli (MTCC 443 (E. coli and Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 10619 (B. subtilis. Methods: Dried plant parts were extracted with petroleum ether, methanol, chloroform and water by Soxhlet extraction method. The extracts were tested against S. ebony, K. pneumoniae, E. coli and B. subtilis by using the agar well diffusion method. Results: Among the above solvents, the methanol and chloroform and aqueous extracts of leaves, seeds, bark and heart wood showed strong antibacterial activity. The inhibition zone for heart wood extracts against K. pneumoniae was (30.333 ± 0.330 mm in methanol, chloroform (28.166 ± 0.730 mm and aqueous extract (28.166 ± 0.170 mm; for B. subtilis, that was (27.333 ± 0.440 mm in methanol, (27.166 ± 0.170 mm in chloroform, (26.166 ± 0.440 mm in aqueous extract and least in petroleum ether (12.660 ± 0.170 mm. The leaf extracts in methanol showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. ebony as seen by the inhibition zone (16.000 ± 0.290 mm and K. pneumoniae (13.000 ± 0.290 mm. The maximum antibacterial response of the seed extract against K. pneumoniae was observed in chloroform solvent (14.000 ± 0.580 mm followed by aqueous extract (13.833 ± 0.600 mm. No response was observed in petroleum ether and methanol. Conclusions: The heart wood extracts showed the highest antibacterial activity having a minimal inhibition concentration of 2 mg/mL in all three solvents against the four bacterial strains, except petroleum ether where MIC was 5 mg/mL against E. coli and B. subtilis. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of bark showed minimal inhibition concentrations of 5 mg/ mL and 2 mg/mL against K. pneumoniae respectively whereas aqueous extract of bark showed a minimal

  15. Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billah, Muhammad Mutassim; Islam, Rafikul; Khatun, Hajera; Parvin, Shahnaj; Islam, Ekramul; Islam, Sm Anisul; Mia, Akbar Ali

    2013-05-12

    Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion method against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria at 300, 500 and 800 μg/disc. Kanamycin (30 μg/disc) was used as the standard drug. Antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts were evaluated at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in rat. The fractions were subjected to a brine shrimp lethality test to evaluate their cytotoxicity. The methanol extract and other three fractions exhibited better activities at higher concentrations. Amongst, the chloroform fraction showed maximum activity at all three concentrations (300, 500, and 800 μg/disc) against almost all bacteria. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed better sensitivities to all extracts at all three concentrations excluding the pet. ether fraction. Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella spp. were two bacteria amongst nine that showed lowest sensitivity to the extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition (25-mm) was obtained by the methanol extract at an 800 μg/disc concentration against S. aureus. In the antidiarrhoeal test, all fractions exhibited dose-dependent actions, which were statistically significant (p extract and its three fractions compared with the standard drug vincristine sulfate in the brine shrimp bioassay. In the present study, the LC50 values of the methanol crude extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, pet. ether fractions and vincristine sulfate were 223.87, 281.84, 112.2, 199.53, and 12.59 μg/mL, respectively. Therefore, the ethyl acetate fraction

  16. Aspectos agronômicos de leguminosas para adubação verde no Cerrado do Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha

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    Ricardo Borges Teodoro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo e inadequado dos solos acelera sua degradação, sendo necessária a intervenção por meio de práticas conservacionistas para restaurar a capacidade produtiva dos mesmos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento e desenvolvimento de diferentes leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em solos de Cerrado, Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, em Turmalina, MG. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas leguminosas: mucuna-cinza (Mucuna nivea, mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima, lablabe (Dolichos lablab, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis e guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan. O ciclo precoce de C . juncea, C. spectabilis e feijão-de-porco favorece a inserção destes nos sistemas de cultivo. Aos 40 dias, o feijão-de-porco e mucuna-cinza já cobriam o solo, com 67 e 63 %; já o guandu-anão e C. juncea apresentaram os maiores desenvolvimentos, nesse período. Os teores de N, P e K tendem a diminuir nas avaliações realizadas nas diferentes fases vegetativas, o que contribui para melhor escolha da época de manejo das leguminosas. Crotalaria juncea, mucuna-cinza, feijão-de-porco e mucuna-preta foram as leguminosas que se destacaram na produção de matéria seca, o que torna essas espécies promissoras para adubação verde na região. As leguminosas, em sua maioria, apresentam potencial para reciclagem dos macronutrientes e aporte de N aos sistemas de produção.

  17. Estudio genecológico en prosopis laevigata, acacia farnesiana y acacia schaffneri (leguminosae

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    Sandra Luz Gómez Acevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplea una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire (splash para cromosomas vegetales a fin de analizar la posible respuesta genotipo-ambiente de tres especies de leguminosas típicas de las zonas áridas y semiáridas mexicanas, ubicadas en poblaciones con características climáticas diferentes. Las especies estudiadas fueron Prosopis laevigata y Acacia schaffneri del municipio de Santiago de Anaya, estado de Hidalgo (20o 16’ N y P. laevigata y Acacia farnesiana del municipio de Bermejillo, estado de Durango (25o 49’ N. Los parámetros evaluados fueron las longitudes cromosómicas totales, el cariotipo, la frecuencia de polisomatía y el peso de las semillas. En Prosopis laevigata se corrobora un 2n=28 y diferencias interpoblacionales estadísticamente significativas (a=0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales, sin modificación de la fórmula cariotípica (2m+10sm+2st con frecuencia de polisomatía que no rebasó el 10%. En las especies del género Acacia se registraron números cromosómicos diploides 2n=26 sin diferencias interespecíficas estadísticamente significativas (a= 0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales; no obstante se obtuvieron fórmulas cariotípicas diferentes, reportadas por primera vez empleando una técnica de extendido y secado al aire: 9m+4sm para A. schaffneri y 9m+2sm+2st para A. farnesiana. En ambas especies la polisomatía tuvo una frecuencia similar sin rebasar el 30%. Para Prosopis y Acacia no se encontraron diferencias significativas (a= 0,01 en relación al peso de la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos señalan una clase de adaptación en estrecha

  18. Acylated flavonol tri- and tetraglycosides in the flavonoid metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Rowe, Emily R; Lewis, Gwilym P; Veitch, Nigel C

    2011-04-01

    The foliar metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae) contains a complex mixture of flavonoids including acylated derivatives of the 3-O-rhamnosyl(1→2)[rhamnosyl(1→6)]-galactosides of kaempferol and quercetin and their 7-O-rhamnosides, together with an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. Thirteen of the acylated flavonoids, 12 of which had not been reported previously, were characterised by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Eight of these were the four isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) and their 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosides, and three were isomers of quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) - the remaining 4Z isomer was identified by LC-UV-MS analysis of a crude extract. The final two acylated flavonoids characterised by NMR were the 3E and 4E isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E-feruloyl-β-d-galactopyranoside)-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside while the 3Z and 4Z isomers were again detected by LC-UV-MS. Using the observed fragmentation behaviour of the isolated compounds following a variety of MS experiments, a further 18 acylated flavonoids were given tentative structures by LC-MS analysis of a crude extract. Acylated flavonoids were absent from the flowers of C. kentukea, which contained an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin glycosides. Immature fruits contained kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranoside and its 7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside as the major flavonoids with acylated flavonoids, different from those in the leaves, only present as minor constituents. The presence of acylated flavonoids distinguishes the foliar flavonoid metabolome of C. kentukea from that of a closely related legume, Styphnolobium japonicum, which contains a similar

  19. Antimicrobial activity of α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-ω-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl) polymethylene from caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Kavitha; Vidyasagar, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    The compound, α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-ω-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)polymethylene, isolated from ethyl acetate leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem. was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus citrus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. using agar diffusion method. The compound exerted inhibitory zone at all concentrations and revealed the concentration-dependent activity against all tested bacterial and yeast strains comparable to standards streptomycin sulphate and gentamycin for bacteria and fluconazole and griseofulvin for Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. The inhibition zones were wider and clear for C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. (IZ >20 mm) and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. vulgaris and E. coli zones were greater than standards tested, whereas, zones for Klebsiella sp. and S. aureus were similar to standards. PMID:21218063

  20. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

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    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  1. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Roxb. leaf extract on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda and Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda

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    Shyamalima Gogoi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Roxb., have been traditionally used as herbal remedy against intestinal helminths helminth infections in traditional medicine of India. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of C. bonducella leaf extract against Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda. Materials and Methods: The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the extract was investigated on adult Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda worms in terms of physical motility and mortality of parasites. The in vivo study was performed in H. diminuta-rat model and S. obvelata-mice model, by monitoring the egg per gram (EPG of faeces count and worm count of animals following the treatment with different doses of plant extract. Results: The study recorded significant and dose-dependent anthelmintic effects of extract on both the parasites. In the in vitro study, 30 mg/ml concentration of extract caused mortality of H. diminuta in 2.5±0.2 h and S. obvelata in 3.57± 0.16 h. In the in vivo study, the extract showed a comparatively better efficacy on S. obvelata, where its 800 mg/kg dose revealed 93% reduction of worm load in mice, as compared to 85% reduction of H. diminuta worms in load. Conclusions: The findings suggest that leaf extract of C. bonducella possesses significant anthelmintic effects, and supports its use as an anthelmintic in traditional medicine. This appears to be the first report of in vivo anthelmintic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella against these parasites [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(4.000: 427-433

  2. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea de duas populações

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    Maria de Fatima Barbosa Coelho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 O objetivo no presente trabalho foi superar a dormência de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea. As sementes foram obtidas em duas populações no município de Acarape e no distrito de Antonio Diogo no Ceará. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições de 50 sementes. Os tratamentos usados foram a sementes de Acarape intactas, b sementes de Acarape escarificadas, c sementes de Antonio Diogo intactas e d sementes de Antonio Diogo escarificadas. A escarificação foi feita com desponte com tesoura de poda no tegumento do lado oposto ao hilo da semente. As características avaliadas foram porcentagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz principal das plântulas. O maior pico de emergência ocorreu aos sete dias após a semeadura. A porcentagem de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (58,25 e 58,50 respectivamente, enquanto as sementes não escarificadas apresentaram menos de 15% de emergência. O índice de velocidade de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (7,94 e 7,20 respectivamente. Os resultados comprovam a dormência tegumentar de sementes de Caesalpinia férrea, a eficiência da escarificação mecânica na superação da dormência e que há diferença no processo germinativo de sementes de diferentes populações Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

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    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    : Sitio 1, P. laevigata; Sitio 2, M. biuncifera y Sitio 3, ambas leguminosas. En cada sitio se recolectó suelo, tanto abajo y fuera del dosel de las leguminosas, además, se realizaron transectos para medir e identificar las plantas arbóreas y arbustivas, se calculó el índice de valor de importancia y la diversidad del matorral. Asimismo, se registró mayor riqueza y diversidad en el Sitio 3 (ICE 29 spp. y H’ 2.7, en comparación con el Sitio 1 (24 spp. y 2.4 y Sitio 2 (26 spp. y 2.1. La materia orgánica y el carbono orgánico del suelo, así como el N total, el P-Olsen y la mineralización de C fueron mayores en el suelo bajo dosel de ambas leguminosas. La abundancia de esporas de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares fue favorecida por M. biunficera. La influencia de P. laevigata para crear islas más ricas en recursos fue mayor que en M. biunficera, lo anterior sugiere que cada leguminosa modifica de una forma diferente el microambiente, sin embargo, juntas aumentan la disponibilidad de nichos para el establecimiento de otras especies, lo queayuda a comprender el papel de P. laevigata y M. biuncifera sobre la colonización vegetal en ecosistemas semiáridos

  4. Desempenho de bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes Banana plant performance intercropping with perennial herbaceous legumes

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    Adriano Perin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de plantas de cobertura em consórcio com bananeiras pode ser uma estratégia de manejo, possibilitando aumentos de produtividade associados à otimização de processos biológicos e maior estabilidade do sistema produtivo. Neste trabalho, objetivo-se avaliar o efeito da cobertura viva, formada por leguminosas herbáceas perenes sobre a produção de bananeira cultivar Nanicão. Os tratamentos foram: amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth., siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb., vegetação espontânea (dominada por Panicum maximum Jacq. e vegetação espontânea + N-fertilizante. Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras entre abril/1999 e julho/2000 e os atributos de produtividade. O peso do cacho e da penca foram positivamente influenciados pelo siratro e cudzu tropical empregados como coberturas vivas, quando comparados aos demais tratamentos. Todas as leguminosas proporcionaram maior crescimento das bananeiras (notadamente a partir do 6º mês, maior número de folhas emitidas e maior proporção de cachos colhidos, em relação aos tratamentos com vegetação espontânea (com e sem N-fertilizante. As leguminosas siratro e cudzu tropical promoveram condições adequadas ao desenvolvimento das bananeiras, acarretando ganhos de produtividade e eliminação da adubação nitrogenada no bananal. O potencial benéfico das leguminosas cudzu tropical e siratro como coberturas vivas capazes de proporcionar aumentos na produtividade de banana, qualifica essas espécies como alternativa promissora para a fertilidade do solo e nutrição das bananeiras.The use of coverage plants in cover cropping with bananas can be a management strategy, increasing in productivity associated with the optimization of biological processes and greater stability of production system. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of live coverage by herbaceous perennial legume on

  5. Detección y caracterización preliminar de lectinas presentes en semillas de leguminosas

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    Yolanda de Navarro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La aglutinación de eritrocitos humanos o animales fue ensayada con 23 especies de leguminosas. Las semillas de Bauhinia picta, marindus indica, Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia poseen lectinas inespecíficas para el sistema ABO; Crotalaria agatifolia, C. spp, Cassia indecora y Ormosia spp, presentan cierto grado de especificidad. Se ensayaron eritrocitos de seis especies animales, observándose aglutinación con las especies ya citadas y además con Cassia fruticosa, C. reticulata, Delonix regia, Poinciana pulquerrima, Abrus fruticulosus y Mucuna mutisiana. Los ensayos de inhibición con carbohidratos indican que las lectinas de Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia actúan sobre receptores diferentes.

  6. Fruit consumption and seed dispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae) by the lowland tapir in the cerrado of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerril, M X A; Rodrigues, F H G; Hass, A

    2005-08-01

    Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae) were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  7. Fruit consumption and seed ispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae by the lowland tapir in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

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    M. X. A. Bizerril

    Full Text Available Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  8. BALANCE PARCIAL DE NITRÓGENO EN EL SISTEMA DE CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L. CON COBERTURA DE LEGUMINOSAS EN CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

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    José David Álvarez-Solís

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1 frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens, 2 frijol arroz (Vigna umbellata, 3 frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris y 4 testigo sin leguminosa. Se midió la producción de biomasa y el contenido de N, en las leguminosas y el maíz. Se hizo un balance parcial de N, que consideró el suministro de N de la biomasa de leguminosas y la extracción de N en la cosecha del maíz. La producción de biomasa seca de las leguminosas en la cosecha fue significativamente (p≤0,05 mayor en asociación con los frijoles arroz y nescafé (1290 y 1139 kg.ha-1 que en frijol común (470 kg.ha-1, con un contenido total de 35,4; 25,7 y 8,9 kg.ha-1 N, respectivamente. El rendimiento de grano de maíz fue 2390,5 kg.ha-1; se identificó que la extracción de N fue mayor en el grano, seguido de rastrojo, raíz, bráctea y olote, con 20,9; 9,4; 7,2; 2,0 y 1,5 kg.ha-1 N, respectivamente. El balance parcial de N mostró valores positivos con los frijoles arroz y nescafé, lo que indica su importancia para compensar la extracción de N del grano o de la mazorca del maíz.

  9. EFECTO DE DOS LEGUMINOSAS Y BANANO MADURO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y REPRODUCCIÓN DE CONEJOS NUEVA ZELANDA

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    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La investigación tuvo los siguientes objetivos: a Determinar la leguminosa tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb Benth y Gliricidia sepium y el nivel de banano maduro (BM (50, 75, 100 y 100, 125, 150 g animal-1 día-1, que permita incrementar los parámetros reproductivos (fase uno y productivos (fase dos, en conejos Nueva Zelanda. b Determinar la Relación beneficio/costo de los tratamientos. Se utilizó 28 y 42 conejos respectivamente. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 x 3 + 1, en un diseño de bloques completamente al azar (DBCA, con cuatro y tres repeticiones. Se utilizó la prueba de Tukey (p≤0.05. El mayor consumo fue para el kudzu (p0.05 el peso de las hembras al parto, el periodo de gestación, peso y tamaño de la camada al nacimiento. Los niveles de BM no influenciaron (p>0.05 sobre la ganancia de peso, índice de conversión alimenticia (ICA, peso final (PF, peso a la canal (PC y rendimiento a la canal (RC. Los tratamientos en base a leguminosas tropicales y niveles de BM superaron al testigo (p<0.01. La mayor rentabilidad en la fase 1 y 2 se obtuvo al combinar kudzu tropical más 100 y 75 g y 125 y 100 g de BM animal-1 día-1 (30.34 y 29.48%.

  10. (Caesalpinia Pulcherrima L) * OSAYEMWENRE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    3HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry and Dr. Pajwani Centre for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Centre for ... alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, phenolics, steroids .... used synthetic chemical insecticides due to its.

  11. Avaliação da incorporação de galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em sorvetes e comparação com estabilizantes comerciais

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    Antonia Ariana Camelo Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o mercado cada vez mais competitivo e consumidores mais exigentes é de suma importância buscar alternativas mais eficientes e diversificadas para a melhoria da qualidade de sorvetes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver sorvetes sabor goiaba utilizando galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em substituição a estabilizantes, avaliar suas propriedades e comparar com dois estabilizantes comumente utilizados (goma xantana e super liga neutra. Para caracterizar os sorvetes foram feitas análises de overrun, resistência ao derretimento, umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos, sólidos totais e pH. A qualidade microbiológica foi investigada pelas análises de coliformes a 45 °C/g, Estafilococos coagulase positiva/g e Salmonella sp/25 g. Sensorialmente, foram avaliados a intenção de compra e os atributos sensoriais de cor, aroma, textura, sabor e impressão global. Foram realizadas três formulações de sorvetes, modificando o estabilizante empregado: super liga neutra (T1, galactomanana de C. pulcherrima (T2 e goma xantana (T3. A taxa de derretimento mostrou-se similar até 35 minutos para as três formulações, mostrando-se comportamentos lineares. As amostras de sorvetes apresentaram um bom valor de overrun. Nenhuma das variáveis físico-químicas apresentou diferença estatística entre si. Sensorialmente, a formulação T2 apresentou desempenho semelhante a T1 e T3. No entanto, o sorvete da formulação T3 apresentou no atributo textura uma nota melhor que o estabilizante super liga neutra (T1. Todas as formulações apresentaram altos índices de intenção de compra por parte dos provadores. Todos os sorvetes produzidos apresentaram-se de acordo com a legislação vigente demonstrando que a galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima pode ser utilizada como substituto aos estabilizantes convencionais.

  12. Estudo anatômico das espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas no estado do Pará como "angelim" An anatomic study of Leguminosae species in the State of Pará commercialized as "angelim"

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    Gracialda Costa Ferreira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura da madeira de sete espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas como "angelim", no estado do Pará, foi analisada quanto aos aspectos anatômicos através de cortes histológicos da madeira, nos sentidos transversal, tangencial e radial. Através deste estudo procurou-se determinar diferenças básicas entre as espécies comercializadas com a mesma denominação vernacular, a fim de auxiliar no processo de identificação anatômica das mesmas. Uma chave dicotômica foi elaborada para separar as espécies estudadas (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum e Vatairea paraensis. Características de parênquima, raios e poros são muito úteis na separação das espécies estudadas em nível de gênero, porém em nível de espécie a separação é mais difícil. Para o agrupamento de espécies, é necessário que as características anatômicas das espécies sejam conhecidas para associadas a características morfológicas.The wood structure of seven commercialized species of Leguminosae as angelim, in the state of Pará, was analyzed by their anatomical aspects and through histological sections of the wood, in transversal, tangential and radial planes. This study was undertaken to determine basic differences among various species commercialized with the same vernacular denomination, in order to facilitate the process of their anatomical identification. A dichotomous key was elaborated to separate the species studied (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum and Vatairea paraensis. Characteristics of parenchyma, rays and vessels are very useful in the separation of the species studied in the genus level, however in the species level the separation is more difficult. For the species grouping, it is necessary that the anatomical characteristics of the species are known for associates to the morphologic characteristics.

  13. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

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    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  14. Evaluación de abonos verdes en el sistema de producción maíz-leguminosas

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    Prager M. Martin

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte del ensayo, se estudió el comportamiento del peso de nódulos, peso fresco y peso seco de tres leguminosas (Crotalaria, Canavalia y Guandul a utilizar como abonos verdes y su efecto sobre sistemas de producción maíz-leguminosas (maíz-caupí, maíz-soya, maíz-frijol. Las variables consideradas (rendimiento, rendimiento equivalente de maíz, ingreso neto y tasa de retorno marginal mostraron el efecto positivo de esta práctica sobre esta forma de producción obteniéndose mejor respuesta de el sistema maíz-caupí. De los abonos verdes la crotalaria presentó el mejor efecto sobre los sistemas de producción. En la segunda parte del trabajo, se utilizó el sistema de producción de mejor comportamiento introduciendo al factor abono verde algunas modalidades de tratamiento, entre ellas efecto residual, adición de una segunda incorporación de los tres abonos verdes y efecto residual más la adición de abono químico. La consideración de las mismas variables usadas en la primera parte mostro mejores valores por la segunda incorporación de abono verde y la adición de abono químico en su orden, el efecto residual de los abonos permite obtener rendimientos superiores a los alcanzados por el testigo.This research was divided in two parts. The first studies the behavior of three legumes (Crotalaria, Canavalia and Cajanus as green manure, measuring weight nodules, green weight matter and dry weight matter of them, so measured the effect on three production systems: Maize- cowpea, Maize- soybean and Maize-bean. The indicators (yield, equivalent maize yields, net income and marginal return rate showed positive effect of green manure on this production systems too maize-cowpea system showed the best yields; Crotalaria was ,the best green manure. In second experimental stage maize- cowpea system was evaluated, using the same indicators and introducing new treatments related to green manure: its residual effects, addicional

  15. Factores del manejo para estabilizar la producción de biomasa con leguminosas en el trópico

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    T. E. Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este material tiene como objetivo abundar acerca de aquellos factores del manejo que conduzcan a estabilizar la producción de biomasa en sistemas ganaderos en el trópico. Es obvio que los sistemas mejorados y bien manejados de pasturas de gramíneas y leguminosas, en cualquiera de sus alternativas, son opciones para lograr la sostenibilidad. Una concepción más amplia y profunda es la relativa a los estudios de pasturas mixtas; éstos, deben tener un enfoque más biológico por lo que, además de considerar el ambiente en el cual se desarrollan y crecen, hay que incluir la forma en que los componentes vegetales se manifiestan en las especies implicadas del agroecosistema. Aquí no podemos olvidar el efecto del animal. Los problemas asociados con la persistencia se reconocen cada vez más como una preocupación real. Los diversos factores que controlan la permanencia de las especies forrajeras se agrupan en aquellos que pueden ser manejados y controlados por el productor, así como en los que éste no puede intervenir. Es por ello que las producciones animales y de otro tipo, derivados de estos sistemas, varían positivamente en el tiempo, en la medida en que se va consolidando la relación suelo /planta /animal. De esta correspondencia no puede quedar excluido el papel interactuante y modificador del hombre con los elementos antes señalados. La producción de biomasa es una actividad multidisciplinaria; de ahí que el éxito de su funcionamiento esté condicionado al conocimiento de las interacciones entre sus componentes, así como entre éstos y el medio ambiente, lo cual permitirá la generación de estrategias de manejo acordes con la ecología que conduzcan a mejorar la productividad y la sostenibilidad del agroecosistema. Por tanto, la producción de biomasa constituye un elemento determinante en el éxito y la eficiencia de los sistemas con leguminosas.

  16. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  17. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

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    Priscila Praxedes-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50∘C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO− or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+. It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

  18. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima: incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

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    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and the control was immersed in sterile water. For the germination test, 200 seeds were used, distributed in four replicates of 50 seeds per treatment. The vigor tests consisted of the first count and germination speed index. The evaluation of fungi transmission were performed during the germination test, by counting the symptoms in the primary root, hypocotyl and epicotyl. The treatments reduced the incidence of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. Nigrospora sp and Pestalotiasp..It was also found the fungus Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. associated with the lesions in the seed integument. The treatments provided a higher percentage of germination of seedlings. Higher percentages of germination were observed when oil extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum vulgare were used.

  19. ANATOMÍA, FÍSICA Y MECÁNICA DE LA MADERA DE Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae

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    C. Téllez-Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se determinaron las características anatómicas y las propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera de Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae. El material de estudio se obtuvo de un sólo árbol colectado en el municipio de Arteaga, Michoacán, México. La descripción anatómica se basó en las recomendaciones de IAWA. Las propiedades físicas y mecánicas se efectuaron de acuerdo a la norma D 143-94 de la ASTM. La madera de A. inermis presenta brillo mediano, vetado pronunciado, textura media, hilo entrecruzado, porosidad difusa y pared celular muy gruesa. La densidad básica es muy alta y la contracción media. El ELP, MOR y MOE es alto, extremadamente alto y medio, respectivamente, en flexión estática. En compresión paralela a la fibra su ELP es alto, MOR extremadamente alto. ELP muy alto en compresión perpendicular a la fibra. Dureza Janka muy alta.

  20. Insect herbivores associated with an evergreen tree Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J O; Neves, F S

    2014-08-01

    Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem.

  1. Dieta consumida por bovinos em pastagens cultivadas e consorciadas com leguminosas, estabelecidas com e sem queima da vegetação secundária

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    Andrea Krystina Vinente Guimaraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição botânica da dieta em pastagens de capim marandú (B. brizantha e capim quicuio (B. humidicola consorciadas com leguminosas, em dois métodos de preparo de área: com e sem queima. Foram testadas três pastagens para cada experimento: 1. QB - B. humidicola + B. brizantha cv. Marandu. 2. QBAL - B. humidicola + B. brizantha consorciada com A. pintoi cv. Amarilo + L. leucocephala cv. Cunninghan. 3. QBAC - B. humidicola + B. brizantha consorciada com A. pintoi cv. Amarilo + C. Argentea (Cratylia. A composição botânica foi determinada usando a técnica da análise microhistologica de fezes. As coletas de fezes foram realizadas a cada dezoito dias.  O consumo de quicuio e de espécies da capoeira foram superiores na época seca e de braquiarão, na chuvosa. As percentagens de quicuio foram superiores no método com queima, as de braquiarão, no método mulch. As percentagens de braquiarão foram superiores nas pastagens de QB e QBAL e as de leguminosas, nas pastagens consorciadas com leguminosas. Foram encontradas 14 famílias e 23 espécies. O método de preparo de área infuenciou a composição botânica da dieta. As espécies da capoeira tiveram pequena participação na composição botânica da dieta dos animais.

  2. Estudos morfoanatômicos da semente e da plântula de espécies de Anileiras (Indigofera L., Leguminosae Morpho-anatomical studies of seeds and seedlings of wild indigo, "anileira", Indigofera- Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Villela Paulino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O nome popular "anileira" designa Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. e I. truxillensis Kunth, muito semelhantes quanto à morfologia externa. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar se caracteres da semente e plântula apresentavam valor diagnóstico para este grupo, já que tais caracteres têm sido muito utilizados na Taxonomia de Leguminosae. A superfície e morfoanatomia de sementes e cotilédones foram estudadas por microscopias eletrônica de varredura e de luz, e as etapas do desenvolvimento das plântulas descritas. Embora as plântulas sejam semelhantes, caracteres de sementes (tamanho, forma, ornamentação da superfície, forma do hilo e tamanho do embrião e cotilédones (forma, organização do parênquima lacunoso na nervura central e distribuição de metabólitos nos tecidos apresentaram valor diagnóstico para as espécies. I. anil distingue-se de I. suffruticosa por suas sementes maiores e cotilédones com borda acuminada. I. truxillensis caracteriza-se por apresentar sementes cilíndricas e cotilédones reniformes contendo gotas de óleo e alcalóides. Nossos dados, a morfologia externa dos frutos (curvos em I. anil e I. suffruticosa, e retos em I. truxillensis e, ainda, a anatomia foliar (células parenquimáticas grandes e fenólicas no floema de I. suffruticosa e sua ausência em I. anil sugerem que I. anil, I. suffruticosa e I. truxillensis não devem ser sinonimizadas.The common name "wild indigo" specifies Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. (legitimate name and I. truxillensis Kunth (legitimate name that are very similar due to their external morphology. This work analyzed diagnostic characteristics of seeds and seedlings of these species since such features are widely used in taxonomic approaches within Leguminosae. We studied surface features and morpho-anatomy of seeds and cotyledons with scanning electronic microscopy and light microscopy, and described seedling phases. Although seedlings are similar

  3. Diferenças no padrão da atividade alelopática em espécies da família Leguminosae Differences in allelopathic activity patterns in Leguminosae

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    M. Mourão Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As inúmeras espécies de plantas que compõem a floresta amazônica podem representar excelente alternativa para fazer frente ao desafio de desenvolver a agricultura conforme as exigências da sociedade. Neste trabalho, procurou-se determinar e caracterizar o padrão de atividade alelopática em espécies da família Leguminosae, em função de variações de espécies, fonte de extratos e sensibilidade da planta receptora. Bioensaios de germinação de sementes e alongamento da radícula e do hipocótilo foram desenvolvidos em condições controladas. Os resultados indicam que as espécies estudadas não apresentaram padrão semelhante no tocante aos efeitos potenciais alelopáticos, havendo, entretanto, hierarquização no tocante à intensidade dos efeitos globais, sendo o potencial alelopático inibitório mais amplo e efetivo nas espécies Bauhinia guianensis, Bowdichia virgiloides, Parkia pendula e Platimenia reticulata. O potencial alelopático foi efetivo e mais restrito em Bauhinia macrostachya. O fator fração das plantas revelou diferenciação no padrão de atividade: para a maioria das espécies, as folhas foram a principal fonte de aleloquímicos, e para Bauhinia macrostachya e Inga edulis, a raiz. Em termos de padrão de respostas das espécies receptoras, o alongamento da radícula é mais sensível aos efeitos dos extratos, ficando o alongamento do hipocótilo como o de menor sensibilidade. Os efeitos dos extratos foram mais intensos sobre Mimosa pudica. Esses resultados também atribuem à floresta amazônica importância como fonte de compostos químicos de interesse para o homem, o que, em si, justifica sua preservação.Innumerous plant species in the Amazon forest may be an excellent alternative to meet society's demand for natural products. This work aimed to determine and characterize the pattern of allelopathic activity in species of the Leguminosae family, according to species variation, extract source, and receptor

  4. Changes in soluble carbohydrates during storage of Caesalpinia echinata LAM. (Brazilwood seeds, an endangered leguminous tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    I. S. Garcia

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata seeds stored in laboratory environmental conditions lose their viability in one month whilst under low temperatures germination is maintained for 18 months of storage. These seeds are tolerant to desiccation, keeping their viability up to 0.08 gH2O.gDW-1. Since soluble carbohydrates are believed to be involved with desiccation tolerance and seed storability, the aim of this work is to analyze the content and composition of soluble carbohydrates in C. echinata seeds during storage in paper bags (PB and glass flasks (GF at laboratory room (RT and cool (CT temperatures. In freshly harvested seeds, total soluble carbohydrates comprised approximately 10% of the dry weight, decreasing to ca. 8% over 18 months of storage at RT. In seeds stored at CT, sugars varied differently decreasing initially and being restored at the end of the analysis period. The main neutral sugars in seeds from all treatments were sucrose, fructose and glucose. Raffinose and stachyose were present as traces. Free myo-inositol and other cyclitols were also detected. The main tendency observed was the variation in levels of both glucose and fructose in relation to sucrose, the highest levels of monosaccharides which were found in seeds stored at CT. The values of glucose and fructose were practically constant in seeds stored in paper bags for 18 months at CT, decreasing consistently in the other treatments, mainly at RT. Sucrose contents remained relatively stable. Changes in soluble sugars during storage suggest that the loss of germinability of seeds of C. echinata could be associated with low levels of glucose and fructose in relation to sucrose.

  5. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

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    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  6. Producción y valor nutricional del cultivo de morera (Morus alba L. con intercalamiento de leguminosas

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    María Judith Delgado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las principales preocupaciones en la alimentación animal es la búsqueda de alternativas rentables para el productor y eficientes desde el punto de vista nutricional para los animales. Para que el volumen de la producción de estos alimentos sea el adecuado, se han utilizado prácticas como las planteadas en la revolución verde, que incluyen el uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados químicos, lo que ha traído secuelas negativas sobre el medioambiente. En la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas nutricionales se encontraron algunos forrajes, como la morera (Morus alba L., que tiene un alto nivel de proteína, entre otras propiedades nutricionales; pero, alternativas nutricionales como ésta requieren fertilización nitrogenada en elevadas cantidades.Con el interés de generar alternativas amigables con el medioambiente y que además logren mantener o incrementar el volumen de producción y el valor nutricional de la morera, surgió la idea de estudiar la intersiembra de este arbusto con leguminosas, como arveja (Pisum sativum L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L y fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., analizando variables nutricionales y parámetros de crecimiento del cultivo de morera. Además, se trabajó con un grupo de fertilización nitrogenada y un grupo de control (sin modificación alguna del cultivo. Al finalizar el estudio se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0.05 para la mayoría de parámetros, exceptuando la variable altura, que no presentó diferencias importantes (p>0.05.

  7. Emergencia y desarrollo inicial de cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Maribel Ramírez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos, así como las características morfológicas de las plántulas emergidas en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas: lara ruidosa (Albizia lebbeck, cují (Prosopis juliflora, samán (Samanea saman y carocaro (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron: escarificación con lija (EL, remojo en agua (RA e inmersión en agua caliente (IAC, en semillas con distintos tiempos de almacenamiento (TA. Se evaluó el porcentaje de emergencia (PE, la tasa de emergencia (TE, la altura de la plántula (AP, el largo de la raíz (LR, el número de hojas (NH, el número de nudos (NN y el grosor del tallo (GT. En lara ruidosa el tiempo del RA y la interacción entre la EL y la IAC presentaron diferencias significativas en el PE. En las semillas de cují, los efectos individuales del TA, el RA y la IAC mostraron diferencias en el PE. La EL influyó en el PE de las semillas de cují sin artejo, y en las de carocaro y samán. Se concluye que la EL en las semillas de lara ruidosa, cují sin artejo, carocaro y samán; así como la utilización de semillas de cují con artejo frescas o almacenadas durante tres meses y tratadas con agua caliente por cinco minutos permitieron incrementar la emergencia. Las plántulas mostraron un desarrollo normal y homogéneo.

  8. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae

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    James A Nicholls

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia. Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a subset of 60 loci in a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories in the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  9. MORFOLOGIA DO FRUTO E DA SEMENTE DE TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE Senna Mill. (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINIOIDEAE

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    Ely Simone Cajueiro Gurgel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O fruto característico de Leguminosae é o legume, entretanto há uma variabilidade de tipos na família. Este estudo objetivou descrever a morfologia dos frutos e das sementes de Senna obtusifolia (L. H.S.Irwin & Barneby, S. occidentalis (L. Link. e S. tapajozensis (Ducke H.S.Irwin & Barneby. Retirou-se, aleatoriamente, uma amostra constituída de 25 frutos e 25 sementes para a descrição. Dos frutos, registrou-se a morfologia geral, a classificação, a coloração, a textura, a consistência e o indumento do pericarpo. Os caracteres morfológicos das sementes analisadas foram: a externos: consistência, cor e textura da testa, forma das sementes, posição e forma do hilo e da micrópila; b internos: testa; endosperma; embrião quanto ao tipo; forma e cor. As espécies estudadas apresentaram frutos do tipo legume ou folículo, de forma linear e largamente linear, pericarpo seco, cartáceo e sublenhoso, glabro a olho nu, em tons castanhos. Semente obovada, suborbicular, elipsoidal com um lado reto ou irregularmente rômbico, testa em tons castanhos ou acinzentados, pleurograma completo, quando presente, hilo punctiforme e orbicular, embrião axial, foliáceo, eixo embrionário reto e oblíquo, plúmula rudimentar. As características do indumento do pericarpo e pleurograma possibilitaram a separação das espécies estudadas. Palavras-chave: Senna obtusifolia, S. occidentalis, S. tapajozensis, Cassieae, Cassiinae. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p80-86

  10. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir (Leguminosae.

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    Mariluze P Cruz

    Full Text Available The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret (Leguminosae family, popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test; and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test. Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8, with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg, in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg, and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg. EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg, reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg, respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B and anti-inflammation (H, D, E. Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg. Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  11. Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications.

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    Lin, Yanxiang; Wong, William Oki; Shi, Gongle; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2015-11-16

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the pantropical genus Bauhinia L. s.l. (Bauhiniinae, Cercideae, Leguminosae) is paraphyletic and may as well be subdivided into nine genera, including Bauhinia L. s.s. and its allies. Their leaves are usually characteristic bilobate and are thus easily recognized in the fossil record. This provides the opportunity to understand the early evolution, diversification, and biogeographic history of orchid trees from an historical perspective under the framework of morphological and molecular studies. The taxonomy, distribution, and leaf architecture of Bauhinia and its allies across the world are summarized in detail, which formed the basis for classifying the bilobate leaf fossils and evaluating the fossil record and biogeography of Bauhinia. Two species of Bauhinia are described from the middle Miocene Fotan Group of Fujian Province, southeastern China. Bauhinia ungulatoides sp. nov. is characterized by shallowly to moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with shallowly cordate bases and acute apices on each lobe, as well as paracytic stomatal complexes. Bauhinia fotana F.M.B. Jacques et al. emend. possesses moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with moderately to deeply cordate bases and acute or slightly obtuse apices on each lobe. Bilobate leaf fossils Bauhinia ungulatoides and B. fotana together with other late Paleogene - early Neogene Chinese record of the genus suggest that Bauhinia had been diverse in South China by the late Paleogene. Their great similarities to some species from South America and South Asia respectively imply that Bauhinia might have undergone extensive dispersals and diversification during or before the Miocene. The fossil record, extant species diversity, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Bauhiniinae might have originated in the Paleogene of low-latitudes along the eastern Tethys Seaway. They dispersed southwards into Africa, migrated from Eurasia to

  12. Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling

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    Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

    2012-01-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different

  13. Caracterización fisicoquímica de los aceites crudos de algunas semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sonoran desert has a great variety of nutritional native plants, mainly from the leguminous family. Although in ancient times their products were used as food by native Americans, there is little information about their potential as a food source. For this reason, oils from the following seeds were studied: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro and Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Oils were extracted from the seeds with hexane, and contents ranged from 8.5 to 23.5 %. The physicochemical studies showed mostly unsaturated oils, as demonstrated by the iodine index, (101-147 units. Indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acids were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids were separated and quantified by gas chromatography. Linoleic and oleic acids were found to predominate. All extracted crude oils were of good quality, comparable to those from soybean, com, sunflower and carthamus.

    El desierto de Sonora cuenta con una gran variedad de plantas silvestres principalmente de la familia leguminosae de las cuales se tiene poca información acerca de su potencial como fuente nutricional. Por lo que se estudiaron los aceites de las semillas: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro y Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Los aceites de cada semilla se extrajeron con hexano, obteniéndose de 8.5 a 23.5 %. Estos mostraron un alto grado de insaturación reflejado en los índices de lodo, de 101 a 147. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos y dentro de los valores aceptables. Al cuantificar los ácidos grasos por

  14. Interacción micorriza vesiculo-arbuscular, Rhizobium leguminosa en un oxisol de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

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    Satizabal E. Jorge H.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available En los dos primeros trabajos (la y lb, se evaluó la interacción entre cepas seleccionadas de Rhizobium (apropiadas para la leguminosa forrajera tropical Centrosema macrocarpum y especies (Entrophospora colombiana, Acaulospora longula, Glomus manihotis de micorriza vesiculo arbuscular (MVA, en un suelo esterilizado, fijador de P. Los experimentos se diferenciaron por las fuentes de P utilizadas. Por su mayor producción de materia seca, absorción de minerales, nodulación y infección por MVA, se destacaron las plantas inoculadas con cuales quiera de las cepas de FIlizobiumy Glomus manihotis (Experimento la o Acaulospora longula (Experimento lb. En la tercera investigación (Experimento II, se evalúo en Centrosema la interacción MVA, Rhizobiumo N-químico (niveles equivalentes a 0, 30,55, 105,0 + Rhiz. y 30 + Rhiz. kg N ha-1 y dosis de P (0, 20, 40 y 80 kg ha-1. Es aconsejable aplicar pequeñas dosis (30 kg ha-1 de N al momento de la siembra e inocular con Rhizobium. Plantas inoculadas con MVA presentaron su óptimo crecimiento con 40 kg P ha-1. Dosis de 80 kg P ha-1 favoreció la eficiencia de la bacteria más no la del hongo.In the first two works (la and lb we evaluated the interation between selected stumps of Rhizobium (appropiate for the tropical forage legumes Centrosema macrocarpum and species (Entrophospora colombiana, Acaulospora longula, Glomus manihotis of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (MVA, in a sterelize soil fixer of P. The two experiments are different because we used different P sources. For the best production of dry matter, absorption of minerals, nodulation and infection for MVA; rebounded the plants with the inoculation with any of the Rhizobium´s stumps and Glomus manihotis (Experiment la of Acaulospora longula (Experiment lb. In the third investigation (Experiment II we evaluated in Centrosema the interaction MVA. Rhizobium and chemical N (levels equivalent to 0,30. 55, 105, O + Rhizobium and 30 + Rhizobium kg N ha

  15. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE FRUTOS, SEMENTES, PLÂNTULAS E MUDAS DE PAU-BRASIL (Caesalpinia echinataLAMARCK1

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    Robério Anastacio Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEstudos relacionados à morfologia vegetal com espécies florestais nativas têm sido ampliados nos últimos anos, em face da sua importância sob os aspectos taxonômicos ou por serem de grande utilidade na identificação de frutos, sementes, plântulas e mudas, em laboratórios de análises de sementes, em viveiros de produção de mudas ou em estudos que avaliem a regeneração natural em ecossistemas florestais. Porém, diante da grande diversidade de espécies, ainda não é possível encontrar informações suficientes para subsidiar tais estudos e nem coleções em herbários para um grande número de espécies nativas. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar morfologicamente frutos, sementes, plântulas e mudas de pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. – Fabaceae, Subfamília Caesalpinioideae. Foram realizadas, inicialmente, avaliações das características morfométricas e morfológicas externas e internas dos frutos e sementes. Em seguida, foram realizadas descrições do desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas e mudas. Considerando-se as análises descritivas da espécie, as informações de frutos, sementes, plântulas e mudas podem ser empregadas com segurança em trabalhos de identificação das espécies, tanto em trabalhos de laboratórios e viveiros quanto em estudos de campo sobre a ecologia dessa espécie. Especial atenção pode ser dada ao fruto legume seco, ao embrião, à germinação epígea fanerocotiledonar e à presença de acúleos nas fases jovens (plântulas e mudas, que são importantes para a identificação da espécie. Os caracteres que são comuns a outras espécies de Fabaceae, da Subfamília Caesalpinioideae, corroboram o caráter taxonômico dos aspectos morfológicos.

  16. Bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes utilizadas como coberturas vivas Banana plants intercropped with perennial herbaceous legumes used as living mulches

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    José Antonio Azevedo Espindola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de bananeiras consorciadas com as leguminosas herbáceas perenes - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. Os tratamentos-controle consistiram em vegetação espontânea com predomínio de Panicum maximum, e vegetação espontânea com adubação nitrogenada das bananeiras. Também foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras. Entre as coberturas avaliadas, a vegetação espontânea e o cudzu tropical apresentaram produções maiores de biomassa; o cudzu tropical proporcionou valores maiores para quantidades de N acumulado e derivado da fixação biológica. As leguminosas amendoim forrageiro, cudzu tropical e siratro proporcionaram desenvolvimento vegetativo mais rápido nas bananeiras consorciadas. Cudzu tropical e siratro promoveram maiores valores de peso dos cachos e das pencas. O uso das leguminosas avaliadas resulta em aumento da porcentagem de cachos colhidos e redução do tempo de colheita, além de proporcionar maior produtividade, quando comparado ao uso de vegetação espontânea.The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of banana plants intercropped with the perennial herbaceous legumes forage groundnut (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. The control treatments were spontaneous vegetation (mainly Panicum maximum and spontaneous vegetation plus nitrogen fertilizer application to banana plants. The vegetative growth of banana plants was also evaluated. Among the treatments, spontaneous vegetation and tropical kudzu promoted the highest dry matter productions; tropical kudzu had the highest amounts of accumulated and fixed N. Forage groundnut, tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the fastest vegetative growth for banana plants in this intercropped system. Tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the highest values for bunch weight and

  17. Differences between the composting process of the bovine manure mixture-leguminosae waste with and without stabilizing agent; Diferencias en el proceso de compostaje de estiercol de vacuno-residuo de leguminosa con y sin la aplicacion de un agente estabilizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo Monge, M. A.; Lopez Robles, J.; Gonzalez Carcedo, S.; Johson Troeth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate the differences in the compost process of the bovine manure mixture leguminosae waste with and without the application of a stabilizing agent (CaCO3), in two periods of the year. The physical-chemistry, chemical and microbiological parameters, were measured during the different stages of the process. this work has shown that the technique was economical and a solution environmentally acceptable for the treatment of these residuals. We achieved a product with a better C/N ratio, in shorter time and with a better content in organic and nutrition matter. (Author) 42 refs.

  18. Oxidation and N-alkylation of galactomannan extracted from Caesalpinia ferrea var. ferrea seeds;Oxidacao e N-alquilacao de galactomanana de sementes de Caesalpina ferrea var. ferrea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Clayton F. de; Lucyszyn, Neoli; Ferraz, Fernando A.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita, E-mail: clayton@quimica.ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was the synthesis and characterization of carboxyl (polyelectrolyte, GMPFOXT) and amino alkylate (amphiphilic, GMPFOXD) derivatives of the galactomannan extracted from the seeds of native specie Pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea - GMPF). The derivatives were obtained by selective modification of GMPF at C-6 in the presence of TEMPO reagent (N-oxil-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine) and dodecylamine showed high yields (approx 77 and 94% for GMPFOXT and GMPFOXD, respectively). The characteristics of the derivatives were confirmed by spectroscopic techniques of FTIR and {sup 13}C-NMR. By gel permeation chromatography (GPC), was observed a decrease of molar mass values and increase in polydispersity after derivatization, indicating change in the aggregation state in solution, caused by modification on the superficial structure. The development of these products can expand the use of them in different areas such as cosmetics and pharmaceutics, among others. (author)

  19. Crotalaria incana l. and leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): toxicity indicator species of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil; Crotalaria incana l. y leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): especies indicadoras de toxicidad por hidrocarburos de petroleo en el suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Luna, Dinora; Castellan Estrada, Mepivoseth; Rivera Cruz, Maria del C.; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I.; Izquierdo R., Francisco [Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: dinovaz@colpos.mx

    2010-07-01

    This study assesses the toxic effects produced by a Gleysol molic soil contaminated with crude oil on seedlings of two species of legumes. A phytotoxic impact index (IIF) was generated, which includes five parameters measured by relative rates of impact (IRIF{sub (x)}) for variables; emergency, height, root length, aboveground biomass and root biomass. Bioassays were conducted under a completely randomized design with three replications under semi-controlled conditions, to assess the sensitivity of Leucaena leucocephala and Crotalaria incana at different concentrations of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons). Effects were highly significant (P {<=} 0.01) with increasing concentrations of HTP in substrate. The emergence of L. leucocephala was 29 % lower with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} HTP, while C. incana decreased 30 % with 32 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH respect to control. Both species showed a five-day delay in the emergence of seedlings when exposed to high levels of TPH. A significant decrease in the accumulation of dry matter (DM) at concentrations above 20 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH was observed in both species. The respective IIF declined of 50 % with 80 000 and 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH, but L. leucocephala had no significant effect with 10 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. Finally, the EC50 in L. leucocephala, is presented with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH whereas in C. incana this parameter is noted from 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. [Spanish] En este estudio se evaluaron los efectos toxicos que produce un suelo Gleysol molico contaminado con petroleo crudo, sobre plantulas de dos especies de leguminosas. Para ello se genero un indice de impacto fitotoxico (IIF) que integra cinco parametros, medidos a traves de indices relativos de impacto (IRIF{sub (x)}) para las variables emergencia, altura, longitud radicular, biomasa aerea y biomasa radicular. Los bioensayos se realizaron bajo un diseno completamente al azar, con tres repeticiones, en condiciones semicontroladas, para evaluar la sensibilidad de

  20. Sobre las causas ontogénicas de la productividad diferencial de semillas en la especie anficárpica Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae On the causes of the differential seed production in the anficarpic species Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Speroni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium polymorphum es una leguminosa de pradera con buena adaptación y persistencia en este tipo de vegetación. Combina diferentes estrategias reproductivas como la reproducción vegetativa por estolones y la reproducción por semillas producidas en dos tipos de frutos y flores, subterráneas y aéreas. Las subterráneas son cleistógamas y las aéreas son casmógamas. Empíricamente se ha detectado mayor formación de semillas en los frutos subterráneos que en los aéreos. En el presente trabajo se realizan estudios embriológicos y de desarrollo de semillas en ambos tipos de flores para dilucidar si existen causas ontogenéticas que determinan la productividad diferencial de semillas en ambos tipos de frutos. No se detectaron causas embriológicas pre-cigóticas que expliquen el menor número de semillas en los frutos de las flores aéreas. Ambos tipos de semillas comparten características ontogenéticas y presentan apropiado desarrollo de los óvulos, sacos embrionarios y establecimiento de vías nutricionales para saco embrionario, embrión y endosperma. En general las floraciones insumen un costo energético importante para las especies vegetales. La floración aérea de T. polymorphum, aunque sometida a una fuerte presión de herbivoría del ganado, incorpora variabilidad genética a sus poblaciones a través de la polinización cruzada y permite la dispersión a distancia.Trifolium polymorphum is recognized as one of the best adapted legume in field conditions. It combines different reproductive strategies such as stoloniferous vegetative reproduction and seed reproduction by two types of fruits produced in underground and aerial flowers. These last ones are chasmogamous and underground flowers are cleistogamous. A higher seed production has empirically been detected in underground flowers rather than in aerial ones. In the present work, embryological studies in aerial and underground flowers were carried out in order to determine

  1. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  2. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Terra Werner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A regulação da calogênese é o primeiro passo para a embriogênese somática indireta in vitro. Nesse sentido, foram investigados os efeitos de diferentes meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes nitrogenadas no desenvolvimento de calos em tecidos foliares de Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil. Explantes foliares foram cultivados em meios de cultura MS, B5, White e WPM. Testou-se, também, o efeito dos compostos nitrogenados (NH4NO3, KNO3 e glutamina e a interação entre auxinas (2,4-D, AIA e AIB e citocininas (BAP e KIN na desdiferenciação celular indicado pela formação de calos. Os meios MS, B5 e White não foram significantemente diferentes e proporcionaram melhores resultados. Em meio MS contendo as fontes nitrogenadas 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 e 1,35 g L-1 glutamina + 4,11 g L-1 de KNO3 na presença de 1,0 mg L-1 2,4-D e 5,0 mg L-1 BAP ocorreu maior proliferação celular indicada pela massa fresca dos calos. As combinações dos reguladores 0,5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 AIB + 5,0 mg L-1 BAP suplementado com 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 em meio MS estimularam o crescimento dos calos. De maneira geral, os calos apresentaram aspectos friáveis, não embriogênicos, com acúmulo de fenóis e presença de áreas meristemáticas (meristemóides.The regulation of callus formation is the first step to indirect somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Therefore, we investigated hormonal and nutrient factors on development of callus in leaf tissues of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood. Explants were cultivated in culture media MS, B5, WPM, and White. The effect of nitrogen sources (NH4NO3, KNO3 and glutamine and the interaction between auxins (2,4-D, IAA and IBA and cytokinins (BAP and KIN were also evaluated. Media MS, B5 and White were not significantly different and provided better results. MS medium containing 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3, 1.35 g L-1 glutamine, and 4.11 g L-1 of KNO3 in the presence of 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D and 5 mg.L-1 BAP increased cellular

  3. Enraizamento de estacas de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tratadas com ácido indol butírico e ácido naftaleno acético Rooting cuttings of Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. treated with indole butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurício Endres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tem grande valor cultural no Brasil e a sua propagação por sementes é dificultada pela rápida perda do poder germinativo delas. A estaquia pode ser usada para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais, principalmente quando existem algumas dificuldades de propagação por sementes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o efeito de concentrações e fontes de auxinas sobre o enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil. Estacas com cerca de 12cm de comprimento e de um a dois pares de folhas foram tratadas na base com ácido indol butírico (AIB, ácido naftaleno acético (ANA na forma líquida ou na forma de pó nas concentrações de 0, 1.250, 2.500, 5.000, 10.000mg L-1 ou mg Kg-1, respectivamente. As estacas foram transferidas para substrato contendo areia e mantidas sob nebulização (90-95% UR. Aos 120 dias de estaquia, foram avaliados a mortalidade, a retenção foliar, a formação de calo e a percentagem de estacas enraizadas. As estacas apresentaram índices de sobrevivência de até 70%. A formação de calos não foi relacionada com a concentração de auxinas utilizadas. O maior índice de enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil, em torno de 16%, foi resgistrada com a utilização do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e do ácido naftalenoacético (ANA na concentração 2.500mg L-1. Os altos índices de sobrevivência e os baixos índices de enraizamento sugerem que as estacas devem permanecer por mais tempo sob nebulização, a fim de induzir o seu processo de enraizamento.The 'pau-brasil' tree (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. have a high cultural value in Brazil and its seed propagation is very difficult because of its rapid losses of germination potential. Cuttings propagation has been considered as alternative method to propagate forest species that seed propagation is poor. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthalene acetic (NAA acid on

  4. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  5. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.

  6. EVALUACIÓN DE TRES LEGUMINOSAS COMO COBERTURAS ASOCIADAS CON MAÍZ EN EL TRÓPICO SUBHÚMEDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Bernardino Castillo-Caamal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el potencia l de tres leguminosas como coberturas para mejorar el sistema de producción de maíz. Se evaluaron cuatro tratamie ntos: 1 maíz solo; 2 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo corto de semilla blanca 3 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo largo de semilla blanca y 4 maíz y frijol terciopelo (Mucuna sp. en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas, durante cuatro ciclos de cultivo (1999-2002 en Yucatán, México. Se midió la biomasa de cultivos, pH, N total, mineralización potencia l anaerobia del nitrógeno, evolución del CO 2, potasio (K, fósforo (P y materia orgánica del suelo, biomasa y frecuencia de arvenses. La cantidad de rastrojo en los tratamie ntos con leguminosas fue: 3436, 3425 y 4018 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer año, respectivamente. El nitrógeno aportado por los rastrojos al maíz fue 25,8; 31,9; 52,8 y 43,4 kg/ha para los tratamie ntos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente. El rendimie nto de grano de maíz fue en promedio 841, 843 y 460 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer ciclo, respectivamente; sin diferencias entre tratamie ntos. En el tercer ciclo, el frijol terciopelo disminuyó la biomasa de arvenses de 126 a 58 g MS /m2. Las coberturas ejercieron poca influencia en las variables de suelo y rendimie nto de grano de maíz.

  7. Leguminosas nuevas de Colombia

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    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se ocupa de tres nuevas especies del género Inga, dos de las cuales presentan caracteres muy notables en el género. La gentileza del doctor E. P. Killip, del Museo Nacional de los Estados Unidos, me permite incluir aquí una nueva especie del genero Machaerium; descrita por el y tipificada en un ejemplar colectado por mi en la región de Urabá.

  8. (Sw) DC (Leguminosae) pods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African ... Since the discovery of terpenes, more than 150 years ago ... anticancer drug discovery. .... (Agricultural Research Service/USDA) [17].

  9. Simultaneous determination of brazilin and protosappanin B in Caesalpinia sappan by ionic-liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction method combined with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhaoyang; Li, Dongdong; Li, Qing; Zhang, Yan; Kang, Wenyi

    2017-11-13

    The conditions of heating, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction combined with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography were optimized to simultaneously isolate and determinate brazilin and protosappanin B in Caesalpinia sappan. Ionic liquids, including [BMIM]Br, [BMIM]BF 4 , [BMIM]PF 6 and [HMIM]PF 6 , were selected as extraction solvents while methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol and water were selected as dispersants. The chromatographic column was Purospher star RP-C 18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), a mixture of methanol and 0.2% phosphoric acid-water was used as mobile phase at a flow rate 0.65 mL/min. The result displayed that the extraction yields of brazilin and protosappanin B were highest when the concentration of [BMIM]Br methanol solution as extraction solvent was 0.5 mol/L and the solid-liquid ratio was 1:50 (g/mL). Under the optimal extraction conditions, the contents of brazilin showed a good linearity (r = 1.0000) within the range of 1.25-7.50 μg with the average recovery of 99.33%, the contents of protosappanin B also showed a good linearity (r = 0.9999) within the range of 0.50-3.00 μg with the average recovery of 98.31%. This experiment, which adopted environmentally friendly reagent as extraction solvent, not only improved the extraction efficiency, but also avoided the environmental pollution caused by organic solvent. Moreover, it was simple and reliable, and can be of important significance in the study of Traditional Chinese Medicine active ingredient extraction methods. The antibacterial activities of the ionic liquids and methanol extracts were determined using the paper disc diffusion method. The ionic liquid extract was found to possess antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC value of 37.5 mg crude drug/mL), β-Lactamase producing S. aureus (MIC values of 18.8 mg crude drug/mL), but not against E. coli, Extended spectrum β-Lactamases E. coli

  10. Cultivo de milho no sistema de aléias com leguminosas perenes Maize crop in alley cropping system with perennials legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de algumas leguminosas perenes no teor foliar de N, P e K e na produtividade da cultura do milho (UENF 506-8, cultivado no sistema de aléias, sem adubação fosfatada. Foram realizados experimentos de campo por dois ciclos de cultivo, no Campo Experimental do CCTA/UENF, em Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram no sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. e duas testemunhas com milho solteiro (com e sem NPK. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, essas foram podadas, o material foi incorporado ao solo e em seguida semeado o milho nas entrelinhas, com espaçamento de 80 cm entre fileiras. Após 60 dias da semeadura do milho efetuou-se nova poda. No segundo ciclo de cultivo, as práticas culturais foram similares às do primeiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Nas aléias de guandu, observou-se milho com maior teor foliar de N, em relação às demais leguminosas, no primeiro ciclo de cultivo. No segundo ciclo, os consórcios milho+guandu, milho+gliricídia e milho solteiro adubado superaram os demais na produtividade de grãos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of perennials legumes, in N, P and K foliar concentration and maize productivity in alley cropping system, without phosphorus fertilization. Field experiments were carried out for two cycles, with legumes intercropping maize (UENF 506-8 in Field Research CCTA/UENF in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the species: Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia

  11. Regionalización y relaciones biogeográficas de la Península de Yucatán con base en los patrones de distribución de la familia Leguminosae The biogeographical regions and relationship of the Yucatán Peninsula based on distribution patterns of the Leguminosae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Duno-de Stefano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución geográfica de 224 especies de leguminosas nativas de la Península de Yucatán (México en 48 unidades geográficas operativas (0.5° de latitud y 0.5 ° longitud. Las relaciones biogeográficas regionales se determinaron utilizando información de las leguminosas de 12 áreas de América Central, América del Norte, América del Sur y las Antillas. Se emplearon 3 métodos de análisis: coeficiente de Jaccard, análisis de parsimonia (PAE y un análisis de patrones generales de distribución, como una visualización general de los trazos individuales de Croizat. También se revisaron filogenias de algunos géneros de leguminosas para determinar patrones de evolución geográfica. La mayor riqueza de especies encontrada al sur de la península se asocia con el gradiente climático en sentido norte-sur. Los resultados indican que esta área se puede dividir en 2 áreas biogeográficas (distritos: una franja septentrional y una franja meridional y al menos 5 subdistritos. Los análisis de parsimonia (PAE y los patrones generales de distribución son congruentes con los análisis de similitud. Todos los resultados sugieren que la Península de Yucatán presenta la mayor afinidad con América Central, y le sigue América del Norte, América del Sur y finalmente las Antillas, mientras que el elemento endémico representa el 6.7 %.In order to assess biogeographical relationship of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, it was divided in 48 operational geographic units of 0.5 ° latitude and longitude and the distribution patterns of 224 native species of the family Leguminosae were analyzed. Biogeographic relations were determined comparing our results with legumes information of 12 neighboring areas of Central, North and South America, and the Caribbean. Three methodologies were used to analyze the information: the Jaccard's similarity coefficient, parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE, and a simple comparison of

  12. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  13. Contribuição ao conhecimento morfológico das espécies de leguminosae comercializadas no estado do Pará, como "angelim" Contribution to the morphologic knowledge of the species of leguminosae in the state of Pará, traded as "angelim"

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    Gracialda Costa Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas como "angelim", no estado do Pará, foram analisadas quanto aos aspectos morfológicos dos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos. Este estudo visou determinar diferenças básicas entre as espécies comercializadas com esta denominação vernacular, a fim de auxiliar no processo de identificação taxonômica das mesmas. Foi elaborada uma chave dicotômica para separar as espécies estudadas (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum e Vatairea paraensis. As principais características utilizadas no campo, para separação das espécies estudadas, foram folha, folíolo, casca e tronco, porém, espécies de Andira, Hymenolobium e Vatairea, por apresentarem-se desprovidas de folhas no período fértil, necessitam de dados dos órgãos reprodutivos.The morphology of vegetative and reproductive structures of seven species of Leguminosae traded as "angelim" in the State of Pará were analyzed. This study sought to determine the basic differences between the species traded under the same vernacular name, in order to facilitate their taxonomic identification. A dichotomous key was developed to distinguish the species studied (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum and Vatairea paraensis. The main characteristics used for separation in the field were of leaf, leaflet, bark and trunk. However, flower or fruit characters are needed to identify those species of Andira, Hymenolobium and Vatairea that lose their leaves while flowering.

  14. Consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae alimentado com folíolos de Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae em três níveis de maturidade Leaf consumption and biological aspects of Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae fed with Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae leaflets in three maturity stages

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    Henrique Trevisan

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae tem como principal hospedeiro a essência arbórea Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae, utilizada em diversos estados brasileiros, principalmente, na arborização urbana. Nos últimos anos, foram registrados surtos anuais deste inseto, principalmente no estado do Rio de Janeiro, com desfolha intensa e conseqüente estresse fisiológico das árvores. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em laboratório, o consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de U. acawoios, alimentado com folíolos de C. fairchildiana em três diferentes estádios de maturidade: novos, intermediários e velhos. O consumo de lagartas de U. acawoios foi maior com folíolos novos e a duração das fases de desenvolvimento, a longevidade e o ciclo de vida desse inseto foram afetados pelo tipo de folíolo de C. fairchildiana. A porcentagem de sobrevivência de U. acawoios foi maior para indivíduos alimentados com folíolos de C. fairchildiana de maturidade intermediária.Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae is a tree used in several Brazilian states in the urban arborization and is the main host of Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae. Annual outbreaks of this defoliator insect was registered in the last years mainly in Rio de Janeiro state where these trees are submitted a physiologic stress after being completely stripped. The aim of this study is to evaluate the leaf consumption and biological aspects of U. acawoios caterpillars fed with C. fairchildiana leaflets in laboratory in three maturity stages: new, middlemen and old. The consumption of U. acawoios caterpillars was larger with new leaflets and the duration of the development stages, the longevity and the life cycle were affected for the type of C. fairchildiana leaflet. The U. acawoios survival percentage were larger for individuals fed with C. fairchildiana middlemen leaflets.

  15. Evaluation of legumes and poultry manure for the early protection of burnt soils Evaluación de leguminosas y gallinaza para la protección temprana de suelos quemados Avaliaçao da utilizaçao de leguminosas e estrume de galináceos na protecção precoce de solos queimados

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    Serafín González Prieto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Organic amendments combined with the sowing of gramineous grasses are effective for the early protection of burnt soils (BS but cannot restore soil N status to pre-fire level; this has led to interest in combining their use with N2 fixer legumes. The effectiveness of applying poultry manure (PM; 2 Mg ha-1 and sowing legumes (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus and Trifolium repens for the early protection of BS was compared with that of applying PM + Lolium perenne and growing these four species without PM in a 3-month pot experiment, which also included a control consisting of an unburnt soil (US. In US, the shoot and root biomass increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus << Lolium < Lupinus. Compared with those grown in US, plants grown in BS were smaller and weaker in three species (Lupinus, Lolium and Trifolium. The reverse was true for the four species grown in BS+PM, which showed the benefits of PM addition. In all the treatments, plant N uptake, which prevents soil-N losses, increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus < Lupinus < Lolium. The lack of nodules observed suggested that none of the legumes fixed atmospheric-N2.

    Las enmiendas orgánicas combinadas con la siembra de gramíneas son efectivas para la protección temprana de los suelos quemados (SQ, pero insuficientes para restaurar el estatus pre-incendio del N-edáfico, lo cual deriva en el interés de emplear dichas enmiendas en combinación con leguminosas fijadoras de N2. La utilidad de la gallinaza (G, 2 Mg ha-1 y la siembra de leguminosas (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus y Trifolium repens para la protección temprana de SQ se comparó con la de G + Lolium perenne y esas cuatro especies sin G en una experiencia en invernadero durante tres meses que tambi

  16. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das flores de Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don Leguminosae-Mimosoideae

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    C.A. Andrade

    Full Text Available A atividade antibacteriana das flores da Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. (Leguminosae foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco. As bactérias testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. O meio de cultura utilizado foi ágar Müeller-Hinton. Foram utilizados discos de papel (6 mm de diâmetro impregnados com 1000, 500, 250 e 125 mg dos extratos: Etanol Bruto, fração Acetato de Etila e fração Diclorometano obtidas a partir do extrato etanólico bruto. Os resultados indicam que as amostras avaliadas exercem ação contra as cepas gram positivo testadas, em graus variáveis sendo que a fração Acetato de Etila apresentou maior atividade. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de fenóis e flavonoides nas flores de A. podalyriifolia.

  17. Modificación del caldo extracto de levadura manitol para la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas

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    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El caldo extracto de levadura manitol (LM, un medio ampliamente utilizado para el cultivo de rizobios, fue modificado para reducir su costo y utilizarlo en la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas. Los dos ingredientes más costosos, el extracto de levadura y el manitol, fueron reducidos o reemplazados con substratos más económicos. Se pudo reducir la concentración de extracto de levadura a 0,05 g/L sin afectar el crecimiento cuando se agregó 1,1 g/L de ácido glutámico o glutamato de sodio grado alimento. El manitol pudo ser substituido por 12,5 g/L de glicerina grado farmacéutico para las cepas de Bradyrhizobium o por 10 g/L de azúcar grado alimento para las cepas de Rhizobium. No se alteraron las propiedades simbióticas de las cepas cultivados en los medios modificados.

  18. Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), in restinga, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Rebouças, P; Gimenes, M

    2011-05-01

    Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems). They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%). The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri) and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Leonardoxa (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) inferred from chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, Carine; Gielly, Ludovic; McKey, Doyle

    2001-01-01

    The African genus LEONARDOXA: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) comprises two Congolean species and a group of four mostly allopatric subspecies principally located in Cameroon and clustered together in the L. africana complex. LEONARDOXA: provides a good opportunity to investigate the evolutionary history of ant-plant mutualisms, as it exhibits various grades of ant-plant interactions from diffuse to obligate and symbiotic associations. We present in this paper the first molecular phylogenetic study of this genus. We sequenced both the chloroplast DNA trnL intron (677 aligned base pairs [bp]) and trnL-trnF intergene spacer (598 aligned bp). Inferred phylogenetic relationships suggested first that the genus is paraphyletic. The L. africana complex is clearly separated from the two Congolean species, and the integrity of the genus is thus in question. In the L. africana complex, our data showed a lack of congruence between clades suggested by morphological and chloroplast characters. This, and the low level of molecular divergence found between subspecies, suggests gene flow and introgressive events in the L. africana complex.

  20. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas

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    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala e H. courbaril à fertilização. A aleatorização não foi suficiente para garantir condições semelhantes de luz nos plantios de enriquecimento. A variação na quantidade de luz incidente no sub‑bosque compromete a correta avaliação dos tratamentos de fertilização.

  1. Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest Riqueza de rizóbios e de outras bactérias de nódulos de leguminosas em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

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    Daniel Renato Lammel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of legumes occurring in Araucaria Forests, at Campos do Jordão State Park, Brazil. Nodule bacteria were isolated in YMA growth media and the obtained colonies were classified according to their growth characteristics (growth rate, color, extra cellular polysaccharide production and pH change of the medium. Data were analyzed by cluster and principal components analysis (PCA. From a total of eleven collected legume species, nine presented nodules, and this is the first report on nodulation of five of these legume species. Two hundred and twelve bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules, whose nodule shapes varied widely and there was a great phenotypic richness among isolates. This richness was found among legume species, individuals of the same species, different nodule shapes and even among isolates of the same nodule. These isolates could be classified into several groups, two up to six according to each legume, most of them different from the used growth standards Rhizobium tropici, Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Burkholderia sp. There is some evidence that these distinct groups may be related to the presence of Burkholderia spp. in the nodules of these legumes.A Floresta de Araucária é um sub-tipo da Mata Atlântica, cujo dossel é dominado por Araucaria angustifolia, uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. O sub-bosque dessa floresta tem alta diversidade, incluindo muitas espécies de leguminosas. Estas plantas podem formar nódulos e fixar nitrogênio atmosférico, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade da floresta

  2. Avaliação da influência da salinidade na germinação, no desenvolvimento e diversidade de microrganismos endofíticos da leguminosa Mucuna aterrima

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    Alan Passos Cruz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de leguminosas é um método visado para a recuperação de fertilidade dos solos, visto que além de fornecerem matéria orgânica também fixam nitrogênio ao solo. Por isso, mostram-se relevantes pesquisas acerca da capacidade das leguminosas para utilização em solos salinos com o intuito de se auxiliar a recuperação destes. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da salinidade na germinação, no desenvolvimento e no isolamento de microrganismos endofíticos da leguminosa mucuna preta (Mucuna aterrima. O experimento foi realizado com tratamentos de NaCl, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (5x3 com cinco tratamentos (0,0; 0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,2 mol NaCl/L e três repetições. Foram analisados a porcentagem de germinação, a massa seca da raiz, caule e folhas e efetuada a contagem de bactérias e fungos endofíticos. Como resultado, verificou-se uma redução da porcentagem da taxa de germinação com o aumento da salinidade. Apesar de não ser observada interferência na riqueza de microrganismos, verificou-se maior resistência das bactérias à salinidade. Dessa forma, este estudo indica que a mucuna preta não é indicada para plantio em solos com concentrações salinas maiores que 0,1 mol NaCL/L, pois essa concentração apresenta toxicidade para a planta e não favorece sua germinação.

  3. Efeito do espaçamento e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura no manejo de plantas invasoras em reflorestamento de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá

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    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino-Rayol

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A infestação crescente de plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivos é um dos fatores que mais afetam os reflorestamentos na Amazônia, causando decréscimos na produtividade devido à competição direta pelos fatores de produção. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de espaçamentos (4x2 m, 4x4 m e 4x6 m e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura (Cajanus cajan e Canavalia ensiformis no controle da matocompetição em plantio de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá. As coletas das plantas invasoras foram feitas aos 30 e 90 dias após a semeadura das leguminosas de cobertura. Posteriormente foram levadas para herbários para identificação. Foram identificadas 24 espécies distribuídas em 13 famílias botânicas. No que se refere à infestação, diversidade e riqueza de plantas daninhas, os melhores resultados foram encontrados nos tratamentos com C. ensiformis. Esta leguminosa influenciou a composição florística e a estrutura das comunidades de plantas invasoras. O espaçamento 4m x 2m contribuiu para menor diversidade e riqueza dessa plantas. As espécies de ervas daninhas mais frequentes em todos os tratamentos foram Spermacoce capitata e Brachiaria brizantha.

  4. As leguminosas como alimentos funcionais: o caso das dislipidémias e das doenças cardiovasculares Legumes as functional foods: the case of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases

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    J.M. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A dieta mediterrânica é rica em alimentos funcionais. As leguminosas, um dos alimentos-chave desta dieta, têm visto o seu papel na prevenção de dislipidémias, diabetes e cancro do cólon mencionado por muitos autores. O efeito do consumo de leguminosas na redução da colesterolémia deve-se a diferentes nutrientes e fitoquímicos, tais como: i proteína; ii lípidos, particularmente a componente polinsaturada e monoinsaturada; iii fibra, especialmente a fracção solúvel; iv saponinas; e v fitosteróis. O consumo da soja tem sido relacionado com tais efeitos benéficos, mas dados recentes obtidos na Universidade de Évora demonstraram que leguminosas como a ervilha e o tremoço de folhas estreitas também apresentam elevado potencial funcional na regulação do colesterol sanguíneo. O seu consumo levou a reduções de 30% na colesterolémia de animais experimentais, via redução do colesterol das LDL. A utilização destas leguminosas como alimentos funcionais e/ou como fornecedoras de fitoquímicos com potencial preventivo e terapêutico é promissora e poderá constituir uma maisvalia e uma fonte extra de rendimento para os agricultores que se dediquem ao cultivo destas espécies.The Mediterranean diet is rich in functional foods. Legumes are one of the key-foods of this diet and many authors mention their role in the prevention of dyslipidemias, diabetes and colon cancer. The hypocholesterolemic effect of legumes is related to several nutrients and phytochemicals. Among them: i protein; ii lipids, especially polyunsaturated and monounsaturated ones; iii dietary fibre, especially soluble fibre; iv saponins; and v phytosterols. Soybean consumption has been related with these benefic effects. However, recent data obtained at the University of Évora have demonstrated that other legumes, such as peas and blue lupin, can also present a high hypocholesterolemic potential. In fact, the consumption of these legumes led to a 30% reduction in

  5. Evaluation of Perennial Forage Legumes and Herbs in Six Mediterranean Environments Evaluación de Leguminosas y Hierbas Forrajeras Perennes en Seis Medioambientes Mediterráneos

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    Daniel Real

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an absence of drought tolerant herbaceous perennial forage legume and herb options other than lucerne (Medicago sativa L. for environments with Mediterranean-like climates common in extensive areas of Southern Australia, the Mediterranean basin, and Chile. Therefore, a collection of 174 forage perennial legume and herb entries from 103 species and 32 genera was evaluated for adaptation in a diverse range of Mediterranean climatic environments in Southern Australia. The seasonal rainfall distribution varied from moderately to highly winter dominant with long term average annual rainfall ranging from 318 to 655 mm. The entries were rated for productivity and persistence over 3 yr. The 12 entries identified as the most promising for winter, summer, or all-year round production included Bituminaria bituminosa (L. C.H. Stirt. var. albomarginata; Cichorium intybus L.; Cullen australasicum (Schltdl. J.W. Grimes; Dorycnium hirsutum (L. Ser.; Kennedia prostrata R. Br.; Lotononis bainesii Baker, Lotus pedunculatus Cav.; L. corniculatus L.; L. cytisoides L.; Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.; Medicago sativa subsp. caerulea (Less. ex Ledeb. Schmalh., and M. sativa subsp. falcata (L. Arcang. These entries maintained production and persisted for the period of the evaluation, with the exception of C. intybus and L. corniculatus that declined in persistence over time. The potential role of these species in extensive grazing systems in Mediterranean climatic zones, their attributes and limitations, and current progress in developing them as useful forage plants was discussed.Existe una escasez de leguminosas y hierbas perennes herbáceas además de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. tolerantes a sequía para ambientes con clima mediterráneo como los que se encuentran en el Sur de Australia, el Mediterráneo y Chile. Por lo tanto, una colección de 174 leguminosas perennes y hierbas correspondientes a 103 especies y 32 géneros fue evaluada por su adaptaci

  6. Morfología de la semilla y anatomía de la cubierta seminal de cinco especies de Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae de Venezuela

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    Sirli Leython

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la morfología de las semillas y la anatomía de la cubierta seminal en cinco especies venezolanas del género Calliandra, con la finalidad de establecer similitudes y diferencias entre estos taxa, para su utilización como criterio taxonómico. Se analizaron caracteres morfológicos de valor taxonómico; entre ellos la forma y el tamaño de la semilla, así como anatómicos tales como espesor de las diferentes regiones, la ubicación de la línea lúcida y el tamaño relativo de los espacios intercelulares en la hipodermis. Con los resultados se realizaron análisis de agrupamiento por medio de la función de análisis discriminante. Diez caracteres cuantitativos, y tres caracteres cualitativos, resultaron informativos para la separación de especies.Seed morphology and anatomy of the seed coat in five species of Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae from Venezuela. Calliandra is an exclusively Neotropoical genus with 135 described species. There are 30 species in Venezuela. We studied seed morphology and the seed coat anatomy of five species: Calliandra riparia Pittier, Calliandra glomerulata Karsten var. glomerulata, Calliandra magdalenae (DC. Benth. var. magdalenae, Calliandra surinamensis Benth. and Calliandra falcata Benth., to establish simililarities and differences amongst taxa for taxonomic characterization. Of the evaluated characters, 10 quantitative characters and 3 qualitative characters were selected as the most informative for the separation of species. Seed morphological characters of taxonomic value are form and size. Thickness of the light line, number of layers and space between the osteosclereids constitute distinctive characters. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1075-1086. Epub 2008 September 30.

  7. Evaluación de diez leguminosas con dos niveles de tecnología en un suelo ácido

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    Muñoz F. Jaime E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó durante dos semestres en la zona de Santander de Quilichao, con la finalidad de estudiar el comportamiento agronómico de diez leguminosas en suelos ácidos y sin riego; se empleó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con 10 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones. El análisis de varianza y la diferencia mínima significativa (DMS , permitieron comparar dos modalidades de tecnología: el manejo del agricultor y ligeras modificaciones en la fertilización. En los dos ensayos efectuados, no hubo diferencia entre tecnologías, el material de mejor comportamiento en rendimiento fue Caupí TV U 289-46, la menor variabilidad en los rendimientos la presentó el mungo PI 376873; existió mejor comportamiento de los materiales caupí y mungo, respecto a los Phaseolus en suelos ácidos.The present study was carried out during two halfyears at town of Santander de Quilichao (Cauca in order to study agronomic behaviour of ten leguminous in acid soils with and without watering; the experimental design used was the randomized blocks with an arrangement in split plots with 3 replications. The variance analysis and least significant difference aIlowed to compare 2 ways of technology: farmer management and slight modifications in the fertilizations. In two assays done, there were not differences between technologies, the material of best behaviour in yield was TUV 289- 46 cowpea,the smaIIest variability was observed in PI 376873 mungo; a better behaviour was observed in two Cowpea and mungo materials in relation with phaseolus in acid soils.

  8. Crecimiento en longitud foliar y dinámica de población de tallos de cinco asociaciones de gramineas y leguminosa bajo pastoreo

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    Rigoberto Castro Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la elongación, crecimiento, senescencia, peso y dinámica de tallos de cinco asociaciones conformadas por dos gramíneas y una leguminosa sembradas en diferentes proporciones. Se evaluaron cinco tratamientos: 4:3:3; 4:6:0; 4:0:6; 4:4:2 y 4:2:4 de trébol blanco-ovillo-ballico perenne, los cuales se distribuyeron en 20 unidades experimentales de 104 m2 , en un diseño en bloques completos al azar. La mayor elongación y crecimiento neto de la hoja de las especies evaluadas fue en verano, con 7.1 y 6.53 cm tallo -1 d -1 , para el pasto ovillo, y 7 y 6.7 cm tallo -1 d -1 , para ballico perenne; en trébol blanco no existió diferencia en el recambio de tejido foliar y del peciolo en verano y primavera ( P>0.05. El mayor peso de tallos de ballico perenne y ovillo se registró en verano (0.38g -1 tallo - 1 y las mayores densidades en la época de invierno (9,961 y 10,423 tallos m-2 , respectivamente. El recambio de tejido de las especies evaluadas presentó marcada estacionalidad, siendo más dinámico en verano que en otoño. La asociación de tres especies permitió una mayor dinámica en comparación con la asociación de dos especies.

  9. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Klitgaard, Bente B; Forest, Félix; Francis, Louise; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Hawkins, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce. In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships. This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques, will expand into

  10. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Haris Saslis-Lagoudakis

    Full Text Available The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce.In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae. We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships.This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques

  11. Características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais submetidas a duas frequências de corte Morphologic and productive characteristics of tropical forage legumes under two harvest frequencies

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    Valdson José da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras submetidas a duas frequências de corte (28 e 56 dias a altura de 10 cm. Foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela e Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (7 leguminosas × 2 frequências de corte com quatro repetições, para avaliação das seguintes variáveis: acúmulo de biomassa, número de ramificações/planta, número de folhas vivas/planta, massa seca das raízes, número e massa seca dos nódulos. A produção acumulada de MS da parte aérea e das raízes foi equivalente para os cortes efetuados a cada 28 dias ou a cada 56 dias, com exceção do Arachis, Clitoria e Desmodium, que apresentaram maior biomassa aérea e de raízes no intervalo de corte de 56 dias. Houve diferenças entre leguminosas quanto à massa seca e ao número de nódulos, todavia, o maior número de nódulos foi observado na frequência de 56 dias. O número de folhas vivas/planta foi maior na frequência de 56 dias, com exceção das leguminosas Arachis e Calopogonium, cujos valores foram próximos quando cortadas nas diferentes frequências. A frequência de corte afetou de forma diferenciada as características morfológicas e produtivas das leguminosas estudadas, o que indica a necessidade de manejo diferenciado para as variedades testadas.The objective of this research was to evaluate morphological and productive characteristics of forage legumes under two harvest frequencies (28 and 56 days and 10 cm harvest intensity. The following legume species were evaluated: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela and Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. A randomized

  12. Leaves and fruits of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Zhuqiu; Chen, Yunfa; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-04-24

    The pantropical genus Bauhinia, along with the northern temperate Cercis and several tropical genera, bear bilobate, bifoliolate, or sometimes unifoliolate leaves, which constitute the tribe Cercideae as sister to the rest of the family Leguminosae based on molecular phylogenetics. Hence, the fossil record of Cercideae is pivotal to understand the early evolution and biogeographic history of legumes. Three fossil species of Bauhinia were described from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China. Bauhinia ningmingensis sp. nov. is characterized by its bifoliolate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal acrodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins. B. cheniae sp. nov. bears moderately or deeply bilobate, pulvinate leaves, with basal actinodromous primary veins and eucamptodromous secondary veins. B. larsenii D.X. Zhang et Y.F. Chen emend. possesses shallowly or moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal actinodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins, as well as elliptic, stipitate, non-winged, and oligo-seeded fruits. Meanwhile, previously reported Bauhinia fossils were reviewed, and those pre-Oligocene foliage across the world are either questionable or have been rejected due to lacking of reliable evidence for their pulvini or/and basal actinodromous or acrodromous venations. Besides Oligocene leaves and fruits presented here, foliage and/or wood of Bauhinia have been documented from the Miocene-Pliocene of Thailand, India, Nepal, Uganda, and Ecuador. Bauhinia has exhibited a certain diversity with bifoliolate- and bilobate-leafed species in a low-latitude locality-Ningming since at least the Oligocene, implying that the tropical zone of South China may represent one of the centres for early diversification of the genus. The reliable macrofossils of Bauhinia and Cercis have made their debut in the Eocene-Oligocene floras from mid-low latitudes and appeared to lack in the coeval floras at high latitudes, implying a

  13. Levantamento fitogeográfico de Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-papilionoideae com potencial produtivo para própolis vermelha no Estado do Pará

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    Raquel Leão Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae, de distribuição pantropical, compreende cerca de 250 espécies.  Dalbergia spp tem sido amplamente explorada para produção de própolis vermelha, que consiste em uma mistura complexa feita pelas abelhas a partir do material resinoso encontrado no tecido meristemático em várias plantas deste gênero. Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar levantamento da ocorrência da flora apícola produtora de exsudato vermelho que pode ser utilizada pelas abelhas africanizadas para produção da própolis vermelha no estado do Pará. Realizou-se o levantamento em diversos herbários que possuíam espécies de Dalbergia L.f. produtoras de exsudato vermelho no estado do Pará, juntamente com a sua distribuição. Para tanto, foram averiguadas literaturas específicas de morfologia e taxonomia que envolviam espécies de Dalbergia produtoras de exsudato vermelho localizadas no Pará. A coleta de dados foi obtida a partir da plataforma online SpeciesLink; e do acervo do Herbário IAN (Instituto Agronômico do Norte da EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental. O mapa de distribuição foi elaborado utilizando o software QGis juntamente com os dados de coleta das espécies. Foram encontrados 204 registros depositados em 21 herbários, sendo que, 175 são pertencentes à espécie Dalbergia monetaria e 29 à Dalbergia ecastaphyllum. Analisando os dados de coleta, notou-se que as espécies foram coletadas em 44 municípios do Estado do Pará, dos quais Belém e Bragança apresentaram maior quantidade de registros. A partir do levantamento realizado notou-se a predominância de Dalbergia monetaria nos registros, mostrando que esta é uma espécie que possui potencial para ser explorada. 

  14. Leguminosas isoladas e consorciadas com milheto em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo no feijão orgânico

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    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos têm demonstrado as vantagens da utilização de plantas de cobertura em manter ou melhorar a qualidade do solo e produtividade da cultura. No entanto, os efeitos dessa gestão em feijão comum orgânico em condições de savana, ainda são desconhecidos. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de leguminosas, mucuna (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC, feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan L. HUTH, feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis, crotalária (Crotalária juncea em monocultura e em consórcio com milheto (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br. de 1810, na produção de grãos no feijoeiro comum em sistema orgânico de produção sob o sistema do manejo do solo convencional e plantio direto. O experimento foi realizado com a cultivar BRS Pontal, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Aos 90 dias após a germinação das plantas de feijão foram avaliadas, o número de vagens por planta (NVP, número de grãos por vagem (NGV, número de grãos por planta (NGP , peso de 100 grãos (M100G e produção de grãos. Os resultados mostraram que o número de vagens, número de grãos e produtividade do feijoeiro no sistema orgânico, foram influenciados pelas culturas de cobertura do solo e sistemas manejo do solo, com destaque para mucuna associados com milheto e sistema de plantio direto, que proporcionou o melhor desempenho destes parâmetros. A maior produção de grãos foi observado com a mucuna associados com milho em sistema de plantio direto. A produtividade média de grãos orgânicos foi de 3.8 Mg ha-1. A análise de agrupamento mostrou um efeito marcante de sistemas de manejo do solo sobre os componentes de produção do feijoeiro.

  15. Variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos de um argissolo vermelho-amarelo cultivado com leguminosas consorciada com a seringueira

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    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição espacial de alguns atributos físicos do solo e verificar suas alterações no desenvolvimento da seringueira consorciada com leguminosas. O experimento foi instalado em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo no Polo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico dos Agronegócios do Centro-Norte, localizado em Pindorama (SP. Foram avaliadas: infiltração de água a 0,10 e a 0,20 m de profundidade, macro e micro porosidade e densidade do solo nas camadas 0-0,10; 0,10-0,20; 0,20-0,40 e 0,40-0,60 m. O desenvolvimento das plantas de seringueira foi avaliado medindo-se o perímetro do caule e o aumento desta medida no período de quatro anos (1996-1999. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de estatística descritiva para verificação de parâmetros de tendência central e dispersão. Foram utilizados métodos geoestatísticos incluindo semivariogramas, krigagem e mapas de isolinhas para a avaliação da variabilidade espacial. Houve dependência espacial de moderada a forte para todos os atributos do solo, com o valor do alcance variando entre 15 e 90 m. A dependência espacial anotada para infiltração de água no solo não teve relação com as avaliações efetuadas nas plantas nem com os outros atributos avaliados. Os altos valores de densidade do solo e de microporosidade na camada de 0,20-0,40 m indicaram a ocorrência de compactação nesta camada. O perímetro do caule de seringueira aumentou linearmente com o tempo, porém a taxa de crescimento do perímetro do caule decresceu ao longo dos anos. A taxa média de crescimento do perímetro do caule variou em função do crescimento menor no inverno quando comparado com o do verão. Na distribuição espacial do espessamento do caule das árvores de seringueira ao longo do tempo houve alta continuidade, avaliada pelos baixos valores do efeito pepita dos semivariogramas e estreita correlação com densidade do solo, onde locais menos densos tiveram os

  16. Los cariotipos de Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae-Phaseoleae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México Karyotypes of Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae- Phaseoleae of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Mexico

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    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron citogenéticamente células provenientes de meristemos radiculares de 2 leguminosas, Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana, que en la actualidad están incluidas en la flora de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México, D. F., mediante una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para determinar los números cromosómicos somáticos. Por vez primera se obtuvieron la morfología cromosómica y otras características cuantitativas de los cariotipos en C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m +18sm y en E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm +2st sat, primeras también en ambos géneros. Cologania y Erythrina se reconocen como poliploides estabilizados y el hallazgo de un único par de cromosomas con satélites (dominancia nucleolar en las especies estudiadas aquí, favorece la opinión de un origen alopoliploide para estos taxa.Meristematic root cells from Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana from Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico, were analyzed cytogenenetically using a surface-spreading and air-drying method. The somatic chromosome numbers were determined. Chromosome morphology and others quantitative features of the karyotypes obtained for first time in C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m + 18sm and E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm + 2st sat and also the first in both genera. Cologania and Erythrina are recognized as stabilized polyploids and the finding of just one pair of chromosomes with satellites (nucleolar dominance in the species analyzed here supports the view of allopolyploid origin of these taxa.

  17. Estabelecimento de leguminosas arbóreas em pastos de capim-marandu e tanzânia Establishment of leguminous trees in marandu and tanzânia pastures

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    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de mudas sem proteção (de cercas ou estacas de quatro espécies de leguminosas arbóreas e uma mistura eqüitativa dessas espécies, introduzidas em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, na presença de gado. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, duas gramíneas (marandu e tanzânia e quatro espécies de leguminosas (Mimosa artemisiana, Pseudosamanea guachapele, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia farnesiana e uma mistura dessas espécies, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se: altura da muda, diâmetro do caule, diâmetro da copa, sobrevivência da muda, freqüência de pastejo e ocorrência de formigas. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de três agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos M. artemisiana e mistura de leguminosas, nos dois pastos, mais E. contortisiliquum e A. farnesiana, nos pastos dos capins marandu e tanzânia, respectivamente. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos relativas a cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que mudas de M. artemisiana apresentaram maior altura e sobrevivência em pasto de capim-marandu. Mudas dessa leguminosa, sem proteção, são indicadas para ser introduzidas, nas pastagens de capim-marandu da região, na presença do gado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of nonprotected (by fences or pickets seedlings of leguminous tree species and an equitable mix of these species, introduced in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, in the presence of cattle. The experimental design was a completely randomized one, in a 2x5 factorial arrangement, with two grasses (marandu and tanzânia and four leguminous species (Mimosa artemisiana

  18. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de rizobios aisladas de diferentes leguminosas en la región de Cascajal, Villa Clara Isolation and characterization of rhizobia strains isolated from different legumes in the Cascajal region, Villa Clara

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    Pérez Guianeya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron 19 cepas de rizobio a partir de los nódulos de las leguminosas Canavalia ensiformis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema molle, Pueraria phaseoloides y Macroptilium atropurpureum, con el objetivo de obtener inoculantes efectivos para dichos cultivos en suelos ácidos. Para la caracterización de los aislados bacterianos se estudiaron sus características micromorfológicas, tintoriales y culturales, así como algunas respuestas fisiológico-bioquímicas, tales como la excreción de ácido o base al medio de cultivo y el ensayo de la cetolactasa. Se hizo un ensayo de nodulación in vitro con cada una de las leguminosas para determinar la efectividad de los aislados. De acuerdo con las características culturales, la tasa de crecimiento en medio LMA y la producción de ácido o base, los aislados obtenidos pudieran pertenecer a los géneros Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium y/o Sinorhizobium. La prueba de la cetolactasa permitió conocer que ninguno de los aislados en estudio pertenece al género Agrobacterium. El ensayo con plantas inoculadas mostró que todas las cepas aisladas fueron efectivas en la nodulación, ya que nodularon en las leguminosas probadas. Se concluye que de las cepas aisladas 11 pudieran pertenecer al género Bradyrhizobium, mientras que las ocho restantes comparten características similares con los géneros Rhizobium y/o Sinorhizobium; todos los aislados fueron efectivos en la nodulación y pueden considerarse cepas promisorias para la obtención de inoculantes para las leguminosas forrajeras en estudio.Nineteen rhizobium strains were isolated from the nodules of the legumes Canavalia ensiformis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema molle, Pueraria phaseoloides and Macroptilium atropurpureum, with the objective of obtaining effective inoculants for such crops in acid soils. For the characterization of the bacterial isolates, their micromorphological, staining and cultural characteristics were studied, as well as some

  19. Forage intake and botanical composition of feed for cattle fed Brachiaria/legume mixtures Consumo e composição da forragem ingerida por bovinos alimentados com Brachiaria e uma leguminosa

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    Robert Macedo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A key contribution to study the cycling of nutrients in soil/plant/animal systems is the evaluation of the consumption of forage and their nutrients by cattle. The objective of this study was to test techniques to evaluate faecal production, in vitro digestibility, forage consumption and the proportion of legume in the acquired diet. Five Zebu steer calves were confined and fed five diets of different combinations of Brachiaria dictyoneura and Desmodium ovalifolium. All quantities of faeces were collected per animal and these values were found to compare favourably with those derived from using the chromium oxide technique. In vitro digestibility ranged from 7 to 10% higher than the actual in vivo digestibility. Faecal samples from steers fed with diets with 25% or more of grass in the mixture were found to be depleted in δ13C between 1.7 and 2.1‰, but no depletion was observed when the diet was 100% D. ovalifolium. There was a positive linear regression (r² = 0.97*** of the δ13C of the diet with the δ13C of faeces, but if the acquired diet contained a very high proportion of legume, the legume content could be underestimated by as much as 10%. None of the internal indicators, such as lignin or ash content of the diets, were useful to predict feed intake, but the chromium oxide external indicator performed satisfactorily. The 13C analysis of the faeces was an effective predictor of the proportion of the legume in the consumed diet.Uma contribuição fundamental para o estudo da ciclagem de nutrientes no sistema solo/planta/ animal é a avaliação do consumo pelo gado de forragem e dos nutrientes nela contidos. Testaram-se, sob condições controladas, técnicas para avaliar a produção fecal, digestibilidade in vitro, consumo de forragem e a proporção de leguminosa ingerida na dieta. Cinco novilhos de Zebu foram confinados e alimentados com quantidades conhecidas de cinco rações com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria dictyoneura e

  20. Organic matter quality in a soil cultivated with perennial herbaceous legumes Qualidade da matéria orgânica de um solo cultivado com leguminosas herbáceas perenes

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    Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Using herbaceous legumes in agricultural systems yields great quantities of plant residues, allowing changes in soil organic matter quality and content over the years. This study was conducted on an Ultisol, at Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different perennial herbaceous legumes on soil organic matter quality. A factorial scheme with three replications was used to evaluate the species: forage groundnut cv. BR-14951 (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides, and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. After the first cut, each plot was divided into two subplots; plants were cut and left on the soil surface or cut and removed. Soil samples of a closed area covered by spontaneous vegetation (mainly C3 plants or by Panicum maximum were also analysed. Samples were collected from two layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm, processed for the fractionation of organic matter and the evaluation of structural characteristics of humic acids (HA. Evaluated legumes did not change total organic carbon contents, but promoted HA accumulation in the superficial soil layer. Humic acids may be used as indicators of the management effects on soil organic fractions, because there was significant incorporation of carbon and nitrogen derived from the legume residues, even for the short experimentation time (28 months. Residue management did not modify quantitative aspects of the distribution of the humified organic matter, but promoted, however, a higher condensation degree of humic acids evaluated by the elementary composition, IR and fluorescence spectroscopy.O uso de leguminosas herbáceas em sistemas agrícolas permite o aporte de quantidades expressivas de fitomassa, possibilitando alterações no teor e na qualidade da matéria orgânica do solo ao longo dos anos. Este trabalho avalia a qualidade da matéria orgânica de um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo localizado em Seropédica, RJ, e cultivado com diferentes espécies de leguminosas herb

  1. Produtividade e valor nutritivo de pastos consorciados com diferentes espécies de leguminosas Productivity and nutritive value of mixed pastures with different legume species

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    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a produtividade e o valor nutritivo de dois sistemas forrageiros (SF constituídos por capim elefante (CE, azevém (AZ, trevo branco (TB e espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE, como SF1; e CE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE, como SF2. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas espaçadas a cada quatro metros. Entre elas, foi estabelecido azevém, durante o período hibernal, permitindo-se o desenvolvimento de ECE no período estival. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa e o método de pastejo foi o rotacionado. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem inicial (MFI e a composição botânica e estrutural dos pastos. Para as estimativas de valor nutritivo, foram feitas amostragens simulando o pastejo e analisados a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e duas repetições, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os valores médios de massa de forragem inicial e da carga animal foram similares entre os SF. Observou-se resultado superior para o teor médio de PB da forragem do SF2. O uso do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo em consórcio com o CE permite manter massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity and nutritive value of two pasture-based systems (PS with elephant grass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS, for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS, for PS2. EG was established in rows spaced by four meters. Ryegrass was seeding in the space between rows during cool-season and development of SGS was permitted in the warm-season. Holstein cows under rotational grazing were used in the evaluation. The initial forage mass (IFM

  2. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from...

  3. Evaluación oxidativa de las mezclas de aceites de leguminosas del Desierto de Sonora con aceites de maíz y soja durante su almacenamiento

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    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available During storage, oils from seeds of wild legumes of the Sonoran Desert have shown greater stability than oils derived from conventional sources. In this work, oxidation process was evaluated during the storage (122 day of mixtures of oils: Mezquite Prosopis juliflora, Gatuña Mimosa grahamii, Palo fierro Olneya tesota, Vino rama Acacia constricta, Palo de brea Cercidium praecox and Palo verde Parkinsonia aculeata with oils from soy and maize. Ratios were 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. Evaluated parameters included: Peroxides (P.V., Iodine (I.V., Acid (A.V., p-Anisidine (p-A values. Results showed that mixtures containing wild and maize oil showed 2-4 meq/Kg as initial values of iodine, while after 122 days of storage the value was 4-7 meq/Kg. Mixtures containing soy oil presented 3-6 meq-Kg initially, and 8-15 meq-Kg were detected at the end experiment. No differences were observed in I.V. and A.V. values in maize mixtures. On the contrary, mixtures containing soy oil presented increments in I.V. Also, A.V. presented a slight increment in 1:1 mixtures. p-Anisidine values presented and small increment in maize mixtures (3:1 ratio while this increment was larger in mixtures containing soy oils and Gatuña or Palo fierro oil. These latter oils when were mixed with maize oils presented the lowest increments in all evaluated indexes.The oils of palo fierro and blended gatuña with oil of corn didn’t present changes in their concentration in the palmitic and araquidic acid during the storage. The concentration of the oleic acid in the mezquite oils (3:1, gatuña (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, vinorama (3:1, as well as the linoleic and erucic acids in gatuña in their three mixtures didn’t present changes neither alteration during the storage, for what you are considered the oils of palo fierro, gatuña and vinorama the most stable in the present study.Los aceites de semillas de leguminosas silvestres han mostrado mayor estabilidad que algunos aceites convencionales

  4. Crescimento, nutrição e fixação biológica de nitrogênio em plantios mistos de eucalipto e leguminosas arbóreas Growth, nutrition and biological fixation of nitrogen in mixed-species plantations of eucalypt with leguminous trees

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    Selma Regina de Freitas Coelho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, a nutrição mineral e a fixação biológica de N2 (FBN em plantios consorciados de Eucalyptus grandis e leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e sete tratamentos por bloco. Nas linhas de plantio, entre as plantas de E. grandis, foram plantadas, intercaladamente, leguminosas arbóreas nativas de matas brasileiras - Peltophorum dubium, Inga sp., Mimosa scabrella, Acacia polyphylla, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia - e uma leguminosa exótica, Acacia mangium. Realizou-se, também, o plantio puro de E. grandis. Mimosa scabrella e A. mangium foram as leguminosas com maior crescimento. Eucalyptus grandis consorciado com M. scabrella cresceu menos, no entanto foi o povoamento com maior acumulação de biomassa. As densidades de raízes finas (DRF do E. grandis foram 6 a 20 vezes maiores que as DRF das leguminosas na camada superficial do solo (0-10 cm 24 meses após plantio. A DRF de M. scabrella e de M. caesalpiniaefolia foi maior na camada 30-50 cm e menor na camada 10-30 cm. Os valores de delta15N da M. scabrella indicam que 90% do N acumulado em seus tecidos é oriundo da FBN.The objective of this work was to assess interactions between species on the above and belowground growth, nitrogen uptake and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and native leguminous N2-fixing trees. A complete randomized block design was installed with seven treatments and three blocks. Within the lines of the E. grandis seedlings, native leguminous N2-fixing trees - Peltophorum dubium, Inga sp., Mimosa scabrella, Acacia polyphylla, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia - and one exotic leguminous plant, Acacia mangium, were intercropped. E. grandis was also solely planted. Mimosa scabrella and A. mangium were the legume trees that presented the highest growth. Although E. grandis showed a lower

  5. Leguminosas e seus efeitos sobre propriedades físicas do solo e produtividade do mamoeiro 'Tainung 1' Leguminous plants and their effects on soil physical properties and productivity of papaya 'Tainung 1'

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    José Eduardo Borges de Carvalho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento no período de junho 1998 a dezembro de 2000 na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal da Bahia, em Cruz das Almas, em um Latossolo Amarelo álico coeso para avaliar o impacto do manejo de práticas melhoradoras sobre as propriedades físicas desses solos e a produtividade do mamoeiro. Os tratamentos foram: 1- capina em área total; 2- grade nas entrelinhas e herbicida nas linhas de plantio; 3- capina em área total + subsolagem; 4- subsolagem + feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis nas ruas da cultura; 5- Subsolagem + crotalária (Crotalaria juncea nas ruas da cultura; 6- subsolagem + caupi (Vigna uguiculata nas ruas da cultura; 7- subsolagem + calagem + gesso agrícola e feijão-de-porco nas ruas da cultura; 8- subsolagem + vegetação nativa nas ruas da cultura, roçada quando necessária. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Cada parcela foi composta por 36 plantas das quais 16 úteis, em espaçamento de 3 x 2 m. A subsolagem foi realizada de forma cruzada antes do plantio nos tratamentos correspondentes. As leguminosas foram plantadas em maio/junho e roçadas em setembro/outubro. O controle do mato nas linhas foi mecânico (T1 e T3 e químico com glifosato na dose de 1% v/v nos demais. Os tratamentos manejados nas entrelinhas da cultura do mamão com leguminosas proporcionaram as maiores alterações nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Amarelo álico coeso. Os tratamentos manejados com leguminosas e vegetação espontânea foram os que mais se evidenciaram em produtividade, expressada pelo peso total de frutos (PTF, em toneladas por hectare, e em número total de frutos por hectare NTF.An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy School of Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, Cruz das Almas, during the period of June 1998 to December 2000, with the objective of evaluating the impact of good management practices on soil physical properties of an alic and

  6. Species arboreal as a bioindicator of the environmental pollution: Analysis by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa [Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Iracemapolis/Santa Barbara, km 01, Santa Barbara D' Oeste 13450-000, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [State University of Campinas, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Boscolo Brienza, Sandra Maria [Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia do Acucar, Km 156, Piracicaba 13400-911, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Filho, Mario Tomazello [University of Sao Paulo, Av. Padua Dias, 11 Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza [University of Sao Paulo, Av. dos Bandeirantes, 390 Ribeirao Preto 14040-901, SP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [University of Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303 Piracicaba 13400-970, SP (Brazil); Barroso, Regina Cely [State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524 Rio de Janeiro 20550-900, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-08-21

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and countrysides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicle combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is often used in urban arborization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and an Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples were quantified P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb elements.

  7. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Brienza, Sandra Maria B.; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  8. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  9. Sucessão vegetal em uma encosta reflorestada com leguminosas arbóreas em Angra dos Reis, RJ Natural succession under a nitrogen-fixing legume trees stand in a hillside at Angra dos Reis - RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia de Souza Chada

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma encosta reflorestada há sete anos com leguminosas arbóreas (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora em Angra dos Reis, RJ, foi avaliada a composição florística e fitossociológica da regeneração natural, comparando-as com as de um fragmento de Mata Secundária situado a 200 m de distância. Foram considerados os três terços da encosta, com declividades decrescentes. Em 12 parcelas de 200 m², quatro em cada terço da encosta, foram amostrados 699 indivíduos vegetais a partir de 40 cm de altura, distribuídos em 25 famílias e 50 espécies. As famílias com maior nº de indivíduos foram Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 e Lauraceae (41. Já as famílias com maior nº de espécies foram Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 e Myrtaceae (5. As leguminosas plantadas não estavam regenerando na própria área. A evolução da sucessão natural apresentou um gradiente de desenvolvimento em razão da menor declividade e menor distância dos remanescentes florestais, com maior densidade de indivíduos e maior riqueza de espécies na área de menor declividade.The floristic composition and natural regeneration under a 7-year-old legume tree plantation (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora was investigated in comparing with a secondary forest 200 m away at Angra dos Reis, RJ. The hillside was divided in 3 parts following the slope. The lower part of the hillside was the nearest to the natural forest remnant. In 12 plots with 200 m² each, 4 of them in each section of the hillside, 699 plants larger then 40 cm height were observed, distributed in 25 families and 50 species. The families with the most individuals were Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 and Lauraceae (41. The families with the most species were Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 and Myrtaceae (5. None of the legume species introduced in the area had produced natural regeneration. The evolution of natural succession

  10. Renovação de pastagem degradada com calagem, adubação e leguminosa consorciada em Neossolo Quartzarênico = Degraded pasture recovering with liming, fertilization, and associated legume in Quartzipsament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimilson Volpe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradação é considerada o maior problema das pastagens cultivadas no Cerrado. Em Neossolo Quartzarênico, foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar diversos tratamentos de renovação de pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, introduzindo Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. Os tratamentos foram: Testemunha; Calagem; Calagem +P; Calagem + ½(PK; Calagem + PK; Calagem + PK + Micronutrientes; Calagem + PK + Micronutrientes + Leguminosa. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Realizaram-se três cortes, em 325 dias, e, ao final, avaliação da produção de raízes e análise química do solo. Todos os tratamentos derenovação diferiram da testemunha e alguns deles diferiram entre si na produção de massa seca da parte aérea, destacando-se o tratamento com leguminosa. A produção de raízes foi significativamente superior em três tratamentos quando comparados à testemunha. Foramverificados aumentos significativos nos teores de nutrientes e pH do solo, com a aplicação de calcário e fertilizantes.The degradation is considered to be the major problem of cultivated pastures in the Cerrado. In Quartzipsament, an experiment wasconducted to evaluate several degraded pasture recovering treatments of Brachiaria decumbens, introducing Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. The treatments were: Witness; Liming; Liming + P; Liming + ½(PK; Liming + PK. Liming + PK + Micronutrients; Liming + PK + Micronutrients + Legume. The experimental design was that ofrandomized blocks with four replications. Three cuts in a 325 days period were done and, in the end, the evaluation of roots production and soil chemical analysis. All renovation systems differed from the witness and some of them differed among themselves in terms ofdry mass of aerial portion, with emphasis to the legume treatment. The roots production was significantly greater in three treatments when compared to the witness. Significant increases in the

  11. Barbechos mejorados con leguminosas: una promisoria alternativa agroecológica para el manejo alelopático de malezas y mejoramiento del cultivo de arroz y maíz en los Llanos de Colombia

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    Delgado H. Hernando

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El manejo químico de malezas en arroz asciende hasta un 20% de los costos totales del cultivo, bajando así su rentabilidad. Buscando explorar alternativas de manejo, el presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de tres sistemas de labranza, cuatro barbechos mejorados con leguminosas, el barbecho nativo y tres dosis de herbicidas, sobre la densidad total de malezas resurgentes dentro de los cultivos, algunas propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento del arroz y el maíz. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en el Centro de Investigación La Libertad (Villavicencio y en dos fincas en la zona del Ariari, bajo un diseño experimental de parcelas subdivididas con tres repeticiones. Mucuna deeringianum (Bort. Smal presentó los más fuertes efectos alelopáticos, con porcentajes promedio de control de malezas –adicionales al efecto de los herbicidas– entre 41 y 62%; seguida de Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don, con porcentajes de control entre 27 y 46%. Por esta razón, dosis de herbicidas reducidas al 70% de las comerciales mostraron adecuados niveles de control. Es así que los rendimientos de arroz secano favorecido y maíz en la zona del Ariari llegaron a ser incluso superiores a los obtenidos con dosis completas de herbicidas, aunque sin mostrar diferencias significativas. Ambas leguminosas aumentaron el rendimiento del arroz secano favorecido hasta en 1.446 kg ha-1, y mejoraron algunas propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo, en tanto que únicamente C. ochroleuca incrementó la producción de maíz en 331 kg ha-1. Los múltiples e integrales beneficios agronómicos obtenidos con el uso de un período de barbecho mejorado muestran su potencial para el manejo alelopático de malezas, y como práctica agroecológica en cultivos de arroz y maíz.

  12. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  13. Crescimento de Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (Leguminosae sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento Growth of Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (Leguminosae under different shading levels

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    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. é uma espécie clímax tolerante a sombra, ao passo que Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. é uma espécie pioneira. O desenvolvimento destas espécies pode refletir a habilidade de adaptação aos diferentes fatores ambientais (luz, água e temperatura no local em que estão crescendo. O suprimento inadequado de um desses fatores pode reduzir o vigor da planta e limitar seu desenvolvimento. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do nível de sombreamento no crescimento e a concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos em duas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. O experimento foi conduzido no Setor de Olericultura do Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJI/ULBRA/Rondônia. Durante a formação das mudas, ambas as espécies foram expostas a quatro tratamentos de sombra: 0 % (controle - sol pleno; 30 %; 50 % e 80 %. Cada tratamento foi constituído com três repetições de cada espécie; o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado. Quatro meses após a semeadura, as seguintes análises foram realizadas: número de folhas, altura da planta, comprimento do sistema radicular, massa seca total e concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos. O tratamento sob sol pleno afetou negativamente o crescimento de ambas as espécies. As mudas crescidas sob 50% e 80% apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento. Conforme o aumento do sombreamento houve um decréscimo na razão clorofila a/b e um aumento nas concentrações de clorofila total e carotenóides totais.Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. is a clímax shadow tolerant specie and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., by the other hand, is considered as a pioneer specie. The development of these species may reflect its adaptation ability to different environmental

  14. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras Soil litter stock and fertility after planting leguminous shrubs and forage trees on degraded signal grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.Pastures are the fodder supply of Brazilian livestock, and are exhaustively degraded by nitrogen (N deficiency. Intercropping with legumes, aside from nitrogen fixation, may have

  15. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. III. Botanical families providing oils of relatively high unsaturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngiefu, C.K.; Paquot, C.; Vieux, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the seed oil composition of 16 species of Leguminosae (including Albizia lebbeck, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Delonix regia), 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (including Aleurites moluccana, Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas) and 1 species (Kigelia africana) of Bignoniaceae. The most interesting for food and industrial purposes appear to be Afzelia bella, Adenanthera pavonina and Pentaclethra macrophylla, in addition to A. moluccana and H. brasiliensis.

  16. In situ variation in leaf anatomy and morphology of Andira legalis (Leguminosae in two neighbouring but contrasting light environments in a Brazilian sandy coastal plain Variação in situ em anatomia e morfologia foliar de Andira legalis (Leguminosae em dois ambientes adjacentes, porém contrastantes quanto ao regime de luz, em restinga brasileira

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    Daniela Carvalho Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo is a legume shrub widespread along the sandy plains of the Brazilian coast. It occurs both shaded, in forest habitats, or exposed to full sunlight, in the vegetation islands growing on sand deposits. Previous studies reported a high range of morpho-physiological variation for this species along a geographical gradient. This study compared leaf morphology and anatomy of A. legalis in two distinct but adjacent light environments: a dense forest (shaded and a scrub of Palmae (exposed. We studied the amplitude of variation for these traits within a small (0.5 ha geographical area. Leaf anatomy parameters were measured for five leaves collected from five plants in each habitat. The parameters measured were leaf and mesophyll thickness, thickness of the outer periclinal cell wall, thickness of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis and vascular bundle transversal section area, and also common epidermal cells, stomata and trichome density. Leaf morphology parameters were obtained from five leaves of each of 20 plants in each site. Dry and fresh weights were measured to obtain leaf specific mass and succulence. All anatomy and morphology parameters, except trichome density, were significantly higher for the sun-exposed plants. Less expected, however, was the marked qualitative difference between exposed and shaded plants: in the former the mesophyll had a unilateral symmetry (i.e., the whole mesophyll occupied by photosynthetic tissue, whereas in the latter there was a dorsiventral symmetry (i.e., partly palisade and partly spongy parenchyma. Such amplitude of variation shows that even within a small geographic area A. legalis has a broad ecological plasticity.Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo é uma leguminosa arbustiva distribuída ao longo de planícies arenosas da costa brasileira. Tem ocorrência em ambientes florestais, sombreadas, ou em ilhas de vegetação de restingas abertas, onde é exposta à plena radiação solar

  17. EFFECT OF LEGUME TREES ON SOIL MACROFAUNA OF A Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU PASTURE EFEITO DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS SOBRE A MACROFAUNA DO SOLO EM PASTAGEM DE Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU

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    Avílio Antonio Franco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of four legume tree species in a Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture on soil macrofauna density and diversity, in a low natural fertility soil. The tree leguminous species introduced in the pasture were Pseudosamanea guachapele, Mimosa artemisiana, Mimosa tenuiflora, and Enterolobium contortisiliquum. The macrofauna sampling consisted in collecting six soil monoliths with 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm under tree canopies or in a transect in the single Brachiaria pasture. The densities varied from 602 individuals.m-2 under the canopy of E. contortisiliquum to two individuals.m-2 in the single pasture. The largest group richness was found under M. tenuiflora canopy (ten groups, followed by P. guachapele (nine groups, E. contortisiliquum (seven groups and M. artemisiana (six groups. The leguminous species influence was related to N content and to C:N ratio of leaf material. M. artemisiana and M. tenuiflora favored the occurrence of Oligochaeta and Coleoptera larvae, while under the P. guachapele and E. contortisiliquum canopies Formicidae activity was more intense.

    KEY-WORDS: Soil macrofauna; sivipastoral systems; soil quality.

    O objetivou deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de quatro espécies leguminosas arbóreas, em uma pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, com dois anos de estabelecimento, sobre a densidade e diversidade da macrofauna de um planossolo de baixa fertilidade natural. As espécies arbóreas introduzidas na pastagem foram: Pseudosamanea guachapele, Mimosa artemisiana, Mimosa tenuiflora e Enterolobium contortisiliquum. A amostragem da macrofauna consistiu na retirada de seis monolitos de solo com 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm sob a copa das árvores ou em um transecto na pastagem solteira. As densidades variaram de 602

  18. BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF TREE LEGUME SPECIES INTRODUCED IN TROPICAL GRASS PASTURES ANÁLISE DO COMPORTAMENTO DE ESPÉCIES LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS INTRODUZIDAS EM PASTAGENS DE GRAMÍNEAS TROPICAIS

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    Janaina Ribeiro Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of sixteen tree legume species introduced in tropical grass pastures, without seedling protection and in the presence of animals, in three municipalities of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A multivariate factor analysis method was used with sixteen variables related to seven experimental units in the municipalities and ten variables related to leguminous species. The first rotative factor (F1, which explained the highest percentage of the observed variance (62.7%, showed that the Fazenda Santo Antônio experimental unit, in the Itatiaia municipality, presented the highest values for Ca+Mg, N, and Mg, and the lowest value for P (soil sample collected at the beginning of experimental period, while the opposite was observed for Sipa I unit, in the Seropédica municipality. The F1 factor also showed that the species Jurema branca (Mimosa artemisiana and Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora presented the highest values for diameter growth rate of stem and crown, and the lowest percentage of pastured seedlings, while Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala showed the inverse behavior. Results indicate that M. artemisiana and M. tenuiflora present better potential for introduction in tropical grass pastures without seedling protection and without animal exclusion.

    KEY-WORDS: Tree seedling; factor analysis; communality, mimosa; Leucaena.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o comportamento de dezesseis espécies leguminosas arbóreas introduzidas em pastagens de gramíneas tropicais, sem proteção das mudas e na presença de animais, em três municípios do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso, utilizou-se a técnica multivariada da análise de fatores, considerando-se dezesseis variáveis relativas a sete unidades experimentais nos municípios e dez vari

  19. Aerobic stability of triticale silage in single culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes Estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

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    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the aerobic stability and losses during the fermentation process of triticale silages in single crop or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The following crops were used for silage production: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack, triticale intercropped with forage pea (Pisum arvense and triticale intercropped with oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, forage pea and vetch (Vicia sativa. The dry matter content and its recovery did not differ among the silages. Buffer capacity was higher for tricale silage intercropped with oats, forage pea and vetch(88.67 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM followed by triticale intercropped with forage pea (80.80 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM. Electric conductivity values were higher in the intercropped triticale silages. Triticale silage presented the lowest temperatures observed in the silos, and the silages of intercropped triticale silages presented higher heat retention and higher pH values. Silage of triticale intercropped with oats and legumes presented lower aerobic stability but it did not reduce the aerobic stability of the total feed. Dry matter recovery during storage and in stability evaluations in aerobiosis is similar among the silages.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia e as perdas durante o processo de fermentação de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. As culturas utilizadas para produção das silagens foram: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack; triticale em consórcio com ervilha-forrageira (Pisum arvense; e triticale em consórcio com aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (Vicia sativa. O teor de matéria seca e a recuperação de matéria seca não diferiram entre as silagens. A capacidade tampão foi maior para a silagem de triticale cultivado em consórcio com aveia, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (88,67 m eq. NaOH/100 g de MS, seguida da silagem de triticale cultivado

  20. Avaliação da solubilidade de cobre e zinco em caldos de leguminosas Evaluation of the solubility of copper and zinc in a salty, watrry vegetatable soup

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    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os metais cobre e zinco podem se apresentar sob diversas formas químicas na natureza: como sais, estando sob a forma de íons I e II ou como compostos orgânicos, complexados com aminoácidos e proteínas. A forma mais biodisponível ao organismo é a forma de compostos organo quelados. Avaliando os teores dos metais em caldo de leguminosas processadas termicamente em meios salino e aquoso é possível avaliar a solubilidade destes metais. Duas marcas e dois lotes de amostras de feijão preto, feijão branco, feijão carioquinha, feijão mulatinho, feijão manteiga, ervilha e lentilha foram processadas termicamente em meios salino e aquoso e determinou-se os teores totais de cobre e zinco em seus caldos. Os caldos foram dissolvidos em HCl 2molL-1 e o teor total de cobre e zinco nas amostras foi determinado através da espectroscopia de absorção atômica em chama. Na análise da rejeição de resultados foi aplicado o teste Dixon e o teste t de student. Os resultados mostraram que a solubilidade média dos metais cobre e zinco nos meios aquoso e salino foram respectivamente 8 e 6%. Acredita-se que os compostos de cobre e zinco nas leguminosas analisadas não são compostos inorgânicos facilmente solúveis em água. Estudos de especiação podem auxiliar na análise da biodisponibilidade destes metais.Copper and zinc can appear in nature under chemical forms, such as salts, being as íons I and II or as organic compounds, synthesized as amino acids and proteins. The most bio-available form to the human body are organic compounds. The solubility of these metals can be determined by evaluating their ratio in a both of legumes thermally processed in an aqueous and a saline mediium. Samples of several varieties of beans, peas, lentils and chickpeas, in two batches containing two different brands of each variety, were thermally processeced in an aqueous and a saline medium and the total ratio of copper and zinc in their respective broths was

  1. Cobertura do solo e estoque de nutrientes de duas leguminosas perenes, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio Soil cover and nutrient accumulation of two perennial legumes as functions of spacing and planting densities

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    A. Perin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de leguminosas herbáceas perenes nos sistemas de produção constitui ainda um desafio, principalmente por apresentarem crescimento inicial lento. Para viabilizar sua implantação, este trabalho objetivou determinar as taxas de cobertura do solo, produção de matéria seca, teores e acumulação de N, P e K das leguminosas herbáceas perenes galáxia (Galactia striata e cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio. O experimento, instalado em dezembro/98 na Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, constou do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 x 4, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das espécies galáxia e cudzu tropical, plantadas em dois espaçamentos entre sulcos de plantio (25 e 50 cm e quatro densidades de plantas (5, 10, 15 e 20 plantas m-1. A densidade adequada para a rápida cobertura do solo para cudzu tropical e galáxia foi de 10 plantas m-1, no espaçamento de 25 cm entre os sulcos de plantio. A maior produção de matéria seca e acumulação de N, P e K na parte aérea das plantas foram evidenciadas apenas no primeiro corte, sendo os maiores valores obtidos no espaçamento de 25 cm e na densidade de 10 plantas m-1. O espaçamento de 25 cm com 10 plantas m-1 foi a combinação mais adequada para a plena formação da cobertura viva do solo com cudzu tropical e galáxia.The establishment of herbaceous perennial leguminous in production systems is still a challenge, mainly because of the slow initial growth. Evaluations of the soil cover ratio, dry matter production, contents and accumulations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium of the herbaceous perennial Galactia striata and Pueraria phaseoloides, sown in different densities and row spacing, aimed at making their establishments feasible. The experiment was conducted in December/98 at Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, in a completely randomized block design, as a factorial

  2. Sucessão entre cultivos orgânicos de milho e couve consorciados com leguminosas em plantio direto Organic crop succession of maize and collard greens intercropped with legumes in no-tillage system

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    EE Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Práticas agrícolas têm sido desenvolvidas para reduzir a aplicação de insumos químicos e minimizar as agressões ao meio ambiente, produzindo alimentos mais saudáveis e ecologicamente corretos. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho da sucessão entre couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala e milho (Zea may L., em consórcio com leguminosas para fins de adubação verde, sob plantio direto em manejo orgânico. O estudo foi conduzido em Seropédica, Região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, em dois anos. Utilizaram-se, como adubos verdes, mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana e crotalária spectabilis (Crotalaria spectabilis em consórcio com couve e em sucessão crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea e mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens em consórcio com milho. Como controles utilizaram-se os monocultivos de couve e milho. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, constituindo fatorial 3 (sistema de cultivo x 2 (doses de cama-de-frango, com quatro repetições, em parcelas de 20 m². Na couve, aplicou-se em cobertura cama-de-frango nas doses 0 e 5,4 t ha-1 (2,7 t ha-1 em duas aplicações em 2003 e 0 e 2,7 t ha-1 em 2004. Em monocultivo, a produtividade da couve foi de 37,7 e 18,4 t ha-1; consorciada com mucuna-anã, foi de 40,3 e 38,8 t ha-1 e com crotalária spectabilis, de 42,9 e 24,8 t ha-1, em 2003 e 2004, respectivamente. O milho beneficiou-se do efeito residual da adubação com cama-de-frango, aumentando o número de espigas produzidas de 25.625 para 27.916 ha-1. O cultivo de couve em sucessão ao milho, consorciada com leguminosas anuais, sob adubação orgânica com cama-de-frango, resultou em aumento de produtividade das culturas de couve e milho.New farming practices have been developed to reduce the application of fertilizer and pesticides and minimize the aggression to the environment, producing healthy foods and environmentally correct. We evaluated the performance of the succession of collard greens (Brassica

  3. Avaliação da produtividade de fitomassa e acúmulo de N, P e K em leguminosas arbóreas no sistema de aléias, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Evaluation of phytomass productivity and N, P and K accumulation of shrub legumes in alley cropping system in Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ

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    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de fitomassa da parte aérea e o acúmulo de N, P e K nas leguminosas arbóreas em sistemas agroflorestais de aléias, bem como verificar o efeito da adição de fósforo sobre as leguminosas. Foram realizados experimentos de campo com a utilização de leguminosas, com e sem adição de P, por dois anos consecutivos de avaliação, em Campos dos Goytacazes,RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram do sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, estas foram podadas a 1,5 m de altura, restando a haste principal. O material podado foi pesado, descartando-se os ramos com diâmetro superior a 1,5 cm e sendo retiradas as amostras compostas para determinações da fitomassa seca e dos teores de N, P e K. Efetuou-se nova poda 80 dias após a primeira, e pesou-se esse material. No primeiro ano, o guandu mostrou-se superior na produtividade de fitomassa seca e no acúmulo de N, P e K. No segundo ano de avaliação, no experimento com adição de P a leucena e a canafístula assemelharam-se ao guandu na produtividade de fitomassa, enquanto a leucena e o guandu, no acúmulo de N e P, porém a leucena superou o guandu e a canafístula no acúmulo de K na parte aérea. A aplicação de P teve efeito positivo na produtividade de fitomassa seca de algumas espécies.The objective of this study was to evaluate the shoot phytomass and shrub legumes N, P and K accumulation in agroforestry system (alley cropping system and study the effect of P fertilization. Two field experiments were carried out - without and with P application - for two years: 2004 and 2005, using shrub legumes in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the

  4. Perennial herbaceous legumes as live soil mulches and their effects on C, N and P of the microbial biomass Leguminosas herbáceas perenes como cobertura viva do solo e seu efeito no C, N e P da biomassa microbiana

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    Gustavo Pereira Duda

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of living mulch with legumes is increasing but the impact of this management technique on the soil microbial pool is not well known. In this work, the effect of different live mulches was evaluated in relation to the C, N and P pools of the microbial biomass, in a Typic Alfisol of Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. The field experiment was divided in two parts: the first, consisted of treatments set in a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial combination of the following factors: live mulch species (Arachis pintoi and Macroptilium atropurpureum, vegetation management after cutting (leaving residue as a mulch or residue remotion from the plots and four soil depths. The second part had treatments set in a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial combination of the following factors: absence of live mulch, A. pintoi, Pueraria phaseoloides, and M. atropurpureum, P levels (0 and 88 kg ha-1 and vegetation management after cutting. Variation of microbial C was not observed in relation to soil depth. However, the amount of microbial P and N, water soluble C, available C, and mineralizable C decreased with soil depth. Among the tested legumes, Arachis pintoi promoted an increase of microbial C and available C content of the soil, when compared to the other legume species (Pueraria phaseoloides and Macroptilium atropurpureum. Keeping the shoot as a mulch promoted an increase on soil content of microbial C and N, total organic C and N, and organic C fractions, indicating the importance of this practice to improve soil fertility.A adoção de práticas de cobertura do solo com leguminosas tem aumentado. Porém, o impacto desta prática sobre o compartimento microbiano ainda não é bem conhecido. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes leguminosas, sobre o C, N e P da biomassa microbiana, coletaram-se amostras de Argissolo oriundas de um experimento sob condições de campo em Seropédica-RJ. O experimento foi subdividido em dois ensaios. No primeiro, os tratamentos corresponderam à combinação de tr

  5. Evapotranspiração e coeficientes de cultivo da beterraba orgânica sob cobertura morta de leguminosa e gramínea Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of beet in organic mulch of grass and legume

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    Dionízio H Oliveira Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As práticas agrícolas que maximizam a produtividade e o uso da água são de vital importância para a agricultura. Assim, foram testados três tipos de manejo do solo com objetivo de determinar a evapotranspiração (ETc e os coeficientes de cultivo (kc da beterraba. Os tipos de manejo foram a utilização de coberturas mortas vegetais, denominadas capim cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e solo sem cobertura morta em área experimental do SIPA (Sistema Integrado de Produção Orgânica localizado em Seropédica, Brasil. A lâmina de irrigação foi estimada com base no balanço de água no solo, cujo monitoramento foi realizado com a técnica da TDR. As ETc acumuladas para a cultura da beterraba foram 59,41; 55,31 e 119,62 mm, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi obtida por meio do modelo de Penamn-Monteith. Os valores médios de kc obtidos para as fases inicial, média e final de desenvolvimento foram de 0,39; 0,42 e 1,02; 0,79; 0,76 e 1,18; e 0,56; 0,61 e 0,84, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. O uso da cobertura do solo com gramínea ou leguminosa minimizou de forma expressiva a demanda hídrica da cultura da beterraba (Beta vulgaris.Agricultural practices that maximize productivity and water use are of vital importance to farming. Thus, three different soil managements were used in order to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (kc of beet in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, located in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The used managements consisted of cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium and bare soil. The irrigation depth was estimated based on the soil water balance in order to restore the amount of water until soil moisture corresponded to field capacity, monitored by a TDR

  6. Efectos combinados de escarificación y de hidratación parcial en la germinación de semillas frescas de leguminosas Combined effects of scarification and partial hydration on the germination of fresh legume seeds

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    Yolanda González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicó un diseño de clasificación simple con arreglo factorial y cinco réplicas (25 semillas cada una para conocer la germinación de las semillas frescas de leguminosas sometidas a diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos de hidratación-deshidratación y condiciones controladas de estrés calórico del sustrato. Previamente se estudió el comportamiento germinativo ante tratamientos de escarificación: agua a 80ºC durante 2' (en semillas de Crotalaria sp. y H2SO4 al 96% durante 10' (en semillas de Indigofera sp., Desmanthus virgatus y Centrosema pubescens, que se combinaron con un tratamiento de hidratación parcial en agua a temperatura alterna de 25/30ºC (termoperíodo óptimo de germinación. La hidratación parcial se realizó hasta dos horas antes del inicio de la germinación visible; en las semillas escarificadas de Indigofera sp., D. virgatus, Crotalaria sp. y C. pubescens este momento se alcanzó a las 15, 16, 16 y 19 horas, respectivamente. La deshidratación se llevó a cabo al aire durante 48 horas, hasta alcanzar aproximadamente el contenido inicial de humedad de las semillas (7-12% en base a la masa fresca. En todas las especies, excepto en D. virgatus, los tratamientos de hidratación parcial incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación, aunque originaron una mayor velocidad de germinación. Se concluye que los tratamientos de hidratación parcial en agua son adecuados para incrementar la germinación de las especies estudiadas, excepto en D. virgatus, bajo condiciones controladas de estrés calórico.A simple classification design with factorial arrangement and five replications (25 seeds each was used in order to know the germination of fresh legume seeds subject to different pregerminative hydration-dehydration treatments and controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. The germinative performance before scarification treatments was previously studied: water at 80ºC for 2' (in Crotalaria sp. seeds and H2

  7. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

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    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus’ naming the then lone species ofArachis (A. hypogaea L. known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham in 1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared, assigning different species to the same names, and different names to the same species. By mid-20th Century, it was impossible to examine any herbarium collection of Arachis and assign any epithet with any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A. hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa. In our treatment, the literature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and an assessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for the confusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphological features of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections, and the representation of species by seedling specimens. Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species then known, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty-five years, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later, we present here 69 species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south of the Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil. We soon discovered that the most significant characters ofArachis lay in their underground structures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls. We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups which were associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features. We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these clusters, areas and features, and arranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between collections representing different clusters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures to cross-fertilize and, in those hybrids that were recovered, a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility. When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data on character clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized. Figures imposed upon maps of South America illustrate the geographic distributions of these sections. The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of cross-incompatibility and exo-morphologic character clustering. When these groups were made, the esoteric characteristics referred to above, so confounding when applied across sectional lines, became highly pertinent when applied to the problem of species differentiation between collections within sections. These characteristics, applied in conjunction with chromosome cytology, chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional hybrid fertility and adaptations of plant form, and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to assemble the following taxa of the genus Arachis: Section I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa.Section II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A. Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana nov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a. A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov. Section III. EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A. marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A. Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov. Section V.HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var.Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea, var. 2.hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3. aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris. The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit and the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections. The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed and are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating the ideas presented. It is evident that the genetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude. The presumably older sections (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae and Heteranthae, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sections and from each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae and Arachis. Section Arachis is by far the largest, containing about 40% of the species described. Species of this section appear to be spreading into new territory and to be invading areas occupied by species of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the upper Paraguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran Pantanal. They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and grow from Yala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They include the worldwide cultivar, A. hypogaea. Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is presented here in the individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A. hypogaeafrom the early 16th Century to more recent times, along with the common names in several native American languages, provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and the level of civilization required for its creation. Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the sections and to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing characteristics of the sections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures of whole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures, carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  8. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  9. ESTUDIOS CROMOSÓMICOS EN ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE

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    Graciela Inés Lavia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el número de cromosomas de 38 accesiones que representan 17 especies de cinco secciones del género Arachis. El primer conteo cromosómico informa de las siguientes ocho especies: Sect. Extranervosae: A.retusa, secc. Heteranthae: A. Giacomettii, secc. Procumbentes: A.vallsii, secc. Arachis: A.decora, A.microsperma, A.palustris, A.rinitensis y A.williamsii. En informes anteriores son confirmadas nueve especies. Todas las especies estudiadas tienen 2n = 2x = 20, con excepción de una adhesión de A.palustris, que tiene 2n = 2x = 18, que representa probablemente un nuevo número básico x = 9 para el género. Cromosomas satélites se analizan para la mayoría de las especies. "A" cromosomas se encuentran sólo en A.microsperma y A.trinitensis (Sect. Arachis

  10. The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex (Leguminosae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der X.M.; Mackinder, B.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Estrella, de la Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex consists of 14 tree species. Eight species are here newly described and one is here reinstated: G. bambolense Burgt; G. breteleri Burgt; G. ebo Burgt & Mackinder; G. ecoukense (Pellegr.) Burgt; G. maximum Burgt & Wieringa; G. minkebense Burgt

  11. Antifatigue Effect of Millettiae speciosae Champ (Leguminosae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1The First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, ... plasma which can indicate alterations in energy utilization during exercise performance, were .... morbidity. Changes in the body weight of mice.

  12. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

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    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  13. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles.

  14. Produção de matéria seca e eficiência nutricional para P, Ca e Mg em leguminosas herbáceas Dry matter production and nutritional efficiency for P, Ca and Mg in herbaceous legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As leguminosas para adubação verde têm sido introduzidas nos sistemas agrícolas para a recuperação de solos desgastados pelo uso intensivo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de leguminosas herbáceas à aplicação de calcário e fósforo sobre a produção de biomassa e eficiência nutricional para o P, Ca e Mg. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, utilizando-se um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico coletado na profundidade de 0 - 20 cm, em Belém, PA. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo de tratamentos em um fatorial 3³, onde foram comparadas três espécies de leguminosas: mucuna preta (Stizolobium atterrimum, mucuna cochinchinensis (Stilozobium cochinchinensis e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes; três níveis de calagem: de calcário dolomítico (0, 4 e 8 t.ha-1 e de fósforo (0, 25 e 45 mg.dm-3, com quatro repetições cada um. Mucuna cochinchinensis e o feijão de porco produziram maiores quantidades de biomassa vegetal do que a mucuna preta, sendo que a primeira espécie acumulou maior quantidade de P e a segunda maior quantidade de Ca. Mucuna cochinchinensis apresentou maior eficiência de utilização de P, Ca e Mg na ausência da calagem. Nos solos intemperizados com baixa concentração de P, Ca e Mg, o feijão-de-porco e a mucuna cochinchinensis poderão ter melhor desempenho do que a mucuna preta, visto que apresentaram maior eficiência de translocação e de utilização desses nutrientes, respectivamente.The legumes used for green manure have been introduced in agricultural systems for recovering degraded soils by intensive use. The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of herbaceous legumes to liming and P application on dry matter and its nutritional efficiency. The experiment was developed in greenhouse at the Soil Science Department of the Federal University

  15. Las leguminosas (Fabaceæ de Cuba. II. Tribus Crotatarieæ, Æschynomeneæ, Millettieæ y Robinieæ

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    Beyra Matos, Á.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of a monographic revision of the legumes of Cuba. It includes the four tribes listed in the title, one of them divided into fíve subtribes, with a total of 16 genera and 78 species. For each species, after the nomenclature. Description, habitat and distribution are recorded, as well as some data about dispersion and phenology, and sometimes ethnobotanical and chemical composition data. When found, karyologic information was also included. The chorological data are completed with 76 maps showing the Cuban distribution of as many taxa. Further on the text, 30 plates representing as many species are included, plus four indices. The first index shows the numerical reference of the 122 recognized taxa. The second one shows the position in the text of the distributional maps. The third one shows the illustrations. The fourth one, which has 322 small entries, shows all scientific names used, both accepted as well as synonyms.

    [es] Parte segunda de una revisión monográfica de las leguminosas de Cuba. Comprende las cuatro tribus que se enuncian en el título, una de ellas a su vez dividida en cinco subtribus, con un total de 16 géneros aceptados y 78 especies reconocidas. Para cada especie y tras la nomenclatura, además de la descripción, el hábitat y la distribución, se consignan diversos datos sobre dispersión y fenología, más algunos etnobotánicas o de composición química ocasionalmente. Cuando pudimos hallarla, incluimos información cariológica. Los datos corológicos se completan con 76 mapas que muestran la distribución cubana de otros tantos táxones nativos de Cuba. Acompañan al texto 30 láminas que representan otras tantas especies, más cuatro índices. En el primero se muestra la referencia numérica de los 122 táxones reconocidos. El segundo muestra la posición en el texto de los mapas distribucionales. El tercero señala las ilustraciones. En el cuarto, que reúne 322 entradillas, figuran todos los

  16. KECERNAAN IN SACCO HIJAUAN LEGUMINOSA DAN HIJAUAN NON- LEGUMINOSA DALAM RUMEN SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

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    Rendi Fathoni Hadi

    2012-06-01

    values of ADF: GL 61.27%; SW 43.95%; TP 56.53%; BR 40.11%; KL 21.08%; NG 44.66%; and CO 69.15%. There were significant differences (P<0.05 on the degradation of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF. It is concluded that not all of legume has higher DT values of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF fraction than non-legume. There is a tendency that the longer retention time in the rumen, the higher degradation rate. (Keywords: Legume, Non-legume, In sacco rumen

  17. Visitantes florais de Erythrina speciosa Andr. (Leguminosae Flowering visitors of Erythrina speciosa Andr., Leguminosae

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    Maria J. Vitali-Veiga

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspite of Etythrina species exhibit morphologic attributes for adaptation to pollination by nectarivorous birds mentioned in the literature, E. speciosa is pollinated by lots of bees (Apinae and Meliponinae which show a great urban occurrence. Systems of E. speciosa floral reproduction, fenology, diversity, frequency and constancy of insects visiting at different hours and flowering periods were studied. E. speciosa is Biocompatible, but xenogamy is the predominant system of reproduction. A large diversity of insects visiting the inflorescences was observed, with predominance of bees. The bee species showed a higher frequency: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (45,0 %, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (28,6%, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (12,2 % and the ant Zacryptoceruspusillus Klug, 1824 (2,8 %. Constant but not frequent were the bees (Apidae Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900, Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, 1900, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, the wasps (Vespidae Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896, Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure, 1854, Agelaia pallipes (Olivier. 1791, the ant (Formicidae Pseudomyrmex sp. and the beetle (Chrysomelidae Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. E. speciosa flowers were visited by hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, Clorostilbon aureoventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 and Amazilia sp. The birds Passer domeslicus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ploceidae and Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758 (Emberizidac, also are present. The frequency and insect distribution were influenced by ambiental factors. Temperature, light, time, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity were significantly correlated with insect numbers. There is a visit sequence, by floral resource disponibility during the day, conditioned by transport ability, insect numbers and colony necessity, which begins by A. mellifera followed by meliponid bees. These bees make the pollination when they collect the pollen. There is a great animal variety which are sustained by flowers. It is suggested that E. speciosa is one important food source for urban fauna in winter, and so it should be utilized more frequently in streets, parks and gardens arborization.

  18. ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS DE CAESALPINIA ECHINATA LAM. EM HIDROPONIA

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    Sérgio Valiengo Valeri

    2012-01-01

    ethanol solution containing 0, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg L-1 of IBA during 5 seconds. The cuttings were maintained in the hydroponic system for 90 days and, for additional 90 days in plastic bags containing substrate (Plantmax® under intermittent mist. After 90 and 180 days of rooting, the percentage of cuttings that survived, the rooting percentage and the number and length of adventious root were evaluated. Cuttings should be treated with IBA at 100 mg L-1 for 14 hours and placed to root in a hydroponic system.

  19. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2013-06-10

    Jun 10, 2013 ... (DMSO) to prepare different optimum concentration for studies. 2.1. .... HCl. The medium was filtered and sterilized using Millipore filtration assembly by 0.45 lm ... method of observing reciprocal exchange between sister chro-.

  20. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential of alcoholic extracts of C. bonducella against methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced genotoxicity. In this experiment we have used in vitro method i.e., human lymphocyte culture and in vivo method in bone marrow cells of albino mice, ...

  1. Comparação dos teores de cobre e zinco em leguminosas cruas e após serem processadas termicamente em meio salino e aquoso Evaluation of total amount of copper and zinc by legumes raw and thermally processed ina an aqueous and saline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. B. Andrade

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O cobre e o zinco participam de diversas reações no organismo, diretamente ou como co-fatores de enzimas, e são considerados essenciais. Avaliar os teores destes, em leguminosas cruas e após processamento térmico, permite um conhecimento do comportamento destes metais em meio salino e aquoso o que auxiliará no conhecimento do aproveitamento destes pelo organismo humano. Amostras de feijões preto, branco, carioquinha, manteiga, mulatinho, ervilha, lentilha e grão-de-bico, duas marcas de cada tipo e em dois lotes, foram analisadas quanto ao teor total de cobre e zinco quando cruas e processadas termicamente em meio salino e aquoso. A abertura das amostras foi feita por calcinação a 550ºC. As amostras que foram processadas termicamente, passaram por dessecação em estufa a 105ºC antes da calcinação. O teor total de cobre e zinco nas amostras foi determinado através da espectrometria de absorção atômica em chama. Na análise da rejeição de resultados foram aplicados o teste Dixon e o teste t de Student. Observou-se que, após o processamento térmico em meio salino ou aquoso, a maioria das amostras não teve perda significativa dos teores de cobre e zinco em relação às amostras cruas. Considerando que os teores médios do cobre e zinco nas amostras cruas foram, respectivamente, de 0,75mg% e 3,2mg% ao ser consumido uma porção média de leguminosas, cerca de 50g, a mesma fornece aproximadamente 19% e 10% das necessidades diárias de cobre e zinco, respectivamente, para um homem adulto segundo a R.D.A.Copper and zinc are considered essential oligoelements to human nutrition, taking part in several reactions either directly or as enzymatic co-fators. The amount of these elements in legumes, both raw and thermally processed in an aqueous and saline medium, provides an insight into their behavior, thus allowing an understanding of how these metals are best utilized by the human body. Two different commercial samples of raw and

  2. Chemical composition, “in vitro” digestibility and production of woody forage legumes cultivated in sandy soils Composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" e produção de biomassa de leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas cultivadas em solo arenoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimilson Volpe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional value and productivity of woody forage legumes Albizia lebbeck, Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium e Leucaena leucocephala, to be used in supplementation of cattle as a bank protein, five species in Quartzpisament were evaluated. The experiment was conducted from March 2006 to October 2007. The evaluations were carried out in two periods (rainy and dry, with two cuts by period. There was no difference in the accumulation of dry matter, in rainy period. In the dry evaluation, A. lebbeck and C. argentea were higher than the other legumes. The C. cajan was not recovered after the rainy period, which resulted in a low accumulation of dry matter in the dry period. The leaves of Albizia lebbeck showed the highest levels of crude protein in cuts evaluated (210 to 212 g/kg. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter in the leaves of A. lebbeck was significantly higher, with average values of 568g/kg. A. lebbeck, Cratylia argentea and Gliricidea sepium showed the highest content for digestibility of the thin stem. The A. lebbek and C. argentea presented higher accumulation of dry matter (19,3 and 24,3 t DM/ha, respectively and, still, the best values for the qualitative characteristics. Both species are the most promising and adapted to the formation of protein banks in these types of soils.Com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo e a produtividade das leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas: Albizia lebbeck (Albízia, Cajanus cajan (Feijão-Guandu, Cratylia argentea (Cratília, Gliricidia sepium (Gliricídia e Leucaena leucocephala (Leucena, a serem utilizadas na suplementação de bovinos como banco de proteína, conduziu-se um experimento em Neossolo Quartzarênico. O experimento foi realizado entre março de 2006 e outubro de 2007. As avaliações foram realizadas em dois períodos (chuvoso e seco, com dois cortes para cada período. Não houve diferença no acúmulo de matéria seca nos cortes do per

  3. Efeito do fósforo e do potássio sobre o desenvolvimento e a nodulação de três leguminosas anuais de estação fria Effect of phosphorus and potassium on development and nodulation of three cool season annual legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Holz Krolow

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de fósforo e potássio na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, comprimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular, escore e eficiência da nodulação de três leguminosas forrageiras anuais de estação fria. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg/dm³ de P2O5 e K (0,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg/dm³ de K2O, correspondendo a 0,0 (controle 1, 2, 3 e 4 vezes a recomendação da análise de solo, em vasos, com 8 kg de solo tipo Planossolo, unidade de mapeamento Pelotas. As leguminosas utilizadas foram: Trifolium resupinatum L. cv. Kyambro (trevo-persa, Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Woogenellup e Lotus subbiflorus Lag. cv. El Rincón. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5 x 5, com três repetições. O trabalho foi conduzido no período de maio a outubro de 2000, sendo os dados colhidos ao final do período experimental, aproximadamente 170 dias após a semeadura. A maioria das características estudadas não foi influenciada pela aplicação de potássio, e sim pela aplicação de fósforo. Para as variáveis relacionadas com produção (MS parte aérea e raízes, o trevo-persa foi a espécie mais produtiva. Para a nodulação, o trevo-subterrâneo e o Lotus El Rincón apresentaram maior eficiência e quantidade de nódulos.This experiment was established in greenhouse at Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, with the objective to evaluate the effects of different doses of phosphorus and potassium on dry matter production of aerial biomass and roots, length of above ground parts and roots and efficiency and score of nodulation of three cool season annual forage legumes. The treatments were five doses of P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg de P2O5/dm³ and K (00,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg de

  4. Organic material decomposition and nutrient dynamics in a mulch system enriched with leguminous trees in the Amazon Decomposição de material orgânico e dinâmica de nutrientes em um sistema de cobertura morta enriquecido com árvores leguminosas na Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Cattanio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The new techniques proposed for agriculture in the Amazon region include rotational fallow systems enriched with leguminous trees and the replacement of biomass burning by mulching. Decomposition and nutrient release from mulch were studied using fine-mesh litterbags with five different leguminous species and the natural fallow vegetation as control. Samples from each treatment were analyzed for total C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, lignin, cellulose content and soluble polyphenol at different sampling times over the course of one year. The decomposition rate constant varied with species and time. Weight loss from the decomposed litter bag material after 96 days was 30.1 % for Acacia angustissima, 32.7 % for Sclerolobium paniculatum, 33.9 % for Iinga edulis and the Fallow vegetation, 45.2 % for Acacia mangium and 63.6 % for Clitoria racemosa. Immobilization of N and P was observed in all studied treatments. Nitrogen mineralization was negatively correlated with phenol, C-to-N ratio, lignin + phenol/N ratio, and phenol/phosphorus ratios and with N content in the litterbag material. After 362 days of field incubation, an average (of all treatments, 3.3 % K, 32.2 % Ca and 22.4 % Mg remained in the mulch. Results confirm that low quality and high amount of organic C as mulch application are limiting for the quantity of energy available for microorganisms and increase the nutrient immobilization for biomass decomposition, which results in competition for nutrients with the crop plants.As novas técnicas propostas para a agricultura na Amazônia incluem sistema de rotação de capoeira enriquecido com árvores leguminosas e transformando a queima da biomassa em cobertura morta sobre o solo. A decomposição e a liberação de nutrientes da cobertura morta foram estudadas usando sacos de liteira com malha fina que continham cinco tratamentos com diferentes espécies de leguminosas em comparação a um tratamento-controle com vegetação natural. As amostras para

  5. Utilização de cama sobreposta de suínos e sobressemeadura de leguminosas para aumento da produção e qualidade de pastagem natural Swine deep bedding amendment and legume sod-seeding to increase production and quality of natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hentz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da fertilização com dois tipos de camas sobrepostas de suínos (CSS, à base de casca de arroz (CA e maravalha (MA, sobre a produção de uma pastagem natural, com predomínio de Axonopus sp. e Paspalum sp., sobressemeada com leguminosas (cornichão e trevo-branco. As camas sobrepostas foram aplicadas em quantidades equivalentes a 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg/ha de P2O5, constituindo quatro níveis de cama de casca de arroz (30, 60, 90 ou 120 t/ha e quatro níveis de cama de maravalha (20,6; 41,2; 62,2 ou 82,8 t/ha. Foram incluídos dois tratamentos-testemunha: 180 kg/ha de superfosfato triplo (SFT e ausência de adubação (AA. A sobressemeadura das leguminosas foi realizada em maio de 2004 e, a partir de agosto de 2004, foram realizados nove cortes da pastagem, a cada seis semanas. As maiores produções de matéria seca (MS anuais (setembro/2004 a agosto/2005 com as aplicações de cama de casca de arroz foram obtidas nos níveis 30 e 60 t/ha e, com cama de maravalha, nos níveis 62,2 e 82,8 t/ha, que resultaram em produções de MS de 8.083 e 8.276 kg/ha, superiores às obtidas com superfosfato triplo (4.091 kg MS/ha e sem adubação (3.071 MS kg/ha. A produção de MS de trevo-branco aumentou linearmente no outono e no inverno, de acordo com os níveis de adubação com cama de maravalha, mas não variaram com a adubação com cama de casca de arroz. O efeito fertilizante varia entre os tipos de cama sobreposta, que podem influenciar a composição botânica de pastagens mistas de leguminosas-gramíneas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of two swine deep beddings (SDB: rice husk (CA and sawdust coarse (MA on the production of natural pasture. The predominant species in this pasture were Axonopus sp. and Paspalum sp. that was sod-seeded with the forage legumes birdsfoot trefoil and white clover. The SDBs were applied in amounts equivalent to 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg/ha of P2O

  6. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [State University of Campinas - UNICAMP/FEC (Brazil); Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil); Silva Medeiros, Jean Gabriel [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Tomazello Filho, Mario Tomazello [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza [University of Sao Paulo - USP/FCFRP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [University of Sao Paulo - USP/CENA (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark.

  7. A study on temporal variation of elemental composition in tree barks used as air pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: eliane_csantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The study of air pollution using biological matrices has shown that tree barks may be used as biomonitor due to accumulation of aerosol particles on its porous surface. The bark elemental composition can provide information on pollution sources as well as characterize the aerial pollutants from a wide geographical region. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in elemental composition in barks with time of exposure. Tree barks from Tipuana (Tipuana tipu) and Sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides) species were collected in February 2013 and July 2014 in the city of São Paulo. For analysis, the barks were cleaned, grated, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of samples and synthetic standards of elements were irradiated with thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and after a suitable decay time, the induced gamma activities were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The elements As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined and the results indicated variability in the concentrations depending on the element, sampling period and also on tree species, indicating that there are not very well defined temporal trends. The quality control of the analytical results evaluated by analyzing INCT Virginia Tobacco Leaves certified reference material (CRM) presented values of |z-score| < 2, indicating that the procedure of NAA applied is suitable for the analyses. (author)

  8. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa; Moreira, Silvana; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo; Silva Medeiros, Jean Gabriel; Tomazello Filho, Mario Tomazello; Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark

  9. A study on temporal variation of elemental composition in tree barks used as air pollution indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2015-01-01

    The study of air pollution using biological matrices has shown that tree barks may be used as biomonitor due to accumulation of aerosol particles on its porous surface. The bark elemental composition can provide information on pollution sources as well as characterize the aerial pollutants from a wide geographical region. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in elemental composition in barks with time of exposure. Tree barks from Tipuana (Tipuana tipu) and Sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides) species were collected in February 2013 and July 2014 in the city of São Paulo. For analysis, the barks were cleaned, grated, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of samples and synthetic standards of elements were irradiated with thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and after a suitable decay time, the induced gamma activities were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The elements As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined and the results indicated variability in the concentrations depending on the element, sampling period and also on tree species, indicating that there are not very well defined temporal trends. The quality control of the analytical results evaluated by analyzing INCT Virginia Tobacco Leaves certified reference material (CRM) presented values of |z-score| < 2, indicating that the procedure of NAA applied is suitable for the analyses. (author)

  10. Soil mineral N dynamics beneath mixtures of leaves from legume and fruit trees in Central Amazonian multi-strata agroforests Dinâmica do nitrogênio mineral no solo em misturas de folhas de leguminosas arbóreas e de fruteiras em sistemas agroflorestais multiestratificados na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Melanie Schwendener

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term applications of leguminous green mulch could increase mineralizable nitrogen (N beneath cupuaçu trees produced on the infertile acidic Ultisols and Oxisols of the Amazon Basin. However, low quality standing cupuaçu litter could interfere with green mulch N release and soil N mineralization. This study compared mineral N, total N, and microbial biomass N beneath cupuaçu trees grown in two different agroforestry systems, north of Manaus, Brazil, following seven years of different green mulch application rates. To test for net interactions between green mulch and cupuaçu litter, dried gliricidia and inga leaves were mixed with senescent cupuaçu leaves, surface applied to an Oxisol soil, and incubated in a greenhouse for 162 days. Leaf decomposition, N release and soil N mineralization were periodically measured in the mixed species litter treatments and compared to single species applications. The effect of legume biomass and cupuaçu litter on soil mineral N was additive implying that recommendations for green mulch applications to cupuaçu trees can be based on N dynamics of individual green mulch species. Results demonstrated that residue quality, not quantity, was the dominant factor affecting the rate of N release from leaves and soil N mineralization in a controlled environment. In the field, complex N cycling and other factors, including soil fauna, roots, and microclimatic effects, had a stronger influence on available soil N than residue quality.Aplicações a longo prazo de leguminosas como adubo verde podem aumentar o nitrogênio (N mineralizável sob árvores de cupuaçu em solos pouco férteis e ácidos (Ultisols e Oxisols da Bacia Amazônica. Entretanto, a baixa qualidade da liteira de cupuaçu pode influênciara liberação de N do adubo verde e a mineralização deste no solo. Neste estudo foram comparados o N mineral, N total, e o N da biomassa microbiana sob árvores de cupuaçu cultivadas em dois sistemas

  11. Arrowleaf Clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: A New Species of Annual Legumes for High Rainfall Areas of the Mediterranean Climate Zone of Chile Trébol Vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: Una Nueva Especie de Leguminosa Anual para Áreas de Alta Precipitación en la Zona Mediterránea de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ovalle M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines the main attributes and agronomic characteristics of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi and its incorporation into production systems in dryland areas of the Andean foothills of the humid Mediterranean climate zone of Chile. It is a new species of annual legume in Chile for light and medium textured soils. The root system can reach a depth of 1.5 m and its seeds have a high percentage of hardseedness (99.8%. It is an upright plant, with purplish-white flowers. The mature plant has large arrow-shaped leaves up to 50 mm long, often marked with a large white “V”. Dry matter and seed production in the Andean foothills is high (3.9-8.8 t DM ha-1 and 700-900 kg ha-1, respectively, surpassing the productivity of sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mount Barker and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.. However, DM production in the second year was lower, possibly because the high percentage of hardseedness inhibited plant emergence. The phenological records and productive performance suggest that arrowleaf clover could contribute to improving pastoral production in dryland areas with annual rainfall levels of more than 800 mm, such as the Andean foothills in the central-southern region of Chile.En la presente revisión se examinan los principales atributos y características agronómicas del trébol vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi y su eventual incorporación a sistemas de producción en la precordillera andina de la zona de clima mediterráneo húmedo de Chile. Se trata de una nueva especie de leguminosa forrajera anual para suelos de textura liviana y media. El sistema radical puede alcanzar 1,5 m de profundidad y las semillas tienen un alto porcentaje de dureza seminal (99,8%. Es una planta de crecimiento erecto, flores de color blanco con una leve coloración púrpura. Las plantas adultas tienen grandes hojas con forma de flecha de más de 50 mm de largo, a menudo muestran una marca blanca en

  12. Fixação biológica e transferência de nitrogênio por leguminosas em pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicia Miranda Paulino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN e a transferência do N derivado da FBN das espécies leguminosas - gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-guandu anão (Cajanus cajan - para um pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira, pelo método da abundância natural de N. Foram avaliados os seguintes sistemas de cultivos consorciados: mangueira e gravioleira com gliricídia; mangueira e gravioleira com crotalária; mangueira e gravioleira com feijão-guandu; e a testemunha mangueira e gravioleira. Agliricídia apresentou maior potencial de FBN (80%, seguida da crotalária (64,5% e feijão-guandu (45%. Em dois cortes, a crotalária forneceu 149,5 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 96,5kg derivados da FBN. A gliricídia com três podas anuais forneceu 56,4 e 80,3 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 45 e 64 kg derivados da FBN, em dois anos consecutivos. A quantidade de N fornecida foi superior à demandada pela mangueira e gravioleira. Variações na abundância natural de 15N foram detectadas somente na gravioleira. Gliricídia e crotalária destacaram-se na transferência de N, com cerca de 22,5 e 40% do N fixado, respectivamente. A adubação verde com gliricídia possibilita o parcelamento do N, com melhor aproveitamento pelas espécies frutíferas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia, Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following intercropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80% , followed by sunnhemp (64.5% and pigeon pea (45%. After two sunnhemp prunes, 149

  13. Two new species of Callerya Endl. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirichamon, Yotsawate; Balslev, Henrik; Mathapa, Sawai

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Callerya (Endl.); C. chlorantha and C. tennaserimensis are illustrated and described. They are commonly found in dry deciduous or bamboo forest in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi province, South-western Thailand. It was also found that C. chlorantha might be associated...... with limestone habitat. Callerya chlorantha is characterized by its greenish flowers, which is relatively uncommon among species of this genus. Callerya tennaserimensis is characterized by its glabrous leaves and stems and rather small, purplish or maroonish flowers with golden-brown hairs on calyx and abaxial...

  14. Morphological and micromorphological characteristics of Desmodium fruits (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane M. Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomentaceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM; and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicel- lular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit.

  15. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfuração simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3-seriados e fibras libriformes separadas. A preseça de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na séire Vulgares Benth.,  que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  16. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. ofLeguminosae is a lofty tree ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native natural strands of this tree are fast disappearing due to over exploitation. This has led to inclusion of this plant in the list of endangered species. Extracts of tender vegetative regions of this plant are used as remedy for diarrhoea, dysentery, fever and toothache. The aqueous infusion of the wood is believed to ...

  17. Assessing the biological potential of N2-fixing Leguminosae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... legume genotypes or host/strain combinations for increased plant growth would help identify superior symbiotic ... are highly leached acidic soils (85% sand) with low ... quently, identifying crop species that are adapted to low.

  18. Chemical constituents of leaves from Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Souza, Alex Fonseca; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Abot, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), 1,2-di-O-α-linolenoy1-3-O-α-D-galactopyranosy1 -(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+)-catechin and the dimer (+)-catechin-(4β-8)-catechin, glutinol, squalene, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, β-carotene, a-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and based on literature data. (author)

  19. Eocene Podocarpium (Leguminosae) from South China and its biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Qiu, Jue; Zhou, Zhekun; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger is one of the most common legumes in the Neogene of Eurasia, including fossil fruits, seeds, leaves, and possible flower and pollen grains. This genus is not completely consistent with any extant genera according to gross morphological characters and poorly preserved cuticular structures reported in previous studies. The fossil pods collected from the coal-bearing series of the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island and Maoming Basin of Guangdong, South China, are examined by morphologically comparative work, with special reference to venation patterns and placental position. These distinctive features, as well as the ovule development of pods from different developmental stages and the epidermal structure of the pods, as distinguished from previous records lead to the conclusion that these fossils can be recognized as a new species of Podocarpium, P. eocenicum sp. nov. This new discovery indicates that Podocarpium had arrived in South China by the Eocene. Investigation on the fossil records of this extinct genus shows that P. eocenicum is the earliest and lowest latitude fossil data. The possible occurrence pattern of this genus is revealed as follows: Podocarpium had distributed in the South China at least in the middle Eocene, and then migrated to Europe during the Oligocene; in the Miocene this genus reached its peak in Eurasia, spreading extensively across subtropical areas to warm temperate areas; finally, Podocarpium shrank rapidly and became extinct in Eurasia during the Pliocene.

  20. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  1. Bellulicauda dialii on Dialium guianense (Leguminosae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Olinto L.; Bosquetti, Lorrayne B.; Barreto, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first report of Bellulicauda dialii on Dialium guianense leaves, and the second record of this fungus, previously known only from Africa (Sierra Leone). Bellulicauda dialii é relatado pela primeira vez em folhas de Dialium guianense. Trata-se do segundo registro dessa espécie fúngica, anteriormente conhecida apenas do Continente Africano (Serra Leoa).

  2. Una nueva especie de Adesmia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae para la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A. Ulibarri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Adesmia australis (serie Frigidae, una nueva especie de la provincia de Santa Cruz, que se distingue de su especie más afín, A. frigida, por el número y tamaño de los folíolos, el tamaño de las flores y estípulas isomorfas.

  3. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Acacia nitidifolia Speg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae. Wood anatomy of Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Speg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfurações simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3 seriados e fibras libriformes septadas. A presença de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na série Vulgares Benth., que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  4. Chemical constituents of leaves from Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae); Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Souza, Alex Fonseca; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMGS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Aquidauana

    2012-07-01

    A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), 1,2-di-O-{alpha}-linolenoy1-3-O-{alpha}-D-galactopyranosy1 -(1{yields}6)-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+)-catechin and the dimer (+)-catechin-(4{beta}-8)-catechin, glutinol, squalene, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, {beta}-carotene, a-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and based on literature data. (author)

  5. Ruminal degradability and carbohydrates and proteins fractioning of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumesDegradabilidade ruminal e fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas em silagens de triticale em cultivo singular ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Calixto Junior

    2011-07-01

    misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. Os tratamentos foram: silagem triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack (ST; silagem de triticale + ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense (STE; silagem de triticale + aveia (Avena strigosa Scheb + ervilha forrageira + ervilhaca (Vicia sativa (STAE. Foram utilizados três machos bovinos castrados da raça Holandesa, com peso vivo médio de 300 kg, portadores de cânula ruminal. Os tempos de incubação empregados tiveram a duração de 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h. As frações a, c e a DE da MS da silagem STAE foram maiores (30,33; 0,026 e 45,45% em relação às demais silagens. A fração b da MS da silagem ST foi maior (58,45% em relação às silagens STE (45,36% e STAE (44,37%. Na PB a silagem ST apresentou maior fração a (72,12%. Na fração potencialmente degradável (b da PB não houve diferença entre tratamentos. A taxa de degradação (c da PB foi maior para a silagem STE (0,063% em relação à silagem ST (0,012%, porém esta foi semelhante à STAE (0,045%. A DE da PB foi melhor na silagem STE (77,71%. A silagem ST apresentou fração a e b da FDN maior (8,62 e 81,99% em relação às outras silagens. A taxa de degradação (c da FDN foi maior para STAE (0,027%. A DE da FDN não apresentou diferença entre tratamentos. A silagem ST apresentou os melhores valores dos carboidratos totais (83,97% em relação às silagens STE (79,87% e STAE (76,77%. As silagens STE e STAE apresentaram melhor degradabilidade da matéria seca e sugerem ser potencial fonte de proteína não-degradável no rúmen. A silagem exclusiva de triticale mostrou-se superior com relação à degradabilidade da fração fibrosa, apresentando também maior quantidade de carboidratos totais potencialmente degradáveis.

  6. Análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de árboles urbanos de un barrio de Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Borgiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El rápido crecimiento de las ciudades ha dado lugar a varios problemas ambientales. Buscando minimizar estos problemas, la arborización en el medio urbano pasó a ser indispensable y se considera un parámetro de calidad de vida de la población. En este contexto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo diagnosticar la situación de la arborización urbana en el barrio Jardín Brasil en Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil, a través de un levantamiento cualitativo y cuantitativo de las especies arbóreas presentes. Fue posible registrar 23 familias y 41 especies en un total de 510 individuos de los cuales 11 estaban muertos. El barrio tiene una diversidad relativamente baja y la mayoría de las especies encontradas son exóticas (60,98%. Las especies más comunes son: Licania tomentosa (31,87%, Caesalpinia peltophoroides (11,16%, Lagerstroemia indica (9,56%, Murraya paniculata (6,57% y Terminalia catappa (5,98%. Gran parte de los problemas encontrados son el resultado de no planificar la silvicultura urbana, lo que termina generando conflicto con el cableado eléctrico y la construcción. Entre tanto, fueron pocos los casos de conflictos con el alumbrado público y las señales de tránsito. Se destacó también el gran número de individuos arbóreos atacados por termitas y hormigas (59,34%. Investigaciones como ésta son útiles para la toma de decisiones y la planificación de los árboles urbanos de una ciudad.

  7. Rede de distribuição de energia elétrica e arborização viária: o caso da Cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.8405

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Luiz Domingos De Angelis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a interação entre a arborização de acompanhamento viário e a rede de distribuição de energia elétrica de alta tensão e, ao mesmo tempo, avaliar as espécies arbóreas utilizadas na cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, em uma área específica - Zona 7. Essa área foi escolhida tendo em vista as particularidades locais, como a utilização de árvores de grande porte e os diferentes tipos de rede de energia (convencional e compacta para alta tensão e convencional e isolada para baixa tensão. Constatou-se que as espécies arbóreas de grande porte são predominantes, como Caesalpinia peltophoroides e Tipuana tipu, que representam, respectivamente, 32,92 e 30,79% da arborização total. Como resultado final tem-se a minimização dos impactos causados pela arborização sobre a rede de energia elétrica, visto que os indicadores da qualidade do fornecimento de energia elétrica melhoraram em até 80%. Os custos de manutenção da rede diminuíram sensivelmente, e a qualidade da arborização, sobretudo pela redução nas podas, apresentou melhoras consideráveis, comprovando a eficácia da rede compacta protegida quando comparada às demais.

  8. Antioxidant potential of hydrolyzed polyphenolic extracts from tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambi, F.; Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of tara pod extracts rich in gallotannins submitted to chemical hydrolysis was evaluated. The increase in the release of gallic acid from the tara pod extracts during the hydrolysis process reached a maximum ratio of free gallic acid/total phenolics of 94.1% at 20 h, at

  9. Biological Activities of Libidibia (Caesalpinia) ferrea var. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul.) L. P. Queiroz Pod Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A C C; Ximenes, N C A; Aguiar, J S; Nascimento, S C; Lins, T U L; Magalhães, L R; Coelho, L C B B; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M G; Gonçalves-Silva, T; Correia, M T S

    2012-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea has been used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, and this study evaluated the biological activities of crude extract (CE) as well as a partially purified fraction (F80) obtained from its pods. Results from the MTT assay revealed that only F80 inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth; however, neither CE nor F80 reduced HEp-2 cell growth or sarcoma 180 tumor weight with the in vivo assay. Acute oral toxicity of the extract and fraction was evaluated following the steps of Guideline 423, using female mice; LD(50) for both preparations was determined as 2,500 mg/kg body weight. CE and F80 promoted a reduction of the leukocyte number and nitrite level in inflammatory exudates when the anti-inflammatory assay (carrageenan-induced peritonitis) was performed. CE and F80 inhibited writhing regarding antinociceptive activity (acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice). In conclusion, CE and F80 have no significant cytotoxic or antitumor activities in cell lines showing low toxicity and no action against tumors in vivo. Both preparations revealed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, corroborating the pharmacological basis of L. ferrea for ethnomedical use.

  10. Biological Activities of Libidibia (Caesalpinia) ferrea var. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul.) L. P. Queiroz Pod Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, A. C. C.; Ximenes, N. C. A.; Aguiar, J. S.; Nascimento, S. C.; Lins, T. U. L.; Magalhães, L. R.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. G.; Gonçalves-Silva, T.; Correia, M. T. S.

    2012-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea has been used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, and this study evaluated the biological activities of crude extract (CE) as well as a partially purified fraction (F80) obtained from its pods. Results from the MTT assay revealed that only F80 inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth; however, neither CE nor F80 reduced HEp-2 cell growth or sarcoma 180 tumor weight with the in vivo assay. Acute oral toxicity of the extract and fraction was evaluated following the steps of Guideline 423...

  11. Potential of tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) gallotannins and hydrolysates as natural antibacterial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Galvez, Ana; Noratto, Giuliana; Chambi, Flor; Debaste, Frédéric; Campos, David

    2014-08-01

    Gallotannins obtained from tara pod extracts (EE) and from the products of acid hydrolysis for 4 and 9h (HE-4 and HE-9) were characterised for their composition, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity (AA) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results of AA and MIC showed that EE exerted the highest inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens; and among these bacteria, the antibacterial potency was enhanced after EE hydrolysis only against S. aureus. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (0.13mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/ml) was exerted by HE-4 against S. aureus. These results indicate that tara gallotannins have the potential to inhibit pathogenic bacteria with potential application in foods as antimicrobials and their AA can be enhanced by acid hydrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulyanto, Subur, E-mail: subur.mulyanto@poltekba.ac.id [Graduate Program of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Balikpapan, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km.8 Balikpapan (Indonesia); Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi, E-mail: rendy.ar@gmail.com; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Hadi, Syamsul, E-mail: syamsulhadi@ft.uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Wibowo, Atmanto Heru, E-mail: aheruwibowo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  13. PEMUNGUTAN BRAZILIN DARI KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L DENGAN METODE MASERASI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PEWARNAAN KAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pembuatan zat warna alami dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol dan aquades, variasi volume pelarut yang digunakan 75, 150, dan 250 ml. Variasi waktu perendaman 6, 12, 24, dan 48 jam. Serbuk zat warna alami Brazilin dianalisis dengan FTIR dan diaplikasikan pada kain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin lama waktu ekstraksi dan volume pelarut yang digunakan, maka rendemen yang dihasilkan semakin banyak. Rendemen serbuk brazilin maksimal sebesar 6,316% pada waktu ekstraksi 48 jam menggunakan volume pelarut etanol 250 ml. Gugus fungsi brazilin memiliki ikatan tertentu diantaranya C-H, O-H, C-O, C=O, C=C alkena. Adanya gugus fungsi –OH menunjukkan adanya senyawa brazilin. Serbuk brazilin diaplikasikan pada kain dengan teknik celup, zat pengikat seperti tawas, kapur, dan tunjung mempengaruhi kenampakan warna yang dihasilkan pada kain.Kata kunci : zat warna, ekstraksi, maserasi, brazilin, teknik celup. A production of natural dyes can be done by maceration method with using ethanol solvent and distilled water (aquadest, variations of solvent volumes which used were 75, 150, and 250 ml. Soaking times variations were 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Brazilin natural dye powder was analyzed by FTIR and applied to industry. The research results showed the longer of the extraction time and the volume of the used solvents, resulted in the higher yield. Yield of Brazilin powder maximum was 6.316% on the extraction time during 48 hours with using ethanol solvent of 250 ml. Functional groups of Brazilin have specific bond among CH, OH, CO, C = O, C = C alkenes. The existence of the functional groups -OH indicates the brazilin compound. Brazilin powder was applied to industry with dye techniques, binding agents such as alum, lime, and lotus (tunjung which affected the appearance of the fabric color.Keyword : natural dyes, extraction, maceration, brazilin, dye technique.

  14. Efeito de Fatores Ambientais no Crescimento de Mudas de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar F.A. Aguiar

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento conduzido no Insituto de Botânica, em São Paulo (SP, foram observados os efeitos de condições ambientais sobre o crescimento de mudas de pau-brasil. Três níveis de luminosidade e dois de temperatura foram combinados para obter os ambientes de crescimento dessas mudas. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de quatro ambientes: a casa de vegetação, com sombreamento de 50%; b pleno-sol, em ambiente aberto; c ripado, com 50% de sombreamento e d telado, com 80% de sombreamento. Em cada ambiente foram colocadas mudas de C. echinata com 17 meses de idade e, nessa época e após 12 e 24 meses, avaliaram-se a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do caule à altura do colo e o número de folhas por planta. Os resultados mostraram aumento na velocidade de crescimento de mudas sombreadas, quando o sombreamento foi de até 50%. Entretanto, as mudas sombreadas em ambiente aberto (ripado cresceram mais rapidamente em altura, não tendo o mesmo aumento na velocidade de crescimento para diâmetro do caule e para número de folhas. Já nas mudas em casa de vegetação, também sombreadas em 50%, o aumento na velocidade de crescimento foi mais equilibrado. O sombreamento de 80% mostrou-se prejudicial ao crescimento das mudas, diminuindo a velocidade de crescimento dos três parâmetros avaliados.

  15. The representation of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood in Sixteenth-and-Seventeenth-Century Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri T. Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilwood was the first product found in Terra de Santa Cruz, and the first explored by Portuguese colonization of Brazil. This study aims at the Occidental Cartography and the historical files represented by Portugal's interest on mapping the marketed product found in Brazil. There presentation of Brazilwood in maps was possible due to scientific advancements, new land discoveries, and technological improvement during the 15th century, which all have taken cartography to a whole new period, stressing Portuguese hegemony in Asia and in the New World. The goal of this research was to identify and analyze maps from 16th and 17th centuries that represented the geographical distribution of Brazilwood, and its trade. Brazilwood was represented in many maps by illumination and detailed by different cartographers. The maps and other evidence for this research were found in historical files held in both Brazil and Portugal.O pau-brasil foi o primeiro produto encontrado na Terra de Santa Cruz e o primeiro a ser explorado pela colonização portuguesa no Brasil. Este estudo enfocou a Cartografia Ocidental e os arquivos históricos que representassem o interesse de Portugal em mapear esse produto comercial encontrado no Brasil. A representação do pau-brasil nos mapas foi possível devido aos avanços científicos, aos descobrimentos de novas terras e aos avanços tecnológicos alcançados durante o século XV, os quais deram à cartografia um papel de destaque no novo período, enfatizando a hegemonia Portuguesa na Ásia e no Novo Mundo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e analisar os mapas dos séculos XVI e XVII que representassem a distribuição geográfica do pau-brasil e seu comércio. O pau-brasil foi representado em muitos mapas por iluminuras e detalhes feitos por diferentes cartógrafos. Os mapas e outras fontes presentes nesta pesquisa foram encontrados nos arquivos históricos sediados em ambos os países, Brasil e Portugal.

  16. Protease Inhibitors Extracted from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Affect Kinin Release during Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Cruz-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an essential process in many pulmonary diseases in which kinins are generated by protease action on kininogen, a phenomenon that is blocked by protease inhibitors. We evaluated kinin release in an in vivo lung inflammation model in rats, in the presence or absence of CeKI (C. echinata kallikrein inhibitor, a plasma kallikrein, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 inhibitor, and rCeEI (recombinant C. echinata elastase inhibitor, which inhibits these proteases and also neutrophil elastase. Wistar rats were intravenously treated with buffer (negative control or inhibitors and, subsequently, lipopolysaccharide was injected into their lungs. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and lung tissue were collected. In plasma, kinin release was higher in the LPS-treated animals in comparison to CeKI or rCeEI groups. rCeEI-treated animals presented less kinin than CeKI-treated group. Our data suggest that kinins play a pivotal role in lung inflammation and may be generated by different enzymes; however, neutrophil elastase seems to be the most important in the lung tissue context. These results open perspectives for a better understanding of biological process where neutrophil enzymes participate and indicate these plant inhibitors and their recombinant correlates for therapeutic trials involving pulmonary diseases.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto, Subur; Suyitno,; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda; Hadi, Syamsul; Wibowo, Atmanto Heru

    2016-01-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  18. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherien Kamal Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract effectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  19. Kinetics of solute leachate from imbibing Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Martini Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of leachates from imbibing seeds has been used as a vigor test for several species. The adaptation of this methodology to different species requires knowledge on the leaching kinetics of electrolytes. For Brazilwood seeds, the classic method was not satisfactory and rapid tests are essential because they have low storage capacity at room temperature. Leaching kinetics during seed imbibition is a function of physiological quality, presence or absence of seed coat, imbibing temperature and the initial moisture content of seed. In this study, the electrolyte leaching rate of six different categories of seeds, from two regions, was evaluated in seeds with and without seed coat and incubated with different moisture contents and at different temperatures. The results showed that the electrolyte leaching rate in Brazilwood seeds is independent of the physiological quality, the presence or absence of seed coat and imbibition temperature, but these factors changed the total amount of electrolytes leached. The leaching rate increased in the first few minutes of imbibition, suggesting that the adjustment of the methodology must consider the reduction in imbibition time, reduction in temperature, use of a controlled and slower pre-imbibition, and replacement of the imbibition solution after the first few minutes.

  20. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo; o pecíolo, que possui dois pulvinos, um proximal e um distai, apresenta epiderme contendo grande quantidade de tricomas tecto res simples e glândulas; a lâmina foliar é anfiestomática com predomínio de estômatos dos tipos anomocítico e paracítico; a epiderme adaxial é monoestratificada, subpapilosa, desprovida de tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; a epiderme abaxial é subpapilosa, apresentando numerosos tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; e o mesofilo é formado predominantemente por parênquima paliçádico.A morphological and anatomical study of Bauhinia curvula Benth. leaf, a cerrado spe-cies, was perfomed. The observations, in grown up leaves, prepared according to the costumary methodology used in plant anatomy, showed the following characteristics of the species: bilobed leaves with foliar incision close to the motor region; one pair of membranaceous stipules; one pair of extrafloral nectaries located on the basis of the proximal pulvinus; acrodromous patterns of leaf venetion; the petiole, which has two pulvinus, one proximal and one distal, has an epidermis containing large quantities of simple tector trichomes and glands; the leaf blade, amphiestomatic, with predominance of anomocytic and paracytic stomata; the adaxial epidermis uniserial, sub papillose, without tector trichomes and glands; the abaxial epiderms, sub-papillose, presents a high number of simple trichomes and glands; and the mesophyll with a basic composition of palisadic parenchyma.

  1. Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae nos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, MG, Brasil Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae in "Campos Rupestres" of Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Ferreira Dutra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste do estudo florístico de Caesalpinioideae dos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (PEI, localizado no sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço. As coletas foram mensais, no período entre setembro/2003 e outubro/2004. Foram encontradas 13 espécies de Caesalpinioideae, reunidas em três gêneros: Bauhinia, Chamaecrista e Senna. O gênero Chamaecrista foi o que mais se destacou em número de espécies. Foram elaboradas chaves para identificação das espécies, além de diagnoses, ilustrações e comentários sobre afinidades, distribuição geográfica e fenologia das mesmas.This work consists of a floristic study of the Caesalpinioideae in "Campos Rupestres" at Itacolomi State Park, southern Espinhaço Range. Collections were carried out monthly from September 2003 to October 2004. Thirteen species of Caesalpinioideae belonging to three genera were found: Bauhinia, Chamaecrista and Senna. The genus Chamaecrista had the highest number of species. Species identification keys are presented, as well as descriptions, illustrations and comments on morphological relationships, geographic distribution and phenology.

  2. Revisão taxonômica de Myrocarpus Allemão (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae Taxonomic revision of Myrocarpus Allemão (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae

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    Ângela L.B. Sartori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Em Myrocarpus, gênero exclusivamente sul-americano, são reconhecidas cinco espécies: Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão, M. leprosus Pickel, M. venezuelensis Rudd, M. fastigiatus Allemãoe M. emarginatus A.L.B. Sartori & A.M.G. Azevedo. Na delimitação das espécies são discutidos dados de morfologia, hábitats e de distribuição geográfica. A morfologia das pétalas e a ornamentação da região seminífera são caracteres relevantes na identificação das espécies, embora não utilizados até o presente. Este estudo apresenta chave de identificação das espécies, descrições, ilustrações, mapa de distribuição e novos registros de ocorrência.In Myrocarpus, an exclusively South American genus, five species are recognised: Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão, M. leprosus Pickel, M. venezuelensis Rudd, M. fastigiatus Allemãoand M. emarginatus A.L.B. Sartori & A.M.G. Azevedo. Morphologic data, habitat information and geographic distribution of each taxon are discussed. Petal morphology and ornamentation of seed chamber are an important character for species identification, though not shown previously. Key to the species, descriptions, illustrations, distribution, and new registers are presented.

  3. Estrutura do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Phytossociological survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Forest, in Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º54'10"S e 43º12'27"W tem área total de 80 ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil no município do Rio de Janeiro. A estrutura deste importante fragmento florestal foi estudada utilizando-se o método dos quadrantes. Foram alocados 200 pontos amostrais e o critério de inclusão foi de 15 cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m acima do solo. Nos 200 pontos amostrados foram encontradas 44 espécies distribuídas em 36 gêneros e 22 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram maiores valores de importância (VI foram Solanaceae (com 34,1% do VI, Leguminosae (Mimosoideae com 16,4%, Papilionoideae com 7,9% e Caesalpinioideae com 2,1%, Nyctaginaceae (13%, Anacardiaceae (6,5% e Flacourtiaceae (6,1%. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos na área apresentaram também maior VI: Metternichia princeps Mik. (com 40,4% dos indivíduos e 33,7% do VI, Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (9,3 e 12,6%, Guapira hirsuta (Choisy Lundell (7,5 e 7,8%, Astronium fraxinifolium Schott ex Spreng. (5,6 e 5,7%. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. apresentou 2,4% dos indivíduos amostrados e 2,1% do VI. A distribuição diamétrica da comunidade, assim como da maioria das principais populações, apresentou grande número de indivíduos nas menores classes, decrescendo gradualmente. Este fato reflete uma abundante regeneração da maioria das espécies amostradas.The Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra da Capoeira Grande is a 80 ha site and one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality where Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood occurs naturally. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH ³ 15 cm and a total of 200 points were surveyed. 44 species were identified, belonging to 36 genera and 22 botanical families The families with the higher

  4. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) 17. The genus Dalbergia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.; Ohashi, H.; Sunarno, B.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic treatment of the genus Dalbergia for the Flora Malesiana (FM) region is presented. The treatment includes a genus description, two keys to the species, an enumeration of the species present in the FM-area with names and synonyms, details of distribution, habitat and ecology and where

  5. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). 1. The genus Erythrina L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1996-01-01

    Erythrina L. is reviewed for the Flora Malesiana region. Six species are recognised. Erythrina merrilliana is reduced to E. insularis and E. microcarpa Koord. & Valeton to E. stricta. A key to the species is presented.

  6. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) 16. The genus Mucuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiriadinata, H.; Ohashi, H.; Adema, F.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Mucuna is revised for the Flora Malesiana region. Several characters are discussed in some detail. The subdivision of the genus is discussed. We accept two subgenera: subg. Mucuna and subg. Stizolobium. Several groups of species showing similarity in some characters are discussed. A

  7. New Biogeographic insight into Bauhinia s.l. (Leguminosae): integration from fossil records and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hong-Hu; Jacques, Frédéric Mb; Su, Tao; Huang, Yong-Jiang; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Ma, Hong-Jie; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2014-08-10

    Given that most species that have ever existed on earth are extinct, it stands to reason that the evolutionary history can be better understood with fossil taxa. Bauhinia is a typical genus of pantropical intercontinental disjunction among the Asian, African, and American continents. Geographic distribution patterns are better recognized when fossil records and molecular sequences are combined in the analyses. Here, we describe a new macrofossil species of Bauhinia from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan County, Southeast Yunnan, China, and elucidate the biogeographic significance through the analyses of molecules and fossils. Morphometric analysis demonstrates that the leaf shapes of B. acuminata, B. championii, B. chalcophylla, B. purpurea, and B. podopetala closely resemble the leaf shapes of the new finding fossil. Phylogenetic relationships among the Bauhinia species were reconstructed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference, which inferred that species in Bauhinia species are well-resolved into three main groups. Divergence times were estimated by the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method under a relaxed clock, and inferred that the stem diversification time of Bauhinia was ca. 62.7 Ma. The Asian lineage first diverged at ca. 59.8 Ma, followed by divergence of the Africa lineage starting during the late Eocene, whereas that of the neotropical lineage starting during the middle Miocene. Hypotheses relying on vicariance or continental history to explain pantropical disjunct distributions are dismissed because they require mostly Palaeogene and older tectonic events. We suggest that Bauhinia originated in the middle Paleocene in Laurasia, probably in Asia, implying a possible Tethys Seaway origin or an "Out of Tropical Asia", and dispersal of legumes. Its present pantropical disjunction resulted from disruption of the boreotropical flora by climatic cooling after the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) seem the most plausible route for migration of Bauhinia from Asia to America; and additional aspects of the Bauhinia species distribution are explained by migration and long distance dispersal (LDD) from Eurasia to the African and American continents.

  8. Glands on the foliar surfaces of tribe Cercideae (Caesapiniodeae, Leguminosae: distribution and taxonomic significance

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    JOAQUIM M. DUARTE-ALMEIDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large elongated glands occur on Cercideae leaf surfaces. Leaves of Bauhinia (55 taxa, 53 species, Cercis (1 species, Phanera (1 species, Piliostigma (2 species, Schnella (19 species and Tylosema (1 species were observed to determine location and relative number of glands. They were only observed on the abaxial leaf surface of 42 Bauhinia taxa. The glands were analyzed by light stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. They are large (up to 270 µm long and 115 µm wide and multicellular, containing lipophilic substances, probably volatile oils. Presence or absence and density of the glands in species of Bauhinia may be useful to determine species delimitation or distinction among infraspecific taxa. Higher density of glands is more common in species from "cerrado" (a savanna ecosystem and "caatinga" (a semiarid ecosystem from northeast Brazil areas. Bauhinia species devoid of foliar glands are frequently from humid forests.

  9. Flavonóides glicosilados das folhas e flores de Bauhinia forficata (Leguminosae

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    Pizzolatti Moacir Geraldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Bauhinia forficata kaempferol and four flavonoid glycosides, 3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylkaempferol, 3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylquercetin, 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylkaempferol and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylquercetin were obtained. From the flowers only the flavonoid 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylkaempferol was isolated. The structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods.

  10. SEED, SEEDLINGS AND GERMINATION MORPHOLOGY OF Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

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    Maria Elane de Carvalho Guerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of seed and seedling morphology are extremely important to the identification and preservation of plant species. In order to studying seed and seedling morphology and seed germination of copaiba (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf seeds, experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and Laboratory of Botany of the Federal University of Ceará. In copaíba seeds the characteristics studied were shape, size (length, width, thickness and morphology. The kind of germination, the root systems, hypocotyls, epicotyls and first leaves were the characteristics evaluated in copaiba seedlings. Ruler and pachimeter were used to make the measurements, as well as optical microscope and magnifying glass. The seeds are exalbumin kind, have neuter photoblastism and epigeous germination. Seed coat shows a palisade cell layer with a conspicuous light line. The seedlings have compound first leaves and axial root system.

  11. Leguminosas naturalizadas en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba Naturalized legumes in the Cauto Valley, Cuba

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    I Gómez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la dinámica de crecimiento de 24 accesiones del género Brachiaria spp., se desarrolló la presente investigación en la región de Barrancabermeja, Santander, Colombia. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, en 72 parcelas de 21 m2 cada una y tres réplicas (parcelas para cada tratamiento. Las accesiones fueron agrupadas según los hábitos de crecimiento en: estoloníferas, decumbentes y erectas, y se determinó la tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura del pasto. Las accesiones con mejor crecimiento durante la investigación fueron: de las estoloníferas, B. dictyoneura CIAT-6133; de las de hábito decumbente, B. decumbens CIAT-606; y de las de crecimiento erecto, B. brizantha CIAT-16113, CIAT-26110, CIAT-26318 y CIAT-16322. Algunas accesiones no tuvieron un buen comportamiento, al parecer por las condiciones edafoclimáticas a las que fueron sometidas. Entre ellas se encuentran B. dictyoneura CIAT-16871, B. ruziziensis CIAT-26180 y B. brizantha CIAT-16212, 26124 y 26427.With the objective of prospect and collect the naturalized legumes for livestock production usage in the Cauto Valley, Cuba, two searches were made in representative zones of the region. The first search was conducted in the territory located west of Bayamo city, where there are different soils and rainfall regimes, and the second one on soils affected by salinity. In prospection number 1 the presence of 17 genera was determined and within them a total of 22 species, among which the following prevailed: Galactia spiciformis, Centrosema molle, Desmodium triflorum and Teramnus uncinatum; the existence of an important number of species was also known on vertisol soils with deficient drainage, which edaphic grouping constitutes the most extended in the region, and on the other hand, the associability degree of each legume with other species of the spontaneous vegetation present in the search areas, was characterized. In prospection number 2 four and five genera were found on areas with weak and moderate fertility levels, respectively, and Desmanthus virgatus stood out due to the abundance in the number of individuals. It is concluded that under the conditions these prospections were made, there is a rich potential of naturalized legumes with multiplication and usage possibilities in the region.

  12. Parkia biglobosa (Leguminosae) en Afrique de l'Ouest : biosystematique et amelioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouedraogo, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to strengthen the scientific and technical basis of biodiversity conservation, and use of Parkia biglobosa (African locust bean, néré ). The approach to this research included the gathering of technical

  13. Lectins of Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii (Leguminosae: characterization and mitogenic effect

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    Silvia Quesada

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina species are widely distributed in Costa Rica and known popularly as "poró". In this study, two species were selected, Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii. Seed extracts were prepared in phosphate-buffered saline. The presence of lectins in the extracts was verified by hemagglutinating effect over suspensions of human erythrocytes. A selective hemagglutinating effect on erythrocytes of several mammal species, goat, horse and rabbit red cells was tested; only the latter were agglutinated by E. steyermarkii. The hemagglutinating effect of both lectins was inhibited with the following carbohydrates: D-galactose, N-acetyl galactosamine, D-lactose and D-raffinose. The lectin from E. steyermarkii was also inhibited with L-rhamnose. Both lectins were isolated with gel filtration and affinity chromatography using lactose as ligand. Fractions that proved positive were tested with the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration and SDS-PAGE showed that these lectins have an apparent molecular mass of 50kDa, and are formed by two subunits of approximately 25 kDa. E. poeppigiana had no mitogenic effect, but the extract of E. steyermarkii had a mitogenic effect on human mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood. The stability of the lectins was tested at different temperature and pH ranges (4 to 100 °C and at pH 2 to 12. Both were stable at a pH range from 2 to 10, and at temperatures from 40 to 70 °C.Las diferentes especies de Erythrina se encuentran ampliamente distribuidas en Costa Rica y se las conoce popularmente con el nombre de "poró". En el presente estudio, se seleccionaron dos especies: Erythrina poeppigiana y Erythrina steyermarkii. Se prepararon extractos de las semillas en solución tampón salina de fosfatos y se verificó la presencia de lectinas en ellos mediante la técnica de hemaglutinación, utilizando eritrocitos humanos. Se trató de demostrar un efecto selectivo de la hemaglutinación empleando eritrocitos de varias especies de mamíferos, específicamente de carnero, caballo y conejo. Solo los eritrocitos de conejo fueron aglutinados con la lectina de E. steyermarkii. El efecto hemaglutinante de las dos lectinas fue inhibido con los siguientes carbohidratos: D-galactosa, N-D-acetil galactosamina, D-lactosa y D-rafinosa. La lectina de E. steyermarkii también fue inhibida con L-rhamnosa. Las dos lectinas fueron aisladas por filtración en gel y cromatografìa de afinidad, usando lactosa como ligando. Las fracciones que resultaron positivas se analizaron mediante la técnica de electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida y duodecil sulfato de sodio (SDS-PAGE. Con la filtración en gel y el SDS-PAGE, se comprobó que las dos lectinas tienen una masa molecular aparente de 50 kDa y que están formadas por dos subunidades de 25 kDa, aproximadamente. Se buscó un efecto mitogénico en las dos lectinas y se encontró que sólo E. steyermarkii lo manifestaba sobre células mononucleares humanas aisladas de sangre periférica. Se determinó la estabilidad de las lectinas en diferentes ámbitos de temperatura (4 a 100 °C y de pH (2 a 12 . Las dos lectinas se mantuvieron estables en un rango de temperatura de 40 a 70 °C y en un pH de 2 a 10.

  14. Morpho-physiological responses of alhagi sparsifolia shap. (leguminosae) seedlings to progressive drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, F.; Zhang, B.; Lu, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, B.; An, G.; Gao, X.

    2016-01-01

    Water is a key limiting factor influencing plant growth and development in arid ecosystem. To explore the mechanisms of the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia seedlings to tolerate drought stress in extreme desert, an experiment was conducted from July to September in 2010 with four water treatments: 100 percent (W/sub 100/), 80 percent (W80), 60 percent (W60) and 45 percent (W/sub 45/) of water holding capacity (WHC). Plant growth, photosynthesis, nutrient content and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured. The Results showed that plant growth, branch number, biomass allocation, number of leaves and area per leaf as well as leaf area ratio with drought stress treatments (W/sub 80/, W/sub 60/ and W/sub 45/) decreased than W/sub 100/ treatment, while root/shoot ratio and specific leaf area increased gradually throughout the experimental duration. Furthermore, photosynthetic pigment content, light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and concentration of carbon and nitrogen in plant significantly decreased with increasing drought stress. The WUE at W/sub 100/ and W/sub 80/ treatments increased significantly at the beginning of drought stress treatment and then reduced with stress prolonged. In Conclusion, the desert plant A. sparsifolia can tolerate the progressive drought stress due to the strong plasticity of morphological and physiological traits. The critical level of soil WHC to limit the growth and dry mass production of A. sparsifolia seedlings in the southern fringe of the Taklimakan Desert was approximately at 45 percent. (author)

  15. Meiotic behavior of Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae-Faboideae species native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Coelho Liliana Gressler May

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic behavior in Adesmia DC. is described for the first time. The study encompassed twelve populations of seven Adesmia DC. species native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Populations with 2n = 2x = 20 are A. securigerifolia 9615, A. riograndensis 9590 (subnudae, A. latifolia 1568, 1775, 15025, A. bicolor JB-UFSM, A. incana var. incana 9636, 10288, A. punctata var. hilariana 6885, 10812, and A. tristis 10757. A. incana var. incana 9637 is a tetraploid with 2n = 4x = 40. The material was stained with 1% acetic orcein. The meiotic behavior of the populations studied was considered normal. The meiotic index (MI and the estimates of pollen grain viability were above 95%, except for A. latifolia 1568 (MI = 89%. The present data indicate that these plants are meiotically stable and potentially fertile, apparently with no problems for use in programs of selection, crossing and viable seed production.

  16. Mimosoideae (Leguminosae do litoral paraense Mimosoideae (Leguminose on the coast of Pará

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    Julio dos Santos de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no tratamento taxonômico de Mimosoideae nas restingas do litoral paraense, uma vez que estas são pouco conhecidas sob esse aspecto. Esse estudo abrangeu a análise do material proveniente de coletas e exsicatas dos herbários MG e IAN, além de literatura especializada. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações dos táxons, bem como dados adicionais sobre distribuição geográfica, comentários, período de floração e frutificação e hábitat das mesmas. O fruto foi o caráter de maior destaque na separação dos táxons. Os resultados evidenciaram a presença de sete espécies, três variedades e uma subespécie, distribuídas em seis gêneros. Inga thibaudiana subsp. thibaudiana e Mimosa candollei, são novos registros para o litoral do Pará. O gênero Inga Mill. foi o mais representativo com cinco espécies. Entada polystachya var. polystachya e principalmente Chloroleucon acacioides apresentaram distribuição mais ampla e a formação floresta de restinga foi o ecossistema que apresentou o maior número de espécie.This study deals with the taxonomic treatment of Mimosoideae on the coastal sandbanks of Pará, since they are poorly known under this aspect. That study includes the analysis of botanical material from new collections and specimens of the MG and IAN herbariums, besides that found in specialized literature. Are given identification key, descriptions, and illustrations of the taxa, as well as data concerning geographical distribution, additional comments, flowering and fructification period, and habitat of the species. The fruit has the quality of great prominence in the separation of taxa. The results pointed out the presence of seven species, three varieties and one subspecies, distributed in six genera. Inga thibaudiana subsp. thibaudiana e Mimosa candollei are new records for the sand coast of Pará. The genus Inga Mill. was the most representative with five species. Entada polystachya var. polystachya and specially Chloroleucon acacioides presented the widest distribution, and sandbank forest formation was the ecosystem which had the largest number of species.

  17. Efeito da seca e chuva sobre a comunidade microbiana da rizosfera de leguminosas da Caatinga

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Duarte Lançoni

    2014-01-01

    Propriedades que constituem um clima árido são encontradas distribuídas por todo o globo terrestre. A Caatinga, bioma semi-árido brasileiro, se estende por 11% do território nacional e tem particularidades tanto em relação ao clima, volume de chuvas e temperatura, quanto à sua composição flora e faunística. Micro-organismos associados a plantas provêm defesas e resistência a diferentes estresses abióticos ou bióticos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a comunidade rizosférica microbiana...

  18. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 ± 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L -1 rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 μg mL -1 ) and 30 nmol L -1 rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 ± 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  19. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Methods Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. Key Results The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S–26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Conclusions Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms involved in the origin of economically important species of Arachis, either by triploid bridge or bilateral sexual polyploidization. PMID:21693666

  20. Cytogenetics of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) O. Kuntze (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae): chromosome number, polysomaty and meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Olkoski, Denise; Wittmann, Maria Teresa Schifino

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome numbers (somatic and/or gametic) were determined in 50 populations of M. bimucronata (DC.) O. Kuntze collected in the species area of distribution in Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil. All populations were diploid (2n = 2x = 26, n = 13). Polysomatic (mostly tetraploid) cells were detected in the seedlings root-tip cells in 39 out of the 41 populations examined, ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 % among populations, but were absent in the root-tips of grown plants. Polysomaty was as well absen...

  1. Cytogenetics of Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kuntze (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae: chromosome number, polysomaty and meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Olkoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers (somatic and/or gametic were determined in 50 populations of M. bimucronata (DC. O.Kuntze collected in the species area of distribution in Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil. All populations were diploid (2n = 2x = 26,n = 13. Polysomatic (mostly tetraploid cells were detected in the seedlings root-tip cells in 39 out of the 41 populations examined,ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 % among populations, but were absent in the root-tips of grown plants. Polysomaty was as well absent inpollen-mother cells. In M. bimucronata pollen-mother cells are joined two-by-two before the onset of meiosis, remaining attachedduring all the meiotic division until the formation of pollen grain polyads, composed of two sets of four pollen grains each, that aredispersed in this way, which, according to previous suggestions would be an adaptation to ensure high seed set after a singlepollination event.

  2. Estudo preliminar da atividade antibacteriana das cascas de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae (Leguminosae

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    S. Virtuoso

    Full Text Available A Erythrina velutina é popularmente conhecida como suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga dentre outros. Das várias espécies distribuídas pelo mundo cerca de doze estão no Brasil. A casca é utilizada, principalmente no nordeste brasileiro, pelas propriedades sudorífica, calmante, emoliente, peitoral, anestésica local e outras. Considerando-se que não existem estudos sobre o potencial microbiológico das cascas de Erythrina velutina este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliá-lo preliminarmente contra oito bactérias patogênicas. Foram utilizados os métodos de difusão em disco e concentração inibitória mínima para o extrato etanólico bruto e difusão em disco para a fração hexano. A atividade contra o Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pyogenes foi evidenciada para ambas as amostras. A viabilidade de futuras pesquisas com outras frações e substâncias isoladas na busca de novas alternativas, visando uma terapêutica racional a partir de fontes naturais foi apontada pelos resultados.

  3. COMPONENTES QUÍMICOS DEL DURAMEN DE Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae

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    C. Téllez-Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis químico del duramen de Andira inermis para determinar los principales componentes químicos. Los resultados encontrados fueron: pH de 5.9, 0.71 % de sustancias inorgánicas, 19.1 % de sustancias extraíbles, 34.2 % de lignina y 65.78 % de polisacáridos. En las cenizas se detectó la presencia de calcio, magnesio, azufre y silicio. Las sustancias fueron obtenidas mediante extracción sucesiva con ciclohexano, cloroformo, acetona y metanol en equipo Soxhlet y finalmente con agua caliente bajo reflujo. La solubilidad del duramen fue mayor en acetona (8.6 % y en metanol (5.3 %; el contenido total de sustancias extraíbles fue de 19.1 %.

  4. The reproductive biology of Sophora fernandeziana (Leguminosae), a vulnerable endemic species from Isla Robinson Crusoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardello, Gabriel; Aguilar, Ramiro; Anderson, Gregory J

    2004-02-01

    Sophora fernandeziana is the only legume endemic to Isla Robinson Crusoe (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile); it is uncommon and becoming rare. Although its preservation status is listed as "vulnerable," as with many species, little is known of its reproductive biology. Flowering phenology, floral morphology, nectar features, breeding system, and visitors were analyzed in two populations. Flowering is from late winter to early spring. Flowers last 6 d and have a number of ornithophilous features. A floral nectary begins to secrete highly concentrated nectar 48 h after flowers open. Nectar secretion increases as the flower ages but culminates in active nectar reabsorption as the flower senesces. Nectar production is negatively affected by nectar removal. Self-pollen germinates and tubes grow down the style. However, pollen tubes were only observed to enter the ovaries in open pollinated styles, suggesting the possibility of an ovarian self-incompatibility mechanism. Both sexes of the two hummingbird species that inhabit the island are regular visitors. Low fruit and seed set, low genetic diversity, and a shrinking number of populations all contribute to increased concern about the future of this species-and perhaps the hummingbirds that depend on it.

  5. LAS PROTEINAS SEMINALES DEL MANI (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA, LEGUMINOSAE y SU RELACION CON LAS CATEGORIAS INFRAESPECIFICAS

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    N R Grosso

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Las proteínas seminales de 122 muestras diferentes de Arachis hypogaea L. originarios de Bolivia, Perú y Ecuador fueron estudiadas por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida.Se detectaron siete bandas constantes y 27 bandas inconstantes. Los resultados de las últimas se utilizaron para analizar las similitudes entre las muestras empleando el coeficiente de Jaccard y el método de ligamiento promedio de la media aritmética no ponderada(UPGMA.Las proteínas seminales permitieron separar totalmente la subespecies de A.hypogaea y las variedades en menor medida.

  6. A new species of Erythrostemon (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) from the western Río Balsas Depression, Mexico

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    Sotuyo,Solange; Contreras,José Luis; Lewis,Gwilym

    2017-01-01

    A new legume species from a seasonally dry forest of the Western Río Balsas Depression, in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, Erythrostemon guevarafeferii, is herein described and illustrated. The new species shows morphological affinities with E. hintonii, from which it is distinguished in having fewer leaflets per pinna, mature leaflets disposed toward the upper half of the pinnae rachises, long inflorescences on curved slender peduncles, abundant red glands on its flowers and in...

  7. A new species of Erythrostemon (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae from the western Río Balsas Depression, Mexico

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    Solange Sotuyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new legume species from a seasonally dry forest of the Western Río Balsas Depression, in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, Erythrostemon guevarafeferii, is herein described and illustrated. The new species shows morphological affinities with E. hintonii, from which it is distinguished in having fewer leaflets per pinna, mature leaflets disposed toward the upper half of the pinnae rachises, long inflorescences on curved slender peduncles, abundant red glands on its flowers and inflorescences, and its fruit glabrous with red stipitate glands at maturity. A taxonomic key to the Río Balsas Depression species of Erythrostemon is included.

  8. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da, E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Laboratorio de Cromatografia Liquida, Universidade Federal do Para, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge [Laboratorio de Neuropatologia Experimental, Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1}rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  9. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C., E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; Silva, Milton N. da [Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Neuropatologia Experimental

    2012-10-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylchromene-(5''6''6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'', 2''-dimethylchromene-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  10. Lathyrus linearifolius (Leguminosae-Vicieae confirmed species for the Argentine flora

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    Ricardo O. Vanni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lathyrus linearifolius Vogel is confirmed in the Argentine flora. The number of species of the genus recorded for the northeast region is increased to nine. The new citation is described and illustrated indicating its geographic distribution. A key to distinguish the nine species from NE of Argentina is provided

  11. Nectar production dynamics and sugar composition in two Mucuna species (Leguminosae, Faboideae) with different specialized pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Kayna; Sazima, Marlies; Galetto, Leonardo

    2011-11-01

    Nectar is secreted in particular rhythms throughout the lifespan of a flower, which allows determining the nectar production dynamics. This paper compares nectar features in Mucuna japira and Mucuna urens describing: dynamics of nectar production, floral response to nectar removal, resorption, nectar sugar composition, and variation in nectar sugar composition. M. japira inflorescence bears 12-21 yellow flowers, which are in anthesis for 7 days, whereas M. urens inflorescence bears 36-54 greenish flowers, but only 1-3 flowers are in anthesis simultaneously that last one night. Nectar volume and sugar concentration were measured, and the amount of sugar was estimated. Qualitative and quantitative nectar sugar composition was determined. Both species had a constant nectar sugar concentration (ca. 10% for M. japira and ca. 16% for M. urens) and secreted high volumes of nectar (ca. 340 μl per flower for M. japira and 310 μl per flower for M. urens), during 5 days for M. japira and 6 h for M. urens, but after the first removal, i.e., when flower opening mechanism is triggered, nectar production stops immediately. Nectar resorption occurred in both species. Nectar sugar composition showed some similarities between the species. Variation in nectar sugar composition occurred in both species. The Mucuna species are dependent on their pollinators to produce fruits and seeds, and they have different strategies to promote the necessary interaction with birds or bats, especially related to nectar and flower characteristics.

  12. Morphoanatomy of nectaries of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sections Chamaecrista , Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae

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    Marinalva dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nectaries are specialized structures that secrete nectar. Several species of Chamaecrista possess nectaries on the petiole, which have been shown to vary widely in morphology and the chemical nature of their secretion. However, a comprehensive investigation of the nectaries of the clade formed by sect. Chamaecrista, Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx has yet to be performed. Our study aimed to confirm whether or not the leaf glands of species of this clade are in fact nectaries, determine the chemical nature of their secretion and expand the morphoanatomical database on leaf nectaries in Chamaecrista with the intention of contributing to the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus. Samples from herbarium and field-collected material were subjected to standard methods for light and scanning electron microscopy. Four different forms of nectaries were observed: urceolate, patelliform, verruciform and cupuliform. The nectaries were found to comprise a single-layered epidermis, nectary parenchyma, subnectary parenchyma and vascularization. Polysaccharides, lipids, phenolic compounds and proteins were detected in secretions. Although anatomical similarities were observed among the studied species, their morphology differed. Moreover, the glands are indeed nectaries and are similar to those observed in other species of the genus Chamaecrista. These data hold potential taxonomic usefulness for the studied sections.

  13. Constituintes químicos das folhas de Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae

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    Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG, 1,2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+-catechin and the dimer (+-catechin-(4β-8-catechin, glutinol, squalene, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D and based on literature data.

  14. Evidences of local adaptation in quantitative traits in Prosopis alba (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessega, C; Pometti, C; Ewens, M; Saidman, B O; Vilardi, J C

    2015-02-01

    Signals of selection on quantitative traits can be detected by the comparison between the genetic differentiation of molecular (neutral) markers and quantitative traits, by multivariate extensions of the same model and by the observation of the additive covariance among relatives. We studied, by three different tests, signals of occurrence of selection in Prosopis alba populations over 15 quantitative traits: three economically important life history traits: height, basal diameter and biomass, 11 leaf morphology traits that may be related with heat-tolerance and physiological responses and spine length that is very important from silvicultural purposes. We analyzed 172 G1-generation trees growing in a common garden belonging to 32 open pollinated families from eight sampling sites in Argentina. The multivariate phenotypes differ significantly among origins, and the highest differentiation corresponded to foliar traits. Molecular genetic markers (SSR) exhibited significant differentiation and allowed us to provide convincing evidence that natural selection is responsible for the patterns of morphological differentiation. The heterogeneous selection over phenotypic traits observed suggested different optima in each population and has important implications for gene resource management. The results suggest that the adaptive significance of traits should be considered together with population provenance in breeding program as a crucial point prior to any selecting program, especially in Prosopis where the first steps are under development.

  15. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae: Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

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    Rosa Tundis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium pratense (red clover and T. repens (white clover edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  16. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Nigel W M; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L; Gasson, Peter E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s. , which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  18. Isozyme and RAPD studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. Velutina (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae

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    Bessega Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD techniques have been compared for their usefulness for genetic and taxonomic studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. velutina populations. Isozymes and RAPDs yielded similarly high estimates of genetic variability. Genetic structure and differentiation were analyzed through non-hierarchical Wright's F DT. For all populations considered, both markers produced low gene flow (Nm 1, in agreement with that expected for conspecific populations. However, in RAPD data the expected reduction in F DT and the increase in Nm were not observed. Correlation between F DT and geographical distance matrices (Mantel test for all populations was significant (P = 0.02 when based on isozymes, but not so (P = 0.33 when based on RAPDs. No significant associations among genetic and geographical or climatic variables were observed. Two isoenzyme systems (GOT and PRX enabled us to distinguish between P. glandulosa and P. velutina, but no diagnostic band for recognition of populations or species studied here were detected by RAPD. However, RAPD markers showed higher values for genetic differentiation among conspecific populations of P. glandulosa and a lower coefficient of variation than those obtained from isozymes.

  19. Pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala (leguminosae-papilionoideae

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    Maria Cecília de Chiara Moço

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala was studied in the restinga of Maricá, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. S. apetala var. apetala is a shrub with asynchronic annual blooming, between the months of November and April (hot-rainy season. Each plant can exhibit more than one blooming episode in this period. Their flowers are hermaphrodites, apetalous, heterantherous, odoriferous, and the pollen represents the only reward offered to visitors. It is pollinized by species of Centris and Xylocopa, solitary and polyletic bees, which collect the pollen by means of vibratory movements. Other bees such as Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea and Trigona spinipes are only pollen-thieves. In this variety of Swartzia vibrating is an efficient method to collect pollen from the anthers despite non-poricidal dehiscence.. The flowering phenology and the behavior of visitors influence the rate of outcrossing.A ecologia da polinização de Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala foi estudada na restinga de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. S. apetala var. apetala é um arbusto com floração do tipo anual assincrônica, entre os meses de novembro e abril (estação quente- chuvosa. Cada planta pode apresentar mais de um episódio de floração neste período. As flores são hermafroditas, apétalas, heterândricas, odoríferas e o polem constitui a única recompensa oferecida aos visitantes. É polinizada por espécies de Centris e Xylocopa, abelhas solitárias e poliléticas, que coletam o polem através do método de vibração. Nesta variedade de Swartzia a vibração é um método eficiente de coleta de polem apesar das anteras apresentarem deiscência rimosa. Outras abelhas, como Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea e Trigona spinipes, são pilhadoras de pólen. A fenologia da floração e o comportamento dos visitantes florais influenciam a taxa de fertilização cruzada.

  20. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S-26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms involved in the origin of economically important species of Arachis, either by triploid bridge or bilateral sexual polyploidization.

  1. Antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods in vitro and in model food emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowyra, Monika; Falguera, Víctor; Gallego, Gabriela; Peiró, Sara; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-03-30

    The successful replacement of some synthetic food antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants has fostered intensive search for new vegetable sources of antioxidants. In our study the phenol and flavonoid content of extracts of tara pods was determined. The antioxidant activity was also studied by three different analytical assays: the measurement of scavenging capacity against a radical ABTS⁺ , the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). All analyzed samples showed a good antioxidant capacity, but the use of a solution of ethanol 75% in a 1 h ultrasonic process allowed achieving the greatest quantity of phenolics (0.464 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g⁻¹ dry weight (DW) ) and the highest antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS⁺ and ORAC methods (10.17 and 4.29 mmol L⁻¹ Trolox equivalents (TE) g⁻¹ DW, respectively). The best method for efficient extraction of flavonoids (3.08 mg catechin equivalent (CE) g⁻¹ DW) was a 24 h maceration in cold water. Two extracts obtained with ethanol 75% and water were added to a model food system (oil-in-water emulsion) and the oxidative stability was studied during storage at 38 °C. Oxidation was monitored by determination of the peroxide value. The addition of 48 µg mL⁻¹ ethanol extract to the emulsion delayed oxidation to the same extent as 17.8 µg mL⁻¹ of Trolox, while water extract was only effective in the early stages of the oxidation process. The results of this study indicate that ethanolic tara extracts may be suitable for use in food, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Tabosa Pereira da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to quantify the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts from the bark and leaves of C. pyramidalis and S. glandulosum. The total phenolic content (TPC and total tannin content (TTC were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total flavonoids content (TFC was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and FIC (ferrous ion chelating assays. The TPC ranged between 135.55 ± 9.85 and 459.79 ± 11.65 tannic acid equivalents (TAE in mg/g material (mg TAE/g. The leaves of both species contained high levels of tannins and flavonoids. The crude ethanol extracts (CEE from the bark of C. pyramidalis showed high antioxidant activity when compared to ascorbic acid and rutin, whereas the CEE from the leaves was more efficient in chelating ferrous ions. C. pyramidalis had very high phenolic content and anti-radical activity, which indicates a need for further studies aimed at the purification and identification of compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  3. Extraction of valuable compounds from agro-residues of elder (Sambus nigra), pine (Pinus pinaster) and tara (Caesalpinia spinosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Seabra, Inês José Abrantes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química (Processos Químicos) apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra Agricultural processing inevitably goes along with the production of large amounts of agro-residues, which may represent a major waste disposal problem. Legislation regulating the management of waste materials has appeared throughout the European Union and has significantly contributed to the introduction of sustainable waste management proced...

  4. Patrones de distribución espacial de árboles en un bosque estacionalmente seco del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape en el noroeste peruano

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    Reynaldo Linares-Palomino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de los patrones de distribución espacial de cuatro especies de árboles características de los bosques secos del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape en el noroeste peruano, inventariando seis parcelas de una hectárea cada una. Para ello se utilizó la versión modificada de la estadística K de Ripley. Eriotheca ruizii (K. Schum. A. Robyns (Bombacaceae, Bursera graveolens (Kunth Triana & Planch. (Burseraceae, Caesalpinia glabrata Kunth (Leguminosae y Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd. Spreng. (Cochlospermaceae presentan patrones que no son significantemente diferentes de un patrón completamente al azar en 11 de los 17 casos analizados. Al nivel de la escala espacial analizada, esto está en desacuerdo con el postulado general para bosques tropicales de que las especies vegetales tienden a encontrarse agrupadas. Estos resultados se analizan y discuten a la luz de los diversos factores que influyen en producirlos.

  5. Screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of these medicinal plants Caesalpinia bonducella, Gardenia gummifera and ... arabica, Gardenia gummifera and ethanol, methanol extracts of Caesalpinia ... Key words: Antibacterial activity, Melghat, Medicinal Plants, Phytochemical ...

  6. Potencialidad de Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae para estudios dendrocronológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montaña Potential of Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamily: Mimosoideae for dendrochronological studies in high-montane subtropical deserts

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    MARIANO S. MORALES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la escasez de especies con anillos anuales de crecimiento, la dendrocronología de regiones áridas de montañas tropicales y subtropicales está muy poco desarrollada. En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de la especie arbórea Prosopis ferox,"churqui", para estudios dendrocronológicos analizando las características anatómicas del leño y las relaciones entre registros climáticos y cronologías de ancho de anillos de una colección realizada a 3.500 m, en la quebrada de Humahuaca (23°13' S, 65°20' O, Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Las observaciones microscópicas de cortes histológicos muestran que los anillos están claramente demarcados por una banda parenquimática terminal clara. Comparando la cronología estandarizada de ancho de anillos con los registros instrumentales de La Quiaca (22º06'S, 65º36'O, se observan correlaciones significativas con precipitaciones por encima de la media y temperaturas por debajo de la media durante los meses de verano (diciembre_marzo. Esto se interpreta como una relación positiva con la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo durante el período de crecimiento. Esta cronología representa no solamente el primer registro dendrocronológico desarrollado a partir de P. ferox, sino también la primera cronología de anillos de árboles en la provincia biogeográfica Prepuneña. La buena discriminación de los anillos anuales de crecimiento, la fuerte relación con variables climáticas, el amplio rango de distribución de la especie en el noroeste de Argentina y sur de Bolivia (20° a 25° S y la longevidad observada en individuos aislados (c. 500 años, hacen de P. ferox una especie muy promisoria para estudios dendroclimatológicos y dendroecológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montañaDue to the scarcity of species with annual tree rings, the use of dendrochronological techniques has received little attention in tropical and subtropical montane dry areas. In this study, we assess the dendrochronological potential of Prosopis ferox, "churqui", through the analysis of its wood anatomy and the relationships between climate and tree growth variations from trees collected at 3,500 m, in the Humahuaca valley (23°13' S, 62°20' W, Jujuy province, Argentina. Microscopic observations show that annual rings are clearly defined by a relatively lighter parenchyma belt formed at the end of the annual band. Comparisons between the standardized ring-width chronology and the instrumental records from La Quiaca (22º 06'S, 65º36'W indicated that above-average rainfall and below-average temperature during summer (i.e., December to March favor tree growth. This can be interpreted as a positive relationship between radial growth and abundant soil water content during the growing season. The chronology shown here represents not only the first dendrocronological record from P. ferox, but also the first tree-ring chronology for the Prepuna biogeographic province. The well-defined annual rings, the strong relationship between growth and climatic variables, the large range of distribution across northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia (20° to 25° S, and the longevity observed in some individuals (c. 500 years, indicate that P. ferox is a very promising species for dendroclimatological and dendroecological studies in subtropical montane ecosystems

  7. Separation of the genera in the subtribe Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidae using molecular markers Separação dos gêneros na subtribo Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidae utilizando marcadores moleculares

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    Laxmikanta Acharya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers were used to verify the segregation of the genus Cassia L. senso lato into three distinct genera namely Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. sensostricto Eighteen representatives of the three taxa were characterized using the molecular markers. 25 RAPD, six ISSR primers and six AFLP primer combinations resulted in the amplification of 612, 115 and 622 bands (loci respectively. Most of the loci are found to be polymorphic, showing high degrees of genetic diversity among the different taxa studied. The dendrogram constructed on the basis of the RAPD, ISSR and AFLP data using SHAN clustering, divided Cassia L. senso lato. into three different clusters as Chamaecrista Moench. Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. senso stricto High bootstrap value revealed that all the clusters were stable and robust. It was observed from the present investigation that these genera have their identity at molecular level, which supports the elevation of the genus Cassia L. senso lato to the level of subtribe Cassiinae and segregation into three distinct genera instead of intrageneric categories.Técnicas de Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR e Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers (AFLP foram utilizadas para verificar a segregação do gênero Cassia L. senso lato em três diferentes gêneros, Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. e Cassia L. senso stricto Dezoito representantes dos três táxons foram caracterizados com o uso de marcadores moleculares: 25 RAPD, seis iniciadores ("primers" ISSR e seis AFLP combinações de iniciadores, resultando na amplificação de 612, 115 e 622 bandas (loci, respectivamente. A maioria dos loci apresentou-se como polimórfico, mostrando um alto grau de diversidade genética entre os táxons estudados. O dendrograma construído com base nos dados de RAPD, ISSR e AFLP e agrupamento com procedimentos SHAN dividiu Cassia L. senso lato em três diferentes agrupamentos, chamados de Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. e Cassia L. senso stricto Valores altos de bootstrap revelaram que todos os agrupamentos foram estáveis e robustos. Foi observado pela presente investigação que estes gêneros possuem identidade ao nível molecular, o que sustenta a elevação do genero Cassia L. senso lato para o nível de subtribo e a segregação dos três gêneros ao invés de formarem categorias infra-genéricas.

  8. Análise morfoanatômica comparativa da folha de Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae Comparative morphogical and anatomycal analyses of Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae leaves

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    Makeli Garibotti Lusa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho foi desenvolvido com o propósito de subsidiar o controle de qualidade das espécies medicinais Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. Essas foram coletadas em jardins e terrenos baldios de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. As amostras do limbo, pecíolo e pulvino foram fixadas em F.A.A. 50 e conservadas em etanol 70%. O seccionamento do material foi feito em micrótomo de rotação (material incluído em historresina ou a mão livre e as lâminas foram montadas de forma permanente ou semipermanente. Foram realizadas análises em microscopia fotônica e eletrônica de varredura. A folha de B. forficata é alongada, com folíolos unidos em torno da metade do limbo, ápices agudos, superfície adaxial lisa e mucro entre os folíolos. Enquanto que, B. variegata possui folha mais larga que longa, com folíolos unidos na porção terminal do limbo e ápices obtusos. Nos pulvinos de B. variegata ocorrem camadas de colênquima, ausentes em B. forficata. O formato e a bainha de fibras dos pecíolos, em secção transversal, são distintos entre as espécies, assim como a distribuição dos estômatos e tricomas no limbo e a forma do bordo em secção transversal. B. variegata possui maior quantidade de idioblastos com drusas e compostos fenólicos. As características morfológicas e anatômicas de B. forficata e B. variegata contribuem para a identificação e diferenciação das espécies, sendo importantes para o controle de qualidade do material destinado à pesquisa e à indústria farmacêutica.This work has been developed with the purpose of helping the quality control of the medicinal species Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn., which were collected in gardens and vacant lots in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The samples of leaf blade, petiole and pulvinus were fixed in FAA 50 and preserved in alcohol 70. The sectioning of the material was made in rotational microtome (with the material included in historesine or manually and the blades were mounted in permanent or semipermanent way. Analyses in photonic and scanning electronic micros betscopy were performed. The leaf of B. forficata is elongated, with the leaflets united around the middle of the leaf blade, acute apices, smooth adaxial surface and mucroween the leaflets. The B. variegata, on the other hand, possesses a broader than long leaf, with the leaflets united in the terminal portion of the blade and obtuse apices. In the pulvinus of B. variegata there are collenchyma layers, which are absent in B. forficata. The shape and the petiole fibers sheath, in cross section, are distinct in both species, as well as the distribution of the stomata and trichomes in the leaf blade and the shape of the border in transversal section. B. variegata possesses a higher quantity of idioblasts with druses and phenolic compounds. The morphologic and anatomic characteristics of B. forficata an B. variegata contribute to the identification and distinction of the species and they are important for the control of the material destined to research and to the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Atividade alelopática de extratos brutos de três espécies de Copaifera (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Allelophatic activity of crude extracts from three species of Copaifera (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioidedae

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    A.P.S Souza Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, atenção especial foi dada aos compostos químicos envolvidos na interação entre plantas, especialmente quando se sabe das possibilidades do seu uso em estratégia de manejo de plantas daninhas. A Amazônia, pela sua megabiodiversidade e abundância de espécies vegetais, pode oferecer excelente oportunidade para a descoberta de inovadoras moléculas químicas com potencial de uso na atividade agrícola. Dessa forma, neste trabalho analisou-se, comparativamente, a atividade potencialmente alelopática de três espécies de Copaifera, caracterizando-se as variações na intensidade dos efeitos alelopáticos em função da espécie doadora, da fração da planta e da polaridade dos constituintes químicos. Extratos hexânico e etanólico, preparados a 1,0% a partir de folhas, galhos e cascas de Copaifera duckei, C. martii e C. reticulata, foram testados sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da raiz das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Observaram-se variações nas intensidades dos efeitos em função das variáveis estudadas. O extrato etanólico de folhas e o de galhos de C. martii e C. reticulata apresentaram alto potencial para inibir a germinação de sementes, sobretudo da espécie malícia. A espécie C. duckei evidenciou baixo potencial alelopático inibitório na germinação das duas espécies receptoras. Cascas, folhas e galhos de C. duckei apresentaram potencial inibitório mais expressivo sobre o desenvolvimento da raiz, com destaque para as folhas. Compostos químicos apolares e polares estão envolvidos na atividade alelopática da espécie C. duckei, com ênfase maior para os compostos apolares. Diferentemente, para C. martii e C. reticulata, compostos polares estão envolvidos, preferencialmente, na atividade inibitória evidenciada por essas espécies, notadamente aqueles localizados nas folhas e cascas. Comparativamente, a tendência observada foi de que a espécie receptora malícia demonstrou maior sensibilidade aos efeitos alelopáticos dos extratos, especialmente no bioensaio de germinação.For the past few years, special attention has been given to chemical composites involved in interaction between plants, especially when the potential of their use in weed management is known. The Amazon region with its enormous biodiversity and abundance of plant species may offer excellent opportunities for the discovery of innovative chemical molecules capable of being used in agriculture. Thus, in this paper, a comparative analysis was made between the potential allelopathic activity of three species of Copaifera, characterizing the variations of the intensity of the allelopathic effects of the donating species, plant fraction and chemical component polarity. Hexanic and ethanolic extracts, prepared at 1.0% from the leaves, branches and barks of Copaifera duckei, C. martii and C. reticulata, were tested on seed germination and development of Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia weed roots. The results showed that the intensity of the effects varied according to the variables studied. The ethanolic extract of C. martii and C. reticulata leaves and barks showed high potential to inhibit seed germination, especially of M. pudica species. The species C. duckei showed low allelopathic inhibitory potential in the germination of two receptor species. Barks, branches and especially leaves of C. duckei presented more expressive inhibitory potential for root development. Polar, and especially non-polar chemical composites, are involved in the allelopathic activity of C. duckei. Differently for C. martii and C. reticulata, the polar composites are preferentially involved in the inhibitory activity evidenced by these species, especially those located on the leaves and barks. Comparatively, it was observed that the weed species receptor tended to show more sensitivity to the allelopathic effects of the extracts, especially in the germination bioassay.

  10. Padronização do teste de tetrazólio em sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae Tetrazolium test in Parkia velutina Benoist seeds (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae

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    Angela Maria da Silva Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar métodos de pré-condicionamento e concentrações da solução de tetrazólio na avaliação da qualidade de sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist. Os tratamentos pré-condicionantes das sementes foram avaliados com três métodos de escarificação: desponte na região oposta ao hilo, punção na região mediana e lixa nos dois lados da semente com posterior embebição em 200 ml de água para cada 25 sementes e permanência em câmara a 30 ºC por 16 horas. As concentrações da solução de tetrazólio testadas foram: 1,0%, 0,5% e 0,1% por duas horas na temperatura de 40 ºC. O tratamento de pré-condicionamento mais eficiente foi a combinação do desponte e lixamento nos dois lados da semente. A concentração de tetrazólio a 0,5% pode ser utilizada para avaliar a viabilidade das sementes de P. velutina como complemento ao teste de germinação. O teste de tetrazólio se mostrou eficiente na caracterização de lesões ocasionadas por insetos e danos mecânicos em sementes de P. velutina.This manuscript aimed to determine methods of daily pre-conditioning and concentrations of the tetrazolium solution for evaluating the quality of Parkia velutina Benoist seeds. The daily pre-condicionanting seed treatments were evaluated using three scarification methods: coating cutting on the opposite side of the hilum region, puncture in the medium region and scarification with sandpaper on both sides of the seed, followed by soaking each of the 25 seeds in 200 ml of wate and permanence in chamber 30 ºC for 16 hours. The concentrations of the tetrazolium solution tested were 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.1% for two hours at 40 ºC. The more efficient daily pre-conditioning treatlment was a combination of the coating cutting and the scarification n both sides of the seed. The 0.5% tetrazolium concentration can be used to evaluate the viability of P. velutina seeds as complement to the germination test. The tetrazolium test showed its efficiency in the characterization of injuries caused by insects and mechanical damages in P. velutina seeds.

  11. Números cromossômicos em espécies de Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae Chromosome numbers in species of Acosmium Schott and Leptolobium Vogel (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae

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    Rodrigo Schütz Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a análise citotaxonômica de espécies de Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel, através da determinação de seus números cromossômicos. Foram estudadas as três espécies aceitas de Acosmium e cinco espécies de Leptolobium (representando 50% do gênero, a partir de sementes oriundas de diferentes regiões do Brasil. As contagens mitóticas apresentadas para todas as espécies de Acosmium e para quatro espécies de Leptolobium são inéditas. Acosmium cardenasii apresentou uniformemente 2n = 18, enquanto que em A. diffusissimum foram encontradas no mesmo meristema 2n = 18, 24 e 32 e em A. lentiscifolium 2n = 18 e 32. Para Leptolobium, o número cromossômico das espécies estudadas foi de 2n = 18, confirmando uma contagem mitótica anterior para L. dasycarpum. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram homogeneidade no número cromossômico de Acosmium e Leptolobium, confirmando x = 9 como o número cromossômico básico em ambos os gêneros. Portanto, o número cromossômico não é um caráter taxonômico utilizável na distinção entre Acosmium e Leptolobium.A cytotaxonomic analysis of species of Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel was carried out, by determining their chromosome numbers. The three species of Acosmium and five species of Leptolobium (representing 50% of the genus were studied from seeds obtained from different regions of Brazil. Chromosome counts were new for all Acosmium species and for four Leptolobium species. For Acosmium cardenasii, 2n = 18 was constantly observed, while occurring at the same meristem were found 2n = 18, 24 e 32 in A. diffusissimum and 2n = 18 e 32 in A. lentiscifolium. For Leptolobium, all studied species had 2n = 18, confirming a previous count for L. dasycarpum. The results showed that chromosome numbers of Acosmium and Leptolobium species are homogeneous, confirming the basic number x = 9 for both genera. Therefore, chromosome numbers do not provide a useful taxonomic character distinguishing Acosmium from Leptolobium.

  12. Efeito de Brachiaria decumbens na herbivoria e no desenvolvimento de duas leguminosas nativas de cerrado Effect of Brachiaria decumbens on herbivory and development of two cerrado native leguminosae species

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    A.C.V. Pires

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o impacto da presença da gramínea exótica (Brachiaria decumbens na herbivoria e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de espécies nativas (Hymenaea stigonocarpa e Dipteryx alata de Cerrado. Para avaliar o impacto da presença da gramínea, 10 blocos em pastagem (antiga área de Cerrado na Embrapa Gado de Corte (Campo Grande-MS foram demarcados em janeiro de 2009. As gramíneas foram mantidas intactas em metade dos blocos e, na outra metade, foram removidas. Em cada tratamento, foram avaliados a herbivoria, a altura e o diâmetro na altura do solo (DAS de 25 plântulas de cada espécie ao longo do ano. O conteúdo de carbono, nitrogênio e água das folhas também foi quantificado. Plântulas de Hymenaea stigonocarpa nos tratamentos com gramínea tiveram maior taxa de crescimento em diâmetro que as plântulas no tratamento sem gramíneas. As plântulas de Dipteryx alata que estavam no tratamento sem gramíneas tiveram maiores taxas de crescimento em altura que as do tratamento com gramíneas. Houve diferença na taxa de herbivoria de D.alata entre os tratamentos. As plântulas das duas espécies que estavam no tratamento com gramínea mostraram maiores concentrações de carbono e menores de água. O conteúdo de nitrogênio foliar foi maior no tratamento com gramíneas que no sem gramíneas em D.alata; já o nitrogênio em H. stigonocarpa não variou entre os tratamentos. Esses resultados mostram que cada espécie nativa possui distintas respostas fisiológicas e suscetibilidade à herbivoria em ambientes sob competição de recursos com a gramínea exótica, B. decumbens.This study evaluated the impact of the presence of the exotic grass (Brachiaria decumbens on the herbivory and development of seedlings of native species (Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Dipteryx alata of the Cerrado. Thus, 10 pasture plots (former Cerrado at the Embrapa Gado de Corte (Campo Grande-MS were demarcated in January 2009. The grasses were kept intact in half of the plots and were removed in the other half. In each treatment, the herbivory, as well as height and diameter at ground level (DGL of 25seedlings of each species were evaluated during one year. Carbon, nitrogen and water content of the leaves in each treatment were also quantified. Seedlings of Hymenaea stigonocarpa in plots without grasses had higher diameter growth rates than seedlings in plots with grasses. Dipteryx alata seedlings grown in plots without grasses had a higher height growth rate than seedlings grown in plots with grasses. There was a difference in the herbivory rate of D. alata between treatments. Seedlings of plots with grasses for the two species showed a higher concentration of carbon and lower amount of water. The leaf nitrogen content was higher in plots with grasses than without grasses in D. alata, while nitrogen in H. stigonocarpa did not vary between treatments. These results showed that each native species had distinct physiological responses and susceptibility to herbivory in environments under resource competition with the exotic grass B. decumbens.

  13. Aves explorando flores de Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae durante a estação seca no Pantanal de Mato Grosso Exploitation of Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae flowers by birds during the dry season in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Ricardo Parrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes têm evidenciado a importância de flores como recurso alimentar de diversas espécies de aves neotropicais. Este estudo teve o objetivo de listar espécies e descrever o comportamento das aves que se alimentaram de recursos florais de Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae no Pantanal Mato-Grossense. Para isso, foram acompanhadas aves que se alimentaram em 14 árvores floridas dessa espécie em um total de cerca de 25 horas de observação. Como resultados, 20 espécies de aves pertencentes a sete famílias taxonômicas foram observadas alimentando-se de recursos florais de E. fusca. Apesar de várias espécies de aves terem apresentado comportamentos destrutivos em maior proporção, algumas espécies, sobretudo das famílias Trochilidae e Icteridae, apresentaram estratégias alimentares compatíveis com o transporte de pólen. O cruzamento dos dados obtidos neste estudo com os da literatura indicam que a família Icteridae pode ter relevante papel na polinização dessa espécie vegetal.Recent studies reported the importance of flowers in the diet of many Neotropical bird species. In this paper we identify and describe the feeding behaviour of bird species that feed on flower resources of Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae in the Pantanal Mato-Grossense, Brazil. We recorded birds foraging in 14 flowered individuals of E. fusca during 25 hours of observation. We recorded 20 bird species belonging to seven families feeding on the flowers. Several of the observed behaviours were destructive, despite some species, especially the Trochilidae and Icteridae, showed feeding strategies that preserve the integrity of the flowers and are compatible with pollen transportation. The comparison of the data gathered in this study with the available literature indicates that the Icteridae may play an important role in pollination of this tree species.

  14. Substâncias químicas com atividades alelopáticas presentes nas folhas de Parkia pendula (Leguminosae Chemical compounds with allelopathic activities in Parkia pendula (Leguminosae leaves

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    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram isolar, identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas produzidas por Parkia pendula. Os efeitos alelopáticos foram avaliados sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da radícula das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. O processo de isolamento das substâncias envolveu a extração com solvente em ordem crescente de polaridade, e a elucidação estrutural foi realizada via Ressonância Magnética Nuclear, espectro de COSY e de HETCOR. Os bioensaios foram desenvolvidos em condições controladas de 25 ºC de temperatura e fotoperíodo de 12 (germinação e 24 horas (desenvolvimento da radícula. Foram isolados e identificados nas folhas da P. pendula os seguintes aleloquímicos: ácido 3,4,5-trimetoxibenzóico (S1, ácido 3,4-dimetoxibenzóico (S2 e o Blumenol A (S3. Comparativamente, S1 e S2 apresentaram maior atividade alelopática. Os efeitos promovidos sobre o desenvolvimento da radícula foram de maior magnitude do que aqueles verificados sobre a germinação das sementes. As substâncias isoladas mostraram baixo potencial inibitório da germinação das sementes, especialmente as sementes de mata-pasto. Os efeitos alelopáticos inibitórios estiveram positivamente associados à concentração das substâncias, embora em alguns casos esses efeitos não tenham correspondido às diferenças estatísticas.The objective of this paper was to isolate, identify and characterize the allelopathic activity of chemical compounds produced by Parkia pendula. The allelopathic effects were evaluated on seed germination and radicle elongation of the weeds Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia. The isolation process of the compounds involved the use of solvent in an increasing polarity order for extraction and the structural elucidation was carried out by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, COPSY's and HETCOR's spectrum. The bioassays were carried out under controlled conditions of 25 ºC of temperature and 12-hour photoperiod for seed germination and 24-hour photoperiod for radicle elongation. The following allelochemicals were isolated and identified in P. pendula's leaves: 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (S1, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid (S2 and Blumenol A (S3. Comparatively, S1 and S2 showed greater allelopathic activity. The effects on radicle elongation were greater than those observed on seed germination. The isolated substances showed low inhibition potential on seed germination, especially on S. obtusifolia seeds. The allopathic inhibition effects were positively related to the concentration of the substances, although in some cases, these effects have not corresponded to the statistical differences.

  15. Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae

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    Marcelo P. Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales.

  16. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hy...

  17. Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a previously incompletely known Ethiopian endemic rediscovered after 120 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile

    2014-01-01

    . rhynchocarpa Polhill, C. saltiana Andrews, C. thomasii Harms) in having the inside of the pod densely packed with long, white hairs. C. trifoliolata was observed at the edge of and in glades inside dry Juniperus-Olea forest, in which the canopy is dominated by J. procera Endl. and the undergrowth by Barbeya...... oleoides Schweinf. and other species characteristic of dry Afromontane forest and bushland. The species is found only in a limited area near the eastern Ethiopian escarpment at Sheik Hussein. It is documented with images and maps, its potential distribution is modelled and a conservation assessment...

  18. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

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    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha -1 , respectively. The gliricídia residues showed the highest decomposition rates, in the two year seasons.

  19. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

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    Germán Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small "A chromosomes" characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter.

  20. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae) and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small “A chromosomes” characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter. PMID:21637581

  1. Genomic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005) (Leguminosae): multiple origin of Arachis species with x = 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Silvestri María; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán Ariel; Valls, José Francisco Montenegro; Lavia, Graciela Inés

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Arachis Linnaeus, 1753 comprises four species with x = 9, three belong to the section Arachis: Arachis praecox (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994), Arachis palustris (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and Arachis decora (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and only one belongs to the section Erectoides: Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005). Recently, the x = 9 species of section Arachis have been assigned to G genome, the latest described so far. The genomic relationship of Arachis porphyrocalyx with these species is controversial. In the present work, we carried out a karyotypic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx to evaluate its genomic structure and analyse the origin of all x = 9 Arachis species. Arachis porphyrocalyx showed a karyotype formula of 14m+4st, one pair of A chromosomes, satellited chromosomes type 8, one pair of 45S rDNA sites in the SAT chromosomes, one pair of 5S rDNA sites and pericentromeric C-DAPI+ bands in all chromosomes. Karyotype structure indicates that Arachis porphyrocalyx does not share the same genome type with the other three x = 9 species and neither with the remaining Erectoides species. Taking into account the geographic distribution, morphological and cytogenetic features, the origin of species with x = 9 of the genus Arachis cannot be unique; instead, they originated at least twice in the evolutionary history of the genus. PMID:28919947

  2. Resposta morfogênica de embriões zigóticos de Erythrina velutina Willd: (Leguminosae cultivados in vitro

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    Priscila Tavares Fonseca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos é uma técnica promissora para se avançar no estudo do desenvolvimento embrionário e da quebra da dormência de sementes. Diante do exposto, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito dos reguladores vegetais 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA no potencial morfogenético, in vitro, de embriões zigóticos de mulungu. Embriões zigóticos maduros, oriundos de sementes foram utilizados inteiros, ou seccionados em plúmula, região intermediária e radícula, sendo posteriormente inoculados em meio de cultura WPM, suplementado com combinações de BAP (0,0; 2,0; 4,0; 8,0; 12,0 e 16,0 µM e ANA (0,0; 1,0 e 2,0 µM, acrescido de 87,64 mM de sacarose e solidificado com 0,7% de ágar. Após 30 dias, avaliaram-se a percentagem de regeneração dos embriões e ápice plumular, o número de brotos, o número de folhas, o comprimento da parte aérea dos brotos, o número de raízes e a percentagem de formação de calos oriundos da região intermediária e da radícula. É possível a regeneração in vitro de mulungu, a partir dos explantes plúmula e embriões zigóticos inteiros, cultivados em meio de cultura WPM, suplementado com 4,0 µM de BAP. Regiões intermediárias e da radícula promoveram a formação de calos compactos (96,06%, na combinação de 10,63 µM BAP e 2,0 µM de ANA.

  3. Intense uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau triggered rapid diversification of Phyllolobium (Leguminosae) in the Late Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Yun Kang; Yang Zhong; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Phyllolobium, a recently established genus from subgenus Pogonophace of Astragalus, contains about 20 species and four sections, mostly endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The uplift of the QTP undoubtedly affected organismic evolution in the region, but further molecular dating in a phylogenetic context is required to test whether diversification is linked...

  4. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of diploid Leucaena (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae) reveal cryptic species diversity and patterns of divergent allopatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Hughes, Colin E; Bailey, C Donovan

    2011-12-01

    Leucaena comprises 17 diploid species, five tetraploid species, and a complex series of hybrids whose evolutionary histories have been influenced by human seed translocation, cultivation, and subsequent spontaneous hybridization. Here we investigated patterns of evolutionary divergence among diploid Leucaena through comprehensively sampled multilocus phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to address species delimitation, interspecific relationships, hybridization, and the predominant mode of speciation among diploids. Parsimony- and maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic approaches were applied to 59 accessions sequenced for six SCAR-based nuclear loci, nrDNA ITS, and four cpDNA regions. Population genetic comparisons included 1215 AFLP loci representing 42 populations and 424 individuals. Phylogenetic results provided a well-resolved hypothesis of divergent species relationships, recovering previously recognized clades of diploids as well as newly resolved relationships. Phylogenetic and population genetic assessments identified two cryptic species that are consistent with geography and morphology. Findings from this study highlight the importance and utility of multilocus data in the recovery of complex evolutionary histories. The results are consistent with allopatric divergence representing the predominant mode of speciation among diploid Leucaena. These findings contrast with the potential hybrid origin of several tetraploid species and highlight the importance of human translocation of seed to the origin of these tetraploids. The recognition of one previously unrecognized species (L. cruziana) and the elevation of another taxon (L. collinsii subsp. zacapana) to specific status (L. zacapana) is consistent with a growing number of newly diagnosed species from neotropical seasonally dry forests, suggesting these communities harbor greater species diversity than previously recognized.

  5. Acacia cyclops A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Leguminosae in Italy: first cases of naturalization

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    Pasta, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of naturalization of Acacia cyclops are reported for Italy. Young trees were observed growing in the wild some 15 years ago on Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Strait of Sicily. A decade later, this alien plant should no longer be considered as a casual, since a very intensive process of self-sown regeneration has been observed in some plantations on Lampedusa, the major island of the same Archipelago. The available literature suggests the need for careful monitoring of the ongoing invasion process, as A. cyclops has already shown a very invasive behaviour elsewhere within Mediterranean-type biomes due to its ability to withstand high environmental stresses. As migrating birds are suspected to have played an important role in facilitating the arrival of A. cyclops, further propagules are likely to reach the islands in the future. We recommend that new plantations of A. cyclops should be forbidden, but that extant naturalized populations should be managed instead of eradicating them. In fact, the effect of Acacia plantations warrants investigation at different scales in order to assess their impact on local plant-diversity and ecological succession processes.

    Se muestran los dos primeros casos de naturalización de Acacia cyclops para el territorio italiano. Se observó que las plántulas de este arbol crecen en forma silvestre hace unos 15 años en Linosa (islas Pelagias, estrecho de Sicilia. Una década después, ya no puede ser considerada una xenófita casual ya que se observó una regeneración muy intensa en algunos proyectos de reforestación en Lampedusa, la isla más grande del mismo archipiélago. Publicaciones anteriores sugieren la necesidad de un monitoreo cuidadoso del proceso de invasión en curso, ya que A. cyclops ha expresado un comportamiento altamente invasivo en otros biomas de tipo mediterráneo, debido a su alta tolerancia al estrés ambiental. Dado que se sospecha que las aves migratorias han jugado un papel importante en la llegada de A. cyclops, es probable que en el futuro otros propágulos lleguen a las islas Pelagias. Se recomienda la prohibición de nuevas plantas, aunque también el manejo de poblaciones artificiales ya presentes en vez de su erradicación. El efecto de la forestación con A. cyclops, de hecho, merece ser investigado a diferentes escalas, a fin de aclarar su impacto tanto en la diversidad florística local como en los procesos de sucesión ecológica.

  6. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

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    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera are frequently found in arid and semiarid shrublands, but scarce information is available about their influence on plant community structure and soil fertility. We compared plant community structure, diversity and soil nutrients of three semiarid shrubland sites located in Mezquital Valley, Mexico. These sites differ in their dominant species: Site 1 (Bingu P. laevigata, Site 2 (González M. biuncifera, and Site 3 (Rincón with the presence of both legumes. The results showed that the plant community with P. laevigata and M. biuncifera (Site 3 had more cover, taller plants and higher plant diversity than sites with only one legume (Site 1 and Site 2. Soil organic matter (SOM, soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (TN, phosphorus-Olsen (P and C mineralization were higher in the soil under the canopy of both legumes than in bare soil. In contrast, soil cation concentrations were lower under the canopy of P. laevigata, but not for M. biuncifera. In addition, the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores was higher within the soil under the canopy of M. biuncifera than in the soil under the canopy of P. laevigata. Thus, resource islands (RI created by P. laevigata increased the amounts of SOC, TN and P when compared with the RI of M. biuncifera. This study provided evidences about the importance of species identity in order to expand the niche availability for the establishment of other plants, and highlights that P. laevigata and M. biuncifera jointly influencing plant colonization within semiarid ecosystems

  7. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR

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    Farshid Mahmodi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3 verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4% and (15.5–19.9, respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers.

  8. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  9. Pollination Biology and Spatio-Temporal Structuring of Some Major Acacia Species (Leguminosae) of the Arabian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adgaba, N.; Alghamidi, A.; Tadesse, Y.; Getachew, A.; Ansari, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acacias are the dominant woody plant species distributed over the vast tracts of land throughout the Arabian Peninsula. However, information on spatio-temporal structuring and pollination biology of the species is not precisely available. To determine whether any variations exist among the Acacia species in their temporal distribution, their flowering period was determined through monitoring the commencing, peaking and ending of flowering of each species. Moreover, if any variations exist in release of floral rewards among the different co-existing and co-flowering species as mechanisms of partitioning of pollinators, to minimize competition for pollination, the progress of their anthesis over time was recorded by scoring polyads to anthers ratio at different hours of a day. In addition, the amount and dynamics of nectar sugar per inflorescence (N =225/species) was determined following flower nectar sugar washing technique. Types and frequencies of flower visitors and their preferences were determined by recording the visitors 6 times a day. The current study revealed that the Acacia species of the Arabian Peninsula are spatio-temporally structured: some species co-exist yet have different flowering seasons, whereas others co-exist, flowering concurrently yet exhibit a shift in their time of peak flowering and in the time at which the peak pollen is released during the day. This study demonstrates that all Acacia species examined secrete a considerable amount of nectar (2.24+-1.72 -10.02+-4.0mg/inflorescence) which serves as a floral reward for pollinators. Insects of the Order Hymenoptera are the most prevalent visitors to Acacia species in the region. The variations in spatio-temporal structuring of the Acaciaspecies could be due to their adaptation of reducing competition for pollinators and minimizing hetero-specific pollen transfer. (author)

  10. Secretory structures on the leaf rachis of Caesalpinieae and Mimosoideae (Leguminosae): implications for the evolution of nectary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, L M; Motte-Florac, E F; McKey, D B

    2000-03-01

    Cup- or sometimes slit-shaped nectary glands on the rachis are a widespread trait in the legume subfamily Mimosoideae, especially in derived tribes. Their spotty occurrence in genera that appear to be basal has led to uncertainty about when in the mimosoid radiation this character evolved. Until now, specialized rachis glands were unknown in caesalpinioids thought to be related to ancestral mimosoids. We report here the occurrence of rachis glands in seven of the ten species of the Paleotropical genus Erythrophleum, a member of the Dimorphandra group of caesalpinioids thought to include the sister group(s) of mimosoids. The histological structure and location of Erythrophleum glands suggest homology with those of mimosoids; these glands are simpler structurally than rachis glands of any known mimosoid. The Erythrophleum glands differ from those of most mimosoids in the following respects: (1) they are smaller than glands of mimosoids; (2) the secretory surface is sunken in a pit capped by a small round pore rather than exposed on a broad concave or flat surface; (3) a smaller number of cells are involved in production and secretion of nectar; (4) vascular supply to the nectary is less extensive; and (5) mechanical support tissue (sclerenchyma) is less extensive and less organized. Rachis glands appear to be absent in the nine other genera included in the Dimorphandra group. We also report the occurrence of other secretory structures (patches of glandular trichomes) on the rachis of some Caesalpinieae and Mimoseae that lack specialized nectary glands and suggest that these patches of trichomes are primitive homologues of more organized glands. We discuss the significance of these glands and of the patches of trichomes for understanding relationships among primitive mimosoids and related caesalpinioids, and for understanding the origin of ant-guard defenses typical of many mimosoids.

  11. Molecular biogeography of tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan disjunction pattern with an African origin of core genistoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Jian-Feng Huang; Stewart C. Sanderson; Ping Yan; Yu-H Wu; Bo-Rong Pan

    2015-01-01

    Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and EastAsia-North America disjunction,with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F...

  12. The endangered Ethiopian endemic Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) and its little-known habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile; van Breugel, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    to limestone habitats in the Kubayo National Forest, where it forms almost monospecific stands of up to one thousand individuals in glades and at forest margins. Predictive distribution models suggest uncertain suitability of the present habitats under future climatic conditions. Based on this and other...

  13. Genetic and ecological outcomes of Inga vera subsp. affinis (Leguminosae) tree plantations in a fragmented tropical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Twyford, Alex D; Neaves, Linda E; Pennington, R Toby; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2014-01-01

    Planting of native trees for habitat restoration is a widespread practice, but the consequences for the retention and transmission of genetic diversity in planted and natural populations are unclear. Using Inga vera subsp. affinis as a model species, we genotyped five natural and five planted populations in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil at polymorphic microsatellite loci. We studied the breeding system and population structure to test how much genetic diversity is retained in planted relative to natural populations. We then genotyped seedlings from these populations to test whether genetic diversity in planted populations is restored by outcrossing to natural populations of I. vera. The breeding system of natural I. vera populations was confirmed to be highly outcrossing (t = 0.92; FIS = -0.061, P = 0.04), with populations showing weak population substructure (FST = 0.028). Genetic diversity in planted populations was 50% less than that of natural populations (planted: AR = 14.9, HO = 0.865 and natural: AR = 30.8, HO = 0.655). However, seedlings from planted populations showed a 30% higher allelic richness relative to their parents (seedlings AR = 10.5, parents AR = 7.6). Understanding the processes and interactions that shape this system are necessary to provide ecologically sensible goals and successfully restore hyper-fragmented habitats. Future restoration plans for I. vera must consider the genetic diversity of planted populations and the potential for gene flow between natural populations in the landscape, in order to preserve ecological interactions (i.e. pollination), and promote opportunities for outcrossing.

  14. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

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    Husen Asbanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of slicer and peeler. The slicer function is to slice the fruit before it sent into peeler unit which contains two cylindrical peeler. The peeler unit installed parallel so it let through the fruit pulp but still hold the Tamarind seeds that had been separated by the separator unit. Tamarind seeds separation prototype model has been succesfully made. Model testing was done by measuring the rotary speed of spindle peelers on 1065 rpm which considered work effectively for the test load of 100 grams, 200 grams and 300 grams. Further, shaft torque measurements in the process of peeling showed a significant increase in value and it is proportional to the increase in load level for all treatments. Greatest torque happened at 890 rpm rotation speed with a value of 1.45 Nm at 300 gram load. While the rotary speed of 1220 rpm produce 1.17 Nm torque at 300 grams load.

  15. Fenologia e visitantes florais de Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Raimunda Alice Coimbra Vieira Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p51 Erythrina crista-galli é uma espécie característica do bioma Pampa, também usada com fins ornamentais em arborização urbana. E. crista-galli  floresce mais intensamente de novembro a dezembro. A antese inicia entre 7h-11h, e as flores têm duração de cinco dias. Um total de 1.275 visitas florais foi registrado em 57h de observações. Abelhas da família Apidae (Trigona spinipes e Apis mellifera foram os visitantes fl orais mais freqüentes (88,23%, seguidos de moscas (Muscidae – 5,50%, formigas (Formicidae – 2,35%, vespas (Vespidae –  1,56% e besouros (Chrysomelidae – 1,56%. As flores também foram visitadas por beija-flores da família Trochilidae (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0,79%. A abelha T. spinipes foi observada em todos os horários e apresentou comportamento de possível polinizadora, juntamente com A. mellifera e o beija-fl or C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli é autocompatível, apresentando produção de frutos e sementes após a polinização manual e sob condições naturais.

  16. Phenology and floral visitors of Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina crista-galli is a characteristic species of the Pampa biome also used as an ornament in urban arborization. Erythrina crista-galli flourishes more intensively from November to Decem¬ber. Anthesis starts around 7:00 am to 11:00 am, and flowers last five days. A total of 1,275 floral visits were registered over 57h of observations. Apidae bees (Trigona spinipes and Apis mellifera were the most frequent visitors (88.23%, followed by Muscidae flies (5.50%, Formicidae ants (2.35%, Vespidae wasps (1.56%, and Chrysomelidae beetles (1.56%. Trochilidae hummingbirds (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0.79% also visited the flowers. Trigona spinipes was observed at throughout the daytime and behaved as a probable pollinator, along with A. mellifera and C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli is autocompatible, producing fruits and seeds after manual pollination and under natural conditions.

  17. Capacidad antioxidante de poblaciones silvestres de “tara” (Caesalpinia spinosa de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe (Provincia de Tarma, departamento de Junín

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    Alberto López S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es el principal abastecedor de “tara”, gracias a que nuestro país posee una gran variedad de climas y tipos de suelos, haciendo posible la obtención de este cultivo durante la mayor parte del año. El departamento de Junín cuenta con poblaciones naturales de “tara” que aun no han sido caracterizadas bioquímica ni genéticamente, que podrían aprovecharse en beneficio de las comunidades locales. En este trabajo se reporta la capacidad antioxidante de “tara” provenientes de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe, ambas ubicadas en Tarma, Junín. Se utilizó la técnica del DPPH y del ABTS para valorar la capacidad antioxidante; para la determinación de fenoles y flavonoides se utilizó el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteau según la técnica de Singleton. La muestra de Picoy reportó mayor cantidad de fenoles siendo de 563.70 mg/g de extracto seco, mientras que la cantidad de flavonoides fue de 0.664 mg/g. La capacidad antioxidante mostro una mejor respuesta en la muestra de Picoy, reportándose mediante el DPPH un IC50 1.244 mg/ml y con el ABTS un 35.3% de inhibición. Estos datos podrían aprovecharse para incrementar el valor agregado y mejorar la oferta de este recurso en dicha localidad debido a sus mejores características antioxidantes.

  18. Methylation of Brazilein on Secang (Caesalpinia sappan Linn) Wood Extract for Maintain Color Stability to the Changes of pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulma, Zeni; Rahayuningsih, Edia; Dwi Wahyuningsih, Tutik

    2018-01-01

    The stability of natural dyes to the changes of pH is really necessary when the natural dyes are applied either on fabric or food. This research aimed to increase the stability of brazilein, a compound contained within the secang wood extract, to the changes of pH. The methylation process was done by reacting Dimethyl Carbonate (DMC) with the brazilein on the secang wood extract. DMC acts as a substance that substitute hydroxyl group on brazilein. The methylation reaction of brazilein on secang wood extract was operated on a three-necked round-bottomed flask fitted with mercury-sealed stirrer and reflux condenser under 80°C temperature and 250 rpm stirring speed. There were two variables observed in this research; the DMC amount ratio to the amount of secang wood extract and the time of the methylation process. The research showed that at the 1:10 the DMC amount ratio to the amount of wood extract and 8 hours of the methylation process give the better stability of color of the secang wood extract than the variation of the other variables.

  19. Estudo comparativo da massa específica aparente e retratibilidade da madeira de pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata LAM. nativa e de reflorestamento

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    Sinval dos Santos Marques

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre as propriedades físicas da madeira, a massa específica aparente e a retratibilidade são características importantes na avaliação da qualidade da madeira para ampla gama de uso. A massa específica aparente, ou densidade aparente, está relacionada a uma série de outras características, principalmente àquelas relacionadas às propriedades mecânicas e anatômicas da madeira. Do mesmo modo, a retratibilidade também é importante característica, pois avalia a estabilidade dimensional das madeiras, sendo de grande importância para aplicações em que a madeira não deve apresentar contrações excessivas durante sua utilização. Com base nisso, este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a massa específica aparente e a retratibilidade da madeira de pau-brasil, proveniente de áreas naturais e de reflorestamentos com 10, 15, 20, 26 e 30 anos. Tais avaliações foram realizadas segundo a metodologia preconizada pelo Método Brasileiro 26/1940 da Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. Os resultados indicaram que houve variação na massa específica aparente nas diferentes idades, com os maiores valores para a madeira de 30 anos de idade, que foram próximos aos encontrados para amostras de madeira nativa. A retratibilidade volumétrica total também variou em função da idade, não apresentando grande diferença em relação à madeira proveniente de áreas naturais.

  20. Composição florística do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Floristic survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Serra da Capoeira Grande Environmental Protection Area, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º59'03"S e 43º38'59"W tem área total de 80ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. no município do Rio de Janeiro. Além disso, ocorrem na área outras três espécies ameaçadas de extinção: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng. e Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. O levantamento fitossociológico foi realizado por meio do método dos quadrantes, tendo sido alocados 200 pontos e tendo-se como critério de inclusão 15cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30m de altura do solo. A composição florística é o resultado desta amostragem acrescida de coletas feitas durante caminhadas no fragmento, totalizando 29 famílias, 58 gêneros e 69 espécies. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de espécies foram: Leguminosae (13, Myrtaceae (6, Euphorbiaceae (5, Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Celastraceae, Flacourtiaceae, Moraceae, Rubiaceae e Solanaceae (3. Analisando a similaridade florística entre a APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande e outras 18 áreas florestais do Rio de Janeiro, observou-se maior identidade florística entre a área estudada e florestas de baixada localizadas próximas ao mar. Todas as florestas reuniram-se com um baixo nível de similaridade, refletindo a diversidade florística das florestas do Rio de Janeiro.The 80-hectare site (22º59'03"S and 43º38'59"W, is one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality, where brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. occurs naturally. Furthermore, three other endangered species occur in this area: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng., and Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH >15cm; a total of 200 points were surveyed. The floristic composition was comprised of the sampled

  1. Germinación, dispersión y establecimiento de plántulas de Mimosa tenuiflora (Leguminosae en México

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    Sara L. Camargo-Ricalde

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. es un recurso natural importante para México debido a sus diversos usos. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se había estudiado la germinación, la dispersión y el establecimiento de plántulas de esta especie. Se recolectaron frutos y semillas de esta planta en el estado de Chiapas, México (S. L. Camargo et al. 118, UAMIZ. Las pruebas de germinación se hicieron después de cuatro años de almacenamiento; se sembraron en total 1 935 semillas en cajas de Petri con papel filtro Wathman humedecido. Se determinaron las temperaturas óptimas usando un gradiente de 5-40°C, con luz continua, para semillas escarificadas mecánicamente y no escarificadas. Se realizaron tres pruebas de fotoperíodo: a luz continua, b oscuridad constante y c luz 12hr/oscuridad 12 hr. Se aplicaron tres tratamientos pregerminativos: a escarificación mecánica, b ácido sulfúrico concentrado, c fuego directo y d ningún tratamiento. Para cada variable y pretratamiento se hicieron tres repeticiones, cada una con 15 semillas. Se aplicaron las pruebas estadísticas correspondientes: desviación estandar (S, análisis de varianza de una vía (ANOVA y comparación de medias (Prueba de Scheffé (pMimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. is an important natural resource in Mexico, due to its diverse uses. However, seed germination, dissemination and seedling establishment of this species had not been studied up to date. Fruits and seeds were collected in the State of Chiapas, Mexico (S. L. Camargo et al. 118, UAMIZ. Germination experiments were carried out after four years of seed storage; 1 935 seeds were sown in Petri dishes containing moistened Wathman filter paper. Optimum temperatures were determined in a gradient 5-40 0C, with continuous light for mechanically scarified and non scarified seeds. Three photoperiod experiments were made: a continuous light, b constant darkness and c 12 hr light/12 hr darkness. Three germinate pretreatments were applied: a mechanical scarification, b sulfuric acid scarification, c fire scarification and d control. Three replicates of 15 seeds each were made for each variable and pretreatment. Standard deviations (S were determined, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and media comparison (Scheffé’s test were applied (p<0.05. Analysis of fruit and seed dissemination and seedling establishment was made qualitatively on the basis of field and laboratory observations; radius of dissemination of the fruits from the mother plant was measured; development of laboratory grown seedlings was followed during three months. Seeds germinated at 10-30°C; however, the highest percentages of germination were obtained at 20°C (84.44% and 25°C (95.55%; seeds are indistinctly photoblastic and percentages of germination, after the three germinate pretreatments, were: control (24.44-35.55%, mechanical scarification (84.44-88.88%, sulfuric acid scarification (73.33-91.11% and fire scarification (0%. Fruits and seeds are disseminated by the wind in a radius of 5-8 m from the mother plant; rain carries them from slopes to lower plains and human activities contribute to their dissemination. Growth of seedlings is fast; they develop a paripinnate protophyll and ten biparipinnate pronomophylls; the first nomophyll develops during the weeks 12 to 14. It is concluded that optimum temperatures for seed germination of M. tenuiflora are 20 °C and 25 °C; seeds are indistinctly photoblastic; percentage and rate of germination are highly increased by coat scarification. This species has certain advantages for its establishment in open areas, given by the abundant production of seeds, their small size, the rate of germination and the fast growth, as well as by its seedling characters: the tap root system, the hypocotyl-epicotyl axis woody at the base and, the compound leaves with linear-oblong leaflets having changes in orientation in response to light. Our results confirm the invasive and typically secondary character of this species.

  2. Malformações, abortos e mortalidade embrionária em ovinos causada pela ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (Leguminosae

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    José Rômulo Soares dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a teratogenicidade de Mimosa tenuiflora, 15 ovelhas, distribuídas em dois grupos, foram introduzidos em área invadida pela planta. O Grupo 1, com seis ovelhas prenhes, foi introduzido na área experimental 20 dias após o acasalamento. O Grupo 2, formado por nove ovelhas não prenhes e um carneiro, foi introduzido na área experimental no início do experimento. O experimento começou no mês de outubro de 2009, período de estiagem, quando M. tenuiflora estava sementando. Nesse período as plantas foram rebaixadas a 40 cm de altura e os galhos com folhas e sementes foram disponibilizados para os ovinos na mesma área onde M. tenuiflora foi rebaixada. M. tenuiflora começou a rebrotar ainda na estação seca antes do período de chuvas. No período de rebrota, as ovelhas ficavam livres para pastar M. tenuiflora e recebiam concentrado em quantidade equivalente a 1% do peso vivo. Após as primeiras chuvas, em meados de janeiro do ano seguinte, quando o estrato herbáceo apareceu, essas ovelhas foram confinadas em baias, onde M. tenuiflora foi fornecida até o fim do experimento. A cada 15 dias eram realizados exames ultrassonográficos para acompanhamento da gestação. No Grupo 1, três ovelhas abortaram, cada uma um feto sem malformações. Outra ovelha pariu dois cordeiros, um com hiperflexão na articulação inter-falangeana proximal no membro torácico direito e outro sem malformações. Outra ovelha pariu um cordeiro com hiperflexão dos dois membros pélvicos na região da articulação tarso-metatársica. No grupo formado pelas ovelhas que foram acasaladas na área experimental, uma ovelha abortou um feto sem malformações e cinco pariram cordeiros normais. Três das ovelhas desse grupo não emprenharam durante todo o período experimental, mostrando retornos repetidos ao cio, sugerindo perda embrionária. Trinta e duas ovelhas e um carneiro, que permaneceram numa área vizinha a área experimental e foram utilizados como controle, pariram cordeiros normais. Conclui-se que M. tenuiflora, além de causar malformações causa, também, mortalidade embrionária e abortos em ovelhas.

  3. Latencia en semillas de Stylosanthes hamata (Leguminosae y su relación con la morfología de la cubierta seminal

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    Rosana Castillo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La semilla de Stylosanthes hamata (L. Taub. se caracteriza por presentar un alto grado de latencia asociada a una restricción a la absorción de humedad (semilla dura. En esta investigación, se estudió la dureza de semillas distales y basales de siete líneas diploides y cinco líneas tetraploides, cultivadas bajo condiciones tropicales. Las pruebas pruebas de germinación (HR: 55-65%, temperatura constante: 27-30º C, fotoperíodo: 12/12 hr llevadas a cabo en semillas desprovistas de vaina indicaron que el grado de dureza seminal estuvo en casi todos los casos por encima del 85%, independientemente del nivel de ploidia y de la posición de la semilla en el fruto. Así mismo, se realizó una caracterización morfo-anatómica de la cubierta seminal a través del uso del microscopio óptico y de barrido. Esta caracterización fue complementada con un estudio histoquímico para determinar la ubicación de compuestos hidrofóbicos en la cubierta seminal. Los resultados de estas pruebas señalaron que la dureza seminal estuvo relacionada con la presencia de un micropilo y un hilo totalmente cerrados, una epidermis compuesta por macroesclereidas en empalizada con una línea lúcida en las paredes más externas de estas células y a una alta concentración de compuestos hidrofóbicos en todos los tejidos que conforman la cubierta seminal.The seed of Stylosanthes hamata is characterized by it's a high level of dormancy, which is imposed by seed-coat impermeability to water entry (harseededness or hard-seed condition. The level of hardseededness between upper and lower articulations of seven diploid and five tetraploid accessions was studied under tropical conditions. Germination tests on naked seeds (relative humidity: 55-65%, constant temperature: 27-30º C, photoperiod: 12/12 hr showed that hard-seed percentage was, in most cases, over 85% independent of ploidy level and seed position within the fruit. Histochemical analysis indicated that hardseededness in this species was associated with a completely sealed microphile and hilum. This feature was also associated to: a an epidermis consisting of a palisade-like layer of macrosclereids, b a like-line at the outermost region of these cells and c a high concentration of hydrophobic compounds located all across the seed-coat.

  4. Perspectives of recycling gamma irradiated sewage-sludge in agricultural applications: a study on methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. :leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, G A; Banerjee, S; Modi, V V [Baroda Univ. (India). Faculty of Science

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in pot cultures have been studied. The gamma-irradiated sludge appeared to negatively affect the physical growth parameters of the plant. The significant positive effect of gamma-irradiated sludge was observed on the biochemical growth parameters and yield of methi plants. There was a 3.5-, 1.7- and 2-fold increase in the total protein content, total soluble sugars and starch content, respectively, of plants grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge after 45 days of growth. The gamma-irradiated sludge did not show any detrimental effect on any of the three biochemical parameters studied, even after 90 days of plant growth. The sludge obtained from the conventional treatment process was found to be inhibitory to the protein and starch content of plants in the latter stages of plant growth. A significant increase in the yield of methi plants, after 45 as well as 90 days, grown in the presence of gamma-irradiated sludge indicates a beneficial effect of recycling of irradiated sludge for agricultural applications. (author).

  5. Perspectives of recycling gamma irradiated sewage-sludge in agricultural applications: a study on methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.:leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, G.A.; Banerjee, S.; Modi, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in pot cultures have been studied. The gamma-irradiated sludge appeared to negatively affect the physical growth parameters of the plant. The significant positive effect of gamma-irradiated sludge was observed on the biochemical growth parameters and yield of methi plants. There was a 3.5-, 1.7- and 2-fold increase in the total protein content, total soluble sugars and starch content, respectively, of plants grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge after 45 days of growth. The gamma-irradiated sludge did not show any detrimental effect on any of the three biochemical parameters studied, even after 90 days of plant growth. The sludge obtained from the conventional treatment process was found to be inhibitory to the protein and starch content of plants in the latter stages of plant growth. A significant increase in the yield of methi plants, after 45 as well as 90 days, grown in the presence of gamma-irradiated sludge indicates a beneficial effect of recycling of irradiated sludge for agricultural applications. (author)

  6. Evaluación agronómica y valor nutricional de 84 accesiones de la leguminosa Tadehagi triquetrum en suelos ácidos

    OpenAIRE

    Cerón Fernández, Claudia Lorena

    2010-01-01

    En la búsqueda de nuevas opciones forrajeras para alimentación animal en el trópico, se evaluó una colección de Tadehagi triquetrum con 84 accesiones suministradas por la Unidad de Recursos Genéticos del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical – CIAT, en suelos ácidos del norte del Cauca. La evaluación se realizó en la subestación Experimental CIAT Quilichao, ubicada en el Municipio de Santander de Quilichao, Departamento del Cauca a 3º 06´ de latitud norte y 76º 31´de longitud oeste, a ...

  7. Descomposición de hojarasca en la leguminosa Adenocarpus decorticans: pérdida de peso y dinámica de los nutrientes

    OpenAIRE

    Moro Cuadrillero, María José; Domingo Poveda, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la pérdida de peso y la liberación de N, P, K, Mg y Ca de la hojarasca de Adenocarpus decorticans Boiss. en la Sierra de los Filabres (Almería). Tras 828 días de incubación en el campo, la pérdida de peso inicial fue del 70%. La tasa de descomposición estimada a partir de la aplicación del modelo exponencial simple es de -0.82 el primer año, -0.62 el segundo año y -0.53 para el conjunto del periodo. La liberación de nutrientes sigue la secuencia K>Mg>Ca> P>N....

  8. EVALUACIÓN COMPARATIVA DE LOS ATRIBUTOS NUTRICIONALES Y ANTINUTRICIONALES DE LEGUMINOSAS SUBUTILIZADAS, Canavalia gladiata (JACQ. DC, Erythrina indica LAM. Y Abrus precatorius L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious Soris Tresina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron muestras de semillas de of Canavalia gladiata, Erythrina indica y Abrus precatorius (roja y negra, semilla de cascara colorada y semilla de cascara blanca de las regiones de Tamil Nadu y se analizó su composición química con la visión de evaluar su potencial nutricional. La composición proximal reveló que todas las muestras investigadas de semillas contenían altos niveles de proteína cruda y grasa. Los perfiles de minerales fueron también analizados en todas las muestras. Todas las muestras parecieron tener buenas fuentes de potasio, magnesio, sodio, calcio, fosforo, hierro, zinc, cobre, el contenido de manganeso fue deficiente cuando se comparó con los requerimentos diarios en la dieta (NRC/NAS, 1980, 1989. Los contenidos de vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascórbico fueron relativamente altos en todas las muestras investigadas. Los perfiles de aminoácidos esenciales del total de proteína de la semilla se compararon favorablemente con los patrones de requerimientos de la FAO/WHO (1991. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos revelaron que todas las muestras de semilla fueron ricas en ácidos grasos insaturados (55.60-72.04 y muy altos niveles de ácido linoleico (24.16-34.14%. El IVPD de las muestras estuvo en un rango de 63.31-71.36%. Se analizaron los factores antinutricionales como fenoles totales, taninos, L-DOPA, ácido fítico, hidrogeno ciánico, inhibidor de tripsina, oligosacáridos y fitohematoaglutinación.

  9. Leguminosa no controle integrado de plantas daninhas para aumentar a produtividade da laranja-'Pêra' Legume plants in the integrated weeds control to improve orange 'Pera' yield

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    JOSÉ EDUARDO B. DE CARVALHO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade da laranja-'Pêra', em dois ecossistemas, considerando dois diferentes manejos de solo para o controle integrado de plantas daninhas. O experimento foi instalado nos municípios de Rio Real e Conceição do Almeida, Bahia, no período de 1994 a 1999, em área total de 6000 m², em cada local. O manejo utilizado pelo produtor constou de três capinas manuais nas linhas de plantio e três gradagens nas entrelinhas, enquanto o manejo proposto utilizou como cobertura vegetal o feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes L., nas entrelinhas do pomar, associado a uma subsolagem. O controle químico das plantas daninhas nas linhas do pomar foi realizado duas vezes ao ano com glifosate. O manejo proposto apresentou melhores resultados em relação ao manejo do produtor nos dois municípios para todos os parâmetros analisados: peso do fruto, número de frutos por planta e produtividade. Em Conceição do Almeida, o sistema proposto foi 56,8% mais produtivo que o do produtor e, em Rio Real, 64,9%.Aimed to evaluate the productivity of sweet orange "Pera" grown considering two different ecosystems and under two soil management systems to control weeds. This work was carried out at the cities of Rio Real and Conceição de Almeida, Bahia State, during the period from 1994 to 1999. The soil management used by the farmer comprised three hoeings within planting lines and three harrowings between the planting lines. The new soil management proposed used a green cover of pig beans (Canavalia ensiformes, L. between the planting lines along with subsoiling, associated with a chemical control of the weeds by Gliphosate, on the planting lines, twice a year. The soil management proposed yielded better results than the farmer soil management at both ecosystems for fruit weight of fruit, number, and plant productivity. At Conceição do Almeida and Rio Real the proposed soil management was 56,8% and 64,9%, respectively, superior than the farmer system.

  10. Anti-Anxiety Effect of (-)-Syringaresnol-4-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside from Albizzia julibrissin Durazz (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Lv, Yue-Wei; Shi, Jin-Li; Ma, Xiao-Jie; Chen, Yi; Zheng, Zhi-Quan; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Guo, Jian-You

    2017-08-11

    Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, a Chinese Medicine, is commonly used for its anti-anxiety effects. (-)-syringaresnol-4- O -β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (SAG) is the main ingredient of Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effect and potential mechanisms on the HPA axis and monoaminergic systems of SAG on acute restraint-stressed rats. The anxiolytic effect of SAG was examined through an open field test and an elevated plus maze test. The concentration of CRF, ACTH, and CORT in plasma was examined by an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) kit while neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain were examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We show that repeated treatment with SAG (3.6 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the number and time spent on the central entries in the open-field test when compared to the vehicle/stressed group. In the elevated plus maze test, 3.6 mg/kg SAG could increase the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In addition, the concentration of CRF, ACTH, and CORT in plasma and neurotransmitters (NE, 5-HT, DA and their metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC, and HVA) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain were decreased after SAG treatment, as compared to the repeated acute restraint-stressed rats. These results suggest that SAG is a potential anti-anxiety drug candidate.

  11. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Bérgamo de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20% was higher than between these (22.80%. No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  12. Cytotoxic activity of erypogein d from erythrina poeppigiana (leguminosae) against cervical cancer (HeLa), breast cancer (MCF-7) and ovarian cancer (SKOV-3) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlina, T.; Gaffar, S.; Widowati, W.

    2018-05-01

    Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells and continues to divide rapidly in the body. Current anticancer treatment usually causes many side effects. Natural products are then explored to be new alternatives for cancer treatment. Flavonoids have been known to possess medicinal properties, including anticancer. This study was performed to observe the cytotoxic activity of isoflavanone compound, erypogein D from Erythrina poeppigiana, toward cervical cancer (HeLa), breast cancer (MCF-7) and ovarian cancer (SKOV-3) cells. The cytotoxic activity of erypogein D was tested using MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3- carboxyme-thoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay. The percentage of cell mortality was calculated and the IC50 was analyzed using probit analysis. The result showed that cytotoxic activity of the erypogein D against HeLa, SKOV-3, and MCF-7 cells had an IC50 value 225, 70.74, and 30.12 μM, respectively. Based on IC50 value can be concluded that erypogein D is the most cytotoxic to breast cancer MCF-7 cell. However the cytotoxic activity of erypogein D toward MCF7 is moderate.

  13. EVALUACIÓN FENOLÓGICA Y DIGESTIBILIDAD in vivo DE LA LEGUMINOSA FORRAJERA (Arachis pintoi EN DIFERENTES EDADES DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Godoy Espinoza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de ésta investigación fue evaluar la fenología, producción, composición química nutricional y digestibilidad in vivo de A. pintoi y de establecer modelos matemáticos para determinar el valor nutricional y producción en base a la composición química de la planta. Las evaluaciones fenológicas se realizaron en la hacienda ESPE y la digestibilidad in vivo en la Facultad de Ciencias Pecuarias de la ESPOCH. En la primera fase se utilizaron parcelas experimentales de 10x15 m con cuatro repeticiones, mientras que en la segunda fase la unidad experimental fue un ovino (n=4. En ambos ensayos se aplicó un diseño experimental completamente al azar con un modelo lineal aditivo utilizando un nivel de significancia del 5%. Se realizó un análisis de correlación y regresión lineal entre variables fenológicas, composición química, digestibilidad y energía. Todos los análisis fueron realizados con el paquete SPSS 10. Las mayores producciones de forraje verde y materia seca (MS por hectárea se obtuvieron con cortes a los 75 días con 47,730 y 12,480 kg ha-1, respectivamente. En cuanto a la composición química de la proteína bruta y digestibilidad in vivo de la MS, el forraje cortado a 30 días obtuvo los mayores valores con 24.50 y 66.42%, respectivamente. El máximo valor de energía neta de lactancia (ENL se logró en el corte de 30 días, alcanzando 1.51 para luego disminuir a 1.24 Mcal ENL kg-1 a los 75 días.

  14. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Filho Peres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the cutting ant preference of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, to native and exotic forest tree species, in laboratory conditions. The most preferred species were: gmelina ( Gmelina arborea, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, caesalpinia (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizzia (Albizia lebbeck and enterolobium (Enterolobium contortisiliquum and the less preferred ones were: eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitiba (Cariniana strellensis and guazuma (Guazuma tomentosa .

  15. Influência da remoção de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de leguminosas Effect of cotyledon removal on cotyledonal axillary shooting in seedlings of leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odaci Fernandes de Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos inteiramente casualizados foram conduzidos em condições de viveiro com o objetivo de verificar a importância da permanência de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. e Delonix regia L. Os tratamentos foram: remoção de ambos os cotilédones nos primeiro, segundo e terceiro dias da emergência, remoção de um só cotilédone no primeiro dia da emergência e não remoção de cotilédones. A recuperação do desenvolvimento em plântulas de P. vulgaris, avaliada através da ocorrência de ramificações, independe do número de cotilédones removidos no período de um a três dias da emergência, mas é menos eficiente que em V. unguiculata. A remoção de ambos os cotilédones em plântulas de V. unguiculata, no dia da emergência, afetou a recuperação do desenvolvimento dessas plântulas em comparação com os outros tratamentos. Em plântulas de L leucocephala, P. juliflora, T. indica e D. regia, a remoção de ambos os cotilédones, no período de um a três dias da emergência, sugere o aumento de mortalidade nessas plântulas. A remoção de um único cotilédone não afetou significativamente o percentual de sobrevivência das plântulas nem limitou o surgimento de brotações à axila cotiledonar correspondente ao cotilédone removido.Completely randomized experiments under greenhouse conditions were carried to study the role of cotyledons on the cotyledonal axillary shooting of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. and Delonix regia L. The seedlings underwent the following treatments: removal of both cotyledons on the first to the third day after emergence, removal of only one cotyledon on the first day of emergence, and no cotyledon removal. Growth recovery in P. vulgaris seedlings, as evaluated through shooting occurrence, is independent of the number of cotyledons removed on the first to the third day after emergence, but it was mostly less effective than that in V. unguiculata. Growth recovery in V. unguiculata seedlings was less effective when both cotyledons were removed on the first day of emergence as compared to the other treatments. In L. leucocephala, P. juliflora, T. indica, and D. regia seedlings, the removal of both cotyledons, on the first to the third day after emergence, suggests an increase in the mortality of seedlings. The removal of only one cotyledon did not significantly affect the percentage of seedling survival nor limit shooting to the corresponding axil of the removed cotyledon.

  16. Aspectos biológicos y control de un gracilláriido (Gracillariidae: Lepidóptera) en Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol.) Kuntze (1898), en Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Murga Orrillo, Hipólito; Abanto Rodriguez, Carlos; Polo Vargas, Ana Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Se tuvo por objetivo determinar aspectos biológicos, identificar enemigos naturales, y establecer periodos oportunos de control de un gracillariido plaga de tara. Los aspectos biológicos y los enemigos naturales se evaluaron en campo y en laboratorio, los periodos oportunos de control se determinó por interacción hospedero-plaga. Los resultados, el huevo dura 7,8 días y mide 0,34x0,21mm; la larva presenta 4 instares y dura 35,7 días, variando de medidas entre 1o y 4o instar de 0,09 a 0,65 mm ...

  17. Aspectos biológicos y control de un gracilláriido (Gracillariidae: Lepidóptera) en Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol.) Kuntze (1898), en Cajamarca, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Murga Orrillo, Hipólito; Abanto Rodríguez, Carlos; Polo Vargas, Ana Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Determine biological target, identify natural enemies, and establish appropriate periods of controlling a pest gracillariid tare. The biological aspects and natural enemies in field and laboratory were evaluated, appropriate control periods was determined by host-pest interaction. The results, egg lasts 7.8 days and measured 0.34x0.21 mm; presents four instars larvae and lasts 35.7 days, ranging from measures between 1st and the 4th instar from 0.09 to 0.65 mm diameter brain; the pupa lasts 1...

  18. Aspectos biológicos y control de un gracilláriido (Gracillariidae: Lepidóptera en Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. Kuntze (1898, en Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se tuvo por objetivo determinar aspectos biológicos, identificar enemigos naturales, y establecer periodos oportunos de control de un gracillariido plaga de tara. Los aspectos biológicos y los enemigos naturales se evaluaron en campo y en laboratorio, los periodos oportunos de control se determinó por interacción hospedero - plaga. Los resultados, el huevo dura 7,8 días y mide 0,34x0,21mm; la larva presenta 4 instares y dura 35,7 días, variando de medidas entre 1 o y 4 o instar de 0,09 a 0,65 mm de diámetro de encéfalo ; la pupa dura 14,3 días y mide 6,7mmx1,1mm ; el adulto dura 7,5 días y mide 13,43 mm de expansión alar. Presenta enemigos naturales, familias Encyrtidae, Ichneumonidae, y géneros Chelonus sp., Chrysoperla sp., Hemerobius sp., Cicloneda sp . , Hipodamia sp., y Zelus spp. Las mejores épocas de control ocurren cuando la fenología de la tara est á entre R3.1 a R4 y R3.3 a R6.

  19. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  20. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, ... Key words: medicinal plants, antifungal activity, methanol extracts, yeast, mould, Saussurea lappa. ... Caesalpinia pulcherrima.

  1. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the effect of aqueous extract of Lobelia chinensis on colon .... Evaluation of the toxicological profile of the leaves and young twigs of Caesalpinia bonduc ... Antimicrobial and antiplasmodial activities of a quaternary compound from ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 316 ... Vol 3 (1999), LAXATIVE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ... STUDIES ON THE LEAF AND STEM OF CAESALPINIA CRISTA ... Vol 10 (2006), Neuropharmacological activity of the methanol root-bark extract of ...

  3. Valorisation du lentisque «Pistacia lentiscus L.»: Étude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    28 févr. 2015 ... Keywords: Ethnobotany, Pistacia lentiscus L., antibacterial activity, phytochemical screening, Meknes,. Morocco. ... Extraction des huiles essentielles : L'extraction des ..... Phytochimique de Caesalpinia Benthamiana. (Baill.).

  4. Disponibilité des espèces végétales spontanées à usage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 avr. 2014 ... ... application of results: This study suggests that the development of the reserve activities ..... (Balanophoraceae) Root Extract Against ... Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of 14 ... screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia.

  5. Characterization and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activity was examined by 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. (DPPH) radical ... antifungal, antiviral, anticancer activities [1-3]. Due to its .... Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. Food Chem ... rich extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro. J Agr.

  6. Urtica urens L., Urtica membranacea Poiret et Urtica pilulifera L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2015 ... Methods and results: The crude and fractionated extracts of the ... screening, flavonoids and total phenolic dosing and antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria, ..... phytochimique de Caesalpinia benthamiana.

  7. Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Phytotoxic Potency of Ethyl Acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity was determined by inhibitory effect on the growth of. Alternaria ... Results: The extract showed phytotoxic activity (at 95% level of significance) against Lemna minor ..... screening of various organic extracts of caesalpinia.

  8. Perceived Barriers and Opportunities to the Linkage of Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown User

    spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis indicated that essential oil of this plant was rich in both α and ... Key words: Antibacterial activity, Caesalpinia decapitala leaves, crude organic ... obtained through hydro distillation method by Clevenger type.

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Moreno,J. , Ortiz M. , Marinoni G. , Vita P. , Vidari G. , Mellerio G. (1995) Importancia ... Contribuciones del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Ciencias ... and analgesic properties of Caesalpinia bonducella F. seed oil in experimental animal models.

  10. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  11. Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards;Fixacao biologica e transferencia de nitrogenio por leguminosas em pomar organico de mangueira e gravioleira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Gleicia Miranda; Barroso, Deborah Guerra, E-mail: gleiciamiranda@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: deborah@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo, E-mail: bruno@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: urquiaga@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of {sup 15}N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

  12. Disponibilidade e valor nutritivo de forragem de leguminosas nativas (Adesmia DC. e exóticas (Lotus L. Availability and nutritive value of the wild leguminous (Adesmia DC. and exotics (Lotus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Adesmia DC. possui 17 espécies nativas no Brasil, distribuídas nos Estados do Sul, cuja importância está vinculada a sua adaptação ao solo e clima regionais, além de ser de crescimento hibernal (temperadas. Este trabalho teve o objetivo comparar o padrão de acúmulo de matéria seca (MS e valor nutritivo de forragem de A. latifolia, A. punctata e A. tristis, tendo como padrão Lotus corniculatus (cornichão e L. uliginosus. O ensaio foi realizado em casa de vegetação durante 210 dias (4000 graus-dia. A disponibilidade de forragem (DF foi similar entre A. latifolia (276 g MS/m² e cornichão (275 g MS/m² e entre A. tristis (201g MS/m² e L. uliginosus (192 g MS/m², sendo que A. punctata apresentou a menor DF (155 g MS/m². A. latifolia caracterizou-se pela maior precocidade na DF, devido ao crescimento mais rápido em relação às demais espécies, sugerindo seu potencial para utilização durante a estação fria. Em relação às análises de qualidade, o teor de proteína bruta (PB nas folhas de A. latifolia foi de até 21,6% e a DIVMO atingiu 72,3%. Os maiores conteúdos de PB e DIVMO foram encontrados nas folhas de cornichão, 30,3 e 75,8%, respectivamente. A. tristis apresentou DIVMO muito baixa nos caules (34,9 a 44,7%, o que poderia limitar seu consumo por bovinos. Concluiu-se que, entre as espécies de Adesmia estudadas, A. latifolia detém o maior potencial forrageiro, sugerindo a continuidade de estudos com a espécie.The genus Adesmia DC. has 17 species native to Brazil, distributed in the Southern states, whose importance is linked to its adaptation to the soils and climatic conditions of the region, besides being an active winter-growing species (temperate. This work aimed to compare the patterns of dry matter (DM accumulation and nutritive value of A. latifolia, A. punctata and A. tristis, using Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil and L. uliginosus (big trefoil, as checks. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse for 210 days (4000 degrees-day. The forage availability (FA was similar for A. latifolia (276 g DM/m² and birdsfoot trefoil (275 g DM/m², as well as for A. tristis (201 g DM/m² and big trefoil (192 g DM/m², while A. punctata showed the smallest FD (155 g DM/m². A. latifolia was characterized by an early FA, due to its fast growth when compared to other species, pointing to its potential utilization during the cold season. In relation to the quality analysis, the crude protein (CP in A. latifolia leaves was up to 21.6% and the organic matter in vitro digestibility (OMIVD was up to 72.3%. The highest CP and OMIVD was found in the birdsfoot trefoil leaves, 30.3 and 75.8%, respectively. A. tristis presented a very low OMIVD in the stems, from 34.9 to 44.7%, which could limit its intake by cattle. It is concluded that, among the Adesmia species studied, A. latifolia holds the greatest forage potential and deserves further study.

  13. Aplicación de modelos en los sistemas agrícolas de secano de la meseta central : Simulación de rotaciones y modelado de la arquitectura de la planta en leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo profundiza en el estudio de los sistemas agrícolas de secano de la Meseta Central. Sobre la base de la alternativa tradicional ce^eal^arbecho, se han estudiado durante tres años de cultivo 1995/96, 1996/97 y 1997/98 seis rotaciones diferentes: monocultivo de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.), cebada/barbecho, cebada/habas (Viciafaba L.), cebada/guisantes {Pisum sativum L.), cebada/habas/barbecho y cebada/guisantes/barbecho. Entre las rotaciones, se ha comparado la biomasa, el rendimien...

  14. Estudio de la tecnología de extrusión para la valorización de subproductos vegetales y nuevas aplicaciones en leguminosas como ingredientes de productos para alimentación humana

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Espeso, Belén

    2017-01-01

    La tecnología de extrusión se ha aplicado en la última década sobre diferentes tipos de subproductos con el fin de determinar la posibilidad de obtener ciertas mejoras nutricionales y/o tecnológicas sobre ellos al igual que en las harinas. La información disponible en relación al procesado mediante extrusión de subproductos de origen vegetal es limitada. Son varios los factores que afectan a la calidad del producto final tales como el tipo de extrusor que se utiliza, la configuración del t...

  15. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

  16. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  17. Produção de forragem em pastagens consorciadas com diferentes leguminosas sob pastejo rotacionado = Forage production in pasture-based systems mixed with different legumes under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Steinwandter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar dois sistemas forrageiros, constituídos por capim-elefante, azevém, trevo branco ou amendoim forrageiro e espécies de crescimento espontâneo, quanto às taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS. Para avaliação utilizaram-se quatro piquetes, com 0,25 ha cada um, com capim-elefante estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4 m. No período hibernal, entre as linhas do capim-elefante, fez-se o estabelecimento do azevém; em dois piquetes foi semeado o trevo branco e nos demais se preservou o amendoim forrageiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. Para a determinação das taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS, avaliaram-se as massas de forragem de pré e pós-pastejo. Foram avaliadas a composição botânica e estrutural da pastagem e a lotação. Na média, as taxas de acúmulo e dedesaparecimento da MS e a lotação foram de 47,29 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,24% e 3,01 UA ha-1 e de 53,16 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,45% e 3,48 UA ha-1 para os sistemas constituídos por trevo branco e por amendoim forrageiro, respectivamente. Considerando-se a taxa de acúmulo deMS, a MS desaparecida e a lotação, os resultados demonstram melhores resultados para o sistema forrageiro constituído pelo amendoim forrageiro.The objective of this research was to evaluate two pasture-based systems, with elephantgrass, ryegrass, white clover or forage peanut and spontaneous growth species about the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass. The elephantgrass was established in rows with a distance of 4 m between rows. In the cool season, ryegrass was planted between rows of elephantgrass; white clover wassowed,in two paddocks, and in the other two the forage peanut was preserved. The experimental design was completely randomized. In order to stipulate the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass, the pre- and post-graze forage mass were evaluated.The botanical and structural composition, as well as the stocking rate were analyzed. The average rate of accumulation and disappearance of forage mass and the stocking rate were of47.29 kg of DM ha-1 day-1; 3.24% and 3.10 UA ha-1 and of 53.16 kg of DM ha-1 day-1; 3.45% and 3.48 UA ha-1 to the systems formed by white clover and forage peanut, respectively. Considering the accumulation rate of the pasture dry matter, the disappearance of foragemass and the stocking rate, the forage system associated with forage peanut showed a better performance.

  18. Characterization of condensed tannins from native legumes of the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid Caracterização dos taninos condensados em leguminosas nativas do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mendes Guimarães-Beelen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possible influence of tannins on the nutritional value of the forages from Caatinga vegetation, there are few studies that evaluated their tannin concentration. This study was conducted to characterize condensed tannins present in the legumes species Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta, Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá and Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó, at three stages of their phenological cycle. The concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT were determined using the butanol-HCL method; astringency was by the radial diffusion method, and the monomeric composition of purified tannins by a high-performance liquid chromatograph with delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin as standards. Concentration and astringency of purified condensed tannins, as well as their monomeric composition varied between species, and in some cases among phenological cycles. The values observed were always above the limits considered beneficial for ruminal digestion (i.e. 5%. Jurema Preta presented the highest values (30.98% TT and 22% astringency at full growth stage, and Mororó the lowest (10.38% TT and 14% astringency during fructification. Jurema Preta presented a mean relationship prodelfinidin (PD: procyanidin (PC of 97:3, which did not vary during the phenological cycle, showing the high astringent capacity of these tannins. Sabiá presented a relationship of 90:20 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 40:50 at fructification. In Mororó the PD:PC relationship was more equilibrated, around 40:50 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 35:60 During fructification. Propelargonidin was not detected or was present at low concentration in the three species.Apesar da possível influência do tanino sobre o valor nutritivo das forrageiras da Caatinga, poucos são os estudos que avaliam a concentração de taninos nestas plantas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar os taninos condensados presentes nas espécies Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta, Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá e Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó, em três fases do ciclo fenológico. As concentrações de tanino solúvel (TS, tanino ligado ao resíduo (TL e tanino total (TT foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCl; a adstringência foi avaliada pelo método de difusão radial e a composição de monômeros dos taninos purificados através do sistema de cromatografia líquida de alta resolução, utilizando delfinidina, cianidina e pelargonidina como padrões. A concentração e adstringência dos taninos condensados purificados, assim como sua composição monomérica, variou entre as espécies e, em alguns casos, entre os ciclos fenológicos. Os valores foram superiores aos considerados benéficos a digestão ruminal (5%. Jurema Preta apresentou os maiores valores (30,98% TT e 22% de adstringência na vegetação plena e Mororó os menores valores observados (10,38 TT e 14% de adstringência na frutificação. A Jurema Preta apresentou uma relação prodelfinidina (PD:procianidina (PC média de 97:3 que se mostrou pouco variável, indicando uma alta capacidade adstringente dos taninos desta espécie em todas as fases do ciclo fenológico. O Sábia apresentou uma relação de 90:20 nas fases de vegetação plena e floração, diminuindo para 40:50 na fase de frutificação. A relação PD:PC do Mororó foi mais equilibrada, oscilando em torno de 40:50 nas fases de vegetação plena e floração e reduzindo para 35:60 durante a frutificação. A propelargonidina esteve ausente ou em pequena concentração nas espécies estudadas.

  19. Sistema em fluxo para determinação espectrofotométrica de uréia em plasma de sangue animal empregando leguminosa como fonte natural da enzima urease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Gilmara C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric flow injection analysis (FIA procedure employing natural urease enzyme source for the determination of urea in animal blood plasma was developed. Among leguminous plants used in the Brazilian agriculture, the Cajanus cajan specie was selected as urease source considering its efficiency and availability. A minicolumn was filled with leguminous fragments and coupled to the FIA manifold, where urea was on-line converted to ammonium ions and subsequently it was quantified by spectrophotometry. The system was employed to determine urea in animal plasma samples without any prior treatment. Accuracy was assessed by comparison results with those obtained employing the official procedure and no significant difference at 90 % confidence level was observed. Other profitable features such as an analytical throughput of 30 determinations per hour, a reagent consumption of 19.2 mg sodium salicylate, 0.5 mg sodium hipochloride and a relative standard deviation of 1.4 % (n= 12 were also obtained.

  20. Germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plânturas de Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya (DC. G.P.Lewis & M.P.Lima (Leguminosae em diferentes anbientes de luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Gesteira Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da atividade madeireira e a elevada taxa de desmatamento na Amazônia têm intensificado a necessidade de estudos sobre as técnicas mais adequadas para a produção de mudas que possam ser usadas em atividades de reflorestamento e de plantio em florestas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar: a se a taxa de germinação de sementes de Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya difere entre sementes colhidas na copa e coletadas no chão da floresta; e b qual o efeito do grau de sombreamento no viveiro sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas dessa espécie. Seis repetições de 10 sementes colhidas na copa e coletadas no chão foram colocadas em germinador. A taxa de germinação não diferiu entre os dois métodos de obtenção de sementes, sendo recomendada a coleta de frutos no chão. No viveiro, quatro repetições de 25 sementes foram colocadas para germinar a pleno sol e em 30, 50 e 70% de sombra. Em cada tratamento de luz, 40 plântulas foram sorteadas, e sua "performance" foi avaliada quatro meses após a semeadura. Tanto a germinação das sementes quanto o crescimento em diâmetro e acúmulo de biomassa das plântulas foram superiores em 30 e 50% de sombreamento, em comparação com pleno sol. Os resultados indicaram que o crescimento de plântulas de P. psilostachya é favorecido em condições relativamente altas de iluminação, embora algum sombreamento seja necessário, e que a produção de mudas dessa espécie é de fácil execução, ao menos nos estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento das plântulas.The expansion of logging and deforestation in the Amazon forest increases the need for studies on techniques to grow seedlings that can be used in reforestation and enrichment planting programs. We addressed the following questions: a does the seed germination of Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya differ between seeds collected directly on the crown and the ones collected on the forest floor? b what is the effect of the shading level on the seed germination and the initial development of seedlings of this species? Six replicates of 10 seeds were germinated in a growth chamber. The germination rate did not differ between the seed collection methods and the collection of fruits in the forest floor is recommended. In the nursery, four replicates of 25 seeds were germinated under full sun and 30%, 50% and 70% shade. In each light treatment, the performance of 40 seedlings randomly selected was assessed four months after sowing. Seed germination, seedling growth and biomass accumulation were higher under 30% and 50% shade than under full sun. The results suggest that the growth of P. psilostachya seedlings is favored under high light levels, although some shade is required, and that it is relatively easy to produce seedlings of this species, at least on the initial developmental stage.

  1. Aspectos químicos e bioquímicos de leguminosas enlatadas em diferentes estádios de maturação Chemical and biochemical aspects of legumes canned at different maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.P. BARCELOS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a composição química e aspectos bioquímicos dos grãos de soja cultivar IAC PL-1 e de guandu cultivar IAC Fava Larga, crus e pós-enlatamento em diferentes estádios de maturação avaliando os efeitos do processamento sobre os grãos dos dois cultivares. A composição química dos grãos crus , principalmente no último estádio verde, e na maturação de colheita foi de modo geral semelhante. O enlatamento conservou 95% e 98% do total das proteínas dos grãos de soja e guandu, respectivamente. Nos enlatados de soja obteve-se a inativação da atividade de lectinas. Os processamentos térmicos utilizados para os enlatamentos, 121ºC por 6 a 7 minutos para a soja e 5 a 6 minutos para o guandu foram suficientes para eliminar 83% da atividade dos inibidores de tripsina da soja e do guandu. A digestibilidade da proteína do guandu enlatado (62% foi inferior em relação à soja enlatada (78%. Com exceção do ácido glutâmico, prolina, lisina e histidina, os demais aminoácidos do grão de soja enlatado colhido no 64º DAF tiveram seus conteúdos iguais aos enlatados do 85º DAF pós-armazenados e pós-macerados. Os teores de aminoácidos dos grãos de guandu enlatados no 62º DAF, com exceção do ácido glutâmico e fenilalanina, foram iguais àqueles presentes na última colheita (92º DAF. A metionina disponível no grão de soja não se modificou com a evolução da maturação, porém a do guandu se elevou no 92º DAF e o processo de enlatamento reduziu a metionina disponível da soja apenas no 55º e 64º DAF e do guandu no 57º e 92º DAF. Rafinose e estaquiose nos grãos de soja estão mais elevadas no estádio verde, e nos grãos de guandu, apenas a estaquiose está mais elevada no estádio verde. O processo de enlatamento provocou um pequeno decréscimo nestes dois açúcares da soja e guandu nos dois últimos estádios de maturação estudados.This work intended to study the chemical composition and biochemical aspects of soybean grains, cultivar IAC PL-1 and pigeon pea cultivar IAC Fava Larga, both raw and post-canning at different maturation stages, evaluating the effects of the processing caused on the grain. The chemical composition of the raw grains, mainly in the last green stage and in the harvest maturation it was in general similar. The canning of soybean conserved by 95% and pigeon pea by 98% the whole protein content of grains. In soybean canned products, inactivation of the activity of lectins was obtained. The heat processings utilized for the cannings, 121ºC for 6 to 7 minutes for soybean and 5 to 6 minutes for pigeon pea, were enough to remove 83% the activity of soybean and pigeon pea trypsine inhibitors. The in vitro digestibility of the canned pigeon pea protein was lower (62% relative to canned soybean (78%. With exception of glutamic acid, proline, lysine and histidine, the other amino acids of the canned soybean grain harvested on the 64th DAF had their contents equal to those canned on the 85th DAF post stored and post-soaking. The amino acid of the pigeon pea grains canned on the 62nd DAF, with exception of glutamic acid and phenilalanine, were equal to those amino acids present at the last harvest (92nd DAF. The available methionine in soybean grain did’t change with the evolution of the maturation, but that of pigeon pea rose at the 92nd DAF and the canning process decreased the available methionine of the soybean at 55th and 64th and pigeon pea at 57th and 92nd DAF. Both raffinose and stachyose in soybean grains are higher in green stages and in pigeon pea grains only stachyose is higher in green stage. The canning process caused a small reduction in these two sugars of soybean and pigeon pea in the last two studied maturation stages.

  2. Obtención de carbón activado a partir de la cubierta seminal de leguminosa haba (Vicia-Faba) y su uso en el proceso de recuperación de oro desde soluciones cianuradas

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Zea, Norberto Sixto

    2008-01-01

    La minería aurífera en el Perú, carece de tecnologías adecuadas para recuperar oro eficientemente, teniéndose pérdidas significativas en los relaves como oro sedimentado o submicroscópico. Los procesos en nuevos proyectos de recuperación de oro, desarrollan la aplicación de la tecnología del carbón activado que adsorbe oro de soluciones lixiviadas en cianuro que permite trabajar minerales de baja ley consiguiendo ventajas en costos de operación y mejor productividad. El carbón activado para r...

  3. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    Las formulaciones alimenticias de alto contenido proteico, aportado por una mezcla de harinas a partir de dos cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupi-nus albus L), con dos cereales tradicionales maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), conllevaron a la preparación de una 'mezcla dulce' para la elaboración de queques y otra "mezcla postre" saborizada con plátano, que puede ser preparada con agua o con leche, constituyeron una buena alternativa como suplemento al...

  4. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Romero Palacios, N.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupinus albus L), para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificació...

  5. Variação intraspecífica do lenho de Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae de populações ocorrentes em dois remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica Intraspecific variation in wood anatomy of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (Leguminosae -Mimosoidae in two Atlantic rain forest remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza R. da Costa Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho compara populações distintas de Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima ocorrentes em dois remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas árvores de diâmetro semelhante retas e sem defeitos aparentes. Os resultados obtidos comprovam estatisticamente a ocorrência de variação intraspecífica na estrutura anatômica da madeira. Os caracteres qualitativos mantiveram-se constantes, enquanto os quantitativos variaram, sendo os significativos, de acordo com o teste t de Student, a freqüencia, comprimento e diâmetro dos elementos vasos, o comprimento e espessura da parede das fibras, a freqüência e largura dos raios. A análise dos componentes principais, utilizando características anatômicas quantitativas ordenou as duas populações separadamente. O eixo I responde por 33% da variância total principalmente pela relação positiva do diâmetro do elemento de vaso, enquanto o eixo II responde por 20% da variância total, principalmente pelo comprimento das fibras.This study compares distinct populations of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima occurring in two remnants of Atlantic rain forest in Rio de Janeiro state. Trees with similar diameters and with no apparent defects were selected. The results confirm intraspecific variation in wood anatomy. Qualitative features do not change, while according to the Student t test quantitative features showed significant differences in vessel-element frequency, width, and length, fiber length and wall thickness, and ray frequency and width. Principal component analysis showed two separate populations. Factor 1 explains 33% of the total variance, mainly due to the positive relationship of vessel-element tangential diameter; factor 2 explains 20% of the total variance, mainly due to fiber length.

  6. Papilionoideae (Leguminosae arbóreas e lianas na estação de pesquisa, treinamento e educação ambiental (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira Trees and lianes of the papilionoideae (Leguminosae in the research, training and environmental education station (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Martins da Costa Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste em um levantamento florístico das árvores e lianas pertencentes à Papilionoideae da Mata do Paraíso, importante fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Submontana, no Município de Viçosa, Zona da Mata mineira. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada por meio de visitas à área de estudo, no período de julho/2004 a agosto/2005. Foram reconhecidos 12 táxons infra-específicos pertencentes a oito gêneros, sendo Machaerium Pers. (4 spp. e Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. os mais representativos. São apresentados chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações e comentários sobre os táxons analisados. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., espécie vulnerável, e Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endêmica da região, foram encontradas na EPTEA.This work is a floristic survey of trees and lianas of the Papilionoideae in the Mata do Paraíso, an important fragment of Submontane Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, in Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira. The fieldwork was carried out through visits to the studied area, from July/2004 to August/2005. Twelve taxa represented by eight genera were recorded. Machaerium Pers. (4spp. and Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. were the most representatives. Identification keys, descriptions and illustrations are presented for the analyzed taxa. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., vulnerable species and, Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endemic for the region were found at EPTEA.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 444 ... ... (Leguminosae) and their probable significance in pollination, Details ... on some major vegetable crops in some ecological zones of Ghana, Abstract ... in smallholder peri-urban dairy farms in the Accra plains, Abstract.

  8. Differential activity of multiple saponins against omnivorous insects with varying feeding preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of saponin glycosides and aglycones from seven different plant families (Aquifoliaceae, Asparagaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae) were tested against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The corn earworm fe...

  9. Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci from Korean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leguminosae) and its cytotaxonomic signifi- cance. Cathaya 2, 139–150. Estoup A., Garnery L., Solignac M. and Cornuet J. M. 1995. Microsatellite variation in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) popula- tions: hierarchical genetic structure and test of ...

  10. MACROSCOPICAL AND MICROSCOPICAL STUDIES ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpinia crista leaves are bipinnate of about six pairs with alternate leaflets while the stem us fibrous, cylindrical hollow and prickly. Microscopical examination revealed the presence of strained cuticle, straight-walled epidermal cells, paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichomes, fibres, prisms as well as cluster of ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 194 ... Vol 26 (2010), Lipid-Lowering Activity of the Leaf Extracts of Vitex ... effect(s)of potash on the antimicrobial efficacy of crude extracts of ... Vol 20 (2004), Pharmacological profile of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem, Abstract.

  12. Environ: E00125 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00125 Sappan wood (JP17) Crude drug Calcium oxalate [CPD:C17478], Brazilin [CPD:C...09920], alpha-Phellandrene [CPD:C09875], Ocimene [CPD:C09873] Caesalpinia sappan [TAX:483143] Same as: D06754 Fabaceae (pea family) Sappan wood Major component: Brazilin [CPD:C09920] ...

  13. Phytochemical characteristics and in vitro antibacterial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous and ethanol stem bark-extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Pride of Barbados) were screened for phyto-constituents and in vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae using ...

  14. Efficacy of Aqueous and Methanol Extracts of Some Medicinal Plants for Potential Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    PAREKH, Jigna; JADEJA, Darshana; CHANDA, Sumitra

    2014-01-01

    Twelve medicinal plants were screened, namely Abrus precatorius L., Caesalpinia pulcherrima Swartz., Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delonix regia L., Euphorbia hirta L., Euphorbia tirucalli L., Ficus benghalensis L., Gmelina asiatica L., Santalum album L., and Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem, for potential antibacterial activity against 5 medically important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Staphylococcus epidermidis A...

  15. Anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude methanolic extracts of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were evaluated for its anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities. When given orally to rats at dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, the extract showed a significant (P<0.001) anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced paw edema in rats ...

  16. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources - Vol 7, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. U Bose, V Bala, AK Shill, AA Rahman, 37-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jpb.v7i2.1 ...

  17. Predação de sementes de leguminosas por bruquídeos (Insecta: Coleoptera na Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil Legume seed damage by bruchids (Insecta: Coleoptera in Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, Brazil

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    Cecília Lomônaco

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a predação de sementes em Bauhinia pulchella Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosa acutistipula Benth. var. nigra Hub., Mimosa somnians H.B. ex Willd. (Mimosaceae e Phaseolus linearis H.B.K. (Fabaceae para investigar a taxa de predação e a existência de defesas contra a ação de predadores. Foi constatada a preferência por sementes de maior tamanho pelo bruquídeo de Bauhinia pulchella, o que pode significar uma adaptação das plantas em ter sementes pequenas que escapem da predação. Em Mimosa somnians, a imprevisibilidade do número de sementes viáveis produzidas poderia consistir num mecanismo de defesa, por impedir a otimização da quantidade de ovos deixados pelo predador em cada fruto. O formato extremamente achatado das sementes de Mimosa acutistipula parece limitar a ação de predadores. A alta resistência da casca dos frutos de Phaseolus linearis e o aspecto compacto e duro de suas sementes podem ser considerados defesas mecânicas. Existe relação entre o tamanho de sementes e o tamanho de predadores para as espécies estudadas.Seed damage in Bauhinia pulchella Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosa acutistipula Benth var. nigra Hub., Mimosa somnians H.B. ex Willd. (Mimosaceae and Phaseolus linearis H.B.K. (Fabaceae, was studied to investigate defense against predators. The preference for larger seeds of Bauhinia pulchella by bruchids is a selection pressure for the plant to product smaller seeds, as a survival mechanism to scape predation. The impredictability of the number of viable seeds per pod in Mimosa somnians could represent a defense mechanism because it does not permit the optimization of the number of eggs laid in each fruit. The flattened seeds of Mimosa acutistipula limit the attack sucess of predator beetles. The high resistance of the pod skin and the hard compact seeds in Phaseolus linearis may be considered mechanical defenses. There is a con-elation between seed size and predator size in the species studied.

  18. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation (N{sub 2}) contribution in several forage legumes and the transfer of N to associated grasses; Avaliacao da contribuicao da fixacao biologica de N{sub 2} em varias leguminosas forrageiras e transferencia de N para uma graminea consorciada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M S.V.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to compare two different techniques for labelling the soil mineral nitrogen with {sup 15} N, for studies to quantify the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to forage legumes using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. The two techniques for labelling the soil were: incorporation a {sup 15} N labelled organic compost (slow release treatment), and split applications of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate. The evaluation of the techniques was through the quantification of BNF in the Itaguai Hybrid of Centrosema using two non-Na- fixing control plants (P. maximum K K-16 and Sorghum bicolor). The objective of experiment 2 was to quantify the contribution of BNF to forage legumes and the transfer of fixed nitrogen to associated grasses in mixed swards again using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. This study was conducted on a red podzolic soil (Typic Hapludult), with 7 forage legumes and 3 grasses in monoculture, and 3 mixed swards of Brachiaria brizantha with the Centrosema hybrid, Galactia striata and Desmodium ovalifolium, respectively, with varying ratios of grass to legume (4:1 to 1:4). In order to quantify the BNF contributions to the legumes and the transfer of fixed N to the B. brizantha, the plots were amended 8 times with doses of 0.01 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate (12.5 atom % {sup 15} N) each 14 days, giving a total of 0.08 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N during the 97 days of the experiment. In monoculture the different forage legumes obtained the equivalent of between 43 and 100 kg N ha{sup -1} from BNF. Stylosanthes guianensis showed the greatest contributions from BNF at 100 Kg N ha{sup -1}. In mixed swards with Brachiaria brizantha the proportion of N derived from BNF in the three legumes studied (Centrosema hybrid, G. striata and D. ovalifolium) was significantly greater than when they were grown in monoculture. (author). 197 refs, 9 figs, 19 tabs.

  19. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. I. Variables morfoestructurales Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. I. Morphostructural variables

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    María G Medina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo un ensayo en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento morfoestructural de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca en condiciones de vivero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Las variables estudiadas fueron: altura de la planta; diámetro del tallo y de las ramas; número de hojas, ramas, raíces y nódulos totales; y longitud de la rama y de la raíz. Al final de la evaluación (18 semanas no se observaron diferencias significativas entre L. leucocephala y E. fusca en la altura de la planta (45,2 y 51,0 cm, el diámetro del tallo (0,65 y 0,78 cm, el número de hojas (43 y 45 y de ramas (17 y 18 y la longitud de la raíz (32,1 y 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck sólo se destacó en el número de raíces (61 y de nódulos totales promedio (6. Los resultados permiten concluir que con la utilización de un sustrato alcalino en vivero, L. leucocephala y E. fusca exhibieron un comportamiento morfoestructural aéreo similar y superior que el de A. lebbeck; mientras que la albizia mostró mejores resultados en la morfoestructura radical.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the morphostructural performance of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca under nursery conditions. A completely randomized design was used for repeated measurements in time and ten replications per species. The studied variables were: plant height; stem and branch diameter; number of leaves, branches, roots and total nodules; and branch and root length. At the end of the evaluation (18 weeks no significant differences were observed between L. leucocephala and E. fusca in plant height (45,2 and 51,0 cm, stem diameter (0,65 and 0,78 cm, number of leaves (43 and 45 and branches (17 and 18 and root length (32,1 and 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck only stood out for the number of roots (61 and average total nodules (6. The results allow concluding that with the utilization of an alkaline substratum in nursery, L. leucocephala and E. fusca showed a similar aerial morphostructural performance and higher than that of A. lebbeck; while albizia showed better results in root morphostructure.

  20. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil Espécies leguminosas e forrageiras, solteiras ou consorciadas com milho, na sucessão soja-milho no centro-oeste do Brasil

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    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.A viabilidade do plantio direto no Cerrado brasileiro depende da produção adequada de palha das culturas, que pode ser aumentada pela consorciação de milho (Zea mays L. com uma espécie forrageira. O trabalho foi implantado em março de 2005 com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de resíduos das espécies e de grãos de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e de milho safrinha em sucessão. Foram avaliados tratamentos de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis cv. comum, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, crotalaria juncea (Crotalaria juncea L., guandu [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp], e também o sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, a B. ruziziensis e o milho safrinha solteiro. Em outubro de 2005, as espécies foram dessecadas com glyphosate e a soja semeada. Após a colheita de soja em março de 2006, o milho safrinha foi cultivado em área total. O rendimento de grãos e palha de milho não foi influenciado pela espécie em consórcio. A massa seca da parte aérea foi maior quando o milho foi consorciado com Tanzânia (10,7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10,1 Mg ha-1 e Ruziziensis (9,8 Mg ha-1 do que com o milho solteiro (4,0 Mg ha-1. Nos tratamentos consorciados, houve aumento na porcentagem de solo coberto com os resíduos vegetais. O rendimento de grãos de soja e milho safrinha em sucessão foram maiores na ruziziensis solteira e no milho safrinha consorciado com ruziziensis. O cultivo de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria spp. ou com Panicum spp. aumenta a produção de resíduos culturais, preserva os nutrientes no solo sem reduzir a produtividade do milho e viabiliza o plantio direto no Centro-Oeste do Brasil.

  1. Nitrogenous compounds, phenolic compounds and morphological aspects of leaves: comparison of deciduous and semideciduous arboreal legumes Compostos nitrogenados, fenólicos e aspecto morfológico em folhas: comparação entre leguminosas arbóreas semidecíduas e decíduas

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    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, perennial species contain higher concentrations of certain secondary compounds, such as phenolics, lower levels of nitrogenous compounds, and greater specific leaf mass (SLM than deciduous species. The aim of this study was to verify whether the comparative data reported in the literature regarding deciduous and evergreen species, also applies to four selected species of a semideciduous tropical forest (a remnant of the Atlantic Forest. The four species chosen for this study, each with apparently different leaf life spans, were two semideciduous (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., and Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, and two deciduous (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., and Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in plastic pots containing soil taken from their natural habitat. Mature leaves were harvested for determination of the SLM and contents of phenolic compounds, tannins, nitrate, protein, free amino acids, chlorophyll, and nitrogen. Data registered are in agreement with those of the literature. Leaves with the longest life span had the highest content of phenolics and the lowest levels of tannins, nitrate, protein, amino acids, chlorophyll and nitrogen, as well as presenting the greatest SLM.Em geral as espécies perenifólias possuem maior concentração de alguns compostos secundários, como por exemplo fenóis, menor concentração de compostos nitrogenados e maior massa foliar específica (MFE, quando comparadas a espécies decíduas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as observações encontradas na literatura, comparando espécies perenifólias e decíduas aplicam-se também a quatro espécies de uma mata semidecídua, remanescente da Mata Atlântica. Das quatro espécies usadas neste estudo, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes, duas eram semidecíduas (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme e duas decíduas (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. e Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos plásticos, contendo solo da mata. O cultivo foi feito em casa de vegetação. Folhas maduras foram coletadas para análise de fenóis totais, taninos condensados, nitrato, proteínas totais, aminoácidos livres totais, clorofila total, nitrogênio total e MFE. Os resultados obtidos corroboram os da literatura, já que as espécies com folhas mais longevas apresentaram concentrações maiores de fenóis totais, menores de taninos condensados, nitrato, proteínas solúveis totais, aminoácidos livres totais, clorofilas totais, nitrogênio total e maior MFE.

  2. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. II. Patrón de crecimiento y distribución de la biomasa Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. II. Growth and biomass distribution pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Medina¹

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un experimento en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de comparar el patrón de crecimiento y la distribución de biomasa de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca durante 18 semanas en vivero. Las variables estudiadas fueron: tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura (TCA y de la distribución de la MS (TCMS, así como el porcentaje de materia seca (MS y el peso seco por planta de las fracciones (hojas, tallo, raíz. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Erythrina presentó la mayor TCA y TCMS promedio (3,7 mm/día y 94,8 mg/día, seguida por leucaena (3,1 y 81,3 y, por último, albizia (1,2 mm/día y 53,1 mg/día, respectivamente. Independientemente de la especie, el mayor porcentaje de MS promedio se observó en las raíces (31,9, seguido por el tallo (28,0 y las hojas (25,4. Se observó una mayor distribución de MS por planta en las hojas (3,9 g y la raíz (3,1 g, comparados con el tallo (2,9 g. Se concluye que, para estas condiciones de aviveramiento, E. fusca presentó los mejores resultados; mientras que A. lebbeck necesitaría más tiempo para alcanzar las características deseables para su trasplante a campo.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to compare the growth and biomass distribution pattern of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca for 18 weeks in nursery. The studied variables were: growth rate related to height (GRH and DM distribution (GRDM, as well as dry matter percentage (DM and dry weight per plant of the fractions (leaves, stem, root. A completely randomized design for measurements repeated in time and ten replications per species were used. E. fusca showed the highest average GRH and GRDM (3,7 mm/day and 94,8 mg/day, followed by L. leucocephala (3,1 and 81,3 and, lastly, A. lebbeck (1,2 mm/day and 53,1 mg/day, respectively. In dependently from the species, the highest percentage of average DM was observed in the roots (31,9, followed by the stem (28,0 and leaves (25, 4. A higher DM distribution per plant was observed in the leaves (3,9 g and root (3,1 g as compared to the stem (2,9 g. It is concluded that, for these nursery conditions, E. fusca showed the best results; while A. lebbeck would need more time to reach the desirable characteristics for its transplant to the field.

  3. Isolation and characterization of two plant growth-promoting bacteria from the rhizoplane of a legume (Lupinus albescens in sandy soil Isolamento e caracterização de duas bactérias promotoras de crescimento vegetal do rizoplano de uma leguminosa (Lupinus albescens de solo arenoso

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    Adriana Giongo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two bacterial strains that amplified part of the nifH gene, RP1p and RP2p, belonging to the genus Enterobacter and Serratia, were isolated from the rhizoplane of Lupinus albescens. These bacteria are Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, facultative anaerobic, and fast-growing; the colonies reach diameters of 3-4 mm within 24 h of incubation at 28 ºC. The bacteria were also able to grow at temperatures as high as 40 ºC, in the presence of high (2-3 % w/v NaCl concentrations and pH 4 -10. Strain RP1p was able to utilize 10 of 14 C sources, while RP2p utilized nine. The isolates produced siderophores and indolic compounds, but none of them was able to solubilize phosphate. Inoculation of L. albescens with RP1p and RP2p strains resulted in a significant increase in plant dry matter, indicating the plant-growth-promoting abilities of these bacteria.Duas linhagens bacterianas que apresentaram amplificação de parte do gene nifH, RP1p e RP2p, pertencentes aos gêneros Enterobacter e Serratia, foram isoladas do rizoplano de Lupinus albescens. Essas bactérias são Gram-negativas, com formato de bastonete, móveis, anaeróbias facultativas e apresentam multiplicação rápida, com colônias alcançando diâmetros de 3-4 mm em 24 h de incubação a 28 ºC. RP1p e RP2p também foram capazes de multiplicação em temperaturas elevadas, como 40 ºC, na presença de alta concentração de NaCl (2-3 % v/v e em valores de pH que variaram de 4 a 10. A linhagem RP1p foi capaz de utilizar 10 das 14 fontes de carbono avaliadas, enquanto a linhagem RP2p utilizou nove. Os isolados produziram sideróforos e compostos indólicos, mas foram incapazes de solubilizar fosfatos. A inoculação de L. albescens com as linhagens RP1p e RP2p resultou em aumento significativo do peso das plantas secas, o que demonstra que essas bactérias apresentam propriedades que favorecem o crescimento vegetal.

  4. Yield and botanical composition of a mixed grass-legume pasture in response to maintenance fertilization Produção e composição botânica de uma pastagem consorciada de gramínea e leguminosa em resposta à adubação de manutenção

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    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on a low-productive Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture, mixed with Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte (forage peanut, established 13 years ago in a Red-Yellow Latosol in Acre State, western Brazilian Amazon. The purpose was to evaluate the response of this pasture to different fertilizer combinations, aiming at identifying the nutritional factors responsible for the fall of pasture carrying capacity and for the reduced vigor of forage peanut. It was used a randomized complete block design, with three replications and 12 combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, lime, sulfur, and micronutrients (100 kg/ha of N, P2O5 and K2O; 300 kg/ha of dolomitic lime; 30 kg/ha of sulfur and FTE BR-10. Fertilizers were broadcast in 5 × 5-m plots, and the experimental area was isolated from grazing for 35 days. Pasture response to fertilizations showed that nitrogen was the main limiting nutrient to forage production. The other nutrients, applied singly or in a combined way, without nitrogen source, did not change dry matter accumulation rate. Overall, fertilizations with nitrogen provided dry matter accumulation rate of 115 kg/ha/day in comparison to only 32 kg/ha/day when nitrogen was not applied. There was no response from forage peanut to fertilization, so, there are other factors responsible for its reduced vigor of regrowth.Este estudo foi realizado em uma pastagem pouco produtiva de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, consorciada com Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte (amendoim-forrageiro, estabelecida há 13 anos em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo no estado do Acre, Amazônia ocidental brasileira. Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta desta pastagem a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes, visando identificar os fatores nutricionais responsáveis pela queda da capacidade de suporte da pastagem e pelo reduzido vigor do amendoim-forrageiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições, com 12 combinações de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, calcário, enxofre e micronutrientes (100 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O; 300 kg/ha de calcário dolomítico; 30 kg/ha de enxofre e FTE BR-10. Os fertilizantes foram aplicados em cobertura, em parcelas de 5 × 5 m, e a área experimental foi isolada do pastejo durante 35 dias. A resposta do pasto à adubação indicou que o nitrogênio foi o principal nutriente limitante à produção de forragem. Os demais nutrientes, aplicados isoladamente ou de forma combinada, sem uma fonte de nitrogênio, não alteraram a taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. Em média, as adubações com nitrogênio proporcionaram taxa de acúmulo de massa seca de 115 kg/ha/dia, em comparação à de apenas 32 kg/ha/dia quando não foi aplicado nitrogênio. Não houve resposta do amendoim-forrageiro à adubação, logo há outros fatores responsáveis pelo seu reduzido vigor de rebrota.

  5. Feijão-vagem semeado sobre cobertura viva perene de gramínea e leguminosa e em solo mobilizado, com adubação orgânica Snap bean planted on living perennial mulch of grass and legume and in tilled soil with organic amendment

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    Nelson Geraldo de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico do feijão-vagem, cv. Alessa, cultivado sobre cobertura viva perene de grama-batatais (Paspalum notatum Flüggé e de amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov & Gregory, e em solo convencionalmente preparado, como controle. Diferentes doses de cama de aviário (0, 7, 14 e 28 t ha-1 foram fornecidas, parceladamente, em um Planossolo, em Seropédica, RJ, de agosto a outubro de 2002. O delineamento adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se modelo quadrático para análise dos resultados. A produtividade de vagens foi semelhante nos três sistemas de cultivo sem efeito competitivo das espécies de cobertura viva, sobre as quais foi realizada a semeadura direta da cultura, com enxada. A produtividade máxima estimada pelo modelo de regressão foi 20,3 t ha-1 de vagens. Esse valor foi obtido com a dose de 26 t ha-1 de cama de aviário, aplicada de forma parcelada. A semeadura direta de feijão-vagem sobre cobertura viva perene de grama-batatais e de amendoim forrageiro é viável, com resultados preliminares positivos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of snap bean planted on living perennial mulch of bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé and of peanut (Arachis pintoi Krapov & Gregory and in a conventional tillage soil as a control. Different parcels and doses of poultry bed manure (0, 7, 14 and 28 t ha-1 were used in a Planosol soil from August to October of 2002. The statistical design was a split plot, in completely randomized blocks, with four replications, using a quadratic model to analyze the results. Snap bean yield was similar for the tillage system treatments without competition effect from the living mulch, in which direct seeding of the main crop was performed with a hoe. The greatest snap bean yield estimated by regression model was 20.3 t ha-1, corresponding to the dose of 26 t ha-1 of manure applied in parcels. The direct seeding of snap bean on living perennial mulch of bahia grass and perennial peanut is agronomicaly viable, with positive preliminary results on snap bean yield.

  6. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asase, Alex; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred A; Odamtten, George T; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2005-06-03

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Wechiau Community Hippopotamus Sanctuary area in Ghana, through interviews and quadrate studies, to investigate the range and abundance of species used in the treatment of malaria. Forty-one species belonging to 17 families were encountered during the study. Of the 17 families studied Leguminosae and Anacardiaceae predominated in terms of number of species used to treat malaria. Eight plant species namely, Afraegle paniculata (Rutaceae), Haematostaphis barteri (Anacardiaceae), Indigo era pulchra (Leguminosae), Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae), Strychnos innocua (Loganiaceae), Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) and Xeroderris stuhlmannii (Leguminosae) have not previously been documented for the treatment of malaria in Ghana. The results are discussed and recommendations made for future research to support the conservation and sustainable harvesting of the species reported to have medicinal properties.

  7. Incorporación de Vicia sativa L. y fertilización fosfatada en un pastizal del nordeste argentino

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, M.; Hack, C.M.; Castelán, M.E.; Golluscio, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    En el nordeste argentino, los pastizales megatérmicos constituyen un importante recurso forrajero para la ganadería. Sus principales limitantes son el déficit forrajero invernal y la baja calidad nutritiva. En amplias regiones se agrega, además, el bajo contenido de P en el suelo y, consecuentemente, en el forraje. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar el potencial de la incorporación de una leguminosa y la fertilización fosfatada para aumentar la biomasa de leguminosas y el contenido ...

  8. Fertilización de pastos en zonas semiáridas de secano del S-W- español

    OpenAIRE

    Olea Márquez de Prado, L.; Jiménez Mozo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de aportaciones de P, K, Mg + Ca, Mo + Mn y Cu + Co sobre pastizales artificiales de leguminosas + gramíneas y pastos naturales en varias zonas de Extremadura. En pastizales artificiales la fertilización previa al establecimiento con 75-95 u. de P2O5 /Ha, duplica la producción. En pastos naturales la fertilización anual con 46 u. de P2 O5, duplica la producción y el porcentaje de leguminosas. Los mayores incrementos se consiguen con aportaciones anuales de 40 u. de...

  9. Inventário arbóreo em dois bairros paulistanos, Jardim da Saúde e Vila Vera, localizados na subprefeitura de Ipiranga Arboreal inventory of two São Paulo city neighboorhoods (Jardim da Saude and Vila Vera located in Ipiranga district zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ines Napias Rossetti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado levantamento quantiqualitativo de vegetais de porte arbóreo em dois bairros paulistanos, Vila Vera e Jardim da Saúde, situados na região Sudeste de São Paulo, não distando muito entre si, porém com características de ocupação de uso do solo bastante distintas. No Jardim da Saúde, encontraram-se 1.033 exemplares de 72 espécies botânicas, cuja altura média de todas as árvores foi de 8,07 m. A Caesalpinea peltophoroides Benth. foi a espécie mais frequente, com 20,68%, seguida da Largestroemia indica L., com 7,48%. Predominavam árvores com mais de 8,50 m de altura, sendo o pior indicador de sanidade vegetal a infestação de cupins, com 8,33% do total. Apenas 23,33% tinham situações de permeabilidade do passeio suficiente, e 5,71% delas se encontravam com conduções de podas para desobstrução das redes aéreas; o rebaixamento das árvores aconteceu em 7,74% dos exemplares. Na Vila Vera havia 178 árvores pertencentes a 42 espécies botânicas, sendo a média da altura total de 6,31 m. A espécie mais abundante foi a Caesalpinea peltophoroides Benth., com 24,71%; a segunda seria a Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton, com 17,24% do total. Em 42,70% das árvores, a altura foi inferior a 4,50 m, e a sanidade v