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Sample records for caesalpinia peltophoroides leguminosae

  1. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae seeds Estudo histoquímico e ultraestrutural de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to correlate data on light microscopy observations through histochemical analysis and polarized light techniques and investigations in transmission electron microscopy (TEM to characterize the reserve materials in C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae cotyledons, popularly known as "sibipiruna", a tropical tree species with wide distribution in Brazil. The cotyledon mesophyll, especially in the abaxial face, is rich in unsaturated neutral lipids contained in numerous lipid bodies dispersed in the cytoplasm. Proteins, more concentrated in the adaxial face of the cotyledons, occur in all the mesophyll and are stored in protein bodies containing globoids, with variable number and size, responsible for accumulation of mineral reserves. Calcium oxalate druses have distribution restricted to the cotyledons adaxial face and are associated with protein bodies. Starch, also distributed all over the cotyledon mesophyll, occurs in small amounts in plastids with developed lamellar system. Secretory cavities rich in phenolic compounds occur among procambial strands.Este trabalho procurou correlacionar dados de observações em microscopia de luz através de técnicas histoquímicas e de luz polarizada e investigações em microscopia eletrônica de transmissão para caracterizar os materiais de reserva em cotilédones de C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae, conhecida popularmente como sibipiruna, ou falso pau-brasil, uma espécie tropical com ampla distribuição no Brasil. O mesofilo cotiledonar, especialmente na face abaxial, apresenta-se rico em lipídios neutros, insaturados, contidos em numerosos corpos lipídicos dispersos no citoplasma. As proteínas, mais concentradas na face adaxial dos cotilédones, ocorrem em todo o mesofilo e são armazenadas em corpos proteicos contendo globoides, com número e tamanho variáveis, responsáveis pelo acúmulo de reservas minerais. Drusas de oxalato

  2. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  3. Histochemical aspects of reserves mobilization of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae seeds during germination and seedlings early growth Estudo Histoquímico da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae durante a germinação e crescimento inicial

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate reserve mobilization in Caesalpinia peltophoroides seeds during germination and initial seedling growth. The variation in these compounds was analyzed from the pre-germination period (0 to 5 days after sowing - DAS to the total cotyledon senescence and abscission at 35 DAS. For this histochemical tests were made on cotyledons fixed in FAA50 or included in glycol-metacrylate. To follow the mobilization of the main reserve compounds, sudan III was used to detect total lipids, xylidine Ponceau to detect total proteins, lugol to detect starch and polarized light to visualize the crystals. The lipids, present in a great quantity in the cotyledon, gradually decreased in the period studied. A greater quantity of starch was observed on the 10th DAS than in the previous periods and it was totally consumed by 30 DAS. The distribution pattern and the morphology of the protein material were very modified by 10 DAS, a period during which it was intensely consumed, remaining only parietally fragments distributed, that practically disappeared at 25 DAS. The calcium oxalate druses were not consumed during the period studied, there was only crystal agglutination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nesses compostos foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS. Para isso, foram realizados testes histoquímicos em cotilédones fixados em FAA50 ou incluídos em glicol-metacrilato. Para acompanhamento da mobilização dos principais compostos de reserva, foi usado o sudan III para detecção de lipídios totais, xylidine Ponceau para proteínas totais, Lugol para amido e luz polarizada para visualização dos cristais. Os lipídios, presentes em maior

  4. Development of a UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for analysis of total polyphenols from Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth

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    Fernanda G. Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia peltophoroides is a domesticated tree found in Brazil. It was necessary to develop an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP in this herbal drug. The pre-analytical method was standardized for analysis time, wavelength, and the best standard to use. The optimum conditions were: pyrogallol, 760 nm, and 30 min respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved to be reliable for TP of the crude extract and semipurified fractions from C. peltophoroides. Standardization is required for every herbal drug, and this method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform.

  5. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental

  6. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

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    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  7. Karyomorphology and karyotype asymmetry in the South American Caesalpinia species (Leguminosae and Caesalpinioideae).

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    Rodrigues, P S; Souza, M M; Corrêa, R X

    2014-10-20

    With the purpose of addressing the pattern of karyotype evolution in Caesalpinia species, chromosome morphology was characterized in five species from Brazil, and karyotypic asymmetry was analyzed in 14 species from South America. All accessions had the chromosome number 2n = 24, which was first described here for Caesalpinia laxiflora Tul. and Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. The karyotype formula of C. laxiflora, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul., and C. macrophyllum was 12 m. The formula varies amongst the populations of Caesalpinia bracteosa Tul. (11 m + 1 sm) and Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (10 m + 2 sm and 9 m + 3 sm). The intra- and interspecific variations in chromosome length were significant (analysis of variance, P karyotype (AI = 10.52), whereas Caesalpinia paraguarienses (D. Parodi) Burkat. and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Benth. had the most symmetrical karyotypes (AI = 0.91 and 1.10, respectively). There has been a trend to lower AI values for the Caesalpinia s.l. species assigned in Libidibia and intermediate values for those combined into Poincianella. On the other hand, the karyotypes of Erythrostemon species had extremely different AI values. This study confirms the existence of karyotype variability in Caesalpinia s.l. while revealing a possible uniformity of this trait in some of the new genera that are being divided from Caesalpinia s.l. More broadly, the 2n = 24 chromosome number is conserved. Metacentric chromosomes and low AI values predominate among Caesalpinia s.l. and Cenostigma.

  8. Efeito da temperatura e do substrato na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effect of temperature and substrate on seed germination of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

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    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical que ocorre na região amazônica, sendo muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbanos. Para viabilizar a produção de mudas, determinaram-se a melhor temperatura e o melhor substrato para a germinação das sementes. Sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram teor médio de água de 7,46%, porcentagem de germinação de 3,33% e baixo ganho de água durante a embebição, mostrando dormência tegumentar. A escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 40 foi um método eficiente para superação da dormência, comprovado pela alta porcentagem de germinação e embebição de água em sementes escarificadas. A porcentagem de germinação dessas sementes foi influenciada pela temperatura, mas não pelo substrato. Com base no tempo médio de germinação, recomenda-se a temperatura de 30 ºC e areia como substrato para germinação mais rápida de sementes escarificadas.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. is a tropical legume tree occurring in the Amazon region, commonly used as medicine plant and in urban landscaping. To make seedling production feasible the best temperature and substrate for seed germination were determined. Recently harvested seeds present 7.46% mean moisture content, 3.33% germination percentage and lower moisture gain during soaking, showing tegument dormancy. Mechanical scarification with 40 grit sandpaper was proven an efficient method to overcome the dormancy, resulting in higher germination percentage and water imbibition in scarified seeds. The germination percentage of scarified seeds was influenced by temperature, but not by substrate. Based on the mean germination time, it is recommended the temperature of 30ºC and sand like substrate for faster germination of scarified seeds.

  9. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest.

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    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β(0)e(β1 • E-1)), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R(2)>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12 cm in diameter and 550 cm(3) of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80 g • cm(-3)), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC • ha(-1)) at the highest density of 2500 trees • ha(-1) (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC • ha(-1) are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits.

  10. Efeitos da luminosidade no crescimento de mudas de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effects of luminosity on the growth seedlings of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

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    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea é uma espécie muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbano no estado do Amapá. Entretanto, informações ecofisiológicas a seu respeito são escassas. A luz é um importante fator ambiental que controla processos associados ao acúmulo de matéria seca, contribuindo assim para o crescimento vegetal. Diante disso, estudou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de luminosidade sobre o crescimento de mudas desta espécie. Para tal, plântulas foram repicadas para sacos plásticos contendo mistura de solo e areia (2:1, sendo mantidas a pleno sol, sob sombreamento artificial com redução de 50% e 70% da luminosidade e sob sombreamento natural de um dossel fechado de floresta. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Mudas submetidas ao sombreamento natural tiveram seu crescimento fortemente inibido. A pleno sol, as mudas apresentaram maiores taxas assimilatórias líquida (TAL, menor razão parte aérea/raiz (RPAR e menor razão de área foliar (RAF. Verificou-se pouca diferença no crescimento e alocação de biomassa entre mudas mantidas sob 50 e 70% de sombreamento, sendo que as mudas desses tratamentos atingiram valores mais altos de RPAR e RAF. Isto indica existência de plasticidade, o que reflete no aumento potencial da captura de luz, importante para manter o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em baixa luminosidade. Em conjunto, os resultados mostraram ajustamento morfológico e fisiológico aos diferentes níveis de luminosidade em Caesalpinia ferrea.Caesalpinia ferrea is a species used a lot as a medicinal plant, for urban arborization and landscape design in the state of Amapa. Yet there is not much ecophysiological information available on it. Light is an important environment factor that controls processes associates with the accumulation of dry matter, contributing thus for plant growth. The object of this research was to study the effect of

  11. BIOMETRIA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES E SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DE JUCÁ (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINOIDEAE

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    Francisco Augusto Alves Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the characteristics biometrics of the fruit and the effect of the physical and chemical scarification in the germination of seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. Ripe fruits were collected in August of 2007 of existent trees in the campus of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-arid, Mossoró- RN. The evaluations were carried at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Department of Vegetable Sciences of UFERSA. The germination test was constituted of witness and 4 treatments (types of common vinegar: vinegar of alcohol, vinegar of red wine and vinegar of white wine and hot water to 65ºC, with 4 repetitions of 50 seeds. The sowing was in containers plastic with dimensions of 32.5 x 24 x 4 cm (length, width and depth. The used substrates were sand washed sterilized previously and being irrigated with water distilled. The appraised characteristics were: mass of the fresh matter and matter dries of the seedling, germination percentage and index of emergency velocity. The immersion of the seeds in vinegar of white wine favors the germination, the index of germination velocity and the accumulation of fresh and dry matter of the juca seedlings.

  12. ESSENTIAL OIL OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden IN STIMULATING MYCORRHIZAL SIBIPIRUNA SEEDLINGS (Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth.)

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    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen; Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO Os metabólitos secundários extraídos de espécies florestais formadoras de ectomicorrizas podem estimular a simbiose entre fungos ectomicorrízicos e espécies florestais nativas do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito do óleo essencial de eucalipto na formação de associação ectomicorrízica e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna, em condições de casa de vegetação. Plântulas de sibipiruna foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos constituídos pela presença e au...

  13. Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding; Larsen, K.; Larsen, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    In Malesia the family contains 25 indigenous genera and 8 genera with only introduced species, as follows (in brackets the number of native and/or introduced species in Malesia): Acrocarpus (1), Afzelia (2), Amherstia (1), Bauhinia (69), Brownea (4), Caesalpinia (22), Cassia (4), Chamaecrista (5),

  14. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

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    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  15. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

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    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of Caesalpinia gilliesii and Cajanus cajan proteins against acetoaminophen overdose-induced hepatic damage.

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    Rizk, Maha Z; Aly, Hanan F; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Desoky, M M; Ibrahim, N; Younis, Eman A

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate two proteins derived from the seeds of the plants Cajanus cajan (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Leguminosae) for their abilities to ameliorate the toxic effects of chronic doses of acetoaminphen (APAP) through the determination of certain biochemical parameters including liver marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin. Also, total protein content and hepatic marker enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase were studied. Moreover, liver antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, and lipid peroxides were determined in this study. Hepatic adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), adenylate energy charge (ATP, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and inorganic phosphate), and phosphate potential, serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and myeloperoxidase were also examined in the present study. On the other hand, histopathological examination of intoxicated and liver treated with both proteins was taken into consideration. The present results show disturbances in all biochemical parameters and hepatic toxicity signs including mild vascular congestion, moderate inflammatory changes with moderate congested sinusoids, moderate nuclear changes (pyknosis), moderate centrilobular necrosis, fatty changes, nuclear pyknosis vascular congestion, and change in fatty centrilobular necrosis liver. Improvement in all biochemical parameters studied was noticed as a result of treatment intoxicated liver with C. gilliesii and C. cajan proteins either paracetamol with or post paracetamol treatment. These results were documented by the amelioration signs in rat's hepatic architecture. Thus, both plant protein extracts can upregulate and counteract the inflammatory process, minimize damage of the liver, delay disease progression, and reduce its complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. (Mimosoideae-Leguminosae

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    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio citogenético en células provenientes de meristemos radiculares de cinco individuos de Pithecellobium dulce (Leguminosae provenientes de Cañón de Lobos, Morelos, México (18°51´20´´N, 99°06´W, 1105 m s.m. utilizando un método de extendido y secado al aire. Sobre un análisis de 456 células se confirmó un número cromosómico diploide 2n= 26 con baja frecuencia de células tetraploides (4,38%. Se obtuvo además, por primera vez, la fórmula cariotípica para una población de esta especie (14m+10sm+2st, la longitud cromosómica total diploide (42,13 µm, el intervalo cromosómico (1,32 - 2,07 µm y el índice de asimetría (T.F.%= 39,14. Estos datos se compararon con el único registro cariotípico previo de una especie del género, P. candidum. La carencia de datos citogenéticos impide por el momento vislumbrar la participación de cambios citogenéticos en la evolución del género.

  18. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

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    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  19. Estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração com ocorrência de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil

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    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p75   Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento remanescente de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração no município de Aracruz-ES em uma floresta de tabuleiro com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Foram instaladas 10 unidades amostrais (parcelas de 10 x 50m sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com DAP≥5cm e <10cm. Ao todo foram amostrados 500 indivíduos distribuídos em 181 espécies. As famílias com maior riqueza foram Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18 e Myrtaceae (14. As espécies mais importantes foram Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess. e Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. O índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 4,89 e a equabilidade (J’ foi de 0,94. Essa área é um dos últimos fragmentos remanescentes com pau-brasil nativo do estado do Espírito Santo e a população dessa espécie encontra-se bem preservada no local, ocorrendo com grande frequência, enfatizando a importância da preservação de pequenos fragmentos florestais para conservação da biodiversidade.

  20. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

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    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  1. Immunomodulatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; John, Jinu; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-07

    Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) is a plant well known for its medicinal value in Indian Ayurveda. However, to prove its efficiency for the clinical utilization, more experimental data will be beneficial. The present study involved the investigation of immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression were determined by in vivo experiments. The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential by oral administration of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (200-500 mg/kg) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers as well as a dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values, and potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Also it prevented myelosuppression in cyclophosphamide drug treated rats and good response towards phagocytosis in carbon clearance assay. The results obtained in this study indicate that Caesalpinia bonducella possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases.

  2. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

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    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  3. Flavonoids content in extracts secang (Caesalpinia Sappan L. maceration method infundation analysis and visible ultraviolet spectrophotometer

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    Youstiana Dwi Rusita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L has a component of a chemical compound essential oils, flavonoids, benzopyran, sapanin, brazilin, caesalpin S, caesalpin P, sapanon A, sapanon B. Flavonoids are chemical components that can be used in medical and industrial fields. This study aimed to determine the levels of flavonoids contained in extracts secang results maceration and extraction methods infundation. This study used quantitative and descriptive research design. This study using purposive sampling with two sample of Caesalpinia sappan L extract result of infundation and maceration. Analysis using univariate analysis. This study shows that there are types of flavonoids flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration method, and there are flavonoid types of flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation method. Flavonoid content test results showed that the levels of flavonoids in extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration 0.0539% whereas the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation methods 0.1902%. Necessary standardization of botanicals Caesalpinia sappan L to determine the levels of flavonoids using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, and the analysis of the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L using different solvents. As a follow-up is necessary to design the manufacture of dosage formulations of the active ingredient flavanoid compounds from the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L.

  4. Proteinase inhibitors in Brazilian leguminosae

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    C. A. M. Sampaio

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine proteinase inhitors, in the seeds of several Leguminosae from the Pantanal region (West Brazil, were studied using bovine trypsin, a digestive enzyme, Factor XIIa and human plasma Kallikrein, two blood clotting factors. The inhibitors were purified from Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Mr=23,000, Torresea cearensis (Mr = 13,000, Bauhinia pentandra (Mr = 20,000 and Bauhinia bauhinioides (Mr = 20,000. E. contortisiliquum inhibitor inactivates all three enzymes, whereas the T. cearensis inhibitor inactivates trypsin and Factor XSSa, but does nor affect plasma kallikrein; both Bauhinia inhibitors, on the other hand, inactivate trypsin and plasma kallikrein but only the Bpentandra inhibitor affects Factor XIIa. Ki values were calculated between 10 [raised to the power of] -7 and 10 [raised to the power of] -8 M.

  5. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  6. Test de germination des graines de Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objectif d'évaluer la germination des graines de deux provenances (Ouèdo/Bénin et Atakpamè/Togo) de Caesalpinia bonduc sur différents types de substrats (terreau chauffé, terreau traité aux fongicide et insecticide-nématicide et terreau non traité). Pour chacune des provenances, deux lots de ...

  7. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

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    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  8. Assessing the biological potential of N2-fixing Leguminosae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Additionally, identifying native rhizobia in Botswana that alleviate water stress when in ... stress factors. THE LEGUMINOSAE: THEIR DIVERSITY, DISTRIBU-. TION AND UTILISATION IN BOTSWANA. The Leguminosae are unique in their ability to ..... and the resistance to water stress in tomato and pepper.

  9. Germination, carbohydrate composition and vigor of cryopreserved Caesalpinia echinata seeds

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    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood seeds stored at negative temperatures. Recently harvested seeds were cryopreserved at -18º or -196ºC and periodically evaluated for germination, seed vigor and carbohydrate composition. The temperatures did not influence the germination percentages or vigor. The germination percentage decreased from 88% in recently harvested seeds to 60% after 730 days of storage. The different temperature and storage times tested did not affect the vigor seed germination as indicated by the measures of plant growth and survival. The different temperatures used did not cause changes in the carbohydrate composition. The tegument cell walls were rich in lignin, arabinose and xylose. The cytoplasm of the cotyledons and embryos had high levels of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The cryopreservation technique here presented was effective in the conservation of Brazilwood seeds for the medium term.

  10. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  11. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

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    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  12. Effects of nutrient omission in Caesalpinia echinata plants

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    Sergio Valiengo Valeri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, the morphological alterations and the mineral composition of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata plants caused by mineral nutrients omission in a green house experiment. The experimental units were distributed in the green house according to a completely random design. The treatments, each repeated five times, were the following : check (natural soil, complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn and a complete solution but for the omission of one of the nutrients in parenthesis. Each plot was represented by a plant growing in a 7 dm3 vase filled with Quartzarenic Neosol. The analyzed variables were the following: visual nutritional deficiency symptoms, plant height, stem diameter, shoot dry matter, stem, branches and leaves included, and leaf nutrients level. The omission of nitrogen limited plant growth in height and shoot biomass production. The first visual deficiency symptoms were those due to N omission followed by those caused by P, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn omissions. Later on the K and B deficiency symptoms became visible. The omission of a nutrient always caused its level in the leaves to be significantly lower than that found when it was not omitted.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

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    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  14. Synergy of aminoglycoside antibiotics by 3-Benzylchroman derivatives from the Chinese drug Caesalpinia sappan against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, G Y; Han, Z Q; Hao, X Y; Han, J; Li, Z S; Wang, G C

    2014-06-15

    The in vitro antimicrobial activities of three 3-Benzylchroman derivatives, i.e. Brazilin (1), Brazilein (2) and Sappanone B (3) from Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae) were assayed, which mainly dealt with synergistic evaluation of aminoglycoside and other type of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the three compounds through the Chequerboard and Time-kill curve methods. The results showed that Compounds 1-3 alone exhibited moderate to weak activity against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and other standard strains by MICs/MBCs ranged from 32/64 to >1024/>1024 μg/ml, with the order of activity as 1>2>3. Chequerboard method showed significant anti-MRSA synergy of 1/Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Amikacin, Etimicin and Streptomycin) combinations with (FICIs)50 at 0.375-0.5. The combined (MICs)50 values (μg/ml) reduced from 32-128/16-64 to 4-8/4-16, respectively. The percent of reduction by MICs ranged from 50% to 87.5%, with a maximum of 93.8% (1/16 of the alone MIC). Combinations of 2 and 3 with Aminoglycosides and the other antibiotics showed less potency of synergy. The dynamic Time-killing experiment further demonstrated that the combinations of 1/aminoglycoside were synergistically bactericidal against MRSA. The anti-MRSA synergy results of the bacteriostatic (Chequerboard method) and bactericidal (time-kill method) efficiencies of 1/Aminoglycoside combinations was in good consistency, which made the resistance reversed by CLSI guidelines. We concluded that the 3-Benzylchroman derivative Brazilin (1) showed in vitro synergy of bactericidal activities against MRSA when combined with Aminoglycosides, which might be beneficial for combinatory therapy of MRSA infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Gallego; Gordon, Michael H.; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  16. (Psidium guajava mediante el uso de coberturas vivas de leguminosas

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    B. A. Negrín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la influencia del uso de coberturas de leguminosas (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet y Neonotonia wightii AM. Lackey en el control de arvenses en plantaciones de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. var. Enana, en un clima tropical, se realizó un estudio en un frutal de seis meses de edad, plantado a una densidad de 6 m x 2 m, en un suelo ferralítico rojo, con pH de 5.7 y un contenido de P2O5 y K2O de 0.76 y 21.53 mg100g-1, respectivamente. Se utilizó un diseño de bloque al azar con cuatro tratamientos (cobertura natural, suelo desnudo y coberturas de ambas leguminosas y cuatro réplicas. Cada parcela tuvo un área de 80 m2 y estuvo conformada por las franjas aledañas a las plantas del frutal evaluadas. Las leguminosas se sembraron, en línea, a una densidad de 6 kg ha-1, para lo cual se utilizó el método de laboreo mínimo. Se obtuvo una reducción significativa (P<0,001 en la cantidad de malezas en los tratamientos con leguminosas y donde se aplicó herbicida, con relación a la cobertura natural. Las leguminosas redujeron, especialmente, el número de plantas y de especies pertenecientes a la clase dicotiledó Ojenea. La producción de biomasa de las arvenses resultó significativamente superior (P<0,05 en la cobertura natural, mientras la de leguminosas y la biomasa total fueron mayores en el tratamiento de L. Purpureus. Se recomienda evaluar el efecto de los diferentes tratamientos sobre el suelo y la plantas de guayaba.

  17. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  18. Light as an indicator of ecological succession in brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mengarda,Liana H. G.; Souza,Rogério L. F. de; Campostrini, Eliemar; Reis,Fabrício O.; Vendrame,Wagner A.; Cuzzuol,Geraldo R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The ecophysiological behavior of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.) plants was evaluated as affected by light quantity and quality. Nine-month-old plants were cultivated under 0%, 50%, and 80% artificial shading, and natural shading imposed by a closed canopy for a period of 392 days. At the end of that period growth parameters were measured, including relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf mass (SLM) and root:shoot ratio (R:S). Highe...

  19. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

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    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  20. In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic Acid Isolated From Caesalpinia Decapetala Wood

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    Upendra Bhadoriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of Gallic Acid isolated from plant Caesalpinia decapetala were investigated. Caesalpinia decapetala is a plant used to treat burns, biliousness and stomach disorders. Methods: The antioxidant activity was estimated by the ABTS and DPPH methods. The total phenolic was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Identification of isolated Gallic Acid was also performed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC using Cosmosil C18 column (150mm x 4.6mm, 5毺 m particle. The mobile phase was a mixture of ethyl acetate: ethanol: water (1:5:4, v/v/v delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Results: The total phenolic content was found to be 4.31% (w/w. Isolation of Gallic Acid with optimum yield was performed using a mixture of solvents (Ethanol: Water 65:35. Isolated Gallic Acid showed significant in vitro free radical scavenging activity in both model; but in ABTS assay significant % inhibition of free radical was observed as compared to DPPH assay. Conclusions: Research concluded that Caesalpinia decapetala extract can be used as potent antioxidant which can play vital role against the diseases like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infections and gastric ulcer

  1. Assessing the biological potential of N2-fixing Leguminosae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fodder and grain production to support the growing local livestock and wildlife industries. Additionally, identifying native rhizobia in Botswana that alleviate water stress when in symbioses with legumes could be a first step to tapping the biological potential of the Leguminosae for increased yields in drier environments.

  2. El registro de maderas fósiles de Leguminosae de Sudamérica The fossil wood record of Leguminosae from South America

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    Roberto R Pujana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Leguminosae posee un extenso registro de maderas fósiles en todo el mundo. En Sudamérica se reconocen 56 registros afines a la familia. Se enlistan todos los registros conocidos y se incluyen algunos datos inéditos. La familia Leguminosae es la de mayor diversidad paleoxilológica de Sudamérica. La misma posee un extenso registro paleoxilológico temporal, desde el Paleoceno hasta el Pleistoceno, y geográfico, desde Patagonia hasta el norte de Colombia.The Leguminosae has an extensive fossil wood record worldwide. In South America 56 records with affinity to Leguminosae were counted. Each record is analyzed and unpublished data is also included. The Leguminosae is the most palaeoxylological diverse family of South America. It has an extensive temporal record, from the Palaeocene to the Pleistocene, and a broad geographical span, from Patagonia to north Colombia.

  3. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula

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    Bambang - Sunarno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG & OHASHI, HIROSHI. 2002. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula. Reinwardtia 12(1: 117–119. ⎯ A new species, Dalbergia johoriensis from the Malay Peninsula is described. It is close to D. rostrata and D. havilandii but readily distinguished by the grooved midrib beneath, flowers with narrower standard and wings and style hairy in the lower part.

  4. Ocurrencia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick (1909 (Lepidoptero: Tortricidae en Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los derivados de las vainas de tara (Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824, presentan crecientes demandas industriales. En octubre del 2015 en la provincia de San Marcos, región Cajamarca, se verificó la ocurrencia de ataque de Argyrotaenia aphaleropa Meyrick (1909 a vainas de tara, produciendo daños directos, interfiriendo en su desarrollo y crecimiento, depreciando comercialmente el producto, generando restricciones en las exportaciones; por lo que esta plaga demanda su manejo integrado para disminuir la incidencia y evitar el ingreso a otras regiones libres de ataques.

  5. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston (Fabaceae (CD is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay, mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  6. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H.; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:28273843

  7. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Saravana Kumar, G; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-02-25

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Substrate in the emergence and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

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    Magnólia Martins Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia pulcherrima is an exotic species belongs to the Fabaceae family commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and widely used for urban forestry. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the emergence and early seedlings growth of C. pulcherrima . The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba. The experimental design was completely randomized and treatments had 14 substrates: sand, vegetable soil, vermiculite, wood dust, carbonized rice straw, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, sand + wood dust 1:1, sand + carbonized rice straw 1:1, earth + wood dust 1:1, vegetable soil + carbonized rice straw 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + wood dust 1:1, vermiculite + earth 1:1 and vermiculite + carbonized rice straw 1:1. Evaluation of the effect of the treatments was through the following determinations: percentage of emergency, first count, index of germination speed, length and dry weight of roots and shoots. The vermiculite, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + saw dust 1:1, are suitable for emergence and early growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima . Substrates saw dust and carbonized rice straw were responsible for the worst performers on emergence and seedling development.

  9. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-03-04

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  10. Wisteria sinensis (Leguminosae adventitious in Argentina: First record and expansion mechanisms Wisteria sinensis (Leguminosae adventicia en la Argentina: Primer registro y mecanismos de expansión

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    Julio A Hurrell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes the first record of Wisteria sinensis (Leguminosae adventitious in Argentina, observations on its mechanisms of expansion and its status in the context of the naturalization process.Esta contribución incluye la primera cita de Wisteria sinensis (Leguminosae adventicia para la Argentina, observaciones sobre sus mecanismos de expansión y su situación dentro del proceso de naturalización.

  11. Actividad antiinflamatoria de flores y hojas de Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers and leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz

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    Germán Eduardo Matiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Partes aéreas de la planta Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz han sido usadas en medicina tradicional al sur del Departamento de Cundinamarca para el tratamiento de afecciones inflamatorias. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de flores, hojas y frutos verdes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima para cuantificar su actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos de inflamación aguda y subcrónica. Metodología: Este estudio cuantificó la actividad antiinflamatoria de diferentes extractos de tejidos aéreos de esta especie encontrada en Colombia por dos modelos de inflamación aguda, el edema auricular inducido por TPA (acetato de 12-O-tetradecanoil-forbol y el edema plantar inducido por carragenina; así como el modelo de inflamación sub-crónico de granuloma inducido por pellet de algodón. Resultados: Los extractos de flores mostraron la mayor actividad antiinflamatoria en el modelo del TPA, en tanto que las hojas fueron más efectivas en disminuir el granuloma, en el modelo del pellet de algodón. No se observó ninguna actividad antiinflamatoria de ningún extracto en el modelo de carragenina. Los frutos verdes no mostraron actividad en ningún modelo. Conclusión: Los resultados demostraron la efectividad que el uso etnobotánico le atribuye a esta planta. Los extractos activos obtenidos mostraron el potencial uso de esta planta en la fabricación fitoterapéuticos efectivos. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (3: 281-287Introduction: Aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz have been used in traditional medicine in southern Cundinamarca Department for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Objective: Evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of flowers, leaves and green fruits of the plant to quantify inflammatory activity of acute and subchronic murine inflammation models. Methodology: This study quantified the anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of aerial tissues of this species for two models of acute

  12. Canavalia ensiformes: Leguminosa forrajera promisoria para la agricultura tropical

    OpenAIRE

    Caceres, Orestes; Gonzalez Garcia, Eliel; Delgado, Ramon

    1995-01-01

    En el trópico, los rumiantes se alimentan fundamentalmente de gramíneas y subproductos agroindustriales de bajo valor nutritivo; mientras que los no rumiantes dependen de alimentos que, en su mayoría, son importados. Ambos requieren alimentos con altos contenidos de sustancias nitrogenadas, los cuales son los más escasos y costosos, por lo que prácticamente resultan prohibitivos para la economía de los países tropicales. El potencial productivo de las leguminosas en granos y forrajes de alto ...

  13. Hepatoprotective Potential of Caesalpinia crista against Iron-Overload-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

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    Rhitajit Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the ameliorating effect of Caesalpinia crista Linn. (CCME extract on iron-overload-induced liver injury. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron dextran into mice. CCME attenuated the percentage increase in liver iron and serum ferritin levels when compared to control group. CCME also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and liver fibrosis. The serum enzyme markers were found to be less, whereas enhanced levels of liver antioxidant enzymes were detected in CCME-treated group. In presence of CCME, the reductive release of ferritin iron was increased significantly. Furthermore, CCME exhibited DPPH radical scavenging and protection against Fe2+-mediated oxidative DNA damage. The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of CCME against the model hepatotoxicant iron overload and the activity is likely related to its potent antioxidant and iron-chelating property.

  14. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

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    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  15. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study

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    Kishalay Jana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC 50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC 50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC 50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC 50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H.; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food. PMID:27043638

  17. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and total phenolic content in extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, M R; Sivakumar, T; Udavant, P B; Dhake, A S; Surana, A R

    2012-04-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Swartz (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant also used as a common medicinal plant in India, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries. Majority of the diseases/disorders are mainly linked to oxidative stress due to free radicals. The aims of this study were to screen for phytochemical constituents, evaluate cytotoxicity, in vitro antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. The LC50(microg mL(-1)) values obtained for extracts as 750 microg mL(-1) for petroleum ether extract, 800 microg mL(-1) for chloroform extract and 900 microg mL(-1) for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 38.04% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 microg mL(-1), respectively. Methanolic extract was good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 microg mL(-1), respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Our conclusion provides support that the crude extracts of C. pulcherrima is a probable source of natural antioxidants and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  19. Las leguminosas en alimentación animal

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    Rubio, Luis A.

    2016-06-01

    and the fact that most is genetically modified are barriers to its utilization in the EU. In summary, environmental, health and productive considerations result in a growing interest in legume production in the EU.Desde el punto de vista de su uso en nutrición animal, pueden considerarse dos grupos de leguminosas: leguminosas-forraje (p. ej. la alfalfa, usadas en alimentación de rumiantes y leguminosas-grano (p. ej. habas, guisantes y altramuces, usadas esencialmente para aves y cerdos, y en menor medida para rumiantes. Las leguminosas-grano pueden sustituir parcial o totalmente a fuentes de proteínas tradicionales, de origen animal, como carne, huesos o harina de pescado en los piensos para animales, y representan una alternativa para las harinas de soja y otras oleaginosas. Su contenido en proteína es variable pero elevado (25-45 g/100 g materia seca. No obstante, la presencia de metabolitos secundarios (inhibidores de proteasas, saponinas, glucósidos, lectinas, taninos, alcaloides, así como sus altos niveles de fibra (polisacáridos no amiláceos, ha restringido el uso de leguminosas-grano en la alimentación de animales monogástricos (aves y cerdos y, mucho más en la de rumiantes. Sin embargo, en la actualidad se está incrementando el interés por el uso de estas materias primas como alimentos funcionales, sobre todo en nutrición humana, pero también en nutrición animal, entre otras razones, como consecuencia de la prohibición del uso de proteína animal (harinas de carne y hueso, que tuvo lugar en la Unión Europea tras la crisis de la Encefalopatía Espongiforme Bovina. Para establecer el valor nutritivo de las leguminosas ha de prestarse especial atención a su composición en nutrientes, su contenido en energía y la digestibilidad de los aminoácidos. En rumiantes, es necesario establecer la degradabilidad en el rumen tanto de la proteína como de los aminoácidos individuales y de los carbohidratos, aspectos que determinan la utilización de

  20. New combinations in Senegalia and Vachellia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) for Southeast Asia and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslin, B.R.; Seigler, D.S.; Ebinger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of the former broadly circumscribed genus Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) necessitates combinations in Senegalia (syn. Acacia subg. Aculeiferum) and Vachellia (syn. former Acacia subg. Acacia) for the following 40 taxa that are recorded for the region encompassed by Southeast Asia

  1. Maturação de frutos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., pau-brasil Maturation of fruits of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brasil wood

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se parâmetros indicativos da maturação de frutos de árvores de Caesalpinia echinata, visando determinar a melhor época de colheita para propagação. Foram utilizadas 10 plantas-matriz cultivadas em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, nas quais foram etiquetadas 250 inflorescências no pico da floração para acompanhamento da maturação. As coletas de frutos tiveram início a partir da 5ª semana após a antese, prolongando-se até a 9ª, com intervalos de sete dias. Em cada coleta, analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento, largura e teor de água dos frutos; teor de água das sementes (após três dias de exposição ao sol para deiscência do fruto e extração da semente; porcentagem de germinação e peso de matéria seca de frutos, sementes e plântulas. Observou-se, ainda, a coloração dos frutos como parâmetro visual de maturação das sementes. O experimento foi repetido por três anos. Os testes de germinação foram realizados em caixas Gerbox contendo vermiculita umedecida com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara regulada para 30 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, nos anos de 1991, 1992 e 1993. As leituras de germinação foram realizadas nos 4º e 8º dias após a semeadura. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que o momento ideal para coleta dos frutos de C. echinata é no estádio de pré-dispersão (entre a 8º e 9º após a antese visualizado através da coloração, quando estes mudam de verde para castanho.Several indicative parameters regarding fruit maturity of Caesalpinia echinata were studied in order to establish the ideal harvest time. Ten matrix plants were cultivated in Moji-Guaçu, SP (22°11' to 1022°18' S and 47°13' to 47°20' WG, altitude between 600m and 730m. The climate of the region is classified as Cwa. Two hundred and fifty blossoms were tagged during the the peak

  2. NEW SPECIES OF ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE FROM BRAZIL, PARAGUAY AND BOLIVIA Nuevas especies de Arachis (Leguminosae de Brasil, Paraguay y Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. M. Valls

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Eleven new species of Arachis L. (Leguminosae are described, representing seven of the nine taxonomic sections of the genus. Eight of the new species were referred to, and classified, in the monograph of Krapovickas and Gregory, but are now treated with their own specific epithet; one species had been collected before 1994, but the material was in sufficient doubt to not be mentioned in the Monograph, and two species were collected after that monograph was submitted for publication. The description of these eleven species will help clarify the systematics of the genus Arachis, as well as aid in our understanding of the evolutionary path of certain important materials. Some of these may have played a role in developments which lead to the origin of the cultivated peanut

    Se describen once especies nuevas de Arachis L. (Leguminosae, que representan siete de las nueve secciones taxonómicas del género. Ocho de las nuevas especies fueron citadas y clasificadas en la monografía de Krapovickas & Gregory, pero son ahora tratadas con su propio epíteto específico; una especie fue recolectada antes de 1994, pero el material dejaba suficientes dudas como para no incluirla en la monografía, y dos especies fueron recolectadas después que la misma fuera sometida a publicación. La descripción de esas once especies ayudará a clarificar la sistemática del género Arachis, así como a la comprensión de las líneas evolutivas de ciertos materiales importantes, algunos de los cuales podrían haber tenido un rol en los eventos que llevaron al origen del maní cultivado

  3. Avaliação do potencial toxicológico e farmacológico das folhas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Sampaio Grangeiro, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Caesalpinia echinata Lam, popularmente conhecida como pau-brasil ou pernambuco, é uma árvore considerada de valor histórico e econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a toxicidade aguda e as atividades antinociceptiva, antiinflamatória e antitumoral frente ao Sarcoma 180 do extrato bruto etanólico das folhas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. A toxicidade aguda foi avaliada através da metodologia da Organização para Cooperação Econômica e Desenvolvimento (OECD 423), que pr...

  4. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  5. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanand M Kannur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy′s Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students′ ′t′ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  6. Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Caesalpinia bonducella against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Kumar, Ramanathan Sambath; Sivakumar, Thangavel; Vamsi, Madgula Lakshmi Mohan

    2004-02-01

    The methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves (MECB) were evaluated for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The extract was administered at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days after 24 h of tumor inoculation. After the last dose and 18 h fasting, the mice were sacrificed. The present study deals with the effect of MECB on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological profile, and biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. MECB caused significant (P<0.01) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume, and viable cell count; and it prolonged the life span of EAC-tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile converted to more or less normal levels in extract-treated mice. MECB significantly (P<0.05) decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. The MECB was found to be devoid of conspicuous short-term toxicity in the mice when administered daily (i.p.) for 14 days at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. The treated mice showed conspicuous toxic symptoms only at 300 mg/kg. The results indicate that MECB exhibited significant antitumor and antioxidant activity in EAC-bearing mice.

  7. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

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    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  8. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

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    Roberto Robson Borges-dos-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n=12: negative control (G1 (untreated, positive control (G2 (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w., and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP. Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC, hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P<0.05. An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P<0.05, during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition.

  9. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

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    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  10. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannur, Dayanand M.; Paranjpe, Mukta P.; Sonavane, Lalit V.; Dongre, Prerana P.; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

  11. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-07-31

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  12. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - BRAZILWOOD: THERMAL BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESISTANCE TO BIODETERIORATION IN STATIC SYSTEMS

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    Ana Paula Pinto Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wood is the best-known biological material used as a raw material since the dawn of mankind until present days. As a natural and renewable composite, its lifetime is limited by the degradation of its basic elements. This degradation can be caused by chemical reactions or by biological agents capable of accelerating the process of deterioration. In this work, the wear, thermal, and micro-structural characteristics, as also the bio-degradation behavior in static systems, of the wood species Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata were studied under laboratory conditions in order to use these woods in design. The results show that Brazilwood has a good visual performance after abrasion test, since it has not shown any representative roughness increase. In addition, Brazilwood has high level of crystallinity of, approximately, 68% and was almost insensitive to fungi attack, forming only 5.3 x 103 CFU/mL. Besides, its texture did not change due to exposure to water or sweat.

  13. In vitro propagation of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz from axillary buds of selected trees

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    Jenny E Núñez Núñez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Guarango or tara [Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz] is a tree native to the Andes, with great economic importance and for reforestation programs. The aim of this work was to in vitro propagate this specie from axillary buds of selected trees. During in vitro establishment, the effect of sodium hypochlorite (3.0% with different times of disinfection (5.0, 10, 15 min, as well as the effect of 6-BAP on the in vitro response of buds were studied. For multiplication, different combination of 6-BAP with 0.1 mg l-1 ANA were tested. A free-growth regulator culture medium was used for rooting. The best results for in vitro establishment were achieved with a disinfection treatment with sodium hypochlorite 3.0% for 10 minutes and cultivation in a culture medium with 0.25 mg l-1 6-BAP, which 90% of buds in vitro established, with a length of 6.71 cm. The highest multiplication rate of shoot (2.88 per explant was obtained with 1.0 mg l-1 6-BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 ANA, after 60 days of culture. The 55% of these shoots developed roots in a half-strength basal salts MS culture medium free of regulators of growth.   Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forest plant, guarango, tissue culture

  14. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

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    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  15. Efeito do feno de leguminosas no desempenho de bezerros lactentes

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    Marcus Vinícius Morais de Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de bezerros lactentes submetidos a dietas com e sem feno de leguminosas. O período experimental foi de 60 dias, sendo o fornecimento dos alimentos sólidos ad libitum e disponibilizados a partir do 10º dia de vida do animal, e o leite in natura fornecido de maneira restrita na porção de 4 litros/dia, divididos em duas refeições equitativas. Foram avaliadas as dietas: ração concentrada; ração concentrada mais feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam. De Wit e ração concentrada mais feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa L.. Utilizou-se 15 animais Girolando, distribuídos em três tratamentos, em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso desbalanceados. Os parâmetros avaliados foram peso corpóreo inicial (nascimento - PCI e final (PCF, ganho médio diário (GMD, alturas de cernelha (AC e garupa (AG, perímetro torácico (PT, consumo de matéria seca (CMS e conversão alimentar (CA. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho dos animais em relação aos tratamentos, com médias 32,9 (±2,9 kg; 67,7(±1,2 kg; 0,58(±0,02 kg; 13,1(±0,5 cm; 13,7(±0,3 cm; 20,6(±0,7 cm; 0,46(±0,1 kg e 0,79(±0,1, para os parâmetros PCI, PCF, GMD, AC, AG, PT, CMS e CA, respectivamente. As exigências nutricionais de bezerros lactentes são atendidas com o fornecimento de leite e ração concentrada, não havendo necessidade de inclusão de feno de leguminosas na dieta.

  16. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

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    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  17. Tolerancia de cinco leguminosas al aluminio en solución nutritiva.

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    Pérez N Juan Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación para determinar el grado de tolerancia a aluminio (Al de cinco leguminosas tropicales: guandul (Cajanus cajan L. Mills, canavalia (Canavalia ensiformis L., frijol jacinto (Dolichos lablab L., leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (C. Lam. De Witt y fríjol terciopelo (Stizolobium deeringianum Bort.. Las plantas crecieron bajo cinco concentraciones de Al: 0, 2, 4, 8 y 16 mg L-1 en solución nutritiva. La leguminosa más afectada por las concentraciones de Al fue L. leucocephala, la cual exhibió una disminución significativa en la producción de materia seca y en la traslocación de P hacia la parte aérea. En las otras leguminosas la materia seca y la distribución de P fueron poco afectados.

  18. The endangered Ethiopian endemic Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) and its little-known habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile; van Breugel, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Crotalaria trifoliolata Baker f. (Leguminosae: Papilionoidaeae) was, for 120 years, only known from an incomplete holotype from an uncertain Ethiopian locality. In 2013 it was rediscovered in the Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia. Surveys in 2014 and 2015 suggest that the species is restricted to limes......Crotalaria trifoliolata Baker f. (Leguminosae: Papilionoidaeae) was, for 120 years, only known from an incomplete holotype from an uncertain Ethiopian locality. In 2013 it was rediscovered in the Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia. Surveys in 2014 and 2015 suggest that the species is restricted...

  19. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

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    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  20. Leishmanicidal compounds of Nectria pseudotrichia, an endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood

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    Betania Barros Cota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood, is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data. The antileishmanial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis expressing firefly luciferase as reporter gene, and cytotoxicity was determined in Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines by MTT assay. FINDINGS Fractionation of the extract yielded seven compounds: 10-acetyl trichoderonic acid A (1, 6′-acetoxy-piliformic acid (2, 5′,6′-dehydropiliformic acid (3, piliformic acid (4, hydroheptelidic acid (5, xylaric acid D (6, and cytochalasin D (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were more active, with IC50 values of 21.4, 28.3, and 24.8 µM, respectively, and showed low toxicity to Vero and THP-1 cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS N. pseudotrichia produces secondary metabolites that are more toxic to intracellular amastigote forms of L. (V. braziliensis than to mammalian cells.

  1. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

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    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  2. Mode of reproduction of Brazilian species of Adesmia (Leguminosae

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    Solange B. Tedesco

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Mode of reproduction was studied in 15 species of Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae. In six species, three treatments were used: mutual pollination, mechanical stimulation and control. Fifty-four plants of these six species were grown in a greenhouse, individually isolated in nylon screen boxes. Flowers were labelled and submitted to the different treatments. In addition, the frequency of spontaneous self-pollination in the absence of pollinators was studied in 200 plants of nine other species. These 200 plants were kept in a greenhouse, which avoided contact with any possible pollinator. Adesmia bicolor, A. muricata, A. punctata and A. riograndensis produced seed both by cross- and self-pollination. Adesmia punctata and A. riograndensis need mechanical stimulation for self-pollination. Adesmia incana reproduced by self-pollination; however, the possibility of cross-pollination cannot be totally ruled out. Adesmia tristis reproduced mainly by cross-pollination and a mechanism of self-incompatibility is suggested. Among the nine species that were not exposed to pollinators, A. securigerifolia produced a large amount of seed, indicating that it is a self-pollinating species. Adesmia arillata, A. araujoi, A. ciliata, A. psoraleoides, A. rocinhensis, A. reitziana, A. sulina and A. vallsii did not produce any seed under the experimental conditions, suggesting that they are cross-pollinated or that they need mechanical stimulation to reproduce.Foram estudadas 15 espécies do gênero Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae, quanto ao modo de reprodução. Em seis espécies do gênero Adesmia, o modo de reprodução foi determinado através de três tratamentos: polinização mútua, estímulo mecânico e controle. As 54 plantas submetidas aos tratamentos foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação e mantidas isoladas individualmente, através de armações de tela de náilon. As flores foram marcadas e submetidas aos distintos tratamentos. Adicionalmente, foram observadas 200

  3. Variasi Morfologi Floral Anggota Suku Leguminosae Subsuku Lotoideae

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    Zuchrotus Salamah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menarik untuk dilakukan karena sangat bervariasinya suku Leguminosae dimana salah satu subsukunya adalah Lotoideae. Struktur morfologi bunga dari anggota subsuku digunakan sebagai karakter state dalam membedakan anggota-anggotanya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui variasi morfologi floral vegetatif anggota subsuku Lotoideae serta untuk mengetahui variasi morfologi floral generatif anggota subsuku Lotoideae. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksplorasi ke Yogjakarta dan sekitarnya untuk mencari bunga tanaman anggota subsuku Lotoideae, kemudian dilakukan pengamatan terhadap struktur morfologi floralnya, baik vegetatif maupun generatif. Selain itu juga dilakukan pengamatan terhadap morfologi serbuk sari yang sebelumnya telah dibuat preparat dengan menggunaan metode asetolisis. Data yang diperoleh berupa hasil pengukuran berbagai parameter bunga seperti petala, sepala, benangsari, serbuk sari, androecium, gynaecium, dan data hasil pengukuran serbuk sari dianalisis secara deskriptif.Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah Variasi morfologi floral vegetatif anggota sub-suku Lotoideae yaitu memiliki kelopak yang berbeda pada ukurannya sedangkan persamaannya berjumlah 5, aestivationya berlekatan. Perbedaan mahkotanya adalah pada warna dan ukuran dari masing-masing bagian bunga,sedangkan persamaannya terdiri atas 5 petala, bentuknya menyerupai kupu-kupu, Bentuk mahkotanya terbagi 3 yaitu, bendera di bagian terluar merupakan bagian yang terlebar, sayap dengan ujung runcing dan lunas yang saling berlekatan berbentuk seperti sekoci. Variasi morfologi floral generatif anggota subsuku Lotoideae yaitu memiliki perbedaan pada jumlah berkas. Persamaan benangsarinya berjumlah 10, dan tersusun dalam berkas. Gynaecium perbedaannya adalah pada ukuran dan warna, sedangkan persamaannya adalah posisi ovarium menumpang, jumlah carpel 1, plasentasi marginal, Aestivatio bebas. Ciri pada serbuksarinya berbeda dalam ukuran, aperture

  4. Produtividade da cana-de-açúcar após o cultivo de leguminosas

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    Edmilson José Ambrosano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do cultivo prévio de leguminosas sobre a produtividade e lucratividade da cana-de-açúcar. Foram determinados a produtividade de biomassa, o acúmulo de nutrientes das leguminosas, a ocorrência natural de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, bem como o efeito das leguminosas sobre a população de nematoides do gênero Pratylenchus à cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Piracicaba (SP, Brasil, em solo classificado como Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, utilizando-se a cultivar de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. IAC87-3396. As avaliações dos efeitos do cultivo prévio das leguminosas foram realizadas durante cinco cortes consecutivos. Os tratamentos consistiram do cultivo prévio das leguminosas: Amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L - cultivares IAC-Tatu e IAC-Caiapó, crotalária júncea IAC 1 (Crotalaria juncea L e mucuna preta [Mucuna aterrima (Piper & Tracy Holland], e um tratamento-testemunha. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. A leguminosa mais produtiva de biomassa seca (parte aérea+raízes foi a crotalária júncea IAC 1 (10.264 kg ha-1, seguida da mucuna preta (4.391 kg ha-1 e dos amendoins, IAC-Caiapó (3.177 kg ha-1 e IAC-Tatu (1.965 kg ha-1. O amendoim IAC-Caiapó e a mucuna preta foram as espécies mais infectadas por fungos micorrízicos. O amendoim, independente da cultivar, foi a leguminosa que mais reduziu a infestação de Pratylenchus spp. na cana-de-açúcar. Após cinco cortes da cana-de-açúcar o melhor desempenho foi notado no tratamento com cultivo prévio de crotalária júncea IAC 1, o qual promoveu incrementos de 30% e 35% na produtividade de colmos e de açúcar respectivamente e o melhor desempenho econômico.

  5. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from the seed coat of Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Lubna; Saeed, Syed Asad; Ali, Rashida; Saeed, Syed Ghufran; Ahmed, Rahil

    2017-09-26

    Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction. It was interesting to note that the phenolic acid fractions of both samples was found more active against gram-negative bacteria, while gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive towards flavonol fractions. The phenolic acid and flavonol fractions being potent antibacterial were selected to demonstrate the antifungal capacity of two samples. Among them, phenolic acid fraction of both samples was found active towards all the fungal strain.

  6. Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de diferentes concentraciones del extracto etan??lico de Caesalpinia spinosa (tara) frente a Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668

    OpenAIRE

    AUTOR: Centuri??n Villar, Karina Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto antibacteriano in vitro del extracto etan??lico de Caesalpinia Spinosa (Tara) sobre Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668. La muestra estuvo conformada por 64 observaciones, distribuidas en 4 grupos de 4 placas Petri cada uno, en cada placa se coloc?? el porcentaje de concentraci??n de estudio, frente a tres controles: control positivo (Clorhexidina al 0.12%), control negativo (Etanol) y un porcentaje de concentraci??n similar (para comp...

  7. Estudio de factibilidad para la implementación de una finca productora de guaranga (Caesalpinia spinosa) en el sector San Guillermo, Imbabura, Ecuador 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga Rodríguez, Byron Apolinario

    2015-01-01

    The Ecuador by geography is rich in flora fauna country, same to be exploited in different areas. The rich Ecuadorian soil is one of the key factors to promote the development of agricultural projects, benefiting sectors of popular economy, where agriculture is the main income source. The guarango (Caesalpinia spinosa) is a wild plant which are harvested pods and nuggets, which since ancient times they were used as plant input - natural in the method of tanning leather to waterproof Pondos...

  8. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Isys; Funch ,Ligia; de Queiroz,Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits rela...

  9. Preferencia Relativa Bajo Pastoreo de Varios Ecotipos de la Leguminosa Sfylosanthes spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Valderrama Luis Alfonso

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de determinar la variabilidad en preferencia y detectar ecotipos de Stylosanthes spp. con problemas de aceptabilidad, se evaluaron 10 ecolipos de Stylosanthes guianensis mediante un ensayo bajo pastoreo tipo cafetería. Dado que la preferencia varía según características morfológicas de las plantas, se determinó el hábito de crecimiento y el grado de viscosidad al tacto de cada ecotipo de leguminosa. La aceptabilidad se midió mediante la frecuencia de veces que fue pastoreado cada ecotipo (medida por un índice de preferencia por ocho animales bovinos machos de la raza cebú, que permanecieron en las parcelas siete días, cuyas observaciones se realizaron durante siete horas por día. En general, los Stylosanthes guianensis podrían tener problemas de preferencia bajo pastoreo, dado el bajo índice de preferencias encontrado. La mayor preferencia correspondió a Stylosanthes guianensis ecotipos 1280 y 1633, entre los ecotipos restantes no existió diferencia marcada en gustosidad. El patrón de preferencia, parece estar ligado al hábito de crecimiento de la planta y a la dinámica de la disponibilidad inicial de forraje. Las pruebas de preferencia relativa de leguminosas bajo pastoreo permiten detectar ecotipos con problemas y conformar un "ranking" de leguminosas, componentes importantes en el diseño de estrategias de manejo en asociaciones gramíneas-leguminosas para la alimentación animal.

  10. SENYAWA KIMIA DAN ARAH WARNA KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan Linn DAN GAMBIR (Uncaria gambir PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI EKSTRAKSI UNTUK PEWARNAAN BATIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Pujilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTumbuhan pembawa warna mengandung senyawa kimia yang berbeda beda baik jumlah maupun jenis senyawanya. Senyawa-senyawa dominan pembawa warna mempunyai ketahanan tertentu pada berbagai kondisi suhu . Suhu ekstraksi zat warna alam dari tumbuhan mempengaruhi arah warna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimia dan arah warna kayu secang dan gambir. Ekstraksi zat warna alam dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu pemanasan yaitu 50 oC, 75 oC, 100 oC dan perendaman dalam alkohol selama 7 (tujuh hari pada suhu kamar. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik pada kain katun dan sutera. Arah warna ditentukan melalui fiksasi menggunakan tawas, kapur dan tujung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh pada senyawa kimia zat warna alam kayu secang dan gambir.  Jumlah senyawa zat warna alam pada kayu secang semakin berkurang seiring dengan peningkatan suhu ekstraksi.  Pada gambir jumlah senyawa zat warna paling banyak diperoleh pada suhu ekstraksi 75 oC. Senyawa zat warna dominan pada kayu secang adalah cyclohexanone sedang pada gambir  adalah methyl 3,4 dideutero 3 nonenoate 3. Arah warna kayu secang merah sampai merah kecoklatan dan pada gambir warna kecoklatan sampai coklat tua.ABSTRACTColor bearing plant contains chemical compounds that vary both the number and types of compounds. Compounds dominant color carriers having different resistance at various temperature conditions. The temperature of the extraction of natural dyes from plants affects the direction of color. This study aims to determine the content of chemical compounds and direction color of Caesalpinia sappan Linn and Uncaria gambir. Extraction of natural dyes made at various heating temperature is 50 ° C, 75 ° C, 100 ° C and soaking in alcohol for seven (7 days at room temperature. Natural dyes obtained is applied to dye batik on cotton and silk. Directions color is determined by fixation using alum, lime and

  11. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos and two new distribution records and lectotypification for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand.......A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand....

  12. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio S S; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia M A; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Santos, Vera Lúcia dos; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  13. Proposed mechanism of antibacterial mode of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil against food-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial mechanism of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil on membrane permeability of Listeria monocytogenes NCIM 24563 (MIC: 2 mg/mL and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC: 4 mg/mL was determined by measuring the extracellular ATP concentration, release of 260-nm absorbing materials, leakage of potassium ions and measurement of relative electrical conductivity of the bacterial cells treated at MIC concentration. Its mode of action on membrane integrity was confirmed by release of extracellular ATP (1.42 and 1.33 pg/mL, loss of 260-nm absorbing materials (4.36 and 4.19 optical density, leakage of potassium ions (950 and 1000 mmol/L and increase in relative electrical conductivity (12.6 and 10.5% against food-borne pathogenic bacteria L. monocytogenes and E. coli, respectively. These findings propose that C. bonducella oil compromised its mode of action on membrane integrity, suggesting its enormous food and pharmacological potential.

  14. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1–3 and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5, together with seven known compounds 6–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What’s more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed.

  15. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on female reproductive system of albino rat: a focus on antifertility efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on the reproductive system in Wistar female albino rat. Methods: The study was divided into four groups. The group I received distilled water and served as vehicle treated control. Groups II, III and IV were orally administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight dose of seed extract respectively, for 10 consecutive days and subsequently euthanized twenty four hours after the last dose. Results: The treatment prolonged the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage. The analysis of the principal hormones viz. LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone showed significantly decreased levels in dose-dependant manner. Ovarian and uterine weight was significantly reduced as compared to that of the control group. Histoarchitectural observations revealed follicular atresia and degeneration of corpora lutea in ovary. Oviduct showed degeneration of mucosal folds and epithelium cells. Uterus showed evidence of degeneration of endometrial epithelium and endometrial glands. Lamina propria and muscularis layer of vagina were found slightly disorganized. Conclusions: It can be concluded that significant decrease in the hormone levels, reproductive organs weight and alterations in histoarchitecture of reproductive organs might be due to antiestrogenic nature of seed extract.

  16. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae); Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo Raul [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  17. IMPLANTAÇÃO DE BANCO FORRAGEIRO COM LEGUMINOSA HERBÁCEA EM UNIDADE DE PRODUÇÃO FAMILIAR

    OpenAIRE

    Mororó, Dayanne Lustosa; ARAUJO JUNIOR,LUIS MOREIRA DE; Silva Pause, Alzira Gabriela da; Maneschy, Rosana Quaresma

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: El uso de bancos de forraje de leguminosas y gramíneas se presenta como una alternativa eficaz a la minimización de la escasez de alimentos durante la estación seca, que puede mantener y / o aumento de la producción de leche. Hemos realizado este estudio con el objetivo de implementar la base de datos de leguminosas forrajeras con la hierba para la suplementación alimentaria de vacas en la estación seca en el proyecto de asentamiento (AP), Belo Horizonte, São Domingos do Araguaia, Pa...

  18. Dihydronaflavonols from the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Livia T.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Ferreira, Malisson; Silva, Milton N. da; Santos, Alberdan S.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Guilhon, Gisele M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Arruda, Mara Silvia P. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica], e-mail: mspa@ufpa.br; Borges, Rosilvaldo dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia. Inst. de Ciencias

    2009-07-01

    Derris urucu is an Amazonian plant with insecticide and ichthyotoxic properties. Studies with this species show the presence of flavonoids, mainly rotenoids, as well as stilbenes. The ethanol extract of the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae) afforded three new dihydroflavonols named urucuol A (1), B (2) and C (3), and the dihydroflavonol isotirumalin (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, UV and IR spectra and MS data and comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds (1-4) were evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity and showed a relatively lower antioxidant ability compared to the commercial antioxidant trans-resveratrol. (author)

  19. Biodiversidad y ecogeografía del género Lupinus l. (Leguminosae) en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Barney Duran, Victoria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    El Género Lupinus, uno de los más diversos de la familia Leguminosae, incluye alrededor de 300 especies de hierbas, arbustos y unos pocos árboles, distribuidas en el Viejo y Nuevo Mundo, donde han colonizado varios ambientes, con características morfológicas relativamente uniformes, pero con un incompleto análisis taxonómico. Es una planta con gran potencial agronómico debido al alto contenido de proteína de sus semillas y al positivo efecto sobre la fertilidad de los suelos y ha sido utiliza...

  20. Lecitinas de leguminosas: significación nutricional, toxicidad y aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Alonso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Las legumbres son alimentos consumidos en todas partes del mundo y el estudio de su composición química es necesario para el conocimiento de sus efectos en la salud. Son muchos tipos de sustancias químicas diferentes los que se encuentran en las semillas de legumbres. En este trabajo se estudia un tipo de sustancias en particular, las lectinas de leguminosas. Se describe el origen y estructura de las lectinas, su significación nutricional, la toxicidad de las lectinas y los efectos en el inte...

  1. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannachai Chatan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae, namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  2. Leguminosas nativas en áreas ganaderas de la Isla de la juventud, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, R.; U. Vecino; Y. Cedié; Y. Dixon

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio se realizó durante el periodo comprendido de septiembre-diciembre de 2007, en dos áreas ganaderas de los poblados de La Reforma y La Victoria del municipio Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. El objetivo central consistió en identificar las especies de leguminosas presentes en estos ecosistemas con diferentes condiciones edafoclimáticas. Estas áreas son caracterizadas por poseer suelos con pH ácido de tipo Ferralítico cuarcítico amarillo lixiviado, Gley ferralítico, Arenoso cuarcítico, Ro...

  3. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos, Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; GASSON, PETER; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois muni...

  4. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos, Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; GASSON, PETER; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    p.436-445 Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas ...

  5. Micorrizas arbusculares en leguminosas de la empresa pecuaria El Tablón, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ojeda

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar la presencia de micorrizas arbusculares asociadas a las raíces de las especies: Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú, Centrosema pubescens IH-129, Centrosema pubescens CIAT-482, Centrosema macrocarpum CIAT-5434, Canavalia ensiformis y Desmodium sp., en áreas naturales de la vaquería laboratorio No. 3 de la Empresa Pecuaria El Tablón (Cumanayagua, provincia de Cienfuegos, Cuba, en un suelo Pardo Grisáceo. Además, se realizó una prueba de eficiencia a los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA nativos, en condiciones semicontroladas (casa de cristal, y con un diseño de bloques al azar por cada especie, dos tratamientos y tres réplicas. En estas condiciones, las leguminosas forrajeras fueron micorrizadas de forma natural, pero con baja colonización: entre 21 y 34 % en el primer muestreo, y entre 14 y 20 % en el segundo. Al inocular los propios HMA nativos en un cultivo indicador (sorgo forrajero no hubo diferencias significativas en cuanto al contenido foliar de fósforo y a la colonización; mientras que el rendimiento de MS se benefició ligeramente en Desmodium sp. en las dos variantes, por lo que no se puede atribuir al efecto de los HMA. Tales resultados evidenciaron la necesidad de probar cepas comerciales de HMA en las especies de leguminosas en estas condiciones y tipo de suelo.

  6. Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a previously incompletely known Ethiopian endemic rediscovered after 120 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile

    2014-01-01

    The incompletely known Crotalaria trifoliolata Baker f. (Leguminosae subfam. Papilionoideae) has been rediscovered in the field. For 120 years, it has been known only from a fragmentary holotype with uncertain collecting locality. The habit and height of the plant, the pods and the seeds are here...

  7. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  8. Anisotropic Snowman-Like Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized byCaesalpinia sappanExtract andIn VitroAntibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You Jeong; Park, Youmie

    2018-06-01

    Anisotropic snowman-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using the extract of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood as a reducing agent in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Two surface plasmon resonance bands of the orange solution were observed at 446 nm and 539 nm in UV-visible spectra. High-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of the AgNPs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images clearly revealed snowman-like AgNPs with an average size of 34.36 ± 11.44 nm. The C-O functional group was most likely involved in the synthesis of the AgNPs, which was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Most interestingly, the snowman-like AgNPs exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the spherical AgNPs and the extract alone. Among the tested strains, the snowman-like AgNPs showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4.69 μg/mL for the extract and 0.443 μg/mL for the silver. The antibacterial activity of the snowman-like AgNPs increased 24-fold against S. aureus. These results strongly suggested that the snowman-like AgNPs synthesized from C. sappan extract have potential for treating infected disease caused by S. aureus when the antibacterial activity was combined from plant extract and AgNPs. To our knowledge, the present report is the first in which the snowman-like AgNPs synthesized using a plant extract as a reducing agent showed excellent In Vitro antibacterial activity.

  9. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, B N; Girish, T K; Raghavendra, R H; Naidu, K Akhilender; Rao, U J S Prasada; Rao, K S

    2014-04-01

    Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory) in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

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    Fernanda Fraga Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae. We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL. Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  11. A gallotannin-rich fraction from Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze displays cytotoxic activity and raises sensitivity to doxorubicin in a leukemia cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Diana M; Pombo, Luis Miguel; Urueña, Claudia Patricia; Hernandez, John Fredy; Fiorentino, Susana

    2012-04-10

    Enhancement of tumor cell sensitivity may help facilitate a reduction in drug dosage using conventional chemotherapies. Consequently, it is worthwhile to search for adjuvants with the potential of increasing chemotherapeutic drug effectiveness and improving patient quality of life. Natural products are a very good source of such adjuvants. The biological activity of a fraction enriched in hydrolysable polyphenols (P2Et) obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa was evaluated using the hematopoietic cell line K562. This fraction was tested alone or in combination with the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, camptothecin and taxol. The parameters evaluated were mitochondrial depolarization, caspase 3 activation, chromatin condensation and clonogenic activity. We found that the P2Et fraction induced mitochondrial depolarization, activated caspase 3, induced chromatin condensation and decreased the clonogenic capacity of the K562 cell line. When the P2Et fraction was used in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs at sub-lethal concentrations, a fourfold reduction in doxorubicin inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was seen in the K562 cell line. This finding suggested that P2Et fraction activity is specific for the molecular target of doxorubicin. Our results suggest that a natural fraction extracted from Caesalpinia spinosa in combination with conventional chemotherapy in combination with natural products on leukemia cells may increase therapeutic effectiveness in relation to leukemia.

  12. Índices de oxidación en aceites de algunas leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation process of crude and refined oils from wild leguminous seeds: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta, (vinorama Olneya tesota, (palo fierro Cercidium praecox (palo de brea and Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde were evaluated during storage for 122 days, using corn and soybean oils as controls. Peroxide, Iodine, Acid and p-Anisidine values were determinated during 122 days of storage at room temperature. The wild leguminous raw oils showed results similar to those for the corn raw oil and lower than those of soybean raw oil. This behavior was similar for refinated oils. The rancid odor was detected after 5 days of storage in soybean oil and 40 days in vinorama oil, on the contrary, mezquite, palo verde and palo of brea oils presented this odor after 62 days, and for gatuña’s oil needed 135 days. Our results indicate that legume seed of Sonoran Desert could be a good alternative as source of oil.El proceso de oxidación fue evaluado durante el almacenamiento de los aceites crudos y refinados de las semillas de leguminosas silvestres: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Olneya tesota (palo fierro, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea y Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde. Los aceites de maíz y soja fueron empleados como controles. Se determinó el índice de peróxido (I.P., de Yodo (I.I., de acidez (I.A, y valor de p-Anisidina (p-A durante 122 días de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Los aceites crudos de leguminosas silvestres mostraron valores de estos índices similares a los del aceite de maíz crudo y menores que los del aceite de soja crudo. Este comportamiento también fue observado para los aceites refinados. El olor a rancio se presentó en el aceite de soja a los 5 días de almacenamiento, en el de vinorama a los 40 días, en el de mezquite, palo verde y palo de brea a los 62 días y en el de gatuña a los 135 días. Los valores

  13. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

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    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  14. New species of Arachís (Leguminosae from Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia

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    José F. M. Valls

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven new species of Arachís L. (Leguminosae are described, representing seven of the nine taxonomic sections of the genus. Eight of the new species were referred to, and classified, in the monograph of Krapovickas and Gregory, but are now treated with their own specific epithet; one species had been collected before 1994, but the material was in sufficient doubt to not be mentioned in the Monograph, and two species were collected  after that monograph was submitted  for  publication.  The  description  of  these  eleven  species  will  help  clarify  the systematics of the genus Arachís, as well as aid in our understanding of the evolutionary path of certain important materials. Some of these may have played a role in developments which lead to the origin of the cultivated peanut

  15. Las leguminosas grano en la agricultura española y europea

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    González-Bernal, María José

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain legume cultivation is continuously decreasing in Spain in spite of the long tradition of their cultivation and consumption and their well-known environmental benefits by improving soil fertility. Grain legumes have been replaced in rotations by other crops that have adapted more quickly to technological progress and are more profitable for farmers in the short term. A similar change is taking place in Europe. This generates two major dependencies that can only be alleviated by increasing legume cultivation. On the one hand, Europe faces an increasing dependency on nitrogen fertilizers, using up to 10 million tons yearly, of which about 80% are imported. In addition to this, fertilizer production uses large amounts of energy, being highly dependent on natural gas, of which the EU imports 60% of its requirements. On the other hand, EU countries import 70% of their requirements as vegetable protein. In Spain, we import 4.7 million tons of grain legumes yearly, most of which is soybean (95% of the total. The decline in human consumption does not justify the reduction in cultivation, as we import 85% of the dried beans, 60% of the lentils and 75% of the chickpeas consumed in Spain. This dependency on imports, particularly on soybean, poses a serious threat to the economy as it makes the raw feed industry, and therefore most of the meat industry, vulnerable to fluctuations in the world soybean price.A pesar de la larga tradición de cultivo y consumo de leguminosas en España y de sus conocidos beneficios medioambientales mejorando la fertilidad de los suelos, su cultivo ha disminuido constantemente en los últimos 50 años siendo reemplazadas por otros cultivos que se han adaptado mejor a los avances tecnológicos y resultan más rentables al agricultor. El consumo de legumbres ha descendido en España notablemente desde los 13 kg/persona/año en la década de los 60, hasta los poco más de 3 en la actualidad, pero aun así, importamos hoy

  16. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

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    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  17. As leguminosas da Amazônia brasileira: lista prévia

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    Marlene Freitas da Silva

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento das Leguminosas da Amazônia brasileira foi feito nos principais herbários da região (INPA, IAN e MG. Um total de 1241 espécies e 310 táxones infraespecíficos (subespécie, variedade e forma e 146 gêneros foi registrado para as três subfamilias: Caesalpinioideae (48 gêneros, 475 espécies, 22 subespécies e 175 variedades; Mimosoideae (23 gêneros, 288 espécies 3 subespécies e 18 variedades; Papilionoideae (75 gêneros, 478 espécies, 2 subespécies, 84 variedades e 6 formas. As categorias taxonómicas encontradas e as ocorrências registradas nos Estados e Territórios da Amazônia brasileira, sào mostradas em tabelas e localizadas em um mapa geográfico da região.It was done a survey of the Leguminosae which are represented on the principal Herbaria of Amazonia (INPA, IAN and MG. A total of 1241 species has been recorded including 310 infraspecific taxa (subspecies, variety and form in 146 genera for the three subfamilies: Caesalpinioideae (48 gen., 475 spp. 22 subsp. and 175 var.; Mimosoideae (23 gen., 288 spp., 3 subsp. and 18 van; Papilionoideae (75 gen., 478 spp., 2 subsp., 84 var. and 6 f.. The taxonomic categories found and the ocurrences registered in the States and Territories of Brazilian Amazon are showed in tables and signalizes in a geographic map of region.

  18. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil Wood anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, an endemic species of Northeast Brazil

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    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois municípios acima citados, em 2002. As análises das amostras seguiram os métodos usualmente empregados em estudo de anatomia de madeiras. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos do lenho e a elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que Caesalpinia pyramidalis revela grande quantidade de celulose e lignina, portanto apresentou perspectivas seguras para produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal. Pode-se propor o uso do lenho do tronco e dos galhos como combustível, desde a fase jovem da madeira, pela grande concentração de fibras, menor concentração de vasos e menor quantidade de parênquima, nos espécimes dos dois municípios.This work aimed to study the anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood, used by local populations in the municipalities of Serra Talhada and Sertânia (Pernambuco, to assess the percentage of wood elements in the trunk and branches in both localities, and in the tree itself, in order to establish total wood potential for energy production. Samples of the trunk (dbh and of branches from six trees of the species were collected in 2002. Sample analysis followed the usual methods of wood anatomy studies. Based on the anatomical parameters of the trunk and the high basic density (>0.84 g/cm³, we conclude that Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood contains an enormous amount of cellulose and lignin. Due to these features, this species showed good perspectives for the production of alcohol and charcoal. The

  19. Manejo de praderas asociadas de gramíneas y leguminosas para pastoreo en el trópico

    OpenAIRE

    Saúl Rojas Hernández; Jaime Olivares Pérez; Régulo Jiménez Guillén

    2005-01-01

    ste trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre el manejo de praderas asociadas de gramíneas con leguminosas para mejorar la calidad de la dieta del animal e incrementar la productividad de las praderas, así como mantener la proporción de los componentes botánicos en espacio y tiempo.Tipo de trabajo: Articulo de revisión en el área de forrajes.

  20. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

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    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  1. Diagnóstico do uso de leguminosas em propriedades rurais no município de Aparecida-PB

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    Evandro Manoel silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As plantas leguminosas são altamente representativas na contribuição de sobrevivência de pequenos agricultores e proprietários rurais na região semiárida do Nordeste brasileiro. Dessa forma, o trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um diagnóstico das principais espécies de plantas da família Leguminosae exploradas em propriedades rurais do município de Aparecida, Paraíba, com base nas suas utilidades e métodos de cultivo. A pesquisa foi realizada através de questionamentos diretos com trinta produtores em dez propriedades rurais localizadas no referido município. Os resultados indicaram que no município são exploradas as seguintes leguminosas: feijão-caupi, jurema-preta, jurema-branca, catingueira, angico, algaroba e pau-ferro, tendo suas utilidades voltadas para a produção de grãos, produção de forragens, cobertura morta do solo, rotação de cultura, consórcio, fins medicinais, fornecimento de lenha e madeira para construções e manutenções de cercas e currais. 

  2. PRODUTIVIDADE DO CAFÉ APOATÃ EM CONSÓRCIO COM LEGUMINOSAS NA REGIÃO DA ALTA PAULISTA

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    PAULO EDISON MARTINS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, no Núcleo de Agronomia da Alta Paulista, no período de 1991 a 1993, a produção de café Apoatã IAC 2258 (Coffea canephora Pierre submetido ao plantio intercalar dos adubos verdes: crotalária júncea (Crotalaria juncea L., crotalária espectabilis (Crotalaria spectabilis Roth., mucuna-anã (Stizolobium deeringeanum Bort., soja IAC 9 [Glycine max (L. Merrill] e guandu [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.], incorporados no seu florescimento. As leguminosas foram plantadas a 50 cm da projeção da copa das plantas de café. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. Os resultados mostraram que o guandu e a crotalária júncea reduziram a produção de café, e o guandu, a altura e o diâmetro do caule do cafeeiro, o que não ocorreu com as demais leguminosas. As maiores quantidades de fitomassa seca foram produzidas por guandu e crotalária júncea respectivamente. A produção de café correlacionou-se inversamente com a fitomassa seca das leguminosas e, positivamente, com a altura e o diâmetro do caule do cafeeiro.

  3. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea de duas populações

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    Maria de Fatima Barbosa Coelho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 O objetivo no presente trabalho foi superar a dormência de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea. As sementes foram obtidas em duas populações no município de Acarape e no distrito de Antonio Diogo no Ceará. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições de 50 sementes. Os tratamentos usados foram a sementes de Acarape intactas, b sementes de Acarape escarificadas, c sementes de Antonio Diogo intactas e d sementes de Antonio Diogo escarificadas. A escarificação foi feita com desponte com tesoura de poda no tegumento do lado oposto ao hilo da semente. As características avaliadas foram porcentagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz principal das plântulas. O maior pico de emergência ocorreu aos sete dias após a semeadura. A porcentagem de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (58,25 e 58,50 respectivamente, enquanto as sementes não escarificadas apresentaram menos de 15% de emergência. O índice de velocidade de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (7,94 e 7,20 respectivamente. Os resultados comprovam a dormência tegumentar de sementes de Caesalpinia férrea, a eficiência da escarificação mecânica na superação da dormência e que há diferença no processo germinativo de sementes de diferentes populações Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Crescimento inicial de mudas de pau ferro (Caesalpinia ferreaMart. ex Tul. var. leiostachya Benth. sob diferentes regimes hídricos Initial growth of wood iron (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul var. leiostachya Benth under different hydric regimes

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    Nádia Regina Lenhard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul. var. leiostachya Benth -Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae sob quatro regimes hídricos (alagamento, 70%, 40% e 12,5% de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram submetidas aos tratamentos aos 60 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de oito mudas por tratamento. Após 7 dias de permanência sob tratamento, iniciaram-se as avaliações. O diâmetro (6,5 mm, teor relativo de água (52,45%, área foliar específica (174,58 g cm², taxa de crescimento relativo (0,0160 g g-1, taxa assimilatória líquida (0,0004 g dm-2 dias-1 e peso específico de folha (0,0062 g cm² não variaram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. As mudas sob 70% CC apresentaram maior altura (84,6cm, tamanho da raiz (28,9 cm, massa seca da raiz (6,24 g, área foliar (376,0 cm², massa seca da folha (1,98 g, massa seca da parte aérea (8,27 g e teor de clorofila (31,67 ìg cm². A razão de peso específico (0,2368 g g-1 e o teor de nitrogênio (0,37 g kg-1 foram maiores sob 12,5% CC. A razão de área foliar (35,09 g g-1 foi menor sob 12,5% CC. Dessa forma, a melhor condição para a produção das mudas é em 70% da capacidade de campo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of Caesapinia ferrea Mart ex. Tul var. leiostachva Benth (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae under four hidric regimes (overflow, 70, 40 and 12.5% of field capacity. The seedlings were submitted to the treatments after 60 days of age. The experimental delineation was completely randomized with four repetitions of eight seedlings for treatment. After 7 days of permanence under treatment, the evaluations had been initiated. The diameter (6,5 mm, relative water content (52.45%, specific foliar area (174.58 g cm², rate of relative growth (0.0160 g g-1, liquid assimilated rate (0.0004 g dm-2 days-1 and specific weight of leaf (0.0062 g

  5. Historia de la investigación en la simbiosis leguminosa-bacteria: una perspectiva didáctica

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    Ramírez-Bahena, Marta Helena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After cereals, legumes constitute the second most important family of crops for human and animal consumption. However, in contrast to the former, legumes are capable of growing in arid soils of low fertility, due to their ability to establish symbiotic associations with soil bacteria called rhizobia. These microorganisms form special organs in the roots of legumes called nodules, where atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 is transformed into ammonium that is exported to the plant for growth. Since their discovery in legume nodules until today, knowledge of the bacteria capable of establishing symbiosis with these plants has advanced in many aspects. Especially, advances in molecular techniques for bacterial identification and access to unexplored places have confirmed that the interaction of legumes with rhizobia is older, and that N2-fixing bacteria are more abundant and diverse, than considered previously. Here, we attempt to relate the history of an association whose development is key in the history of mankind as we know it now.Después de los cereales, las leguminosas constituyen la segunda familia en importancia para la alimentación humana y animal. Sin embargo, en contraste con ellos, las leguminosas son capaces de crecer en suelos áridos, de escasa fertilidad, lo que se debe a su capacidad para establecer asociaciones simbióticas con bacterias del suelo llamadas rhizobia. Estos microorganismos forman unos órganos especiales en las raíces de las leguminosas, los nódulos, donde el dinitrógeno (N2 atmosférico se transforma en amonio que se exporta a la planta para su crecimiento. Desde su descubrimiento en los nódulos de las leguminosas hasta nuestros días, el conocimiento de las bacterias capaces de establecer simbiosis con estas plantas ha avanzado en múltiples aspectos. Sobre todo, los avances en las técnicas moleculares de identificación bacteriana y el acceso a lugares inexplorados ha permitido confirmar que la interacción de las

  6. A study of the fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of some Fabaceae (Leguminosae plants from Turkey I

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    Sahim, Ahmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol, tocotrienol and plastochromanol-8 contents of some selected Fabaceae (Leguminosae species belonging to different genera (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella from Turkey were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. Some of the studied species are endemic to Turkey. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. Palmitic and stearic acids are the major saturated fatty acids in the seed oils. Vicia and Onobrychis patterns showed high similarity in means of qualitative fatty acid concentration. The tocopherol and tocochromanol patterns of the seed oils were also found to be highly variable among the genera investigated here. The total tocopherols was higher than the total tocotrienols. Alpha and gamma tocopherols were also the highest tocopherols present in the whole species. Beta, gamma and delta-tocotrienols were not found in most of the studied leguminous patterns. The results are discussed in view of renewable sources and chemotaxonomy.En este estudio, los contenidos en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, tocotrienoles y plastocromanol-8 de algunas especies seleccionadas de Fabaceae (Leguminosae, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella de Turquía, fueron determinadas usando técnicas de GLC y HPLC. Algunas de las especies estudiadas son endémicas de Turquía. Los aceites de semillas de los diferentes taxones de leguminosas contenían los ácidos linoleico, oleico y linolénico como principales componentes. Las proporciones de estos ácidos grasos fueron muy variables entre los géneros de leguminosas. Los ácidos palmítico y esteárico son los principales ácidos grasos saturados en los aceites de semillas. Los patrones

  7. Efeito da cobertura viva com leguminosas herbáceas perenes na agregação de um argissolo

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    A. Perin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na área do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, com o objetivo de avaliar a morfologia e a distribuição de raízes de algumas leguminosas herbáceas perenes; os efeitos da cobertura viva no teor de carbono orgânico, e a agregação de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, medida pela estabilidade dos agregados em água. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de três diferentes espécies de leguminosas herbáceas perenes e um tratamento-controle sem cobertura viva (capinado. As leguminosas utilizadas foram amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical(Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium Atropurpureum. Para a estabilidade de agregados, as profundidades de amostragem foram 0-5 e 5-10 cm, enquanto, para a morfologia e distribuição radicular, as avaliações consistiram das profundidades 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. As coberturas com as leguminosas amendoim forrageiro e cudzu tropical propiciaram os maiores valores percentuais na classe de agregados > 2,00 mm, em média 38 % superiores aos obtidos na área capinada. Os valores do diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP dos agregados no solo com cobertura de leguminosas foram superiores aos da área capinada para ambas as camadas, o que demonstra o efeito favorável das coberturas vivas na estabilização dos agregados do solo. A cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro proporcionou incremento no teor de carbono orgânico no solo. Quanto aos atributos morfológicos das raízes, verificou-se que o amendoim forrageiro apresentou raio radicular intermediário entre as demais espécies e área e massa radicular maiores, o que auxiliou na interpretação do efeito positivo da cobertura viva com essa espécie na agregação do solo.

  8. EFECTO INHIBIDOR DEL EXTRACTO ETANÓLICO DE CAESALPINIA SPINOSA (TAYA) EN COMPARACIÓN A HIDRÓXIDO DE CALCIO, PARAMONOCLOROFENOL ALCANFORADO Y CLORHEXIDINA EN GEL AL 2%, SOBRE CEPAS DE ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS. ESTUDIO IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    FLORES ARMAS, CINTYA LISET

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare the inhibitory effect in vitro of the etanolic extract Caesalpinia spinosa (taya) to calcium hidroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The susceptibility test was made, using the method of dissemination in discs. The strains os e. faecalis were sown in plates containing culture médium Mueller Hinton, and placed discs with differents concentrations of etanolic extract, calcium hidroxide...

  9. Is the butterfly Tomares ballus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae a potential pest of Lens culinaris (Leguminosae?

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    José Martín Cano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The lentil (Lens culinaris is identified as a new host plant of the lepidopteran Tomares ballus. Five larvae of T. ballus were found on 19 May, 2007 in a crop of "castellana" lentils in Toledo Province, Spain and reared in the laboratory. The larval brown spiracles are slightly darker than the rest of the pupa. Traditional cultural practices reduce the insect’s probability of completing its life-cycle. We present flight phenology data for T. ballus from the unedited Atlamar database (1 073 records from 1887 to 2003, based on the 438 records for which the year, month and day are known. This period coincides with the flowering and formation of the legumes of various species of leguminosae, such as lentils. The peak activity of the imagos occurs in the second half of March and the first half of April, and the last larvae must be present in the field until the beginning of June. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 623-634. Epub 2009 September 30.La lenteja (Lens culinaris es una nueva planta hospedera de la mariposa Tomares ballus. Hallamos cinco larvas el 19 de mayo de 2007 en un cultivo de lentejas de la variedad "castellana" en la provincia de Toledo, España y las criamos en el laboratorio. Los espiráculos, de color marrón, son ligeramente más oscuros que el resto de la pupa. Las prácticas culturales tradicionales reducen al insecto la probabilidad de completar su ciclo de vida. Se presenta la fenología de datos de vuelo para T. ballus a partir de la base de datos Atlamar (1 073 registros de 1887 a 2003, sobre la base de los 438 registros en que se conocen año, mes y día. Este período coincide con la floración de diversas especies de leguminosas, incluyendo las lentejas. El pico de actividad de los imagos se produce en la segunda quincena de marzo y la primera quincena de abril, y las últimas larvas deben estar presentes en el campo hasta principios de junio.

  10. Razão de Perdas de Solo sob cultivo de três leguminosas

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    P. C. Nascimento

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento sobre perdas de água e solo por erosão foi desenvolvido, durante seis anos agrícolas (1973/74 a 1978/79, no Centro Experimental de Campinas do Instituto Agronômico do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em um Typic Haplortox, com vistas em avaliar a Razão de Perdas de Solo (RPS para três leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes. As leguminosas estudadas foram a Crotalaria juncea L. (crotalária; Stizolobium Aterrinum Piper et Tracy (mucuna-preta e Dolichos lablab L. (labelabe. Para determinar a razão de perdas de solo, foram estabelecidos quatro períodos das culturas isolados de 0-30, 30-60, 60-90 e 60-120 dias após a semeadura e períodos cumulativos de 0-30, 0-60, 0-90 e 0-120 dias após a semeadura. Os resultados obtidos mostraram maior proteção oferecida pela mucuna-preta à erosão, com valores de RPS de 0,28; 0,37; 0,17; e 0,09 para os períodos isolados de 0-30, 30-60; 60-90 e 60-120 dias após a semeadura. O labelabe apresentou, para a mesma situação, os valores de 0,50; 0,45; 0,27 e 0,19; enquanto, para a crotalária, os valores foram de 0,30; 0,42; 0,26 e 0,24. Os resultados mostraram proteção mais efetiva do solo à erosão a partir dos 60 dias após a semeadura, por parte das espécies avaliadas. A mucuna-preta apresentou maior efetividade na proteção do solo, seguida da crotalária, especialmente no primeiro período, e do labelabe, no estádio mais próximo ao florescimento.

  11. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae

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    Isys Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, H. courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of H. courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1 for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2 for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1 var. altissima, (2 var. longifolia, and (3 all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  12. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  13. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  14. Is the butterfly Tomares ballus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae a potential pest of Lens culinaris (Leguminosae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martín Cano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The lentil (Lens culinaris is identified as a new host plant of the lepidopteran Tomares ballus. Five larvae of T. ballus were found on 19 May, 2007 in a crop of "castellana" lentils in Toledo Province, Spain and reared in the laboratory. The larval brown spiracles are slightly darker than the rest of the pupa. Traditional cultural practices reduce the insect’s probability of completing its life-cycle. We present flight phenology data for T. ballus from the unedited Atlamar database (1 073 records from 1887 to 2003, based on the 438 records for which the year, month and day are known. This period coincides with the flowering and formation of the legumes of various species of leguminosae, such as lentils. The peak activity of the imagos occurs in the second half of March and the first half of April, and the last larvae must be present in the field until the beginning of June. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 623-634. Epub 2009 September 30.

  15. Self-sterility in two Cytisus species (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) due to early-acting inbreeding depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtueña, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Riaño, Tomás; Espinosa, Francisco; Ortega-Olivencia, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In most angiosperms, the endosperm develops before the embryo, but with harmony between the two structures until final seed formation. In an embryological study, we show that inbreeding depression causes disharmony in development of the two structures in two Leguminosae shrubs, Cytisus multiflorus and C. striatus. Our main objective was to test the causes of self-sterility in the two species by comparing the embryological development of the self seeds with that of cross seeds. In developing selfed seeds of C. multiflorus, the embryo reaches at most the globular stage and never forms mature seeds, while in C. striatus a few mature selfed seeds are formed. In both species, the main cause of abortion of developing selfed seeds is diminished endosperm development (low values of the ratio of endosperm to embryo), which triggers collapse of the endosperm and embryo. The results indicate that self-sterility in C. striatus is postzygotic because of strong, early inbreeding depression, while in C. multiflorus there exists a mixed pre- and postzygotic mechanism; the prezygotic mechanism causes rejection of some self-pollen tubes in the style/ovary, and the early inbreeding depression triggers abortion of fertilized ovules that escaped that action.

  16. Fruits and foliage of Pueraria (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) from the Neogene of Eurasia and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Manchester, Steven R; Dilcher, David L

    2010-12-01

    Pueraria (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) is native in East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania and is well known as a rampant invasive weed in the southeastern United States (P. montana; better known as kudzu), but relatively little is known about its early evolution and biogeographic origin. • On the basis of comparative analyses of the fruit and leaflet architecture of closely related extant and fossil taxa, we studied the fossil history and biogeography of Pueraria. • Fossil Pueraria is recognized on the basis of distinctive fruit and foliage from the Mio-Pliocene of middle latitudes in China, Japan, Abkhazia, and Croatia. Recognition of P. miothunbergiana from the Mio-Pliocene of China and Japan is reinforced by a trifoliolate leaf as well as isolated lateral and terminal leaflets. Pueraria shanwangensis sp. nov. represents the first recognition of fossil Pueraria fruits. This fruit species co-occurs with P. miothunbergiana in the Middle Miocene Shanwang flora and possibly represents the same population. Pueraria maxima (Unger) comb. nov., previously named as Dolichites maximus or Desmodium maximum, is recognized on the basis of leaflets from the Miocene of Croatia and Abkhazia. Other prior fossil reports of Pueraria and Dolichites are reevaluated. • Pueraria had begun to diversify by at least the Middle Miocene and had spread into the Mio-Pliocene subtropical and temperate floras of the Balkan Peninsula, the Caucasus, and eastern Asia, which suggests the present diversity of this genus in tropical Asia and Oceania might have originated from the mid-latitudes of Eurasia.

  17. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Leguminosas nativas en áreas ganaderas de la Isla de la juventud, Cuba

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    R. Castillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó durante el periodo comprendido de septiembre-diciembre de 2007, en dos áreas ganaderas de los poblados de La Reforma y La Victoria del municipio Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. El objetivo central consistió en identificar las especies de leguminosas presentes en estos ecosistemas con diferentes condiciones edafoclimáticas. Estas áreas son caracterizadas por poseer suelos con pH ácido de tipo Ferralítico cuarcítico amarillo lixiviado, Gley ferralítico, Arenoso cuarcítico, Rojizo lixiviado. Se encontraron 15 géneros; la frecuencia de aparición, en orden descendente, fue: Calopogonium, Centrosema, Pueraria, Arachis, Stylosanthes, Leucaena, Mimosa, Alysicarpus, Cassia, Desmodium, Gliricidia, Albizia, Vigna, Teramnus, Clitoria. Doce de ellas de porte herbáceo y tres de tipo arbustivo. La presencia de los diferentes géneros estuvo relacionada con los sistemas de manejo, siendo abundante primeramente en las áreas de pastoreo de animales en desarrollo, en la Reforma (poblado ganadero, por la vegetación imperante asociado a pastos naturales y por la tolerancia a la sombra. En estas condiciones sobresalen, por su frecuencia, Calopogonium y Centrosema, respectivamente. Se concluye que, en las condiciones edafoclimáticas del territorio de los 15 géneros identificados, Calopogonium y Centrosema son los más promisorios y en ello deben enmarcarse las estrategias futuras.

  19. BALANCE PARCIAL DE NITRÓGENO EN EL SISTEMA DE CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L.) CON COBERTURA DE LEGUMINOSAS EN CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

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    José David Álvarez-Solís; Ramón Muñoz-Arroyo; Esperanza Huerta-Lwanga; José Nahed-Toral

    2016-01-01

    El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC) en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N) en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1) frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens), 2) frijol arroz (Vig...

  20. Influencia del abonado en la relación granmínea/leguminosa de comunidades seminaturales pascícolas de zonas semiáridas

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    Gómez Gutiérrez, José M.; Estévez González, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    R E S U M E NSe hace un estudio de los efectos de la fertilización nitrogenada y fosfopotásica sobre la relación gramínea/leguminosa de pastizales seminaturales del Centro-Oeste de España. Se utiliza una comunidad con dominio de Agrostis castellana B. et R., Vulpia sp., Trifolium subterraneum L., T. dubium Sibth. Con el abono nitrogenado, factor de producción, se consigue cuadruplicar ésta, pero desaparecen las leguminosas a partir de dosis de 35 Kg/Ha. Con el fosfopotásico se rebaja la relac...

  1. AVALIAÇÃO DOS INDICADORES QUÍMICOS E BIOLÓGICOS DE QUALIDADE DO SOLO DE CERRADO DEGRADADO APÓS O CULTIVO DE LEGUMINOSAS.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Maria Cecília Alves de

    2015-01-01

    Dentre os parâmetros utilizados pela comunidade científica, o que apresenta maior sensibilidade na caracterização dos componentes biológicos do solo é a avaliação de biomassa microbiana (BMS). Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial das leguminosas Calopogônio, Estilosantes e feijão Guandu na recuperação dos solos degradados e na melhoria da biomassa microbiana, foi realizado o plantio das leguminosas e posterior análise da biomassa microbiana em dezesseis canteiros distribuíd...

  2. Avaliação da incorporação de galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em sorvetes e comparação com estabilizantes comerciais

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    Antonia Ariana Camelo Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o mercado cada vez mais competitivo e consumidores mais exigentes é de suma importância buscar alternativas mais eficientes e diversificadas para a melhoria da qualidade de sorvetes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver sorvetes sabor goiaba utilizando galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em substituição a estabilizantes, avaliar suas propriedades e comparar com dois estabilizantes comumente utilizados (goma xantana e super liga neutra. Para caracterizar os sorvetes foram feitas análises de overrun, resistência ao derretimento, umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos, sólidos totais e pH. A qualidade microbiológica foi investigada pelas análises de coliformes a 45 °C/g, Estafilococos coagulase positiva/g e Salmonella sp/25 g. Sensorialmente, foram avaliados a intenção de compra e os atributos sensoriais de cor, aroma, textura, sabor e impressão global. Foram realizadas três formulações de sorvetes, modificando o estabilizante empregado: super liga neutra (T1, galactomanana de C. pulcherrima (T2 e goma xantana (T3. A taxa de derretimento mostrou-se similar até 35 minutos para as três formulações, mostrando-se comportamentos lineares. As amostras de sorvetes apresentaram um bom valor de overrun. Nenhuma das variáveis físico-químicas apresentou diferença estatística entre si. Sensorialmente, a formulação T2 apresentou desempenho semelhante a T1 e T3. No entanto, o sorvete da formulação T3 apresentou no atributo textura uma nota melhor que o estabilizante super liga neutra (T1. Todas as formulações apresentaram altos índices de intenção de compra por parte dos provadores. Todos os sorvetes produzidos apresentaram-se de acordo com a legislação vigente demonstrando que a galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima pode ser utilizada como substituto aos estabilizantes convencionais.

  3. O gênero Senna Mill. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cassieae) no Parque Estadual da Serra Dourada, GO, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas, Murilo Melo; Silva, Marcos José da

    2013-01-01

    É apresentado o estudo taxonômico do gênero Senna para o Parque Estadual da Serra Dourada, GO, como parte do projeto Diversidade de Leguminosae do Cerrado do Brasil Central. Foram reconhecidos 10 táxons: Senna alata, S. corifolia var. caesia, S. georgica, S. multijuga subsp. multijuga, S. obtusifolia, S. occidentalis, S. pendula var. glabrata, S. pilifera, S. rugosa e S. silvestris subsp. bifaria. São apresentadas descrições, chave de identificação, ilustrações, distribuição geográfica e come...

  4. Efeito da cobertura viva com leguminosas herbáceas perenes na agregação de um argissolo

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, A; Guerra, J. G. M.; M. G. Teixeira; Pereira, M. G.; Fontana, A

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na área do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ), com o objetivo de avaliar a morfologia e a distribuição de raízes de algumas leguminosas herbáceas perenes; os efeitos da cobertura viva no teor de carbono orgânico, e a agregação de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, medida pela estabilidade dos agregados em água. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram d...

  5. Pueraria montana var.lobata (Leguminosae en la Argentina: estado actual de su naturalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Delucchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se discute el estado actual de naturalización de Pueraria montana (Lour. Merr. var. lobata (Willd. Maesen & S. M. Almeida ex Sanjappa & Predeep (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae en la Argentina, considerada invasora en la provincia de Misiones y naturalizada en la de Buenos Aires, sobre la base de estudios florísticos y etnobotánicos. Además, incluye la descripción de la variedad, iconografía, distribución geográfica, biología reproductiva, nombres vernáculos, usos, mecanismos de expansión, observaciones y material de referencia. 

  6. Pueraria montana var.lobata (Leguminosae) en la Argentina: estado actual de su naturalización

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Delucchi; Héctor A. Keller; Pablo A. Cabanillas; Pablo C. Stampella; Julio A Hurrell

    2017-01-01

    En este trabajo se discute el estado actual de naturalización de Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. M. Almeida ex Sanjappa & Predeep (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) en la Argentina, considerada invasora en la provincia de Misiones y naturalizada en la de Buenos Aires, sobre la base de estudios florísticos y etnobotánicos. Además, incluye la descripción de la variedad, iconografía, distribución geográfica, biología reproductiva, nombres vernáculos, usos, meca...

  7. Evaluaci??n de suelos del sur de Teba (M??laga) para el cultivo de leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    P??rez-Blanco, E.; Soriano, M.; Delgado, H.; Ortega,E

    2000-01-01

    Se valora la aptitud de las tipolog??as de suelos m??s representativas de la zona para el cultivo de leguminosas. Para ello se analizan previamente par??metros f??sicos, f??sico-qu??micos y qu??micos de los suelos y propiedades extr??nsecas como el clima o la topograf??a. Observamos las limitaciones que presentan para estos cultivos, las diferentes tipolog??as de suelos estudiadas en funci??n de caracter??sticas clim??ticas, topogr??ficas, ed??ficas y anal??ticas.

  8. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

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    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  9. Gastroprotective effect of a flavone from Lonchocarpus araripensis Benth. (Leguminosae) and the possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Deive A; de Lima, Almi F; Ribeiro, Saulo Rodrigo L; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdênia L; Rao, Vietla S; Santos, Flávia A

    2008-03-01

    The gastroprotective effect of DDF (3,6-dimethoxy-6'', 6''-dimethyl-[2'', 3'' : 7,8]-chromeneflavone) from Lonchocarpus araripensis Benth. (Leguminosae) on gastric damage induced by absolute ethanol (96%, 0.2 mL/mouse) and indometacin (30 mg kg(-1), p.o.) in mice was investigated. Intraperitoneally administered DDF at dose levels of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) markedly reduced the gastric lesions in the ethanol model by 62, 72 and 96%, and in the indometacin model by 34, 70 and 75%, respectively, as compared with misoprostol (50 microg kg(-1), p.o.), the reference compound that caused lesion suppression by 67% in ethanol model and by 72% against indometacin-induced ulceration. The ED50 of DDF in reducing gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indometacin (dose of the DDF that reduced the gastric lesion area by 50% in relation to the control value) was 50.87 and 61.56 mg kg(-1), respectively. Mechanistic studies were carried out at 100 mg kg(-1) DDF using the ethanol model. Compared with N-acetylcysteine (750 mg kg(-1), p.o.), a donor of sulfhydryls, DDF only partially replenished the ethanol-induced depletion of gastric mucosal NP-SH. Pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indometacin (10 mg kg(-1), p.o.) effectively blocked the gastroprotective effect of DDF (100 mg kg(-1)) against ethanol damage. Furthermore, the effect of DDF was significantly reduced in mice pretreated with L-NAME, or glibenclamide, the respective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and K+ ATP channel activation. These data provide evidence to show that DDF affords gastroprotection against gastric damage induced by ethanol and indometacin by different and complementary mechanisms, which include involvement of endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide release, the activation of TRPV1 receptor or K+ ATP channels, besides a sparing effect on NP-SH reserve.

  10. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-10-21

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  11. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ning Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC, is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP and supernatant (MSS by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE. The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05, indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and lactic acid (Lac. Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, and malondialdehyde (MDA but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  12. Physiological and symbiotic diversity of Cupriavidus necator strains isolated from nodules of Leguminosae species

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    Ligiane Aparecida Florentino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation, performed by diazotrophic bacteria, plays an important role in the maintenance of agricultural systems, as it contributes with significant amounts of the nitrogen (N needed for plant growth, totally or partially exempting the use of industrial N fertilisers. Twenty-five bacterial strains isolated from nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris trap plants were studied. These nodules were formed after inoculation with suspensions of soil samples collected close to the root system of Sesbania virgata. In previous studies, these bacteria were identified as Cupriavidus necator. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of these strains to fix N2 in the free-living state and to use carbon (C sources; their resistance to antibiotics; growth in media with different pH values and salt concentrations and symbiotic efficiency with L. leucocephala and P. vulgaris. In each test, these strains were compared to C. taiwanensis LMG 19424T. Although a high variability regarding antibiotic resistance, salt tolerance and use of C sources were observed among the 25 C. necator strains, a large group behaved similar regarding salt tolerance (20 strains and antibiotic resistance (22 strains. C. necator strains behaved in a different way of LMG 19424T. Only one of the 25 strains studied, UFLA02-69, was not able to establish symbiosis with its trap species, P. vulgaris. Only the strains LMG19424T and UFLA01-672 were efficient in symbiosis with L. leucocephala. The ability to use C sources, grow in different pHs and salt concentrations and resistance to several antibiotics, may grant high saprophytic competence and greater competitivity to these strains in relation to the native Leguminosae-nodulating bacterial populations, suggesting potential use in inoculant strain selection studies for legumes cultivated in soils with a wide range of pH and salt concentrations.

  13. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  14. Caracterização físico-química e biológica do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart.

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    A. P. Z. Frasson

    Full Text Available Visando estabelecer parâmetros para o controle da qualidade do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, foram realizados testes preconizados pela Farmacopéia Brasileira IV e pela Organização Mundial da Saúde para a avaliação da pureza, através das determinações de materiais estranhos, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis em ácido, umidade, ensaios-limites de cloretos e sulfatos, além da pesquisa de contaminantes microbianos no material pulverizado. Para a caracterização dos constituintes, eventualmente presentes na droga vegetal, foram realizadas as determinações de taninos, dos índices de espuma, intumescimento e amargor e o teste de hemólise; também foi realizada a caracterização do extrato etanólico bruto e suas frações por cromatografia em camada delgada.

  15. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Pin-Ju; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25) by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells), and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells). The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  16. Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ferry; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Prakash, Anupam; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Meis, Jacques F

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging and primary pathogen. There is a lack of information about its environmental spread outside outbreak regions in Mediterranean Europe, North and South America. Environmental sampling for C. gattii and molecular characterization of the obtained isolates will provide an insight into the global spread of the various genotypes. Woody debris of native divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria) trees were sampled across Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean. Colonies suspected for Cryptococcus species were subjected to standard mycology investigations and identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Isolates identified as C. gattii were subjected to amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping, mating-type analysis and multi-locus sequence typing. Ten colonies of C. gattii were cultured from different trunk hollows of the same divi-divi tree. Molecular characterization showed that all isolates were genotype AFLP6/VGII and mating-type α. Multi-locus sequence typing revealed that all isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other. C. gattii is present in the environment of Bonaire, which suggests that this yeast is likely to be present in the environment of other Caribbean islands. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

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    Janaína P. Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. (EECp possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg, vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx- were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx- induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg. Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg. EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats.

  18. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Janaína P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx − were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx − induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  19. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

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    Priscila Praxedes-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50∘C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO− or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+. It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

  20. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  1. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima: incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and the control was immersed in sterile water. For the germination test, 200 seeds were used, distributed in four replicates of 50 seeds per treatment. The vigor tests consisted of the first count and germination speed index. The evaluation of fungi transmission were performed during the germination test, by counting the symptoms in the primary root, hypocotyl and epicotyl. The treatments reduced the incidence of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. Nigrospora sp and Pestalotiasp..It was also found the fungus Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. associated with the lesions in the seed integument. The treatments provided a higher percentage of germination of seedlings. Higher percentages of germination were observed when oil extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum vulgare were used.

  2. Macrofauna Edáfica como Indicadora em Revegetação com Leguminosas Arbóreas

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    Miriam de Oliveira Bianchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma área de pasto abandonada revegetada com leguminosas arbóreas. Localizada no município de Valença, RJ, nela foram utilizadas diferentes proporções de leguminosas arbóreas fixadoras de nitrogênio: 0% (0L, 25% (25L, 50% (50L e 75% (75L. Para avaliação da macrofauna do solo, as amostragens foram feitas nas épocas seca e úmida, utilizando-se o método TSBF. Outras amostragens foram realizadas, ainda, em uma floresta secundária (FS e em duas áreas de pasto (PA e PB. O processo de revegetação aumentou a diversidade da fauna do solo de uma forma geral. Formicidae foi o grupo da macrofauna de maior abundância em todas as áreas, para as duas épocas de avaliação. Na época chuvosa, houve aumento considerável na quantidade de invertebrados na camada serapilheira nos tratamentos 0L, 25L, 50L, 75L e Floresta Secundária, o que no período seco aconteceu na camada 0-10 cm.

  3. Monografía del género cubano Herpyza C. Wright (Leguminosae y principales alteraciones de sus hábitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyra Matos, Ángela

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A monograph of the monotypic genus Herpyza C. Wright (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae, endemic from Cuba, is presented. The species is restricted to the white sand habitats in Pinar del Río and Isla de la Juventud provinces, and threatened by human pressure over its habitats. According to the IUCN criteria the species is proposed as "Endangered" (EN. Its taxonomic isolation justifies a phylogenetic study using molecular markers that sheds light on the relationships of Herpyza with the remainder taxa in the Leguminosae, so far unknown.Se presenta una monografía taxonómica del género monotípico endémico cubano Herpyza C. Wright (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae. Esta especie está restringida a los ecótipos de arenas blancas de las provincias de Pinar del Río e Isla de la Juventud, y amenazada a causa de la destrucción humana de estos hábitat en dichas localidades. Se detallan las alteraciones de los hábitat y se propone la categoría "En Peligro Crítico" (CR para la única especie del género, de acuerdo con los criterios de la UICN. Su aislamiento justifica un estudio filogenético mediante marcadores moleculares para establecer las relaciones de Repisa con el resto de las Leguminosae, hasta ahora desconocidas.

  4. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos with two new distribution records and lectotypifications for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum W. Saisorn, Chantar. & Balslev from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum DC. and D. laxiflorum DC. subsp. lacei (Schindl.) H. Ohashi, are reported as new for Thailand. Lectotypes of D. amoenum Wall. ex...

  5. Aspectos agronômicos de leguminosas para adubação verde no Cerrado do Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha

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    Ricardo Borges Teodoro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo e inadequado dos solos acelera sua degradação, sendo necessária a intervenção por meio de práticas conservacionistas para restaurar a capacidade produtiva dos mesmos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento e desenvolvimento de diferentes leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em solos de Cerrado, Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, em Turmalina, MG. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas leguminosas: mucuna-cinza (Mucuna nivea, mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima, lablabe (Dolichos lablab, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis e guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan. O ciclo precoce de C . juncea, C. spectabilis e feijão-de-porco favorece a inserção destes nos sistemas de cultivo. Aos 40 dias, o feijão-de-porco e mucuna-cinza já cobriam o solo, com 67 e 63 %; já o guandu-anão e C. juncea apresentaram os maiores desenvolvimentos, nesse período. Os teores de N, P e K tendem a diminuir nas avaliações realizadas nas diferentes fases vegetativas, o que contribui para melhor escolha da época de manejo das leguminosas. Crotalaria juncea, mucuna-cinza, feijão-de-porco e mucuna-preta foram as leguminosas que se destacaram na produção de matéria seca, o que torna essas espécies promissoras para adubação verde na região. As leguminosas, em sua maioria, apresentam potencial para reciclagem dos macronutrientes e aporte de N aos sistemas de produção.

  6. Estudio genecológico en prosopis laevigata, acacia farnesiana y acacia schaffneri (leguminosae

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    Sandra Luz Gómez Acevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplea una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire (splash para cromosomas vegetales a fin de analizar la posible respuesta genotipo-ambiente de tres especies de leguminosas típicas de las zonas áridas y semiáridas mexicanas, ubicadas en poblaciones con características climáticas diferentes. Las especies estudiadas fueron Prosopis laevigata y Acacia schaffneri del municipio de Santiago de Anaya, estado de Hidalgo (20o 16’ N y P. laevigata y Acacia farnesiana del municipio de Bermejillo, estado de Durango (25o 49’ N. Los parámetros evaluados fueron las longitudes cromosómicas totales, el cariotipo, la frecuencia de polisomatía y el peso de las semillas. En Prosopis laevigata se corrobora un 2n=28 y diferencias interpoblacionales estadísticamente significativas (a=0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales, sin modificación de la fórmula cariotípica (2m+10sm+2st con frecuencia de polisomatía que no rebasó el 10%. En las especies del género Acacia se registraron números cromosómicos diploides 2n=26 sin diferencias interespecíficas estadísticamente significativas (a= 0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales; no obstante se obtuvieron fórmulas cariotípicas diferentes, reportadas por primera vez empleando una técnica de extendido y secado al aire: 9m+4sm para A. schaffneri y 9m+2sm+2st para A. farnesiana. En ambas especies la polisomatía tuvo una frecuencia similar sin rebasar el 30%. Para Prosopis y Acacia no se encontraron diferencias significativas (a= 0,01 en relación al peso de la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos señalan una clase de adaptación en estrecha

  7. Anatomia do lenho de oito espécies de lianas da família Leguminosae ocorrentes na Floresta Atlântica Wood anatomy of eight liana species of Leguminosae family from Atlantic Rain Forest

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    Arno Fritz das Neves Brandes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas são importantes componentes estruturais das florestas tropicais, apesar disso a anatomia destes vegetais é pouco estudada. A família Leguminosae é relatada como a segunda maior em número de espécies de lianas, contudo pouco se conhece da diversidade anatômica das lianas desta família. O presente estudo descreveu e analisou a anatomia do lenho de oito espécies de lianas da família Leguminosae, ocorrentes no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, localizado no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, região Sudeste do Brasil, local inserido no bioma Floresta Atlântica. As espécies apresentaram características comuns ao hábito liana, como: elementos de vaso com diâmetro elevado, com duas categorias de diâmetro; e maior proporção de parênquima axial em comparação às fibras. Quatro espécies do gênero Senegalia apresentaram variações cambiais produzidas por um único câmbio, normal em produto mas anormal em conformação. A anatomia do lenho das espécies estudadas é muito semelhante por compartilharem o mesmo hábito e pertencerem à mesma família. Apesar disso, as oito espécies estudadas puderam ser diferenciadas. As espécies com variações cambiais e Dalbergia frutescens são facilmente diferenciadas das demais. Contudo Senegalia tenuifolia, Piptadenia micracantha e Piptadenia adiantoides necessitam ser examinadas com muita cautela para identificá-las exclusivamente pela anatomia do lenho.Lianas are important structural component of tropical forests and even though the anatomy of these plants is poorly studied. Leguminosae family is reported as the second larger family in number of liana species, but little is know about the anatomical diversity of lianas from this family. The present study described and analyzed the wood anatomy of eight liana species of Leguminosae family, from Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, located in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast region of Brazil and included in Atlantic Rain Forest Biome. The species show

  8. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

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    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  9. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

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    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    : Sitio 1, P. laevigata; Sitio 2, M. biuncifera y Sitio 3, ambas leguminosas. En cada sitio se recolectó suelo, tanto abajo y fuera del dosel de las leguminosas, además, se realizaron transectos para medir e identificar las plantas arbóreas y arbustivas, se calculó el índice de valor de importancia y la diversidad del matorral. Asimismo, se registró mayor riqueza y diversidad en el Sitio 3 (ICE 29 spp. y H’ 2.7, en comparación con el Sitio 1 (24 spp. y 2.4 y Sitio 2 (26 spp. y 2.1. La materia orgánica y el carbono orgánico del suelo, así como el N total, el P-Olsen y la mineralización de C fueron mayores en el suelo bajo dosel de ambas leguminosas. La abundancia de esporas de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares fue favorecida por M. biunficera. La influencia de P. laevigata para crear islas más ricas en recursos fue mayor que en M. biunficera, lo anterior sugiere que cada leguminosa modifica de una forma diferente el microambiente, sin embargo, juntas aumentan la disponibilidad de nichos para el establecimiento de otras especies, lo queayuda a comprender el papel de P. laevigata y M. biuncifera sobre la colonización vegetal en ecosistemas semiáridos

  10. Atividade moluscicida de alguns produtos naturais sobre Biomphalaria glabrata Molluscicide activity of some natural products on Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada, em laboratório, a ação moluscicida de extratos aquosos (macerado e fervido, hexânico e etanólico de Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata e Tibouchina scrobiculata. As soluções dos extratos obtidos foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório, nas concentrações de 1, 10, 20, 200 e 1000ppm. Dos extratos testado o mais ativo foi o etanólico das flores da D. regia (flamboyant que apresentou atividade moluscicida sobre caramujos adultos na concentração de 20ppm.The molluscicide activity of aqueous (macerated and boiled, hexamic and ethylic extracts of Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata and Tibouchina scrobiculata was evaluated in the laboratory. The solutions obtained from those extracts were tested on adults and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata reared in the laboratory at 1, 10, 20, 100 and 1000ppm concentrations. The most active of the extracts studied was D. regia flowers' (flamboyant ethylic extracts which presented molluscicidal activity on adult snails at 20ppm.

  11. BALANCE PARCIAL DE NITRÓGENO EN EL SISTEMA DE CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L. CON COBERTURA DE LEGUMINOSAS EN CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

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    José David Álvarez-Solís

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1 frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens, 2 frijol arroz (Vigna umbellata, 3 frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris y 4 testigo sin leguminosa. Se midió la producción de biomasa y el contenido de N, en las leguminosas y el maíz. Se hizo un balance parcial de N, que consideró el suministro de N de la biomasa de leguminosas y la extracción de N en la cosecha del maíz. La producción de biomasa seca de las leguminosas en la cosecha fue significativamente (p≤0,05 mayor en asociación con los frijoles arroz y nescafé (1290 y 1139 kg.ha-1 que en frijol común (470 kg.ha-1, con un contenido total de 35,4; 25,7 y 8,9 kg.ha-1 N, respectivamente. El rendimiento de grano de maíz fue 2390,5 kg.ha-1; se identificó que la extracción de N fue mayor en el grano, seguido de rastrojo, raíz, bráctea y olote, con 20,9; 9,4; 7,2; 2,0 y 1,5 kg.ha-1 N, respectivamente. El balance parcial de N mostró valores positivos con los frijoles arroz y nescafé, lo que indica su importancia para compensar la extracción de N del grano o de la mazorca del maíz.

  12. EFECTO DE DOS LEGUMINOSAS Y BANANO MADURO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y REPRODUCCIÓN DE CONEJOS NUEVA ZELANDA

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    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La investigación tuvo los siguientes objetivos: a Determinar la leguminosa tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb Benth y Gliricidia sepium y el nivel de banano maduro (BM (50, 75, 100 y 100, 125, 150 g animal-1 día-1, que permita incrementar los parámetros reproductivos (fase uno y productivos (fase dos, en conejos Nueva Zelanda. b Determinar la Relación beneficio/costo de los tratamientos. Se utilizó 28 y 42 conejos respectivamente. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 x 3 + 1, en un diseño de bloques completamente al azar (DBCA, con cuatro y tres repeticiones. Se utilizó la prueba de Tukey (p≤0.05. El mayor consumo fue para el kudzu (p0.05 el peso de las hembras al parto, el periodo de gestación, peso y tamaño de la camada al nacimiento. Los niveles de BM no influenciaron (p>0.05 sobre la ganancia de peso, índice de conversión alimenticia (ICA, peso final (PF, peso a la canal (PC y rendimiento a la canal (RC. Los tratamientos en base a leguminosas tropicales y niveles de BM superaron al testigo (p<0.01. La mayor rentabilidad en la fase 1 y 2 se obtuvo al combinar kudzu tropical más 100 y 75 g y 125 y 100 g de BM animal-1 día-1 (30.34 y 29.48%.

  13. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae in Venezuela

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    José Luis Melandri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height. The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae. Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 303-319. Epub 2009 June 30.Se estudió la anatomía de la madera de 29 especies de 10 géneros de la tribu Detarieae, subfamilia Caesalpinioideae, enfocado hacia la

  14. Evaluación forrajera de gramineas y leguminosas introducidas en la provincia de Morona Santiago (1070m.s.n.m)

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    Nieto Escandón, Pedro

    2003-01-01

    Todas las explotaciones de ganadería en la Provincia de Morona Santiago se realizan en praderas naturales de gran valor; la presente investigación introduce siete gramíneas nuevas asociadas con tres leguminosas para poder realizar un manejo integral tanto de los potreros como de los bovinos Magister en Producción Animal, Mención Bovinos Cuenca

  15. Purificação e caracterização de alfa-galactosidases de sementes de Platymiscium pubescens Micheli Purification and characterization of alpha-galactosidases from Platymiscium pubescens Micheli seeds

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    Giordani de Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou foi determinar a composição bioquímica de sementes de espécies florestais e caracterizar a enzima alfa-galactosidase de sementes germinadas de Platymiscium pubescens. Os maiores teores de lipídios foram determinados em sementes de Chorisia speciosa, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Tabebuia serratifolia e Tabebuia velanedae, enquanto sementes de Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Schizolobium parahyba e Cassia grandis apresentaram os maiores teores protéicos. A alfa-galactosidase catalisa a hidrólise dos oligossacarídeos de rafinose, em sementes de leguminosas, durante a germinação. A maior atividade da alfa-galactosidase foi detectada em sementes de Platymiscium pubescens após 72 h de embebição. Duas formas de alfa-galactosidases, C1 e C2, foram purificadas de sementes germinadas de P. pubescens, usando-se fracionamento com sulfato de amônio e cromatografias de filtração em gel e de afinidade. Essas enzimas apresentaram atividade máxima em pH 5,5 e a 50-55 ºC. Os valores de Km ap das formas C1 e C2, para o substrato ro-nitrofenil-alfa-D-galactopiranosídeo, foram de 0,54 mM e 0,78 mM, e para a rafinose, de 4,64 mM e 5,09 mM, respectivamente. Essas enzimas exibiram estabilidade térmica moderada, mantendo 70% da atividade original após 3 h de incubação a 45 ºC. A atividade enzimática da C1 e C2 foi totalmente perdida na presença de CuSO4 e dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS. Tais enzimas também hidrolisaram melibiose, rafinose e estaquiose, indicando potencial para aplicações biotecnológicas.The objective of this work was to determine seed biochemical composition of forest species and to characterize alpha-galactosidase enzyme of germinated seeds of Platymiscium pubescens. The highest lipid levels were found in seeds of Chorisia speciosa, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Tabebuia serratifolia and Tabebuia velanedae, whereas seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Schizolobium parahyba and Cassia grandis showed

  16. Estudo anatômico das espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas no estado do Pará como "angelim" An anatomic study of Leguminosae species in the State of Pará commercialized as "angelim"

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    Gracialda Costa Ferreira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura da madeira de sete espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas como "angelim", no estado do Pará, foi analisada quanto aos aspectos anatômicos através de cortes histológicos da madeira, nos sentidos transversal, tangencial e radial. Através deste estudo procurou-se determinar diferenças básicas entre as espécies comercializadas com a mesma denominação vernacular, a fim de auxiliar no processo de identificação anatômica das mesmas. Uma chave dicotômica foi elaborada para separar as espécies estudadas (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum e Vatairea paraensis. Características de parênquima, raios e poros são muito úteis na separação das espécies estudadas em nível de gênero, porém em nível de espécie a separação é mais difícil. Para o agrupamento de espécies, é necessário que as características anatômicas das espécies sejam conhecidas para associadas a características morfológicas.The wood structure of seven commercialized species of Leguminosae as angelim, in the state of Pará, was analyzed by their anatomical aspects and through histological sections of the wood, in transversal, tangential and radial planes. This study was undertaken to determine basic differences among various species commercialized with the same vernacular denomination, in order to facilitate the process of their anatomical identification. A dichotomous key was elaborated to separate the species studied (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum and Vatairea paraensis. Characteristics of parenchyma, rays and vessels are very useful in the separation of the species studied in the genus level, however in the species level the separation is more difficult. For the species grouping, it is necessary that the anatomical characteristics of the species are known for associates to the morphologic characteristics.

  17. Factores del manejo para estabilizar la producción de biomasa con leguminosas en el trópico

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    T. E. Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este material tiene como objetivo abundar acerca de aquellos factores del manejo que conduzcan a estabilizar la producción de biomasa en sistemas ganaderos en el trópico. Es obvio que los sistemas mejorados y bien manejados de pasturas de gramíneas y leguminosas, en cualquiera de sus alternativas, son opciones para lograr la sostenibilidad. Una concepción más amplia y profunda es la relativa a los estudios de pasturas mixtas; éstos, deben tener un enfoque más biológico por lo que, además de considerar el ambiente en el cual se desarrollan y crecen, hay que incluir la forma en que los componentes vegetales se manifiestan en las especies implicadas del agroecosistema. Aquí no podemos olvidar el efecto del animal. Los problemas asociados con la persistencia se reconocen cada vez más como una preocupación real. Los diversos factores que controlan la permanencia de las especies forrajeras se agrupan en aquellos que pueden ser manejados y controlados por el productor, así como en los que éste no puede intervenir. Es por ello que las producciones animales y de otro tipo, derivados de estos sistemas, varían positivamente en el tiempo, en la medida en que se va consolidando la relación suelo /planta /animal. De esta correspondencia no puede quedar excluido el papel interactuante y modificador del hombre con los elementos antes señalados. La producción de biomasa es una actividad multidisciplinaria; de ahí que el éxito de su funcionamiento esté condicionado al conocimiento de las interacciones entre sus componentes, así como entre éstos y el medio ambiente, lo cual permitirá la generación de estrategias de manejo acordes con la ecología que conduzcan a mejorar la productividad y la sostenibilidad del agroecosistema. Por tanto, la producción de biomasa constituye un elemento determinante en el éxito y la eficiencia de los sistemas con leguminosas.

  18. Evaluación de abonos verdes en el sistema de producción maíz-leguminosas

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    Prager M. Martin

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte del ensayo, se estudió el comportamiento del peso de nódulos, peso fresco y peso seco de tres leguminosas (Crotalaria, Canavalia y Guandul a utilizar como abonos verdes y su efecto sobre sistemas de producción maíz-leguminosas (maíz-caupí, maíz-soya, maíz-frijol. Las variables consideradas (rendimiento, rendimiento equivalente de maíz, ingreso neto y tasa de retorno marginal mostraron el efecto positivo de esta práctica sobre esta forma de producción obteniéndose mejor respuesta de el sistema maíz-caupí. De los abonos verdes la crotalaria presentó el mejor efecto sobre los sistemas de producción. En la segunda parte del trabajo, se utilizó el sistema de producción de mejor comportamiento introduciendo al factor abono verde algunas modalidades de tratamiento, entre ellas efecto residual, adición de una segunda incorporación de los tres abonos verdes y efecto residual más la adición de abono químico. La consideración de las mismas variables usadas en la primera parte mostro mejores valores por la segunda incorporación de abono verde y la adición de abono químico en su orden, el efecto residual de los abonos permite obtener rendimientos superiores a los alcanzados por el testigo.This research was divided in two parts. The first studies the behavior of three legumes (Crotalaria, Canavalia and Cajanus as green manure, measuring weight nodules, green weight matter and dry weight matter of them, so measured the effect on three production systems: Maize- cowpea, Maize- soybean and Maize-bean. The indicators (yield, equivalent maize yields, net income and marginal return rate showed positive effect of green manure on this production systems too maize-cowpea system showed the best yields; Crotalaria was ,the best green manure. In second experimental stage maize- cowpea system was evaluated, using the same indicators and introducing new treatments related to green manure: its residual effects, addicional

  19. PROPRIEDADES FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS E SENSORIAIS DE MASSAS ALIMENTÍCIAS ELABORADAS COM FARINHAS DE LEGUMINOSAS TRATADAS HIDROTERMICAMENTE

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    Marília Sbragia DEL BEM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição de farinhas de ervilha e de grão-de-bico modifi cadas por tratamento hidrotérmico nas características físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais de massa alimentícia. Três tipos de massas foram avaliadas: semolina, semolina adicionada de 35% de farinha de ervilha e semolina adicionada de 35% de farinha de grão-de-bico. O tratamento hidrotérmico (autoclavagem, 121°C, 30 min. visou o aumento do teor de amido resistente (AR nas farinhas. O teor de AR das massas passou de 2,1% na massa controle para 5,2% na massa com farinha de ervilha e para 4,1% na massa com farinha de grão-de-bico, e o teor de fibra dietética total passou de 3,6% para 6,2% e 8,8%, respectivamente. O tempo de cozimento foi reduzido de 8 para 4 minutos nas massas adicionadas das farinhas de leguminosas. O teste de aceitação global por meio de escala hedônica de nove pontos mostrou que para odor e cor a massa controle não apresentou diferença estatística em relação à massa com farinha de grão-de-bico, já para impressão global e sabor, a massa controle apresentou a maior média. Cerca de 13% dos provadores, entretanto, deram nota máxima para sabor da massa com farinha de ervilha, contra 6,5% de nota máxima para a massa controle. As massas adicionadas de farinha de leguminosas podem constituir boas alternativas para obtenção de produtos com melhor valor nutricional, considerando seu teor mais elevado de AR, fibra dietética, além de proteínas vegetais. Esta adição, entretanto, afetou negativamente alguns parâmetros de cocção da massa e sua aceitação sensorial, principalmente quanto à impressão global e sabor.

  20. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  1. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

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    Elias Terra Werner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A regulação da calogênese é o primeiro passo para a embriogênese somática indireta in vitro. Nesse sentido, foram investigados os efeitos de diferentes meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes nitrogenadas no desenvolvimento de calos em tecidos foliares de Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil. Explantes foliares foram cultivados em meios de cultura MS, B5, White e WPM. Testou-se, também, o efeito dos compostos nitrogenados (NH4NO3, KNO3 e glutamina e a interação entre auxinas (2,4-D, AIA e AIB e citocininas (BAP e KIN na desdiferenciação celular indicado pela formação de calos. Os meios MS, B5 e White não foram significantemente diferentes e proporcionaram melhores resultados. Em meio MS contendo as fontes nitrogenadas 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 e 1,35 g L-1 glutamina + 4,11 g L-1 de KNO3 na presença de 1,0 mg L-1 2,4-D e 5,0 mg L-1 BAP ocorreu maior proliferação celular indicada pela massa fresca dos calos. As combinações dos reguladores 0,5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 AIB + 5,0 mg L-1 BAP suplementado com 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 em meio MS estimularam o crescimento dos calos. De maneira geral, os calos apresentaram aspectos friáveis, não embriogênicos, com acúmulo de fenóis e presença de áreas meristemáticas (meristemóides.The regulation of callus formation is the first step to indirect somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Therefore, we investigated hormonal and nutrient factors on development of callus in leaf tissues of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood. Explants were cultivated in culture media MS, B5, WPM, and White. The effect of nitrogen sources (NH4NO3, KNO3 and glutamine and the interaction between auxins (2,4-D, IAA and IBA and cytokinins (BAP and KIN were also evaluated. Media MS, B5 and White were not significantly different and provided better results. MS medium containing 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3, 1.35 g L-1 glutamine, and 4.11 g L-1 of KNO3 in the presence of 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D and 5 mg.L-1 BAP increased cellular

  2. Enraizamento de estacas de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tratadas com ácido indol butírico e ácido naftaleno acético Rooting cuttings of Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. treated with indole butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid

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    Laurício Endres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tem grande valor cultural no Brasil e a sua propagação por sementes é dificultada pela rápida perda do poder germinativo delas. A estaquia pode ser usada para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais, principalmente quando existem algumas dificuldades de propagação por sementes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o efeito de concentrações e fontes de auxinas sobre o enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil. Estacas com cerca de 12cm de comprimento e de um a dois pares de folhas foram tratadas na base com ácido indol butírico (AIB, ácido naftaleno acético (ANA na forma líquida ou na forma de pó nas concentrações de 0, 1.250, 2.500, 5.000, 10.000mg L-1 ou mg Kg-1, respectivamente. As estacas foram transferidas para substrato contendo areia e mantidas sob nebulização (90-95% UR. Aos 120 dias de estaquia, foram avaliados a mortalidade, a retenção foliar, a formação de calo e a percentagem de estacas enraizadas. As estacas apresentaram índices de sobrevivência de até 70%. A formação de calos não foi relacionada com a concentração de auxinas utilizadas. O maior índice de enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil, em torno de 16%, foi resgistrada com a utilização do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e do ácido naftalenoacético (ANA na concentração 2.500mg L-1. Os altos índices de sobrevivência e os baixos índices de enraizamento sugerem que as estacas devem permanecer por mais tempo sob nebulização, a fim de induzir o seu processo de enraizamento.The 'pau-brasil' tree (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. have a high cultural value in Brazil and its seed propagation is very difficult because of its rapid losses of germination potential. Cuttings propagation has been considered as alternative method to propagate forest species that seed propagation is poor. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthalene acetic (NAA acid on

  3. Phylogenetic properties of 50 nuclear loci in Medicago (Leguminosae) generated using multiplexed sequence capture and next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Filipe; Bertrand, Yann J K; Nylinder, Stephan; Oxelman, Bengt; Eriksson, Jonna S; Pfeil, Bernard E

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology has increased the capacity to generate molecular data for plant biological research, including phylogenetics, and can potentially contribute to resolving complex phylogenetic problems. The evolutionary history of Medicago L. (Leguminosae: Trifoliae) remains unresolved due to incongruence between published phylogenies. Identification of the processes causing this genealogical incongruence is essential for the inference of a correct species phylogeny of the genus and requires that more molecular data, preferably from low-copy nuclear genes, are obtained across different species. Here we report the development of 50 novel LCN markers in Medicago and assess the phylogenetic properties of each marker. We used the genomic resources available for Medicago truncatula Gaertn., hybridisation-based gene enrichment (sequence capture) techniques and Next-Generation Sequencing to generate sequences. This alternative proves to be a cost-effective approach to amplicon sequencing in phylogenetic studies at the genus or tribe level and allows for an increase in number and size of targeted loci. Substitution rate estimates for each of the 50 loci are provided, and an overview of the variation in substitution rates among a large number of low-copy nuclear genes in plants is presented for the first time. Aligned sequences of major species lineages of Medicago and its sister genus are made available and can be used in further probe development for sequence-capture of the same markers.

  4. Fitossociologia de plantas daninhas do cafezal consorciado com leguminosas Phytosociology of weeds in a coffee plantation intercropped with legume crops

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    G.M. Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fitossociologia de plantas daninhas em cafezais sob diferentes períodos de consórcio com leguminosas em dois anos de cultivo. Os tratamentos corresponderam à combinação fatorial entre as leguminosas feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis e lablabe (Dolichos lab-lab e períodos de consorciação com cafeeiros aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após o plantio, mais uma testemunha sem leguminosa. O experimento foi composto por nove tratamentos em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. As leguminosas foram semeadas em dezembro de 2007 e outubro de 2008 e cortadas conforme os períodos de consorciação, sendo removidas da entrelinha, para ficarem sob a copa dos cafeeiros. As plantas daninhas foram amostradas nas entrelinhas e na projeção das copas dos cafeeiros, em outubro de 2008 e em outubro de 2009, refletindo o efeito dos tratamentos após um e dois anos de consorciação, respectivamente. As avaliações constaram da similaridade da comunidade, do índice do valor de importância e da importância relativa das plantas daninhas mais frequentes. Nos dois anos agrícolas foram identificadas 17 espécies de plantas daninhas, distribuídas em dez famílias botânicas, sendo mais frequentes as espécies Cyperus rotundus, Paspalum conjugatum, Amaranthus retroflexus e Oxalis latifolia. No primeiro ano, o feijão-de-porco (2,65 t ha-1 produziu mais massa que a lablabe (1,89 t ha-1, e no segundo ano a lablabe produziu mais massa (4,21 t ha-1 que o feijão-de-porco (2,73 t ha‑1. Nas entrelinhas, a diferença da flora de plantas daninhas em relação à testemunha foi maior do que na projeção da copa dos cafeeiros, no final dos dois anos. Em 2008, quando a lablabe ficou por 90 ou 120 dias nas entrelinhas, houve crescimento da importância da tiririca, enquanto em 2009 a importância relativa desta foi mais elevada na testemunha. As entrelinhas do cafeeiro apresentaram massa de matéria seca

  5. ANATOMÍA, FÍSICA Y MECÁNICA DE LA MADERA DE Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae

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    C. Téllez-Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se determinaron las características anatómicas y las propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera de Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae. El material de estudio se obtuvo de un sólo árbol colectado en el municipio de Arteaga, Michoacán, México. La descripción anatómica se basó en las recomendaciones de IAWA. Las propiedades físicas y mecánicas se efectuaron de acuerdo a la norma D 143-94 de la ASTM. La madera de A. inermis presenta brillo mediano, vetado pronunciado, textura media, hilo entrecruzado, porosidad difusa y pared celular muy gruesa. La densidad básica es muy alta y la contracción media. El ELP, MOR y MOE es alto, extremadamente alto y medio, respectivamente, en flexión estática. En compresión paralela a la fibra su ELP es alto, MOR extremadamente alto. ELP muy alto en compresión perpendicular a la fibra. Dureza Janka muy alta.

  6. Avaliação quantitativa e qualitativa da fitomassa de leguminosas para uso como cobertura de solo

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    Nascimento João Tavares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Para uso como adubo verde em um experimento em Alagoinha-PB, avaliaram-se doze espécies de leguminosas: crotalária (Crotalaria juncea L, guandu (Cajanus cajan L, guandu anão (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp, calopogônio (Calopogonium mucunoides L, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis L, lab-lab (Dolichos lab lab L, kudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides L, siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum L, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala L, cunhã (Clitoria ternatea L, mucuna preta (Styzolobium aterrimum L, e mucuna cinza (Styzolobium cinereum Piper e Tracy, no DBC com 12 tratamentos, em parcelas de 20m2, com três repetições. Constataram-se as maiores produções de fitomassa para leucena, guandu, mucuna preta, kudzu tropical, feijão-de-porco e cunhã, enquanto que para a crotalária, a menor produção. A fitomassa do kudzu tropical mostrou-se com melhor qualidade para a incorporação.

  7. Producción de metano in vitro e in vivo de gramíneas y leguminosas presentes en sistemas de producción bovina en trópico alto colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Martínez, Juan de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Se realizaron tres experimentos con el objetivo de evaluar estrategias de mitigación de metano entérico proveniente de sistemas pastoriles. En el primer ensayo se comparó la producción de metano in vitro de dos gramíneas (Pennesetum clandestinum y Lolium sp.) y dos leguminosas (Trifolium sp. y Lotus uliginosus) cosechadas en tres estados de madurez (joven, intermedio y maduro). En el segundo experimento se determinó la producción de metano de cuatro mezclas gramínea y leguminosa (kikuyo...

  8. Balance parcial de nitrógeno en el sistema de cultivo de maíz (Zea mays L.) con cobertura de leguminosas en Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Solís, José David; Muñoz-Arroyo, Ramón; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Nahed-Toral, José

    2016-01-01

    El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC) en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N) en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1) frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens), 2) frijol arroz (Vig...

  9. El género Zygia P. Browne (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae, Ingeae en la porción mexicana de la Península de Yucatán

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    López-Contreras, José Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Mexican portion of the Yucatan Peninsula there are three species of Zygia (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae, Ingeae. Their morphological differences and nomenclature are discussed. A key, descriptions, iconography, ecological, phenological, uses and common names are included.En la porción mexicana de la Península de Yucatán hay tres especies del género Zygia (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae, Ingeae. Se discuten sus diferencias morfológicas y nombres correctos. Se incluye una clave, descripciones, iconografía, información ecológica, fenológica, nombres comunes y usos.

  10. Estudos morfoanatômicos da semente e da plântula de espécies de Anileiras (Indigofera L., Leguminosae Morpho-anatomical studies of seeds and seedlings of wild indigo, "anileira", Indigofera- Leguminosae

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    Juliana Villela Paulino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O nome popular "anileira" designa Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. e I. truxillensis Kunth, muito semelhantes quanto à morfologia externa. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar se caracteres da semente e plântula apresentavam valor diagnóstico para este grupo, já que tais caracteres têm sido muito utilizados na Taxonomia de Leguminosae. A superfície e morfoanatomia de sementes e cotilédones foram estudadas por microscopias eletrônica de varredura e de luz, e as etapas do desenvolvimento das plântulas descritas. Embora as plântulas sejam semelhantes, caracteres de sementes (tamanho, forma, ornamentação da superfície, forma do hilo e tamanho do embrião e cotilédones (forma, organização do parênquima lacunoso na nervura central e distribuição de metabólitos nos tecidos apresentaram valor diagnóstico para as espécies. I. anil distingue-se de I. suffruticosa por suas sementes maiores e cotilédones com borda acuminada. I. truxillensis caracteriza-se por apresentar sementes cilíndricas e cotilédones reniformes contendo gotas de óleo e alcalóides. Nossos dados, a morfologia externa dos frutos (curvos em I. anil e I. suffruticosa, e retos em I. truxillensis e, ainda, a anatomia foliar (células parenquimáticas grandes e fenólicas no floema de I. suffruticosa e sua ausência em I. anil sugerem que I. anil, I. suffruticosa e I. truxillensis não devem ser sinonimizadas.The common name "wild indigo" specifies Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. (legitimate name and I. truxillensis Kunth (legitimate name that are very similar due to their external morphology. This work analyzed diagnostic characteristics of seeds and seedlings of these species since such features are widely used in taxonomic approaches within Leguminosae. We studied surface features and morpho-anatomy of seeds and cotyledons with scanning electronic microscopy and light microscopy, and described seedling phases. Although seedlings are similar

  11. Fertilidade do solo em agrofloresta após sucessão leguminosas: Consórcio mandioca e caupi, no Sul do Tocantins

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Átila Reis; de Sousa, Sergio Alves; Souza, Djalma Júnior de Almeida Tavares; Lemos, Alex Santos; Collier, Leonardo Santos

    2011-01-01

    Diante da necessidade de sistemas de cultivos mais sustentáveis o presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar alterações em atributos químicos após cultivo de leguminosas e o efeito sobre o rendimento de feijão caupi e mandioca solteiros ou em consorcio cultivado em sistemas agroflorestais (SAF) no sul do estado do Tocantins. O estudo foi realizado em um SAF, no campo experimental da Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Gurupi-TO. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualiza...

  12. Aislamiento de "Micromonospora" de nódulos de leguminosas tropicales y análisis de su interés como promotor del crecimiento vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda Castillo, María Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se plantea el aislamiento, caracterización e identificación de cepas de Micromonospora aisladas de nódulos fijadores de nitrógeno de las leguminosas tropicales Phaseolus vulgaris y Arachis hypogeae recogidas en Nicaragua y que son de importancia agrícola en toda América Latina. Posteriormente se realizarán experimentos de reinoculación en planta con el fin de ampliar nuestros conocimientos sobre el papel que pueden desempeñar estos microorganismos en la nodulación y fij...

  13. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae

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    James A Nicholls

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia. Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a subset of 60 loci in a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories in the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  14. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, James A; Pennington, R Toby; Koenen, Erik J M; Hughes, Colin E; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G; Stone, Graham N; Kidner, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  15. Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Christopher S; Eastwood, Ruth J; Miotto, Silvia T S; Hughes, Colin E

    2012-05-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth-death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18-0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48-1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89-3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36-1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for "replicate adaptive radiations" in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different clades, these

  16. Intercalamiento de cinco leguminosas temporales de granos, durante el establecimiento de Chloris gayana cv. Callide en suelo Vertisol

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    I Gómez

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del policultivo en el establecimiento de Chloris gayana cv. Callide, se intercalaron variedades de dos especies de leguminosas temporales: Vigna radiata (var. frijol chino y Vigna unguiculata (var. cubanita-666, lina, INIFAT-93 e IITA-precoz, en el momento de la siembra del pasto. El diseño fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas. En los cultivos intercalados se midió el número de plantas por metro cuadrado, a los 30 y a los 45 días después de la siembra; así como el rendimiento de grano, el número de granos por vaina, el número de vainas por metro cuadrado y la masa de 1 000 granos. En el pasto se determinó el número de plantas por metro cuadrado, la altura, la cobertura a los 90 y a los 180 días después de la siembra, y el rendimiento a los 6 meses de la siembra. Hubo diferencias significativas (p < 0,001 en el porcentaje de cobertura del pasto en ambas edades, con valores superiores en los policultivos. Los cultivos intercalados presentaron efectos significativos en todas las variables estudiadas. La var. frijol chino tuvo la mayor población y rendimiento de grano, y fue superada por INIFAT-93 en el número de granos por vaina; mientras que la var. lina se destacó en cuanto a la masa de 1 000 granos. Se concluye que el uso de policultivos mejoró la cobertura del pasto C. gayana cv. Callide durante el establecimiento y contribuyó a la producción de granos, con resultados sobresalientes en la especie V. radiata.

  17. Producción y valor nutricional del cultivo de morera (Morus alba L. con intercalamiento de leguminosas

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    María Judith Delgado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las principales preocupaciones en la alimentación animal es la búsqueda de alternativas rentables para el productor y eficientes desde el punto de vista nutricional para los animales. Para que el volumen de la producción de estos alimentos sea el adecuado, se han utilizado prácticas como las planteadas en la revolución verde, que incluyen el uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados químicos, lo que ha traído secuelas negativas sobre el medioambiente. En la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas nutricionales se encontraron algunos forrajes, como la morera (Morus alba L., que tiene un alto nivel de proteína, entre otras propiedades nutricionales; pero, alternativas nutricionales como ésta requieren fertilización nitrogenada en elevadas cantidades.Con el interés de generar alternativas amigables con el medioambiente y que además logren mantener o incrementar el volumen de producción y el valor nutricional de la morera, surgió la idea de estudiar la intersiembra de este arbusto con leguminosas, como arveja (Pisum sativum L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L y fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., analizando variables nutricionales y parámetros de crecimiento del cultivo de morera. Además, se trabajó con un grupo de fertilización nitrogenada y un grupo de control (sin modificación alguna del cultivo. Al finalizar el estudio se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0.05 para la mayoría de parámetros, exceptuando la variable altura, que no presentó diferencias importantes (p>0.05.

  18. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO EM BRAQUIÁRIA NOS SISTEMAS DE PLANTIO SOLTEIRO E CONSÓRCIO COM LEGUMINOSAS

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    Tomas de Aquino Portes Castro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se o efeito da competição no crescimento da gramínea forrageira Urochloa brizantha cv Marandu em consórcio com as leguminosas forrageiras Stylosanthes guianensis cv Mineirão e Neonotonia wightii cv Comum, nos sistemas de plantio solteiro e em consórcio.O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, cujos tratamentos foram os seguintes: Braquiária em sistema solteiro de plantio; braquiária em consórcio com soja perene e braquiária em consórcio com estilozantes. Para a análise de crescimento foram colhidas plantas ao nível do solo aleatoriamente na parcela e, posteriormente, encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa – CNPAF. As taxas de crescimento da cultura (TCC braquiária nos sistemas consorciados de plantio foram inferiores em relação ao sistema solteiro, sendo que o estilozante contribuiu de forma mais expressiva para a redução dessa taxa. Considerando-se que a TCC máxima (kg.ha-1.dia-1 do braquiária foi obtida aos 84 DAE e que o IAF observado nessa mesma data correspondente ao IAF ótimo,demonstra-se que os consórcios não afetaram o ciclo da gramínea, mas sim os valores obtidos para TCC e IAF. Isso pode levar a concluir que existe competição interespecífica nos cultivos consorciados, o que interfere de forma diferenciada nos parâmetros avaliados. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Índice de área foliar, Neonotonia wightii, Stylosanthes guianensis, taxa de crescimento da cultura,Urochloa brizantha.

  19. MORFOLOGIA DO FRUTO E DA SEMENTE DE TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE Senna Mill. (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINIOIDEAE

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    Ely Simone Cajueiro Gurgel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O fruto característico de Leguminosae é o legume, entretanto há uma variabilidade de tipos na família. Este estudo objetivou descrever a morfologia dos frutos e das sementes de Senna obtusifolia (L. H.S.Irwin & Barneby, S. occidentalis (L. Link. e S. tapajozensis (Ducke H.S.Irwin & Barneby. Retirou-se, aleatoriamente, uma amostra constituída de 25 frutos e 25 sementes para a descrição. Dos frutos, registrou-se a morfologia geral, a classificação, a coloração, a textura, a consistência e o indumento do pericarpo. Os caracteres morfológicos das sementes analisadas foram: a externos: consistência, cor e textura da testa, forma das sementes, posição e forma do hilo e da micrópila; b internos: testa; endosperma; embrião quanto ao tipo; forma e cor. As espécies estudadas apresentaram frutos do tipo legume ou folículo, de forma linear e largamente linear, pericarpo seco, cartáceo e sublenhoso, glabro a olho nu, em tons castanhos. Semente obovada, suborbicular, elipsoidal com um lado reto ou irregularmente rômbico, testa em tons castanhos ou acinzentados, pleurograma completo, quando presente, hilo punctiforme e orbicular, embrião axial, foliáceo, eixo embrionário reto e oblíquo, plúmula rudimentar. As características do indumento do pericarpo e pleurograma possibilitaram a separação das espécies estudadas. Palavras-chave: Senna obtusifolia, S. occidentalis, S. tapajozensis, Cassieae, Cassiinae. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p80-86

  20. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (Leguminosae)

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    Cruz, Mariluze P.; Andrade, Cassya M. F.; Silva, Kelle O.; de Souza, Erika P.; Yatsuda, Regiane; Marques, Lucas M.; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M.; Napimoga, Marcelo H.; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T.

    2016-01-01

    The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poiret (Leguminosae family), popularly known as “jurema preta” in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil) for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT) and solvent soluble fractions (hexane—H, DCM—D, EtOAc—E and BuOH—B) of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4’-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin) and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test); and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test). Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8), with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100–200 mg/kg), in the second phase of the formalin test (50–200 mg/kg), and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg). EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg), reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg), respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B) and anti-inflammation (H, D, E). Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg). Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin

  1. Caracterización fisicoquímica de los aceites crudos de algunas semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sonoran desert has a great variety of nutritional native plants, mainly from the leguminous family. Although in ancient times their products were used as food by native Americans, there is little information about their potential as a food source. For this reason, oils from the following seeds were studied: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro and Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Oils were extracted from the seeds with hexane, and contents ranged from 8.5 to 23.5 %. The physicochemical studies showed mostly unsaturated oils, as demonstrated by the iodine index, (101-147 units. Indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acids were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids were separated and quantified by gas chromatography. Linoleic and oleic acids were found to predominate. All extracted crude oils were of good quality, comparable to those from soybean, com, sunflower and carthamus.

    El desierto de Sonora cuenta con una gran variedad de plantas silvestres principalmente de la familia leguminosae de las cuales se tiene poca información acerca de su potencial como fuente nutricional. Por lo que se estudiaron los aceites de las semillas: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro y Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Los aceites de cada semilla se extrajeron con hexano, obteniéndose de 8.5 a 23.5 %. Estos mostraron un alto grado de insaturación reflejado en los índices de lodo, de 101 a 147. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos y dentro de los valores aceptables. Al cuantificar los ácidos grasos por

  2. Larvicidal, ovicidal and pupicidal activities of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) (Leguminosae) against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Culicidae: Diptera).

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    Krishnappa, Kaliyamoorthy; Dhanasekaran, Shanmugam; Elumalai, Kuppusamy

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the potentiality of mosquitocidal activity of Gliricidia sepium (G. sepium) (Jacq.) (Leguminosae). Twenty five early third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) were exposed to various concentrations (50-250 ppm) and the 24 h LC(50) values of the G. sepium extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi to various concentrations ranging from 25-100 ppm under laboratory conditions. The eggs hatchability was assessed 48 h post treatment. The pupicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi to various concentrations ranging from 25-100 ppm. Mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the extract. Results pertaining to the experiment clearly revealed that ethanol extract showed significant larvicidal, ovicidal and pupicidal activity against the An. stephensi. Larvicidal activity of ethanol extracts of G. sepium showed maximum mortality in 250 ppm concentration (96.0±2.4)%. Furthermore, the LC(50) was found to be 121.79 and the LC(90) value was recorded to be 231.98 ppm. Ovicidal activity of ethanol extract was assessed by assessing the egg hatchability. Highest concentration of both solvent extracts exhibited 100% ovicidal activity. Similarly, pupae exposed to different concentrations of ethanol extract were found dead with 58.10% adult emergence when it was treated with 25 ppm concentration. Similarly, 18.36 (n=30; 61.20%); 21.28(70.93) and 27.33(91.10) pupal mortality was recorded from the experimental pupae treated with 50, 75 and 100 ppm concentration of extracts. Three fractions have been tested for their larvicidal activity of which the Fraction 3 showed the LC(50) and LC(90) values of 23.23 and 40.39 ppm. With regard to the ovicidal effect fraction 3 showed highest ovicidal activities than the other two fractions. Furthermore, there were no hatchability was recorded above 50 ppm (100% egg mortality) in the experimental group. Statistically significant

  3. Distinctive patterns of callose deposition provide an early sign of ovule abortion1 in the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii Patrones distintivos de deposición de calosa proveen evidencia temprana de aborto de óvulos en el arbusto andromonoico Caesalpinia gilliesii

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    A. Calviño

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovule abortion may lead to the partial or complete reduction of the number of functional ovules in the ovary and then is the primary factor that determines the sexual expression of the plant. In different species, ovule abortion was associated with the presence of callose in advanced ovules. Based on these observations, we studied the pattern of ovule development and callose deposition in both perfect and staminate flowers of the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The obtained results showed that all ovules reached the 8-nucleate stage of embryo sac development and exhibited callose deposition at advanced stages. Nevertheless, from the 2-nucleate stage, a distinct spatial pattern of callose deposition within the ovule was observed between perfect and staminate flowers. Differences in callose deposition suggest that not callose per se but its distribution pattern in the ovule tissues is the main factor that triggers ovule isolation and abortion and leads to flowers with non-functional pistils in this species. Furthermore, previous observed differential growth rates between perfect and staminate flowers support for resource depletion as the likely underlying mechanism of ovule fate in C. gilliesii.El aborto de óvulos puede llevar a la reducción parcial o completa de óvulos fértiles en el ovario, pudiendo ser entonces un factor primario que determine la expresión sexual de toda la planta. En diferentes especies de plantas, el aborto de los óvulos ha sido asociado con la presencia de calosa en estadios avanzados del desarrollo de los óvulos. Basado en estas observaciones, se estudiaron el desarrollo de los óvulos y el patrón de deposición de calosa tanto en flores perfectas como estaminadas en el arbusto andromonoico C. gilliesii. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los sacos embrionarios alcanzan el estadio de desarrollo 8-nucleado en todos los óvulos, y que presentan deposición de calosa en los estadios avanzados. Sin

  4. Crotalaria incana l. and leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): toxicity indicator species of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil; Crotalaria incana l. y leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): especies indicadoras de toxicidad por hidrocarburos de petroleo en el suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Luna, Dinora; Castellan Estrada, Mepivoseth; Rivera Cruz, Maria del C.; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I.; Izquierdo R., Francisco [Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: dinovaz@colpos.mx

    2010-07-01

    This study assesses the toxic effects produced by a Gleysol molic soil contaminated with crude oil on seedlings of two species of legumes. A phytotoxic impact index (IIF) was generated, which includes five parameters measured by relative rates of impact (IRIF{sub (x)}) for variables; emergency, height, root length, aboveground biomass and root biomass. Bioassays were conducted under a completely randomized design with three replications under semi-controlled conditions, to assess the sensitivity of Leucaena leucocephala and Crotalaria incana at different concentrations of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons). Effects were highly significant (P {<=} 0.01) with increasing concentrations of HTP in substrate. The emergence of L. leucocephala was 29 % lower with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} HTP, while C. incana decreased 30 % with 32 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH respect to control. Both species showed a five-day delay in the emergence of seedlings when exposed to high levels of TPH. A significant decrease in the accumulation of dry matter (DM) at concentrations above 20 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH was observed in both species. The respective IIF declined of 50 % with 80 000 and 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH, but L. leucocephala had no significant effect with 10 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. Finally, the EC50 in L. leucocephala, is presented with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH whereas in C. incana this parameter is noted from 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. [Spanish] En este estudio se evaluaron los efectos toxicos que produce un suelo Gleysol molico contaminado con petroleo crudo, sobre plantulas de dos especies de leguminosas. Para ello se genero un indice de impacto fitotoxico (IIF) que integra cinco parametros, medidos a traves de indices relativos de impacto (IRIF{sub (x)}) para las variables emergencia, altura, longitud radicular, biomasa aerea y biomasa radicular. Los bioensayos se realizaron bajo un diseno completamente al azar, con tres repeticiones, en condiciones semicontroladas, para evaluar la sensibilidad de

  5. Sobre las causas ontogénicas de la productividad diferencial de semillas en la especie anficárpica Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae On the causes of the differential seed production in the anficarpic species Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae

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    Gabriela Speroni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium polymorphum es una leguminosa de pradera con buena adaptación y persistencia en este tipo de vegetación. Combina diferentes estrategias reproductivas como la reproducción vegetativa por estolones y la reproducción por semillas producidas en dos tipos de frutos y flores, subterráneas y aéreas. Las subterráneas son cleistógamas y las aéreas son casmógamas. Empíricamente se ha detectado mayor formación de semillas en los frutos subterráneos que en los aéreos. En el presente trabajo se realizan estudios embriológicos y de desarrollo de semillas en ambos tipos de flores para dilucidar si existen causas ontogenéticas que determinan la productividad diferencial de semillas en ambos tipos de frutos. No se detectaron causas embriológicas pre-cigóticas que expliquen el menor número de semillas en los frutos de las flores aéreas. Ambos tipos de semillas comparten características ontogenéticas y presentan apropiado desarrollo de los óvulos, sacos embrionarios y establecimiento de vías nutricionales para saco embrionario, embrión y endosperma. En general las floraciones insumen un costo energético importante para las especies vegetales. La floración aérea de T. polymorphum, aunque sometida a una fuerte presión de herbivoría del ganado, incorpora variabilidad genética a sus poblaciones a través de la polinización cruzada y permite la dispersión a distancia.Trifolium polymorphum is recognized as one of the best adapted legume in field conditions. It combines different reproductive strategies such as stoloniferous vegetative reproduction and seed reproduction by two types of fruits produced in underground and aerial flowers. These last ones are chasmogamous and underground flowers are cleistogamous. A higher seed production has empirically been detected in underground flowers rather than in aerial ones. In the present work, embryological studies in aerial and underground flowers were carried out in order to determine

  6. Morfologia do polén anemófilo e alergizante no Brasil: II. Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae e Myrtaceae

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    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Em continuação à primeira parte deste catálogo (Barth et al., 1975, é estudada a morfologia dos grãos de polén das espécies anemófilas pertencentes às famílias Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae e Myrta ceae, cujo conhecimento interessa a estudos relacionados à poluição atmosférica e a processos alérgicos, especialmente das vias respiratórias.In continuation to the first part of this catalogue (Barth et al., 1975, the morphology of the pollen grains of the anemophilous species of six additional families is studied, their correct identification being relevant to studies concerning air pollution and allergic processes, chiefly of the respiratory tract.

  7. Registro de Oncideres saga (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae em Peltophorum dubium (Leguminosae no Município de Trombudo Central, Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Gabriely Souza

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. Peltophorum dubium (Sprengel Taubert (Leguminosae has been used successfully for landscaping squares, parks and roads, due its yellow flowers forming terminal panicles and dense foliage providing excellent shade. However, twig girdlers have been considered a potential threat to the urban landscaping in Brazil, damaging many ornamental plant species. The aim of this study was to record the attack of twig girdlers in plants of P. dubium in Trombudo Central, Santa Catarina State, Brazil between November 2006 and January 2007. Damage was observed on 12 trees used in the urban landscaping of the city. During the survey period, 27 girdled branches were collected with an average diameter of 6.35 cm. This is the first record of the twig girdler Oncideres saga (Dalman damaging plants of P. dubium in Brazil.

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE TRES LEGUMINOSAS COMO COBERTURAS ASOCIADAS CON MAÍZ EN EL TRÓPICO SUBHÚMEDO

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    Jos\\u00E9 Bernardino Castillo-Caamal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el potencia l de tres leguminosas como coberturas para mejorar el sistema de producción de maíz. Se evaluaron cuatro tratamie ntos: 1 maíz solo; 2 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo corto de semilla blanca 3 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo largo de semilla blanca y 4 maíz y frijol terciopelo (Mucuna sp. en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas, durante cuatro ciclos de cultivo (1999-2002 en Yucatán, México. Se midió la biomasa de cultivos, pH, N total, mineralización potencia l anaerobia del nitrógeno, evolución del CO 2, potasio (K, fósforo (P y materia orgánica del suelo, biomasa y frecuencia de arvenses. La cantidad de rastrojo en los tratamie ntos con leguminosas fue: 3436, 3425 y 4018 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer año, respectivamente. El nitrógeno aportado por los rastrojos al maíz fue 25,8; 31,9; 52,8 y 43,4 kg/ha para los tratamie ntos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente. El rendimie nto de grano de maíz fue en promedio 841, 843 y 460 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer ciclo, respectivamente; sin diferencias entre tratamie ntos. En el tercer ciclo, el frijol terciopelo disminuyó la biomasa de arvenses de 126 a 58 g MS /m2. Las coberturas ejercieron poca influencia en las variables de suelo y rendimie nto de grano de maíz.

  9. Colecta de leguminosas forrajeras en tres provincias orientales de Cuba Collection of forage legumes in three Eastern provinces of Cuba

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    Yuseika Olivera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una labor de prospección y colecta en la zona oriental del país con el objetivo de colectar germoplasma de leguminosas herbáceas, arbustivas y arbóreas multipropósito para ser utilizadas en el sector ganadero. El trayecto incluyó la costa norte y sur de la provincia de Guantánamo, la costa norte y centro de la provincia Holguín, así como la parte centro-este de la provincia Granma. Se utilizó un sistema de muestreo individual en pequeñas poblaciones, con repetitividad de especies en diferentes sitios, y en ocasiones se muestreó aleatoriamente en poblaciones abundantes. La información se recogió a través de los descriptores relacionados con la localización, el hábitat natural, la vegetación, el suelo y los daños motivados por insectos y enfermedades, entre otros. Se colectaron 95 accesiones pertenecientes a 24 especies, entre las que primaron las de tipo herbáceo (10 géneros. Se encontraron especies utilizadas con diversos propósitos (alimento animal, cobertura, abono verde, cercas vivas, etc., tanto herbáceas como arbustivas y arbóreas. Se recomienda beneficiar las muestras obtenidas; proceder a su rápida reproducción, caracterización morfobotánica y evaluación agronómica (fase I; utilizar este material para diversos fines, entre ellos la conservación y el intercambio; así como continuar la colecta en otras zonas del país.A prospecting and collection work was carried out in the eastern zone of the country with the objective of collecting germplasm of herbaceous, shrubby and tree multipurpose legumes to be used in the livestock production sector. The trip included the northern and southern coast of the Guantanamo province, the northern and central coast of the Holguín province, as well as the central-eastern part of the Granma province. An individual sampling system was used in small populations, with repetitiveness of species in different sites, and sometimes random sampling was performed in abundant

  10. Leguminosas nuevas de Colombia

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    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se ocupa de tres nuevas especies del género Inga, dos de las cuales presentan caracteres muy notables en el género. La gentileza del doctor E. P. Killip, del Museo Nacional de los Estados Unidos, me permite incluir aquí una nueva especie del genero Machaerium; descrita por el y tipificada en un ejemplar colectado por mi en la región de Urabá.

  11. Subterranean termites in urban forestry: tree preference and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzenon, F J; Campos, A E C

    2015-04-01

    Urban tree deterioration is a common problem all over the world. Inappropriate plant species choice and inadequate planting may lead to micro and macro organism attacks, such as pests and diseases. Subterranean termite damage is common and may promote tree falls. In order to help urban forestry planning, this work was carried out for 9 years on 1477 street trees in a neighborhood in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Plants were identified to species, grouped as native, exotic plants, and palm trees, and their measures of circumference at breast height (CBH) were taken, in order to evaluate if subterranean termite damages are related to tree size and plant group. Four subterranean termite species were identified infesting up to 27% of the plants, with Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) being the most common. Palm trees were not damaged by subterranean termites, while native plants are the most susceptible, especially Caesalpinia pluviosa var. peltophoroides (Fabaceae). Among the native plants monitored C. pluviosa var. peltophoroides, Caesalpinia ferrea var. leiostachya, Erythrina speciosa, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Fabaceae), Gochnatia polymorpha (Asteraceae), Tibouchina granulosa (Melastomataceae), and Handroanthus spp. (Bignoniaceae), the latter was the least damaged. Exotic plants were also susceptible with the exception of Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae) and Platanus acerifolia (Platanaceae). Correlation analysis showed that the higher the CBH value, the higher the percentage of internal damage by C. gestroi. Infested trees were treated with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and subterranean termites were effectively controlled during the 9-year study.

  12. Nodulação e crescimento de 49 leguminosas arbóreas nativas da Amazônia em viveiro

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    F. M. S. Moreira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Os ecossistemas periodicamente inundados, embora representem 25% da área total da Amazônia, contribuem com 75% da produção madeireira. Tanto esses ecossistemas como os de terra firme apresentam grande diversidade de espécies da família Leguminosae. Algumas dessas espécies já são exploradas economicamente de forma extrativista, mas o potencial econômico da maioria permanece inexplorado. Conhecer o comportamento dessas espécies em condições de viveiro é o primeiro passo para compreender sua biologia e estabelecer plantios nas áreas já desmatadas. Neste trabalho, desenvolvido no Campus do INPA, em Manaus, durante 1985 e 1986, são apresentadas informações sobre o crescimento inicial e nodulação de 49 espécies arbóreas nativas, de ecossistemas de terra firme (16 ou periodicamente inundados, (33 da Amazônia. Plântulas recém-germinadas foram transplantadas, em condições de viveiro, para sacos plásticos que continham cinco diferentes substratos que consistiram de areia adubada, de uma mistura de argila com areia 3:2 (v/v, de material do horizonte A de um glei húmico, e de material do horizonte A de um podzólico vermelho-amarelo, adubado ou não. A maioria das espécies desenvolveu-se bem nos cinco substratos. Algumas espécies cresceram melhor nos substratos, de maior fertilidade. Espécies oriundas de ecossistemas inundados cresceram melhor que as oriundas de terra firme. Foi observada nodulação em 30 espécies. Entre as que apresentaram maiores taxas de crescimento, havia tanto espécies nodulíferas como não-nodulíferas, indicando que a fixação biológica de N2 não é o único mecanismo eficiente de absorção de nitrogênio em leguminosas tropicais. As espécies que apresentaram as maiores taxas de crescimento foram: Enterolobium maximum, Swartzia polyphylla e Vatairea guianensis.

  13. Alocação da biomassa e correlações morfofisiológicas em leguminosas forrageiras com hábitos de crescimento contrastantes

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    Scheffer-Basso Simone Meredith

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise da alocação da biomassa e a correlação entre variáveis morfofisiológicas permitem maior entendimento do estabelecimento, produção e persistência de espécies perenes, em trabalhos de melhoramento genético, manejo e ecologia de plantas forrageiras. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar a alocação de biomassa em leguminosas forrageiras (Adesmia latifolia, A. punctata, A. tristis, Lotus corniculatus, L. uliginosus. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação durante 210 dias (4000 graus-dia; as plantas foram cultivadas em caixas de 1 m². Nesse período, foram retiradas amostras periódicas para avaliação dos componentes morfológicos e descrição do hábito das espécies. A alocação da biomassa em raízes, caule e folha foi expressa em percentagem de massa seca. A maior alocação em folhas ocorreu nas espécies estoloníferas, A. latifolia (63,53% e A. punctata (61,42%, que, por sua vez, mostraram a menor alocação em raízes, 10,90 a 14,77 %, respectivamente. Maior alocação de biomassa em caule (39,38% e raízes (24,39% foi verificada em L. uliginosus, espécie rizomatosa. Para todas as espécies, o índice de área foliar (IAF esteve correlacionado positivamente com número de folhas das hastes secundárias e biomassa aérea. A. latifolia e Lotus spp. são exemplos extremos da relativa importância dos componentes morfológicos na formação do IAF e da biomassa. O padrão de acúmulo e alocação de biomassa nas leguminosas estoloníferas é caracterizado, principalmente, pela produção de folhas, indicando a importância do alongamento e enraizamento dos estolões, enquanto em A. tristis e Lotus spp., as frações caule e raízes apresentam igual importância.

  14. Análise morfológica de sementes, germinação e plântulas de jatobá (Hymenaea intermedia Ducke var. adenotricha (Ducke Lee & Lang. (Leguminosae-caesalpinioideae Morphologycal analysis of seeds, germination, and seedlings of jatobá (Hymenaea intermedia Ducke var. adenotricha (Ducke Lee & Lang. (Leguminosae-caesalpinioideae

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    Maria da Glória Gonçalves de Melo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As leguminosas são usadas para compor Sistemas Agroflorestais, cujo sucesso de implantação depende de informações básicas sobre as espécies que compõem os diferentes extratos. Hymenaea intermedia var. adenotricha é uma leguminosa com potencial para aproveitamento agroflorestal na região. As sementes foram coletadas de matrizes na área de floresta natural da Província Petrolífera de Porto Urucu - Amazonas. O estudo foi realizado em condições de viveiro e laboratório da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias (UFAM. A semente de Hymenaea intermedia var. adenotricha é eurispérmica, com testa de consistência pétrea (desidratada e cartácea (hidratada. O tegumento apresenta quatro estratos celulares com o primeiro formado por células finas e longas em paliçada, sendo visível a "linha lúcida". O embrião é axial, total, de cor amarelo-esverdeado. Os cotilédones são carnosos, inteiro com radícula escondida. A plúmula é rudimentar. A germinação é epígea fanerocotiledonar, com emergência curvada. A plântula apresenta sistema radicular pivotante com raiz primária axial, sub-lenhosa, estriada, glabra. As raízes secundárias são curtas, pouco ramificadas, porém entrelaçadas, resinosas e sem nódulos. O protófilo é composto, com folíolos opostos, sésseis. O primeiro metáfilo apresenta-se composto, bifoliolado, com folíolos assimétricos levemente falcado-oblongo.Species from the Leguminosae family are used in Agroforestry Systems. Their successful implementation depends on basic information about the species that constitute each extract. Hymenaea intermedia var. adenotricha is a specie from the leguminosae family with potential to be used in agroforestry in the Amazon region. The seeds were harvested from plants found in the natural forest of Petroleum Province Urucu Harbor. The studies were carried out under laboratory and nursery conditions at the Agrarian Sciences College the Amazonas University. H. intermedia var

  15. Regionalización y relaciones biogeográficas de la Península de Yucatán con base en los patrones de distribución de la familia Leguminosae The biogeographical regions and relationship of the Yucatán Peninsula based on distribution patterns of the Leguminosae family

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    Rodrigo Duno-de Stefano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución geográfica de 224 especies de leguminosas nativas de la Península de Yucatán (México en 48 unidades geográficas operativas (0.5° de latitud y 0.5 ° longitud. Las relaciones biogeográficas regionales se determinaron utilizando información de las leguminosas de 12 áreas de América Central, América del Norte, América del Sur y las Antillas. Se emplearon 3 métodos de análisis: coeficiente de Jaccard, análisis de parsimonia (PAE y un análisis de patrones generales de distribución, como una visualización general de los trazos individuales de Croizat. También se revisaron filogenias de algunos géneros de leguminosas para determinar patrones de evolución geográfica. La mayor riqueza de especies encontrada al sur de la península se asocia con el gradiente climático en sentido norte-sur. Los resultados indican que esta área se puede dividir en 2 áreas biogeográficas (distritos: una franja septentrional y una franja meridional y al menos 5 subdistritos. Los análisis de parsimonia (PAE y los patrones generales de distribución son congruentes con los análisis de similitud. Todos los resultados sugieren que la Península de Yucatán presenta la mayor afinidad con América Central, y le sigue América del Norte, América del Sur y finalmente las Antillas, mientras que el elemento endémico representa el 6.7 %.In order to assess biogeographical relationship of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, it was divided in 48 operational geographic units of 0.5 ° latitude and longitude and the distribution patterns of 224 native species of the family Leguminosae were analyzed. Biogeographic relations were determined comparing our results with legumes information of 12 neighboring areas of Central, North and South America, and the Caribbean. Three methodologies were used to analyze the information: the Jaccard's similarity coefficient, parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE, and a simple comparison of

  16. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  17. Contribuição ao conhecimento morfológico das espécies de leguminosae comercializadas no estado do Pará, como "angelim" Contribution to the morphologic knowledge of the species of leguminosae in the state of Pará, traded as "angelim"

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    Gracialda Costa Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas como "angelim", no estado do Pará, foram analisadas quanto aos aspectos morfológicos dos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos. Este estudo visou determinar diferenças básicas entre as espécies comercializadas com esta denominação vernacular, a fim de auxiliar no processo de identificação taxonômica das mesmas. Foi elaborada uma chave dicotômica para separar as espécies estudadas (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum e Vatairea paraensis. As principais características utilizadas no campo, para separação das espécies estudadas, foram folha, folíolo, casca e tronco, porém, espécies de Andira, Hymenolobium e Vatairea, por apresentarem-se desprovidas de folhas no período fértil, necessitam de dados dos órgãos reprodutivos.The morphology of vegetative and reproductive structures of seven species of Leguminosae traded as "angelim" in the State of Pará were analyzed. This study sought to determine the basic differences between the species traded under the same vernacular name, in order to facilitate their taxonomic identification. A dichotomous key was developed to distinguish the species studied (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum and Vatairea paraensis. The main characteristics used for separation in the field were of leaf, leaflet, bark and trunk. However, flower or fruit characters are needed to identify those species of Andira, Hymenolobium and Vatairea that lose their leaves while flowering.

  18. Las leguminosas (Fabaceæ de Cuba. I. Subfamilia Cæsalpinioideæ

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    Barreto Valdés, A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of a monographic revision of the legume of Cuba. It includes five tribus of the subfamily Casalpinioideæ, with a total of 15 genera and 80 species. For each species, after the nomenclature, a description, habitat and distribution are recorded, as well as some data about dispersion and phenology, and sometimes ethnobotanical and chemical composition data. When found, karyologic information was also included. The chorological data are completed with 111 maps showing the Cuban distribution of as many taxa. The full complement of the Cuban native ones discussed here. Further on the text, 17 plates representing as many species are included, plus four indices. The first index shows the numerical reference of the 151 recognized taxa. The second one shows the position in the text of the distributional maps. The third one shows the illustrations. The fourth one, which has 339 small entries, shows all scientific names used, both accepted as well as synonyms.

    [es] Parte primera de una revisión monográfica de las leguminosas de Cuba. Comprende cinco tribus de la subfamilia Cæsalpinioideæ, con un total de 15 géneros y 80 especies aceptados. Para cada especie y tras la nomenclatura. además de la descripción, el hábitat y la distribución, se consignan diversos datos sobre dispersión y fenología, más algunos etnobotánicos o de composición química, ocasionalmente. Cuando pudimos hallarla. incluimos información cariológica. Los datos corológicos se completan con 111 mapas que muestran la distribución cubana de otros todos los taxones nativos de Cuba, reconocidos en esta monografía. Acompañan al texto 17 láminas que representan otras tantas especies, más cuatro índices. En el primero se muestra la referencia numérica de los 151 táxones reconocidos. El segundo muestra la posición en el texto de los mapas distribucionales. El tercero señala las ilustraciones. En el cuarto, que reúne 339 entradillas

  19. Evaluation of legumes and poultry manure for the early protection of burnt soils Evaluación de leguminosas y gallinaza para la protección temprana de suelos quemados Avaliaçao da utilizaçao de leguminosas e estrume de galináceos na protecção precoce de solos queimados

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    Serafín González Prieto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Organic amendments combined with the sowing of gramineous grasses are effective for the early protection of burnt soils (BS but cannot restore soil N status to pre-fire level; this has led to interest in combining their use with N2 fixer legumes. The effectiveness of applying poultry manure (PM; 2 Mg ha-1 and sowing legumes (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus and Trifolium repens for the early protection of BS was compared with that of applying PM + Lolium perenne and growing these four species without PM in a 3-month pot experiment, which also included a control consisting of an unburnt soil (US. In US, the shoot and root biomass increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus << Lolium < Lupinus. Compared with those grown in US, plants grown in BS were smaller and weaker in three species (Lupinus, Lolium and Trifolium. The reverse was true for the four species grown in BS+PM, which showed the benefits of PM addition. In all the treatments, plant N uptake, which prevents soil-N losses, increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus < Lupinus < Lolium. The lack of nodules observed suggested that none of the legumes fixed atmospheric-N2.

    Las enmiendas orgánicas combinadas con la siembra de gramíneas son efectivas para la protección temprana de los suelos quemados (SQ, pero insuficientes para restaurar el estatus pre-incendio del N-edáfico, lo cual deriva en el interés de emplear dichas enmiendas en combinación con leguminosas fijadoras de N2. La utilidad de la gallinaza (G, 2 Mg ha-1 y la siembra de leguminosas (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus y Trifolium repens para la protección temprana de SQ se comparó con la de G + Lolium perenne y esas cuatro especies sin G en una experiencia en invernadero durante tres meses que tambi

  20. Screening of traditionally used plants for in vivo antimalarial activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia bonducella L. Fleming (Fabaceae) were screened for antimalarial activity to establish validity of their claims. The extracts exhibited antimalarial activity in the 4-day Peter's suppressive antimalarial assay in mice inoculated with red blood cells parasitized with Plasmodium berghei.

  1. Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog. H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae, in restinga, Bahia, Brazil

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    P. Oliveira-Rebouças

    Full Text Available Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog. H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems. They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%. The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species.

  2. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas

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    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala e H. courbaril à fertilização. A aleatorização não foi suficiente para garantir condições semelhantes de luz nos plantios de enriquecimento. A variação na quantidade de luz incidente no sub‑bosque compromete a correta avaliação dos tratamentos de fertilização.

  3. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das flores de Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don Leguminosae-Mimosoideae

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    C.A. Andrade

    Full Text Available A atividade antibacteriana das flores da Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. (Leguminosae foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco. As bactérias testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. O meio de cultura utilizado foi ágar Müeller-Hinton. Foram utilizados discos de papel (6 mm de diâmetro impregnados com 1000, 500, 250 e 125 mg dos extratos: Etanol Bruto, fração Acetato de Etila e fração Diclorometano obtidas a partir do extrato etanólico bruto. Os resultados indicam que as amostras avaliadas exercem ação contra as cepas gram positivo testadas, em graus variáveis sendo que a fração Acetato de Etila apresentou maior atividade. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de fenóis e flavonoides nas flores de A. podalyriifolia.

  4. Modificación del caldo extracto de levadura manitol para la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas

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    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El caldo extracto de levadura manitol (LM, un medio ampliamente utilizado para el cultivo de rizobios, fue modificado para reducir su costo y utilizarlo en la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas. Los dos ingredientes más costosos, el extracto de levadura y el manitol, fueron reducidos o reemplazados con substratos más económicos. Se pudo reducir la concentración de extracto de levadura a 0,05 g/L sin afectar el crecimiento cuando se agregó 1,1 g/L de ácido glutámico o glutamato de sodio grado alimento. El manitol pudo ser substituido por 12,5 g/L de glicerina grado farmacéutico para las cepas de Bradyrhizobium o por 10 g/L de azúcar grado alimento para las cepas de Rhizobium. No se alteraron las propiedades simbióticas de las cepas cultivados en los medios modificados.

  5. Safety profile and gender specific differences of a methanol extract of Eriosema laurentii (Leguminosae) in acute and subchronic (28 days) oral toxicity studies in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba, Sylvin Benjamin; Simo, Rudy Valdès; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Krenn, Liselotte; Njamen, Dieudonné

    2014-03-01

    Despite widespread use of Eriosema laurentii De Wild (Leguminosae) in West and Central Africa as herbal medicine and food additive the toxicity of this plant is unknown. Therefore, we performed the safety evaluation of a methanol extract (AEL). In acute toxicity, single oral administration of 2000mg/kg AEL caused neither toxicological symptoms nor mortality and the LD50 was estimated >5000mg/kg. In the subchronic oral toxicity, AEL induced no phenotypical signs of toxicity during and after treatment. Only a delayed decrease of relative spleen weight in males at the highest dose of 400mg/kg occurred. High density lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly in females at 200 and 400mg/kg. Non-persistent increases in alanine aminotransferase activity within normal ranges were noted at 200mg/kg in males and at all doses in females. In males, AEL induced a decrease of white blood cell count at 400mg/kg, whereas lymphocytes increased at 200 and 400mg/kg and granulocytes at 400mg/kg. In females, no differences in haematological parameters occurred. Neither differences in bilirubin, creatinine and total protein levels were observed nor histological alterations in organs. The results indicate a broad safety margin for AEL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest Riqueza de rizóbios e de outras bactérias de nódulos de leguminosas em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

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    Daniel Renato Lammel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of legumes occurring in Araucaria Forests, at Campos do Jordão State Park, Brazil. Nodule bacteria were isolated in YMA growth media and the obtained colonies were classified according to their growth characteristics (growth rate, color, extra cellular polysaccharide production and pH change of the medium. Data were analyzed by cluster and principal components analysis (PCA. From a total of eleven collected legume species, nine presented nodules, and this is the first report on nodulation of five of these legume species. Two hundred and twelve bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules, whose nodule shapes varied widely and there was a great phenotypic richness among isolates. This richness was found among legume species, individuals of the same species, different nodule shapes and even among isolates of the same nodule. These isolates could be classified into several groups, two up to six according to each legume, most of them different from the used growth standards Rhizobium tropici, Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Burkholderia sp. There is some evidence that these distinct groups may be related to the presence of Burkholderia spp. in the nodules of these legumes.A Floresta de Araucária é um sub-tipo da Mata Atlântica, cujo dossel é dominado por Araucaria angustifolia, uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. O sub-bosque dessa floresta tem alta diversidade, incluindo muitas espécies de leguminosas. Estas plantas podem formar nódulos e fixar nitrogênio atmosférico, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade da floresta

  7. Produção de matéria seca e composição químico-bromatológica do feno de três leguminosas forrageiras tropicais em dois sistemas de cultivo

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    Padua Fabio Teixeira de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no setor de forragicultura e pastagens do Departamento de Nutrição Animal e Pastagens, no Instituto de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, em Seropédica, RJ, para avaliar a produção de matéria seca (PMS e a composição químico-bromatológica de três leguminosas forrageiras tropicais: kudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare e soja perene (Neonotonia wightii em dois sistemas de cultivo (SC (tutorado e livre. Utilizou-se um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em um esquema fatorial (3 (espécies x 2 (SC x 4 (Repetições, em parcelas de 20m². A PMS foi significativamente diferente (P0,05 para os valores referentes a proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA das leguminosas em cada sistema de cultivo. Já para os valores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, houve diferença significativa (P<0,05 entre as espécies estudadas sendo que a espécie que apresentou maiores valores foi o kudzu tropical, seguido pela soja perene e o macrotiloma. Com relação à matéria mineral (MM, a interação (leguminosa x SC apresentou efeito significativo (P<0,05. O maior valor observado no SC tutorado foi para o kudzu tropical, que diferiu das demais espécies. No entanto, quanto ao SC livre, o maior valor foi observado para a soja perene, o qual não diferiu para o kudzu tropical, porém diferiu para o macrotiloma.

  8. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas Interference of light availability on response to fertilization of enrichment plantings with leguminous trees

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva; Luiz Augusto Gomes de Souza; Diego Oliveira Brandão

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala...

  9. Effect of intercropping wheat with forage legumes on wheat production and ground cover Efeito do consórcio entre trigo e leguminosas forrageiras na produção de trigo e na cobertura de solo

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    Gilberto Omar Tomm

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of winter legumes in southern Brazil is hindered by the slow growth of these species during establishment exposing soil surface to erosion. Introduction of these species along with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied as a means of increasing ground cover during their initial establishment period, without reducing wheat grain yield. Two experiments were conducted in nearby areas, one in each year. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cultivar Quiñequelli, white clover (T. repens L., and arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi did not reduce cereal yield in either year. Wheat yield was reduced by intercropped red clover cultivar Kenland and by subclover (T. subterraneum L. in the first year. No grain yield differences due to intercropping with any legume were detected in the second year, when rainfall was below normal. Intercropping with wheat showed to be a practical alternative to enhance ground cover at establishing forage legumes.O uso de leguminosas forrageiras no sul do Brasil é dificultado pelo lento crescimento dessas espécies no ano de estabelecimento, o que expõe o solo à erosão. Estudou-se a introdução dessas leguminosas concomitantemente ao trigo (Triticum aestivum L. com o objetivo de aumentar a cobertura de solo durante o seu desenvolvimento inicial, sem reduzir o rendimento de grãos de trigo. Foram realizados dois experimentos em áreas próximas, um em cada ano. O cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., o trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L., cultivar Quiñequelli, o trevo-branco (T. repens L. e o trevo-vesiculoso (T. vesiculosum Savi não reduziram o rendimento de trigo em nenhum dos anos. O rendimento de grãos de trigo foi reduzido pelo trevo-vermelho, cultivar Kenland, e pelo trevo subterrâneo (T. subterraneum L., no primeiro ano. No segundo ano, em que, durante o período de desenvolvimento de trigo, a precipitação pluvial foi inferior à normal, não se

  10. As leguminosas como alimentos funcionais: o caso das dislipidémias e das doenças cardiovasculares Legumes as functional foods: the case of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases

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    J.M. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A dieta mediterrânica é rica em alimentos funcionais. As leguminosas, um dos alimentos-chave desta dieta, têm visto o seu papel na prevenção de dislipidémias, diabetes e cancro do cólon mencionado por muitos autores. O efeito do consumo de leguminosas na redução da colesterolémia deve-se a diferentes nutrientes e fitoquímicos, tais como: i proteína; ii lípidos, particularmente a componente polinsaturada e monoinsaturada; iii fibra, especialmente a fracção solúvel; iv saponinas; e v fitosteróis. O consumo da soja tem sido relacionado com tais efeitos benéficos, mas dados recentes obtidos na Universidade de Évora demonstraram que leguminosas como a ervilha e o tremoço de folhas estreitas também apresentam elevado potencial funcional na regulação do colesterol sanguíneo. O seu consumo levou a reduções de 30% na colesterolémia de animais experimentais, via redução do colesterol das LDL. A utilização destas leguminosas como alimentos funcionais e/ou como fornecedoras de fitoquímicos com potencial preventivo e terapêutico é promissora e poderá constituir uma maisvalia e uma fonte extra de rendimento para os agricultores que se dediquem ao cultivo destas espécies.The Mediterranean diet is rich in functional foods. Legumes are one of the key-foods of this diet and many authors mention their role in the prevention of dyslipidemias, diabetes and colon cancer. The hypocholesterolemic effect of legumes is related to several nutrients and phytochemicals. Among them: i protein; ii lipids, especially polyunsaturated and monounsaturated ones; iii dietary fibre, especially soluble fibre; iv saponins; and v phytosterols. Soybean consumption has been related with these benefic effects. However, recent data obtained at the University of Évora have demonstrated that other legumes, such as peas and blue lupin, can also present a high hypocholesterolemic potential. In fact, the consumption of these legumes led to a 30% reduction in

  11. A planta facilitadora Trischidium molle (Benth.) H. E. Ireland (Leguminosae) e sua relação com a comunidade de plantas em ambiente semi-árido no Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Meiado, Marcos Vinícius

    2008-01-01

    A interação entre os arbustos de Trischidium molle (Benth.) H. E. Ireland (Leguminosae) e a comunidade de plantas em ambiente semi-árido foi avaliada para responder as seguintes questões: (1) Os fatores abióticos diferem sob a copa dos arbustos quando comparado com os locais abertos? (2) A disponibilidade de recurso é maior sob a copa dos arbustos do que nos locais abertos? (3) Os arbustos de T. molle promovem a facilitação intra-específica em ambientes semi-áridos? (4) Os efei...

  12. Morfología de la semilla y anatomía de la cubierta seminal de cinco especies de Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae de Venezuela

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    Sirli Leython

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la morfología de las semillas y la anatomía de la cubierta seminal en cinco especies venezolanas del género Calliandra, con la finalidad de establecer similitudes y diferencias entre estos taxa, para su utilización como criterio taxonómico. Se analizaron caracteres morfológicos de valor taxonómico; entre ellos la forma y el tamaño de la semilla, así como anatómicos tales como espesor de las diferentes regiones, la ubicación de la línea lúcida y el tamaño relativo de los espacios intercelulares en la hipodermis. Con los resultados se realizaron análisis de agrupamiento por medio de la función de análisis discriminante. Diez caracteres cuantitativos, y tres caracteres cualitativos, resultaron informativos para la separación de especies.Seed morphology and anatomy of the seed coat in five species of Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae from Venezuela. Calliandra is an exclusively Neotropoical genus with 135 described species. There are 30 species in Venezuela. We studied seed morphology and the seed coat anatomy of five species: Calliandra riparia Pittier, Calliandra glomerulata Karsten var. glomerulata, Calliandra magdalenae (DC. Benth. var. magdalenae, Calliandra surinamensis Benth. and Calliandra falcata Benth., to establish simililarities and differences amongst taxa for taxonomic characterization. Of the evaluated characters, 10 quantitative characters and 3 qualitative characters were selected as the most informative for the separation of species. Seed morphological characters of taxonomic value are form and size. Thickness of the light line, number of layers and space between the osteosclereids constitute distinctive characters. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1075-1086. Epub 2008 September 30.

  13. Anatomia foliar de Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Leguminosae: interpretações ecológicas em diferentes condições edáficas de Cerrado

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    João Carlos Ferreira de Melo Júnior

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p29   Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae é uma espécie arbórea de ampla distribuição no Brasil, conhecida como copaíba. O presente trabalho objetiva discutir, numa perspectiva ecológica, alterações estruturais foliares em populações de copaíba em três substratos distintos no Cerrado: neossolo flúvico em margem de rio, afloramento arenítico e latossolo vermelho em campo cerrado. Atributos foliares qualitativos e quantitativos foram observados por meio de preparações histológicas permanentes. Diferenças estatisticamente significativas foram verificadas em todos os parâmetros ecológicos analisados, como área específica foliar, espessura de tecidos e densidade estomática. A presença mais acentuada de características escleromórficas foi constatada nas plantas de arenito e neossolo flúvico, embora o latossolo também seja pobre em bases trocáveis. As alterações estruturais encontradas sejam o resultado da combinação de fatores edáficos, hídricos, microclimáticos e da interação planta/herbívoros existente em cada substrato, porém percebe-se claramente que houve prevalência dos fatores nutricionais do solo em detrimento da disponibilidade de água.

  14. Evaluación de diez leguminosas con dos niveles de tecnología en un suelo ácido

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    Muñoz F. Jaime E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó durante dos semestres en la zona de Santander de Quilichao, con la finalidad de estudiar el comportamiento agronómico de diez leguminosas en suelos ácidos y sin riego; se empleó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con 10 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones. El análisis de varianza y la diferencia mínima significativa (DMS , permitieron comparar dos modalidades de tecnología: el manejo del agricultor y ligeras modificaciones en la fertilización. En los dos ensayos efectuados, no hubo diferencia entre tecnologías, el material de mejor comportamiento en rendimiento fue Caupí TV U 289-46, la menor variabilidad en los rendimientos la presentó el mungo PI 376873; existió mejor comportamiento de los materiales caupí y mungo, respecto a los Phaseolus en suelos ácidos.The present study was carried out during two halfyears at town of Santander de Quilichao (Cauca in order to study agronomic behaviour of ten leguminous in acid soils with and without watering; the experimental design used was the randomized blocks with an arrangement in split plots with 3 replications. The variance analysis and least significant difference aIlowed to compare 2 ways of technology: farmer management and slight modifications in the fertilizations. In two assays done, there were not differences between technologies, the material of best behaviour in yield was TUV 289- 46 cowpea,the smaIIest variability was observed in PI 376873 mungo; a better behaviour was observed in two Cowpea and mungo materials in relation with phaseolus in acid soils.

  15. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae.

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    C Haris Saslis-Lagoudakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae. We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we

  16. Diversidade e razão sexual de syrphidae em leguminosas e plantas espontâneas, em León (Espanha Diversidad y proporción sexual de syrphidae en cultivos de leguminosas y plantas espontáneas, en León (España

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    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os sirfídeos adultos visitam flores para obter néctar e pólen. A disponibilidade de plantas em floração é essencial para a sobrevivência destes insectos. O presente estudo teve como objectivo determinar o efeito de plantas espontâneas na diversidade de sirfideos e sua influência na proporção sexual. Para o feito, foram identificados e sexados adultos capturados em culturas leguminosas e plantas espontâneas associadas. Em ambos os casos, a proporção entre os sexos foi de 1,4♀:1,0♂, mas a diversidade específica foi maior nas fêmeas. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H foi ligeiramente maior nas plantas espontâneas, do que nas culturas (2,12 contra 2,13. O índice de equidade foi maior nas culturas, e no caso das fêmeas nas plantas espontâneas. A diversidade vegetal ajuda a manter a diversidade de sirfideos, especialmente do sexo feminino. As famílias de plantas espontâneas, Umbelliferae, Asteraceae e Chenopodiaceae foram, por ordem decrescente de importância, aquelas onde se efectuaram mais observação.Los adultos de sírfidos visitan las flores para obtener néctar y polen. La disponibilidad de plantas en floración es esencial para la supervivencia de estos insectos. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el efecto de las plantas espontáneas en la diversidad de sírfidos y su influencia en la proporción sexual. Para ello se identificaron y se sexaron los adultos capturados en cultivos de leguminosas y en las plantas espontáneas asociadas. En ambos la proporción sexual fue 1,4♀:1,0♂, pero la diversidad específica de hembras fue mayor en las plantas espontáneas. La diversidad de Shannon (H fue apenas mayor en las plantas espontáneas que en los cultivos (2,12 vs. 2,13. El índice de equidad fue mayor en los cultivos y, en las hembras en las plantas espontáneas. La diversidad vegetal contribuye a mantener la diversidad de los sírfidos, especialmente de las hembras. Las familias de plantas espont

  17. Leguminosas herbáceas perenes para utilização como coberturas permanentes de solo na Caatinga Mineira Perennial herbaceous legumes used as permanent cover cropping in the Caatinga Mineira

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    Ricardo Borges Teodoro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o comportamento e as potencialidades de leguminosas herbáceas perenes para o uso como cobertura permanente em solos da região da Caatinga Mineira, Médio Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, visando a introdução dessas plantas de cobertura em áreas agrícolas. O experimento foi conduzido de dezembro de 2008 a julho de 2009. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelas leguminosas: cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, calopogônio (Calopogonium mucunoides, amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, soja perene (Glycine wightii, estilosantes (Stylosanthes capitata, Stylosanthes macrocephala e pela testemunha (sem a presença de leguminosa. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: emergência das plântulas; taxa de cobertura do solo; promoção da retenção de umidade e temperatura do solo; capacidade de inibição da vegetação espontânea; potencial de deposição de folhas e de aporte de macronutrientes pela senescência de folhas; produção total de fitomassa seca e acúmulo de macronutrientes na parte aérea. A cobertura plena do solo foi alcançada pelo calopogônio, amendoim forrageiro e cudzu tropical. O calopogônio conferiu maior capacidade de retenção da umidade e inibição das plantas espontâneas. Em todos os tratamentos com leguminosas a temperatura do solo foi inferior à testemunha, a partir dos 120 dias de ciclo. Na região da Caatinga Mineira, as leguminosas perenes calopogônio e cudzu tropical, podem contribuir significativamente para o incremento de nitrogênio, aporte de outros macronutrientes (K, P, Ca e Mg e incremento da matéria orgânica do solo.The study objective was to evaluate the performance and potential of perennial herbaceous legumes for use as permanent soil cover in the Caatinga Mineira region MG, Brazil, for the introduction of these cover crops in agricultural areas. The experimental

  18. Levantamento fitogeográfico de Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-papilionoideae com potencial produtivo para própolis vermelha no Estado do Pará

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    Raquel Leão Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae, de distribuição pantropical, compreende cerca de 250 espécies.  Dalbergia spp tem sido amplamente explorada para produção de própolis vermelha, que consiste em uma mistura complexa feita pelas abelhas a partir do material resinoso encontrado no tecido meristemático em várias plantas deste gênero. Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar levantamento da ocorrência da flora apícola produtora de exsudato vermelho que pode ser utilizada pelas abelhas africanizadas para produção da própolis vermelha no estado do Pará. Realizou-se o levantamento em diversos herbários que possuíam espécies de Dalbergia L.f. produtoras de exsudato vermelho no estado do Pará, juntamente com a sua distribuição. Para tanto, foram averiguadas literaturas específicas de morfologia e taxonomia que envolviam espécies de Dalbergia produtoras de exsudato vermelho localizadas no Pará. A coleta de dados foi obtida a partir da plataforma online SpeciesLink; e do acervo do Herbário IAN (Instituto Agronômico do Norte da EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental. O mapa de distribuição foi elaborado utilizando o software QGis juntamente com os dados de coleta das espécies. Foram encontrados 204 registros depositados em 21 herbários, sendo que, 175 são pertencentes à espécie Dalbergia monetaria e 29 à Dalbergia ecastaphyllum. Analisando os dados de coleta, notou-se que as espécies foram coletadas em 44 municípios do Estado do Pará, dos quais Belém e Bragança apresentaram maior quantidade de registros. A partir do levantamento realizado notou-se a predominância de Dalbergia monetaria nos registros, mostrando que esta é uma espécie que possui potencial para ser explorada. 

  19. Calidad de las semillas de accesiones de leguminosas colectadas en la región oriental de Cuba (Nota técnica

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    Yolanda González

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una misión de colecta durante el 2006 en la región oriental de Cuba, que comprendió zonas de las provincias de Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas y Camagüey. Se colectaron semillas de 95 accesiones de leguminosas, de ellas 68 herbáceas y 27 arbóreas. Posteriormente se hizo una prueba de germinación, para conocer su calidad (con corte de cubierta. Para ello se utilizaron placas de Petri sobre arena de río. El número de semillas utilizadas fue variable en cada accesión (según la cantidad colectada y solo se empleó una réplica (sin diseño estadístico. Los conteos de germinación se realizaron según las normas internacionales. Las semillas de mejor calidad correspondieron a las especies arbóreas, aunque presentaron baja germinación las de Cajanus cajan, Cassia siamea, Peltophorum ferrugianum y Leucaena leucocephala, procedentes de la zona de Floro-Pérez en la provincia de Holguín. Todas mostraron 100% de sobrevivencia. La calidad de las semillas dependió del tiempo que estuvieron en el campo después de la etapa de maduración de las legumbres. A través de esta misión de colecta se incrementó el germoplasma de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey» con 64 nuevas accesiones. Se recomienda la continuidad de la colecta de germoplasma en otras zonas del país, con énfasis en las plantas arbóreas, lo que permitirá lograr una mayor diversidad a partir de su uso en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria, así como llevar a cabo las pruebas de calidad correspondientes.

  20. Pharmacological profile of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpiniabonducella Flem. (local name: natalkanta, kutum kanta) isemployed tocure various disorders such as urinary disorders, diarrhoea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, piles, wounds, indolentulcers, skind iseases, leprosy, toothache. The present study was performed to investigate the scientific basis for the traditional uses of ...

  1. Los cariotipos de Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae-Phaseoleae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México Karyotypes of Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae- Phaseoleae of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Mexico

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    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron citogenéticamente células provenientes de meristemos radiculares de 2 leguminosas, Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana, que en la actualidad están incluidas en la flora de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México, D. F., mediante una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para determinar los números cromosómicos somáticos. Por vez primera se obtuvieron la morfología cromosómica y otras características cuantitativas de los cariotipos en C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m +18sm y en E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm +2st sat, primeras también en ambos géneros. Cologania y Erythrina se reconocen como poliploides estabilizados y el hallazgo de un único par de cromosomas con satélites (dominancia nucleolar en las especies estudiadas aquí, favorece la opinión de un origen alopoliploide para estos taxa.Meristematic root cells from Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana from Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico, were analyzed cytogenenetically using a surface-spreading and air-drying method. The somatic chromosome numbers were determined. Chromosome morphology and others quantitative features of the karyotypes obtained for first time in C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m + 18sm and E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm + 2st sat and also the first in both genera. Cologania and Erythrina are recognized as stabilized polyploids and the finding of just one pair of chromosomes with satellites (nucleolar dominance in the species analyzed here supports the view of allopolyploid origin of these taxa.

  2. Forage intake and botanical composition of feed for cattle fed Brachiaria/legume mixtures Consumo e composição da forragem ingerida por bovinos alimentados com Brachiaria e uma leguminosa

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    Robert Macedo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A key contribution to study the cycling of nutrients in soil/plant/animal systems is the evaluation of the consumption of forage and their nutrients by cattle. The objective of this study was to test techniques to evaluate faecal production, in vitro digestibility, forage consumption and the proportion of legume in the acquired diet. Five Zebu steer calves were confined and fed five diets of different combinations of Brachiaria dictyoneura and Desmodium ovalifolium. All quantities of faeces were collected per animal and these values were found to compare favourably with those derived from using the chromium oxide technique. In vitro digestibility ranged from 7 to 10% higher than the actual in vivo digestibility. Faecal samples from steers fed with diets with 25% or more of grass in the mixture were found to be depleted in δ13C between 1.7 and 2.1‰, but no depletion was observed when the diet was 100% D. ovalifolium. There was a positive linear regression (r² = 0.97*** of the δ13C of the diet with the δ13C of faeces, but if the acquired diet contained a very high proportion of legume, the legume content could be underestimated by as much as 10%. None of the internal indicators, such as lignin or ash content of the diets, were useful to predict feed intake, but the chromium oxide external indicator performed satisfactorily. The 13C analysis of the faeces was an effective predictor of the proportion of the legume in the consumed diet.Uma contribuição fundamental para o estudo da ciclagem de nutrientes no sistema solo/planta/ animal é a avaliação do consumo pelo gado de forragem e dos nutrientes nela contidos. Testaram-se, sob condições controladas, técnicas para avaliar a produção fecal, digestibilidade in vitro, consumo de forragem e a proporção de leguminosa ingerida na dieta. Cinco novilhos de Zebu foram confinados e alimentados com quantidades conhecidas de cinco rações com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria dictyoneura e

  3. Organic matter quality in a soil cultivated with perennial herbaceous legumes Qualidade da matéria orgânica de um solo cultivado com leguminosas herbáceas perenes

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    Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Using herbaceous legumes in agricultural systems yields great quantities of plant residues, allowing changes in soil organic matter quality and content over the years. This study was conducted on an Ultisol, at Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different perennial herbaceous legumes on soil organic matter quality. A factorial scheme with three replications was used to evaluate the species: forage groundnut cv. BR-14951 (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides, and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. After the first cut, each plot was divided into two subplots; plants were cut and left on the soil surface or cut and removed. Soil samples of a closed area covered by spontaneous vegetation (mainly C3 plants or by Panicum maximum were also analysed. Samples were collected from two layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm, processed for the fractionation of organic matter and the evaluation of structural characteristics of humic acids (HA. Evaluated legumes did not change total organic carbon contents, but promoted HA accumulation in the superficial soil layer. Humic acids may be used as indicators of the management effects on soil organic fractions, because there was significant incorporation of carbon and nitrogen derived from the legume residues, even for the short experimentation time (28 months. Residue management did not modify quantitative aspects of the distribution of the humified organic matter, but promoted, however, a higher condensation degree of humic acids evaluated by the elementary composition, IR and fluorescence spectroscopy.O uso de leguminosas herbáceas em sistemas agrícolas permite o aporte de quantidades expressivas de fitomassa, possibilitando alterações no teor e na qualidade da matéria orgânica do solo ao longo dos anos. Este trabalho avalia a qualidade da matéria orgânica de um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo localizado em Seropédica, RJ, e cultivado com diferentes espécies de leguminosas herb

  4. Estabelecimento de leguminosas arbóreas em pastos de capim-marandu e tanzânia Establishment of leguminous trees in marandu and tanzânia pastures

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    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de mudas sem proteção (de cercas ou estacas de quatro espécies de leguminosas arbóreas e uma mistura eqüitativa dessas espécies, introduzidas em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, na presença de gado. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, duas gramíneas (marandu e tanzânia e quatro espécies de leguminosas (Mimosa artemisiana, Pseudosamanea guachapele, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia farnesiana e uma mistura dessas espécies, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se: altura da muda, diâmetro do caule, diâmetro da copa, sobrevivência da muda, freqüência de pastejo e ocorrência de formigas. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de três agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos M. artemisiana e mistura de leguminosas, nos dois pastos, mais E. contortisiliquum e A. farnesiana, nos pastos dos capins marandu e tanzânia, respectivamente. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos relativas a cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que mudas de M. artemisiana apresentaram maior altura e sobrevivência em pasto de capim-marandu. Mudas dessa leguminosa, sem proteção, são indicadas para ser introduzidas, nas pastagens de capim-marandu da região, na presença do gado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of nonprotected (by fences or pickets seedlings of leguminous tree species and an equitable mix of these species, introduced in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, in the presence of cattle. The experimental design was a completely randomized one, in a 2x5 factorial arrangement, with two grasses (marandu and tanzânia and four leguminous species (Mimosa artemisiana

  5. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de rizobios aisladas de diferentes leguminosas en la región de Cascajal, Villa Clara Isolation and characterization of rhizobia strains isolated from different legumes in the Cascajal region, Villa Clara

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    Pérez Guianeya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron 19 cepas de rizobio a partir de los nódulos de las leguminosas Canavalia ensiformis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema molle, Pueraria phaseoloides y Macroptilium atropurpureum, con el objetivo de obtener inoculantes efectivos para dichos cultivos en suelos ácidos. Para la caracterización de los aislados bacterianos se estudiaron sus características micromorfológicas, tintoriales y culturales, así como algunas respuestas fisiológico-bioquímicas, tales como la excreción de ácido o base al medio de cultivo y el ensayo de la cetolactasa. Se hizo un ensayo de nodulación in vitro con cada una de las leguminosas para determinar la efectividad de los aislados. De acuerdo con las características culturales, la tasa de crecimiento en medio LMA y la producción de ácido o base, los aislados obtenidos pudieran pertenecer a los géneros Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium y/o Sinorhizobium. La prueba de la cetolactasa permitió conocer que ninguno de los aislados en estudio pertenece al género Agrobacterium. El ensayo con plantas inoculadas mostró que todas las cepas aisladas fueron efectivas en la nodulación, ya que nodularon en las leguminosas probadas. Se concluye que de las cepas aisladas 11 pudieran pertenecer al género Bradyrhizobium, mientras que las ocho restantes comparten características similares con los géneros Rhizobium y/o Sinorhizobium; todos los aislados fueron efectivos en la nodulación y pueden considerarse cepas promisorias para la obtención de inoculantes para las leguminosas forrajeras en estudio.Nineteen rhizobium strains were isolated from the nodules of the legumes Canavalia ensiformis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema molle, Pueraria phaseoloides and Macroptilium atropurpureum, with the objective of obtaining effective inoculants for such crops in acid soils. For the characterization of the bacterial isolates, their micromorphological, staining and cultural characteristics were studied, as well as some

  6. Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus campestris (Leguminosae); Flavonoides de Lonchocarpus campestris (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L., E-mail: opessoa@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    A new flavone named 3,4',5,6-tetramethoxy-[2'', 3'':7,8] furanoflavone besides the known flavonoids (2S,3R,4S)-3,4,5,8-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':6,7]-furanoflavan, 3,6-dimethoxy-2'',2''-dimethylcromene-[2'',3'':7,8]-flavone, 3,5,6-trimethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavone, 2,4',4,5-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':6,7]-furanodihydroaurone, (2R,3S,4S)-3,4,5,6-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavan and 3',4'-methylenedioxy-5,6-dimethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavone were isolated from the root barks of Lonchocarpus campestris. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR assignments of the new furan flavonoid was performed using 1D and 2D pulse sequences, including COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. (author)

  7. Adubação verde com leguminosas em videira no submédio São Francisco Green manuring grapevine with legumes in the submiddle São Francisco River Valley

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    C. M. B. Faria

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os solos do Vale do Submédio São Francisco são, de modo geral, arenosos, com baixa capacidade de retenção de nutrientes e, por se localizarem numa região semi-árida, são muito pobres em matéria orgânica, conseqüentemente, são deficientes em N, tornando-se limitante para produção agrícola. Dessa forma, o uso de leguminosas como adubo verde pode contornar esse problema, porque adiciona C e N ao solo. O trabalho constituiu-se de dois experimentos de leguminosas consorciadas com a cultura da videira (Vitis vinifera irrigada, realizados em um Argissolo Amarelo de textura arenosa, em Petrolina (PE, de junho de 1996 a julho de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação verde nas características químicas do solo e na produtividade e qualidade da uva. O primeiro experimento foi realizado até à quarta safra de uva. Os tratamentos foram representados por duas leguminosas: crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, submetidas a dois manejos (subtratamentos: (a ceifada e deixada na superfície do terreno e (b ceifada e incorporada ao solo, havendo ainda uma testemunha sem leguminosa. O segundo experimento, que se iniciou com o quinto ciclo de produção de uva, abrangeu três tratamentos: (1 testemunha; (2 crotalária júncea e (3 feijão-de-porco, combinados com dois subtratamentos: (1 100 % da adubação recomendada pela análise de solo e (2 50 % dessa adubação. Ao todo, houve onze ciclos de leguminosas e nove safras de uva. A produção de biomassa das leguminosas decresceu ao longo do tempo. A adubação verde proporcionou uma melhoria nas características químicas do solo, aumentando os teores da MO e do Ca trocável e o valor da CTC na camada de 0-10 cm de profundidade. Não houve um efeito consistente da adubação verde na produtividade e qualidade da uva.The soils of the Submiddle São Francisco River Valley are generally sandy, with low nutrient retention capacity. Since they are

  8. Produtividade e valor nutritivo de pastos consorciados com diferentes espécies de leguminosas Productivity and nutritive value of mixed pastures with different legume species

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    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a produtividade e o valor nutritivo de dois sistemas forrageiros (SF constituídos por capim elefante (CE, azevém (AZ, trevo branco (TB e espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE, como SF1; e CE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE, como SF2. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas espaçadas a cada quatro metros. Entre elas, foi estabelecido azevém, durante o período hibernal, permitindo-se o desenvolvimento de ECE no período estival. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa e o método de pastejo foi o rotacionado. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem inicial (MFI e a composição botânica e estrutural dos pastos. Para as estimativas de valor nutritivo, foram feitas amostragens simulando o pastejo e analisados a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e duas repetições, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os valores médios de massa de forragem inicial e da carga animal foram similares entre os SF. Observou-se resultado superior para o teor médio de PB da forragem do SF2. O uso do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo em consórcio com o CE permite manter massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity and nutritive value of two pasture-based systems (PS with elephant grass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS, for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS, for PS2. EG was established in rows spaced by four meters. Ryegrass was seeding in the space between rows during cool-season and development of SGS was permitted in the warm-season. Holstein cows under rotational grazing were used in the evaluation. The initial forage mass (IFM

  9. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from...... twice before the closure of the Isthmus of Panama. Divergence times of the P. pubescens complex, restricted to seasonally dry tropical forests of South America, support pre-Pleistocene divergence in this biome.......Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from...

  10. Avaliação de espécies leguminosas na formação de cafezais no segmento da agricultura familiar no Acre Evaluation of legume species for coffee plants formation in the segment of family farms in Acre

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    Celso Luis Bergo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Leguminosas quando consorciadas com o café e usadas como adubação verde podem contribuir fornecendo nitrogênio e proteção ao solo pela adição de matéria orgânica. O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do uso de leguminosas no sistema de produção de café, no segmento de agricultura familiar, visando promover a implantação e a manutenção dos cafezais de forma técnica e economicamente sustentável. O experimento foi conduzido no período de novembro de 2000 a abril de 2003, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos utilizados nas parcelas foram as leguminosas (Stizolobium atterrimum, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia endiformis e Flemingia congesta e a testemunha (sem leguminosa e, nas subparcelas, duas doses de N (0 e 22 g de N por cova. A Flemingia congesta e a Mucuna aterrima foram as leguminosas que mais influenciaram positivamente a produtividade dos cafeeiros, independente da adubação nitrogenada. Em relação à testemunha, o aumento em produção foi de 109% quando utilizou-se a Flemingia congesta e 52% com a Mucuna aterrima. A Flemingia congesta foi também a leguminosa que melhor controlou as invasoras, dado o volume de fitomassa produzida e a possibilidade de 2 cortes durante um período de doze meses, evidenciando o potencial desta leguminosa na formação de novos cafezais no Acre. Por outro lado, a Canavalia ensiformis, leguminosa que é normalmente utilizada nas entrelinhas dos cafeeiros pelos cafeicultores, do Acre e de outras regiões produtoras, neste trabalho influenciou negativamente a altura das plantas, diâmetro da copa e crescimento dos cafeeiros.Legumes, when associated with coffee crop and used as green manure can contribute with nitrogen and protect the soil by addition of organic matter. The effect of the use legume species in the coffee production system of family farms, was evaluated in order to promote

  11. Species arboreal as a bioindicator of the environmental pollution: Analysis by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa [Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Iracemapolis/Santa Barbara, km 01, Santa Barbara D' Oeste 13450-000, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [State University of Campinas, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Boscolo Brienza, Sandra Maria [Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia do Acucar, Km 156, Piracicaba 13400-911, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Filho, Mario Tomazello [University of Sao Paulo, Av. Padua Dias, 11 Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza [University of Sao Paulo, Av. dos Bandeirantes, 390 Ribeirao Preto 14040-901, SP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [University of Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303 Piracicaba 13400-970, SP (Brazil); Barroso, Regina Cely [State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524 Rio de Janeiro 20550-900, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-08-21

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and countrysides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicle combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is often used in urban arborization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and an Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples were quantified P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb elements.

  12. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  13. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  14. Evaluación oxidativa de las mezclas de aceites de leguminosas del Desierto de Sonora con aceites de maíz y soja durante su almacenamiento

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    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available During storage, oils from seeds of wild legumes of the Sonoran Desert have shown greater stability than oils derived from conventional sources. In this work, oxidation process was evaluated during the storage (122 day of mixtures of oils: Mezquite Prosopis juliflora, Gatuña Mimosa grahamii, Palo fierro Olneya tesota, Vino rama Acacia constricta, Palo de brea Cercidium praecox and Palo verde Parkinsonia aculeata with oils from soy and maize. Ratios were 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. Evaluated parameters included: Peroxides (P.V., Iodine (I.V., Acid (A.V., p-Anisidine (p-A values. Results showed that mixtures containing wild and maize oil showed 2-4 meq/Kg as initial values of iodine, while after 122 days of storage the value was 4-7 meq/Kg. Mixtures containing soy oil presented 3-6 meq-Kg initially, and 8-15 meq-Kg were detected at the end experiment. No differences were observed in I.V. and A.V. values in maize mixtures. On the contrary, mixtures containing soy oil presented increments in I.V. Also, A.V. presented a slight increment in 1:1 mixtures. p-Anisidine values presented and small increment in maize mixtures (3:1 ratio while this increment was larger in mixtures containing soy oils and Gatuña or Palo fierro oil. These latter oils when were mixed with maize oils presented the lowest increments in all evaluated indexes.The oils of palo fierro and blended gatuña with oil of corn didn’t present changes in their concentration in the palmitic and araquidic acid during the storage. The concentration of the oleic acid in the mezquite oils (3:1, gatuña (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, vinorama (3:1, as well as the linoleic and erucic acids in gatuña in their three mixtures didn’t present changes neither alteration during the storage, for what you are considered the oils of palo fierro, gatuña and vinorama the most stable in the present study.Los aceites de semillas de leguminosas silvestres han mostrado mayor estabilidad que algunos aceites convencionales

  15. Fertilizantes de leguminosas como fontes alternativas de nitrogênio para produção orgânica de alface Legume fertilizers as alternative sources of nitrogen for organic lettuce production

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    Maxwell Merçon Tezolin Barros Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de dois fertilizantes de leguminosas - produtos derivados do corte, desidratação e moagem da biomassa aérea das leguminosas mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium - como fontes alternativas de nitrogênio (N para a produção orgânica de alface (Lactuca sativa cv. Vera, e a influência dessas adubações sobre a vida útil pós-colheita da hortaliça, em condições de laboratório. Esses fertilizantes foram empregados em cobertura e comparados com cama-de-aviário industrial, assegurando-se doses equivalentes de N total. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições: T1: adubação pré-plantio, com termofosfato sílico-magnesiano + sulfato de potássio; T2: T1 + esterco bovino, em pré-plantio; T3: T2 + fertilizante de mucuna-cinza, em cobertura; T4: T2 + fertilizante de gliricídia, em cobertura; T5: T2 + cama-de-aviário em cobertura. Não houve diferença entre os fertilizantes de ambas as espécies de leguminosas e a cama-de-aviário, quanto à produtividade, teor de N, padrão comercial e período de vida útil pós-colheita das alfaces, o que indica potencial de uso desses fertilizantes como fontes de N para sistemas orgânicos de produção de hortaliças.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential use of two legume fertilizers - products derived from cutting, dehydration and milling of the aerial biomass of legume plants, velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium - as alternative sources of N for organic production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Vera; and to evaluate the influence of soil fertilization on lettuce shelf life at laboratory bench condition. These fertilizers were applied on soil surface and compared to factory poultry-bed manure at equivalent total N doses. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications, as

  16. Leguminosas e seus efeitos sobre propriedades físicas do solo e produtividade do mamoeiro 'Tainung 1' Leguminous plants and their effects on soil physical properties and productivity of papaya 'Tainung 1'

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    José Eduardo Borges de Carvalho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento no período de junho 1998 a dezembro de 2000 na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal da Bahia, em Cruz das Almas, em um Latossolo Amarelo álico coeso para avaliar o impacto do manejo de práticas melhoradoras sobre as propriedades físicas desses solos e a produtividade do mamoeiro. Os tratamentos foram: 1- capina em área total; 2- grade nas entrelinhas e herbicida nas linhas de plantio; 3- capina em área total + subsolagem; 4- subsolagem + feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis nas ruas da cultura; 5- Subsolagem + crotalária (Crotalaria juncea nas ruas da cultura; 6- subsolagem + caupi (Vigna uguiculata nas ruas da cultura; 7- subsolagem + calagem + gesso agrícola e feijão-de-porco nas ruas da cultura; 8- subsolagem + vegetação nativa nas ruas da cultura, roçada quando necessária. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Cada parcela foi composta por 36 plantas das quais 16 úteis, em espaçamento de 3 x 2 m. A subsolagem foi realizada de forma cruzada antes do plantio nos tratamentos correspondentes. As leguminosas foram plantadas em maio/junho e roçadas em setembro/outubro. O controle do mato nas linhas foi mecânico (T1 e T3 e químico com glifosato na dose de 1% v/v nos demais. Os tratamentos manejados nas entrelinhas da cultura do mamão com leguminosas proporcionaram as maiores alterações nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Amarelo álico coeso. Os tratamentos manejados com leguminosas e vegetação espontânea foram os que mais se evidenciaram em produtividade, expressada pelo peso total de frutos (PTF, em toneladas por hectare, e em número total de frutos por hectare NTF.An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy School of Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, Cruz das Almas, during the period of June 1998 to December 2000, with the objective of evaluating the impact of good management practices on soil physical properties of an alic and

  17. Corn crop sown during summertime under leguminous residues in a no-tillage systemDesempenho da cultura do milho implantada sobre resíduos culturais de leguminosas de verão em sistema plantio direto

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    Gislaine Piccolo de Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The no-tillage system management is considered as an agricultural system very close to sustainability, since it causes less impact to the environment. The crops rotation, when well managed, includes the use of green manure; and leguminous are included in this system as they bring a number of benefits. This context, the study aimed tested leguminous as cover plants on soil with a no-tillage system regarding the growth, yield and maize seeds quality. This decision-making looks for alternatives that contribute for the agroecosystem sustainability, since they allow rational adoption of green manure in production units. The experiment was carried out in the field with leguminous species dwarf mucuna beans, dwarf pigeon pea and stylosanthes, sown in October 2007, in 4 x 5 m plots, with five replications. At 90 days after the cover crops sowing, the leguminous plants were grazed and corn plants were sown 15 days after grazing on waste. The plants heights were determined during the culture development. At the laboratory, after harvest, the productivity and physiological quality of seeds were determined. The experimental design was completely randomized and the averages were compared by the Scott-Knott test at 5% of significance. At 60 days after the maize crop sowing, the treatments with dwarf mucuna beans and dwarf pigeon pea showed higher heights. The other analyzed parameters did not differ among themselves, showing that the treatments not interfere on the maize crop. Actually, it is an alternative to the integrated management of species concerning the summer green manure and crop rotation in no-tillage system.O sistema plantio direto é o sistema agrícola mais próximo da sustentabilidade e com menor impacto ambiental. A rotação de culturas, em sua forma correta, inclui a utilização de adubação verde; e as leguminosas são inseridas neste sistema por trazerem uma série de benefícios. Neste contexto, o presente estudo testou plantas

  18. Influência da biomassa de leguminosas sobre a produção de repolho em dois cultivos consecutivos Influence of the biomass of legumes on cabbage yield held in two consecutive crops

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    Thiago de O Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos de avaliação do desempenho de culturas em sequência à adubação verde, geralmente não se considera o efeito das raízes dos adubos verdes. Entretanto, tais efeitos podem contribuir para maior entendimento científico da adubação verde. Foram avaliados o efeito da raiz e da parte aérea das leguminosas Crotalaria juncea e Canavalia ensiformis sobre a produção do repolho em dois cultivos. O experimento foi instalado em esquema fatorial (2 x 3 + 2, sendo 2 espécies de leguminosas e 3 partes das plantas (raiz, parte aérea ou planta inteira e 2 tratamentos adicionais (adubação mineral com 100% ou 50% da dose recomendada de N, em blocos casualizados com 4 repetições. A parte aérea do adubo verde foi aplicada em superfície. O cultivo sobre a massa da parte aérea ou da planta inteira de crotalária ou feijão de porco reduziu a necessidade de adubação com N-mineral em 50%, mas a produção de repolho foi reduzida com o cultivo sobre o sistema radicular de feijão de porco. Áreas em que foram deixadas a parte aérea ou a planta inteira de crotalária ou feijão de porco resultaram em maiores efeitos residuais sobre o segundo cultivo que a adubação com N-mineral. O cultivo sobre as raízes destas leguminosas não resultou em efeito residual diferente da adubação mineral com 50 ou 100% da recomendação da adubação N.In studies assessing the performance of crops in response to green manure generally are not considered the effect of roots. However, such effects may contribute to increase the scientific understanding towards this technique. The effect of the root and of the aboveground part of two legume species, Crotalaria juncea and Canavalia ensiformis, were evaluated on cabbage yield in two crops. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with 4 replications in a factorial design (2 x 3 + 2 (2 legumes species - Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp and Canavalia ensiformis (jack beans, 3 plant parts (root, aboveground

  19. Efeito de leguminosas nos atributos físicos e carbono orgânico de um Luvissolo Effect of legumes on the physical attributes and organic carbon of an Alfisol

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    João Tavares Nascimento

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A degradação de um solo sob cultivo é resultante, principalmente, de seu manejo inadequado, com reflexos nas baixas produtividades das culturas. Com a finalidade de avaliar o efeito de leguminosas nos atributos físicos e carbono orgânico (CO de um Luvissolo, realizou-se, no município de Alagoinha (PB, um experimento entre 1997 e 1999, com as seguintes espécies: crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, L, guandu (Cajanus cajan,L, guandu anão (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp, calopogônio (Calopogonium mucunoides, L, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiforme, L, lab-lab (Dolichos lab lab, L, kudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, L, siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum, L, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, L, cunhã (Clitoria ternatea, L, mucuna preta (Styzolobium aterrimum, L, mucuna cinza (Styzolobium cinereum Piper e Tracy, e uma parcela com vegetação espontânea, como testemunha. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcela subdividida, com distribuição de treze tratamentos principais na parcela (12 leguminosas + 1 testemunha e três tratamentos secundários, representados pelas profundidades de coleta de amostras de solo (0,00-0,10; 0,10-0,20; e 0,20-0,30 m, na subparcela, com três repetições. Na condição edafoclimática deste experimento, durante os três anos de trabalho, constatou-se que o emprego das leguminosas em relação à testemunha manteve inalterados o CO do solo, a densidade do solo, a porosidade total, a argila dispersa em água e a estabilidade dos agregados do solo.Soil degradation under cultivation results mainly from the inadequate management and it reflects in low crop yields. With the purpose of evaluating the effect of legumes on physical attributes and organic carbon content of an Alfisol, an experiment was conducted in the Alagoinha County-PB, Brazil, between 1997 and 1999, with the following species: Crotalaria juncea L, Cajanus cajan L, Cajanus cajan (L Millsp, Calopogonium mucunoides

  20. Crescimento, nutrição e fixação biológica de nitrogênio em plantios mistos de eucalipto e leguminosas arbóreas Growth, nutrition and biological fixation of nitrogen in mixed-species plantations of eucalypt with leguminous trees

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    Selma Regina de Freitas Coelho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, a nutrição mineral e a fixação biológica de N2 (FBN em plantios consorciados de Eucalyptus grandis e leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e sete tratamentos por bloco. Nas linhas de plantio, entre as plantas de E. grandis, foram plantadas, intercaladamente, leguminosas arbóreas nativas de matas brasileiras - Peltophorum dubium, Inga sp., Mimosa scabrella, Acacia polyphylla, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia - e uma leguminosa exótica, Acacia mangium. Realizou-se, também, o plantio puro de E. grandis. Mimosa scabrella e A. mangium foram as leguminosas com maior crescimento. Eucalyptus grandis consorciado com M. scabrella cresceu menos, no entanto foi o povoamento com maior acumulação de biomassa. As densidades de raízes finas (DRF do E. grandis foram 6 a 20 vezes maiores que as DRF das leguminosas na camada superficial do solo (0-10 cm 24 meses após plantio. A DRF de M. scabrella e de M. caesalpiniaefolia foi maior na camada 30-50 cm e menor na camada 10-30 cm. Os valores de delta15N da M. scabrella indicam que 90% do N acumulado em seus tecidos é oriundo da FBN.The objective of this work was to assess interactions between species on the above and belowground growth, nitrogen uptake and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and native leguminous N2-fixing trees. A complete randomized block design was installed with seven treatments and three blocks. Within the lines of the E. grandis seedlings, native leguminous N2-fixing trees - Peltophorum dubium, Inga sp., Mimosa scabrella, Acacia polyphylla, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia - and one exotic leguminous plant, Acacia mangium, were intercropped. E. grandis was also solely planted. Mimosa scabrella and A. mangium were the legume trees that presented the highest growth. Although E. grandis showed a lower

  1. Barbechos mejorados con leguminosas: una promisoria alternativa agroecológica para el manejo alelopático de malezas y mejoramiento del cultivo de arroz y maíz en los Llanos de Colombia

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    Delgado H. Hernando

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El manejo químico de malezas en arroz asciende hasta un 20% de los costos totales del cultivo, bajando así su rentabilidad. Buscando explorar alternativas de manejo, el presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de tres sistemas de labranza, cuatro barbechos mejorados con leguminosas, el barbecho nativo y tres dosis de herbicidas, sobre la densidad total de malezas resurgentes dentro de los cultivos, algunas propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento del arroz y el maíz. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en el Centro de Investigación La Libertad (Villavicencio y en dos fincas en la zona del Ariari, bajo un diseño experimental de parcelas subdivididas con tres repeticiones. Mucuna deeringianum (Bort. Smal presentó los más fuertes efectos alelopáticos, con porcentajes promedio de control de malezas –adicionales al efecto de los herbicidas– entre 41 y 62%; seguida de Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don, con porcentajes de control entre 27 y 46%. Por esta razón, dosis de herbicidas reducidas al 70% de las comerciales mostraron adecuados niveles de control. Es así que los rendimientos de arroz secano favorecido y maíz en la zona del Ariari llegaron a ser incluso superiores a los obtenidos con dosis completas de herbicidas, aunque sin mostrar diferencias significativas. Ambas leguminosas aumentaron el rendimiento del arroz secano favorecido hasta en 1.446 kg ha-1, y mejoraron algunas propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo, en tanto que únicamente C. ochroleuca incrementó la producción de maíz en 331 kg ha-1. Los múltiples e integrales beneficios agronómicos obtenidos con el uso de un período de barbecho mejorado muestran su potencial para el manejo alelopático de malezas, y como práctica agroecológica en cultivos de arroz y maíz.

  2. Sucessão vegetal em uma encosta reflorestada com leguminosas arbóreas em Angra dos Reis, RJ Natural succession under a nitrogen-fixing legume trees stand in a hillside at Angra dos Reis - RJ, Brazil

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    Sylvia de Souza Chada

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma encosta reflorestada há sete anos com leguminosas arbóreas (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora em Angra dos Reis, RJ, foi avaliada a composição florística e fitossociológica da regeneração natural, comparando-as com as de um fragmento de Mata Secundária situado a 200 m de distância. Foram considerados os três terços da encosta, com declividades decrescentes. Em 12 parcelas de 200 m², quatro em cada terço da encosta, foram amostrados 699 indivíduos vegetais a partir de 40 cm de altura, distribuídos em 25 famílias e 50 espécies. As famílias com maior nº de indivíduos foram Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 e Lauraceae (41. Já as famílias com maior nº de espécies foram Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 e Myrtaceae (5. As leguminosas plantadas não estavam regenerando na própria área. A evolução da sucessão natural apresentou um gradiente de desenvolvimento em razão da menor declividade e menor distância dos remanescentes florestais, com maior densidade de indivíduos e maior riqueza de espécies na área de menor declividade.The floristic composition and natural regeneration under a 7-year-old legume tree plantation (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora was investigated in comparing with a secondary forest 200 m away at Angra dos Reis, RJ. The hillside was divided in 3 parts following the slope. The lower part of the hillside was the nearest to the natural forest remnant. In 12 plots with 200 m² each, 4 of them in each section of the hillside, 699 plants larger then 40 cm height were observed, distributed in 25 families and 50 species. The families with the most individuals were Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 and Lauraceae (41. The families with the most species were Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 and Myrtaceae (5. None of the legume species introduced in the area had produced natural regeneration. The evolution of natural succession

  3. Selección de leguminosas herbáceas para el fomento de cobertura en plantaciones de naranja Valencia late Selection of herbaceous legumes for the development of cover in Valencia late orange plantations

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    Dayamí Fontes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de leguminosas herbáceas dentro de las áreas de frutales precisa de estudios que demuestren la compatibilidad de estas asociaciones, con vista a mejorar la producción en estos agroecosistemas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue seleccionar la especie leguminosa más adecuada para emplearla como cobertura viva en plantaciones de naranja Valencia late, sobre la base de su caracterización morfoagronómica. El estudio se realizó en áreas de la Empresa de Cítricos Ciego de Ávila. Para ello se establecieron parcelas de 3 m2, sobre un suelo Ferralítico Rojo compactado, donde no se había aplicado fertilizantes ni herbicidas. Se utilizaron 14 tratamientos y se midieron los siguientes indicadores: emergencia (a los 7, 14, 21, 28 y 35 días después de la siembra en cada parcela, altura (cm, cobertura foliar (% y producción de semillas (t ha-1. De acuerdo con los resultados, Teramnus labialis fue la especie más adecuada para usarla como cobertura viva en plantaciones citrícolas, en correspondencia con el porcentaje de emergencia, el área cubierta, la altura estacional y la producción de semilla alcanzada durante el proceso de evaluación, por lo que se recomienda su utilización en los ecosistemas citrícolas de naranja V. late de Ciego de Ávila.The establishment of herbaceous legumes within fruit tree areas requires studies that prove the compatibility of these associations, aiming at improving production in these agroecosystems. The objective of this work was to select the most adequate legume species to be used as live cover in Valencia late orange plantations, based on their morphoagronomic characterization. The study was conducted in areas of the Ciego de Ávila Citrus Fruit Enterprise. For such purpose 3 m2 plots were established on a compacted Ferralitic Red soil, where neither fertilizers nor herbicides had been applied. Fourteen treatments were used and the following indicators were measured: emergence (7, 14

  4. Crescimento de Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (Leguminosae sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento Growth of Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (Leguminosae under different shading levels

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    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. é uma espécie clímax tolerante a sombra, ao passo que Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. é uma espécie pioneira. O desenvolvimento destas espécies pode refletir a habilidade de adaptação aos diferentes fatores ambientais (luz, água e temperatura no local em que estão crescendo. O suprimento inadequado de um desses fatores pode reduzir o vigor da planta e limitar seu desenvolvimento. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do nível de sombreamento no crescimento e a concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos em duas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. O experimento foi conduzido no Setor de Olericultura do Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJI/ULBRA/Rondônia. Durante a formação das mudas, ambas as espécies foram expostas a quatro tratamentos de sombra: 0 % (controle - sol pleno; 30 %; 50 % e 80 %. Cada tratamento foi constituído com três repetições de cada espécie; o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado. Quatro meses após a semeadura, as seguintes análises foram realizadas: número de folhas, altura da planta, comprimento do sistema radicular, massa seca total e concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos. O tratamento sob sol pleno afetou negativamente o crescimento de ambas as espécies. As mudas crescidas sob 50% e 80% apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento. Conforme o aumento do sombreamento houve um decréscimo na razão clorofila a/b e um aumento nas concentrações de clorofila total e carotenóides totais.Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. is a clímax shadow tolerant specie and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., by the other hand, is considered as a pioneer specie. The development of these species may reflect its adaptation ability to different environmental

  5. Transferência do N fixado por leguminosas arbóreas para o capim Survenola crescido em consórcio Transference of N fixed by legume trees to Survenola grass grown in intercropped system

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    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito na transferência de N proveniente de três leguminosas arbóreas para o capim Survenola (Híbrido entre Digitaria setivalva e D. valida amostrado em cinco distâncias (D1- 50cm do caule; D2- metade do raio da projeção da copa; D3- uma vez o raio da projeção da copa; distâncias estas correspondentes às áreas de influência das copas; e D4- uma vez e meia o raio da projeção da copa; D5- duas vezes o raio da projeção da copa; distâncias correspondentes às áreas fora das copas e consideradas como testemunhas. Duas espécies arbóreas, Dalbergia nigra (Jacarandá da Bahia e Enterolobium contorsiliquum (Orelha de Negro, são nodulíferas e fixam N simbioticamente, enquanto que Peltophorum dubium (Angico Canjiquinha é uma espécie não-nodulífera. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em parcela subdividida, com três repetições, em que a árvore representou a parcela e as cinco distâncias as subparcelas. Determinou-se a abundância natural de 15N(delta15N,‰ com o auxílio do espectrômetro de massa Finnigan Mat, modelo Delta plus, da Embrapa Agrobiologia. Os valores de delta15N (‰ na parte aérea do capim Survenola indicaram que a maior influência das árvores como fornecedoras de N para a gramínea se deu na área mais próxima ao tronco. Nos tratamentos com Dalbergia nigra e Enterolobium contortisiliquum, a gramínea apresentou valores crescentes de delta15N com o aumento da distância do raio de projeção da copa, indicando o efeito da reciclagem do N2 fixado por estas duas leguminosas. O nitrogênio na gramínea derivado das espécies arbóreas variou entre 0 e 38%, dependendo da espécie e da distância consideradas. Houve um decréscimo de transferência de N da leguminosa para o capim Survenola com o aumento da distância em relação ao tronco das espécies arbóreas. A transferência de N da leguminosa para a gramínea foi de 29,9; 37,7 e 28% do

  6. Consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae alimentado com folíolos de Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae em três níveis de maturidade

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    Trevisan Henrique

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae tem como principal hospedeiro a essência arbórea Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae, utilizada em diversos estados brasileiros, principalmente, na arborização urbana. Nos últimos anos, foram registrados surtos anuais deste inseto, principalmente no estado do Rio de Janeiro, com desfolha intensa e conseqüente estresse fisiológico das árvores. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em laboratório, o consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de U. acawoios, alimentado com folíolos de C. fairchildiana em três diferentes estádios de maturidade: novos, intermediários e velhos. O consumo de lagartas de U. acawoios foi maior com folíolos novos e a duração das fases de desenvolvimento, a longevidade e o ciclo de vida desse inseto foram afetados pelo tipo de folíolo de C. fairchildiana. A porcentagem de sobrevivência de U. acawoios foi maior para indivíduos alimentados com folíolos de C. fairchildiana de maturidade intermediária.

  7. Comportamento de dois genótipos de milho cultivados em sistema de aléias preestabelecido com diferentes leguminosas arbóreas Behaviour of two maize genotypes grown in alley cropping system pre-established with diferents leguminous trees

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    Andréia Araújo Lima Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo em aléias tem sido recomendado como alternativa para a substituição da agricultura de corte e queima, no trópico úmido, devido à grande capacidade de produção de matéria orgânica e de reciclagem de nutrientes, mas algumas dúvidas quanto à sustentabilidade e à competição interespecífica são persistentes. O objetivo no trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da cultura do milho em um sistema de cultivo em aléias de leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições dos tratamentos: aléias de sombreiro (Clitoria fairchildiana, ingá (Inga edulis, guandu (Cajanus cajan e leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e uma testemunha sem aléias. Foram avaliadas a remobilização de carbono e nitrogênio, massa de grãos, massa de mil grãos e competição interespecífica entre as cultivares de milho e as leguminosas. A produção de grãos foi maior nas parcelas com C. fairchildiana e L. leucocephala. A produtividade do híbrido de milho foi superior à da variedade em todos os tratamentos. A produtividade e a massa de mil grãos de milho não são negativamente afetadas pela distância da linha da leguminosa arbórea. Esse estudo conclui que o sistema de aléias com leguminosas arbóreas é uma alternativa importante ao manejo sustentável dos agroecossistemas no tropico úmido. Além disso, nessa região a produtividade em grãos na cultura do milho é favorecida no sistema de aléias preeestabelecidas com as leguminosas arbóreas sombreiro, ingá e leucena e pela utilização de genótipos eficientes no aproveitamento do nitrogênio, cujo sincronismo entre a liberação e a absorção do N aplicado por meio das leguminosas deve ser aprimorado.Alley cropping has been recommended as alternative land use to slash-and-burn agriculture in humid tropics. However, interespecific competition between cash crop and hedgerow can reduce this potential. This study aimed to evaluate the

  8. In situ variation in leaf anatomy and morphology of Andira legalis (Leguminosae in two neighbouring but contrasting light environments in a Brazilian sandy coastal plain Variação in situ em anatomia e morfologia foliar de Andira legalis (Leguminosae em dois ambientes adjacentes, porém contrastantes quanto ao regime de luz, em restinga brasileira

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    Daniela Carvalho Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo is a legume shrub widespread along the sandy plains of the Brazilian coast. It occurs both shaded, in forest habitats, or exposed to full sunlight, in the vegetation islands growing on sand deposits. Previous studies reported a high range of morpho-physiological variation for this species along a geographical gradient. This study compared leaf morphology and anatomy of A. legalis in two distinct but adjacent light environments: a dense forest (shaded and a scrub of Palmae (exposed. We studied the amplitude of variation for these traits within a small (0.5 ha geographical area. Leaf anatomy parameters were measured for five leaves collected from five plants in each habitat. The parameters measured were leaf and mesophyll thickness, thickness of the outer periclinal cell wall, thickness of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis and vascular bundle transversal section area, and also common epidermal cells, stomata and trichome density. Leaf morphology parameters were obtained from five leaves of each of 20 plants in each site. Dry and fresh weights were measured to obtain leaf specific mass and succulence. All anatomy and morphology parameters, except trichome density, were significantly higher for the sun-exposed plants. Less expected, however, was the marked qualitative difference between exposed and shaded plants: in the former the mesophyll had a unilateral symmetry (i.e., the whole mesophyll occupied by photosynthetic tissue, whereas in the latter there was a dorsiventral symmetry (i.e., partly palisade and partly spongy parenchyma. Such amplitude of variation shows that even within a small geographic area A. legalis has a broad ecological plasticity.Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo é uma leguminosa arbustiva distribuída ao longo de planícies arenosas da costa brasileira. Tem ocorrência em ambientes florestais, sombreadas, ou em ilhas de vegetação de restingas abertas, onde é exposta à plena radiação solar

  9. EFFECT OF LEGUME TREES ON SOIL MACROFAUNA OF A Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU PASTURE EFEITO DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS SOBRE A MACROFAUNA DO SOLO EM PASTAGEM DE Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU

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    Avílio Antonio Franco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of four legume tree species in a Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture on soil macrofauna density and diversity, in a low natural fertility soil. The tree leguminous species introduced in the pasture were Pseudosamanea guachapele, Mimosa artemisiana, Mimosa tenuiflora, and Enterolobium contortisiliquum. The macrofauna sampling consisted in collecting six soil monoliths with 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm under tree canopies or in a transect in the single Brachiaria pasture. The densities varied from 602 individuals.m-2 under the canopy of E. contortisiliquum to two individuals.m-2 in the single pasture. The largest group richness was found under M. tenuiflora canopy (ten groups, followed by P. guachapele (nine groups, E. contortisiliquum (seven groups and M. artemisiana (six groups. The leguminous species influence was related to N content and to C:N ratio of leaf material. M. artemisiana and M. tenuiflora favored the occurrence of Oligochaeta and Coleoptera larvae, while under the P. guachapele and E. contortisiliquum canopies Formicidae activity was more intense.

    KEY-WORDS: Soil macrofauna; sivipastoral systems; soil quality.

    O objetivou deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de quatro espécies leguminosas arbóreas, em uma pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, com dois anos de estabelecimento, sobre a densidade e diversidade da macrofauna de um planossolo de baixa fertilidade natural. As espécies arbóreas introduzidas na pastagem foram: Pseudosamanea guachapele, Mimosa artemisiana, Mimosa tenuiflora e Enterolobium contortisiliquum. A amostragem da macrofauna consistiu na retirada de seis monolitos de solo com 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm sob a copa das árvores ou em um transecto na pastagem solteira. As densidades variaram de 602

  10. Dependência de micorrizas para a nodulação de leguminosas arbóreas tropicais Dependence on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for nodulation and growth of tropical woody legume species

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    Ederson da Conceição Jesus

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de leguminosas Piptadenia gonoacantha e Piptadenia paniculata apresentam dificuldade para nodular e crescer em substratos esterilizados, o que dificulta a seleção de estirpes de rizóbio eficientes dessas espécies. As plantas que apresentam nódulos no campo estão micorrizadas. Assim, a boa resposta das plantas no campo pode ser devida à presença de FMAs. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da micorrização sobre a nodulação e crescimento de plantas de P. gonoacantha e P. paniculata. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, na Embrapa Agrobiologia, Rio de Janeiro. As plantas foram inoculadas com estirpes de rizóbio específicas de cada espécie e com os fungos Gigaspora margarita e Glomus clarum. Ambas as espécies vegetais demonstraram-se altamente responsivas à inoculação com FMAs. Plantas que receberam rizóbios e fungos micorrízicos apresentaram-se noduladas, com maior produção de matéria seca. Já as plantas inoculadas apenas com rizóbio não exibiram nódulos e tiveram menor acúmulo de matéria seca. As plantas de P. gonoacantha apresentaram maior conteúdo de P na parte aérea quando inoculadas com FMAs. Esses resultados indicam que a micorrização é necessária para a nodulação e crescimento satisfatórios das espécies estudadas, e sugere-se a inoculação com FMAs para a seleção de estirpes eficientes de rizóbio em leguminosas com dificuldade de crescimento no sistema convencional de seleção de estirpes.The leguminous species Piptadenia gonoacantha and Piptadenia paniculata do not nodulate and grow well on sterilized substrates. For this reason selection of efficient rhizobial strains for these species becomes hard to perform. Plants growing in the field are well nodulated and colonized with mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal colonization may be an explanation for the good plant responses in the field. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on nodulation and growth of the

  11. Aerobic stability of triticale silage in single culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes Estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

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    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the aerobic stability and losses during the fermentation process of triticale silages in single crop or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The following crops were used for silage production: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack, triticale intercropped with forage pea (Pisum arvense and triticale intercropped with oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, forage pea and vetch (Vicia sativa. The dry matter content and its recovery did not differ among the silages. Buffer capacity was higher for tricale silage intercropped with oats, forage pea and vetch(88.67 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM followed by triticale intercropped with forage pea (80.80 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM. Electric conductivity values were higher in the intercropped triticale silages. Triticale silage presented the lowest temperatures observed in the silos, and the silages of intercropped triticale silages presented higher heat retention and higher pH values. Silage of triticale intercropped with oats and legumes presented lower aerobic stability but it did not reduce the aerobic stability of the total feed. Dry matter recovery during storage and in stability evaluations in aerobiosis is similar among the silages.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia e as perdas durante o processo de fermentação de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. As culturas utilizadas para produção das silagens foram: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack; triticale em consórcio com ervilha-forrageira (Pisum arvense; e triticale em consórcio com aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (Vicia sativa. O teor de matéria seca e a recuperação de matéria seca não diferiram entre as silagens. A capacidade tampão foi maior para a silagem de triticale cultivado em consórcio com aveia, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (88,67 m eq. NaOH/100 g de MS, seguida da silagem de triticale cultivado

  12. Cobertura do solo e estoque de nutrientes de duas leguminosas perenes, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio Soil cover and nutrient accumulation of two perennial legumes as functions of spacing and planting densities

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    A. Perin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de leguminosas herbáceas perenes nos sistemas de produção constitui ainda um desafio, principalmente por apresentarem crescimento inicial lento. Para viabilizar sua implantação, este trabalho objetivou determinar as taxas de cobertura do solo, produção de matéria seca, teores e acumulação de N, P e K das leguminosas herbáceas perenes galáxia (Galactia striata e cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio. O experimento, instalado em dezembro/98 na Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, constou do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 x 4, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das espécies galáxia e cudzu tropical, plantadas em dois espaçamentos entre sulcos de plantio (25 e 50 cm e quatro densidades de plantas (5, 10, 15 e 20 plantas m-1. A densidade adequada para a rápida cobertura do solo para cudzu tropical e galáxia foi de 10 plantas m-1, no espaçamento de 25 cm entre os sulcos de plantio. A maior produção de matéria seca e acumulação de N, P e K na parte aérea das plantas foram evidenciadas apenas no primeiro corte, sendo os maiores valores obtidos no espaçamento de 25 cm e na densidade de 10 plantas m-1. O espaçamento de 25 cm com 10 plantas m-1 foi a combinação mais adequada para a plena formação da cobertura viva do solo com cudzu tropical e galáxia.The establishment of herbaceous perennial leguminous in production systems is still a challenge, mainly because of the slow initial growth. Evaluations of the soil cover ratio, dry matter production, contents and accumulations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium of the herbaceous perennial Galactia striata and Pueraria phaseoloides, sown in different densities and row spacing, aimed at making their establishments feasible. The experiment was conducted in December/98 at Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, in a completely randomized block design, as a factorial

  13. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO EM CAPIM-TANZÂNIA NOS SISTEMAS DE PLANTIO SOLTEIRO E CONSÓRCIO COM LEGUMINOSAS GROWTH ANALYSIS OF TANZANIA GRASS DIFFERENT SISTEMS CROPPIN WITH LEGUMES

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    Tomas de Aquino Portes e Castro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da competição no crescimento da gramínea forrageira Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia em consórcio com as leguminosas forrageiras Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão e Neonotonia wightii cv. comum, nos sistemas de plantio solteiro e consórcio. O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e os seguintes tratamentos: Tanzânia em sistema solteiro de plantio; Tanzânia em consórcio com soja perene; e Tanzânia em consórcio com estilozantes. Considerando que a TCC máxima (kg.ha-1.dia-1 do Tanzânia foi obtida aos 84 DAE, o IAF observado nessa mesma data correspondeu ao IAF ótimo. Isso demonstra que os consórcios não afetaram o ciclo dessa gramínea, mas sim no que se refere aos valores obtidos para TCC e IAF, principalmente no consórcio do Tanzânia com estilozantes. O baixo valor observado para Tanzânia no consórcio com soja perene evidencia o efeito de inibição mútua. Desse modo, em relação à TCC e MS, os baixos valores observados para a Tanzânia no consórcio com soja perene sugerem um efeito supressor, promovido pela referida leguminosa. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Índice de área foliar (IAF, Neonotonia wightii, Panicum maximum, Stylosanthes guianensis, taxa de crescimento da cultura (TCC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of the competition in the growth of the forage grasses Panicum maximum to Tanzânia cv. and two legumies forages Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão and Neonotonia wightii cv. Common, in the single and mixed crop systems. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with four replications and the treatments were: Tanzânia grass in a single crop system; Tanzânia grass in a mixed crop system with the Perennial Soy and Tanzânia grass in a mixed crop system with Stilozantes. Considering that maximum TCC (kg.ha-1.dia-1 of Tanzânia they were obtained 84 DAE, to leaf area index (IAF observed in this same

  14. Avaliação da solubilidade de cobre e zinco em caldos de leguminosas Evaluation of the solubility of copper and zinc in a salty, watrry vegetatable soup

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    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os metais cobre e zinco podem se apresentar sob diversas formas químicas na natureza: como sais, estando sob a forma de íons I e II ou como compostos orgânicos, complexados com aminoácidos e proteínas. A forma mais biodisponível ao organismo é a forma de compostos organo quelados. Avaliando os teores dos metais em caldo de leguminosas processadas termicamente em meios salino e aquoso é possível avaliar a solubilidade destes metais. Duas marcas e dois lotes de amostras de feijão preto, feijão branco, feijão carioquinha, feijão mulatinho, feijão manteiga, ervilha e lentilha foram processadas termicamente em meios salino e aquoso e determinou-se os teores totais de cobre e zinco em seus caldos. Os caldos foram dissolvidos em HCl 2molL-1 e o teor total de cobre e zinco nas amostras foi determinado através da espectroscopia de absorção atômica em chama. Na análise da rejeição de resultados foi aplicado o teste Dixon e o teste t de student. Os resultados mostraram que a solubilidade média dos metais cobre e zinco nos meios aquoso e salino foram respectivamente 8 e 6%. Acredita-se que os compostos de cobre e zinco nas leguminosas analisadas não são compostos inorgânicos facilmente solúveis em água. Estudos de especiação podem auxiliar na análise da biodisponibilidade destes metais.Copper and zinc can appear in nature under chemical forms, such as salts, being as íons I and II or as organic compounds, synthesized as amino acids and proteins. The most bio-available form to the human body are organic compounds. The solubility of these metals can be determined by evaluating their ratio in a both of legumes thermally processed in an aqueous and a saline mediium. Samples of several varieties of beans, peas, lentils and chickpeas, in two batches containing two different brands of each variety, were thermally processeced in an aqueous and a saline medium and the total ratio of copper and zinc in their respective broths was

  15. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas Interference of light availability on response to fertilization of enrichment plantings with leguminous trees

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    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala e H. courbaril à fertilização. A aleatorização não foi suficiente para garantir condições semelhantes de luz nos plantios de enriquecimento. A variação na quantidade de luz incidente no sub‑bosque compromete a correta avaliação dos tratamentos de fertilização.The objective of this work was to evaluate the interference of light availability on response to fertilization of enrichment plantings of secondary growth forest with leguminous trees. The species Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala, and Stryphnodendron microstachyum were planted in a secondary growth forest under three fertilization treatments: organic fertilization, organic fertilization plus mineral fertilization, and absence of fertilization. Light availability modulated the response of P. platycephala and H. courbaril to fertilization treatments. Randomization was not sufficient to ensure similar light conditions in the enrichment plantings. Variation in the amount of incident light compromises the sound evaluation of fertilization treatments.

  16. Aporte de nutrientes pela serapilheira em uma área degradada e revegetada com leguminosas arbóreas Nutrient input through litter in a degraded area revegetated with legume trees

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    G. S. Costa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o aporte de nutrientes pela deposição de serapilheira em uma área degradada, que sofreu empréstimo de solo, após dez anos da sua revegetação com as leguminosas arbóreas: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (sabiá, Acacia auriculiformis (acácia e Gliricidia sepium (gliricídia; e outra área vizinha, um fragmento da mata Atlântica em crescimento secundário (capoeira. O trabalho foi realizado no campo experimental da Embrapa-Agrobiologia, Km 47, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. Na amostragem, utilizaram-se coletores circulares do material formador da serapilheira com área de 0,25 m², determinando-se os teores de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca e Mg e polifenóis. A quantidade de serapilheira depositada foi influenciada pelas espécies de leguminosas utilizadas na revegetação, variando de 5,7 Mg ha -1 ano-1 de matéria seca (MS, onde predominava gliricídia, até 11,2 Mg ha-1 ano-1 , na faixa formada pela sabiá com contribuição do material de acácia. A deposição na capoeira foi de 9,2 Mg ha-1 ano-1 de MS. O material de gliricídia foi o mais rico em nutrientes (N, P, Ca e Mg e o que apresentou os menores teores de polifenóis; qualitativamente formou a serapilheira mais favorável ao processo de decomposição. O aporte de nutrientes correlacionou-se com a quantidade de serapilheira depositada. Na revegetação, o aporte anual de nutrientes, em kg ha-1 ano-1 , variou: para o N, de 130 a 170; para o P, de 4,9 a 7,9; para K, de 24 a 31; para o Ca, de 150 a 190, e para o Mg, de 28,6 a 40,0. Estes valores foram similares ou superiores aos observados para a capoeira, que foram para o N, 140, para o P, 4,9, para o Ca, 110, e para o Mg, 31,7, exceto para o K, 63. A revegetação com leguminosas, em áreas degradadas, adiciona, relativamente, em pouco tempo, grande quantidade de matéria orgânica e N por meio da produção de serapilheira, favorecendo a ciclagem de nutrientes e o processo de recuperação.The aim of

  17. Sucessão entre cultivos orgânicos de milho e couve consorciados com leguminosas em plantio direto Organic crop succession of maize and collard greens intercropped with legumes in no-tillage system

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    EE Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Práticas agrícolas têm sido desenvolvidas para reduzir a aplicação de insumos químicos e minimizar as agressões ao meio ambiente, produzindo alimentos mais saudáveis e ecologicamente corretos. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho da sucessão entre couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala e milho (Zea may L., em consórcio com leguminosas para fins de adubação verde, sob plantio direto em manejo orgânico. O estudo foi conduzido em Seropédica, Região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, em dois anos. Utilizaram-se, como adubos verdes, mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana e crotalária spectabilis (Crotalaria spectabilis em consórcio com couve e em sucessão crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea e mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens em consórcio com milho. Como controles utilizaram-se os monocultivos de couve e milho. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, constituindo fatorial 3 (sistema de cultivo x 2 (doses de cama-de-frango, com quatro repetições, em parcelas de 20 m². Na couve, aplicou-se em cobertura cama-de-frango nas doses 0 e 5,4 t ha-1 (2,7 t ha-1 em duas aplicações em 2003 e 0 e 2,7 t ha-1 em 2004. Em monocultivo, a produtividade da couve foi de 37,7 e 18,4 t ha-1; consorciada com mucuna-anã, foi de 40,3 e 38,8 t ha-1 e com crotalária spectabilis, de 42,9 e 24,8 t ha-1, em 2003 e 2004, respectivamente. O milho beneficiou-se do efeito residual da adubação com cama-de-frango, aumentando o número de espigas produzidas de 25.625 para 27.916 ha-1. O cultivo de couve em sucessão ao milho, consorciada com leguminosas anuais, sob adubação orgânica com cama-de-frango, resultou em aumento de produtividade das culturas de couve e milho.New farming practices have been developed to reduce the application of fertilizer and pesticides and minimize the aggression to the environment, producing healthy foods and environmentally correct. We evaluated the performance of the succession of collard greens (Brassica

  18. Avaliação da produtividade de fitomassa e acúmulo de N, P e K em leguminosas arbóreas no sistema de aléias, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Evaluation of phytomass productivity and N, P and K accumulation of shrub legumes in alley cropping system in Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ

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    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de fitomassa da parte aérea e o acúmulo de N, P e K nas leguminosas arbóreas em sistemas agroflorestais de aléias, bem como verificar o efeito da adição de fósforo sobre as leguminosas. Foram realizados experimentos de campo com a utilização de leguminosas, com e sem adição de P, por dois anos consecutivos de avaliação, em Campos dos Goytacazes,RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram do sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, estas foram podadas a 1,5 m de altura, restando a haste principal. O material podado foi pesado, descartando-se os ramos com diâmetro superior a 1,5 cm e sendo retiradas as amostras compostas para determinações da fitomassa seca e dos teores de N, P e K. Efetuou-se nova poda 80 dias após a primeira, e pesou-se esse material. No primeiro ano, o guandu mostrou-se superior na produtividade de fitomassa seca e no acúmulo de N, P e K. No segundo ano de avaliação, no experimento com adição de P a leucena e a canafístula assemelharam-se ao guandu na produtividade de fitomassa, enquanto a leucena e o guandu, no acúmulo de N e P, porém a leucena superou o guandu e a canafístula no acúmulo de K na parte aérea. A aplicação de P teve efeito positivo na produtividade de fitomassa seca de algumas espécies.The objective of this study was to evaluate the shoot phytomass and shrub legumes N, P and K accumulation in agroforestry system (alley cropping system and study the effect of P fertilization. Two field experiments were carried out - without and with P application - for two years: 2004 and 2005, using shrub legumes in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the

  19. Evaluación de la diversidad morfológica en Crotalaria incana L. (Fabaceae, Faboideae, una leguminosa silvestre de valor forrajero Evaluation of morphological diversity in Crotalaria incana L. (Fabaceae, Faboideae, a native forage legume

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    A. M. Planchuelo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Crotalaria incana L. es una leguminosa subtropical de valor forrajero. Estudios morfológicos mostraron que las poblaciones cordobesas tienen similitud con C. megapotamica Burkart, endémica de Entre Ríos. Se estudiaron 58 materiales de herbario considerados unidades taxonómicas operacionales (OTUs. Se analizaron 58 caracteres exomorfológicos de los cuales 17 formaron parte de una matriz evaluada mediante análisis multivariado y componentes principales. El fenograma y los componentes principales separan las 58 OTUs en dos grupos diferenciados por la pubescencia, largo y ancho de los folíolos y largo de los pelos. Los caracteres atribuidos a C. megapotamica tienen valor discriminante positivo que no justifica su inclusión en la sinonimia de C. incana, pero a su vez, no tienen una gran significación taxonómica como para que C. megapotamica sea una especie independiente. Se establece que los materiales de Córdoba y de toda la Argentina sean tratados como un complejo taxonómico, denominado Crotalaria incana L. sensu lato. Se recomienda llamar a los grupos identificados como Grupo 1 y Grupo 2, hasta resolver los estatus nomenclaturales mediante estudios de tipos, revisión de nombres científicos y establecimiento de las correctas sinonimias. Se provee descripción morfológica e ilustración de C. incana L. s.l. y se listan los materiales estudiados.Crotalaria incana L. is subtropical forage legume. Morphological studies reveled that the population growing in Cordoba is similar to C. megaponamica Burkart, endemic of Entre Rios. Fifty eight herbarium specimens considered as operational taxonomic units (OTUs were studied. Fifty eight morphological characters were analyzed using statistical techniques and 17 characters were used for cluster and principal component analyses. The phenogram and the principal components separate the 58 OTUs in two groups, identified by characters related with pubescence of vegetative organs, length and width of

  20. Efectos combinados de escarificación y de hidratación parcial en la germinación de semillas frescas de leguminosas Combined effects of scarification and partial hydration on the germination of fresh legume seeds

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    Yolanda González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicó un diseño de clasificación simple con arreglo factorial y cinco réplicas (25 semillas cada una para conocer la germinación de las semillas frescas de leguminosas sometidas a diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos de hidratación-deshidratación y condiciones controladas de estrés calórico del sustrato. Previamente se estudió el comportamiento germinativo ante tratamientos de escarificación: agua a 80ºC durante 2' (en semillas de Crotalaria sp. y H2SO4 al 96% durante 10' (en semillas de Indigofera sp., Desmanthus virgatus y Centrosema pubescens, que se combinaron con un tratamiento de hidratación parcial en agua a temperatura alterna de 25/30ºC (termoperíodo óptimo de germinación. La hidratación parcial se realizó hasta dos horas antes del inicio de la germinación visible; en las semillas escarificadas de Indigofera sp., D. virgatus, Crotalaria sp. y C. pubescens este momento se alcanzó a las 15, 16, 16 y 19 horas, respectivamente. La deshidratación se llevó a cabo al aire durante 48 horas, hasta alcanzar aproximadamente el contenido inicial de humedad de las semillas (7-12% en base a la masa fresca. En todas las especies, excepto en D. virgatus, los tratamientos de hidratación parcial incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación, aunque originaron una mayor velocidad de germinación. Se concluye que los tratamientos de hidratación parcial en agua son adecuados para incrementar la germinación de las especies estudiadas, excepto en D. virgatus, bajo condiciones controladas de estrés calórico.A simple classification design with factorial arrangement and five replications (25 seeds each was used in order to know the germination of fresh legume seeds subject to different pregerminative hydration-dehydration treatments and controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. The germinative performance before scarification treatments was previously studied: water at 80ºC for 2' (in Crotalaria sp. seeds and H2

  1. Comportamiento de la simbiosis leguminosa-rizobio en Centrosema plumieri inoculada con Bradyrhizobium sp. Ensayo de campo Performance of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis in Centrosema plumieri inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Field essay

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    C. J. Bécquer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un experimento de campo, sin riego, en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, durante el periodo de noviembre de 2001 a abril de 2002. El objetivo fue evaluar el comportamiento simbiótico de Centrosema plumieri, inoculada con cepas de Bradyrhizobium sp., previamente aisladas de leguminosas forrajeras procedentes de ecosistemas ganaderos de Cuba. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar; se utilizaron 11 tratamientos inoculados con cepas nativas, un testigo inoculado con la cepa de referencia 5030 (Bradyrhizobium sp. y un control no inoculado, con tres réplicas. Se aplicó un análisis de varianza (ANOVA, así como de correlación y regresión. Los valores de los tratamientos inoculados fueron estadísticamente iguales a los del control absoluto, en cuanto al peso seco aéreo (PSA y el rendimiento de N (RN, excepto el inoculado con la cepa HA2 en RN. En general, se demostró una débil efectividad de la inoculación. No obstante, en el índice de nodulación (IN sobresalieron JH2 y HA2, con valores estadísticamente superiores (pA field trial, without irrigation, was conducted at the Sancti Spiritus Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages, Cuba, from November, 2001, to April, 2002. The objective was to evaluate the symbiotic performance of Centrosema plumieri, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. strains, previously isolated from forage legumes of Cuban livestock production ecosystems. The experimental design consisted in randomized blocks; 11 treatments inoculated with native strains, a control inoculated with the reference strain 5030 (Bradyrhizobium sp. and a non-inoculated control were used, with three replications. A variance analysis (ANOVA, as well as correlation and regression analyses, were applied. The values of the inoculated treatments were statistically equal to those of the absolute control, regarding aerial dry weight (ADW and N yield (NY, except the one inoculated with the

  2. Nodulation, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and growth of some legumes native from Brazil Nodulação, colonização micorrízica arbuscular e crescimento de algumas leguminosas nativas do Brasil

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    Camila M. Patreze

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rhizobial and mycorrhizal inoculation, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and initial growth were examined in Brazilian native plants, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Conc. Morong, Inga laurina (Sw. Willd., Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus Hassl and Platypodium elegans Vogel. The experiment was carried out in a glasshouse using plastic bags filled with a mixture of sandy soil from riparian forest and vermiculite (2:1 amended with basal nutrients including NP, P and N and infected with rhizobia (r, mycorrhiza (m or both (rm, amounting seven treatments: NP, P, P+r, P+rm, N, N+m and N+rm, with ten replications each. The plants were analyzed at 120 and 255 days after sowing. P deficiency negatively affected growth and nodulation of all species. Autochton arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonized host roots and fungal inoculations did not enhance mycorrhizal colonization, which was also favored by added P. Nodulation was relatively higher in E. contortisiliquum and L. muehlbergianus, mainly in treatments containing P, and with rhizobial inoculation (P+r. Plants from these treatments developed better than others and, despite the rhizobia inoculated had no synergistic relationship with inoculated AMF, they also showed the best percentages of mycorrhizal colonization. Moreover, these two species showed highest rates of acetylene reduction and highest leghemoglobin content. These results suggest that E. contortisiliquum and L. muehlbergianus can have advantages for establishment in soils with low nitrogen levels.Foram examinados os efeitos da inoculação com rizóbio e micorriza, da fertilização com nitrogênio e fósforo na nodulação, na colonização micorrízica e no crescimento inicial das leguminosas arbóreas brasileiras Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Conc. Morong, Inga laurina (Sw. Willd., Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus Hassl e Platypodium elegans Vogel. O experimento foi

  3. Evapotranspiração e coeficientes de cultivo da beterraba orgânica sob cobertura morta de leguminosa e gramínea Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of beet in organic mulch of grass and legume

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    Dionízio H Oliveira Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As práticas agrícolas que maximizam a produtividade e o uso da água são de vital importância para a agricultura. Assim, foram testados três tipos de manejo do solo com objetivo de determinar a evapotranspiração (ETc e os coeficientes de cultivo (kc da beterraba. Os tipos de manejo foram a utilização de coberturas mortas vegetais, denominadas capim cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e solo sem cobertura morta em área experimental do SIPA (Sistema Integrado de Produção Orgânica localizado em Seropédica, Brasil. A lâmina de irrigação foi estimada com base no balanço de água no solo, cujo monitoramento foi realizado com a técnica da TDR. As ETc acumuladas para a cultura da beterraba foram 59,41; 55,31 e 119,62 mm, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi obtida por meio do modelo de Penamn-Monteith. Os valores médios de kc obtidos para as fases inicial, média e final de desenvolvimento foram de 0,39; 0,42 e 1,02; 0,79; 0,76 e 1,18; e 0,56; 0,61 e 0,84, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. O uso da cobertura do solo com gramínea ou leguminosa minimizou de forma expressiva a demanda hídrica da cultura da beterraba (Beta vulgaris.Agricultural practices that maximize productivity and water use are of vital importance to farming. Thus, three different soil managements were used in order to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (kc of beet in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, located in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The used managements consisted of cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium and bare soil. The irrigation depth was estimated based on the soil water balance in order to restore the amount of water until soil moisture corresponded to field capacity, monitored by a TDR

  4. Calidad de las semillas de accesiones de leguminosas colectadas en la región oriental de Cuba (Nota técnica Seed quality of legume accessions collected in the eastern region of Cuba (Technical note

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    Yolanda González

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una misión de colecta durante el 2006 en la región oriental de Cuba, que comprendió zonas de las provincias de Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas y Camagüey. Se colectaron semillas de 95 accesiones de leguminosas, de ellas 68 herbáceas y 27 arbóreas. Posteriormente se hizo una prueba de germinación, para conocer su calidad (con corte de cubierta. Para ello se utilizaron placas de Petri sobre arena de río. El número de semillas utilizadas fue variable en cada accesión (según la cantidad colectada y solo se empleó una réplica (sin diseño estadístico. Los conteos de germinación se realizaron según las normas internacionales. Las semillas de mejor calidad correspondieron a las especies arbóreas, aunque presentaron baja germinación las de Cajanus cajan, Cassia siamea, Peltophorum ferrugianum y Leucaena leucocephala, procedentes de la zona de Floro-Pérez en la provincia de Holguín. Todas mostraron 100% de sobrevivencia. La calidad de las semillas dependió del tiempo que estuvieron en el campo después de la etapa de maduración de las legumbres. A través de esta misión de colecta se incrementó el germoplasma de la EEPF «Indio Hatuey» con 64 nuevas accesiones. Se recomienda la continuidad de la colecta de germoplasma en otras zonas del país, con énfasis en las plantas arbóreas, lo que permitirá lograr una mayor diversidad a partir de su uso en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria, así como llevar a cabo las pruebas de calidad correspondientes.A collection mission was conducted during 2006 in the eastern region of Cuba, which comprised zones of the provinces Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas and Camagüey. Seeds from 95 legume accessions, 68 herbaceous ones and 27 trees, were collected. Afterwards, a germination test was conducted, to know their quality (with seed coat cut. For that purpose, Petri dishes were used on river sand. The number of seeds used was variable in each

  5. Étude ethnobotanique et screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Yves-Alain BÉKRO1*, Janat A. MAMYRBEKOVA BÉKRO1, Boua B. BOUA1, Fézan H. TRA BI2 & Ehouan E. ÉHILÉ2. 1Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique et de ... extraits bruts des racines de Cb a révélé qu'elles renferment des stérols, polyterpènes, flavonoïdes, saponines, tannins, sucres réducteurs, coumarines et des ...

  6. Étude ethnobotanique et screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En effet, sur les quinze (15) espèces de plantes médicinales (réparties entre 14 familles) utilisées pour le traitement de diverses pathologies liées aux troubles de ... extraits bruts des racines de Cb a révélé qu\\'elles renferment des stérols, polyterpènes, flavonoïdes, saponines, tannins, sucres réducteurs, coumarines et des ...

  7. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

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    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2013-06-10

    Jun 10, 2013 ... intermittent fevers, and for expelling intestinal worms. In Cey- lon, they are applied for toothache, ... chromosomal damage at metaphase stage gives a more precise and detailed picture of the clastogenic ... Utmost care was taken to avoid a cut across the esophagus or the intestine, which could otherwise ...

  8. ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS DE CAESALPINIA ECHINATA LAM. EM HIDROPONIA

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    Sérgio Valiengo Valeri

    2012-01-01

    ethanol solution containing 0, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg L-1 of IBA during 5 seconds. The cuttings were maintained in the hydroponic system for 90 days and, for additional 90 days in plastic bags containing substrate (Plantmax® under intermittent mist. After 90 and 180 days of rooting, the percentage of cuttings that survived, the rooting percentage and the number and length of adventious root were evaluated. Cuttings should be treated with IBA at 100 mg L-1 for 14 hours and placed to root in a hydroponic system.

  9. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential of alcoholic extracts of C. bonducella against methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced genotoxicity. In this experiment we have used in vitro method i.e., human lymphocyte culture and in vivo method in bone marrow cells of albino mice, ...

  10. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

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    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  11. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

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    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  12. Antifatigue Effect of Millettiae speciosae Champ (Leguminosae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycogen, triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine phosphokinase (CK) levels in plasma which can indicate alterations in energy utilization during exercise performance, were determined to analyze the operating exercise mechanisms. Results: The results showed that swimming time to exhaustion was ...

  13. ESTUDIOS CROMOSÓMICOS EN ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE

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    Graciela Inés Lavia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el número de cromosomas de 38 accesiones que representan 17 especies de cinco secciones del género Arachis. El primer conteo cromosómico informa de las siguientes ocho especies: Sect. Extranervosae: A.retusa, secc. Heteranthae: A. Giacomettii, secc. Procumbentes: A.vallsii, secc. Arachis: A.decora, A.microsperma, A.palustris, A.rinitensis y A.williamsii. En informes anteriores son confirmadas nueve especies. Todas las especies estudiadas tienen 2n = 2x = 20, con excepción de una adhesión de A.palustris, que tiene 2n = 2x = 18, que representa probablemente un nuevo número básico x = 9 para el género. Cromosomas satélites se analizan para la mayoría de las especies. "A" cromosomas se encuentran sólo en A.microsperma y A.trinitensis (Sect. Arachis

  14. Antifatigue Effect of Millettiae speciosae Champ (Leguminosae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In busy and strained modern societies, fatigue has become a highly prevalent phenomenon, with up to half of the general population reporting fatigue in large surveys [2]. Therefore, it is common in sport medicine to improve athletic ability, postpone fatigue or accelerate the elimination of fatigue with few side effects [3].

  15. Induced mutations in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae

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    P.G.C. Odeigah

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp varieties, IT84E-124 and Vita 7 of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, were exposed to varying doses of chemical and physical mutagens. Optimum doses of 10mM EMS for 6hr and 0.1mM and 1.0mM NaN3 for 2hr, determined from seeding growth tests and 100R and 200R gamma radiations were applied to 2000 seed samples of each genotype. Screening of the M2 generation revealed that the mutagenic treatments induced morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in the genotypes. A spectrum of mutations which included variants with respect to anthocyanin pigmentation, leaf morphology, maturity date, male sterility and insect pest resistance qualities were observed. Lines with significant increases in yield parameters such as number of seeds per pod, peduncles per plant, 100 seed weight and seed storage proteins were selected.

  16. ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF LEGUMINOSAE PLANTS

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    Noemi D. PAGUIGAN

    Full Text Available Context Ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disturbance resulting from an inadequate gastric mucosal defense. Several drugs are available in the market to address the disease; however, these drugs are associated with unnecessary side effects. Objectives Previous research have confirmed the efficacy of plant extracts for possible treatment of the disease. This research aims to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of medicinal plants. Methods Methanol extracts from the leaves of Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea and Saraca thaipingensis were evaluated for their anti-ulcer activity using HCl-ethanol as ulcerogen. Results All extracts showed inhibitory activity with I. bijuga, T. indica, S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis exhibiting more than 50% inhibition. S. thaipingensis showed the highest activity at 80%. S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis were partitioned further into hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of S. spectabilis showed significant increased in its activity while the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of S. thaipingensis gave higher activity than its aqueous portions. Conclusions We conclude that plant extracts are potential sources of new anti-ulcer agents.

  17. Produção de matéria seca e eficiência nutricional para P, Ca e Mg em leguminosas herbáceas Dry matter production and nutritional efficiency for P, Ca and Mg in herbaceous legumes

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    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As leguminosas para adubação verde têm sido introduzidas nos sistemas agrícolas para a recuperação de solos desgastados pelo uso intensivo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de leguminosas herbáceas à aplicação de calcário e fósforo sobre a produção de biomassa e eficiência nutricional para o P, Ca e Mg. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, utilizando-se um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico coletado na profundidade de 0 - 20 cm, em Belém, PA. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo de tratamentos em um fatorial 3³, onde foram comparadas três espécies de leguminosas: mucuna preta (Stizolobium atterrimum, mucuna cochinchinensis (Stilozobium cochinchinensis e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes; três níveis de calagem: de calcário dolomítico (0, 4 e 8 t.ha-1 e de fósforo (0, 25 e 45 mg.dm-3, com quatro repetições cada um. Mucuna cochinchinensis e o feijão de porco produziram maiores quantidades de biomassa vegetal do que a mucuna preta, sendo que a primeira espécie acumulou maior quantidade de P e a segunda maior quantidade de Ca. Mucuna cochinchinensis apresentou maior eficiência de utilização de P, Ca e Mg na ausência da calagem. Nos solos intemperizados com baixa concentração de P, Ca e Mg, o feijão-de-porco e a mucuna cochinchinensis poderão ter melhor desempenho do que a mucuna preta, visto que apresentaram maior eficiência de translocação e de utilização desses nutrientes, respectivamente.The legumes used for green manure have been introduced in agricultural systems for recovering degraded soils by intensive use. The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of herbaceous legumes to liming and P application on dry matter and its nutritional efficiency. The experiment was developed in greenhouse at the Soil Science Department of the Federal University

  18. Crescimento de leguminosas forrageiras afetado pela adição de fósforo, calagem do solo e micorrizas, em condições de casa de vegetação Growth of legume pasture affected by phosphorus addition, soil liming, and mycorrhizae under greenhouse condition

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    Danilo dos Santos Rheinheimer

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A contribuição de leguminosas forrageiras na produtividade das pastagens nativas de solos ácidos e com baixa disponibilidade de fósforo é pequena e limitada a algumas espécies. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliaro efeito da acidez da adição de fósforo e da micorrização no crescimento do trevo riograndense, desmódio e cornichão. Para tanto foram instalados quatro experimentos em casa de vegetação, sendo dois em Lages (SC, com amostras de Latossolo bruno argiloso e, dois em Santa Maria (RS com Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo arenoso. Testou-se doses de fósforo, valores de pH do solo e níveis de inoculação com fungos micorrízicos. Avaliou-se a massa seca, o fósforo absorvido e a porcentagem de colonização micorrízica no início do florescimento. A produtividade dessas leguminosas foi limitada pela baixa disponibilidade de fósforo e pela presença de alumínio trocável, sendo que a sua neutralização pela calagem favoreceu a resposta a esse nutriente. A eliminação dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA reduziu drasticamente o crescimento do desmódio, mas a inoculação em solo sem fumigação não incrementou a produção de massa seca do trevo riograndense, devido ao alto potencial de colonização dos FMA nativos.Acid soils under native pasture in Southern Brazil presents low diversity of legume species, minly due to the low availability of phosphorus and higth aluminum concentration. Four greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the efect of liming, phosphorus addition and micorrhizal inoculation on three legume species. Dry Matter production was limited by phosphorus availability and aluminum concentration. Lime and phosphorus aplication increased matter production. Soil fumigation decreased Desmodium incanum productivity. Mycorrhizal inoculation of soils without fumigation did not affect the Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium riograndense grouth, which might be explained by the high natural population

  19. Las leguminosas (Fabaceæ de Cuba. II. Tribus Crotatarieæ, Æschynomeneæ, Millettieæ y Robinieæ

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    Beyra Matos, Á.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of a monographic revision of the legumes of Cuba. It includes the four tribes listed in the title, one of them divided into fíve subtribes, with a total of 16 genera and 78 species. For each species, after the nomenclature. Description, habitat and distribution are recorded, as well as some data about dispersion and phenology, and sometimes ethnobotanical and chemical composition data. When found, karyologic information was also included. The chorological data are completed with 76 maps showing the Cuban distribution of as many taxa. Further on the text, 30 plates representing as many species are included, plus four indices. The first index shows the numerical reference of the 122 recognized taxa. The second one shows the position in the text of the distributional maps. The third one shows the illustrations. The fourth one, which has 322 small entries, shows all scientific names used, both accepted as well as synonyms.

    [es] Parte segunda de una revisión monográfica de las leguminosas de Cuba. Comprende las cuatro tribus que se enuncian en el título, una de ellas a su vez dividida en cinco subtribus, con un total de 16 géneros aceptados y 78 especies reconocidas. Para cada especie y tras la nomenclatura, además de la descripción, el hábitat y la distribución, se consignan diversos datos sobre dispersión y fenología, más algunos etnobotánicas o de composición química ocasionalmente. Cuando pudimos hallarla, incluimos información cariológica. Los datos corológicos se completan con 76 mapas que muestran la distribución cubana de otros tantos táxones nativos de Cuba. Acompañan al texto 30 láminas que representan otras tantas especies, más cuatro índices. En el primero se muestra la referencia numérica de los 122 táxones reconocidos. El segundo muestra la posición en el texto de los mapas distribucionales. El tercero señala las ilustraciones. En el cuarto, que reúne 322 entradillas, figuran todos los

  20. KECERNAAN IN SACCO HIJAUAN LEGUMINOSA DAN HIJAUAN NON- LEGUMINOSA DALAM RUMEN SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

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    Rendi Fathoni Hadi

    2012-06-01

    values of ADF: GL 61.27%; SW 43.95%; TP 56.53%; BR 40.11%; KL 21.08%; NG 44.66%; and CO 69.15%. There were significant differences (P<0.05 on the degradation of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF. It is concluded that not all of legume has higher DT values of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF fraction than non-legume. There is a tendency that the longer retention time in the rumen, the higher degradation rate. (Keywords: Legume, Non-legume, In sacco rumen

  1. TAXONOMIA DEL GENERO ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

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    Antonio Krapovickas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Pasaron casi 100 años entre la designación por Linneo de la entonces única especie de Arachis (A. hypogaea L. conocida por los europeos, y el primer tratamiento taxonómico del
    género por Bentham en 1841. Durante los siguientes 100 años, aparecieron cinco a diez descripciones de especies adicionales, que asignaban diferentes especies a los mismos nombres, y diferentes nombres a las mismas especies. A mediados del Siglo XX, era imposible
    examinar un ejemplar de herbario de Arachis y asignar con alguna certeza algún epíteto a algún espécimen (que no fuera un ejemplar tipo excepto a A. hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa y
    A. villosulicarpa.
    En nuestro tratamiento, la literatura de este caos botánico en Arachis esta revisada en detalle y
    se hace un análisis de los fundamentos de su ocurrencia. Se demuestra que las bases de la
    confusión moran en la combinación de la naturaleza esotérica de los caracteres morfológicos diferenciados de Arachis, de los especímenes fragmentarios de antaño, y de la representación
    de especies por plántulas.
    Además, se relata cómo, en 1959, decidimos reexplorar la localidad tipo de cada especie hasta
    entonces conocida, y recolectar allí especímenes de las plantas enteras y así resolver el problema. Después de treinta y cinco años, dos generaciones de coleccionistas de plantas, y
    alrededor de 2000 colecciones, presentamos aquí las descripciones de 69 especies de Arachis,
    especies distribuidas en Sudamérica al este de los Andes, al sud del Amazonas, al norte de La
    Plata y desde el noroeste argentino hasta el nordeste de Brasil.
    Descubrimos muy pronto que los caracteres más significativos de Arachis residen en sus estructuras subterráneas, incluyendo sus frutos, tallos rizomatosos, sistemas radicales e
    hipocótilos.
    Demostramos que estos caracteres determinantes tienden a aglomerar las colecciones en grupos que se asocian con áreas geográficas y formaciones ecológicas generalmente diferentes.
    Hicimos un muestreo de 100 materiales representativos de aquellos grupos, áreas, y formaciones y los arreglamos en un experimento dialélico de cruzamientos y mostramos, en cruzamientos entre materiales de los diferentes grupos, un número notable de fracasos completos en la fertilización cruzada y, en aquellos híbridos que se lograron, se observó una alta tasa de infertilidad en la F1. Cuando se combinaron estas incompatibilidades e infertilidades de polen
    híbrido con los datos de agrupamiento de caracteres morfológicos, se cristalizaron entonces las nueve distintas secciones del género aquí presentadas. Las figuras impuestas sobre mapas de Sudamérica ilustran las distribuciones geográficas de estas secciones.
    Las colecciones, entonces, fueron asignadas a las diferentes secciones sobre la base de las
    incompatibilidades de cruzamiento y de los agrupamientos de caracteres exo-morfológicos.
    Al hacer estos grupos, las caracteristicas esotéricas a las cuales se hace referencia arriba, tan confusas cuando se aplican a través de los límites seccionales, se volvieron altamente pertinentes al ser aplicadas al problema de la diferenciación específica entre materiales dentro de las
    secciones. Estas características, aplicadas en conjunto con la citología cromosómica, las reacciones cromatográficas y antigénicas, las variaciones en la fertilidad híbrida intra-seccional y las adaptaciones de forma de planta, y de hábito anual o perenne, nos permitió definir los siguientes
    taxa del género Arachis:
    Sección I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa. Sección II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A. Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana nov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a. A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov. Sección III. EXTRANERVOSAE
    nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A. marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A. Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa.
    Sección IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov. Sección V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Sección VI.
    CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Sección VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Sección VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Serie PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Serie RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var. Hagenbeckii. Sección IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A.
    Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox
    Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus' naming the then lone species of Arachis (A.
    hypogaea L., known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham
    in 1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared,
    assigning different species to the same names,different names to the same species. By mid20th
    century, it was impossible to examine anyherbarium collection of Arachis and assign any
    epithet with any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A.
    hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa.
    In our treatment the Iiterature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and an
    assessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for the
    confusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphological
    features of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections and the representation of species by
    seedling specimens.
    Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species then
    known, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty five
    years, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later we present here 69
    species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south
    of the Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil.
    We soon discovered that the most significant characters of Arachis lay in their underground
    structures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls.
    We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups which
    were associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features.
    We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these c1usters, areas and features and
    arranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between collections representing
    different c1usters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures
    to cross-fertilize and in those hybrids which were recovered a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility.
    When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data on
    character-clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized.
    Figures imposed upon maps of South America iIIustrate the geographic distributions of these
    sections.
    The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of crossincompatibility
    and exo-morphologic character clustering.
    When these groups were made the esoteric characteristics, referred to aboye, so confounding
    when applied across sectionallines, became highly pertinent when applied to the problem
    of species differentiation between collections within sections. These, applied in conjunction with
    chromosome cytology, chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional
    hybrid fertility and adaptations of plant form and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to
    assemble the following taxa of the genus Arachis:
    Section 1. TR/ERECTO/DES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa. Section 11. ERECTO/DES
    nov.: 3. A. Martií, 4. A. brevipetio/ata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A. Hatschbach;i nov., 7. A.
    cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. majar nov., 9. A. Benthamií, 10. A. douradiana nov., 11. A. gracilis
    nov., 12. A. Hermannií nov., 13. A. Archer; nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a. A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov. Section 111.
    EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A. marginata, 19.
    A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A. retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A. Pietrarellii nov.,
    24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov.. Section V.
    HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani
    nov. Section VI CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov.. Section VII.
    PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35.
    A. chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipi/a nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A.
    subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAEnov., Series. PRORHIZOMATOSAEnov.: 40.
    A. Burkartii. Series. RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata
    varo glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata varo Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44.
    A. cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaensis nov., 48. A. valida nov.,
    49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A.
    stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A.
    trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. vil/osa,
    62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66.
    A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmannii nov., 69a. A hypogaea subsp.
    hypogaea varo 1. hypogaea, var.2. hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var.1. fastigiata,
    var.2. peruviana nov., var.3. aequatoriana nov., varA. vulgaris.
    .The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit
    and the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal
    organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different
    collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within
    sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections.
    The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed
    and are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating ideas presented. It is evident
    that the genetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude.
    The presumably older (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae, and Heteranthae
    sections, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sections and
    each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae,
    Rhizomatosae, and Arachis.
    Arachis section is by far the largest section, containing about 40% of the species described.
    Species of the section appearto be spreading to newterritory and to be invading areas occupied
    by species of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the .
    upper Paraguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran
    Pantanal. They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and
    grow from Yala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They contain the world-wide
    cultivar A. hypogaea.
    Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is
    presented in individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A.
    hypogaea from the early 16th century to more recent times along with the common names in
    several native American languages provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and the
    level of civilization required for its creation.
    Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the
    sections and to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing guides
    to the sections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures
    of whole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures,
    carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  2. TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Pasaron casi 100 años entre la designación por Linneo de la entonces única especie de Arachis (A. hypogaea L. conocida por los europeos, y el primer tratamiento taxonómico del
    género por Bentham en 1841. Durante los siguientes 100 años, aparecieron cinco a diez
    descripciones de especies adicionales, que asignaban diferentes especies a los mismos
    nombres, y diferentes nombres a las mismas especies. A mediados del Siglo XX, era imposible
    examinar un ejemplar de herbario de Arachis y asignar con alguna certeza algún epíteto a algún
    espécimen (que no fuera un ejemplar tipo excepto a A. hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa y
    A. villosulicarpa.
    En nuestro tratamiento, la literatura de este caos botánico en Arachis esta revisada en detalle y
    se hace un análisis de los fundamentos de su ocurrencia. Se demuestra que las bases de la
    confusión moran en la combinación de la naturaleza esotérica de los caracteres morfológicos
    diferenciados de Arachis, de los especímenes fragmentarios de antaño, y de la representación
    de especies por plántulas.
    Además, se relata cómo, en 1959, decidimos reexplorar la localidad tipo de cada especie hasta
    entonces conocida, y recolectar allí especímenes de las plantas enteras y así resolver el
    problema. Después de treinta y cinco años, dos generaciones de coleccionistas de plantas, y
    alrededor de 2000 colecciones, presentamos aquí las descripciones de 69 especies de Arachis,
    especies distribuidas en Sudamérica al este de los Andes, al sud del Amazonas, al norte de La
    Plata y desde el noroeste argentino hasta el nordeste de Brasil.
    Descubrimos muy pronto que los caracteres más significativos de Arachis residen en sus
    estructuras subterráneas, incluyendo sus frutos, tallos rizomatosos, sistemas radicales e
    hipocótilos.
    Demostramos que estos caracteres determinantes tienden a aglomerar las colecciones en
    grupos que se asocian con áreas geográficas y formaciones ecológicas generalmente diferentes.
    Hicimos un muestreo de 100 materiales representativos de aquellos grupos, áreas, y formaciones
    y los arreglamos en un experimento dialélico de cruzamientos y mostramos, en cruzamientos
    entre materiales de los diferentes grupos, un número notable de fracasos completos en la
    fertilización cruzada y, en aquellos híbridos que se lograron, se observó una alta tasa de
    infertilidad en la F1. Cuando se combinaron estas incompatibilidades e infertilidades de polen
    híbrido con los datos de agrupamiento de caracteres morfológicos, se cristalizaron entonces las
    nueve distintas secciones del género aquí presentadas. Las figuras impuestas sobre mapas de
    Sudamérica ilustran las distribuciones geográficas de estas secciones.
    Las colecciones, entonces, fueron asignadas a las diferentes secciones sobre la base de las
    incompatibilidades de cruzamiento y de los agrupamientos de caracteres exo-morfológicos.
    Al hacer estos grupos, las caracteristicas esotéricas a las cuales se hace referencia arriba, tan
    confusas cuando se aplican a través de los límites seccionales, se volvieron altamente pertinentes
    al ser aplicadas al problema de la diferenciación específica entre materiales dentro de las
    secciones. Estas características, aplicadas en conjunto con la citología cromosómica, las reacciones
    cromatográficas y antigénicas, las variaciones en la fertilidad híbrida intra-seccional y las
    adaptaciones de forma de planta, y de hábito anual o perenne, nos permitió definir los siguientes
    taxa del género Arachis:
    Sección I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa. Sección II. ERECTOIDES
    nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A. Hatschbachii nov., 7. A.
    cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana nov., 11. A. gracilis nov.,
    12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a. A. paraguariensis subsp.
    paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov. Sección III. EXTRANERVOSAE
    nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A. marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A.
    lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A. Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa.
    Sección IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov. Sección V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26.
    A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Sección VI.
    CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Sección VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32.
    A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A.
    matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Sección VIII.
    RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Serie PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Serie
    RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A.
    glabrata var. Hagenbeckii. Sección IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A.
    monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A.
    Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox
    12 nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A.
    Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov.
    comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi,
    68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea, var. 2. hirsuta, 69b.
    A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3. aequatoriana nov.,
    var. 4. vulgaris.
    Se demuestra cómo los sistemas reproductivos autógamos, la reproducción agamética, el hábito
    de fructificación subterránea y el mecanismo limitado de dispersión de semillas están lógicamente
    ligados con la deriva de organización cromosómica que da origen a incrementos notables de
    infertilidad en cruzamientos entre diferentes accesiones de la misma especie, a una infertilidad
    variablemente más alta en cruzamientos entre especies dentro de las secciones, hasta una casi
    total infertilidad entre especies de diferentes secciones.
    Las relaciones evolutivas y filogenéticas entre las diferentes secciones están discutidas y
    también demostradas en una secuencia de diagramas ilustrando las ideas presentadas. Es
    evidente que las distancias genéticas que separan las secciones están lejos de ser todas de la
    misma magnitud. Las secciones presumiblemente más antiguas (Triseminatae, Trierectoides,
    Erectoides, Extranervosae y Heteranthae, excepto por la sección Erectoides, están mucho más
    aisladas de las secciones restantes y entre sí que aquellas secciones que se consideran de
    origen más reciente (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae y Arachis.
    La sección Arachis es por mucho la más grande, pues contiene cerca de 40% de las especies
    descritas. Parece que las especies de esta sección se están expandiendo hacia nuevos territorios
    e invadiendo áreas ocupadas por especies de otras secciones. Crecen entremezcladas con
    poblaciones de Extranervosae en la cuenca alta del río Paraguay y ocupan terrenos comunes
    con la sección Procumbentes en el Gran Pantanal. Han llegado hasta las orillas de La Plata y a la
    costa sureste de Brasil, y crecen desde Yala en el noroeste de la Argentina hasta el río Tocantins
    en el nordeste de Brasil. Incluyen el cultígeno de importancia mundial, A. hypogaea.
    Esencialmente cada trabajo publicado sobre la historia botánica y la taxonomía de Arachis está
    presentado aquí en las referencias a especímenes individuales y en la bibliografía general. La
    historia de A. hypogaea desde principios del Siglo XVI hasta tiempos más recientes, junto con los
    nombres comunes en varios idiomas autóctonos americanos, nos dan una perspectiva sobre la
    antigüedad de este cultivo y el nivel de civilización requerido para su creación.
    Seis apéndices proporcionan datos de apoyo e información de archivo. Claves diagnósticas a las
    secciones y a las especies dentro de cada sección seleccionan los rasgos más distintivos de las
    secciones y especies. Diecinueve dibujos de línea capturan las estructuras claves para distinguir
    las secciones y especies, incluyendo plantas enteras, sistemas radicales, orientaciones de
    frutos, reproducción agamética a partir de estructuras fructíferas, formas de carpelos, y la
    fisionomía superficial de hojas y tallos.
    Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus’ naming the then lone species of Arachis (A.
    hypogaea L. known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham in
    1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared, assigning
    different species to the same names, and different names to the same species. By mid-20th
    Century, it was impossible to examine any herbarium collection of Arachis and assign any epithet
    with any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A. hypogaea, A.
    guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa.
    In our treatment, the literature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and an
    assessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for the
    confusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphological
    features of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections, and the representation of species by
    seedling specimens.
    Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species then
    known, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty-five
    years, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later, we present here 69
    species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south of
    the Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil.
    We soon discovered that the most significant characters of Arachis lay in their underground
    structures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls.
    We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups which
    were associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features.
    We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these clusters, areas and features, and
    arranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between collections representing
    different clusters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures to
    cross-fertilize and, in those hybrids that were recovered, a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility.
    When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data on
    character clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized.
    Figures imposed upon maps of South America illustrate the geographic distributions of these
    sections.
    The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of cross-incompatibility
    and exo-morphologic character clustering. When these groups were made, the esoteric
    characteristics referred to above, so confounding when applied across sectional lines, became
    highly pertinent when applied to the problem of species differentiation between collections within
    sections. These characteristics, applied in conjunction with chromosome cytology,
    chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional hybrid fertility and
    adaptations of plant form, and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to assemble the following
    taxa of the genus Arachis: Section I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa.
    Section II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A.
    Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana
    nov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a.
    A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov.
    Section III. EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A.
    marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A.
    Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov.
    Section V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A.
    Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII.
    PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A.
    chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A.
    subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A.
    Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var.
    glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var. Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A.
    cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A.
    Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma
    nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A.
    decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A.
    correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi
    nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea,
    var. 2. hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3.
    aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris.
    The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit and
    the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal
    organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different
    collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within
    sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections.
    The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed and
    are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating the ideas presented. It is evident that the
    genetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude. The
    presumably older sections (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae and
    Heteranthae, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sections
    and from each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae,
    Rhizomatosae and Arachis.
    Section Arachis is by far the largest, containing about 40% of the species described. Species of
    this section appear to be spreading into new territory and to be invading areas occupied by
    species of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the upper
    Paraguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran Pantanal.
    They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and grow from
    Yala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They include the worldwide cultivar, A.
    hypogaea.
    Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is presented
    here in the individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A.
    hypogaea from the early 16th Century to more recent times, along with the common names in
    several native American languages, provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and the
    level of civilization required for its creation.
    Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the sections
    and to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing characteristics of the
    sections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures of
    whole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures,
    carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  3. Visitantes florais de Erythrina speciosa Andr. (Leguminosae Flowering visitors of Erythrina speciosa Andr., Leguminosae

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    Maria J. Vitali-Veiga

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspite of Etythrina species exhibit morphologic attributes for adaptation to pollination by nectarivorous birds mentioned in the literature, E. speciosa is pollinated by lots of bees (Apinae and Meliponinae which show a great urban occurrence. Systems of E. speciosa floral reproduction, fenology, diversity, frequency and constancy of insects visiting at different hours and flowering periods were studied. E. speciosa is Biocompatible, but xenogamy is the predominant system of reproduction. A large diversity of insects visiting the inflorescences was observed, with predominance of bees. The bee species showed a higher frequency: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (45,0 %, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (28,6%, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (12,2 % and the ant Zacryptoceruspusillus Klug, 1824 (2,8 %. Constant but not frequent were the bees (Apidae Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900, Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, 1900, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, the wasps (Vespidae Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896, Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure, 1854, Agelaia pallipes (Olivier. 1791, the ant (Formicidae Pseudomyrmex sp. and the beetle (Chrysomelidae Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. E. speciosa flowers were visited by hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, Clorostilbon aureoventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 and Amazilia sp. The birds Passer domeslicus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ploceidae and Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758 (Emberizidac, also are present. The frequency and insect distribution were influenced by ambiental factors. Temperature, light, time, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity were significantly correlated with insect numbers. There is a visit sequence, by floral resource disponibility during the day, conditioned by transport ability, insect numbers and colony necessity, which begins by A. mellifera followed by meliponid bees. These bees make the pollination when they collect the pollen. There is a great animal variety which are sustained by flowers. It is suggested that E. speciosa is one important food source for urban fauna in winter, and so it should be utilized more frequently in streets, parks and gardens arborization.

  4. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [State University of Campinas - UNICAMP/FEC (Brazil); Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil); Silva Medeiros, Jean Gabriel [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Tomazello Filho, Mario Tomazello [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza [University of Sao Paulo - USP/FCFRP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [University of Sao Paulo - USP/CENA (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark.

  5. Comparação dos teores de cobre e zinco em leguminosas cruas e após serem processadas termicamente em meio salino e aquoso Evaluation of total amount of copper and zinc by legumes raw and thermally processed ina an aqueous and saline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. B. Andrade

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O cobre e o zinco participam de diversas reações no organismo, diretamente ou como co-fatores de enzimas, e são considerados essenciais. Avaliar os teores destes, em leguminosas cruas e após processamento térmico, permite um conhecimento do comportamento destes metais em meio salino e aquoso o que auxiliará no conhecimento do aproveitamento destes pelo organismo humano. Amostras de feijões preto, branco, carioquinha, manteiga, mulatinho, ervilha, lentilha e grão-de-bico, duas marcas de cada tipo e em dois lotes, foram analisadas quanto ao teor total de cobre e zinco quando cruas e processadas termicamente em meio salino e aquoso. A abertura das amostras foi feita por calcinação a 550ºC. As amostras que foram processadas termicamente, passaram por dessecação em estufa a 105ºC antes da calcinação. O teor total de cobre e zinco nas amostras foi determinado através da espectrometria de absorção atômica em chama. Na análise da rejeição de resultados foram aplicados o teste Dixon e o teste t de Student. Observou-se que, após o processamento térmico em meio salino ou aquoso, a maioria das amostras não teve perda significativa dos teores de cobre e zinco em relação às amostras cruas. Considerando que os teores médios do cobre e zinco nas amostras cruas foram, respectivamente, de 0,75mg% e 3,2mg% ao ser consumido uma porção média de leguminosas, cerca de 50g, a mesma fornece aproximadamente 19% e 10% das necessidades diárias de cobre e zinco, respectivamente, para um homem adulto segundo a R.D.A.Copper and zinc are considered essential oligoelements to human nutrition, taking part in several reactions either directly or as enzymatic co-fators. The amount of these elements in legumes, both raw and thermally processed in an aqueous and saline medium, provides an insight into their behavior, thus allowing an understanding of how these metals are best utilized by the human body. Two different commercial samples of raw and

  6. Efeito do fósforo e do potássio sobre o desenvolvimento e a nodulação de três leguminosas anuais de estação fria Effect of phosphorus and potassium on development and nodulation of three cool season annual legumes

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    Rodrigo Holz Krolow

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de fósforo e potássio na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, comprimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular, escore e eficiência da nodulação de três leguminosas forrageiras anuais de estação fria. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg/dm³ de P2O5 e K (0,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg/dm³ de K2O, correspondendo a 0,0 (controle 1, 2, 3 e 4 vezes a recomendação da análise de solo, em vasos, com 8 kg de solo tipo Planossolo, unidade de mapeamento Pelotas. As leguminosas utilizadas foram: Trifolium resupinatum L. cv. Kyambro (trevo-persa, Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Woogenellup e Lotus subbiflorus Lag. cv. El Rincón. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5 x 5, com três repetições. O trabalho foi conduzido no período de maio a outubro de 2000, sendo os dados colhidos ao final do período experimental, aproximadamente 170 dias após a semeadura. A maioria das características estudadas não foi influenciada pela aplicação de potássio, e sim pela aplicação de fósforo. Para as variáveis relacionadas com produção (MS parte aérea e raízes, o trevo-persa foi a espécie mais produtiva. Para a nodulação, o trevo-subterrâneo e o Lotus El Rincón apresentaram maior eficiência e quantidade de nódulos.This experiment was established in greenhouse at Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, with the objective to evaluate the effects of different doses of phosphorus and potassium on dry matter production of aerial biomass and roots, length of above ground parts and roots and efficiency and score of nodulation of three cool season annual forage legumes. The treatments were five doses of P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg de P2O5/dm³ and K (00,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg de

  7. Organic material decomposition and nutrient dynamics in a mulch system enriched with leguminous trees in the Amazon Decomposição de material orgânico e dinâmica de nutrientes em um sistema de cobertura morta enriquecido com árvores leguminosas na Amazônia

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    José Henrique Cattanio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The new techniques proposed for agriculture in the Amazon region include rotational fallow systems enriched with leguminous trees and the replacement of biomass burning by mulching. Decomposition and nutrient release from mulch were studied using fine-mesh litterbags with five different leguminous species and the natural fallow vegetation as control. Samples from each treatment were analyzed for total C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, lignin, cellulose content and soluble polyphenol at different sampling times over the course of one year. The decomposition rate constant varied with species and time. Weight loss from the decomposed litter bag material after 96 days was 30.1 % for Acacia angustissima, 32.7 % for Sclerolobium paniculatum, 33.9 % for Iinga edulis and the Fallow vegetation, 45.2 % for Acacia mangium and 63.6 % for Clitoria racemosa. Immobilization of N and P was observed in all studied treatments. Nitrogen mineralization was negatively correlated with phenol, C-to-N ratio, lignin + phenol/N ratio, and phenol/phosphorus ratios and with N content in the litterbag material. After 362 days of field incubation, an average (of all treatments, 3.3 % K, 32.2 % Ca and 22.4 % Mg remained in the mulch. Results confirm that low quality and high amount of organic C as mulch application are limiting for the quantity of energy available for microorganisms and increase the nutrient immobilization for biomass decomposition, which results in competition for nutrients with the crop plants.As novas técnicas propostas para a agricultura na Amazônia incluem sistema de rotação de capoeira enriquecido com árvores leguminosas e transformando a queima da biomassa em cobertura morta sobre o solo. A decomposição e a liberação de nutrientes da cobertura morta foram estudadas usando sacos de liteira com malha fina que continham cinco tratamentos com diferentes espécies de leguminosas em comparação a um tratamento-controle com vegetação natural. As amostras para

  8. Utilização de cama sobreposta de suínos e sobressemeadura de leguminosas para aumento da produção e qualidade de pastagem natural Swine deep bedding amendment and legume sod-seeding to increase production and quality of natural pasture

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    Paulo Hentz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da fertilização com dois tipos de camas sobrepostas de suínos (CSS, à base de casca de arroz (CA e maravalha (MA, sobre a produção de uma pastagem natural, com predomínio de Axonopus sp. e Paspalum sp., sobressemeada com leguminosas (cornichão e trevo-branco. As camas sobrepostas foram aplicadas em quantidades equivalentes a 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg/ha de P2O5, constituindo quatro níveis de cama de casca de arroz (30, 60, 90 ou 120 t/ha e quatro níveis de cama de maravalha (20,6; 41,2; 62,2 ou 82,8 t/ha. Foram incluídos dois tratamentos-testemunha: 180 kg/ha de superfosfato triplo (SFT e ausência de adubação (AA. A sobressemeadura das leguminosas foi realizada em maio de 2004 e, a partir de agosto de 2004, foram realizados nove cortes da pastagem, a cada seis semanas. As maiores produções de matéria seca (MS anuais (setembro/2004 a agosto/2005 com as aplicações de cama de casca de arroz foram obtidas nos níveis 30 e 60 t/ha e, com cama de maravalha, nos níveis 62,2 e 82,8 t/ha, que resultaram em produções de MS de 8.083 e 8.276 kg/ha, superiores às obtidas com superfosfato triplo (4.091 kg MS/ha e sem adubação (3.071 MS kg/ha. A produção de MS de trevo-branco aumentou linearmente no outono e no inverno, de acordo com os níveis de adubação com cama de maravalha, mas não variaram com a adubação com cama de casca de arroz. O efeito fertilizante varia entre os tipos de cama sobreposta, que podem influenciar a composição botânica de pastagens mistas de leguminosas-gramíneas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of two swine deep beddings (SDB: rice husk (CA and sawdust coarse (MA on the production of natural pasture. The predominant species in this pasture were Axonopus sp. and Paspalum sp. that was sod-seeded with the forage legumes birdsfoot trefoil and white clover. The SDBs were applied in amounts equivalent to 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg/ha of P2O

  9. Soil mineral N dynamics beneath mixtures of leaves from legume and fruit trees in Central Amazonian multi-strata agroforests Dinâmica do nitrogênio mineral no solo em misturas de folhas de leguminosas arbóreas e de fruteiras em sistemas agroflorestais multiestratificados na Amazônia Central

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    Carol Melanie Schwendener

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term applications of leguminous green mulch could increase mineralizable nitrogen (N beneath cupuaçu trees produced on the infertile acidic Ultisols and Oxisols of the Amazon Basin. However, low quality standing cupuaçu litter could interfere with green mulch N release and soil N mineralization. This study compared mineral N, total N, and microbial biomass N beneath cupuaçu trees grown in two different agroforestry systems, north of Manaus, Brazil, following seven years of different green mulch application rates. To test for net interactions between green mulch and cupuaçu litter, dried gliricidia and inga leaves were mixed with senescent cupuaçu leaves, surface applied to an Oxisol soil, and incubated in a greenhouse for 162 days. Leaf decomposition, N release and soil N mineralization were periodically measured in the mixed species litter treatments and compared to single species applications. The effect of legume biomass and cupuaçu litter on soil mineral N was additive implying that recommendations for green mulch applications to cupuaçu trees can be based on N dynamics of individual green mulch species. Results demonstrated that residue quality, not quantity, was the dominant factor affecting the rate of N release from leaves and soil N mineralization in a controlled environment. In the field, complex N cycling and other factors, including soil fauna, roots, and microclimatic effects, had a stronger influence on available soil N than residue quality.Aplicações a longo prazo de leguminosas como adubo verde podem aumentar o nitrogênio (N mineralizável sob árvores de cupuaçu em solos pouco férteis e ácidos (Ultisols e Oxisols da Bacia Amazônica. Entretanto, a baixa qualidade da liteira de cupuaçu pode influênciara liberação de N do adubo verde e a mineralização deste no solo. Neste estudo foram comparados o N mineral, N total, e o N da biomassa microbiana sob árvores de cupuaçu cultivadas em dois sistemas

  10. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul Overcoming dormancy of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul

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    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais com sementes duras freqüentemente apresentam consideráveis problemas para os viveiristas, porque seus tegumentos duros e impermeáveis à água dificultam e retardam a germinação. Por isso, desenvolveu-se este experimento em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de determinar metodologias para superar a dormência de sementes de catingueira. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes. As sementes foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica feita manualmente com lixa nº. 80 (T2, desponte - pequeno corte na região oposta à micrópila (T3, imersão no ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 6, 8 e 10 min (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente, imersão em água nas temperaturas de 60, 70 e 80 ºC por 1 min (T7, T8 e T9, respectivamente e imersão em água fria por 24, 48 e 72 h (T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com areia umedecida esterilizada. Através de avaliações diárias durante 21 dias, verificaram-se as características de porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento e massa seca das plântulas. Os resultados evidenciaram que os tratamentos pré-germinativos promoveram a germinação das sementes de catingueira, e a escarificação manual com lixa, imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 8 e 10 min e imersão em água a 80 ºC por 1 min revelaram ser os métodos mais efetivos.Forest species with hard seeds often cause important problems for nursery managers because their hard and water impermeable seed coats hinder and delay germination. For this reason, an experiment was carried out to determine methodologies for overcoming dormancy of catingueira seeds, under greenhouse conditions, in the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Paraíba. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replicates of 25 seeds/treatment. Seeds were subjected to 12 treatments: control - intact seeds (T1, mechanical scarification using fine sandpaper nº. 80 (T2, coating cutting in the opposite side of micropylar region (T3, immersion in sulfuric acid (98% for 6, 8 and 10 minutes (T4, T5 and T6, respectively, immersion in water at 60, 70 and 80ºC for one minute (T7, T8 and T9, respectively, immersion in water at room temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hours (T10, T11 and T12, respectively. The seeds were sown in plastic trays with sterilized humidified sand. Daily evaluations were carried out during 21 days observing characteristics of emergence percentage, emergence first count, emergence velocity index, height and dry matter weight of seedlings. The results demonstrated that germinative pre-treatments increased seed germination of catingueira seeds, and higher values were observed with manual scarification with sandpaper, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid during eight and ten minutes and immersion in water at 80ºC for one minute were the most effective methods.

  11. N availability and mechanisms of N conservation in deciduous and semideciduous tropical forest legume trees Disponibilidade de N e mecanismos de conservação de N em leguminosas arbóreas decíduas e semidecíduas de floresta tropical

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    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior to abscission, nutrients are redeployed from leaves and redistributed to other parts of the plant. Data comparing nutrient resorption to soil fertility and leaf life span remains controversial in the literature. We compared nitrogen (N conservation mechanisms among four legume trees with different leaf life spans (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., from a semideciduous tropical forest, remnant of the Atlantic Forest. We hypothesized that these mechanisms differ among the four species and are affected by their leaf life span and by the availability of N, both as a mineral in the soil and, in the case of L. guilleminianus and E. contortisiliquum, from symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF, as these species form associations with rhizobia. The plants were grown in a greenhouse using pots filled with forest soil, enriched (50 or 100 mg of NH4NO3 plant-1week-1 or not with nitrogen. H. courbaril, a semideciduous tree, without SNF, and with the highest leaf life span, presented the greatest N-resorption efficiency (NRE, N-resorption proficiency (NRP and N-use efficiency (NUE. Increase in soil N and the presence of symbiotic N fixation led to a decrease in NRE, NRP and NUE.Antes da abscisão, os nutrientes são removidos das folhas e redistribuídos para outras partes da planta. Quando se relaciona o reaproveitamento de nutrientes à fertilidade do solo, ou à longevidade foliar, os dados da literatura são controversos. Foram comparados mecanismos de conservação de nitrogênio (N em quatro leguminosas arbóreas (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong e Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., com longevidades foliares diferentes, de uma Floresta Semidecídua, remanescente da mata Atlântica. O objetivo do

  12. Arrowleaf Clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: A New Species of Annual Legumes for High Rainfall Areas of the Mediterranean Climate Zone of Chile Trébol Vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: Una Nueva Especie de Leguminosa Anual para Áreas de Alta Precipitación en la Zona Mediterránea de Chile

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    Carlos Ovalle M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines the main attributes and agronomic characteristics of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi and its incorporation into production systems in dryland areas of the Andean foothills of the humid Mediterranean climate zone of Chile. It is a new species of annual legume in Chile for light and medium textured soils. The root system can reach a depth of 1.5 m and its seeds have a high percentage of hardseedness (99.8%. It is an upright plant, with purplish-white flowers. The mature plant has large arrow-shaped leaves up to 50 mm long, often marked with a large white “V”. Dry matter and seed production in the Andean foothills is high (3.9-8.8 t DM ha-1 and 700-900 kg ha-1, respectively, surpassing the productivity of sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mount Barker and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.. However, DM production in the second year was lower, possibly because the high percentage of hardseedness inhibited plant emergence. The phenological records and productive performance suggest that arrowleaf clover could contribute to improving pastoral production in dryland areas with annual rainfall levels of more than 800 mm, such as the Andean foothills in the central-southern region of Chile.En la presente revisión se examinan los principales atributos y características agronómicas del trébol vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi y su eventual incorporación a sistemas de producción en la precordillera andina de la zona de clima mediterráneo húmedo de Chile. Se trata de una nueva especie de leguminosa forrajera anual para suelos de textura liviana y media. El sistema radical puede alcanzar 1,5 m de profundidad y las semillas tienen un alto porcentaje de dureza seminal (99,8%. Es una planta de crecimiento erecto, flores de color blanco con una leve coloración púrpura. Las plantas adultas tienen grandes hojas con forma de flecha de más de 50 mm de largo, a menudo muestran una marca blanca en

  13. Desempenho de leguminosas nativas (Adesmia e exóticas (Lotus, Trifolium, em função do estádio fenológico no primeiro corte Performance of native (Adesmia and exotic (Lotus, Trifolium legumes as for the phenological stage on first-cutting

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    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de analisar aspectos fenológicos e produtivos de leguminosas nativas (Adesmia latifolia, A. tristis e exóticas (Lotus corniculatus, L. uliginosus, Trifolium repens, em função do estádio fenológico no primeiro corte: vegetativo (CEV e florescimento (CEF. As plantas foram estabelecidas em monocultura, no campo, e avaliadas entre maio/2000 e setembro/2001, em Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul. Após o primeiro corte, as plantas foram desfolhadas em intervalos de 45 dias. Foram realizadas nove desfolhações no manejo CEV e sete no CEF. O estádio fenológico no primeiro corte influenciou a produção de massa seca (MS de T. repens (CEV= 9.000 kg/ha de MS, CEF = 7.000 kg/ha de MS e A. tristis (CEV = 4.000 kg/ha de MS, CEF = 8.000 kg/ha de MS. O L. corniculatus produziu cerca de 15.000 kg/ha de MS e A. latifolia, de 2.000 a 3.000 kg/ha de MS, independentemente do manejo. O L. uliginosus não floresceu, produzindo 7.000 kg/ha de MS no manejo CEV. As espécies nativas mostraram baixa persistência, com morte de plantas (A. tristis e estolões (A. latifolia no final da estação de crescimento. A maior produção de T. repens foi na primavera e a das espécies de Lotus, no verão.This work had the objective to evaluate phenological and productive aspects of native (Adesmia latifolia, A. tristis and exotics legumes (Lotus corniculatus, L. uliginosus, Trifolium repens as for the phenological stage on first-cutting: vegetative (CEV and flowering (CEF. The plants were established as monoculture in the field and evaluated between May/2000 and September/2001, in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul. After the first cutting the plants were defoliated in 45 days intervals. There were nine cuttings in CEV-management and seven in the CEF-management. The phenological stage on first-cutting modified significantly (P<0,05 the dry matter (DM production of T. repens (CEV = 9.000 kg/ha of DM, CEF = 7.000 kg/ha of DM and A

  14. Eocene Podocarpium (Leguminosae) from South China and its biogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Qiu, Jue; Zhou, Zhekun; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger is one of the most common legumes in the Neogene of Eurasia, including fossil fruits, seeds, leaves, and possible flower and pollen grains. This genus is not completely consistent with any extant genera according to gross morphological characters and poorly preserved cuticular structures reported in previous studies. The fossil pods collected from the coal-bearing series of the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island and Maoming Basin of Guangdong, South China, are examined by morphologically comparative work, with special reference to venation patterns and placental position. These distinctive features, as well as the ovule development of pods from different developmental stages and the epidermal structure of the pods, as distinguished from previous records lead to the conclusion that these fossils can be recognized as a new species of Podocarpium, P. eocenicum sp. nov. This new discovery indicates that Podocarpium had arrived in South China by the Eocene. Investigation on the fossil records of this extinct genus shows that P. eocenicum is the earliest and lowest latitude fossil data. The possible occurrence pattern of this genus is revealed as follows: Podocarpium had distributed in the South China at least in the middle Eocene, and then migrated to Europe during the Oligocene; in the Miocene this genus reached its peak in Eurasia, spreading extensively across subtropical areas to warm temperate areas; finally, Podocarpium shrank rapidly and became extinct in Eurasia during the Pliocene. PMID:26579179

  15. Bellulicauda dialii on Dialium guianense (Leguminosae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Olinto L.; Bosquetti, Lorrayne B.; Barreto, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first report of Bellulicauda dialii on Dialium guianense leaves, and the second record of this fungus, previously known only from Africa (Sierra Leone). Bellulicauda dialii é relatado pela primeira vez em folhas de Dialium guianense. Trata-se do segundo registro dessa espécie fúngica, anteriormente conhecida apenas do Continente Africano (Serra Leoa).

  16. Estudo FitoquÃmico de Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho descreve a identificaÃÃo de constituintes volÃteis das folhas e flores e o isolamento de constituintes fixos das cascas e lenho do caule e lenho da raiz de Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. Esta espÃcie, que ocorre nas margens de rios do Nordeste brasileiro, produz frutos que sÃo utilizados como alimento, e suas folhas, na forma de chÃ, combatem diarrÃia e distÃrbios menstruais. Apesar desta espÃcie ser de considerÃvel importÃncia para o povo nordestino, nenhum relato na literatura ...

  17. Taxonomic revision of Lonchocarpus s. str. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos José da Silva; Ana Maria Goulart de Azevedo Tozzi

    2012-01-01

    É apresentada a revisão das espécies brasileiras de Lonchocarpus s. str., a qual baseou-se em estudos de campo e na análise de aproximadamente 1.200 coleções de herbários. Foram reconhecidas nove espécies: L. cultratus, L. hedyosmus, L. latifolius, L. macrocarpus, L. nitidus, L. pluvialis, L. sericeus, L. spiciflorus e L. violaceus, ocorrendo em formações florestais geralmente associadas às margens de rios. Lonchocarpus sericeus e L. cultratus apresentam distribuição ampla em todo o Brasil, e...

  18. Las leguminosas en alimentación animal

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Luis A.; Molina, Eduarda

    2016-01-01

    From an animal nutrition point of view, legumes can be divided into two groups: fodder legumes (e. g. lucerne) mainly utilized in ruminant nutrition, and grain legumes (e. g. faba beans, peas, lupins) mainly used in bird and swine nutrition and, to a lesser extent, in ruminants. Grain legumes can partially or even totally replace traditional protein sources of animal origin such as meat, bone and fish meals. Moreover, they represent an alternative protein-rich feed ingredient for soybean meal...

  19. The mating system of Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. (Leguminosae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of out-crossing in the studied populations ranged from 40–100%. The genotype frequencies were in agreement with those of the Hardy-Weinberg expected genotype proportions as in randomly mating populations at P < 0.05. The floral structure and the pollen shedding behaviour of the flowers of S. sesban could ...

  20. Nodal anatomy of eight Nigeria species of Vigna savi (Leguminosae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the nodal anatomical features of eight Vigna species namely: V. ambacensis, V. gracills, V. racemosa, V. reticulata, V. subterranae, V. triloba, V. unguiculata and V. vexillata that are common in Eastern Nigeria were carried out. The model anatomy showed that these taxa possess useful taxonomic ...

  1. Morphological and micromorphological characteristics of Desmodium fruits (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane M. Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomentaceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM; and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicel- lular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit.

  2. Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. (East Indian Rosewood) of Leguminosae is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... grows in mixed deciduous forests with teak. Leaves are compound. The creamy white flowers are borne on branched inflorescences. The indehiscent dry pod bears. 1-4 seeds. Inset - a juvenile plant. Rosewood timber is stronger and much harder than teak and raflks among the finest woods for furniture and cabinet work.

  3. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. ofLeguminosae is a lofty tree ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native natural strands of this tree are fast disappearing due to over exploitation. This has led to inclusion of this plant in the list of endangered species. Extracts of tender vegetative regions of this plant are used as remedy for diarrhoea, dysentery, fever and toothache. The aqueous infusion of the wood is believed to ...

  4. Allelopathic potential of catechins of the Tachigali myrmecophyla (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    LÔBO, Lívia Trindade; CASTRO, Kelly Christina Ferreira; ARRUDA, Mara Silvia Pinheiro; SILVA, Milton Nascimento da; ARRUDA, Alberto Cardoso; MÜLLER, Adolfo Henrique; GUILHON, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; SANTOS, Alberdan Silva; SOUZA FILHO, Antonio Pedro da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Two compounds, (+)-catechin and epicatechin, were isolated from leaves of T. myrmecophyla, using chromatographic techniques. The structural identification was carried out on the basis of ¹H and 13C NMR spectral data and comparison with literature data. The compounds (+)-catechin and epicatechin were submitted to germination inhibition and radicle and hypocotyl growth assays. Results showed some significant activities confirming the initial hypothesis about allelopathic properties of that plant.

  5. Una nueva especie de Adesmia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae para la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A. Ulibarri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Adesmia australis (serie Frigidae, una nueva especie de la provincia de Santa Cruz, que se distingue de su especie más afín, A. frigida, por el número y tamaño de los folíolos, el tamaño de las flores y estípulas isomorfas.

  6. RECUENTOS CROMOSOMICOS EN ZORNIA, STYLOSANTHES Y DESMODIUM (LEGUMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vanni

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El número de cromosomas de tres especies de Zornia, tres de Desmodium y uno de Stylosanthes se presentan por primera vez. Está incluído un conteo previo para leiocarpum Desmodium el cual se confirma

  7. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae, Dalbergieae) from Western Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, C.C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dalbergia hepperi from Western Africa is described and illustrated. The combination of glabrous ovaries, flat and glabrous fruits and ovate to obovate leaflets with a conspicuous acuminate apex is not known from any other Dalbergia species from this region.

  8. Temperature Dependent Seed Germination of Dalbergia nigra Allem (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda G. A. Ferraz-Grande

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The germination of endangered species Dalbergia nigra was studied and 30.5° C was found as optimum temperature, although the species presented a broad temperature range where germination occurs and light had no effect. The analysis of kinetics of seed germination confirmed the asynchronized germination below and above the optimum temperature. The light insensitive seed and germination also at high temperatures indicated that D. nigra could occur both in understories and gaps where the mean temperature was high.A germinação de sementes de Dalbergia nigra Allem, comumente conhecida como jacarandá-da-Bahia, caviúna, jacarandá, uma espécie em extinção, foi estudada e determinamos a temperatura ótima de 30,5° C. A espécie apresenta uma ampla faixa de temperatura onde a germinação ocorre e a luz branca não influenciou o processo. A análise da cinética da germinação de sementes confirma a germinação não sincronizada acima e abaixo da temperatura ótima de germinação. A semente insensível à luz e a germinação também em altas temperaturas indicam que D. nigra pode ocorrer tanto na sombra da vegetação bem como em clareiras.

  9. A REVISION OF THE GENUS SPATHOLOBUS (LEGUMINOSAE- PAPILIONOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Jeannette

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the S. E. Asiatic genus Spatholobus 28 species are recognized, 6 of which are never described before: S. albus^ S. auricomus, S. auritus, S. hirsutus, S. multiflorus and S. viridis. One variety (S. ferrugineus var. acutus is also newly described. A key and full descriptions with plates and maps to illustrate the distribution are given.

  10. Two new species of Callerya Endl. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirichamon, Yotsawate; Balslev, Henrik; Mathapa, Sawai

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Callerya (Endl.); C. chlorantha and C. tennaserimensis are illustrated and described. They are commonly found in dry deciduous or bamboo forest in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi province, South-western Thailand. It was also found that C. chlorantha might be associated wi...

  11. Megastimanes and ergostane type steroid from leaves Cratylia mollis (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Luciano S.; Lima, Marcos V.B.; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Inst. de Quimica; Giulietti, Ana M.; Queiroz, Luciano P. de [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2009-07-01

    From the methanolic extract of the leaves of Cratylia mollis were obtained by chromatographic techniques (3S,5S,6S,9R)-3,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydro-beta-ionol (1), and a new bis-norisoprenoid named (4S{sup *}, 6S{sup *})-4-but-1E-enyl-4,6-dihydroxy-3,5,5-trimethyl-cyclohex-2-enone (2) as well as 5 alpha,8 alpha-epidioxy ergosta-6,22-dien-3-beta-ol. The structures of the pure compounds were elucidated based on MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic data analyses. (author)

  12. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  13. Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the entire crown of the tree covered with previous season's dry pods). The tender branchlets and leaves are used as fodder. The heartwood is dark brown, tough and durable and is used in making cart wheels and agricultural implements. The bark and seeds are astringent and are given for treating piles and diarrhoea.

  14. Chemical constituents of leaves from Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae); Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Souza, Alex Fonseca; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMGS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Aquidauana

    2012-07-01

    A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), 1,2-di-O-{alpha}-linolenoy1-3-O-{alpha}-D-galactopyranosy1 -(1{yields}6)-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+)-catechin and the dimer (+)-catechin-(4{beta}-8)-catechin, glutinol, squalene, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, {beta}-carotene, a-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and based on literature data. (author)

  15. Potencial alelopático de catequinas de Tachigali myrmecophyla (leguminosae Allelopathic potential of catechins of the Tachigali myrmecophyla (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia T. Lôbo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds, (+-catechin and epicatechin, were isolated from leaves of T. myrmecophyla, using chromatographic techniques. The structural identification was carried out on the basis of ¹H and 13C NMR spectral data and comparison with literature data. The compounds (+-catechin and epicatechin were submitted to germination inhibition and radicle and hypocotyl growth assays. Results showed some significant activities confirming the initial hypothesis about allelopathic properties of that plant.

  16. Allelopathic potential of catechins of the Tachigali myrmecophyla (Leguminosae); Potencial alelopatico de catequinas de Tachigali myrmecophyla (leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Livia T.; Castro, Kelly Christina Ferreira; Arruda, Mara Silvia P.; Silva, Milton N. da; Arruda, Alberto C.; Mueller, Adolfo Henrique; Arruda, Giselle Maria Skelding P.; Santos, Alberdan Silva [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: livia_lobo@yahoo.com.br; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro da Silva [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Agroindustria

    2008-07-01

    Two compounds, (+)-catechin and epicatechin, were isolated from leaves of T. myrmecophyla, using chromatographic techniques. The structural identification was carried out on the basis of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral data and comparison with literature data. The compounds (+)-catechin and epicatechin were submitted to germination inhibition and radicle and hypocotyl growth assays. Results showed some significant activities confirming the initial hypothesis about allelopathic properties of that plant. (author)

  17. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Acacia nitidifolia Speg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae. Wood anatomy of Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Speg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfurações simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3 seriados e fibras libriformes septadas. A presença de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na série Vulgares Benth., que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  18. Rede de distribuição de energia elétrica e arborização viária: o caso da Cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.8405

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Luiz Domingos De Angelis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a interação entre a arborização de acompanhamento viário e a rede de distribuição de energia elétrica de alta tensão e, ao mesmo tempo, avaliar as espécies arbóreas utilizadas na cidade de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, em uma área específica - Zona 7. Essa área foi escolhida tendo em vista as particularidades locais, como a utilização de árvores de grande porte e os diferentes tipos de rede de energia (convencional e compacta para alta tensão e convencional e isolada para baixa tensão. Constatou-se que as espécies arbóreas de grande porte são predominantes, como Caesalpinia peltophoroides e Tipuana tipu, que representam, respectivamente, 32,92 e 30,79% da arborização total. Como resultado final tem-se a minimização dos impactos causados pela arborização sobre a rede de energia elétrica, visto que os indicadores da qualidade do fornecimento de energia elétrica melhoraram em até 80%. Os custos de manutenção da rede diminuíram sensivelmente, e a qualidade da arborização, sobretudo pela redução nas podas, apresentou melhoras consideráveis, comprovando a eficácia da rede compacta protegida quando comparada às demais.

  19. Análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo de árboles urbanos de un barrio de Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Borgiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El rápido crecimiento de las ciudades ha dado lugar a varios problemas ambientales. Buscando minimizar estos problemas, la arborización en el medio urbano pasó a ser indispensable y se considera un parámetro de calidad de vida de la población. En este contexto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo diagnosticar la situación de la arborización urbana en el barrio Jardín Brasil en Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil, a través de un levantamiento cualitativo y cuantitativo de las especies arbóreas presentes. Fue posible registrar 23 familias y 41 especies en un total de 510 individuos de los cuales 11 estaban muertos. El barrio tiene una diversidad relativamente baja y la mayoría de las especies encontradas son exóticas (60,98%. Las especies más comunes son: Licania tomentosa (31,87%, Caesalpinia peltophoroides (11,16%, Lagerstroemia indica (9,56%, Murraya paniculata (6,57% y Terminalia catappa (5,98%. Gran parte de los problemas encontrados son el resultado de no planificar la silvicultura urbana, lo que termina generando conflicto con el cableado eléctrico y la construcción. Entre tanto, fueron pocos los casos de conflictos con el alumbrado público y las señales de tránsito. Se destacó también el gran número de individuos arbóreos atacados por termitas y hormigas (59,34%. Investigaciones como ésta son útiles para la toma de decisiones y la planificación de los árboles urbanos de una ciudad.

  20. Kinetics of solute leachate from imbibing Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Martini Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of leachates from imbibing seeds has been used as a vigor test for several species. The adaptation of this methodology to different species requires knowledge on the leaching kinetics of electrolytes. For Brazilwood seeds, the classic method was not satisfactory and rapid tests are essential because they have low storage capacity at room temperature. Leaching kinetics during seed imbibition is a function of physiological quality, presence or absence of seed coat, imbibing temperature and the initial moisture content of seed. In this study, the electrolyte leaching rate of six different categories of seeds, from two regions, was evaluated in seeds with and without seed coat and incubated with different moisture contents and at different temperatures. The results showed that the electrolyte leaching rate in Brazilwood seeds is independent of the physiological quality, the presence or absence of seed coat and imbibition temperature, but these factors changed the total amount of electrolytes leached. The leaching rate increased in the first few minutes of imbibition, suggesting that the adjustment of the methodology must consider the reduction in imbibition time, reduction in temperature, use of a controlled and slower pre-imbibition, and replacement of the imbibition solution after the first few minutes.

  1. Caracteristicas anatomicas y propiedades fisicas de la madera de Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm en Dzan, Yucatan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Interian-Ku, Victor Manuel; Borja de la Rosa, Maria Amparo; Valdez-Hernandez, Juan Ignacio; Garcia-Moya, Edmundo; Romero-Manzanares, Angelica; Vaquera-Huerta, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    .... Con la finalidad de contribuir al conocimiento tecnologico de sus atributos y proponer usos potenciales de la madera de esta especie, se describieron sus caracteristicas anatomicas y propiedades fisicas...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulyanto, Subur, E-mail: subur.mulyanto@poltekba.ac.id [Graduate Program of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Balikpapan, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km.8 Balikpapan (Indonesia); Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi, E-mail: rendy.ar@gmail.com; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Hadi, Syamsul, E-mail: syamsulhadi@ft.uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Wibowo, Atmanto Heru, E-mail: aheruwibowo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  3. Revisão taxonômica de Lonchocarpus s. str. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae do Brasil Taxonomic revision of Lonchocarpus s. str. (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada a revisão das espécies brasileiras de Lonchocarpus s. str., a qual baseou-se em estudos de campo e na análise de aproximadamente 1.200 coleções de herbários. Foram reconhecidas nove espécies: L. cultratus, L. hedyosmus, L. latifolius, L. macrocarpus, L. nitidus, L. pluvialis, L. sericeus, L. spiciflorus e L. violaceus, ocorrendo em formações florestais geralmente associadas às margens de rios. Lonchocarpus sericeus e L. cultratus apresentam distribuição ampla em todo o Brasil, enquanto L. hedyosmus, L. macrocarpus, L. spiciflorus e L. latifolius são restritas ao domínio amazônico. Lonchocarpus pluvialis ocorre nas Regiões Centro-Oeste (Mato Grosso do Sul e Goiás e Sudeste (São Paulo e L. violaceus é encontrada nos Estados da Bahia e Espírito Santo, sendo este o seu primeiro registro para o Brasil. São apresentadas chaves de identificação, descrições e ilustrações, informações sobre habitat e distribuição geográfica, além de comentários taxonômicos e nomenclaturais das espécies. São propostas quatro novas sinonimizações e cinco lectotipificações.A revision of the Brazilian species of Lonchocarpus s. str. is presented. This study is based on field observation and an analysis of approximately 1,200 herbarium collections. Nine species are recognized, L. cultratus, L. hedyosmus, L. latifolius, L. macrocarpus, L. nitidus, L. pluvialis, L. sericeus, L. spiciflorus, and L. violaceus, which grow in forests and are usually associated with river banks. Lonchocarpus sericeus and L. cultratus have a wide distribution throughout Brazil, whereas L. hedyosmus, L. macrocarpus, L. spiciflorus, and L. latifolius are restricted to the Amazonian domain. Lonchocarpus pluvialis occurs in the Central-West (Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás and Southeast (São Paulo regions. Lonchocarpus violaceus is found in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, and is reported for the first time for Brazil. Identification keys, descriptions, and illustrations, in addition to information about habitat, geographic distribution and taxonomic and nomenclatural comments, are provided for the species. Four new synonyms and five lectotypifications are proposed.

  4. Taxonomic Revision Of Lonchocarpus S. Str. (leguminosae, Papilionoideae) From Brazil [revisão Taxonômica De Lonchocarpus S. Str. (leguminosae, Papilionoideae) Do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva M.J.; Tozzi A.M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    A revision of the Brazilian species of Lonchocarpus s. str. is presented. This study is based on field observation and an analysis of approximately 1,200 herbarium collections. Nine species are recognized, L. cultratus, L. hedyosmus, L. latifolius, L. macrocarpus, L. nitidus, L. pluvialis, L. sericeus, L. spiciflorus, and L. violaceus, which grow in forests and are usually associated with river banks. Lonchocarpus sericeus and L. cultratus have a wide distribution throughout Brazil, whereas L...

  5. Una nueva especie de Centrosema (DC. Benth. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae del Orinoco Una nueva especie de Centrosema (DC. Benth. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae del Orinoco

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    Schultze Kraft Rainer

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Centrosema is described and named C. tetragonolobum. It occurs in the region of the Orinoco river between latitudes 4° and 6° N in the Comisaría del Vichada, Colombia, and the Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Characteristic features of the species are winged pods, chartaceous to coriaceous leaves, and an erect-climbing growth habit. Una nueva especie de Centrosema es descrita como C. tetragonolobum. Su distribución está limitada a la región del río Orinoco entre latitudes 4° y 6° N en la Comisaría del Vichada, Colombia, y el Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Son características de la especie las legumbres aladas, hojas cartáceas a coriáceas, y un hábito de crecimiento erecto-trepador.

  6. Papilionoideae (Leguminosae nos campos rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, MG, Brasil Papilionoideae (Leguminosae in the campos rupestres of Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Valquíria Ferreira Dutra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata do estudo florístico de Papilionoideae dos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (PEI, localizado no sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço. O trabalho de campo foi realizado no período entre setembro/2003 e outubro/2004. Foram encontradas 28 espécies de Papilionoideae, reunidas em 18 gêneros, sendo Desmodium o mais representativo, com cinco espécies. São fornecidos neste trabalho chaves analíticas, diagnoses, ilustrações e comentários sobre a distribuição geográfica e fenologia de cada espécie.A floristic study of Papilionoideae in the campos rupestres of Itacolomi State Park, South Espinhaço Range, was carried out. Field work took place from September 2003 to October 2004. Twenty eight species of Papilionoideae, grouped into 18 genera, were found. Desmodium was the most representative with five species. Analytical keys, diagnoses, illustrations and comments on the geographic distribution and phenology of each species are also presented.

  7. CHROMOSOME NUMBERS OF SPECIES OF MIMOSA (LEGUMINOSAE OF PARAGUAY NÚMEROS CROMOSÓMICOS DE ESPECIES DE MIMOSA (LEGUMINOSAE DE PARAGUAY

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    Guillermo Seijo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    In the present study the chromosome numbers of Mimosa xanthocentra subsp. subsericea var. subsericea, M. balansae, M. chacoensis, M. rojasiiall with 2n=26 and M. lupinoides with 2n=52 are reported for the first time. The 2n=52 of M. somnians subsp. viscida vara viscida and of M. somnians subsp. somnians var. somnians are new and differ from the 2n=26 published before for M. somnians var. somniansof Argentina. M. debiliswith 2n=26 also differs from the numbers
    reported previously for M. debilis var. debilis from Argentina with 2n=52. The 2n=26 of M. bimucronata var. adenocarpa coincides with the reported number for M. bimucronata var.
    bimucronata, and the number of M. polycarpa var. spegazzinii with 2n=26 is confirmed.
    En el presente estudio el número de cromosomas de la subsp Mimosa xanthocentra. subsericea var. subsericea, M. balansae, M. chacoensis, M. rojasii todos con 2n = 26 y M. lupinoides con 2n = 52 ha sido reportado en primer término. El 2n = 52 de M. somnians subsp. viscida var. viscida y de M. somnians subsp. somnians var. somnians son nuevas y diferentes de las 2n = 26 publicados antes para M. somnians var. somnians de Argentina. M. debilis con 2n = 26 también difiere de las cifras reportadas previamente para M. debilis var. debilis de Argentina con 2n = 52. El 2n = 26 de adenocarpa M. bimucronata var. coincide con la cifra reportada para M. bimucronata var. bimucronata, y el número de M. polycarpa var. spegazzinii con 2n = 26 se confirma

  8. Especie nueva de Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae de Centroamérica A new species of Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae from Central America

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    José Linares

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra a Albizia xerophytica sp. nov., una nueva especie de El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua,de las selvas bajas caducifolias de la parte norte de Centroamérica y se discuten sus posibles afinidades taxonómicas.A new species, Albizia xerophytica sp. nov., is described and illustrated, and its taxonomic affinities are discussed. The tree has been collected from the low-land broadleaf forests of El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua of northern Central America.

  9. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo; o pecíolo, que possui dois pulvinos, um proximal e um distai, apresenta epiderme contendo grande quantidade de tricomas tecto res simples e glândulas; a lâmina foliar é anfiestomática com predomínio de estômatos dos tipos anomocítico e paracítico; a epiderme adaxial é monoestratificada, subpapilosa, desprovida de tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; a epiderme abaxial é subpapilosa, apresentando numerosos tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; e o mesofilo é formado predominantemente por parênquima paliçádico.A morphological and anatomical study of Bauhinia curvula Benth. leaf, a cerrado spe-cies, was perfomed. The observations, in grown up leaves, prepared according to the costumary methodology used in plant anatomy, showed the following characteristics of the species: bilobed leaves with foliar incision close to the motor region; one pair of membranaceous stipules; one pair of extrafloral nectaries located on the basis of the proximal pulvinus; acrodromous patterns of leaf venetion; the petiole, which has two pulvinus, one proximal and one distal, has an epidermis containing large quantities of simple tector trichomes and glands; the leaf blade, amphiestomatic, with predominance of anomocytic and paracytic stomata; the adaxial epidermis uniserial, sub papillose, without tector trichomes and glands; the abaxial epiderms, sub-papillose, presents a high number of simple trichomes and glands; and the mesophyll with a basic composition of palisadic parenchyma.

  10. Revisão taxonômica de Myrocarpus Allemão (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae Taxonomic revision of Myrocarpus Allemão (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae

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    Ângela L.B. Sartori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Em Myrocarpus, gênero exclusivamente sul-americano, são reconhecidas cinco espécies: Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão, M. leprosus Pickel, M. venezuelensis Rudd, M. fastigiatus Allemãoe M. emarginatus A.L.B. Sartori & A.M.G. Azevedo. Na delimitação das espécies são discutidos dados de morfologia, hábitats e de distribuição geográfica. A morfologia das pétalas e a ornamentação da região seminífera são caracteres relevantes na identificação das espécies, embora não utilizados até o presente. Este estudo apresenta chave de identificação das espécies, descrições, ilustrações, mapa de distribuição e novos registros de ocorrência.In Myrocarpus, an exclusively South American genus, five species are recognised: Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão, M. leprosus Pickel, M. venezuelensis Rudd, M. fastigiatus Allemãoand M. emarginatus A.L.B. Sartori & A.M.G. Azevedo. Morphologic data, habitat information and geographic distribution of each taxon are discussed. Petal morphology and ornamentation of seed chamber are an important character for species identification, though not shown previously. Key to the species, descriptions, illustrations, distribution, and new registers are presented.

  11. Biological aspects and control of a Gracillariidae (Gracillariidae: Lepidoptera in Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. Kuntze (1898, in Cajamarca, Peru

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    Hipólito Murga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determine biological target, identify natural enemies, and establish appropriate periods of controlling a pest gracillariid tare. The biological aspects and natural enemies in field and laboratory were evaluated, appropriate control periods was determined by host-pest interaction. The results, egg lasts 7.8 days and measured 0.34x0.21 mm; presents four instars larvae and lasts 35.7 days, ranging from measures between 1st and the 4th instar from 0.09 to 0.65 mm diameter brain; the pupa lasts 14.3 days and measured 6.7mmx1.1mm; adult takes 7.5 days and measured 13.43 mm wingspan. Presents natural enemies, family Encyrtidae, Ichneumonidae, and genres Chelonus sp., Chrysoperla sp., Hemerobius sp., Cicloneda sp., Hippodamia sp., and Zelus spp. The best times control occur when the phenology of the tara is between R3.1 to R3.3 and R4 to R6.

  12. Leaf antioxidant fluctuations and growth responses in saplings of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood) under an urban stressing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbovas, Patricia; de Moraes, Regina Maria; Spasiani Rinaldi, Mirian Cilene; Luiza Cunha, Adriana; Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz; Domingos, Marisa

    2010-05-01

    We intended to establish how efficient the leaf antioxidant responses of C. echinata are against oxidative environmental conditions observed in an urban environment and their relations to growth and biomass parameters. Plants were grown for 15 months in four sites: Congonhas and Pinheiros, affected by pollutants from vehicular emissions; Ibirapuera, affected by high O(3) concentrations; and a greenhouse with filtered air. Fifteen plants were quarterly removed from each site for analysis of antioxidants, growth and biomass. Plants growing in polluted sites showed alterations in their antioxidants. They were shorter, had thicker stems and produced less leaf biomass than plants maintained under filtered air. The fluctuations in the levels of antioxidants were significantly influenced by combined effects of climatic and pollution variables. The higher were the antioxidant responses and the concentrations of pollutant markers of air contamination in each site the slower were the growth and biomass production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions...

  14. Antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods in vitro and in model food emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowyra, Monika; Falguera, Víctor; Gallego, Gabriela; Peiró, Sara; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-03-30

    The successful replacement of some synthetic food antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants has fostered intensive search for new vegetable sources of antioxidants. In our study the phenol and flavonoid content of extracts of tara pods was determined. The antioxidant activity was also studied by three different analytical assays: the measurement of scavenging capacity against a radical ABTS⁺ , the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). All analyzed samples showed a good antioxidant capacity, but the use of a solution of ethanol 75% in a 1 h ultrasonic process allowed achieving the greatest quantity of phenolics (0.464 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g⁻¹ dry weight (DW) ) and the highest antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS⁺ and ORAC methods (10.17 and 4.29 mmol L⁻¹ Trolox equivalents (TE) g⁻¹ DW, respectively). The best method for efficient extraction of flavonoids (3.08 mg catechin equivalent (CE) g⁻¹ DW) was a 24 h maceration in cold water. Two extracts obtained with ethanol 75% and water were added to a model food system (oil-in-water emulsion) and the oxidative stability was studied during storage at 38 °C. Oxidation was monitored by determination of the peroxide value. The addition of 48 µg mL⁻¹ ethanol extract to the emulsion delayed oxidation to the same extent as 17.8 µg mL⁻¹ of Trolox, while water extract was only effective in the early stages of the oxidation process. The results of this study indicate that ethanolic tara extracts may be suitable for use in food, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Estrutura do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Phytossociological survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Forest, in Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º54'10"S e 43º12'27"W tem área total de 80 ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil no município do Rio de Janeiro. A estrutura deste importante fragmento florestal foi estudada utilizando-se o método dos quadrantes. Foram alocados 200 pontos amostrais e o critério de inclusão foi de 15 cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m acima do solo. Nos 200 pontos amostrados foram encontradas 44 espécies distribuídas em 36 gêneros e 22 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram maiores valores de importância (VI foram Solanaceae (com 34,1% do VI, Leguminosae (Mimosoideae com 16,4%, Papilionoideae com 7,9% e Caesalpinioideae com 2,1%, Nyctaginaceae (13%, Anacardiaceae (6,5% e Flacourtiaceae (6,1%. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos na área apresentaram também maior VI: Metternichia princeps Mik. (com 40,4% dos indivíduos e 33,7% do VI, Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (9,3 e 12,6%, Guapira hirsuta (Choisy Lundell (7,5 e 7,8%, Astronium fraxinifolium Schott ex Spreng. (5,6 e 5,7%. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. apresentou 2,4% dos indivíduos amostrados e 2,1% do VI. A distribuição diamétrica da comunidade, assim como da maioria das principais populações, apresentou grande número de indivíduos nas menores classes, decrescendo gradualmente. Este fato reflete uma abundante regeneração da maioria das espécies amostradas.The Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra da Capoeira Grande is a 80 ha site and one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality where Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood occurs naturally. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH ³ 15 cm and a total of 200 points were surveyed. 44 species were identified, belonging to 36 genera and 22 botanical families The families with the higher

  16. Análise quali - quantitativa da vegetação e dos elementos arquitetônicos da Praça Dom Assis, Jaboticabal, São Paulo

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    Gisele Sales Batista

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As praças são espaços públicos urbanos livres de edificações e que propiciam convivência e recreação para seus usuários, além de contribuírem para o embelezamento das cidades, desempenhando uma função importante no contexto urbanístico ambiental. Tendo em vista a importância das praças e as conseqüências do crescimento urbano, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a situação atual e usos da Praça Dom Assis de Jaboticabal, mediante análise quali-quantitativa da vegetação e dos elementos arquitetônicos e uma pesquisa de opinião pública com a população. Foi realizado um levantamento da vegetação local (árvores, arbustos, palmeiras e herbáceas ornamentais e uma pesquisa de opinião foi aplicada na praça, em dias da semana e horários diferentes, por meio de 100 questionários com perguntas diretas aos entrevistados. A praça possui rica vegetação, com 36 espécies divididas em 18 famílias botânicas num total de 84 indivíduos, destacando-se entre as arbóreas, as sibipirunas (Caesalpinia peltophoroides, cássia-imperial (Cassia fistula e algumas espécies de palmeiras. Pôde-se identificar que se trata de um local muito freqüentado por pessoas de diversas faixas etárias, prevalecendo idosos. Conclui-se que atualmente a praça tende mais a um bosque no meio urbano, proporcionando conforto térmico em um clima de verão tão severo como o de Jaboticabal. Palavras-chave: Arborização urbana, espaços públicos, paisagismo.

  17. Caracterização das espécies utilizadas na arborização urbana em Silveira Martins, RS

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    Fernanda Alice Antonello Londero Backes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na região da Quarta Colônia, município de Silveira Martins (RS. O objetivo foi fazer um inventário quali-quantitativo das espécies arbóreas, arbustivas e de palmeiras utilizadas na arborização urbana do município. Para isso, foram contabilizados a frequência de ocorrência das espécies, sua origem, estado geral das plantas, aspecto da copa, condição fitossanitária, além da observação da ocorrência de danos à fiação e às calçadas. Foram encontrados 1.126 indivíduos, distribuídos em 75 espécies, sendo as famílias predominantes Bignoniaceae e Fabaceae, e Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell. Mattos a espécie arbórea mais frequente. Quanto aos danos ao patrimônio público, observou-se que 96% dos indivíduos que compõem a arborização urbana não causaram prejuízos às calçadas e à fiação aérea. Concluiu-se que a arborização de Silveira Martins (RS se caracteriza por apresentar a maioria de indivíduos nativos do Brasil (58%, destacando-se as espécies Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell. Mattos, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth., Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman e Handroanthus chrysotrichus (Mart. ex A.DC. Mattos. Conclui-se que há a necessidade de uma revitalização da vegetação arbórea, arbustiva e de palmeiras, considerando que em Silveira Martins não existe planejamento da distribuição dos indivíduos vegetais no contexto urbano do município.

  18. LAS PROTEINAS SEMINALES DEL MANI (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA, LEGUMINOSAE y SU RELACION CON LAS CATEGORIAS INFRAESPECIFICAS

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    N R Grosso

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Las proteínas seminales de 122 muestras diferentes de Arachis hypogaea L. originarios de Bolivia, Perú y Ecuador fueron estudiadas por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida.
    Se detectaron siete bandas constantes y 27 bandas inconstantes. Los resultados de las últimas se utilizaron para analizar las similitudes entre las muestras empleando el coeficiente de Jaccard y el método de ligamiento promedio de la media aritmética no ponderada(UPGMA.
    Las proteínas seminales permitieron separar totalmente la subespecies de A.hypogaea y las variedades en menor medida.

  19. Juvenile Demography of Copaifera pubiflora Benth. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) near Parent Tree

    OpenAIRE

    NELSON, RAMIREZ; OMAIRA, HOKCHE; Universidad Central de Venezuela, Fac. de Ciencias, Centro Botanica Tropical

    1995-01-01

    The age structure and distribution of seeds, seedlings, and non-reproductive (juveniles) plants of Copaifera pubiflora relative to the distance from parent trees were studied in the Venezuelan central plains. Age structure differentiated between years when comparisons were made for plants in one-year interval classes. This difference was associated with the proportion of plants less than one year old and those eight years old. Age structure did not differ between years when comparisons were m...

  20. A new family of oligosaccharides from the xyloglucan of Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, M S; Crombie, H J; Mendes, C J; Reid, J S; Gidley, M J; Vieira, C C

    1997-09-05

    The xyloglucan from cotyledons of Hymenaea courbaril was hydrolysed with endo-(1,4)-beta-D-glucanase (cellulase) and analysed by TLC and HPAEC. The limit digest was different from those obtained from xyloglucans of Tamarindus indica and Copaifera langsdorffii. On treatment with nasturtium beta-galactosidase, two main oligosaccharides were detected by TLC and HPAEC. Using a process of enzymatic sequencing involving alternate treatments with a pure xyloglucan oligosaccharide-specific alpha-xylosidase, and a pure beta-glucosidase, both from nasturtium, their structures were deduced to be XXXG and a new oligosaccharide XXXXG. These structures were confirmed by 1H NMR. The relative proportions of XXXG and XXXXG indicate that approximately half of the subunits in Hymenaea xyloglucan are based on the new oligosaccharides. In the native polymer the XXXXG subunits are likely to carry galactosyl substituents in varying proportions, since cellulase hydrolysates contained many bands which were converted to XXXXG on hydrolysis with nasturtium beta-galactosidase. Although no comparative studies on the physico-chemical properties of Hymenaea courbaril xyloglucan have yet been performed, our results indicate that this polymer is less interactive with iodine when compared with T. indica and C. langsdorffii xyloglucans, suggesting that changes in conformation may occur due to the presence of XXXXG.

  1. Mendelian inheritance, linkage and genotypic disequilibrium in microsatellite loci isolated from Hymenaea courbaril (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, F S; Lacerda, A E B; Lemes, M R; Gribel, R; Kanashiro, M; Sebbenn, A M

    2012-07-19

    The Neotropical tree Hymenaea courbaril, locally known as Jatobá, is a valuable source of lumber and also produces comestible and medicinal fruit. We characterized Mendelian inheritance, linkage and genotypic disequilibrium at nine microsatellite loci isolated from H. courbaril, in order to determine if they would provide accurate estimates of population genetic parameters of this important Amazon species. The study was made on 250 open-pollinated offspring originated from 14 seed trees. Only one of nine loci presented significant deviation from the expected Mendelian segregation (1:1). Genotypic disequilibrium between pairwise loci was investigated based on samples from 55 adult and 56 juvenile trees. No genetic linkage between any paired loci was observed. After Bonferroni's corrections for multiple tests, we found no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium between pairs of loci. We conclude that this set of loci can be used for genetic diversity/ structure, mating system, gene flow, and parentage analyses in H. courbaril populations.

  2. Xyloglucan mobilisation in cotyledons of developing plantlets of Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiné; Cortelazzo; Buckeridge

    2000-05-29

    Many seeds contain storage compounds that are used by the embryo/plantlet as a source of nutrients after germination. In seeds of Hymenaea courbaril, a leguminous tree, the main reserve consists of a structurally unusual xyloglucan stored in thickened walls of the cotyledon cells. The present work aimed to study H. courbaril xyloglucan metabolism during and after germination in order to compare its degrading system with the other known xyloglucan containing seeds. Polysaccharide degradation occurred after germination between 35 and 55 days after planting. The activities of alpha-xylosidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase and XET rose during the period of xyloglucan disassembling but a low level of endo-beta-glucanase activity was detected, suggesting that this XET has high affinity for the oligosaccharides. The pH optimum of beta-galactosidase was different from the alpha-xylosidase, beta-glucosidase and XET optima suggesting that the former may be important in the control of the mobilisation process. A tentative model for xyloglucan disassembling in vivo is proposed, where beta-galactosidase allows the free oligosaccharides to bypass a transglycosylation cycle and be disassembled by the other exo-enzymes. Some ecophysiological comparisons among H. courbaril and other xyloglucan storing seeds are discussed.

  3. Breeding system of the Iberian endemic shrub Colutea hispanica (Leguminosae

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    Escudero, Adrián

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeding systems have been viewed as mechanisms to promote outcrossing in order to increase genetic variability and prevent inbreeding depression. However, reduced fitness after crossing, outbreeding depression, has been often observed between individuals from different populations and more rarely, within populations. We studied the breeding system of Colutea hispanica using experimental hand pollinations in field conditions in one population in Central Spain in 2004 and 2006. Pollination experiments showed that C. hispanica set fruits from both self and cross-pollinations, suggesting that the species is highly self-compatible. In addition, fruit set was highest following geitonogamy in both years and no flowers set fruits from xenogamy in 2004. Although such enhanced reproductive success following selfing rather than crossing has been largely ignored in many studies on plant reproduction, it seems to be not as rare in plants as previously thought.

    Los sistemas reproductivos en las plantas se han considerado como mecanismos que promueven los cruzamientos con la finalidad de aumentar la variabilidad genética y evitar la endogamia. Sin embargo se ha observado con frecuencia un reducido éxito reproductor tras cruzamientos entre individuos de diferentes poblaciones, lo que se ha denominado “depresión exogámica” e incluso más raramente entre individuos de la misma población. Se estudió el sistema de cruzamiento de Colutea hispanica mediante la aplicación de polinizaciones manuales en el campo en una población situada en Madrid (España durante los años 2004 y 2006. Se obtuvieron frutos tanto por autopolinización como por polinización cruzada, sugiriendo que la especie posee un sistema altamente compatible. La alta autocompatibilidad observada podría deberse a una adaptación a condiciones de escasez de polinizadores y de “parejas reproductoras”. El máximo valor de fruit set se alcanzó en los cruzamientos geitonogámicos en ambos años, y en el año 2004 los cruzamientos xenógamos no produjeron ningún fruto. Este último fenómeno parece ser más común entre plantas de lo que en principio se podría pensar, pero ha sido ignorado en la mayor parte de los estudios de biología reproductora.

  4. The correct name for Archidendron clypearia (Jack) Nielsen var. casai (Blanco) Nielsen (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Recently Gangopadhyay & Chakrabarty (1993, 1994) proposed the combination Archidendron clypearia (Jack) Nielsen var. montanum (Benth.) Gang. & T. Chakrab. When I compared this to some papers Nielsen wrote (1984 (et al.); 1992) it would seem that this new combination would be identical with A.

  5. The phytogeography of Mount Kulal, Kenya, with special reference to Compositae, Leguminosae and Gramineae

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    F. N. Hepper

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Mt Kulal, in the lowlying desert of NE Kenya, reaches an altitude of 2 295 m. A synopsis of the vegetation types occurring there is provided, with totals of the species recorded in each type. The three families are analysed phytogeographically and observations are made about their chorology. A conclusion is reached that Mt Kulal is a stepping stone for the distribution of montane plants between highland East Africa and Ethiopia and not an outlier of either bloc.

  6. Monopetalanthus exit. : a systematic study of Aphanocalyx, Bikinia, Icuria, Michelsonia and Tetraberlinia (Leguminosae, Casalpinioideae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    © Photo: Jan Wieringa mounting Tetraberlinia moreliana

    This dissertation deals with the ecology and the taxonomy of a group of dominant forest trees of the African

  7. Complex patterns of autopolyploid evolution in alfalfa and allies (Medicago sativa; Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havananda, Tee; Brummer, E Charles; Doyle, Jeff J

    2011-10-01

    Although there is growing evidence that autopolyploidy is a widespread and important evolutionary phenomenon, it has received less attention than allopolyploidy. Medicago sativa comprises several diploid and autopolyploid taxa, including autotetraploid cultivated alfalfa, and affords an opportunity to elucidate the evolutionary history of a morphologically and genetically complex autopolyploid system. Phylogenies and haplotype networks were constructed from two chloroplast noncoding regions (rpl20-rps12 and trnS-trnG spacers) across seven diploid and polyploid infraspecific taxa of M. sativa and five additional closely related Medicago species, and genetic differentiation was estimated. The two most prominent M. sativa autopolyploids have contrasting evolutionary histories. Chloroplast data support a simple autopolyploid origin of subsp. sativa (alfalfa) from diploid subsp. caerulea, from which it is distinguishable in several quantitative characters. In contrast, morphologically identical diploid and autopolyploid cytotypes of subsp. falcata were found to possess very different chloroplast haplotypes, suggesting past introgression from M. prostrata into the polyploid. Despite the presence of hybrids between tetraploid subspecies falcata and sativa, there was little evidence of introgression of chloroplast genomes from either subspecies into the other. Autopolyploid evolution in M. sativa is complicated and has followed very different paths in different subspecific taxa. The potential exists for gene flow in virtually all combinations of subspecies both within and between ploidies, yet despite the existence of hybrids, morphologically and genetically distinctive subspecies persist.

  8. The reproductive biology of Sophora fernandeziana (Leguminosae), a vulnerable endemic species from Isla Robinson Crusoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardello, Gabriel; Aguilar, Ramiro; Anderson, Gregory J

    2004-02-01

    Sophora fernandeziana is the only legume endemic to Isla Robinson Crusoe (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile); it is uncommon and becoming rare. Although its preservation status is listed as "vulnerable," as with many species, little is known of its reproductive biology. Flowering phenology, floral morphology, nectar features, breeding system, and visitors were analyzed in two populations. Flowering is from late winter to early spring. Flowers last 6 d and have a number of ornithophilous features. A floral nectary begins to secrete highly concentrated nectar 48 h after flowers open. Nectar secretion increases as the flower ages but culminates in active nectar reabsorption as the flower senesces. Nectar production is negatively affected by nectar removal. Self-pollen germinates and tubes grow down the style. However, pollen tubes were only observed to enter the ovaries in open pollinated styles, suggesting the possibility of an ovarian self-incompatibility mechanism. Both sexes of the two hummingbird species that inhabit the island are regular visitors. Low fruit and seed set, low genetic diversity, and a shrinking number of populations all contribute to increased concern about the future of this species-and perhaps the hummingbirds that depend on it.

  9. Physiological quality of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae seeds subjected to different storage conditions

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    Renata Conduru Ribeiro Reis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of seed physiological processes represent the starting point for the sustainable utilization of native or cultivated plant species from the caatinga biome for which germination studies are still scarce. In order to determine adequate methods for the conservation of Gliricidia sepium seeds, the physiological quality of propagules exposed to different conditions and times of storage were examined. Recently collected seeds of G. sepium were analyzed immediately, while the other sample was stored for three, six, nine, or twelve months in plastic or paper bags under refrigeration or at room temperature for further analysis. The germination rates of seeds from each storage regime were determined and these rates compared to their water content. It was observed that germination capacity was directly related to changes in seed humidity. Storing seeds in plastic bags yielded the best conservation, mainly when they were stored at low temperatures. However, even at temperatures near 25°C it was possible to prolong seed viability when their water content was controlled through the use of impermeable packing.

  10. A taxonomic study of Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae) in Mexico and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes; Gale, S. L.; Maxted, N.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Albizia is economically and environmentally important because many elements are multipurpose trees. A taxonomic study of 12 Central American and Mexican Albizia species is presented. Identification keys, illustrations and ecological information are provided together with some taxonomic comments. Distribution maps and conservation status are given for each native species in the area. Three epithets are lectotypyfied and three new name combinations are made. An interactive identificat...

  11. A taxonomic study of Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae in Mexico and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Albizia is economically and environmentally important because many elements are multipurpose trees. A taxonomic study of 12 Central American and Mexican Albizia species is presented. Identification keys, illustrations and ecological information are provided together with some taxonomic comments. Distribution maps and conservation status are given for each native species in the area. Three epithets are lectotypyfied and three new name combinations are made. An interactive identification electronic key is available from the authors if requested. Full specimen records are available at www.kew.org/herbcat .El género Albizia tiene importancia económica y ecológica porque en su mayoría está integrado por árboles con usos múltiples. Se presenta un estudio taxonómico para 12 especies con distribución en México y Centro América, se incluyen claves para la identificación de las especies, ilustraciones, mapas de distribución, estados de conservación de las especies nativas del área y comentarios ecológicos y taxonómicos. Se formaliza la lectipificacion de tres epítetos y se proponen tres nuevas combinaciones. Una clave electrónica interactiva para la identificación de las especies se puede solicitar a los autores. Finalmente el conjunto completo de los ejemplares de herbario puede ser consultado en el sitio Web de los Jardines Reales de Kew: www.kew.org/herbcat.

  12. Morphoanatomy of nectaries of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sections Chamaecrista , Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae

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    Marinalva dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nectaries are specialized structures that secrete nectar. Several species of Chamaecrista possess nectaries on the petiole, which have been shown to vary widely in morphology and the chemical nature of their secretion. However, a comprehensive investigation of the nectaries of the clade formed by sect. Chamaecrista, Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx has yet to be performed. Our study aimed to confirm whether or not the leaf glands of species of this clade are in fact nectaries, determine the chemical nature of their secretion and expand the morphoanatomical database on leaf nectaries in Chamaecrista with the intention of contributing to the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus. Samples from herbarium and field-collected material were subjected to standard methods for light and scanning electron microscopy. Four different forms of nectaries were observed: urceolate, patelliform, verruciform and cupuliform. The nectaries were found to comprise a single-layered epidermis, nectary parenchyma, subnectary parenchyma and vascularization. Polysaccharides, lipids, phenolic compounds and proteins were detected in secretions. Although anatomical similarities were observed among the studied species, their morphology differed. Moreover, the glands are indeed nectaries and are similar to those observed in other species of the genus Chamaecrista. These data hold potential taxonomic usefulness for the studied sections.

  13. Lectins of Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii (Leguminosae: characterization and mitogenic effect

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    Silvia Quesada

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina species are widely distributed in Costa Rica and known popularly as "poró". In this study, two species were selected, Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii. Seed extracts were prepared in phosphate-buffered saline. The presence of lectins in the extracts was verified by hemagglutinating effect over suspensions of human erythrocytes. A selective hemagglutinating effect on erythrocytes of several mammal species, goat, horse and rabbit red cells was tested; only the latter were agglutinated by E. steyermarkii. The hemagglutinating effect of both lectins was inhibited with the following carbohydrates: D-galactose, N-acetyl galactosamine, D-lactose and D-raffinose. The lectin from E. steyermarkii was also inhibited with L-rhamnose. Both lectins were isolated with gel filtration and affinity chromatography using lactose as ligand. Fractions that proved positive were tested with the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration and SDS-PAGE showed that these lectins have an apparent molecular mass of 50kDa, and are formed by two subunits of approximately 25 kDa. E. poeppigiana had no mitogenic effect, but the extract of E. steyermarkii had a mitogenic effect on human mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood. The stability of the lectins was tested at different temperature and pH ranges (4 to 100 °C and at pH 2 to 12. Both were stable at a pH range from 2 to 10, and at temperatures from 40 to 70 °C.Las diferentes especies de Erythrina se encuentran ampliamente distribuidas en Costa Rica y se las conoce popularmente con el nombre de "poró". En el presente estudio, se seleccionaron dos especies: Erythrina poeppigiana y Erythrina steyermarkii. Se prepararon extractos de las semillas en solución tampón salina de fosfatos y se verificó la presencia de lectinas en ellos mediante la técnica de hemaglutinación, utilizando eritrocitos humanos. Se trató de demostrar un efecto selectivo de la hemaglutinación empleando eritrocitos de varias especies de mamíferos, específicamente de carnero, caballo y conejo. Solo los eritrocitos de conejo fueron aglutinados con la lectina de E. steyermarkii. El efecto hemaglutinante de las dos lectinas fue inhibido con los siguientes carbohidratos: D-galactosa, N-D-acetil galactosamina, D-lactosa y D-rafinosa. La lectina de E. steyermarkii también fue inhibida con L-rhamnosa. Las dos lectinas fueron aisladas por filtración en gel y cromatografìa de afinidad, usando lactosa como ligando. Las fracciones que resultaron positivas se analizaron mediante la técnica de electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida y duodecil sulfato de sodio (SDS-PAGE. Con la filtración en gel y el SDS-PAGE, se comprobó que las dos lectinas tienen una masa molecular aparente de 50 kDa y que están formadas por dos subunidades de 25 kDa, aproximadamente. Se buscó un efecto mitogénico en las dos lectinas y se encontró que sólo E. steyermarkii lo manifestaba sobre células mononucleares humanas aisladas de sangre periférica. Se determinó la estabilidad de las lectinas en diferentes ámbitos de temperatura (4 a 100 °C y de pH (2 a 12 . Las dos lectinas se mantuvieron estables en un rango de temperatura de 40 a 70 °C y en un pH de 2 a 10.

  14. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  15. Seed removal of Dipteryx alata Vog. (Leguminosae: Faboidae) in the edge and interior of Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2017-11-01

    Post-dispersal seed agents of mortality include pathogens, invertebrates, and vertebrates, which may shape tropical tree populations and communities. In this study I experimentally evaluated Dipteryx alata endocarp removal both in the interior and edge of Cerrado vegetation. Specifically, I simulated primary dispersion of endocarps by bats and evaluated secondary removal intensity according to habitat, season, and endocarp number. This study was developed in the Pombo Natural Municipal Park, a large Cerrado remnant with an area of 9,000 ha, located in the Western Brazil. In each of the two habitat types, I set down 45 points in which D. alata piles of 1, 3, 7, 15, and 40 endocarps were positioned. On average, endocarp removal in the interior was higher than in the edge, so that the intensity of removal varied from positive density-dependent (interior: rains), to negative density-dependent (edge: both seasons). Also, at both habitat types and seasons non removed endocarps were intensely attacked by fungus. Indeed, seed mortality by fungus infestation was positive density-dependent. The results indicate high propensity of endocarps to escape from removal in the edge, in principle, a defaunated area. As Dipteryx species strongly rely on caviomorph rodents for their dispersal, the scarcity of these vectors might reduce recruitment chances of D. alata in remnants of Cerrado. This imply in future changes in the vegetation structure from the edge to the interior towards low tree diversity.

  16. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae: Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

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    Rosa Tundis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium pratense (red clover and T. repens (white clover edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  17. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Nigel W M; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L; Gasson, Peter E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s. , which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors.

  18. Pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala (leguminosae-papilionoideae

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    Maria Cecília de Chiara Moço

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala was studied in the restinga of Maricá, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. S. apetala var. apetala is a shrub with asynchronic annual blooming, between the months of November and April (hot-rainy season. Each plant can exhibit more than one blooming episode in this period. Their flowers are hermaphrodites, apetalous, heterantherous, odoriferous, and the pollen represents the only reward offered to visitors. It is pollinized by species of Centris and Xylocopa, solitary and polyletic bees, which collect the pollen by means of vibratory movements. Other bees such as Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea and Trigona spinipes are only pollen-thieves. In this variety of Swartzia vibrating is an efficient method to collect pollen from the anthers despite non-poricidal dehiscence.. The flowering phenology and the behavior of visitors influence the rate of outcrossing.A ecologia da polinização de Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala foi estudada na restinga de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. S. apetala var. apetala é um arbusto com floração do tipo anual assincrônica, entre os meses de novembro e abril (estação quente- chuvosa. Cada planta pode apresentar mais de um episódio de floração neste período. As flores são hermafroditas, apétalas, heterândricas, odoríferas e o polem constitui a única recompensa oferecida aos visitantes. É polinizada por espécies de Centris e Xylocopa, abelhas solitárias e poliléticas, que coletam o polem através do método de vibração. Nesta variedade de Swartzia a vibração é um método eficiente de coleta de polem apesar das anteras apresentarem deiscência rimosa. Outras abelhas, como Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea e Trigona spinipes, são pilhadoras de pólen. A fenologia da floração e o comportamento dos visitantes florais influenciam a taxa de fertilização cruzada.

  19. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C., E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; Silva, Milton N. da [Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Neuropatologia Experimental

    2012-10-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylchromene-(5''6''6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'', 2''-dimethylchromene-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  20. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da, E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Laboratorio de Cromatografia Liquida, Universidade Federal do Para, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge [Laboratorio de Neuropatologia Experimental, Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1}rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  1. Isolated history of the coastal plant Lathyrus japonicus (Leguminosae) in Lake Biwa, an ancient freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Tatsuo; Kaneko, Yuko; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Lake Biwa is one of the world's few ancient lakes. Formed ∼4 million years ago, the lake harbours many coastal species that commonly inhabit seashores. The beach pea Lathyrus japonicus is a typical coastal species of this freshwater lake, but its inland populations are faced with the threat of extinction. Here, we investigated the phylogeographical and population structures of both inland and coastal populations of L. japonicus. We also elucidated the historical isolation of the Lake Biwa population. In total, 520 individuals from 50 L. japonicus populations were sampled throughout the species distribution in Japan. Chloroplast haplotyping using intergenic spacers psbA-trnH and atpI-atpH was performed to investigate the phylogeographical structure as well as the genetic diversity of L. japonicus. Six nuclear microsatellite markers were also used to analyse the population structure. Population structure analyses of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) identified inland and coastal groups. Based on the genetic differentiation, inland populations exhibited a single cpDNA haplotype and significantly lower values of H(S), AR and F(IS) than coastal populations. In addition to the presence of a bottleneck, the lack of gene flow among inland populations was supported by estimates of recent migration rates between subpopulations. Our data revealed that inland populations have been isolated in Lake Biwa as 'landlocked' populations since the predecessor lake was isolated from sea. This was also seen in a previous study of Calystegia soldanella. However, the high genetic differentiation, accompanied by a lack of gene flow among the Lake Biwa populations (according to the BAYESASS(+) analysis), contradicts the results with C. soldanella. We conclude that because of the presence of a bottleneck and low genetic diversity of the inland populations, self-sustaining population persistence may be difficult in the future. Conservation strategies must consider the genetic properties of such isolated populations.

  2. Algunos factores relacionados con la digestibilidad de la leguminosa Desmodium ovalifolium

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    Posso L. Liliana del R.

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available El consumo y la digestibilidad por carneros en jaula de D. ovalifolium CIAT 350 fueron similares a los de Centrosema macrocarpum CIAT 5065 (52 vs 57 Y 55.6 vs 56.6 respectivamente. El análisis de varianza mostró diferencias significativas (P< 0.05 en la digestibilidad in vitro entre los tres métodos de secado (60 y 100°C en horno eléctrico y liofilización del forraje. Cuando el material se liofilizó aumentó la digestibilidad in vitro en hoja, tallo y planta entera en D. ovalifolium y C. macrocarpum (de 35 a 46 % de 51 a 56 % respectivamente. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (P> 0.05 en la digestibilidad in vitro de partes de la planta debida a medios y fuentes de inóculo de bacterias ruminales. Además se determinó el efecto del método de secado en el porcentaje de taninos, en la fibra ácida detergente (FAD ven el nitrógeno asociado con la FAO (N-FAD.Factors related to digestibility in Desmodium ovalifolium CIAT 350were studied, using Centrosema macrocarpum CIAT5065 as the control. Consumption and digestibility in vivo (caged sheep was similar in D. ovalifolium and C. macrocarpum (52 vs 57 and 55.6 vs 56.6, respectively. The variance analysis reported significant differences (P<0.05 in digestibility in vitro among the three drying methods (60 and 100°C in electric oven, and freeze dryinq of the forage. When material was freeze dried, digestibility in vitro increased for leaves, stems, and the whole plant of D. ovalifolium and C. macrocarpum(from 35 to 46 % and from51 to 56 %, respectively. No significant difference s (P> 0.05 were reported in digestibility in vitro of plant parts due to method or sources of inoculation with ruminal bacteria. As a complement, the effect of the drying method on the tanine percentage in the acid detergent fiber (AOF and on the nitrogen associated to the AOF(N-AOF was evaluated.

  3. Mechanism of anti-hyperglycemic action of Vatairea macrocarpa (Leguminosae): investigation in peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviloni, Paula Domingues; dos Santos, Maísa Pavani; Aiko, Gustavo Mitsuo; Reis, Silvia Regina de Lima; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; da Silva, Virginia Claudia; Dall'Oglio, Evandro Luiz; de Sousa, Paulo Teixeira; Lopes, Carbene França; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2010-08-19

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the treatment of diabetic rats during 21 days with V. macrocarpa stem-bark ethanolic extract (VmE), reduced glycemia, urinary glucose and urea, increased liver glycogen content and improved other parameters diabetes related. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the anti-hyperglycemic mechanisms of VmE could be caused by improvement in the insulin signaling pathway in the peripheral tissues (liver, adipose and skeletal muscle). Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were separated into two groups: diabetic control (DC) and diabetic treated with VmE (DT) during 21 days. The alterations on the insulin signaling in liver, retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RET) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were investigated through determination of insulin receptor (IR), protein kinase B/AKT content and AKT phosphorylation levels using Western blotting analysis. This same methodology was used to evaluate the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) levels in the liver from these animals. The treatment with the extract increased the content of IR and the basal phosphorylation of AKT in the three tissues. In the liver from diabetic treated group, the insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation was higher and the PEPCK protein levels were reduced. Data from this work suggest that the anti-hyperglycemic activity of stem-bark extract of V. macrocarpa can occur through stimulation of insulin signaling pathways in peripheral tissues from diabetic rats, mainly in liver and adipose tissue, probably promoting increase in the glucose uptake and liver glycogen synthesis. The concomitant decreasing in hepatic PEPCK levels could be associated to inhibition of gluconeogenesis, which can also contribute to glycemia reduction. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. COMPONENTES QUÍMICOS DEL DURAMEN DE Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae

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    C. Téllez-Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis químico del duramen de Andira inermis para determinar los principales componentes químicos. Los resultados encontrados fueron: pH de 5.9, 0.71 % de sustancias inorgánicas, 19.1 % de sustancias extraíbles, 34.2 % de lignina y 65.78 % de polisacáridos. En las cenizas se detectó la presencia de calcio, magnesio, azufre y silicio. Las sustancias fueron obtenidas mediante extracción sucesiva con ciclohexano, cloroformo, acetona y metanol en equipo Soxhlet y finalmente con agua caliente bajo reflujo. La solubilidad del duramen fue mayor en acetona (8.6 % y en metanol (5.3 %; el contenido total de sustancias extraíbles fue de 19.1 %.

  5. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Methods Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. Key Results The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S–26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Conclusions Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms involved in the origin of economically important species of Arachis, either by triploid bridge or bilateral sexual polyploidization. PMID:21693666

  6. LAS PROTEINAS SEMINALES DEL MANI (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA, LEGUMINOSAE y SU RELACION CON LAS CATEGORIAS INFRAESPECIFICAS

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    N R Grosso

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Las proteínas seminales de 122 muestras diferentes de Arachis hypogaea L. originarios de Bolivia, Perú y Ecuador fueron estudiadas por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida.Se detectaron siete bandas constantes y 27 bandas inconstantes. Los resultados de las últimas se utilizaron para analizar las similitudes entre las muestras empleando el coeficiente de Jaccard y el método de ligamiento promedio de la media aritmética no ponderada(UPGMA.Las proteínas seminales permitieron separar totalmente la subespecies de A.hypogaea y las variedades en menor medida.

  7. Ulex parviflorus sensu lato (Genisteae, Leguminosae en la zona centro de Portugal

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    Cubas, Paloma

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A group of gorses growing in Central Portugal has been traditionally identified as Ulex parviflorus Pourret sensu lato. The study of these plants reveáls important differences in morphological characters such as size, ramification, colour and indumentum of shoots, the type, disposition and indumentum of primary and secondary spines, and the dimensions, shape and indumentum of the calyx. Based on these morphological characteristics, as well as chromosome number, ecological requirements and geographic distribution, the plants are now ascribed to the following taxa: U. airensis sp. nov., U. australis subsp. welwitschianus stat. & comb. nov., U. eriocladus C. Vicioso and U. jussiaei WebbEn la zona centro de Portugal crece un conjunto de tojos que han sido tradicionalmente identificados como Ulex parviflorus Pourret sensu lato. Sin embargo, estas plantas presentan diferencias morfológicas en el porte, ramificación, color e indumento de ejes y ramas, en el tipo, disposición e indumento de las espinas primarias y secundarias y en las dimensiones, forma e indumento del cáliz. Estos caracteres morfológicos, el número cromosómico, los requerimientos ecológicos y el área geográfica permiten adscribir estas plantas a los siguientes táxones: U. airensis sp. nov., U. australis subsp. welwitschianus stat. & comb. nov., U. eriocladus C. Vicioso y U. jussiaei Webb.

  8. Sinopsis de las especies de Adesmia (Leguminosae,Adesmieae de la Argentina

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    Emilio A. Ulibarri

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La tribu sudamericana Adesmieae (Benth. Hutch. comprende solamente el género Adesmia DC., con 43 series y cerca de 240 especies herbáceas o arbustivas que habitan principalmente en zonas montañosas y semi-desérticas Este género incluye 2 subgéneros: Adesmia (inermes y Acanthadesmia Burkart (espinosas. El género en Argentina está representado por 31 series; Adesmia con 25 series y Acanthadesmia con 6 series. En total son 100 especies y 14 variedades; 45 son nativas y 53 endémicas. Esta sinopsis incluye una clave general para las series y otras de especies para cada serie. Se dan descripciones, sinonimia, referencias iconográficas, distribución, materiales y observaciones para cada una de esas especies. Las series 3. Bicolores, 4. Capitellatae, 6. Coronilloides, 10. Lanatae, 13. Longisetae, 16. Muricatae, 18. Pumilae, 24. Stenocaules, 26. Candidae, 27. Coluteoides, 28. Guttuliferae, 30. Microphyllae y 31. Subterraneae, han sufrido cambios desde la Sinopsis de Burkart (1967a, principalmente las series 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, 16, 26, 27, 28 y 31 en esta revisión. Se describen dos nuevas variedades: A. corymbosa var. sinepenna (serie Longisetae y A. cordobensis var. appendiculata (serie Muricatae

  9. El género Macroptilium (Benth. Urb. (Leguminosae en Cuba

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    Beyra Matos, Ángela

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary synopsis of the Cuban species of Macroptilium (Benth. Urb. that includes keys, descriptions, illustrations, chromosome numbers, palinology, phenology, ecology, distribution maps, notes on chemical composition and ethnobotany for each of the four species known for Cuba. We also discuss on the diagnostic characters of the genus and the species present in the Cuban flora.Se presenta una sinopsis de las especies del género Macroptilium (Benth. Urb. presentes en Cuba. Se incluyen claves dicotómicas, descripciones, ilustraciones, datos químicos, cromosómicos, palinológicos, fenológicos, etnobotánicos, así como la distribución y ecología de las cuatro especies del género. Se discuten los caracteres diagnósticos del género y de las especies presentes en Cuba.

  10. Precipitation of Calcium, Magnesium, Strontium and Barium in Tissues of Four Acacia Species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M.; Veneklaas, Erik J.; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory. PMID:22848528

  11. Precipitation of Calcium, Magnesium, Strontium and Barium in Tissues of Four Acacia Species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Honghua He; Timothy M Bleby; ERIK J. VENEKLAAS; Hans Lambers; John Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glass...

  12. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seedlings usually does not decay when grown in a fairly dry environment and exposed to light. A retest... straightens. For practical purposes, the hypocotyl is not discernible and is not an evaluation factor. Buds in... seedlings usually does not decay when grown in a fairly dry environment and is exposed to light. A retest...

  13. TETRAZOLIUM TEST FOR EVALUATING Peltophorum dubium (Sprengel Taubert LEGUMINOSAE CAESALPINIOIDEAE SEEDS QUALITY

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    Luciana Magda de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This research verified different methods of pre-conditioning and concentrations of tetrazolium solutions for evaluatingof canafistula seed lot quality. Seeds collected in Lavras-MG- were submitted to the following methods of pre-conditioning: ascarification and immersion in water of 25oC for 14 hours; and b immersion in water of 95oC and left in the same water to rest withoutheating for 24 hours at 25oC. The teguments of the seeds were removed and the embryos were immerged in 0.07, 0.1 and 0.3%tetrazolium solution during 150 minutes at 25oC. To verify the reliability of the results through the tetrazolium test, germination test,first counting, index of germination velocity and nursery emergency were done. Scarification and immersion in water of 25oC for 14hours were efficient in pre-conditioning canafistula seeds and 0,1% tetrazolium solution for 150 minutes at 25oC allowed evaluatingseed lots of this species.

  14. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae by Antonio Krapovickas and Walton C. Gregory

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    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus’ naming the then lone species of Arachis (A.hypogaea L. known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham in1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared, assigningdifferent species to the same names, and different names to the same species. By mid-20thCentury, it was impossible to examine any herbarium collection of Arachis and assign any epithetwith any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A. hypogaea, A.guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa.In our treatment, the literature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and anassessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for theconfusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphologicalfeatures of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections, and the representation of species byseedling specimens.Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species thenknown, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty-fiveyears, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later, we present here 69species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south ofthe Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil.We soon discovered that the most significant characters of Arachis lay in their undergroundstructures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls.We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups whichwere associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features.We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these clusters, areas and features, andarranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between collections representingdifferent clusters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures tocross-fertilize and, in those hybrids that were recovered, a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility.When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data oncharacter clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized.Figures imposed upon maps of South America illustrate the geographic distributions of thesesections.The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of cross-incompatibilityand exo-morphologic character clustering. When these groups were made, the esotericcharacteristics referred to above, so confounding when applied across sectional lines, becamehighly pertinent when applied to the problem of species differentiation between collections withinsections. These characteristics, applied in conjunction with chromosome cytology,chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional hybrid fertility andadaptations of plant form, and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to assemble the followingtaxa of the genus Arachis: Section I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa.Section II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A.Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiananov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a.A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov.Section III. EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A.marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A.Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov.Section V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A.Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII.PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A.chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A.subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A.Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var.glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var. Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A.cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A.Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenospermanov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A.decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A.correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoinov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea,var. 2. hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3.aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris.The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit andthe limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomalorganization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between differentcollections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species withinsections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections.The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed andare further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating the ideas presented. It is evident that thegenetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude. Thepresumably older sections (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae andHeteranthae, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sectionsand from each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae,Rhizomatosae and Arachis.Section Arachis is by far the largest, containing about 40% of the species described. Species ofthis section appear to be spreading into new territory and to be invading areas occupied byspecies of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the upperParaguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran Pantanal.They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and grow fromYala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They include the worldwide cultivar, A.hypogaea.Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is presentedhere in the individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A.hypogaea from the early 16th Century to more recent times, along with the common names inseveral native American languages, provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and thelevel of civilization required for its creation.Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the sectionsand to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing characteristics of thesections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures ofwhole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures,carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  15. Parkia biglobosa (Leguminosae) en Afrique de l'Ouest : biosystematique et amelioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouedraogo, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to strengthen the scientific and technical basis of biodiversity conservation, and use of Parkia biglobosa (African locust bean, néré ). The approach to this research included the gathering of technical

  16. An insecticidal N-acetylglucosamine-specific lectin gene from Griffonia simplicifolia (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, K; Huesing, J E; Shade, R E; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M; Murdock, L L

    1996-01-01

    Griffonia simplicifolia II, an N-acetylglucosamine-specific legume lectin, has insecticidal activity when fed to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). A cDNA clone encoding G. simplicifolia II was isolated from a leaf cDNA library, sequenced, and expressed in a bacterial expression system. The recombinant protein exhibited N-acetylglucosamine-binding and insecticidal activity against cowpea weevil, indicating that glycosylation and multimeric structure are not required for these properties. These results support the hypothesis that genes of the legume lectin gene family encode proteins that function in plant defense against herbivores.

  17. Isozyme and RAPD studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. Velutina (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae

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    Bessega Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD techniques have been compared for their usefulness for genetic and taxonomic studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. velutina populations. Isozymes and RAPDs yielded similarly high estimates of genetic variability. Genetic structure and differentiation were analyzed through non-hierarchical Wright's F DT. For all populations considered, both markers produced low gene flow (Nm 1, in agreement with that expected for conspecific populations. However, in RAPD data the expected reduction in F DT and the increase in Nm were not observed. Correlation between F DT and geographical distance matrices (Mantel test for all populations was significant (P = 0.02 when based on isozymes, but not so (P = 0.33 when based on RAPDs. No significant associations among genetic and geographical or climatic variables were observed. Two isoenzyme systems (GOT and PRX enabled us to distinguish between P. glandulosa and P. velutina, but no diagnostic band for recognition of populations or species studied here were detected by RAPD. However, RAPD markers showed higher values for genetic differentiation among conspecific populations of P. glandulosa and a lower coefficient of variation than those obtained from isozymes.

  18. Algunas Leguminosas de la Amazonía y Orinoquia Colombianas

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    Dugand Armando

    1948-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabido es que el célebre explorador botánico Von Martius, organizador principal de la Flora Brasiliensis, recorrió una extensa parte del territorio suroriental de Colombia durante su viaje por el río Japurá o Yapurá (llamado Caquetá en Colombia en enero y febrero de 1820. La parte colombiana de su itinerario -unos 370 kilómetros a vuelo de pájaro-- comprende las riberas del río Caquetá desde la boca del río Apaporis en la actual frontera colombo-brasileña, hasta los raudales de Araracuara, la serranía del mismo nombre y la región en que confluyen los ríos Mesay y Yarí (rio de los Engaños , Según los datos que publique hace poco más de cinco años en la Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias (Vol. V, No. 18, pp. 212-216, Diciembre 1942, relativos a la localización típica de algunas palmas coleccionadas por Martius en el Caquetá colombiano, se sabe que este explorador entro al territorio que hoy pertenece a Colombia entre el 2 y el 5 de enero de 1820 y colecciono a lo largo del rio mencionado en las siguientes localidades colombianas: Río Apapuris (= boca del río Apaporis en la frontera colombo-brasileña , Serra o Monte Cupatí (= Cerro de La Pedrera, Cataractas de Cupatí (= Raudal de Puerto Córdoba, Manacarú, Porto dos Miranhas (= Mirañas o Puerto Mirañas, Rio Irú (= Rio Jerú o Yerú, Río Uvania, "Poucoassú", Barrancos de Oacarí, Araracoara (= Araracuara, Rio Messai (= río Mesay, Río dos Enganos (= río de los Engaños o Yarí. A su regreso por el mismo río Caquetá hacia Teffé (Brasil, coleccionó en Mirañas, Manacarú, rio Miritiparaná, Oupatí, y salió del territorio colombiano probablemente entre el 15 y el 20 de febrero.

  19. SEED, SEEDLINGS AND GERMINATION MORPHOLOGY OF Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

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    Maria Elane de Carvalho Guerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of seed and seedling morphology are extremely important to the identification and preservation of plant species. In order to studying seed and seedling morphology and seed germination of copaiba (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf seeds, experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and Laboratory of Botany of the Federal University of Ceará. In copaíba seeds the characteristics studied were shape, size (length, width, thickness and morphology. The kind of germination, the root systems, hypocotyls, epicotyls and first leaves were the characteristics evaluated in copaiba seedlings. Ruler and pachimeter were used to make the measurements, as well as optical microscope and magnifying glass. The seeds are exalbumin kind, have neuter photoblastism and epigeous germination. Seed coat shows a palisade cell layer with a conspicuous light line. The seedlings have compound first leaves and axial root system.

  20. Estudo preliminar da atividade antibacteriana das cascas de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae (Leguminosae

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    S. Virtuoso

    Full Text Available A Erythrina velutina é popularmente conhecida como suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga dentre outros. Das várias espécies distribuídas pelo mundo cerca de doze estão no Brasil. A casca é utilizada, principalmente no nordeste brasileiro, pelas propriedades sudorífica, calmante, emoliente, peitoral, anestésica local e outras. Considerando-se que não existem estudos sobre o potencial microbiológico das cascas de Erythrina velutina este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliá-lo preliminarmente contra oito bactérias patogênicas. Foram utilizados os métodos de difusão em disco e concentração inibitória mínima para o extrato etanólico bruto e difusão em disco para a fração hexano. A atividade contra o Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pyogenes foi evidenciada para ambas as amostras. A viabilidade de futuras pesquisas com outras frações e substâncias isoladas na busca de novas alternativas, visando uma terapêutica racional a partir de fontes naturais foi apontada pelos resultados.

  1. EL CARIOTIPO DE ANADENANTHERA COLUBRINA VAR. CEBIL y DE PARAPIPTADENIA RIGIDA (LEGUMINOSAE-MIMOSOIDEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana I. Honfi; Julio R Daviña

    1997-01-01

    Los cromosomas somáticos de dos especies de árboles han sido estudiados, ambos tienen 2n = 26. Los cariotipos de Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul (18m + 8sm) y Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan (12m + 14sm) se describen tor primera vez. Estas especies se distinguen por la fórmula de cariotipo y la longitud total del cariotipo.

  2. EL CARIOTIPO DE ANADENANTHERA COLUBRINA VAR. CEBIL y DE PARAPIPTADENIA RIGIDA (LEGUMINOSAE-MIMOSOIDEAE

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    Ana I. Honfi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cromosomas somáticos de dos especies de árboles han sido estudiados, ambos tienen 2n = 26. Los cariotipos de Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Griseb. Altschul (18m + 8sm y Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (12m + 14sm se describen tor primera vez. Estas especies se distinguen por la fórmula de cariotipo y la longitud total del cariotipo.

  3. Larvicidal activity of Copaifera sp. (Leguminosae) oleoresin microcapsules against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Vieira, Edna da Silva; Nascimento, Mariane Pires do; Zepon, Karine Modolon; Kulkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Silva, Onilda Santos da

    2012-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated the potential of Copaifera sp. oleoresin to control Aedes aegypti proliferation. However, the low water solubility is a factor that limits its applicability. Thus, the micro- or nanoencapsulation could be an alternative to allow its use in larval breeding places. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if achievable lethal concentrations could be obtained from Copaifera sp. oleoresin incorporated into polymers (synthetic or natural) and, mainly, if it can be sustained in the residual activity compared to the pure oil when tested against the A. aegypti larvae. Microcapsules were prepared by the process of emulsification/precipitation using the polymers of cellulose acetate (CA) and poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (PEMA), yielding four types of microcapsules: MicPEMA₁ and MicPEMA₂, and MicCA₁ and MicCA₂. When using only Copaifera sp. oleoresin, the larvicidal activity was observed at concentrations of LC₅₀ = 48 mg/L and LC₉₉ = 149 mg/L. For MicPEMA₁, the LC₅₀ and LC₉₉ were 78 and 389 mg/L, respectively. Using MicPEMA₂, the LC₅₀ was 120 mg/L and LC₉₉ > 500 mg/L. For microcapsules MicCA₁ and MicCA₂, the LC₅₀ and LC₉₉ were 42, 164, 140, and 398 mg/L, respectively. For a dose of 150 mg/L of pure oleoresin, the residual activity remained above 20% for 10 days, while the dose of 400 mg/L remained above 40% for 21 days. The MicPEMA₁ microcapsules showed a loss in residual activity up to the first day; however, it remained in activity above 40% for 17 days. The microcapsules of MicCA₁ showed similar LC₅₀ of pure oil with 150 mg/L.

  4. Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae, un nuevo taxon de Bolivia y Brasil

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    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa, a new taxon for Bolivia and Brazil is described and illustrated.Se describe e ilustra Acacia polyphylla var. rhytidocarpa, taxon nuevo para Bolivia y Brasil.

  5. Evaluation of neuropharmacological effects of aqueous leaf extract of Albizia glaberrima (Leguminosae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebesin, Ibukun F; Akindele, Abidemi J; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O

    2015-02-03

    Albizia glaberrima is a shrub found in the deciduous forest and jungle of the coastal plain of West Africa. Preparations of the plant are used traditionally in the treatment of fever, pain and central nervous system disorders, including epilepsy. This study was conducted to investigate the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Albizia glaberrima in mice. The hole-board, elevated plus-maze, thiopentone-induced sleep (anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotic), traction, climbing, inclined screen (muscle relaxant), strychnine-, picrotoxin- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion (anticonvulsant) tests were employed in this study. Albizia glaberrima extract at 200mg/kg significantly increased the duration of head dips (p400mg/kg, Albizia glaberrima extract significantly reduced the number of sectional crossings relative to control. The extract at 400mg/kg significantly (p400mg/kg, as was the case with diazepam (2mg/kg). The extract and diazepam significantly (ptannins>saponins>flavonoids. The extract was found to be relatively non-toxic when administered p.o. up to 5000mg/kg and the LD50 was 398.11mg/kg when administered i.p. The aqueous leaf extract of Albizia glaberrima possesses dose-dependent anxiolytic/muscle relaxant (low dose) and sedative-hypnotic/anticonvulsant (high dose) activities possibly mediated via enhancement of GABAergic inhibitory actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new species of Erythrostemon (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) from the western Río Balsas Depression, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotuyo, Solange; Contreras-Jiménez, José Luis; Lewis, Gwilym P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new legume species from a seasonally dry forest of the Western Río Balsas Depression, in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, Erythrostemon guevarafeferii, is herein described and illustrated. The new species shows morphological affinities with Erythrostemon hintonii, from which it is distinguished in having fewer leaflets per pinna, mature leaflets disposed toward the upper half of the pinnae rachises, long inflorescences on curved slender peduncles, abundant red glands on its flowers and inflorescences, and its fruit glabrous with red stipitate glands at maturity. A taxonomic key to the Río Balsas Depression species of Erythrostemon is included. PMID:28228685

  7. Organogenesis and plant regeneration of Arachis villosa Benth. (Leguminosae) through leaf culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, María Laura; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Rey, Hebe Yolanda

    2009-12-01

    With the aim of developing an efficient plant regeneration protocol, leaflet explants of three accessions of Arachis villosa Benth. (S2866, S2867 and L97) were cultured on basic Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different combinations of plant growth regulators: alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and thidiazuron. The accession L97 was the only one able to differentiate buds through indirect organogenesis. The most suitable combination for bud regeneration was the basic medium added with 13.62 microM thidiazuron and 4.44 microM 6-benzylaminopurine. These results show the important role of the genotype in morphogenetic responses and the organogenetic effect of thidiazuron in Arachis villosa accession L97. A thidiazuron lacking media (only 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid, 13.95 microM kinetin and 13.32 microM 6-benzylaminopurine were added) promoted the elongation of the regenerated buds. Adventitious rooting was achieved 90 days after the isolated shoots were transferred to a rooting medium containing 0.54 microM alpha-naphthalenacetic acid.

  8. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae.

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    Honghua He

    Full Text Available Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells, pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  9. The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushanandini, S; Nagaraju, S; Harish Kumar, K; Vedavathi, M; Machiah, D K; Kemparaju, K; Vishwanath, B S; Gowda, T V; Girish, K S

    2006-10-01

    In Indian traditional medicine, various plants have been used widely as a remedy for treating snake bites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica seed extract on the pharmacological as well as the enzymatic effects induced by V. russelli venom. Tamarind seed extract inhibited the PLA(2), protease, hyaluronidase, l-amino acid oxidase and 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activities of venom in a dose-dependent manner. These are the major hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the early effects of envenomation, such as local tissue damage, inflammation and hypotension. Furthermore, the extract neutralized the degradation of the Bbeta chain of human fibrinogen and indirect hemolysis caused by venom. It was also observed that the extract exerted a moderate effect on the clotting time, prolonging it only to a small extent. Edema, hemorrhage and myotoxic effects including lethality, induced by venom were neutralized significantly when different doses of the extract were preincubated with venom before the assays. On the other hand, animals that received extract 10 min after the injection of venom were protected from venom induced toxicity. Since it inhibits hydrolytic enzymes and pharmacological effects, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2), metalloproteinases, serine proteases, hyaluronidases and 5 cent-nucleotidases, the enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. EFEITO RESIDUAL DO TARO CONSORCIADO COM LEGUMINOSAS NOS TEORES DOS PIGMENTOS FOTOSSINTETIZANTES DE BRASSICA OLERACEA

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    Rafael Costa de Sant'Ana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito residual do consórcio taro e crotalarias sob duas posições de plantio nos teores dos pigmentos fotossintetizantes do repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.. O experimento foi conduzido no Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo – campus Santa Teresa no período de agosto a novembro de 2015, dois meses após a colheita do cultivo anterior. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial com dois fatores para posição (distribuição espacial nos sentidos norte-sul e leste-oeste e três fatores para a cultura (efeito residual do consórcio taro (Colocassia esculenta (L. Schott com a Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, mais o taro solteiro correspondendo a 6 tratamentos com 4 repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os teores de pigmentos fotossintetizantes para os fatores consórcio e posição, provavelmente este resultado foi devido ao elevado vigor do hibrido utilizado, ASTRUS PLUS.

  11. Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo-resina produzido pela copaiba - Copaifera multijuga Hayne (Leguminosae

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    Davidy Eduardo Mendonça

    Full Text Available A pesquisa de plantas com fins medicinais tem grande importância para a comunidade médica, uma destas é o óleo-resina extraído da copaíba, Copaifera multijuga Hayne, o qual é natural da região Amazônica onde é encontrado uma grande diversidade dessa espécies. Seu uso medicinal, tão difundido o torna o fitofármaco mais usado e conhecido pelas populações mais pobres da região Norte do Brasil, sendo utilizado como diurético, laxativo, antitetânico, antiblenorrágico, anti-reumático, anti-séptico do aparelho urinário, antiinflamatório, antitussígeno, cicatrizante e remédio para o combate ao câncer. O presente trabalho apresenta os resultados da avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana deste óleo, onde foi avaliado pela a técnica de difusão em ágar em meio Muller-Hinton. As cepas avaliadas foram: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. As placas forma incubadas em estufas por 24 h em temperatura de 35 ºC. Como padrões foram utilizados os antibióticos amoxicilina (AMO-10 mg/disco, cloranfenicol (CLO-30 mg/disco e tetraciclina (TET-30 mg/disco. Os resultados mostraram que o óleo de copaíba possui capacidade de inibir o crescimento das três bactérias avaliadas, apresentando com isso uma concentração inibitória mínima de 1,56, 3,12 e 12,5% para E. coli, S. aureus e P. aeruginosa, respectivamente.

  12. Evidences of local adaptation in quantitative traits in Prosopis alba (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessega, C; Pometti, C; Ewens, M; Saidman, B O; Vilardi, J C

    2015-02-01

    Signals of selection on quantitative traits can be detected by the comparison between the genetic differentiation of molecular (neutral) markers and quantitative traits, by multivariate extensions of the same model and by the observation of the additive covariance among relatives. We studied, by three different tests, signals of occurrence of selection in Prosopis alba populations over 15 quantitative traits: three economically important life history traits: height, basal diameter and biomass, 11 leaf morphology traits that may be related with heat-tolerance and physiological responses and spine length that is very important from silvicultural purposes. We analyzed 172 G1-generation trees growing in a common garden belonging to 32 open pollinated families from eight sampling sites in Argentina. The multivariate phenotypes differ significantly among origins, and the highest differentiation corresponded to foliar traits. Molecular genetic markers (SSR) exhibited significant differentiation and allowed us to provide convincing evidence that natural selection is responsible for the patterns of morphological differentiation. The heterogeneous selection over phenotypic traits observed suggested different optima in each population and has important implications for gene resource management. The results suggest that the adaptive significance of traits should be considered together with population provenance in breeding program as a crucial point prior to any selecting program, especially in Prosopis where the first steps are under development.

  13. Comparative anatomical analysis of leaves structure of Medicago lupulina L. (Leguminosae

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    Tatjana A. Tsutsupa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical structure of leaves of Medicago lupulinaL. has been studied in context of ecological lability due the different conditions of environment. It has ascertained that organization of mesophyll and epidermis in M. lupulinaleaves has adaptive character and causes wide areal of species.

  14. Exopolysaccharides produced by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria of leguminosae

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    Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, performed by symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria with legume species, commonly known as α and β rhizobia, provides high sustainability for the ecosystems. Its management as a biotechnology is well succeeded for improving crop yields. A remarkable example of this success is the inoculation of Brazilian soybeans with Bradyrhizobium strains. Rhizobia produce a wide diversity of chemical structures of exopolysaccharides (EPS. Although the role of EPS is relatively well studied in the process of BNF, their economic and environmental potential is not yet explored. These EPS are mostly species-specific heteropolysaccharides, which can vary according to the composition of sugars, their linkages in a single subunit, the repeating unit size and the degree of polymerization. Studies have showed that the EPS produced by rhizobia play an important role in the invasion process, infection threads formation, bacteroid and nodule development and plant defense response. These EPS also confer protection to these bacteria when exposed to environmental stresses. In general, strains of rhizobia that produce greater amounts of EPS are more tolerant to adverse conditions when compared with strains that produce less. Moreover, it is known that the EPS produced by microorganisms are widely used in various industrial activities. These compounds, also called biopolymers, provide a valid alternative for the commonly used in food industry through the development of products with identical properties or with better rheological characteristics, which can be used for new applications. The microbial EPS are also able to increase the adhesion of soil particles favoring the mechanical stability of aggregates, increasing levels of water retention and air flows in this environment. Due to the importance of EPS, in this review we discuss the role of these compounds in the process of BNF, in the adaptation of rhizobia to environmental stresses and in the process of soil aggregation. The possible applications of these biopolymers in industry are also discussed.

  15. Lectins of Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii (Leguminosae): charaderization and mitogenic effect

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada, Silvia; Nanne, Clara I; González, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Erythrina species are widely distributed in Costa Rica and known popularly as "poró". In this study, two species were selected, Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina sreyermarldi. Seed extracts were prepared in phosphate-buffered saline. The presence of lectins in the extracts was verified by hemagglutinating effect over suspensions of human erythrocytes. A selective hemagglutinating effect on erythrocytes of severa! marnmal species, goat, horse and rabbit red cells was tested; only the latler ...

  16. Lectins of Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii (Leguminosae): characterization and mitogenic effect

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Quesada; Nanne, Clara I; Luis González

    1998-01-01

    Erythrina species are widely distributed in Costa Rica and known popularly as "poró". In this study, two species were selected, Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii. Seed extracts were prepared in phosphate-buffered saline. The presence of lectins in the extracts was verified by hemagglutinating effect over suspensions of human erythrocytes. A selective hemagglutinating effect on erythrocytes of several mammal species, goat, horse and rabbit red cells was tested; only the latter w...

  17. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Capacidad antioxidante de poblaciones silvestres de “tara” (Caesalpinia spinosa de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe (Provincia de Tarma, departamento de Junín

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    Alberto López S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es el principal abastecedor de “tara”, gracias a que nuestro país posee una gran variedad de climas y tipos de suelos, haciendo posible la obtención de este cultivo durante la mayor parte del año. El departamento de Junín cuenta con poblaciones naturales de “tara” que aun no han sido caracterizadas bioquímica ni genéticamente, que podrían aprovecharse en beneficio de las comunidades locales. En este trabajo se reporta la capacidad antioxidante de “tara” provenientes de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe, ambas ubicadas en Tarma, Junín. Se utilizó la técnica del DPPH y del ABTS para valorar la capacidad antioxidante; para la determinación de fenoles y flavonoides se utilizó el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteau según la técnica de Singleton. La muestra de Picoy reportó mayor cantidad de fenoles siendo de 563.70 mg/g de extracto seco, mientras que la cantidad de flavonoides fue de 0.664 mg/g. La capacidad antioxidante mostro una mejor respuesta en la muestra de Picoy, reportándose mediante el DPPH un IC50 1.244 mg/ml y con el ABTS un 35.3% de inhibición. Estos datos podrían aprovecharse para incrementar el valor agregado y mejorar la oferta de este recurso en dicha localidad debido a sus mejores características antioxidantes.

  19. Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, F.; Chowdhary, A.; Prakash, A.; Yntema, J.B.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging and primary pathogen. There is a lack of information about its environmental spread outside outbreak regions in Mediterranean Europe, North and South America. Environmental sampling for C. gattii and molecular characterization

  20. Separation of the genera in the subtribe Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidae using molecular markers Separação dos gêneros na subtribo Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidae utilizando marcadores moleculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmikanta Acharya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers were used to verify the segregation of the genus Cassia L. senso lato into three distinct genera namely Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. sensostricto Eighteen representatives of the three taxa were characterized using the molecular markers. 25 RAPD, six ISSR primers and six AFLP primer combinations resulted in the amplification of 612, 115 and 622 bands (loci respectively. Most of the loci are found to be polymorphic, showing high degrees of genetic diversity among the different taxa studied. The dendrogram constructed on the basis of the RAPD, ISSR and AFLP data using SHAN clustering, divided Cassia L. senso lato. into three different clusters as Chamaecrista Moench. Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. senso stricto High bootstrap value revealed that all the clusters were stable and robust. It was observed from the present investigation that these genera have their identity at molecular level, which supports the elevation of the genus Cassia L. senso lato to the level of subtribe Cassiinae and segregation into three distinct genera instead of intrageneric categories.Técnicas de Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR e Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers (AFLP foram utilizadas para verificar a segregação do gênero Cassia L. senso lato em três diferentes gêneros, Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. e Cassia L. senso stricto Dezoito representantes dos três táxons foram caracterizados com o uso de marcadores moleculares: 25 RAPD, seis iniciadores ("primers" ISSR e seis AFLP combinações de iniciadores, resultando na amplificação de 612, 115 e 622 bandas (loci, respectivamente. A maioria dos loci apresentou-se como polimórfico, mostrando um alto grau de diversidade genética entre os táxons estudados. O dendrograma construído com base nos dados de RAPD, ISSR e AFLP e agrupamento com procedimentos SHAN dividiu Cassia L. senso lato em três diferentes agrupamentos, chamados de Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. e Cassia L. senso stricto Valores altos de bootstrap revelaram que todos os agrupamentos foram estáveis e robustos. Foi observado pela presente investigação que estes gêneros possuem identidade ao nível molecular, o que sustenta a elevação do genero Cassia L. senso lato para o nível de subtribo e a segregação dos três gêneros ao invés de formarem categorias infra-genéricas.

  1. Potencialidad de Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae para estudios dendrocronológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montaña Potential of Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamily: Mimosoideae for dendrochronological studies in high-montane subtropical deserts

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    MARIANO S. MORALES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la escasez de especies con anillos anuales de crecimiento, la dendrocronología de regiones áridas de montañas tropicales y subtropicales está muy poco desarrollada. En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de la especie arbórea Prosopis ferox,"churqui", para estudios dendrocronológicos analizando las características anatómicas del leño y las relaciones entre registros climáticos y cronologías de ancho de anillos de una colección realizada a 3.500 m, en la quebrada de Humahuaca (23°13' S, 65°20' O, Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Las observaciones microscópicas de cortes histológicos muestran que los anillos están claramente demarcados por una banda parenquimática terminal clara. Comparando la cronología estandarizada de ancho de anillos con los registros instrumentales de La Quiaca (22º06'S, 65º36'O, se observan correlaciones significativas con precipitaciones por encima de la media y temperaturas por debajo de la media durante los meses de verano (diciembre_marzo. Esto se interpreta como una relación positiva con la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo durante el período de crecimiento. Esta cronología representa no solamente el primer registro dendrocronológico desarrollado a partir de P. ferox, sino también la primera cronología de anillos de árboles en la provincia biogeográfica Prepuneña. La buena discriminación de los anillos anuales de crecimiento, la fuerte relación con variables climáticas, el amplio rango de distribución de la especie en el noroeste de Argentina y sur de Bolivia (20° a 25° S y la longevidad observada en individuos aislados (c. 500 años, hacen de P. ferox una especie muy promisoria para estudios dendroclimatológicos y dendroecológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montañaDue to the scarcity of species with annual tree rings, the use of dendrochronological techniques has received little attention in tropical and subtropical montane dry areas. In this study, we assess the dendrochronological potential of Prosopis ferox, "churqui", through the analysis of its wood anatomy and the relationships between climate and tree growth variations from trees collected at 3,500 m, in the Humahuaca valley (23°13' S, 62°20' W, Jujuy province, Argentina. Microscopic observations show that annual rings are clearly defined by a relatively lighter parenchyma belt formed at the end of the annual band. Comparisons between the standardized ring-width chronology and the instrumental records from La Quiaca (22º 06'S, 65º36'W indicated that above-average rainfall and below-average temperature during summer (i.e., December to March favor tree growth. This can be interpreted as a positive relationship between radial growth and abundant soil water content during the growing season. The chronology shown here represents not only the first dendrocronological record from P. ferox, but also the first tree-ring chronology for the Prepuna biogeographic province. The well-defined annual rings, the strong relationship between growth and climatic variables, the large range of distribution across northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia (20° to 25° S, and the longevity observed in some individuals (c. 500 years, indicate that P. ferox is a very promising species for dendroclimatological and dendroecological studies in subtropical montane ecosystems

  2. Diphysa yucatanensis (Papilionoideae: Leguminosae, una especie nueva de la península de Yucatán Diphysa yucatanensis (Papilionoideae: Leguminosae, a new species from Peninsula of Yucatán

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    Ana Hanan A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Diphysa yucatanensis como una especie nueva. Se distribuye en la península de Yucatán (Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán, Belice y El Petén [Guatemala] y zonas aledañas en Chiapas y Tabasco, México. Históricamente se le ha confundido con D. carthagenensis Jacq., la cual sólo recientemente ha sido encontrada en la parte más árida de la península.Diphysa yucatanensis is described and illustrated as a new species. It is distributed in Chiapas, Tabasco and the Yucatán Peninsula (Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán, Belize and El Petén, Guatemala and it has been historically mistaken for D. carthagenensis Jacq., a species only recently found in the most arid zone of the Peninsula.

  3. Padronização do teste de tetrazólio em sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae Tetrazolium test in Parkia velutina Benoist seeds (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae

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    Angela Maria da Silva Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar métodos de pré-condicionamento e concentrações da solução de tetrazólio na avaliação da qualidade de sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist. Os tratamentos pré-condicionantes das sementes foram avaliados com três métodos de escarificação: desponte na região oposta ao hilo, punção na região mediana e lixa nos dois lados da semente com posterior embebição em 200 ml de água para cada 25 sementes e permanência em câmara a 30 ºC por 16 horas. As concentrações da solução de tetrazólio testadas foram: 1,0%, 0,5% e 0,1% por duas horas na temperatura de 40 ºC. O tratamento de pré-condicionamento mais eficiente foi a combinação do desponte e lixamento nos dois lados da semente. A concentração de tetrazólio a 0,5% pode ser utilizada para avaliar a viabilidade das sementes de P. velutina como complemento ao teste de germinação. O teste de tetrazólio se mostrou eficiente na caracterização de lesões ocasionadas por insetos e danos mecânicos em sementes de P. velutina.This manuscript aimed to determine methods of daily pre-conditioning and concentrations of the tetrazolium solution for evaluating the quality of Parkia velutina Benoist seeds. The daily pre-condicionanting seed treatments were evaluated using three scarification methods: coating cutting on the opposite side of the hilum region, puncture in the medium region and scarification with sandpaper on both sides of the seed, followed by soaking each of the 25 seeds in 200 ml of wate and permanence in chamber 30 ºC for 16 hours. The concentrations of the tetrazolium solution tested were 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.1% for two hours at 40 ºC. The more efficient daily pre-conditioning treatlment was a combination of the coating cutting and the scarification n both sides of the seed. The 0.5% tetrazolium concentration can be used to evaluate the viability of P. velutina seeds as complement to the germination test. The tetrazolium test showed its efficiency in the characterization of injuries caused by insects and mechanical damages in P. velutina seeds.

  4. EARLY GROWTH AND SEEDLING MORPHOLOGY OF SPECIES OF Sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae, robinieae DESENVOLVIMENTO INICIAL E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DAS PLÂNTULAS DE ESPÉCIES DE Sesbania SCOP. (LEGUMINOSAE, ROBINIEAE

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    Elisabeth Ann Veasey

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize 17 accessions of Sesbania, representing S. exasperata, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, S. tetraptera and S. virgata at the seedling stage, and to evaluate the initial development during the first two months after planting. The trial was conducted in a greenhouse in a randomized block design, with 4 replications and 5 plants per plot. The traits recorded were: plant height (PH, from four observations at 15-day intervals, at 17, 32, 47 and 62 days after planting; length of hypocotyl (LH and epicotyl (LEP; length (LE1 and width (WE1 of the first eophyll; and number of leaflet pairs of the second metaphyll (NLP, evaluated 17 days after planting. Univariate analyses of variance were performed, estimating the genetic parameters: coefficient of genotypic determination (b and of genetic variation (CVg. Cluster analysis was also obtained, using the average Euclidean distance and Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic average (UPGMA method. At 17 days after planting, S. exasperata presented the highest PH, followed by S. virgata. At 62 days after planting, S. sesban registered the highest PH. Length of hypocotyl displayed inter but not intraspecific variation. The characters LEP, LE1, WE1 and NLP showed both inter and intraspecific variation. Cluster analysis indicated the existence of 7 groups, separating the species and revealing intraspecific variation as well. The occurrence in low frequencies of two unifoliolate opposite eophylls for some species was observed, as well as bi- or trifoliolate first eophylls for one of the S. sesban accessions. These informations are basic for the selection of traits to be utilized for characterization and differentiation of Sesbania germplasm at the juvenile phase.Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar 17 acessos de Sesbania, representando as espécies S. exasperata, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, S. tetraptera e S. virgata no estágio de plântula, avaliando também o desenvolvimento inicial nos primeiros dois meses após o plantio. O ensaio foi instalado em casa-de-vegetação, em blocos casualizados com 4 repetições e 5 plantas por parcela. Avaliaram-se os seguintes caracteres: altura da planta (AP em 4 avaliações, espaçadas de 15 dias, aos 17, 32, 47 e 62 dias após o plantio; comprimento do hipocótilo (CH e do epicótilo (CEP; comprimento (CE1 e largura (LE1 do eófilo 1; e número de pares de folíolos do metáfilo 2 (NPF. A primeira AP e os demais caracteres foram avaliados aos 17 dias do plantio. Foram realizadas análises de variância univariada, estimando-se os parâmetros genéticos: coeficiente de determinação genotípica (b e de variação genética (CVg, e uma análise de agrupamento, usando distância Euclideana média e método UPGMA (Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic average. Aos 17 dias do plantio, S. exasperata apresentou maior AP, seguida de S. virgata. Aos 62 dias do plantio, S. sesban apresentou a maior AP. O caráter CH apresentou variação inter mas não intraespecífica. Já os caracteres CEP, CE1, LE1 e NPF mostraram variação tanto inter como intraespecífica. A análise de agrupamento indicou a existência de 7 grupos, separando as espécies e mostrando variação intraespecífica. Foi também observada a ocorrência, em baixas freqüências, de dois eófilos unifoliolados e opostos para algumas espécies, bem como a ocorrência de eófilos nº 1 bi- ou trifoliolados para um dos acessos de S. sesban. Estas informações são básicas para a escolha de caracteres a serem utilizados na fase juvenil para a diferenciação e caracterização de germoplasma de Sesbania.

  5. Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae

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    Marcelo P. Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales.

  6. Números cromossômicos em espécies de Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae Chromosome numbers in species of Acosmium Schott and Leptolobium Vogel (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae

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    Rodrigo Schütz Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a análise citotaxonômica de espécies de Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel, através da determinação de seus números cromossômicos. Foram estudadas as três espécies aceitas de Acosmium e cinco espécies de Leptolobium (representando 50% do gênero, a partir de sementes oriundas de diferentes regiões do Brasil. As contagens mitóticas apresentadas para todas as espécies de Acosmium e para quatro espécies de Leptolobium são inéditas. Acosmium cardenasii apresentou uniformemente 2n = 18, enquanto que em A. diffusissimum foram encontradas no mesmo meristema 2n = 18, 24 e 32 e em A. lentiscifolium 2n = 18 e 32. Para Leptolobium, o número cromossômico das espécies estudadas foi de 2n = 18, confirmando uma contagem mitótica anterior para L. dasycarpum. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram homogeneidade no número cromossômico de Acosmium e Leptolobium, confirmando x = 9 como o número cromossômico básico em ambos os gêneros. Portanto, o número cromossômico não é um caráter taxonômico utilizável na distinção entre Acosmium e Leptolobium.A cytotaxonomic analysis of species of Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel was carried out, by determining their chromosome numbers. The three species of Acosmium and five species of Leptolobium (representing 50% of the genus were studied from seeds obtained from different regions of Brazil. Chromosome counts were new for all Acosmium species and for four Leptolobium species. For Acosmium cardenasii, 2n = 18 was constantly observed, while occurring at the same meristem were found 2n = 18, 24 e 32 in A. diffusissimum and 2n = 18 e 32 in A. lentiscifolium. For Leptolobium, all studied species had 2n = 18, confirming a previous count for L. dasycarpum. The results showed that chromosome numbers of Acosmium and Leptolobium species are homogeneous, confirming the basic number x = 9 for both genera. Therefore, chromosome numbers do not provide a useful taxonomic character distinguishing Acosmium from Leptolobium.

  7. Atividade alelopática de extratos brutos de três espécies de Copaifera (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Allelophatic activity of crude extracts from three species of Copaifera (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioidedae

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    A.P.S Souza Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, atenção especial foi dada aos compostos químicos envolvidos na interação entre plantas, especialmente quando se sabe das possibilidades do seu uso em estratégia de manejo de plantas daninhas. A Amazônia, pela sua megabiodiversidade e abundância de espécies vegetais, pode oferecer excelente oportunidade para a descoberta de inovadoras moléculas químicas com potencial de uso na atividade agrícola. Dessa forma, neste trabalho analisou-se, comparativamente, a atividade potencialmente alelopática de três espécies de Copaifera, caracterizando-se as variações na intensidade dos efeitos alelopáticos em função da espécie doadora, da fração da planta e da polaridade dos constituintes químicos. Extratos hexânico e etanólico, preparados a 1,0% a partir de folhas, galhos e cascas de Copaifera duckei, C. martii e C. reticulata, foram testados sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da raiz das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Observaram-se variações nas intensidades dos efeitos em função das variáveis estudadas. O extrato etanólico de folhas e o de galhos de C. martii e C. reticulata apresentaram alto potencial para inibir a germinação de sementes, sobretudo da espécie malícia. A espécie C. duckei evidenciou baixo potencial alelopático inibitório na germinação das duas espécies receptoras. Cascas, folhas e galhos de C. duckei apresentaram potencial inibitório mais expressivo sobre o desenvolvimento da raiz, com destaque para as folhas. Compostos químicos apolares e polares estão envolvidos na atividade alelopática da espécie C. duckei, com ênfase maior para os compostos apolares. Diferentemente, para C. martii e C. reticulata, compostos polares estão envolvidos, preferencialmente, na atividade inibitória evidenciada por essas espécies, notadamente aqueles localizados nas folhas e cascas. Comparativamente, a tendência observada foi de que a espécie receptora malícia demonstrou maior sensibilidade aos efeitos alelopáticos dos extratos, especialmente no bioensaio de germinação.For the past few years, special attention has been given to chemical composites involved in interaction between plants, especially when the potential of their use in weed management is known. The Amazon region with its enormous biodiversity and abundance of plant species may offer excellent opportunities for the discovery of innovative chemical molecules capable of being used in agriculture. Thus, in this paper, a comparative analysis was made between the potential allelopathic activity of three species of Copaifera, characterizing the variations of the intensity of the allelopathic effects of the donating species, plant fraction and chemical component polarity. Hexanic and ethanolic extracts, prepared at 1.0% from the leaves, branches and barks of Copaifera duckei, C. martii and C. reticulata, were tested on seed germination and development of Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia weed roots. The results showed that the intensity of the effects varied according to the variables studied. The ethanolic extract of C. martii and C. reticulata leaves and barks showed high potential to inhibit seed germination, especially of M. pudica species. The species C. duckei showed low allelopathic inhibitory potential in the germination of two receptor species. Barks, branches and especially leaves of C. duckei presented more expressive inhibitory potential for root development. Polar, and especially non-polar chemical composites, are involved in the allelopathic activity of C. duckei. Differently for C. martii and C. reticulata, the polar composites are preferentially involved in the inhibitory activity evidenced by these species, especially those located on the leaves and barks. Comparatively, it was observed that the weed species receptor tended to show more sensitivity to the allelopathic effects of the extracts, especially in the germination bioassay.

  8. Molecular Biogeography of Tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan Disjunction Pattern with an African Origin of Core Genistoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Huang, Jian-Feng; Sanderson, Stewart C.; Yan, Ping; Wu, Yu-Hu; Pan, Bo-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and East Asia-North America disjunction, with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F sequence data; biogeographical approaches included BEAST molecular dating and Bayesian dispersal and vicariance analysis (S-DIVA). The results indicate that the core genistoides most likely originated in Africa during the Eocene to Oligocene, ca. 55-30 Ma, and dispersed eastward to Central Asia at ca. 33.47 Ma. The origin of Thermopsideae is inferred as Central Asian and dated to ca. 28.81 Ma. Ammopiptanthus is revealed to be a relic. Birth of the ancestor of Thermopsideae coincided with shrinkage of the Paratethys Sea at ca. 30 Ma in the Oligocene. The Himalayan motion of QTP uplift of ca. 20 Ma most likely drove the diversification between Central Asia and North America. Divergences in East Asia, Central Asia, the Mediterranean, and so forth, within Eurasia, except for Ammopiptanthus, are shown to be dispersals from the QTP. The onset of adaptive radiation at the center of the tribe, with diversification of most species in Thermopsis and Piptanthus at ca. 4-0.85 Ma in Tibet and adjacent regions, seems to have resulted from intense northern QTP uplift during the latter Miocene to Pleistocene. PMID:26114116

  9. Purification of a beta-galactosidase from cotyledons of Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae). Enzyme properties and biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alcântara, P H N; Martim, L; Silva, C O; Dietrich, S M C; Buckeridge, M S

    2006-01-01

    Beta-galactosidases are enzymes that can be found in most living beings and in the plant kingdom its activity and genes have been detected in several tissues such as ripening fruits, developing leaves and flowers and storage tissues such as cotyledons. In plants, their activities are usually associated with the secondary metabolism or with oligosaccharide or polysaccharide degradation. Polysaccharide specific beta-galactosidases include beta-galactanases, which attack pectic polymers and beta-galactosidases that attack xyloglucans (XG). In the present work we purified an XG-specific beta-galactosidase (named hcbetagal) from cotyledons of developing seedlings of Hymenaea courbaril, a legume tree from the Neotropical region of the world. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 52-62 kDa and was shown to attack specifically xyloglucan oligosaccharides (XGOs) but not the polymer. It has a pH optimum between 3 and 4 and at this pH range the enzyme increases activity linearly up to 50 degrees C. Kinetic studies showed that hcbetagal is inhibited competitively by free galactose (K(i) = 3.7). The biochemical properties of hcbetagal as a whole suggest that it is involved in storage xyloglucan mobilisation during seedling development. Its high specificity towards XGOs, the low pH optimum and the fact that it is inhibited by its product (galactose) suggest that hcbetagal might be one of the biochemical control points in xyloglucan catabolism in vivo. A possible relationship with functional stability of the wall during cell death as cotyledons undergo senescence is discussed.

  10. CRESCIMENTO DO JATOBÁ E DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS EM DIFERENTES ESPAÇAMENTOS, EM ÁREA DEGRADADA

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    GERALDO RIBEIRO ZUBA JUNIOR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pioneer plants, mainly nitrogen-fixing leguminous trees, associated to the secondary and climax species, has been making possible good results in the land reclamation. However, it is important to establish the appropriate spacing among the form species obtaining a fast covering and protection of the soil, without there is strong competition of the plants for light, water and nutrients. So, the objective of this work was to evaluate the growth of the Hymenaea courbaril and leguminous trees at, in system quincux, in different spacings. The treatments, in factorial scheme 3 x 3 with three replicates, corresponded to three species of pioneer leguminous trees (Acacia mangium, Senna multijuga and Leucaena leucocephala combined with Hymenaea courbaril and three spacings among pioneer plants (4 x 2; 4 x 3 and 4 x 4 m. After one and two years of planting determined the height, stem diameter at ground level and crown diameter of pioneer plants and Hymenaea courbaril. Acacia mangium showed growth characteristics superior to those of Senna multijuga and Leucaena leucocephala, however, no influence of spacing between species in relation to these characteristics. The growth characteristics of the Hymenaea courbaril were not influenced by pioneer species associated, however, the denser spacing between the pioneer species favored the greatest increase.

  11. Ecologia dos insetos associados aos frutos de leguminosas do Parque Estadual do Cerrado, Jaguariaiva, Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Lisiane Taiatella

    2007-01-01

    Orientadora : Cibele Stamare Ribeiro-Costa Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciencias Biológicas (Entomologia). Defesa: Curitiba, 2007 Inclui bibliografia Área de concentração: Entomologia O Parque Estadual do Cerrado, em Jaguariaíva, Paraná, constitui-se um dos últimos remanescentes da vegetação de cerrado do Estado. No Parque são observadas duas formas quanto à vegetação, uma savânica que varia desde cam...

  12. Daños por Sennius amazonicus, Sennius sp. y Amblycerus sp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) en semillas de Sclerolobium sp. (Leguminosae) .

    OpenAIRE

    Porto Santos, Germi; Vinha Zanuncio, Teresinha; Lourenco de Assis Junior, Sebastiao; Cola Zanuncio, José

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Sclerolobium sp.(N=l000), collected in two localities of Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil were damaged by bruchid beetles: Sennius amazonicus, and two undescribed species of Sennius and Amblycerus. Total seed darnage was 22.3±1.93% including 3.40±0.97% of darnage by Amblycerus sp. Other agents contributed to seed darnage including O.9±O.4% by fungi. Eighty seven mg of Sclerolobium sp. seeds were necessary Cor development oC either S. amazonicus or Sennius sp. which represented 38.3...

  13. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera are frequently found in arid and semiarid shrublands, but scarce information is available about their influence on plant community structure and soil fertility. We compared plant community structure, diversity and soil nutrients of three semiarid shrubland sites located in Mezquital Valley, Mexico. These sites differ in their dominant species: Site 1 (Bingu P. laevigata, Site 2 (González M. biuncifera, and Site 3 (Rincón with the presence of both legumes. The results showed that the plant community with P. laevigata and M. biuncifera (Site 3 had more cover, taller plants and higher plant diversity than sites with only one legume (Site 1 and Site 2. Soil organic matter (SOM, soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (TN, phosphorus-Olsen (P and C mineralization were higher in the soil under the canopy of both legumes than in bare soil. In contrast, soil cation concentrations were lower under the canopy of P. laevigata, but not for M. biuncifera. In addition, the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores was higher within the soil under the canopy of M. biuncifera than in the soil under the canopy of P. laevigata. Thus, resource islands (RI created by P. laevigata increased the amounts of SOC, TN and P when compared with the RI of M. biuncifera. This study provided evidences about the importance of species identity in order to expand the niche availability for the establishment of other plants, and highlights that P. laevigata and M. biuncifera jointly influencing plant colonization within semiarid ecosystems

  14. Molecular biogeography of tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan disjunction pattern with an African origin of core genistoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Jian-Feng Huang; Stewart C. Sanderson; Ping Yan; Yu-H Wu; Bo-Rong Pan

    2015-01-01

    Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and EastAsia-North America disjunction,with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F...

  15. TWO NEW FLORISTIC RECORDS FOR THE FLORA OF EUROPEAN TURKEY: LATHYRUS TUBEROSUS L. and LATHYRUS SETIFOLIUS L. (LEGUMINOSAE)

    OpenAIRE

    F. GÜNEŞ, A. ÇIRPICI, F. GÜNEŞ, A. ÇIRPICI

    2013-01-01

    1997-98 yıllarında toplanan iki Lathyrus türü, L.tuberosus L. ve L.setifolius L.'un Trakya florası için yeni kayıt olduğu saptanmıştır. Türlerin kısa deskripsiyonlarının yanında, bitkilerin genel görünüşü ve çiçek kısımlarına ait şekiller ve Türkiye'deki yayılışlarını gösteren harita eklenmiştir.

  16. TWO NEW FLORISTIC RECORDS FOR THE FLORA OF EUROPEAN TURKEY: LATHYRUS TUBEROSUS L. and LATHYRUS SETIFOLIUS L. (LEGUMINOSAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Güneş, Fatma; Çırpıcı, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Two Lathyrus species, L. tuberosus L. and L. setifolius L., collected in the years 1997-98 are new records for the Flora of European Turkey (Thrace). Their short morphological descriptions, also including an illustration of habit and flower parts and distribution map are presented.  

  17. Karyotype characterization and evolution in South American species of Lathyrus (Notolathyrus, Leguminosae) evidenced by heterochromatin and rDNA mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalup, Laura; Samoluk, Sergio Sebastián; Neffa, Viviana Solís; Seijo, Guillermo

    2015-11-01

    Notolathyrus is a section of South American endemic species of the genus Lathyrus. The origin, phylogenetic relationship and delimitation of some species are still controversial. The present study provides an exhaustive analysis of the karyotypes of approximately half (10) of the species recognized for section Notolathyrus and four outgroups (sections Lathyrus and Orobus) by cytogenetic mapping of heterochromatic bands and 45S and 5S rDNA loci. The bulk of the parameters analyzed here generated markers to identify most of the chromosomes in the complements of the analyzed species. Chromosome banding showed interspecific variation in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin, and together with the distribution of rDNA loci, allowed the characterization of all the species studied here. Additionally, some of the chromosome parameters described (st chromosomes and the 45S rDNA loci) constitute the first diagnostic characters for the Notolathyrus section. Evolutionary, chromosome data revealed that the South American species are a homogeneous group supporting the monophyly of the section. Variation in the amount of heterochromatin was not directly related to the variation in DNA content of the Notolathyrus species. However, the correlation observed between the amount of heterochromatin and some geographical and bioclimatic variables suggest that the variation in the heterochromatic fraction should have an adaptive value.

  18. [Seed morphology and anatomy of the seed coat in five species of Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) from Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leython, Sirli; Jáuregui, Damelis

    2008-09-01

    Calliandra is an exclusively Neotropoical genus with 135 described species. There are 30 species in Venezuela. We studied seed morphology and the seed coat anatomy of five species: Calliandra riparia Pittier, Calliandra glomerulata Karsten var. glomerulata, Calliandra magdalenae (DC.) Bentk var. magdalenae, Calliandra surinamensis Benth and Calliandra falcata Benth., to establish simililarities and differences amongst taxa for taxonomic characterization. Of the evaluated characters, 10 quantitative characters and 3 qualitative characters were selected as the most informative for the separation of species. Seed morphological characters of taxonomic value are form and size. Thickness of the light line, number of layers and space between the osteosclereids constitute distinctive characters.

  19. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husen Asbanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of slicer and peeler. The slicer function is to slice the fruit before it sent into peeler unit which contains two cylindrical peeler. The peeler unit installed parallel so it let through the fruit pulp but still hold the Tamarind seeds that had been separated by the separator unit. Tamarind seeds separation prototype model has been succesfully made. Model testing was done by measuring the rotary speed of spindle peelers on 1065 rpm which considered work effectively for the test load of 100 grams, 200 grams and 300 grams. Further, shaft torque measurements in the process of peeling showed a significant increase in value and it is proportional to the increase in load level for all treatments. Greatest torque happened at 890 rpm rotation speed with a value of 1.45 Nm at 300 gram load. While the rotary speed of 1220 rpm produce 1.17 Nm torque at 300 grams load.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR

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    Farshid Mahmodi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3 verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4% and (15.5–19.9, respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers.

  1. CRESCIMENTO DE CEDRO E DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS EM ÁREA DEGRADADA, ADUBADO COM PÓ-DE-ROCHA

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    GERALDO RIBEIRO ZUBA JUNIO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the reclamation of a degraded area, it is important the use of nitrogen fixing legumes, associated with climax species, to make possible a faster recovery of the environment. In urban centers various wastes are produced, among them the marble rock waste, which, despite having agricultural value, ends up being thrown in the environment.. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Cedrela fissilis growth and of pioneering legume in quincunx system, in degraded area, fertilized with doses of marble rock waste. The treatments, distributed in factorial scheme 2 x 4, in the randomized block design, with three replicates, were: two species of pioneering legume (Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis in quincunx system with the Cedrela fissilis and four doses of marble rock waste (0; 300; 600 and 900 g.cova-1. Were determined annually, along three years, the height of the plants, the stem diameter, the cup diameter and, in the end, the mortality percentage. The Acacia auriculiformis presented characteristic of better growth than the Acacia mangium and greater resistance to adverse conditions of degraded soil. There was tendency of reduction of the characteristics of growth of the Cedrela fissilis and of the Acacias with the increment of the doses of rock powder applied to the soil. The Cedrela fissilis presented, in general, larger growth, when combined with Acacia mangium than with Acacia auriculiformis, however, showed a high mortality after two years of planting.

  2. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    and Hyparrhenia diplandr var. mutica. Recent field work by Sebsebe Demissew and Pierre Dubeau resulted in one new generic record for the Flora area: Syyngonanthus wahlbergii. Field work by Ib friis and Sebsebe Demissew documented the cultivation of Elaeis guineensis in southwestern Ethiopia....

  3. Hierarchical components of genetic variation at a species boundary: population structure in two sympatric varieties of Lupinus microcarpus (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Christopher S; Hamilton, Matthew B

    2007-02-01

    Lupinus microcarpus is a self-compatible annual plant that forms a species complex of morphologically variable but indeterminate varieties. In order to examine the hypothesis that varieties of L. microcarpus comprise genetically differentiated and reproductively isolated species, populations of L. microcarpus var. horizontalis and var. densiflorus were sampled from an area of sympatry in central California and genotyped using six microsatellite loci. Bayesian clustering divided the total sample into two groups corresponding to the named varieties with extremely low levels of inferred coancestry. Similarly, maximum likelihood and distance methods for genetic assignment placed individuals in two nonoverlapping groups. Evidence for isolation by distance (IBD) within each variety was found at shorter distance classes, but varieties remained differentiated in sympatry. Furthermore, coalescent estimates of divergence time indicate separation within the past 950-5050 generations, with minimal gene flow after divergence. A four-level hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (amova) found significant levels of genetic differentiation among varieties (theta(P) = 0.292), populations within varieties (theta(S) = 0.449), subpopulations within populations (theta(SS) = 0.623), and individuals within subpopulations (f = 0.421); but the greatest degree of differentiation was at the subpopulation level. Although it is sometimes assumed that the magnitude of genetic differences (e.g. F(ST)) should be greater between species than among populations or subpopulations of the same species, shared ancestral polymorphism may lead to relatively low levels of differentiation at the species level, even as the stochastic effects of genetic drift generate higher levels of differentiation at lower hierarchical levels. These results suggest that L. microcarpus var. horizontalis and var. densiflorus are recently diverged yet reproductively isolated species, with high levels of inbreeding resulting from the combined effects of limited gene flow, demographic bottlenecks, and partial selfing in finite, geographically structured populations.

  4. Genomic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005 (Leguminosae: multiple origin of Arachis species with x = 9

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    Silvestri María Celeste

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arachis Linnaeus, 1753 comprises four species with x = 9, three belong to the section Arachis: Arachis praecox (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994, Arachis palustris (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994 and Arachis decora (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994 and only one belongs to the section Erectoides: Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005. Recently, the x = 9 species of section Arachis have been assigned to G genome, the latest described so far. The genomic relationship of A. porphyrocalyx with these species is controversial. In the present work, we carried out a karyotypic characterisation of A. porphyrocalyx to evaluate its genomic structure and analyse the origin of all x = 9 Arachis species. Arachis porphyrocalyx showed a karyotype formula of 14m+4st, one pair of A chromosomes, satellited chromosomes type 8, one pair of 45S rDNA sites in the SAT chromosomes, one pair of 5S rDNA sites and pericentromeric C-DAPI+ bands in all chromosomes. Karyotype structure indicates that A. porphyrocalyx does not share the same genome type with the other three x = 9 species and neither with the remaining Erectoides species. Taking into account the geographic distribution, morphological and cytogenetic features, the origin of species with x = 9 of the genus Arachis cannot be unique; instead, they originated at least twice in the evolutionary history of the genus.

  5. Genomic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005) (Leguminosae): multiple origin of Arachis species with x = 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Silvestri María; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán Ariel; Valls, José Francisco Montenegro; Lavia, Graciela Inés

    2017-01-01

    The genus Arachis Linnaeus, 1753 comprises four species with x = 9, three belong to the section Arachis: Arachis praecox (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994), Arachis palustris (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and Arachis decora (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and only one belongs to the section Erectoides: Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005). Recently, the x = 9 species of section Arachis have been assigned to G genome, the latest described so far. The genomic relationship of Arachis porphyrocalyx with these species is controversial. In the present work, we carried out a karyotypic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx to evaluate its genomic structure and analyse the origin of all x = 9 Arachis species. Arachis porphyrocalyx showed a karyotype formula of 14m+4st, one pair of A chromosomes, satellited chromosomes type 8, one pair of 45S rDNA sites in the SAT chromosomes, one pair of 5S rDNA sites and pericentromeric C-DAPI+ bands in all chromosomes. Karyotype structure indicates that Arachis porphyrocalyx does not share the same genome type with the other three x = 9 species and neither with the remaining Erectoides species. Taking into account the geographic distribution, morphological and cytogenetic features, the origin of species with x = 9 of the genus Arachis cannot be unique; instead, they originated at least twice in the evolutionary history of the genus.

  6. Bioprospecção de atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana da casca de Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (Leguminosae-Mimosoidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T. M. SOUZA; J. A. SEVERI; V. Y.A. SILVA; E. SANTOS; R. C.L.R. PIETRO

    2009-01-01

    O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a classe de metabólitos secundários responsável pela atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos da casca de Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville...

  7. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  8. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small "A chromosomes" characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter.

  9. Fenologia e visitantes florais de Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Raimunda Alice Coimbra Vieira Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p51 Erythrina crista-galli é uma espécie característica do bioma Pampa, também usada com fins ornamentais em arborização urbana. E. crista-galli  floresce mais intensamente de novembro a dezembro. A antese inicia entre 7h-11h, e as flores têm duração de cinco dias. Um total de 1.275 visitas florais foi registrado em 57h de observações. Abelhas da família Apidae (Trigona spinipes e Apis mellifera foram os visitantes fl orais mais freqüentes (88,23%, seguidos de moscas (Muscidae – 5,50%, formigas (Formicidae – 2,35%, vespas (Vespidae –  1,56% e besouros (Chrysomelidae – 1,56%. As flores também foram visitadas por beija-flores da família Trochilidae (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0,79%. A abelha T. spinipes foi observada em todos os horários e apresentou comportamento de possível polinizadora, juntamente com A. mellifera e o beija-fl or C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli é autocompatível, apresentando produção de frutos e sementes após a polinização manual e sob condições naturais.

  10. Síntesis de Glutatión y Homoglutatión en Nódulos de Leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    Matamoros Galindo, Manuel Ángel

    2000-01-01

    Proyectos de investigación que han hecho posible la financiación de esta Tesis: Programa Sectorial de Promoción General del Conocimiento (PB950091yPB980522), Acción Integrada Hispano Británica (HB19980163) y Proyecto FEDER CICYT (2FD971101). Estos proyectos han sido financiados por el Ministerio de Educación y Cultura,la Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología, y la Unión Europea.

  11. Associação de Rhizobium sp. a duas leguminosas na tolerância à atrazina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Camargo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A associação de bactérias a plantas tem sido estudada como uma possível tecnologia emergente, para fitorremediação de contaminantes, entre eles os herbicidas, que, por sua recalcitrância, ameaçam a qualidade do ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a tolerância de mucuna-anã (Stizolobium deeringianum Bort e mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy, inoculadas e não inoculadas com Rhizobium sp., ao herbicida atrazina. Os tratamentos foram: plantas com inoculante + 0,1 g/m², 0,2 g/m² atrazina e sem atrazina (T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente, sem inoculante + 0,1 g/m², 0,2 g/m² atrazina e sem atrazina (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Foram avaliados germinação, sobrevivência, número de nódulos, altura, biomassa verde, biomassa seca da parte aérea, após o crescimento das plantas por 50 dias em casa de vegetação. Nos tratamentos com inoculante, avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação de plantas bioindicadoras (Bidens pilosa L.. Mucuna-preta e mucuna-anã demonstraram maior tolerância ao herbicida quando associadas ao Rhizobium. Os valores de sobrevivência de mucuna-preta, nas doses 0,1 e 0,2 g/m² de atrazina (T1 e T2, foram de 34 a 24% superiores aos observados nas mesmas doses, mas sem o inoculante (T4 e T5. Para mucuna-anã, T1 e T2 foram de 17 e 8% superiores a T4 e T5, respectivamente. As alturas médias de mucuna-anã em T1, T2 e T3 foram mais elevadas que em T4, T5 e T6, reforçando a importância do simbionte à resistência ao herbicida. Os resultados encontrados para as variáveis altura, biomassa verde e seca para mucuna-preta não apresentaram diferença estatística entre os tratamentos com e sem inoculante, mostrando uma resistência natural à atrazina e a possibilidade de atuar como planta remediadora. A germinação de B. pilosa indica uma possível degradação da atrazina no solo com ambas as espécies de mucunas inoculadas com Rhizobium sp.

  12. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha -1 , respectively. The gliricídia residues showed the highest decomposition rates, in the two year seasons.

  13. Red-purple flower color and delphinidin-type pigments in the flowers of Pueraria lobata (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2017-05-01

    A previously undescribed acylated anthocyanin was extracted from the red-purple flowers of Pueraria lobata with 5% HOAc-H2O, and determined to be petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, two known acylated anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] and malvidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] were identified. Delphinidin 3,5-di-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-glucoside, and malvidin 3,5-di-glucoside, have been known as major components of P. lobata in the former study. However, malonyl esters amounts were detected over 10 times compared with non-malonyl esters amounts. In those anthocyanins the most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] in total flowers. On the visible absorption spectral curve of fresh red-purple petals, one characteristic absorption maximum was observed at 520 nm, which is similar to those of flowers containing pelargonidin derivatives. In contrast, the absorption spectral curve of old violet petals was observed at 500(sh), 536, 564(sh), and 613(sh) nm, which are similar to those of violet flowers containing delphinidin-type pigments. Pressed juices of both fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals had pH5.2 and 5.5 respectively, and had the same flavonoid constitution. Crude fresh red-purple petal pigments extracted by pH 2.2 and pH 5.2 buffers exhibited the same color and spectral curves as fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals, respectively. Moreover, in a cross-TLC experiment of crude extracted pigments, red-purple color was exhibited by the anthocyanin region and the crossed region of anthocyanins and isoflavone. Thus, it may be assumed that the unusually low pH in the vacuole of fresh petals plays an important role to form red-purple flower color against weak acidic pH in the vacuole of old violet P. lobata petals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of epidermis characters and venation of certain species of Medicago L. in Leguminosae (Fabaceae family in Iraq

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    Noor J.J. Al-Tememmi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical study of the epidermis leaflet for seven species and variety wild belonging to the genus Medicago L. species are: M. constricta Dur., M. coronata L., M. intertexta L., M. intertexta.var. ciliaris L., M. laciniata L., M. lupulina L., M. minima L. and M. sativa L. were studied, The search included epidermis characters and stomatal complexes addition to venation system in leaflets. It is revealed through the study, epidermis leaflet type Amphistomatic (the stomata spread on the upper and lower surface as well as the presence of three types of stomatal complexes namely: Anisocytic (the guard cells surrounded by three unequal cell size, Anomocytic (not differential from subsidiary cells in epidermis and Anomotetracytic (four cells surrounding the guard cell is irregular and varied. The results showed variations in dimensions and forms stomata and nature vertical walls and tangent to the upper and lower surfaces. The venation system distinguish by all the species studied as one of the type Simple craspedodromous in this system all secondary veins and branching ends at the margin of the blade leaflets, this found in all species. But there are clear differences in the Areoles shape and type of vienlets and at the ends, where these characters taxonomic and diagnostic value of the task in the species under study.

  15. Harinas de leguminosas deshidratadas: Caracterización nutricional y valoración de sus propiedades tecno-funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Esta Tesis Doctoral no hubiese sido posible sin la financiación del proyecto de investigación CAL03-042 “Valoración de propiedades funcionales en materias primas vegetales, base de productos dietéticos, seguridad en su proceso de elaboración” del Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología, enmarcado en las Acciones Estratégicas del Programa Nacional de Alimentación.

  16. Las interacciones aire/suelo/plantas-líquenes/leguminosas-rhizobium del mercurio en áreas contaminadas

    OpenAIRE

    López Berdonces, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    El mercurio como contaminante global afecta a todos los compartimentos ambientales. Su interrelación con la biota es de gran interés puesto que, un mejor conocimiento de ello puede poner remedio a situaciones potencialmente peligrosas, relacionadas con la actividad del hombre o debidas, simplemente, a causas naturales. Se deben diferenciar las fuentes de emisión de mercurio para poder evaluar su dispersión y evaluar el riesgo o peligro. Así se diferencian fuentes de emisiones antrópicas y nat...

  17. Composição florística do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Floristic survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Serra da Capoeira Grande Environmental Protection Area, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º59'03"S e 43º38'59"W tem área total de 80ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. no município do Rio de Janeiro. Além disso, ocorrem na área outras três espécies ameaçadas de extinção: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng. e Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. O levantamento fitossociológico foi realizado por meio do método dos quadrantes, tendo sido alocados 200 pontos e tendo-se como critério de inclusão 15cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30m de altura do solo. A composição florística é o resultado desta amostragem acrescida de coletas feitas durante caminhadas no fragmento, totalizando 29 famílias, 58 gêneros e 69 espécies. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de espécies foram: Leguminosae (13, Myrtaceae (6, Euphorbiaceae (5, Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Celastraceae, Flacourtiaceae, Moraceae, Rubiaceae e Solanaceae (3. Analisando a similaridade florística entre a APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande e outras 18 áreas florestais do Rio de Janeiro, observou-se maior identidade florística entre a área estudada e florestas de baixada localizadas próximas ao mar. Todas as florestas reuniram-se com um baixo nível de similaridade, refletindo a diversidade florística das florestas do Rio de Janeiro.The 80-hectare site (22º59'03"S and 43º38'59"W, is one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality, where brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. occurs naturally. Furthermore, three other endangered species occur in this area: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng., and Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH >15cm; a total of 200 points were surveyed. The floristic composition was comprised of the sampled

  18. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder-Numan, Jeannette

    1999-01-01

    After his work on the Neotropical species of Caesalpinia (Lewis, 1994; PhD thesis) Lewis was able to recognise broad morphological groups within Caesalpinia s.l. He carried out a preliminary cladistic analysis to show the evolutionary relationships within this complex group (Lewis & Schrire, 1995).

  19. Aspectos biológicos y control de un gracilláriido (Gracillariidae: Lepidóptera en Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. Kuntze (1898, en Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se tuvo por objetivo determinar aspectos biológicos, identificar enemigos naturales, y establecer periodos oportunos de control de un gracillariido plaga de tara. Los aspectos biológicos y los enemigos naturales se evaluaron en campo y en laboratorio, los periodos oportunos de control se determinó por interacción hospedero - plaga. Los resultados, el huevo dura 7,8 días y mide 0,34x0,21mm; la larva presenta 4 instares y dura 35,7 días, variando de medidas entre 1 o y 4 o instar de 0,09 a 0,65 mm de diámetro de encéfalo ; la pupa dura 14,3 días y mide 6,7mmx1,1mm ; el adulto dura 7,5 días y mide 13,43 mm de expansión alar. Presenta enemigos naturales, familias Encyrtidae, Ichneumonidae, y géneros Chelonus sp., Chrysoperla sp., Hemerobius sp., Cicloneda sp . , Hipodamia sp., y Zelus spp. Las mejores épocas de control ocurren cuando la fenología de la tara est á entre R3.1 a R4 y R3.3 a R6.

  20. Germinación, dispersión y establecimiento de plántulas de Mimosa tenuiflora (Leguminosae) en México

    OpenAIRE

    Sara L. Camargo-Ricalde; Rosaura Grether

    1998-01-01

    Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. es un recurso natural importante para México debido a sus diversos usos. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se había estudiado la germinación, la dispersión y el establecimiento de plántulas de esta especie. Se recolectaron frutos y semillas de esta planta en el estado de Chiapas, México (S. L. Camargo et al. 118, UAMIZ). Las pruebas de germinación se hicieron después de cuatro años de almacenamiento; se sembraron en total 1 935 semillas en cajas de Petri con papel f...