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Sample records for caesalpinia peltophoroides leguminosae

  1. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) seeds Estudo histoquímico e ultraestrutural de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae)

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    Viviana Borges Corte; Marília Contin Ventrella; Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges; Claudia Aparecida Pontes; Daniel Pinho

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to correlate data on light microscopy observations through histochemical analysis and polarized light techniques and investigations in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the reserve materials in C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) cotyledons, popularly known as "sibipiruna", a tropical tree species with wide distribution in Brazil. The cotyledon mesophyll, especially in the abaxial face, is rich in unsaturated neutral lipid...

  2. Caracterização de alfagalactosidase e sua relação com a germinação das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae Alphagalactosidase characterization and its relationship with seed germination of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Legumonosae Caesalpinioideae

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    Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae - sibipiruna - foram colocadas para embebição por 144 h, sendo retiradas amostras para análise de proteína, quantificações da atividade de alfagalactosidase e de açúcares presentes na micrópila. A germinação iniciou-se com 96 h de embebição, sem que fossem detectadas modificações na parede celular da micrópila. Nesta, observou-se maior proporção de arabinose, que mostrou tendência de aumento com o decorrer da embebição. A atividade específica da alfagalactosidase foi detectada em sementes secas, tanto no eixo embrionário quanto nos cotilédones, aumentando no primeiro a partir de 24 h de embebição. O aumento da atividade nos cotilédones foi mais lento, sendo mais acentuado a partir de 120 h de embebição. O teor de proteína decresceu continuamente no eixo embrionário a partir de 24 horas de embebição, enquanto se manteve estável nos cotilédones. A atividade da alfagalactosidase foi máxima nas temperaturas de 55 e 50 ºC para o eixo embrionário e para os cotilédones, respectivamente. O pH que mais estimulou a atividade da enzima foi na faixa de 5,5 a 6,0 para o eixo embrionário e na de 4,5 a 5,0 para os cotilédones. As alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário e dos cotilédones foram inibidas por SDS, CuSO4, galactose e melibiose. Não houve efeito estimulante sobre a atividade da alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário por nenhum dos efetores, enquanto o mercaptoetanol estimulou a atividade da enzima dos cotilédones. Os K M para o substrato ro-NPGal para a alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário e dos cotilédones foram de 1,74 e 2,64 mM, respectivamente.Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae seeds were soaked in water for 144 hours. Samples were taken for protein analysis, quantification of alphagalactosidase activity and micropyle sugar composition. Germination began after 96 hours of imbibition, with no modifications in

  3. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  4. Development of a UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for analysis of total polyphenols from Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth

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    Fernanda G. Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia peltophoroides is a domesticated tree found in Brazil. It was necessary to develop an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP in this herbal drug. The pre-analytical method was standardized for analysis time, wavelength, and the best standard to use. The optimum conditions were: pyrogallol, 760 nm, and 30 min respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved to be reliable for TP of the crude extract and semipurified fractions from C. peltophoroides. Standardization is required for every herbal drug, and this method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform.

  5. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental

  6. Influência da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna

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    Pontes Claudia Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento na porcentagem de germinação e no vigor das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna, por meio de testes fisiológicos. O teor de água aumentou nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e reduziu naquelas a 20 degreesC. A porcentagem de germinação das sementes mantidas a 5 e 20 degreesC apresentou redução aos 220 e 120 dias, respectivamente. O índice de velocidade de germinação decresceu de maneira similar. A condutividade elétrica não foi alterada nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e aumentou nas que permaneceram a 20 degreesC. O envelhecimento acelerado nos períodos de 24, 48 e 72 horas detectou redução significativa na qualidade das sementes em ambos os ambientes de armazenamento. A redução da porcentagem de germinação e do vigor foi maior nas sementes armazenadas a 20 degreesC.

  7. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.

  8. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

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    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  9. Efeito da temperatura e do substrato na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effect of temperature and substrate on seed germination of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

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    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical que ocorre na região amazônica, sendo muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbanos. Para viabilizar a produção de mudas, determinaram-se a melhor temperatura e o melhor substrato para a germinação das sementes. Sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram teor médio de água de 7,46%, porcentagem de germinação de 3,33% e baixo ganho de água durante a embebição, mostrando dormência tegumentar. A escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 40 foi um método eficiente para superação da dormência, comprovado pela alta porcentagem de germinação e embebição de água em sementes escarificadas. A porcentagem de germinação dessas sementes foi influenciada pela temperatura, mas não pelo substrato. Com base no tempo médio de germinação, recomenda-se a temperatura de 30 ºC e areia como substrato para germinação mais rápida de sementes escarificadas.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. is a tropical legume tree occurring in the Amazon region, commonly used as medicine plant and in urban landscaping. To make seedling production feasible the best temperature and substrate for seed germination were determined. Recently harvested seeds present 7.46% mean moisture content, 3.33% germination percentage and lower moisture gain during soaking, showing tegument dormancy. Mechanical scarification with 40 grit sandpaper was proven an efficient method to overcome the dormancy, resulting in higher germination percentage and water imbibition in scarified seeds. The germination percentage of scarified seeds was influenced by temperature, but not by substrate. Based on the mean germination time, it is recommended the temperature of 30ºC and sand like substrate for faster germination of scarified seeds.

  10. Efeitos da luminosidade no crescimento de mudas de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effects of luminosity on the growth seedlings of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

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    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea é uma espécie muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbano no estado do Amapá. Entretanto, informações ecofisiológicas a seu respeito são escassas. A luz é um importante fator ambiental que controla processos associados ao acúmulo de matéria seca, contribuindo assim para o crescimento vegetal. Diante disso, estudou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de luminosidade sobre o crescimento de mudas desta espécie. Para tal, plântulas foram repicadas para sacos plásticos contendo mistura de solo e areia (2:1, sendo mantidas a pleno sol, sob sombreamento artificial com redução de 50% e 70% da luminosidade e sob sombreamento natural de um dossel fechado de floresta. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Mudas submetidas ao sombreamento natural tiveram seu crescimento fortemente inibido. A pleno sol, as mudas apresentaram maiores taxas assimilatórias líquida (TAL, menor razão parte aérea/raiz (RPAR e menor razão de área foliar (RAF. Verificou-se pouca diferença no crescimento e alocação de biomassa entre mudas mantidas sob 50 e 70% de sombreamento, sendo que as mudas desses tratamentos atingiram valores mais altos de RPAR e RAF. Isto indica existência de plasticidade, o que reflete no aumento potencial da captura de luz, importante para manter o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em baixa luminosidade. Em conjunto, os resultados mostraram ajustamento morfológico e fisiológico aos diferentes níveis de luminosidade em Caesalpinia ferrea.Caesalpinia ferrea is a species used a lot as a medicinal plant, for urban arborization and landscape design in the state of Amapa. Yet there is not much ecophysiological information available on it. Light is an important environment factor that controls processes associates with the accumulation of dry matter, contributing thus for plant growth. The object of this research was to study the effect of

  11. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

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    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Euphorbia hirta and Asystasia gangeticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, M; Rao, Ch V; Rao, P M; Raju, D B; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2006-07-01

    The ethanolic extracts of the dry fruits of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta and flowers of Asystasia gangeticum were tested for antimicrobial activity. The three plants exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly against Escherichia coli (enteropathogen), Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:16730921

  13. Brazilin from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood and its pharmacological activities:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nilesh; P; Nirmal; Mithun; S; Rajput; Rangabhatla; G.S.V.Prasad; Mehraj; Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L.(CS) is a plant of Leguminosae family,commonly known as Brazil or Sappan wood.CS is distributed in Southeast Asia and its dried heartwood has been used as traditional ingredient of food or beverages and has a wide variety of medicinal properties.Higher extraction yield of CS wood was achieved with 95% ethanol for 2 h.Chemical constituent’s investigation of sappan wood resulled in the isolation of various structural types of phenolic components including one xanihone,one coumarin,three chalcones,two flavones three homoisoflavonoids and brazilin.Brazilin[(6a S-cis)-7,11b-dihydrobcnz[b]indeno[1.2-d]pyran-3.6a.9.10(6H)- tetroll.a major and active compound found in CS heartwood.Most of the folkloric uses of brazilin were validated by the scientific studies such as antioxidant,antibacterial,anti-inflammatory,anti-photoaging.hypoglycemic,vasorelaxant,hepatoproteetive and anti-acne activity.CS heartwood extract is safe and did not produce any acute or subacute toxicity in both male and female rats.Brazilin is the safe natural compound having potential to develop as a medicinal compound with application in food,beverage,cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries to screen its clinical use in modern medicine.The information gained could provide the important and potential approach for pharmaceutical researcher to implicate the knowledge of brazilin in the formulation of new drug and to reveal therapeutic and gaps requiring future research opportunities.More studies are needed to evaluate the potential application of brazilin as preservative and coloring agent in food processing industries.

  14. Brazilin from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood and its pharmacological activities:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nilesh P Nirmal; Mithun S Rajput; Rangabhatla GSV Prasad; Mehraj Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (CS) is a plant of Leguminosae family, commonly known as Brazil or Sappan wood. CS is distributed in Southeast Asia and its dried heartwood has been used as traditional ingredient of food or beverages and has a wide variety of medicinal properties. Higher extraction yield of CS wood was achieved with 95% ethanol for 2 h. Chemical constituent’s investigation of sappan wood resulted in the isolation of various structural types of phenolic components including one xanthone, one coumarin, three chalcones, two flavones three homoisoflavonoids and brazilin. Brazilin [(6a S-cis)-7, 11b-dihydrobenz[b]indeno[1,2-d] pyran-3,6a,9,10(6H)-tetrol], a major and active compound found in CS heartwood. Most of the folkloric uses of brazilin were validated by the scientific studies such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-photoaging, hypoglycemic, vasorelaxant, hepatoprotective and anti-acne activity. CS heartwood extract is safe and did not produce any acute or subacute toxicity in both male and female rats. Brazilin is the safe natural compound having potential to develop as a medicinal compound with application in food, beverage, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries to screen its clinical use in modern medicine. The information gained could provide the important and potential approach for pharmaceutical researcher to implicate the knowledge of brazilin in the formulation of new drug and to reveal therapeutic and gaps requiring future research opportunities. More studies are needed to evaluate the potential application of brazilin as preservative and coloring agent in food processing industries.

  15. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties of Caesalpinia Echinata Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Gomes, Elisangela Christhianne Barbosa; Jimenez, George Chaves; da Silva, Luis Claudio Nascimento; Sá, Fabrício Bezerra; de Souza, Karen Pena Cavalcanti; Paiva, Gerson S.; de Souza, Ivone Antônia

    2014-01-01

    Natural products contain important combinations of ingredients, which may to some extent help to modulate the effects produced by oxidation substrates in biological systems. It is known that substances capable of modulating the action of these oxidants on tissue may be important allies in the control of neovascularization in pathological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties of an ethanol extract of Caesalpinia echinata. The evaluation ...

  17. KARAKTERISASI DAN UJI ANTIOSTEOPOROSIS EKSTRAK KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan)

    OpenAIRE

    Rifai, Yusnita; Subehan; Mufidah

    2008-01-01

    Abstrak, Standarisasi dan karakterisasi bahan obat dari bahan alam sangat penting untuk mendapatkan obat yang berkhasiat secara berkelanjutan dengan mutu yang terjamin. Salah satu bahan obat tradisional yang banyak digunakan adalah Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.). Karakterisasi dilakukan terhadap tiga jenis ekstrak yang diperoleh dengan penyari n-heksan, metanol dan etanol 70%. Metode karakterisasi yang digunakan adalah secara spektrofotometer UV-Vis, FT-IR, TLC Scanner, dan KCKT. Analisis ren...

  18. Adiciones a las leguminosas de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nuevas para la flora de Colombia, y de especial interés para el conocimiento de nuestras Leguminosas, son las especies colectadas recientemente que voy a reseñar. La sigla HNC se refiere a ejemplares que se conservan en el Herbario Nacional Colombiano, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Bogotá.

  19. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

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    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  20. ISOLATION OF TANNINS FROM CAESALPINIA CORIARIA AND EFFECT OF PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nallabilli Lokeswari; Peela Sujatha

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the present work is the study of the influence of particle size temperature, methanol content and time on the extraction of tannins from caesalpinia coriaria by pressure autoclaving method. The determination of these tannins by spectrophotometry, after extraction, enabled us to establish the qualitative and quantitative evolution of this component and the effect of each extraction conditions on the total tannins from caesalpinia coriaria. Under the extraction conditions examine...

  1. Constituyentes de Cassia corymbosa Larn. (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    López de Ruiz, Rosa Evelia; Fusco, María del Rosario; Ruiz, Sohar Osvaldo

    1992-01-01

    Cassia corymbosa Lam. (Leguminosae) es una especie vegetal ampliamente usada en la medicina popular como catártico, en tanto que a las hojas se le atribuyen propiedades emolientes, siendo usadas las mismas en cataplasmas. Del extracto alcohólico se han aislado dos antraquinonas con propiedades purgantes: el crisofanol y la aloemodina. En el mismo extracto se constata la presencia de dos flavonoides: la penduletina y la quercetina

  2. Taxonomic Revision of Daniellia (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella, Manuel de la; Aedo, Carlos; Mackinder, Barbara; Velayos, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    [EN] Daniellia (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a genus of ten species of medium to large trees from tropical and subtropical Africa. In contrast to earlier accounts, D. mortehanii is treated here as a synonym of D. pynaertii , and D. oblonga , which previously has been treated by some authors as a synonym of D. thurifera , is accepted. In addition, we describe as new Daniellia glandulosa . Quantitative characters such as receptacle length, petiole width, sepal length, and largest leaflet l...

  3. Pollination Ecology of Caesalpinia crista (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShi-Jint; ZHANGDian-Xiang; LILin; CHENZhong-Yi

    2004-01-01

    The flowering phenology, pollination ecology and breeding system of Caesa/pinia crista L.were studied in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Guangdong, China. The species started blooming in Februaryor March, then last till late April. It took about one week from first flower appearance to its full blooming,which lasted for 2-4 d. The pollen-ovule ratio was 18 000~500. The breeding system was self-incompatible,and protogynous xenogamy. Hymenoptera constituted the major group of pollinators. The pollination typeis ambophily, the species could be pollinated by wind if the pollinators were unavailable: this is the firstrecord of ambophily in the genus Caesalpinia. The floral structure adaptation to the pollinating behavior ofcarpenter bees was described. The influences of artificial treatments in pollination biological studies onthe flowering and fruiting of the plants were also discussed.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  5. Two New Phenolic Compounds from the Heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Bo Zhao; Jun Li; She-Po Shi; Chen-Qiu Cai; Peng-Fei Tu; Li Tang; Ke-Wu Zeng; Yong Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Two new phenolic compounds, epicaesalpin J and 7,10,11-trihydroxydracaenone, were isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis methods, such as 1D and 2D NMR, along with the high resolution mass spectral data. The NO inhibition activities of two new compounds and six known compounds were tested.

  6. Gelatine-based antioxidant packaging containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a coating for ground beef patties

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Iradi, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H.; Segovia Gómez, Francisco José; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  7. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Gallego; Gordon, Michael H.; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  8. Phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) based on duplicated copies of the sucrose synthase gene and plastid markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla, Vincent; Bruneau, Anne

    2012-10-01

    The Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) forms a morphologically and ecologically diverse group of mostly tropical tree species with a complex evolutionary history. This grade comprises several distinct lineages, but the exact delimitation of the group relative to subfamily Mimosoideae and other members of subfamily Caesalpinioideae, as well as phylogenetic relationships among the lineages are uncertain. With the aim of better resolving phylogenetic relationships within the Caesalpinieae grade, we investigated the utility of several nuclear markers developed from genomic studies in the Papilionoideae. We cloned and sequenced the low copy nuclear gene sucrose synthase (SUSY) and combined the data with plastid trnL and matK sequences. SUSY has two paralogs in the Caesalpinieae grade and in the Mimosoideae, but occurs as a single copy in all other legumes tested. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses suggest the two nuclear markers are congruent with plastid DNA data. The Caesalpinieae grade is divided into four well-supported clades (Cassia, Caesalpinia, Tachigali and Peltophorum clades), a poorly supported clade of Dimorphandra Group genera, and two paraphyletic groups, one with other Dimorphandra Group genera and the other comprising genera previously recognized as the Umtiza clade. A selection analysis of the paralogs, using selection models from PAML, suggests that SUSY genes are subjected to a purifying selection. One of the SUSY paralogs, under slightly stronger positive selection, may be undergoing subfunctionalization. The low copy SUSY gene is useful for phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae despite the presence of duplicate copies. This study confirms that the Caesalpinieae grade is an artificial group, and highlights the need for further analyses of lineages at the base of the Mimosoideae. PMID:22699157

  9. (Psidium guajava mediante el uso de coberturas vivas de leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Negrín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la influencia del uso de coberturas de leguminosas (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet y Neonotonia wightii AM. Lackey en el control de arvenses en plantaciones de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. var. Enana, en un clima tropical, se realizó un estudio en un frutal de seis meses de edad, plantado a una densidad de 6 m x 2 m, en un suelo ferralítico rojo, con pH de 5.7 y un contenido de P2O5 y K2O de 0.76 y 21.53 mg100g-1, respectivamente. Se utilizó un diseño de bloque al azar con cuatro tratamientos (cobertura natural, suelo desnudo y coberturas de ambas leguminosas y cuatro réplicas. Cada parcela tuvo un área de 80 m2 y estuvo conformada por las franjas aledañas a las plantas del frutal evaluadas. Las leguminosas se sembraron, en línea, a una densidad de 6 kg ha-1, para lo cual se utilizó el método de laboreo mínimo. Se obtuvo una reducción significativa (P<0,001 en la cantidad de malezas en los tratamientos con leguminosas y donde se aplicó herbicida, con relación a la cobertura natural. Las leguminosas redujeron, especialmente, el número de plantas y de especies pertenecientes a la clase dicotiledó Ojenea. La producción de biomasa de las arvenses resultó significativamente superior (P<0,05 en la cobertura natural, mientras la de leguminosas y la biomasa total fueron mayores en el tratamiento de L. Purpureus. Se recomienda evaluar el efecto de los diferentes tratamientos sobre el suelo y la plantas de guayaba.

  10. Purificação parcial de inibidores de tripsina de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea e Swartzia polyphylla e o efeito dos extratos protéicos sobre fungos fitopatogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bariani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de leguminosas apresentam alta concentração de inibidores de tripsina; estas proteínas estão envolvidas no metabolismo celular e também em mecanismos de defesa vegetal. A fim de confirmar ou não, a possível ação fungicida destas proteínas a partir de extratos de sementes de leguminosas arbóreas, o objetivo deste estudo foi detectar inibidores de tripsina em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea (CfTI e Swartzia polyphylla (SpTI e testar os extratos contra os fungos fitopatogênicos Colletotrichum guaranicola, Corynespora cassiicola, Fusarium oxysporum e Sclerotium rolfsii, avaliando o crescimento micelial e a esporulação. Para tanto, amostras do material biológico vegetal, sementes finamente pulverizadas, foram submetidas à extração em NaCl 150 mM. Os extratos protéicos foram parcialmente purificados em coluna Sephadex G-100, submetidos à detecção dos inibidores e SDS-PAGE (12,5% e, utilizados nos bioensaios contra os fungos. O perfil eletroforético revelou uma única banda em CfTI e oito bandas em SpTI. Os extratos de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla exibiram efeito na diminuição da esporulação dos fungos testados, mas S. rolfsii foi inibido apenas por C. ferrea. Quanto ao crescimento micelial, os dois extratos tiveram efeito sobre F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii, ao passo que C. guaranicola foi inibido apenas por S. polyphylla, e C. cassiicola por C. ferrea. Concluiu-se que sementes de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla apresentam inibidores de tripsina. Além disso, os resultados sugerem que estas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas são promissoras no que concerne à prospecção de fungicidas naturais, uma vez que os extratos diminuíram o crescimento micelial e a esporulação de C. guaranicola, C. cassiicola, F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii.

  11. Produtividade de sistemas forrageiros consorciados com leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Diehl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar três sistemas forrageiros (SF com capim elefante (CE + azevém (AZ + espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE; CE + AZ + ECE + amendoim forrageiro (AM; e CE + AZ + ECE + trevo vermelho (TV, usando-se a mesma área, sob pastejo rotacionado, no decorrer do ano agrícola. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4m. No período hibernal, fez-se o estabelecimento do AZ entre as linhas do CE; o TV foi semeado e o AM foi preservado, considerando-se os respectivos SF. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com três tratamentos (SF, duas repetições (piquetes e avaliações independentes (ciclos de pastejos. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, que receberam suplementação alimentar com concentrado à razão de 1% do peso corporal/dia. Foram avaliados a massa de forragem, os componentes botânicos do pasto e estruturais do CE e a taxa de lotação. Durante o período experimental, foram efetuados oito ciclos de pastejo. Sistemas forrageiros que envolvem gramíneas e leguminosas de diferentes ciclos proporcionam a utilização da área durante todo o ano agrícola em pastejo rotativo com bovinos leiteiros. Considerando-se a predominância das avaliações em cada pastejo, os sistemas forrageiros consorciados apresentam melhor resultado tanto paras as variáveis de massa de forragem quanto para a taxa de lotação.

  12. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  13. Cassane diterpenes with oxygen bridge from the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xudong; Yuan, Jingquan; Zhou, Xingyang; Li, Weiping; Zhu, Nailiang; Wu, Haifeng; Li, Pengfei; Sun, Zhonghao; Yang, Junshan; Ma, Guoxu

    2016-07-01

    The seeds of the medicinal plant Caesalpinia sappan yielded fourteen cassane-type diterpenes, including six new rearranged ones named as caesalppans A-F (1-6). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The isolated new compounds 1-6 possess lactone-type cassane diterpenoid skeleton with an oxygen bridge between C-19 and C-20, and were tested cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines using the MTT method. PMID:27316975

  14. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

    OpenAIRE

    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes; Camila Machado; Thiago Vaz Lopes; Nilton Cunha Filho; Paulo Ribeiro Bretanha; Sandro Schons; Samuel Rodrigues Félix; Márcia de Oliveira Nobre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent ...

  15. Phytochemical, Anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhia. K. G; Bindu. A. R

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia bonduc possess anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic properties. The present study investigated anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer studies of stem bark of C.bonduc. The in vitro antiinflammatory study of different extracts were done by Protein denaturation method. The total ethanolic extract of stem bark of C.bonduc was investigated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan induced rat paw oedema) at the doses 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in male W...

  16. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  17. Melanogenesis Inhibition by Homoisoflavavone Sappanone A from Caesalpinia sappan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiou-Yu Ding

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Homoisoflavanone, sappanone A, was isolated from Caesalpinia sappan and proven to dose-dependently inhibit both melanogenesis and cellular tyrosinase activity via repressing tyrosinase gene expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells. To our knowledge, sappanone A is the first homoisoflavanone to be discovered with melanogenesis inhibitory activity. Our results give a new impetus to the future search for other homoisoflavanone melanogenesis inhibitors.

  18. A detailed investigation of the Pterocarpus clade (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Bente B.; Forest, Félix; Booth, Thomas J.; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris

    2013-01-01

    The pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Dalbergieae) with papilionoid flowers, and allied genera in the Pterocarpus clade were sampled for the five molecular markers ITS2, trnL-F, ndhF-rpL32, matK, and rbcL, as part of our ongoing systematic studies in the clade. For wider analyses of the...

  19. El registro de maderas fósiles de Leguminosae de Sudamérica The fossil wood record of Leguminosae from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto R Pujana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La familia Leguminosae posee un extenso registro de maderas fósiles en todo el mundo. En Sudamérica se reconocen 56 registros afines a la familia. Se enlistan todos los registros conocidos y se incluyen algunos datos inéditos. La familia Leguminosae es la de mayor diversidad paleoxilológica de Sudamérica. La misma posee un extenso registro paleoxilológico temporal, desde el Paleoceno hasta el Pleistoceno, y geográfico, desde Patagonia hasta el norte de Colombia.The Leguminosae has an extensive fossil wood record worldwide. In South America 56 records with affinity to Leguminosae were counted. Each record is analyzed and unpublished data is also included. The Leguminosae is the most palaeoxylological diverse family of South America. It has an extensive temporal record, from the Palaeocene to the Pleistocene, and a broad geographical span, from Patagonia to north Colombia.

  20. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean... impaired as a result of primary infection. (B) Albino. (e) Alfalfa, alyceclover, Florida beggarweed,...

  1. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Sunarno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG & OHASHI, HIROSHI. 2002. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula. Reinwardtia 12(1: 117–119. ⎯ A new species, Dalbergia johoriensis from the Malay Peninsula is described. It is close to D. rostrata and D. havilandii but readily distinguished by the grooved midrib beneath, flowers with narrower standard and wings and style hairy in the lower part.

  2. RECUENTOS CROMOSOMICOS EN HEDYSAREAE (LEGUMINOSAE-PAPILIONOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vanni

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El número de cromosomas de las trece especies de Hedysareae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae se presentan por primera vez, en relación con los siguientes géneros: Aeschynomene, Chaetocalyx, Discolobium, Poiretia, Zornia, Desmodium y Ornithopus. Las confirmaciones de los cargos anteriores se incluyen como una especie de Aeschynomene, Stylosanthes y Desmodium.

  3. RECUENTOS CROMOSOMICOS EN HEDYSAREAE (LEGUMINOSAE-PAPILIONOIDEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Vanni

    2010-01-01

    El número de cromosomas de las trece especies de Hedysareae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) se presentan por primera vez, en relación con los siguientes géneros: Aeschynomene, Chaetocalyx, Discolobium, Poiretia, Zornia, Desmodium y Ornithopus. Las confirmaciones de los cargos anteriores se incluyen como una especie de Aeschynomene, Stylosanthes y Desmodium.

  4. Characterization of diterpenoids from Caesalpinia decapetala and their anti-TMV activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Cao, Xiangrong; Liu, Feng; Ma, Jun; Liu, Xingyu; Tong, Ling; Su, Guochen; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Lee, Dongho; Wang, Lizhong; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2016-09-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala is a versatile medicinal plant belonging to the Fabaceae plant family. In our survey on plant secondary metabolites to obtain bioactive substances for the development of new agricultural anti-TMV agents, the chemical constituents of C. decapetala were investigated. This investigation led to the isolation of three new and ten known diterpenoids. Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated based on the extensive NMR spectroscopic data analyses and the time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The following biological screenings revealed that most of these diterpenoids possessed anti-TMV activities. PMID:27491755

  5. [Seeds germination of Caesalpinia paraguariensis (Fabaceae): scarificator agents and cattle effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Baes, P; de Viana, M L; Larenas, G; Saravia, M

    2001-03-01

    The tree Caesalpinia paraguariensis grows in the Chaco region, Argentina. Fruits are indehiscent with many seeds. This species is an important source of wood and the fruits are consumed by cattle in Salta province. We studied seed germination under chemical, mechanical and biological scarification. Seeds from controls (without scarification) and those with biological scarification had a smaller (and similar) germination rate. The non-germinated seeds from biological treatments were mechanically scarified and their germination rate was similar to others under the mechanical treatment. Passage by digestive tracts would not enhance germination because viable seeds are still dormant due to their hard coats. PMID:11795158

  6. Germinação e crescimento de Caesalpinia ferrea mart. Ex tul. Em diferentes substratos

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana de Paula Quintao Scalon; Tiara Kesli Conticelli Teodósio; José Oscar Novelino; Camila Kissmann; Leandro Henrique de Sousa Mota

    2011-01-01

    A produção de mudas de espécies nativas para plantios comerciais e para recuperação de áreas degradadas faz com que haja grande procura por tecnologia que reduza os custos de estabelecimento dessas espécies, como substratos alternativos. Com o objetivo de proporcionar melhor emergência e crescimento inicial das plantas de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul., foram testados diferentes substratos, utilizando-se Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, textura argilosa - T, misturado com areia - A (0,5 dm...

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  8. Multiple Suppressive Effects of a Protein from Caesalpinia minax on Murine Melanoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭亚; 谢莉萍; 张勇; 王洪钟; 李重华; 陈朝银; 张荣庆

    2002-01-01

    Caesalpinia minax has a long history of use as a Chinese traditional herb medicine in Yunnan Province, China, for the treatment of skin-related diseases. A potent melanoma inhibitor, purified from the seeds of C. minax and termed Caesalpinia minax protein (CMP), is a protein with a relative molecular mass of 19.8×103. Experiments were conducted to assay the inhibitive effects of CMP on the proliferation, migration, and adhesion of murine melanoma cell line K1735M2. The results showed that cell proliferation was suppressed by about 60% with treatment of 22 μg/mL CMP. Furthermore, the migration of K1735M2 cells was inhibited by 30% in the presence of 22 μg/mL CMP. The results also demonstrated that the inhibitive effect of CMP on the migration was dose-dependent. Although low-doses of CMP had no obvious inhibitive effect on the adhesion of K1735M2, 22 μg/mL CMP inhibited the adhesion of K1735M2 by 50%. These results suggest that CMP might be a potential medicine for melanoma therapy.

  9. A new steroidal compound (β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl isolated from Caesalpinia gilliesii flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mohamed Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of total extracts from leaves, flowers and pods of Caesalpinia gilliesii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinoideae. In addition, a detailed phytochemical investigation of flower extracts was carried out to isolate and elucidate the structures of the bioactive compounds. Flower extract was the most cytotoxic against MCF7 and HepG2 cancer cells with IC50 values of 10 and 15.6 µg/mL, respectively. A new β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was isolated from dichloromethane fraction of flowers together with another known sterol (daucosterol, and two flavonoids (isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnoside. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was the most active compound against both HepG2 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 13.1 and 14.4 µg/mL, respectively. Isorhamnetin possesses a moderate antioxidant activity with an IC50 value 370 µg/mL as determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay.Industrial relevance. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl and the other phytosterols are responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extracts which would correlate with the known abortifacient, antimalarial and anthelmintic properties, which can provide a cheap alternative drug.Keywords. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant; Caesalpinia gilliesii; β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl; daucosterol; isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside

  10. Produtividade da cana-de-açúcar após o cultivo de leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    Edmilson José Ambrosano; Heitor Cantarella; Gláucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano; Eliana Aparecida Schammas; Fábio Luis Ferreira Dias; Fabrício Rossi; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin; Takashi Muraoka; Raquel Castellucci Caruso Sachs; Rozario Azcón

    2011-01-01

    Estudou-se o efeito do cultivo prévio de leguminosas sobre a produtividade e lucratividade da cana-de-açúcar. Foram determinados a produtividade de biomassa, o acúmulo de nutrientes das leguminosas, a ocorrência natural de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, bem como o efeito das leguminosas sobre a população de nematoides do gênero Pratylenchus à cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Piracicaba (SP), Brasil, em solo classificado como Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, utilizand...

  11. Stimulating the production of homoisoflavonoids in cell suspension cultures of Caesalpinia pulcherrima using cork tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Iwamoto, Yuko; Kouno, Isao; Egami, Yasukuni; Yamamoto, Hirobumi

    2004-09-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that cork tissue increases the efficiency of the production of lipophilic secondary metabolites in diverse plant cell suspension cultures. In the present study, three new homoisoflavonoids--named dihydrobonducellin, 2'-methoxydihydrobonducellin, and 2'-methoxybonducellin--and bonducellin and isobonducellin were isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima cultured cells coincubated with cork tissue. Cork tissue increased the production of 2'-methoxybonducellin by about 7-fold relative to control cells, and more than 80% of the product was recoverable from the cork tissue. When cork tissue and methyl jasmonate or yeast extract were added simultaneously to the medium, the amount of 2'-methoxybonducellin produced increased further. The production of the other four homoisoflavonoids was enhanced by variable amounts. Our results indicate that the addition of cork tissue would be an effective technique for investigating formation of secondary metabolites that usually accumulate only in trace amounts. PMID:15381409

  12. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

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    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  13. Screening of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn Flowers for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

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    S S Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were extracted with methanol to determine their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Intraperitoneal administration of methanolic extract (75, 150 and 225 mg/kg produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test and hot plate tests and anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in experimental animals. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the side effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicines have less side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against pain and inflammation.

  14. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food. PMID:27043638

  15. Maturação de frutos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., pau-brasil Maturation of fruits of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brasil wood

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se parâmetros indicativos da maturação de frutos de árvores de Caesalpinia echinata, visando determinar a melhor época de colheita para propagação. Foram utilizadas 10 plantas-matriz cultivadas em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, nas quais foram etiquetadas 250 inflorescências no pico da floração para acompanhamento da maturação. As coletas de frutos tiveram início a partir da 5ª semana após a antese, prolongando-se até a 9ª, com intervalos de sete dias. Em cada coleta, analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento, largura e teor de água dos frutos; teor de água das sementes (após três dias de exposição ao sol para deiscência do fruto e extração da semente; porcentagem de germinação e peso de matéria seca de frutos, sementes e plântulas. Observou-se, ainda, a coloração dos frutos como parâmetro visual de maturação das sementes. O experimento foi repetido por três anos. Os testes de germinação foram realizados em caixas Gerbox contendo vermiculita umedecida com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara regulada para 30 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, nos anos de 1991, 1992 e 1993. As leituras de germinação foram realizadas nos 4º e 8º dias após a semeadura. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que o momento ideal para coleta dos frutos de C. echinata é no estádio de pré-dispersão (entre a 8º e 9º após a antese visualizado através da coloração, quando estes mudam de verde para castanho.Several indicative parameters regarding fruit maturity of Caesalpinia echinata were studied in order to establish the ideal harvest time. Ten matrix plants were cultivated in Moji-Guaçu, SP (22°11' to 1022°18' S and 47°13' to 47°20' WG, altitude between 600m and 730m. The climate of the region is classified as Cwa. Two hundred and fifty blossoms were tagged during the the peak

  16. Nuevo subgénero de Ateleia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Swartzieae) de México A new subgenus of Ateleia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae: Swartzieae) from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    José L. Linares; Mario Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Se describe Ruddia J. Linares et M. Sousa, nuevo subgénero de Ateleia (Leguminosae:Papilionoideae) endémico de México. Se redescriben las especies del nuevo subgénero, se discute su ubicación taxonómica y su relación con Cyathostegia y se ilustra Ateleia arsenii Standl., una de las especies del nuevo subgénero.Ruddia J. Linares et M. Sousa, a new Mexican endemic subgenus of Ateleia (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) is described, and the species of the new subgenus are redescribed. Its taxonomic p...

  17. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  18. Bioefficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts against tobacco cutworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backiyaraj Muthusamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plant, Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella at different concentrations against Lepidopteran agricultural field pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied using leaf disc nochoice method and oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities were also assessed by adapting the standard protocols. Results: The antifeedant activity of C. bonducella showed significant antifeedant activity in methanol extract. Oviposition deterrency is higher in methanol extract than the other solvent extracts. Similarly, maximum egg mortality was observed in methanol leaf extract of C. bonducella Lethal concentration, LC50 value of benzene, diethylether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. bonducella were 470.02, 469.00, 465.47, 460.52 and 443.87 mg/L respectively. The Chi-square values are significant at P< 0.05 level. Among five solvent extracts, the methanol extract was responsible for strong lethal activity observed against selected pest species. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. bonducella could be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal agent against the field pest Helicoverpa armigera.

  19. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

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    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  20. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

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    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  1. Antifertility potential of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Jitender Singh; Anupama Baghotia; Vineet Mehta; Vikas Thakur; Manjusha Choudhary; Surender Verma; Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antifertility activity of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn (C. pulcherrima) leaves in albino female mice. Methods: Acute toxicity study of the extract was carried out in adult albino mice. The antifertility activity of the extract at dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) was evaluated in two experimental animal models i.e. antiimplantation and esterogenic/antiestrogenic activity in female mice by observing no. of implants, estrus cycle, vaginal cornification, uertus weight and cholesterol content. Results: The extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 4 000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. A good antiimplantation (66.66 %) activity in female mice was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally). The extract further showed more significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight and cholesterol content in immature mice. Simultaneous administration of extract alongwith ethinyl estradiol showed significant estrogenic activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanolic extract of C. pulcherrima leaves possess significant antifertility activity, therefore, justifying the traditional use of this plant in fertility regulation.

  2. Phytochemical, Anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark

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    Sandhia. K. G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia bonduc possess anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic properties. The present study investigated anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer studies of stem bark of C.bonduc. The in vitro antiinflammatory study of different extracts were done by Protein denaturation method. The total ethanolic extract of stem bark of C.bonduc was investigated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan induced rat paw oedema at the doses 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in male Wister albino rats. The in vitro cytotoxicity study was done by Trypan blue dye exclusion technique in Daltons Ascites Lymphoma (DLA cells at 200, 100, 50, 20, 10 μg/ml concentrations. Estimation studies by Folin Cio-calteau method and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method showed that phenolics and flavonoids are abundant in the stem bark. The in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory studies shows that TEE exhibits more anti-inflammatory effect which increases in a dose dependent manner. TEE exhibits 100% cytotoxicity even at 100 μg/ml concentrations. The present study revealed that presence high quantities of phenolics and flavonoids in the stem bark may be responsible for its anti-inflammatory anticancer properties.

  3. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

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    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  4. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on fertility in pregnant female albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lilaram; R Nazeer Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) on fertility in female Wistar albino rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into two groups containing eight animals in each group. Control group rats were orally administered with 1 mL/100 g b.wt of distilled water while rats in second group received 300 mg/kg of the seed extract from gestation day 1-7, once daily. The animals were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last dose on gestation day 12. Results:A significant reduction in implantation index and a contrasting significant increase in resorption index, pre-implantation and post-implantation loss was recorded in the seed extract treated rats. Progesterone level declined significantly in rats treated with seed extract. Ovary revealed degenerated corpora lutea in treated rats. The embryos were noticed with craniofacial deformities in extract treated group. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that the seeds of C. bonducella possess antifertility activity probably due to its antiprogesterogenic hormonal properties that can modulate the reproductive function of the experimental rats.

  5. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products. PMID:26263964

  6. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

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    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  7. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  8. Potential cytoplasmic inheritance in Wisteria sinensis and Robinia pseudoacacia (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2005-07-01

    We examined pollen cells of Wisteria sinensis and Robinia pseudoacacia (Leguminosae) to determine a possible mode for cytoplasmic inheritance in these species. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed distinct mature generative cells. Mature generative cells of W. sinensis were associated with large numbers of punctuated fluorescent signals corresponding to cytoplasmic DNA aggregates, but no fluorescent signals were observed in the generative cells of R. pseudoacacia. Closer examination showed that the punctate fluorescent signals corresponded to plastid but not mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest a strong potential for paternal transmission of the plastid genome in W. sinensis. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of plastids in the generative cells of W. sinensis and the absence of plastids in R. pseudoacacia cells due to an unequal distribution of plastids during the first pollen mitosis. Mitochondria were present and intact in the mature generative cells of both species. The lack of fluoresced mitochondrial DNA suggests a very low level of mitochondrial DNA in the cells. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that the labeling of mitochondrial DNA in these cells was reduced by nearly 90% during pollen development. Such a dramatic reduction suggests an active degradation of paternal mitochondrial DNA, which may contribute greatly to the maternal inheritance of mitochondria. In short, we found that W. sinensis exhibits a strong potential for paternal transmission of plastids and that both W. sinensis and R. pseudoacacia appear to share the same mechanism for maternal mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:15843369

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTI- TUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA F. IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED COUGH IN MICE

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    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is a natural reflex expulsive defense mechanism of the body, for clearing excess secretions, mucous, inhaled irritants, toxins or foreign substance in the respiratory tract. It is the most common symptom of respiratory disease. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is a need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have respiratory suppressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-tussive activity of leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella in ammonium hydroxide induced cough model in mice.

  10. Tolerancia de cinco leguminosas al aluminio en solución nutritiva.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez N Juan Carlos; Osorio V Nelson Walter; Lotero C. Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó una investigación para determinar el grado de tolerancia a aluminio (Al) de cinco leguminosas tropicales: guandul (Cajanus cajan L. Mills), canavalia (Canavalia ensiformis L.), frijol jacinto (Dolichos lablab L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (C. Lam.) De Witt) y fríjol terciopelo (Stizolobium deeringianum Bort.). Las plantas crecieron bajo cinco concentraciones de Al: 0, 2, 4, 8 y 16 mg L-1 en solución nutritiva. La leguminosa más afectada por las concentraciones de Al fue L. l...

  11. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

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    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  12. Mode of reproduction of Brazilian species of Adesmia (Leguminosae

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    Solange B. Tedesco

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Mode of reproduction was studied in 15 species of Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae. In six species, three treatments were used: mutual pollination, mechanical stimulation and control. Fifty-four plants of these six species were grown in a greenhouse, individually isolated in nylon screen boxes. Flowers were labelled and submitted to the different treatments. In addition, the frequency of spontaneous self-pollination in the absence of pollinators was studied in 200 plants of nine other species. These 200 plants were kept in a greenhouse, which avoided contact with any possible pollinator. Adesmia bicolor, A. muricata, A. punctata and A. riograndensis produced seed both by cross- and self-pollination. Adesmia punctata and A. riograndensis need mechanical stimulation for self-pollination. Adesmia incana reproduced by self-pollination; however, the possibility of cross-pollination cannot be totally ruled out. Adesmia tristis reproduced mainly by cross-pollination and a mechanism of self-incompatibility is suggested. Among the nine species that were not exposed to pollinators, A. securigerifolia produced a large amount of seed, indicating that it is a self-pollinating species. Adesmia arillata, A. araujoi, A. ciliata, A. psoraleoides, A. rocinhensis, A. reitziana, A. sulina and A. vallsii did not produce any seed under the experimental conditions, suggesting that they are cross-pollinated or that they need mechanical stimulation to reproduce.Foram estudadas 15 espécies do gênero Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae, quanto ao modo de reprodução. Em seis espécies do gênero Adesmia, o modo de reprodução foi determinado através de três tratamentos: polinização mútua, estímulo mecânico e controle. As 54 plantas submetidas aos tratamentos foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação e mantidas isoladas individualmente, através de armações de tela de náilon. As flores foram marcadas e submetidas aos distintos tratamentos. Adicionalmente, foram observadas 200

  13. Anatomia de la madera de nueve leguminosas de Venezuela

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    Argélia Silva

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura microscópica del leño de especies de las tres sub-famílias de leguminosas, con el fin de determinar caracteres distintivos de cada uno de estos taxa. Las observaciones se realizaron en: Acacia macracantha, Bauhinia aculeata, Calliandra gracillis, Cassia speclabilis, Coursetia arborea, Erythrina poeppigiana, Leucaena trichodes, Lonchocarpus violaceus, Pithecellobium saman, las cuales fueron colectadas en bosques, deciduos de dos localidades: Colinas del Jardín Botánico de Caracas (900 m.s.n.m. y cercanías de la población de Charallave, Estado Miranda (500 m.s.n.m.. La metología seguida fue la usual en estudios anatómicos de madera. Con respecto a la terminologia, se siguió la propuesta por la IAWA y la citada por Braun (1970 referente a los tipos histológicos y el parénquima axial. Para cada una delas muestras se analizaron los siguientes aspectos:anillos de crecimiento, número de vasos por mm² y longitud de los elementos; diámetro tangencial y radial de los vasos y patrón de distribuición; tipo de perforación; fibras, su naturaleza y distribución; de punteaduras; tipo de parénquima axial y número de células por serie parenquimatosa; tipo y dimensiones de los radios vasculares; estructura estratificada; tipo histológico; tílides y cristales. De las especies analizadas, las Papilionoideae muestran mayor uniformidad mientras que las Caesalpinioideae y Mimosoideae exhiben mayor variación. Entre los caracteres útiles para diferenciar las Papilionoideae se reportam estructura estratificada y punteaduras ornadas. Se notó um predominio de caracteres avanzados, especialmente en las Papilionoideae, pero também se observaron caracteres poco especializados no solamente en las Caesalpinioideae considerada tradicionalmente el grupo más primitivo, sino também en representantes de las otras dos subfamilias.Estudou-se a estrutura microscópica do lenho de algumas espécies das três subfamilias das

  14. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

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    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  15. New combinations in Senegalia and Vachellia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) for Southeast Asia and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslin, B.R.; Seigler, D.S.; Ebinger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of the former broadly circumscribed genus Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) necessitates combinations in Senegalia (syn. Acacia subg. Aculeiferum) and Vachellia (syn. former Acacia subg. Acacia) for the following 40 taxa that are recorded for the region encompassed by Southeast Asia an

  16. Produtividade da cana-de-açúcar após o cultivo de leguminosas

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    Edmilson José Ambrosano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do cultivo prévio de leguminosas sobre a produtividade e lucratividade da cana-de-açúcar. Foram determinados a produtividade de biomassa, o acúmulo de nutrientes das leguminosas, a ocorrência natural de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares, bem como o efeito das leguminosas sobre a população de nematoides do gênero Pratylenchus à cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Piracicaba (SP, Brasil, em solo classificado como Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, utilizando-se a cultivar de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. IAC87-3396. As avaliações dos efeitos do cultivo prévio das leguminosas foram realizadas durante cinco cortes consecutivos. Os tratamentos consistiram do cultivo prévio das leguminosas: Amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L - cultivares IAC-Tatu e IAC-Caiapó, crotalária júncea IAC 1 (Crotalaria juncea L e mucuna preta [Mucuna aterrima (Piper & Tracy Holland], e um tratamento-testemunha. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. A leguminosa mais produtiva de biomassa seca (parte aérea+raízes foi a crotalária júncea IAC 1 (10.264 kg ha-1, seguida da mucuna preta (4.391 kg ha-1 e dos amendoins, IAC-Caiapó (3.177 kg ha-1 e IAC-Tatu (1.965 kg ha-1. O amendoim IAC-Caiapó e a mucuna preta foram as espécies mais infectadas por fungos micorrízicos. O amendoim, independente da cultivar, foi a leguminosa que mais reduziu a infestação de Pratylenchus spp. na cana-de-açúcar. Após cinco cortes da cana-de-açúcar o melhor desempenho foi notado no tratamento com cultivo prévio de crotalária júncea IAC 1, o qual promoveu incrementos de 30% e 35% na produtividade de colmos e de açúcar respectivamente e o melhor desempenho econômico.

  17. Brazilin isolated from Caesalpinia sappan L. acts as a novel collagen receptor agonist in human platelets

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    Chang Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazilin, isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological properties. Methods In this study, platelet aggregation, flow cytometry, immunoblotting analysis, and electron spin resonance (ESR spectrometry were used to investigate the effects of brazilin on platelet activation ex vivo. Moreover, fluorescein sodium-induced platelet thrombi of mesenteric microvessels was also used in in vivo study. Results We demonstrated that relatively low concentrations of brazilin (1 to 10 μM potentiated platelet aggregation induced by collagen (0.1 μg/ml in washed human platelets. Higher concentrations of brazilin (20 to 50 μM directly triggered platelet aggregation. Brazilin-mediated platelet aggregation was slightly inhibited by ATP (an antagonist of ADP. It was not inhibited by yohimbine (an antagonist of epinephrine, by SCH79797 (an antagonist of thrombin protease-activated receptor [PAR] 1, or by tcY-NH2 (an antagonist of PAR 4. Brazilin did not significantly affect FITC-triflavin binding to the integrin αIIbβ3 in platelet suspensions. Pretreatment of the platelets with caffeic acid phenethyl ester (an antagonist of collagen receptors or JAQ1 and Sam.G4 monoclonal antibodies raised against collagen receptor glycoprotein VI and integrin α2β1, respectively, abolished platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen or brazilin. The immunoblotting analysis showed that brazilin stimulated the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLCγ2 and Lyn, which were significantly attenuated in the presence of JAQ1 and Sam.G4. In addition, brazilin did not significantly trigger hydroxyl radical formation in ESR analysis. An in vivo mouse study showed that brazilin treatment (2 and 4 mg/kg significantly shortened the occlusion time for platelet plug formation in mesenteric venules. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that brazilin acts a novel collagen

  18. Extração e caracterização da galactomanana de sementes de caesalpinia pulcherrima Extraction and characterization of the galactomannan from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin G. Azero

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A galactomanana de sementes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima foi extraída em água e purificada, com rendimento de 25 %. A razão D-manose/D-galactose, M/G = 3,1, viscosidade intrínseca, [h] = 11,2 dL/g (em água a 298 K, e a massa molar viscosimétrica média, ou = 1,7 x 10(6, foram determinadas. A variação da viscosidade específica sob taxa de cisalhamento zero, hsp0, em função do parâmetro de sobreposição, C[h], mostrou dependências de hsp0 a (C[h]1,1 e de hsp0 a (C[h]4,2, nos regimes diluído e concentrado, respectivamente. A correlação entre as propriedades reológicas sob cisalhamento contínuo e dinâmico obedeceram satisfatoriamente ao princípio de Cox-Merz.The galactomannan from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima was extracted in water and obtained in 25 % yield, after purification. The D-mannose to D-galactose ratio, M/G = 3.1, the intrinsic viscosity, [h] = 11.2 dL/g (in water and 298K, and the viscosity-average molar mass, or = 1.7 x 10(6, were determined. The dependence of the specific viscosity at zero shear rate, hsp0, on the coil overlap parameter, C[h], showed slopes of 1.1 and 4.2 for the dilute and concentrated regimes, respectively. The Cox-Merz rule was followed satisfactorily by solutions submitted to steady and dynamic flows.

  19. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Psausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. PMID:26283171

  20. Morfologia de plântulas de cinco leguminosas genistóides arbóreas do Brasil (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae Seedling morphology of five genistoid legume trees from Brazil (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

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    Rodrigo Schütz Rodrigues

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever, ilustrar e comparar a morfologia de plântulas de cinco espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no Brasil dos gêneros Bowdichia, Cyclolobium, Diplotropis, Ormosia e Poecilanthe, pertencentes ao clado genistóide (Leguminosae Papilionoideae. Plântulas fanero-epígeo-foliáceas são encontradas em Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, Cyclolobium brasiliense Benth. possui plântulas fanero-epígeo-armazenadoras, enquanto que Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms, Diplotropis martiusii Benth. e Poecilanthe parviflora Benth. apresentam plântulas cripto-hipógeo-armazenadoras. Outros relevantes caracteres morfológicos das plântulas são discutidos e comparados com os de espécies previamente estudadas nestes gêneros.This work aims to describe, illustrate and compare the seedling morphology of five tree species of the genera Bowdichia, Cyclolobium, Diplotropis, Ormosia, and Poecilanthe, which belong to the genistoid clade (Leguminosae Papilionoideae. Phanero-epigeal-foliaceous seedlings are found in Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, Cyclolobium brasiliense Benth. has phanero-epigeal-reserve seedlings, while Ormosia arborea (Vell. Harms, Diplotropis martiusii Benth., and Poecilanthe parviflora Benth. possess crypto-hypogeal-reserve seedlings. Some other relevant seedling morphological characters are discussed and compared with those of previously studied species in these genera.

  1. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, P. S.; A.J.S. Raju

    2014-01-01

    Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag p...

  2. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima): incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

    OpenAIRE

    José George Ferreira Medeiros; Bruno Brito Silva; Aderson Costa Araújo Neto; Luciana Cordeiro Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and...

  3. Preferencia Relativa Bajo Pastoreo de Varios Ecotipos de la Leguminosa Sfylosanthes spp.

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    Giraldo Valderrama Luis Alfonso

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de determinar la variabilidad en preferencia y detectar ecotipos de Stylosanthes spp. con problemas de aceptabilidad, se evaluaron 10 ecolipos de Stylosanthes guianensis mediante un ensayo bajo pastoreo tipo cafetería. Dado que la preferencia varía según características morfológicas de las plantas, se determinó el hábito de crecimiento y el grado de viscosidad al tacto de cada ecotipo de leguminosa. La aceptabilidad se midió mediante la frecuencia de veces que fue pastoreado cada ecotipo (medida por un índice de preferencia por ocho animales bovinos machos de la raza cebú, que permanecieron en las parcelas siete días, cuyas observaciones se realizaron durante siete horas por día. En general, los Stylosanthes guianensis podrían tener problemas de preferencia bajo pastoreo, dado el bajo índice de preferencias encontrado. La mayor preferencia correspondió a Stylosanthes guianensis ecotipos 1280 y 1633, entre los ecotipos restantes no existió diferencia marcada en gustosidad. El patrón de preferencia, parece estar ligado al hábito de crecimiento de la planta y a la dinámica de la disponibilidad inicial de forraje. Las pruebas de preferencia relativa de leguminosas bajo pastoreo permiten detectar ecotipos con problemas y conformar un "ranking" de leguminosas, componentes importantes en el diseño de estrategias de manejo en asociaciones gramíneas-leguminosas para la alimentación animal.

  4. Tree and tree-like species of Mexico: Asteraceae, Leguminosae, and Rubiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ricker; Hernández, Héctor M.; Mario Sousa; Helga Ochoterena

    2013-01-01

    Trees or tree-like plants are defined here broadly as perennial, self-supporting plants with a total height of at least 5 m (without ascending leaves or inflorescences), and with one or several erect stems with a diameter of at least 10 cm. We continue our compilation of an updated list of all native Mexican tree species with the dicotyledonous families Asteraceae (36 species, 39% endemic), Leguminosae with its 3 subfamilies (449 species, 41% endemic), and Rubiaceae (134 species, 24% endemic)...

  5. New combinations in Senegalia and Vachellia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) for Southeast Asia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Maslin, B.R.; Seigler, D.S.; J. Ebinger

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of the former broadly circumscribed genus Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) necessitates combinations in Senegalia (syn. Acacia subg. Aculeiferum) and Vachellia (syn. former Acacia subg. Acacia) for the following 40 taxa that are recorded for the region encompassed by Southeast Asia and China. Senegalia andamanica, S. borneensis, S. caesia, S. comosa, S. delavayi, S. delavayi var. kunmingensis, S. donnaiensis, S. gageana, S. intsia, S. kekapur, S. kostermansii, S. meeboldii, S. ...

  6. Hymenostegia viridiflora (Detarieae, Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae), a new tree species from Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinder, B.A.; Wieringa, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Hymenostegia (Detarieae, Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) is described from Cameroon. Hymenostegia viridiflora has previously been confused with the type species of the genus, H. floribunda, but differs from it in having pale green to greenish yellow instead of lemon yellow petals, a broader upper part of the stipule, more numerous reddish veins on the white bracteoles and generally more numerous and narrower leaflets. As a consequence, the geographic range of true H. floribund...

  7. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae); Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo Raul [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  8. Fabrication and evaluation of oral tablets using natural mucoadhesive agent from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. SW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevanandham S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucoadhesive sustained drug delivery systems of salbutamol sulfate were formulated using an isolated natural agent from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The isolated material was evaluated for various parameters, such as, melting point, viscosity, pH, elemental analysis, swelling index, phytochemical constituents, and solubility studies. The mucoadhesive characters of the isolated substance were identified by a comparative study with hydroxyl propyl cellulose and sodium alginate, by various in vitro methods, such as, Shear stress measurement, Wilhelmy′s method, Falling sphere method, and Detachment force measurement. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive oral tablets of salbutamol sulfate (100 mg, using isolated natural materials in different proportions, and in vitro release studies, were carried out for three different formulations according to the U.S.P apparatus two (paddle method. Each 100 mg tablet was taken in 900 ml of acid buffer 1.2 and maintained at 37˚C. After two hours the filtrate was collected and replaced in buffer 7.4. In vitro releases of three different formulations for nine hours were studied, which showed the sustained action of drug release with increasing the concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations.

  9. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han; Zhang, Le-Le; Liu, Qian-Yu; Feng, Lu; Ye, Yang; Lu, Jin-Jian; Lin, Li-Gen

    2016-01-01

    The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1-3) and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds 6-12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What's more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed. PMID:27322234

  10. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1–3 and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5, together with seven known compounds 6–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What’s more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed.

  11. Neurite Outgrowth and Neuroprotective Effects of Quercetin from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. on Cultured P19-Derived Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangsaengvit, Napat; Kitphati, Worawan; Tadtong, Sarin; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Nukoolkarn, Veena

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin has been isolated for the first time from ethyl acetate extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. C. mimosoides Lamk. (Fabaceae) or Cha rueat (Thai name) is an indigenous plant found in mixed deciduous forest in northern and north-eastern parts of Thailand. Thai rural people consume its young shoots and leaves as a fresh vegetable, as well as it is used for medicinal purposes.The antioxidant capacity in terms of radical scavenging activity of quercetin was determined as IC50 of 3.18 ± 0.07 µg/mL, which was higher than that of Trolox and ascorbic acid (12.54 ± 0.89 and 10.52 ± 0.48 µg/mL, resp.). The suppressive effect of quercetin on both purified and cellular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes was investigated as IC50 56.84 ± 2.64 and 36.60 ± 2.78 µg/mL, respectively. In order to further investigate the protective ability of quercetin on neuronal cells, P19-derived neurons were used as a neuronal model in this study. As a result, quercetin at a very low dose of 1 nM enhanced survival and induced neurite outgrowth of P19-derived neurons. Furthermore, this flavonoid also possessed significant protection against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation. Altogether, these findings suggest that quercetin is a multifunctional compound and promising valuable drugs candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23840266

  12. As leguminosas como alimentos funcionais: o caso das dislipidémias e das doenças cardiovasculares.

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Martins; Bento, O.P.

    2007-01-01

    A dieta mediterrânica é rica em alimentos funcionais. As leguminosas, um dos alimentos-chave desta dieta, têm visto o seu papel na prevenção de dislipidémias, diabetes e cancro do cólon mencionado por muitos autores. O efeito do consumo de leguminosas na redução da colesterolémia deve-se a diferentes nutrientes e fitoquímicos, tais como: i) proteína; ii) lípidos, particularmente a componente polinsaturada e monoinsaturada; iii) fibra, especialmente a fracção solúvel; iv) saponinas; e v) fitos...

  13. Dihydronaflavonols from the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derris urucu is an Amazonian plant with insecticide and ichthyotoxic properties. Studies with this species show the presence of flavonoids, mainly rotenoids, as well as stilbenes. The ethanol extract of the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae) afforded three new dihydroflavonols named urucuol A (1), B (2) and C (3), and the dihydroflavonol isotirumalin (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, UV and IR spectra and MS data and comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds (1-4) were evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity and showed a relatively lower antioxidant ability compared to the commercial antioxidant trans-resveratrol. (author)

  14. Lecitinas de leguminosas: significación nutricional, toxicidad y aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón Alonso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Las legumbres son alimentos consumidos en todas partes del mundo y el estudio de su composición química es necesario para el conocimiento de sus efectos en la salud. Son muchos tipos de sustancias químicas diferentes los que se encuentran en las semillas de legumbres. En este trabajo se estudia un tipo de sustancias en particular, las lectinas de leguminosas. Se describe el origen y estructura de las lectinas, su significación nutricional, la toxicidad de las lectinas y los efectos en el inte...

  15. Antinutrientes proteicos de las leguminosas: tipos, toxicidad y efectos fisiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Castañeiras, María Paloma

    2016-01-01

    Las leguminosas representan un grupo de alimentos muy consumido por la población humana a nivel mundial. Son muchos los beneficios de estas semillas, que hacen de ellas un básico en cualquier dieta. A pesar de ello, muchos estudios recientes advierten sobre el contenido de ciertos compuestos antinutricionales en estas semillas y sobre sus efectos, que van desde la disminución de la digestión por su capacidad para inhibir enzimas hidrolíticas, la disminución de la absorción de nutrientes, la i...

  16. Biodiversidad y ecogeografía del género Lupinus l. (Leguminosae) en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Barney Duran, Victoria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    El Género Lupinus, uno de los más diversos de la familia Leguminosae, incluye alrededor de 300 especies de hierbas, arbustos y unos pocos árboles, distribuidas en el Viejo y Nuevo Mundo, donde han colonizado varios ambientes, con características morfológicas relativamente uniformes, pero con un incompleto análisis taxonómico. Es una planta con gran potencial agronómico debido al alto contenido de proteína de sus semillas y al positivo efecto sobre la fertilidad de los suelos y ha sido utiliza...

  17. Leguminosas arbustivas nativas para mejorar la agricultura maicera itinerante de Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ayala Sánchez; Krishnamurthy, L.; J. A. Basulto Graniel; J. A. Leos Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    En la búsqueda de mejorar el sistema de agricultura maicera de roza, tumba y quema, se desarrolló un experimento durante seis años y medio con los objetivos de evaluar el establecimiento y crecimiento de 18 leguminosas arbustivas como barbechos mejorados en cuatro años y su capacidad para mejorar la productividad de maíz de temporal en dos y medio años subsecuentes. Los barbechos mejorados fueron las especies de Acacia gaumeri, A. glomerosa, Bauhinia divaricata, B. ungulata, Caesalpinea gaume...

  18. Germinação de sementes e formação de mudas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Pau - Brasil: efeito de sombreamento Seed germination and seedling growth of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood: shading effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil é a árvore nacional do Brasil, possui grande potencial ornamental, estando atualmente em perigo de extinção devido à exploração extrativista. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação das sementes de C. echinata e o crescimento de mudas sob condições de sombreamento. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Seção de Ornamentais do IBt/SMA, São Paulo, SP. As sementes foram coletadas de frutos maduros, de árvores-matriz no arboreto experimental de C. echinata em Mogi-Guaçu, SP. Os testes de germinação foram realizados nos anos de 1999, 2000 e 2003, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada, sendo avaliadas a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, submetidas a cinco níveis de sombreamento (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80%. Mudas de C. echinata com nove meses de idade foram submetidas aos mesmos tratamentos de sombreamento das sementes, sendo as variáveis analisadas altura da planta, diâmetro do colo e número de folhas. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e 24 plantas por parcela, totalizando 96 mudas por tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a germinação e o IVE não sofreram influência dos níveis de sombreamento testados. O diâmetro do coleto das mudas a pleno sol, a 20 e 40% de sombreamento, não diferiram significativamente entre si, mas dos tratamentos de 60 e 80%.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood, Brazil's national tree, has ornamental potential, and due to years of exploitation this species has been reduced on the verge of extinction. This study was aimed to evaluate seed germination and seedling growth of brazil wood under shading conditions. The experiments were conducted at the IBt/SMA Ornamental Department, São Paulo-SP. Seeds were harvested from ripe fruits, from trees of the experimental arboretum of brazilwood at Mogí-Guaçu-SP. The germination tests were carried out in 1999

  19. Entomofauna associated to fruits and seeds of two species of Enterolobium Mart. (Leguminosae: harm or benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Meiado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Entomofauna associated to fruits and seeds of two species of Enterolobium Mart. (Leguminosae: Harm or benefit? The aims of the present study were to identify the entomofauna associated to the fruits and seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong and Enterolobium timbouva Mart. (Leguminosae, as well as to determine relationships among insects and the possible harm and/or benefit stemming from these associations. Fruit infestation was evaluated and the insects were identified. Seed consumption (% and the germination of predated seeds (% were determined. The fruits of E. contortisiliquum exhibited a high percentage of infestation (91%. The most representative species in the fruits were Lophopoeum timbouvae Lameere, 1884, Merobruchus bicoloripes (Pic, 1930 and Stator limbatus (Horn, 1873. In the fruits of E. timbouva, only one species was found (S. limbatus. E. contortisiliquum seed consumption was proportionately higher (55.2% to that of E. timbouva (15%. The germination of predated seeds from E. contortisiliquum was null, whereas 40% of predated seeds from E. timbouva germinated.

  20. [Analysis of varieties and standards of Leguminosae plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lan; Du, Xiao-lang; Zhong, Wei-hong; Zhong, Wei-jin; He, Jun-wei; Mu, Ze-jing; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the domestic varieties and quality standard of Leguminosae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine were analyzed. The results showed that there were 36 genera and 142 species (including varieties), as well as 64 medicinal materials varieties of Leguminosae plants were recorded in relevant literatures. In relevant Tibetan standards and literatures, there are great differences in varieties, sources, used parts, and efficacy of medicinal plants. Among them, about 38.0% (including 54 species) of the endemic plants, about 25.4% (including 36 species) of the original plants have medicinal standard legal records, except 9 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine general quality standard more fairly completed, the most varieties have only description about characters, identification, etc. Therefore it is necessary to reinforce study for the herbal textual, resources and the use present situation, chemical components and biological activity, quality standard, medicinal terms specification, to promote establishment of quality standard system for variety-terminologies-sources of Tibetan medicinal plants. PMID:27245043

  1. Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a previously incompletely known Ethiopian endemic rediscovered after 120 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile

    2014-01-01

    The incompletely known Crotalaria trifoliolata Baker f. (Leguminosae subfam. Papilionoideae) has been rediscovered in the field. For 120 years, it has been known only from a fragmentary holotype with uncertain collecting locality. The habit and height of the plant, the pods and the seeds are here...

  2. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  3. Simultaneous identification and analysis of cassane diterpenoids in Caesalpinia minax Hance by high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shilong; Wu, Zhaohua; Fu, Chaofan; Wu, Caiyue; Yuan, Jiuzhi; Xian, Xiaoyan; Gao, Huiyuan

    2015-12-01

    Cassane diterpenoids were successfully and simultaneously identified in Caesalpinia minax Hance by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 59 peaks were detected, and among them 51 compounds, including 41 furanocassane diterpenoids, 10 furanolactone cassane diterpenoids were simultaneously identified and characterized on the basis of the protonated molecule, retention behavior, and fragments in MS(2) . Ten compounds, including seven novel compounds, were identified or tentatively identified for the first time in C. minax. In a positive ion mode, the fragmentation pathways of cassane diterpenoids were also analyzed for the first time. The relative amounts of the five main diterpenoids (caesalpinin L, caesalpinin F2 , bondcellpin C, caesalpinin E, and ξ-caesalmin) were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the newly discovered and known components of C. minax can be used to determine the material basis of bioactivity; this method can also be applied to analyze cassane diterpenoids in herbal medicines from the genus Caesalpinia belonging to the family Fabaceae. PMID:26394613

  4. Índices de oxidación en aceites de algunas leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation process of crude and refined oils from wild leguminous seeds: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta, (vinorama Olneya tesota, (palo fierro Cercidium praecox (palo de brea and Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde were evaluated during storage for 122 days, using corn and soybean oils as controls. Peroxide, Iodine, Acid and p-Anisidine values were determinated during 122 days of storage at room temperature. The wild leguminous raw oils showed results similar to those for the corn raw oil and lower than those of soybean raw oil. This behavior was similar for refinated oils. The rancid odor was detected after 5 days of storage in soybean oil and 40 days in vinorama oil, on the contrary, mezquite, palo verde and palo of brea oils presented this odor after 62 days, and for gatuña’s oil needed 135 days. Our results indicate that legume seed of Sonoran Desert could be a good alternative as source of oil.El proceso de oxidación fue evaluado durante el almacenamiento de los aceites crudos y refinados de las semillas de leguminosas silvestres: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Olneya tesota (palo fierro, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea y Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde. Los aceites de maíz y soja fueron empleados como controles. Se determinó el índice de peróxido (I.P., de Yodo (I.I., de acidez (I.A, y valor de p-Anisidina (p-A durante 122 días de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Los aceites crudos de leguminosas silvestres mostraron valores de estos índices similares a los del aceite de maíz crudo y menores que los del aceite de soja crudo. Este comportamiento también fue observado para los aceites refinados. El olor a rancio se presentó en el aceite de soja a los 5 días de almacenamiento, en el de vinorama a los 40 días, en el de mezquite, palo verde y palo de brea a los 62 días y en el de gatuña a los 135 días. Los valores

  5. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  6. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  7. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  8. COBERTURAS VIVAS DE LEGUMINOSAS EN EL PLÁTANO (Musa sp. FHIA 03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Gutiérrez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de disminuir el consumo de agrotóxicos en el manejo del cultivo del plátano posibilita la búsqueda de alternativas viables en la esfera agroecológica, razones por las que en la Estación Experimental de la Universidad de Ciego de Avila, entre 1996 y 1998, se desarrolló un experimento para la determinación del efecto de coberturas vivas de leguminosas en una plantación de plátano FHIA-03, que se estableció en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo (Eutric ferralsol, evaluándose los efectos que coberturas vivas de las leguminosas Centrosema plumieri, Teramnus labialis y Stylosanthes guianensis produjeron en el agroecosistema, usando como unidad experimental parcelas de ocho plantas evaluables del cultivo principal (78 m2, en un diseño en franjas en el transcurso de dos años de establecimiento de la cobertura, obteniéndose una reducción significativa de las especies de malezas características del área y competitivas del cultivo, un comportamiento favorable de los indicadores fenológicos, tendencias positivas en cuanto a elementos que pueden definir la calidad del suelo así como de reducción de algunas de las plagas que ocasionan los mayores daños en el plátano. Por último, se apreció la elevación de los rendimientos del cultivo principal y un efecto económico positivo en el manejo del agroecosistema, especialmente con el uso de Teramnus labialis como cobertura.

  9. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil Wood anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, an endemic species of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois municípios acima citados, em 2002. As análises das amostras seguiram os métodos usualmente empregados em estudo de anatomia de madeiras. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos do lenho e a elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que Caesalpinia pyramidalis revela grande quantidade de celulose e lignina, portanto apresentou perspectivas seguras para produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal. Pode-se propor o uso do lenho do tronco e dos galhos como combustível, desde a fase jovem da madeira, pela grande concentração de fibras, menor concentração de vasos e menor quantidade de parênquima, nos espécimes dos dois municípios.This work aimed to study the anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood, used by local populations in the municipalities of Serra Talhada and Sertânia (Pernambuco, to assess the percentage of wood elements in the trunk and branches in both localities, and in the tree itself, in order to establish total wood potential for energy production. Samples of the trunk (dbh and of branches from six trees of the species were collected in 2002. Sample analysis followed the usual methods of wood anatomy studies. Based on the anatomical parameters of the trunk and the high basic density (>0.84 g/cm³, we conclude that Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood contains an enormous amount of cellulose and lignin. Due to these features, this species showed good perspectives for the production of alcohol and charcoal. The

  10. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil Wood anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), an endemic species of Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva; Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos Santos; Peter Gasson; David Cutler

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois muni...

  11. Revisión del género Prosopidastrum (Leguminosae para la Argentina Revision of the genus Prosopidastrum (Leguminosae for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón A. Palacios

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En 2001 los autores describieron tres nuevas especies para la ciencia, P. dehiscens, P. angusticarpum y P. gracile, claramente diferenciables de las únicas reconocidas hasta ese momento: P. globosum (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. Burkart y P. mexicanum (Dressl. Burkart, en base a la forma de crecimiento, morfología de las hojas, flores, frutos y del polen. Se realizaron nuevos viajes de colección y observaciones de campo, estudios exomorfológicos y palinológicos. Como resultado de los mismos, es posible confirmar la existencia de otras dos entidades en la Argentina: P.striatum (Benth. R. A. Palacios & Hoc y P. benthami (Chodat & Wilczek R. A. Palacios & Hoc, incluídas anteriormente por A. Burkart en la sinonimia de P. globosum, cuyos nombres deben ser rehabilitados con la combinación correspondiente. Resumiendo, en la Argentina se encuentran presentes seis especies de Prosopidastrum.In 2001 the authors described three species new to science, P. dehiscens, P. angusticarpum and P. gracile, clearly differentiated from the only previously known 2 species: P. globosum (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. Burkart and P. mexicanum (Dressl. Burkart on the basis of the following characters: habit, fruit, flowers, leaves and pollen. Additional field collections and observations, combined with exomorphological and palynological studies were performed. As a consequence of this research, the authors present the revision of the genus Prosopidastrum (Leguminosae for Argentina and confirm the existence of the following entities in our country: P.striatum (Benth. R. A. Palacios & Hoc and P. benthami (Chodat & Wilczek R. A. Palacios & Hoc, species that were included by A. Burkart in the sinonymy of P. globosum . Finally, six species of Prosopidastrum grow in Argentina.

  12. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.; Vlázquez-Moreno, L.; Robles-Burgueño, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite), Cercidium floridium (palo azul), Cercidium praecox (palo de brea), Acacia constricta (vinorama), Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui),

  13. Manejo de praderas asociadas de gramíneas y leguminosas para pastoreo en el trópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Rojas Hernández

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available ste trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre el manejo de praderas asociadas de gramíneas con leguminosas para mejorar la calidad de la dieta del animal e incrementar la productividad de las praderas, así como mantener la proporción de los componentes botánicos en espacio y tiempo.Tipo de trabajo: Articulo de revisión en el área de forrajes.

  14. Annea gen. nov.(Detarieae, Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae): a home for two species long misplaced in Hymenostegia sensu lato. Phytotaxa

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinder, B.A.; Wieringa, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    A new genus Annea is described to accommodate two tropical African legume species previously misplaced in Hymenostegia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Detarieae). Annea gen. nov. is widespread in tropical Africa but has an unusual disjunct generic distribution, occurring in both upper and lower Guinea but absent from Gabon. Annea afzelii accounts for the generic range in Upper Guinea extending as far east as Equatorial Guinea in the Lower-Guinea region whereas A. laxiflora occupies the southe...

  15. Antimicrobial activity of α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-ω-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl polymethylene from caesalpinia bonducella (L. flem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Kavitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound, α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-w-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-ylpolymethylene, isolated from ethyl acetate leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Flem. was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus citrus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. using agar diffusion method. The compound exerted inhibitory zone at all concentrations and revealed the concentration-dependent activity against all tested bacterial and yeast strains comparable to standards streptomycin sulphate and gentamycin for bacteria and fluconazole and griseofulvin for Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. The inhibition zones were wider and clear for C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. (IZ >20 mm and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. vulgaris and E. coli zones were greater than standards tested, whereas, zones for Klebsiella sp. and S. aureus were similar to standards.

  16. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  17. A study of the fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of some Fabaceae (Leguminosae plants from Turkey I

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    Sahim, Ahmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol, tocotrienol and plastochromanol-8 contents of some selected Fabaceae (Leguminosae species belonging to different genera (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella from Turkey were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. Some of the studied species are endemic to Turkey. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. Palmitic and stearic acids are the major saturated fatty acids in the seed oils. Vicia and Onobrychis patterns showed high similarity in means of qualitative fatty acid concentration. The tocopherol and tocochromanol patterns of the seed oils were also found to be highly variable among the genera investigated here. The total tocopherols was higher than the total tocotrienols. Alpha and gamma tocopherols were also the highest tocopherols present in the whole species. Beta, gamma and delta-tocotrienols were not found in most of the studied leguminous patterns. The results are discussed in view of renewable sources and chemotaxonomy.En este estudio, los contenidos en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, tocotrienoles y plastocromanol-8 de algunas especies seleccionadas de Fabaceae (Leguminosae, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella de Turquía, fueron determinadas usando técnicas de GLC y HPLC. Algunas de las especies estudiadas son endémicas de Turquía. Los aceites de semillas de los diferentes taxones de leguminosas contenían los ácidos linoleico, oleico y linolénico como principales componentes. Las proporciones de estos ácidos grasos fueron muy variables entre los géneros de leguminosas. Los ácidos palmítico y esteárico son los principales ácidos grasos saturados en los aceites de semillas. Los patrones

  18. Efeito da cobertura viva com leguminosas herbáceas perenes na agregação de um argissolo

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    A. Perin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na área do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, com o objetivo de avaliar a morfologia e a distribuição de raízes de algumas leguminosas herbáceas perenes; os efeitos da cobertura viva no teor de carbono orgânico, e a agregação de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, medida pela estabilidade dos agregados em água. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de três diferentes espécies de leguminosas herbáceas perenes e um tratamento-controle sem cobertura viva (capinado. As leguminosas utilizadas foram amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical(Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium Atropurpureum. Para a estabilidade de agregados, as profundidades de amostragem foram 0-5 e 5-10 cm, enquanto, para a morfologia e distribuição radicular, as avaliações consistiram das profundidades 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. As coberturas com as leguminosas amendoim forrageiro e cudzu tropical propiciaram os maiores valores percentuais na classe de agregados > 2,00 mm, em média 38 % superiores aos obtidos na área capinada. Os valores do diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP dos agregados no solo com cobertura de leguminosas foram superiores aos da área capinada para ambas as camadas, o que demonstra o efeito favorável das coberturas vivas na estabilização dos agregados do solo. A cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro proporcionou incremento no teor de carbono orgânico no solo. Quanto aos atributos morfológicos das raízes, verificou-se que o amendoim forrageiro apresentou raio radicular intermediário entre as demais espécies e área e massa radicular maiores, o que auxiliou na interpretação do efeito positivo da cobertura viva com essa espécie na agregação do solo.

  19. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial. PMID:25014262

  20. Introdução de leguminosas no coberto vegetal do olival. Monitorização do azoto disponível no solo com plantas bioindicadoras

    OpenAIRE

    Arrobas, Margarida; Claro, Ana Marília; Ferreira, I.Q.; Rodrigues, M.A. (Manuel Augusto)

    2012-01-01

    Plantas nitrófilas foram usadas como indicador da disponibilidade de azoto no solo em olivais geridos com cobertos vegetais de leguminosas anuais. Em dois olivais de Trás-os-Montes estabeleceram-se cobertos de tremoço (Lupinus albus), ervilliaca (Vicia villosa), uma mistura de várias leguminosas pratenses de ressementeira natural (Trifolium spp. e Ornithoptts spp.) e vegetação natural. Os cobertos foram instalados no Outono de 2009 e destruídos na Primavera de 2010, tendo sido dei...

  1. Factores del manejo para estabilizar la producción de biomasa con leguminosas en el trópico

    OpenAIRE

    T. E. Ruiz; Castillo, E.; J. Alonso; G. Febles

    2006-01-01

    Este material tiene como objetivo abundar acerca de aquellos factores del manejo que conduzcan a estabilizar la producción de biomasa en sistemas ganaderos en el trópico. Es obvio que los sistemas mejorados y bien manejados de pasturas de gramíneas y leguminosas, en cualquiera de sus alternativas, son opciones para lograr la sostenibilidad. Una concepción más amplia y profunda es la relativa a los estudios de pasturas mixtas; éstos, deben tener un enfoque más bio...

  2. Bioprospecção de atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana da casca de Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (Leguminosae-Mimosoidae)

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Souza; J. A. SEVERI; V. Y.A. SILVA; Santos, E.; Pietro, R. C. L. R.

    2009-01-01

    O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a classe de metabólitos secundários responsável pela atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos da casca de Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (Leguminosae-Mimosoidae), planta amplamente utilizada medicinalmente pela população. Foram obtidos extratos da casca utilizando etanol 50%, etanol 70%, acetona:água...

  3. Atividade moluscicida de alguns produtos naturais sobre Biomphalaria glabrata Molluscicide activity of some natural products on Biomphalaria glabrata

    OpenAIRE

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes; Cecília Pereira de Souza; Neusa Araújo; José Pedro Pereira; Naftale Katz

    1986-01-01

    Foi avaliada, em laboratório, a ação moluscicida de extratos aquosos (macerado e fervido), hexânico e etanólico de Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata e Tibouchina scrobiculata. As soluções dos extratos obtidos foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório, nas concentrações de 1, 10, 20, 200 e 1000ppm. Dos extratos testado o mais ativo foi o etanólico das flore...

  4. Morphological and agronomical characterization and estimates of genetic parameters of sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae accessions

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    Veasey E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two accessions of seven Sesbania (Leguminosae species: S. emerus, S. rostrata, S. tetraptera, S. exasperata (annuals, S. grandiflora, S. sesban and S. virgata (perennials, used for ruminant fodder, firewood, wood products, soil improvement, and human food, were investigated, with the aim of characterizing both inter- and intraspecific genetic variability, estimating genetic parameters for the characters evaluated and appraising the forage potential of the accessions. These were planted at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with 22 treatments and four replications. Seventeen morphological and 17 agronomic characters were evaluated. Genetic parameters coefficient of intraspecific genetic diversity (bi and coefficient of intraspecific genetic variation (CVgi were obtained for the species represented by more than one accession. Highly significant differences were observed among as well as within species for most characters, showing considerable genetic variability. S. exasperata showed intraspecific genetic variability for the largest number of morphological characters. The same was observed for S. sesban for the agronomic characters. Most of the characters gave high bi values, above 0.80, indicating the possibility of selecting superior genotypes. The CVgi values, on the other hand, which indicate the magnitude of the existing genetic variability relative to the character mean, varied according to the species and character evaluated. Differences between annual and perennial species were observed, with higher biomass yields presented by the annuals at the first cut and by the perennials after the second cut, reaching the highest yield at the third cut. The annual species had higher seed production. Accession NO 934 of S. sesban gave the highest biomass yields and regrowth vigor, showing promise as a forage legume plant.

  5. Leguminosas arbustivas nativas para mejorar la agricultura maicera itinerante de Yucatán

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    A. Ayala S\\u00E1nchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de mejorar el sistema de agricultura maicera de roza, tumba y quema, se desarrolló un experimento durante seis años y medio con los objetivos de evaluar el establecimiento y crecimiento de 18 leguminosas arbustivas como barbechos mejorados en cuatro años y su capacidad para mejorar la productividad de maíz de temporal en dos y medio años subsecuentes. Los barbechos mejorados fueron las especies de Acacia gaumeri, A. glomerosa, Bauhinia divaricata, B. ungulata, Caesalpinea gaumeri, C. yucatanensis, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Lonchocarpus rugosos, Lonchocarpus yucatanensis, Mimosa bahamensis, Piscidia piscipula, Pithecellobium albicans, Pithecellobium dulce, Pithecellobium leucospermun, Senna octucifolia, Senna racemosa y Sesbania sesban, además de dos barbechos de vegetación natural. Los resultados indicaron que el crecimiento de L. leucocephala, C. yucatanensis y P. piscipula fue mejor (P < 0.05. La incidencia de malezas bajo el dosel arbolado se redujo (P < 0.05 con L. leucocephala, P. dulce, Senna racemosa, A. gaumeri y P. albicans. Las especies que más leña produjeron (P < 0.05 fueron L. leucocephala,C. yucatanensis y P. piscipula; las que rebrotaron mejor (P < 0.05 fueron L. leucocephala, A. gaumeri, M. bahamensis, P. leucospermum, P. albicans, S. octucifolia, C. yucataneneis y C. gaumeri. Una vez eliminados los barbechos, el cultivo de maíz desarrolló mejor (P < 0.05 después de L. leucocephala, C. yucatanensis, S. racemosa, P. piscipula, P. albicans y M. bahamensis. Se concluye que L. leucocephala, C. yucataneneis, P. piscipula, A. gaumeri, P. albicans y G. sepium, en este orden, ofrecen mayor potencial para usarse como barbechos mejorados en los suelos Cambisol crómico del sur de Yucatán.

  6. Classification of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae: A Numerical Re-assessment

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    Adel EL-GAZZAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subdivision of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae into taxa of lower rank was subject for major discrepancies between traditional classifications while more recent phylogenetic studies provided no decisive answer to this problem. As a contribution towards resolving this situation, 81 morphological characters were recorded comparatively for 226 species and infra-specific taxa belonging to 75 genera representing 21 of the 32 tribes currently recognized in this subfamily. The data matrix was subjected to cluster analysis using the Sørensen distance measure and Ward’s clustering method of the PC-ord version-5 package of programs for Windows. This combination was selected from among the 56 combinations available in this package because it produced the taxonomically most feasible arrangement of the genera and species. The 75 genera are divided into two main groups A and B, whose recognition requires little more than the re-alignment of a few genera to resemble tribes 1-18 (Sophoreae to Hedysareae and tribes 19-32 (Loteae to Genisteae, respectively, in the currently accepted classification. Only six of the 21 tribes represented by two or more genera seem sufficiently robust as the genera representing each of them hold together in only one of the two major groups A and B. Of the 29 genera represented by more than one species each 17, 7 and 5 are taxonomically coherent, nearly coherent and incoherent, respectively. The currently accepted circumscription and inter-relationships among the disrupted tribes and genera are in need of much detailed investigation.

  7. Unexpected Irregular Monoterpene "Yomogi Alcohol" in the Volatiles of the Lathyrus L. species (Leguminosae) of Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-01-01

    Lathyrus species including L. ochrus and L. sativus are known for their food, feed and horticultural uses. Despite their widespread uses and cultivation, there is limited information on their chemistry. Previously, only the essential oil composition of L. rotundifolius, L. vernus and volatiles of L. odoratus have been reported. In the present research, volatiles of seven Lathyrus L. species, namely, L. aphaca, L. ochrus, L. cicera, L. sativus, L. gorgonei, L. saxatilis and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius were analyzed by SPME GC-MS for the first time. Plant materials were collected from five different locations in Cyprus (February-March 2012). The main components of L. aphaca volatiles from four locations were yomogi alcohol 26.1-16.5%, camphor 21.6-10.1%, tetradecane 14.3-0%; L. cicera from five locations were yomogi alcohol 20.3-3.0%, camphor 18.7-2.0%; L. gorgonei from two locations were yomogi alcohol 24.5-13.1%, camphor 17.1-9.0% and L. sativus was yomogi alcohol 11.4%, camphor 9.0%. Yomogi alcohol was not present as the major compound in L. ochrus (2-methyl butanoic acid 7.2%), L. saxatilis (hexanal 7.7%) and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius ((Z)-3-hexenal 8.6%) volatiles. The volatiles of the Lathyrus species were also compared with each other quantitative and qualitatively using AHC analysis to find out differences among the species. The irregular monoterpene yomogi alcohol is reported from the Lathyrus and the Leguminosae family for the first time. The existence of yomogi alcohol in Lathyrus volatiles points out that the irregular monoterpenes are not restricted solely to Asteraceae family. PMID:26876676

  8. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

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    Xiao-Ning Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC, is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP and supernatant (MSS by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE. The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05, indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and lactic acid (Lac. Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, and malondialdehyde (MDA but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  9. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  10. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima: incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

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    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and the control was immersed in sterile water. For the germination test, 200 seeds were used, distributed in four replicates of 50 seeds per treatment. The vigor tests consisted of the first count and germination speed index. The evaluation of fungi transmission were performed during the germination test, by counting the symptoms in the primary root, hypocotyl and epicotyl. The treatments reduced the incidence of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. Nigrospora sp and Pestalotiasp..It was also found the fungus Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. associated with the lesions in the seed integument. The treatments provided a higher percentage of germination of seedlings. Higher percentages of germination were observed when oil extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum vulgare were used.

  11. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  12. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

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    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  13. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

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    Priscila Praxedes-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50∘C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO− or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+. It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

  14. Monografía del género cubano Herpyza C. Wright (Leguminosae y principales alteraciones de sus hábitat

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    Beyra Matos, Ángela

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A monograph of the monotypic genus Herpyza C. Wright (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae, endemic from Cuba, is presented. The species is restricted to the white sand habitats in Pinar del Río and Isla de la Juventud provinces, and threatened by human pressure over its habitats. According to the IUCN criteria the species is proposed as "Endangered" (EN. Its taxonomic isolation justifies a phylogenetic study using molecular markers that sheds light on the relationships of Herpyza with the remainder taxa in the Leguminosae, so far unknown.Se presenta una monografía taxonómica del género monotípico endémico cubano Herpyza C. Wright (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae. Esta especie está restringida a los ecótipos de arenas blancas de las provincias de Pinar del Río e Isla de la Juventud, y amenazada a causa de la destrucción humana de estos hábitat en dichas localidades. Se detallan las alteraciones de los hábitat y se propone la categoría "En Peligro Crítico" (CR para la única especie del género, de acuerdo con los criterios de la UICN. Su aislamiento justifica un estudio filogenético mediante marcadores moleculares para establecer las relaciones de Repisa con el resto de las Leguminosae, hasta ahora desconocidas.

  15. Aspectos agronômicos de leguminosas para adubação verde no Cerrado do Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha

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    Ricardo Borges Teodoro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo e inadequado dos solos acelera sua degradação, sendo necessária a intervenção por meio de práticas conservacionistas para restaurar a capacidade produtiva dos mesmos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento e desenvolvimento de diferentes leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em solos de Cerrado, Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, em Turmalina, MG. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas leguminosas: mucuna-cinza (Mucuna nivea, mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima, lablabe (Dolichos lablab, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis e guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan. O ciclo precoce de C . juncea, C. spectabilis e feijão-de-porco favorece a inserção destes nos sistemas de cultivo. Aos 40 dias, o feijão-de-porco e mucuna-cinza já cobriam o solo, com 67 e 63 %; já o guandu-anão e C. juncea apresentaram os maiores desenvolvimentos, nesse período. Os teores de N, P e K tendem a diminuir nas avaliações realizadas nas diferentes fases vegetativas, o que contribui para melhor escolha da época de manejo das leguminosas. Crotalaria juncea, mucuna-cinza, feijão-de-porco e mucuna-preta foram as leguminosas que se destacaram na produção de matéria seca, o que torna essas espécies promissoras para adubação verde na região. As leguminosas, em sua maioria, apresentam potencial para reciclagem dos macronutrientes e aporte de N aos sistemas de produção.

  16. Sobre las causas ontogénicas de la productividad diferencial de semillas en la especie anficárpica Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae) On the causes of the differential seed production in the anficarpic species Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae)

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    Gabriela Speroni; Primavera Izaguirre; Gabriel Bernardello

    2010-01-01

    Trifolium polymorphum es una leguminosa de pradera con buena adaptación y persistencia en este tipo de vegetación. Combina diferentes estrategias reproductivas como la reproducción vegetativa por estolones y la reproducción por semillas producidas en dos tipos de frutos y flores, subterráneas y aéreas. Las subterráneas son cleistógamas y las aéreas son casmógamas. Empíricamente se ha detectado mayor formación de semillas en los frutos subterráneos que en los aéreos. En el presente trabajo se ...

  17. Características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais submetidas a duas frequências de corte Morphologic and productive characteristics of tropical forage legumes under two harvest frequencies

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    Valdson José da Silva; José Carlos Batista Dubeux Junior; Vicente Imbroisi Teixeira; Mércia Virgínia Ferreira dos Santos; Mario de Andrade Lira; Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras submetidas a duas frequências de corte (28 e 56 dias) a altura de 10 cm. Foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo), Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela) e Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão). O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (7 leguminosas × 2 freq...

  18. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

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    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    : Sitio 1, P. laevigata; Sitio 2, M. biuncifera y Sitio 3, ambas leguminosas. En cada sitio se recolectó suelo, tanto abajo y fuera del dosel de las leguminosas, además, se realizaron transectos para medir e identificar las plantas arbóreas y arbustivas, se calculó el índice de valor de importancia y la diversidad del matorral. Asimismo, se registró mayor riqueza y diversidad en el Sitio 3 (ICE 29 spp. y H’ 2.7, en comparación con el Sitio 1 (24 spp. y 2.4 y Sitio 2 (26 spp. y 2.1. La materia orgánica y el carbono orgánico del suelo, así como el N total, el P-Olsen y la mineralización de C fueron mayores en el suelo bajo dosel de ambas leguminosas. La abundancia de esporas de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares fue favorecida por M. biunficera. La influencia de P. laevigata para crear islas más ricas en recursos fue mayor que en M. biunficera, lo anterior sugiere que cada leguminosa modifica de una forma diferente el microambiente, sin embargo, juntas aumentan la disponibilidad de nichos para el establecimiento de otras especies, lo queayuda a comprender el papel de P. laevigata y M. biuncifera sobre la colonización vegetal en ecosistemas semiáridos

  19. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of the hydro-methanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male albino rats

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    Kishalay Jana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No satisfactory effective treatment is available yet to cure diabetes mellitus. Though, synthetic drugs are used but there are several drawbacks. The attributed antihyperglycemic effects of many traditional plants are due to their ability for the management of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A hydromethanolic extract was administered orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 21 days. Its effects on the fasting blood glucose (FBG level, activities of key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the effect on the lipid peroxidation level in hepatic tissues were measured. Glycogen levels were also assessed in hepatic and skeletal muscles and some toxicity parameters, such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and alkaline phosphates activities were measured. Results: Treatment of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 recovery in the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes along with correction in FBG and glycogen levels as compared with the untreated diabetic group. The extract also resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 recovery in the activities of toxicity assessment enzyme parameters. Activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the lipid peroxidation levels were also recovered significantly (P < 0.05 after the treatment of the extract. The corrective effects produced by the extract were compared with the standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. Conclusion: Our findings provide that the extract shows possible antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  20. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

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    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  1. Atividade moluscicida de alguns produtos naturais sobre Biomphalaria glabrata Molluscicide activity of some natural products on Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada, em laboratório, a ação moluscicida de extratos aquosos (macerado e fervido, hexânico e etanólico de Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata e Tibouchina scrobiculata. As soluções dos extratos obtidos foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório, nas concentrações de 1, 10, 20, 200 e 1000ppm. Dos extratos testado o mais ativo foi o etanólico das flores da D. regia (flamboyant que apresentou atividade moluscicida sobre caramujos adultos na concentração de 20ppm.The molluscicide activity of aqueous (macerated and boiled, hexamic and ethylic extracts of Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata and Tibouchina scrobiculata was evaluated in the laboratory. The solutions obtained from those extracts were tested on adults and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata reared in the laboratory at 1, 10, 20, 100 and 1000ppm concentrations. The most active of the extracts studied was D. regia flowers' (flamboyant ethylic extracts which presented molluscicidal activity on adult snails at 20ppm.

  2. New Ravenelia species on leguminous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado Novas espécies de Ravenelia sobre leguminosas do Cerrado brasileiro

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    DENISE V. REZENDE; JOSÉ C. DIANESE

    2001-01-01

    Four new Ravenelia species were described on native leguminous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado, as follows: Ravenelia cerradensis sp. nov., R. chapadensis sp. nov., R. mineirosensis sp. nov. and R. emaensis sp. nov. on Chamaecrista clausenii var. cyclophylla, Chamaecriista conferta var. virgata, Anadenanthera colubrina var. colubrina, and on Anadenanthera sp., respectively.Quatro espécies novas de Ravenelia foram descritas em leguminosas do Cerrado brasileiro, a saber: Ravenelia cerradensis ...

  3. Estudo farmacobotânico de duas espécies de Anileira (Indigofera suffruticosa e Indigofera truxillensis, Leguminosae com propriedades farmacológicas Pharmacobotanical studies of wild indigo species (Indigofera suffruticosa and Indigofera truxillensis, Leguminosae, with pharmacological properties

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    Giselle Monte Cassiano Canavaci Barros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera suffruticosa e Indigofera truxillensis são espécies de Leguminosae que se destacam no gênero por suas propriedades farmacológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um controle de qualidade morfológico para as matérias-primas vegetais obtidas destas duas espécies, por meio de análises da superfície e organoléptica do pó foliolar e estudos anatômicos e histoquímicos dos folíolos, do caule e da raiz. A análise dos pós mostrou que a forma e ornamentação dos tricomas tectores são bons caracteres diagnósticos da matéria-prima pulverizada com partículas maiores que 53 µM, e que o odor em I. suffruticosa é forte e desagradável, com sabor fracamente amargo não persistente e em I. truxillensis é fraco e agradável e de sabor muito amargo e persistente. As espécies apresentaram estrutura anatômica de folíolos, entrenós caulinares e raízes laterais muito semelhantes; exceto pela epiderme papilosa em ambas as faces foliolares em I. truxillensis e apenas na face adaxial em I. suffruticosa. Compostos fenólicos foram detectados nos folíolos e alcalóides foram detectados nos caules e nas raízes (em maior quantidade nestas de ambas as espécies. A presença de alcalóides nas raízes de I. suffruticosa e I. truxillensis é semelhante à observada em espécies de leguminosas ictiotóxicas incluídas no "complexo timbó", cujas raízes são tóxicas devido à presença de rotenóides.The Leguminosae genus Indigofera has two important pharmacological species, Indigofera suffruticosa and I. truxillensis. The present work aims to establish a morphological quality control for vegetal drugs obtained from these two species through the analyses of surface and organoleptic features in leaflet powder, and also through anatomical and histochemical studies in leaflet, shoot and root. Powder analyses evidenced that shape and ornamentation of the simple trichomes are good diagnostic characters for the sprayed drug, with

  4. Evaluación de abonos verdes en el sistema de producción maíz-leguminosas

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    Prager M. Martin

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte del ensayo, se estudió el comportamiento del peso de nódulos, peso fresco y peso seco de tres leguminosas (Crotalaria, Canavalia y Guandul a utilizar como abonos verdes y su efecto sobre sistemas de producción maíz-leguminosas (maíz-caupí, maíz-soya, maíz-frijol. Las variables consideradas (rendimiento, rendimiento equivalente de maíz, ingreso neto y tasa de retorno marginal mostraron el efecto positivo de esta práctica sobre esta forma de producción obteniéndose mejor respuesta de el sistema maíz-caupí. De los abonos verdes la crotalaria presentó el mejor efecto sobre los sistemas de producción. En la segunda parte del trabajo, se utilizó el sistema de producción de mejor comportamiento introduciendo al factor abono verde algunas modalidades de tratamiento, entre ellas efecto residual, adición de una segunda incorporación de los tres abonos verdes y efecto residual más la adición de abono químico. La consideración de las mismas variables usadas en la primera parte mostro mejores valores por la segunda incorporación de abono verde y la adición de abono químico en su orden, el efecto residual de los abonos permite obtener rendimientos superiores a los alcanzados por el testigo.This research was divided in two parts. The first studies the behavior of three legumes (Crotalaria, Canavalia and Cajanus as green manure, measuring weight nodules, green weight matter and dry weight matter of them, so measured the effect on three production systems: Maize- cowpea, Maize- soybean and Maize-bean. The indicators (yield, equivalent maize yields, net income and marginal return rate showed positive effect of green manure on this production systems too maize-cowpea system showed the best yields; Crotalaria was ,the best green manure. In second experimental stage maize- cowpea system was evaluated, using the same indicators and introducing new treatments related to green manure: its residual effects, addicional

  5. Purificação e caracterização de alfa-galactosidases de sementes de Platymiscium pubescens Micheli Purification and characterization of alpha-galactosidases from Platymiscium pubescens Micheli seeds

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    Giordani de Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou foi determinar a composição bioquímica de sementes de espécies florestais e caracterizar a enzima alfa-galactosidase de sementes germinadas de Platymiscium pubescens. Os maiores teores de lipídios foram determinados em sementes de Chorisia speciosa, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Tabebuia serratifolia e Tabebuia velanedae, enquanto sementes de Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Schizolobium parahyba e Cassia grandis apresentaram os maiores teores protéicos. A alfa-galactosidase catalisa a hidrólise dos oligossacarídeos de rafinose, em sementes de leguminosas, durante a germinação. A maior atividade da alfa-galactosidase foi detectada em sementes de Platymiscium pubescens após 72 h de embebição. Duas formas de alfa-galactosidases, C1 e C2, foram purificadas de sementes germinadas de P. pubescens, usando-se fracionamento com sulfato de amônio e cromatografias de filtração em gel e de afinidade. Essas enzimas apresentaram atividade máxima em pH 5,5 e a 50-55 ºC. Os valores de Km ap das formas C1 e C2, para o substrato ro-nitrofenil-alfa-D-galactopiranosídeo, foram de 0,54 mM e 0,78 mM, e para a rafinose, de 4,64 mM e 5,09 mM, respectivamente. Essas enzimas exibiram estabilidade térmica moderada, mantendo 70% da atividade original após 3 h de incubação a 45 ºC. A atividade enzimática da C1 e C2 foi totalmente perdida na presença de CuSO4 e dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS. Tais enzimas também hidrolisaram melibiose, rafinose e estaquiose, indicando potencial para aplicações biotecnológicas.The objective of this work was to determine seed biochemical composition of forest species and to characterize alpha-galactosidase enzyme of germinated seeds of Platymiscium pubescens. The highest lipid levels were found in seeds of Chorisia speciosa, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Tabebuia serratifolia and Tabebuia velanedae, whereas seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Schizolobium parahyba and Cassia grandis showed

  6. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  7. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

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    Elias Terra Werner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A regulação da calogênese é o primeiro passo para a embriogênese somática indireta in vitro. Nesse sentido, foram investigados os efeitos de diferentes meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes nitrogenadas no desenvolvimento de calos em tecidos foliares de Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil. Explantes foliares foram cultivados em meios de cultura MS, B5, White e WPM. Testou-se, também, o efeito dos compostos nitrogenados (NH4NO3, KNO3 e glutamina e a interação entre auxinas (2,4-D, AIA e AIB e citocininas (BAP e KIN na desdiferenciação celular indicado pela formação de calos. Os meios MS, B5 e White não foram significantemente diferentes e proporcionaram melhores resultados. Em meio MS contendo as fontes nitrogenadas 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 e 1,35 g L-1 glutamina + 4,11 g L-1 de KNO3 na presença de 1,0 mg L-1 2,4-D e 5,0 mg L-1 BAP ocorreu maior proliferação celular indicada pela massa fresca dos calos. As combinações dos reguladores 0,5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 AIB + 5,0 mg L-1 BAP suplementado com 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 em meio MS estimularam o crescimento dos calos. De maneira geral, os calos apresentaram aspectos friáveis, não embriogênicos, com acúmulo de fenóis e presença de áreas meristemáticas (meristemóides.The regulation of callus formation is the first step to indirect somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Therefore, we investigated hormonal and nutrient factors on development of callus in leaf tissues of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood. Explants were cultivated in culture media MS, B5, WPM, and White. The effect of nitrogen sources (NH4NO3, KNO3 and glutamine and the interaction between auxins (2,4-D, IAA and IBA and cytokinins (BAP and KIN were also evaluated. Media MS, B5 and White were not significantly different and provided better results. MS medium containing 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3, 1.35 g L-1 glutamine, and 4.11 g L-1 of KNO3 in the presence of 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D and 5 mg.L-1 BAP increased cellular

  8. Enraizamento de estacas de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tratadas com ácido indol butírico e ácido naftaleno acético Rooting cuttings of Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. treated with indole butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid

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    Laurício Endres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tem grande valor cultural no Brasil e a sua propagação por sementes é dificultada pela rápida perda do poder germinativo delas. A estaquia pode ser usada para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais, principalmente quando existem algumas dificuldades de propagação por sementes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o efeito de concentrações e fontes de auxinas sobre o enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil. Estacas com cerca de 12cm de comprimento e de um a dois pares de folhas foram tratadas na base com ácido indol butírico (AIB, ácido naftaleno acético (ANA na forma líquida ou na forma de pó nas concentrações de 0, 1.250, 2.500, 5.000, 10.000mg L-1 ou mg Kg-1, respectivamente. As estacas foram transferidas para substrato contendo areia e mantidas sob nebulização (90-95% UR. Aos 120 dias de estaquia, foram avaliados a mortalidade, a retenção foliar, a formação de calo e a percentagem de estacas enraizadas. As estacas apresentaram índices de sobrevivência de até 70%. A formação de calos não foi relacionada com a concentração de auxinas utilizadas. O maior índice de enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil, em torno de 16%, foi resgistrada com a utilização do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e do ácido naftalenoacético (ANA na concentração 2.500mg L-1. Os altos índices de sobrevivência e os baixos índices de enraizamento sugerem que as estacas devem permanecer por mais tempo sob nebulização, a fim de induzir o seu processo de enraizamento.The 'pau-brasil' tree (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. have a high cultural value in Brazil and its seed propagation is very difficult because of its rapid losses of germination potential. Cuttings propagation has been considered as alternative method to propagate forest species that seed propagation is poor. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthalene acetic (NAA acid on

  9. Estudos morfoanatômicos da semente e da plântula de espécies de Anileiras (Indigofera L., Leguminosae Morpho-anatomical studies of seeds and seedlings of wild indigo, "anileira", Indigofera- Leguminosae

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    Juliana Villela Paulino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O nome popular "anileira" designa Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. e I. truxillensis Kunth, muito semelhantes quanto à morfologia externa. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar se caracteres da semente e plântula apresentavam valor diagnóstico para este grupo, já que tais caracteres têm sido muito utilizados na Taxonomia de Leguminosae. A superfície e morfoanatomia de sementes e cotilédones foram estudadas por microscopias eletrônica de varredura e de luz, e as etapas do desenvolvimento das plântulas descritas. Embora as plântulas sejam semelhantes, caracteres de sementes (tamanho, forma, ornamentação da superfície, forma do hilo e tamanho do embrião e cotilédones (forma, organização do parênquima lacunoso na nervura central e distribuição de metabólitos nos tecidos apresentaram valor diagnóstico para as espécies. I. anil distingue-se de I. suffruticosa por suas sementes maiores e cotilédones com borda acuminada. I. truxillensis caracteriza-se por apresentar sementes cilíndricas e cotilédones reniformes contendo gotas de óleo e alcalóides. Nossos dados, a morfologia externa dos frutos (curvos em I. anil e I. suffruticosa, e retos em I. truxillensis e, ainda, a anatomia foliar (células parenquimáticas grandes e fenólicas no floema de I. suffruticosa e sua ausência em I. anil sugerem que I. anil, I. suffruticosa e I. truxillensis não devem ser sinonimizadas.The common name "wild indigo" specifies Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. (legitimate name and I. truxillensis Kunth (legitimate name that are very similar due to their external morphology. This work analyzed diagnostic characteristics of seeds and seedlings of these species since such features are widely used in taxonomic approaches within Leguminosae. We studied surface features and morpho-anatomy of seeds and cotyledons with scanning electronic microscopy and light microscopy, and described seedling phases. Although seedlings are similar

  10. El género Zygia P. Browne (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae, Ingeae en la porción mexicana de la Península de Yucatán

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    López-Contreras, José Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Mexican portion of the Yucatan Peninsula there are three species of Zygia (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae, Ingeae. Their morphological differences and nomenclature are discussed. A key, descriptions, iconography, ecological, phenological, uses and common names are included.En la porción mexicana de la Península de Yucatán hay tres especies del género Zygia (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae, Ingeae. Se discuten sus diferencias morfológicas y nombres correctos. Se incluye una clave, descripciones, iconografía, información ecológica, fenológica, nombres comunes y usos.

  11. Efecto de la incorporación de leguminosas en pasturas de trópico alto sobre el contenido de ácido linoleico conjugado ALC en la leche

    OpenAIRE

    León Caviedes, Javier Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de la incorporación de leguminosas en pasturas de trópico alto se ejecutaron dos experimentos: en el primero se utilizaron 12 vacas Holstein en lactancia media bajo un diseño de sobrecambio 4x4x4. Se incorporo la leguminosa Lotus uiliginosus en pasturas de gramíneas Festuca arundinacea y Pennisetum clandestinum. Se logro buen establecimiento de la asociación P.clandestinum + L. uliginosus lo cual resulto en mayor consumo de materia sec...

  12. As leguminosas como alimentos funcionais: o caso das dislipidémias e das doenças cardiovasculares Legumes as functional foods: the case of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Martins; Bento, O.P.

    2007-01-01

    A dieta mediterrânica é rica em alimentos funcionais. As leguminosas, um dos alimentos-chave desta dieta, têm visto o seu papel na prevenção de dislipidémias, diabetes e cancro do cólon mencionado por muitos autores. O efeito do consumo de leguminosas na redução da colesterolémia deve-se a diferentes nutrientes e fitoquímicos, tais como: i) proteína; ii) lípidos, particularmente a componente polinsaturada e monoinsaturada; iii) fibra, especialmente a fracção solúvel; iv) saponinas; e v) fitos...

  13. Estabelecimento de leguminosas arbóreas em pastos de capim-marandu e tanzânia Establishment of leguminous trees in marandu and tanzânia pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Francisco Dias; Sebastião Manhães Souto; Bruno Campbell de Azevedo; Márcia de Souza Vieira; Aline Alves Colombari; Juliana Dias; Avílio Antônio Franco

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de mudas sem proteção (de cercas ou estacas) de quatro espécies de leguminosas arbóreas e uma mistura eqüitativa dessas espécies, introduzidas em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, na presença de gado. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, duas gramíneas (marandu e tanzânia) e quatro espécies de leguminosas (Mimosa artemisiana, Pseudosamanea guachapele, Ent...

  14. Aislamiento de "Micromonospora" de nódulos de leguminosas tropicales y análisis de su interés como promotor del crecimiento vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda Castillo, María Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se plantea el aislamiento, caracterización e identificación de cepas de Micromonospora aisladas de nódulos fijadores de nitrógeno de las leguminosas tropicales Phaseolus vulgaris y Arachis hypogeae recogidas en Nicaragua y que son de importancia agrícola en toda América Latina. Posteriormente se realizarán experimentos de reinoculación en planta con el fin de ampliar nuestros conocimientos sobre el papel que pueden desempeñar estos microorganismos en la nodulación y fij...

  15. As pastagens semeadas anuais biodiversas ricas em leguminosas (PPSBRL), uma emulação da vegetação de Poetea bulbosae

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Carlos; Pires, Jaime; Fernández-Núñez, E.

    2010-01-01

    As PPSBRL caracterizam-se pelo uso de misturas de sementes, muito diversas em espécies/cultivares pratenses anuais melh oradas, entre as quais preponderam leguminosas do género Trifolium. O conceito de PPSBRL deve-se ao agrónomo português David Crespo. A sinecologia e a estrutura florística das PPSBRL e das pastagens de Poetea bulbosae (malhadas) são análogas, entre outros aspecto s, nas exigências bioclimáticas, na dinâmica anual da oferta de biomassa, na sensibilidad...

  16. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO EM BRAQUIÁRIA NOS SISTEMAS DE PLANTIO SOLTEIRO E CONSÓRCIO COM LEGUMINOSAS

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    Tomas de Aquino Portes Castro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se o efeito da competição no crescimento da gramínea forrageira Urochloa brizantha cv Marandu em consórcio com as leguminosas forrageiras Stylosanthes guianensis cv Mineirão e Neonotonia wightii cv Comum, nos sistemas de plantio solteiro e em consórcio.O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, cujos tratamentos foram os seguintes: Braquiária em sistema solteiro de plantio; braquiária em consórcio com soja perene e braquiária em consórcio com estilozantes. Para a análise de crescimento foram colhidas plantas ao nível do solo aleatoriamente na parcela e, posteriormente, encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa – CNPAF. As taxas de crescimento da cultura (TCC braquiária nos sistemas consorciados de plantio foram inferiores em relação ao sistema solteiro, sendo que o estilozante contribuiu de forma mais expressiva para a redução dessa taxa. Considerando-se que a TCC máxima (kg.ha-1.dia-1 do braquiária foi obtida aos 84 DAE e que o IAF observado nessa mesma data correspondente ao IAF ótimo,demonstra-se que os consórcios não afetaram o ciclo da gramínea, mas sim os valores obtidos para TCC e IAF. Isso pode levar a concluir que existe competição interespecífica nos cultivos consorciados, o que interfere de forma diferenciada nos parâmetros avaliados. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Índice de área foliar, Neonotonia wightii, Stylosanthes guianensis, taxa de crescimento da cultura,Urochloa brizantha.

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN FENOTÍPICA DE AISLADOS DE RIZOBIOS PROCEDENTES DE LA LEGUMINOSA FORRAJERA Canavalia ensiformis

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    Ionel Hernández Forte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar fenotípicamente aislados de rizobios procedentes de la leguminosa forrajera Canavalia ensiformis. Se caracterizaron doce aislados, cinco posibles miembros del género Rhizobium/ Sinorhizobium, siete posibles integrantes del género Bradyrhizobium y dos cepas comerciales, BR 2001 y BR 2003a. Para la caracterización fenotípica de los aislados bacterianos se estudió su capacidad de utilizar seis fuentes de carbono, la tolerancia a condiciones de acidez y a diferentes niveles de cloruro de sodio (NaCl, la resistencia a seis antibióticos así como su crecimiento en tres temperaturas de incubación. Se determinó además la capacidad de estos aislados de producir polihidroxibutiratos (PHB. Todos los aislados estudiados utilizaron la lactosa, glucosa y manitol como fuentes de carbono. Uno de los aislados de rápido crecimiento resultó el más tolerante a pH 4.5. Los aislados posibles miembros del género Rhizobium/ Sinorhizobium toleraron una mayor concentración de NaCl que los posibles integrantes del género Bradyrhizobium. Tres de los aislados de rápido crecimiento fueron resistentes a los seis antibióticos utilizados. Cuando los aislados fueron incubados a 370C todos, con excepción del el aislado CP3 y la cepa comercial BR 2001, presentaron un crecimiento similar al control. El aislado CP10, de lento crecimiento, tuvo la capacidad de producir las mayores concentraciones de PHB (0.023 g.L-1.

  18. Producción y valor nutricional del cultivo de morera (Morus alba L. con intercalamiento de leguminosas

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    María Judith Delgado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las principales preocupaciones en la alimentación animal es la búsqueda de alternativas rentables para el productor y eficientes desde el punto de vista nutricional para los animales. Para que el volumen de la producción de estos alimentos sea el adecuado, se han utilizado prácticas como las planteadas en la revolución verde, que incluyen el uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados químicos, lo que ha traído secuelas negativas sobre el medioambiente. En la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas nutricionales se encontraron algunos forrajes, como la morera (Morus alba L., que tiene un alto nivel de proteína, entre otras propiedades nutricionales; pero, alternativas nutricionales como ésta requieren fertilización nitrogenada en elevadas cantidades.Con el interés de generar alternativas amigables con el medioambiente y que además logren mantener o incrementar el volumen de producción y el valor nutricional de la morera, surgió la idea de estudiar la intersiembra de este arbusto con leguminosas, como arveja (Pisum sativum L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L y fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., analizando variables nutricionales y parámetros de crecimiento del cultivo de morera. Además, se trabajó con un grupo de fertilización nitrogenada y un grupo de control (sin modificación alguna del cultivo. Al finalizar el estudio se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0.05 para la mayoría de parámetros, exceptuando la variable altura, que no presentó diferencias importantes (p>0.05.

  19. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae

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    James A Nicholls

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia. Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a subset of 60 loci in a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories in the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  20. Produção de matéria seca e controle de plantas daninhas por leguminosas consorciadas com cana-de-açúcar em cultivo orgânico

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    Raíssa de Araujo Dantas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de matéria seca e o controle de plantas daninhas por espécies de leguminosas consorciadas com cana-de-açúcar, em cultivo orgânico. As espécies leguminosas Arachis pintoi, Cajanus cajan, Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria anagyroides, Crotalaria juncea e Stylosanthes 'Campo Grande' foram semeadas em novembro de 2012, nas entrelinhas da cana-de-açúcar. O delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso foi utilizado com quatro repetições e dois controles - um tratamento capinado e outro sem capinar. A massa de matéria seca das leguminosas foi avaliada aos 142 dias após a semeadura (DAS, e a massa de matéria seca de plantas daninhas, aos 29, 85 e 142 DAS. A massa de matéria seca de plantas daninhas foi inferior à da testemunha em todas as épocas amostradas. A produção de massa de matéria seca das leguminosas no consórcio foi baixa. As espécies Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan e Calopogonium mucunoides produziram massa de matéria seca superior à das espécies Arachis pintoi e Stylosanthes 'Campo Grande'. A produtividade de colmos da cana-de-açúcar não foi afetada pelo consórcio. O consórcio entre cana-de-açúcar orgânica e leguminosas com semeadura tardia, para adubação verde, é eficiente no controle de plantas daninhas.

  1. Caracterización fisicoquímica de los aceites crudos de algunas semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sonoran desert has a great variety of nutritional native plants, mainly from the leguminous family. Although in ancient times their products were used as food by native Americans, there is little information about their potential as a food source. For this reason, oils from the following seeds were studied: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro and Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Oils were extracted from the seeds with hexane, and contents ranged from 8.5 to 23.5 %. The physicochemical studies showed mostly unsaturated oils, as demonstrated by the iodine index, (101-147 units. Indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acids were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids were separated and quantified by gas chromatography. Linoleic and oleic acids were found to predominate. All extracted crude oils were of good quality, comparable to those from soybean, com, sunflower and carthamus.

    El desierto de Sonora cuenta con una gran variedad de plantas silvestres principalmente de la familia leguminosae de las cuales se tiene poca información acerca de su potencial como fuente nutricional. Por lo que se estudiaron los aceites de las semillas: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro y Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Los aceites de cada semilla se extrajeron con hexano, obteniéndose de 8.5 a 23.5 %. Estos mostraron un alto grado de insaturación reflejado en los índices de lodo, de 101 a 147. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos y dentro de los valores aceptables. Al cuantificar los ácidos grasos por

  2. Outline of the classified system of the Chinese Leguminosae%中国豆科植物分类系统概览

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱相云

    2004-01-01

    豆科是被子植物中继兰科和菊科之后的第三大科,其中包括三个亚科:即云实亚科、含羞草亚科和蝶形花亚科.本文根据最新资料,整理出世界豆科有42族、634属、17 834种,中国有33族、169属、1 518种(另外含15亚种、167变种和41变型),其中外来种158种(含亚种和变种,隶属于73属).为建立中国豆科植物数据库,本文在Polhill豆科植物分类系统的基础上,结合一些新的资料,提出中国豆科植物系统概要.文中按分类等级进行排序,每一属含有世界和中国种数及分布.%The family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), the largest one of flowering plants after the Compositae (or Asteraceae) and Orchidaceae, consist of three subfamilies such as Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. It comprises 42 tribes, 635 genera and 17 840 species in the world based on the present up to date statistic. In China, there are 33 tribes, 169 genera, 1 518 species, 15 subspecies, 167 varieties and 41 forms recorded so far. Of them, 158 exotic species (containing subspecies and varieties) are included, which belong to the 73 genera [1].For constituting a database of Chinese Legume, the outline for classified system of Chinese Leguminosae is summarized here. This paper aims to indicate the system of Chinese Leguminosae with some new taxonomical treatment (the tribes Wisterieae X. Y. Zhu[2] and Poiretieae (Burkart) H. Ohashi[3]) based on the previous system proposed by Polhill & Raven[[4] & Polhill [5]. The number of species and geographical distribution for each genus[3, 4, 6] is shown in this paper. Of them, black letters and numbers stand for the genera and species appearing in China[6~12]. 

  3. as leguminosas, una fuente importante de fibra alimentaria: Una visión en Venezuela Legumes, an important source of dietary fiber: A vision in Venezuela

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    Omar E García O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La fibra dietética o alimentaría es un término genérico que cubre una amplia variedad de sustancias químicas, con diferentes propiedades y efectos fisiológicos. Química mente, la fibra dietética es una sustancia perteneciente a la familia de los carbohidratos. En los últimos 40 años, ha tenido un creciente interés en el campo de la salud y nutrición humana. En general, la fibra alimentaría la encontramos en los productos alimenticios de origen vegetal. Un buen ejemplo de ello son las leguminosas de grano. Las leguminosas, a través de la historia, siempre han sido un recurso alimenticio de gran importancia para la alimentación humana. Representan, por un lado, una fuente barata de proteínas y, por el otro, un suministro de fibra dietética a la dieta. El presente artículo, fue enfocado a revisar y recopilar los mayores trabajos realizados sobre la determinación y cuantificación de la fibra alimentaría en algunos alimentos, principalmente en leguminosas venezolanas.The dietary fiber or alimentary fiber, it is a generic term which covers a wide variety of chemical substances, with different properties and physiological effects. Chemically, the dietary fiber is a substance belonging to the family of the carbohydrates. In the last 40 years it has had increasing interest in the field of health and human nutrition. In general, we find the alimentary fiber in the food products from vegetable. A good example of it, are the legume seeds. The legume seeds across the history, have been a food resource of great importance for human nutrition. On the one hand, a cheap source of proteins and on the other one, an additional supply of fiber to the diet. The present article, was focused to review and to collect the most realised works for the determination and quantification of alimentary fiber in of the mainly Venezuelan legumes seeds.

  4. Técnicas para a obtenção de preparações citológicas com alta freqüência de metáfases mitóticas em plantas: Passiflora (Passifloraceae) e Crotalaria (Leguminosae) Techniques to obtain cytological preparations with high frequency of mitotic metaphases in plants: Passiflora (Passifloraceae) and Crotalaria (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Marina Cuco; Mateus Mondin; Maria Lúcia Carneiro Vieira; Margarida L.R. Aguiar-Perecin

    2003-01-01

    Foram conduzidos experimentos visando à otimização de procedimentos para preparações citológicas de pontas de raiz com alta freqüência de metáfases mitóticas, apresentando cromossomos com morfologia nítida, em espécies pertencentes a dois gêneros de plantas, Passiflora (Passifloraceae) e Crotalaria (Leguminosae). Para o acúmulo de metáfases, bem como de prófases e prometáfases com cromossomos bem condensados, foram avaliados pré-tratamentos de raízes, em que foram utilizadas diferentes combin...

  5. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    OpenAIRE

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes; José Pedro Pereira; Cecília Pereira de Souza; Maria de Lourdes Lima de Oliveira

    1984-01-01

    Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulch...

  6. Distinctive patterns of callose deposition provide an early sign of ovule abortion1 in the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii Patrones distintivos de deposición de calosa proveen evidencia temprana de aborto de óvulos en el arbusto andromonoico Caesalpinia gilliesii

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    A. Calviño

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovule abortion may lead to the partial or complete reduction of the number of functional ovules in the ovary and then is the primary factor that determines the sexual expression of the plant. In different species, ovule abortion was associated with the presence of callose in advanced ovules. Based on these observations, we studied the pattern of ovule development and callose deposition in both perfect and staminate flowers of the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The obtained results showed that all ovules reached the 8-nucleate stage of embryo sac development and exhibited callose deposition at advanced stages. Nevertheless, from the 2-nucleate stage, a distinct spatial pattern of callose deposition within the ovule was observed between perfect and staminate flowers. Differences in callose deposition suggest that not callose per se but its distribution pattern in the ovule tissues is the main factor that triggers ovule isolation and abortion and leads to flowers with non-functional pistils in this species. Furthermore, previous observed differential growth rates between perfect and staminate flowers support for resource depletion as the likely underlying mechanism of ovule fate in C. gilliesii.El aborto de óvulos puede llevar a la reducción parcial o completa de óvulos fértiles en el ovario, pudiendo ser entonces un factor primario que determine la expresión sexual de toda la planta. En diferentes especies de plantas, el aborto de los óvulos ha sido asociado con la presencia de calosa en estadios avanzados del desarrollo de los óvulos. Basado en estas observaciones, se estudiaron el desarrollo de los óvulos y el patrón de deposición de calosa tanto en flores perfectas como estaminadas en el arbusto andromonoico C. gilliesii. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los sacos embrionarios alcanzan el estadio de desarrollo 8-nucleado en todos los óvulos, y que presentan deposición de calosa en los estadios avanzados. Sin

  7. Crotalaria incana l. and leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): toxicity indicator species of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil; Crotalaria incana l. y leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): especies indicadoras de toxicidad por hidrocarburos de petroleo en el suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Luna, Dinora; Castellan Estrada, Mepivoseth; Rivera Cruz, Maria del C.; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I.; Izquierdo R., Francisco [Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: dinovaz@colpos.mx

    2010-07-01

    This study assesses the toxic effects produced by a Gleysol molic soil contaminated with crude oil on seedlings of two species of legumes. A phytotoxic impact index (IIF) was generated, which includes five parameters measured by relative rates of impact (IRIF{sub (x)}) for variables; emergency, height, root length, aboveground biomass and root biomass. Bioassays were conducted under a completely randomized design with three replications under semi-controlled conditions, to assess the sensitivity of Leucaena leucocephala and Crotalaria incana at different concentrations of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons). Effects were highly significant (P {<=} 0.01) with increasing concentrations of HTP in substrate. The emergence of L. leucocephala was 29 % lower with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} HTP, while C. incana decreased 30 % with 32 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH respect to control. Both species showed a five-day delay in the emergence of seedlings when exposed to high levels of TPH. A significant decrease in the accumulation of dry matter (DM) at concentrations above 20 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH was observed in both species. The respective IIF declined of 50 % with 80 000 and 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH, but L. leucocephala had no significant effect with 10 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. Finally, the EC50 in L. leucocephala, is presented with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH whereas in C. incana this parameter is noted from 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. [Spanish] En este estudio se evaluaron los efectos toxicos que produce un suelo Gleysol molico contaminado con petroleo crudo, sobre plantulas de dos especies de leguminosas. Para ello se genero un indice de impacto fitotoxico (IIF) que integra cinco parametros, medidos a traves de indices relativos de impacto (IRIF{sub (x)}) para las variables emergencia, altura, longitud radicular, biomasa aerea y biomasa radicular. Los bioensayos se realizaron bajo un diseno completamente al azar, con tres repeticiones, en condiciones semicontroladas, para evaluar la sensibilidad de

  8. Sobre las causas ontogénicas de la productividad diferencial de semillas en la especie anficárpica Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae On the causes of the differential seed production in the anficarpic species Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae

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    Gabriela Speroni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium polymorphum es una leguminosa de pradera con buena adaptación y persistencia en este tipo de vegetación. Combina diferentes estrategias reproductivas como la reproducción vegetativa por estolones y la reproducción por semillas producidas en dos tipos de frutos y flores, subterráneas y aéreas. Las subterráneas son cleistógamas y las aéreas son casmógamas. Empíricamente se ha detectado mayor formación de semillas en los frutos subterráneos que en los aéreos. En el presente trabajo se realizan estudios embriológicos y de desarrollo de semillas en ambos tipos de flores para dilucidar si existen causas ontogenéticas que determinan la productividad diferencial de semillas en ambos tipos de frutos. No se detectaron causas embriológicas pre-cigóticas que expliquen el menor número de semillas en los frutos de las flores aéreas. Ambos tipos de semillas comparten características ontogenéticas y presentan apropiado desarrollo de los óvulos, sacos embrionarios y establecimiento de vías nutricionales para saco embrionario, embrión y endosperma. En general las floraciones insumen un costo energético importante para las especies vegetales. La floración aérea de T. polymorphum, aunque sometida a una fuerte presión de herbivoría del ganado, incorpora variabilidad genética a sus poblaciones a través de la polinización cruzada y permite la dispersión a distancia.Trifolium polymorphum is recognized as one of the best adapted legume in field conditions. It combines different reproductive strategies such as stoloniferous vegetative reproduction and seed reproduction by two types of fruits produced in underground and aerial flowers. These last ones are chasmogamous and underground flowers are cleistogamous. A higher seed production has empirically been detected in underground flowers rather than in aerial ones. In the present work, embryological studies in aerial and underground flowers were carried out in order to determine

  9. EVALUACIÓN DE TRES LEGUMINOSAS COMO COBERTURAS ASOCIADAS CON MAÍZ EN EL TRÓPICO SUBHÚMEDO

    OpenAIRE

    José Bernardino Castillo-Caamal; Jesús Arturo Caamal-Maldonado; Juan José María Jiménez-Osornio; Francisco Bautista-Zúñiga; Manuel Jesús Amaya-Castro; Rodrigo Rodríguez-Carrillo

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo fue evaluar el potencia l de tres leguminosas como coberturas para mejorar el sistema de producción de maíz. Se evaluaron cuatro tratamie ntos: 1) maíz solo; 2) maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo corto de semilla blanca 3) maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo largo de semilla blanca y 4) maíz y frijol terciopelo (Mucuna sp.) en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas, durante cuatro ciclos de cultivo (1999-2002) en Yucatán, México. Se midió la biomasa de cultivo...

  10. Leguminosas e adubação mineral como fontes de nitrogênio para o milho em sistemas de preparo do solo

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    T. J. C. Amado

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O nitrogênio é um nutriente requerido em grande quantidade pelo milho. O solo tem limitada capacidade de atender a esta demanda, sendo por isto utilizadas outras fontes de N como leguminosas e adubação mineral. A combinação destas duas fontes de N pode contribuir para a sustentabilidade do agroecossistema. Com o objetivo de avaliar a disponibilidade de N em sistemas de preparo do solo e cultura, foi realizada esta pesquisa, utilizando um experimento de longa duração na UFRGS (RS em um Argissolo Vermelho-Escuro distrófico. Os tratamentos utilizados foram três sistemas de preparo: convencional, reduzido e direto; três sistemas de cultura: aveia/milho, aveia + ervilhaca/milho + caupi e ervilhaca/milho, e três doses de N: 0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1 aplicadas em cobertura no milho. A associação do sistema plantio direto com o uso de leguminosas foi eficiente em promover o aumento do estoque de N total no solo. Embora tenha sido constatada maior velocidade de decomposição de resíduos no preparo convencional do que no plantio direto, ambos os sistemas apresentaram potencial de sincronismo da liberação de N dos resíduos com a demanda do milho. Esta cultura no sistema plantio direto apresentou menor produção de matéria seca e absorção de N do que no preparo convencional, porém não houve diferença no rendimento entre estes sistemas de preparo. A equivalência em fertilizante nitrogenado foi estimada em 55 e 38 kg ha-1, respectivamente, para a ervilhaca e aveia + ervilhaca.

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE TRES LEGUMINOSAS COMO COBERTURAS ASOCIADAS CON MAÍZ EN EL TRÓPICO SUBHÚMEDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 Bernardino Castillo-Caamal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el potencia l de tres leguminosas como coberturas para mejorar el sistema de producción de maíz. Se evaluaron cuatro tratamie ntos: 1 maíz solo; 2 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo corto de semilla blanca 3 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo largo de semilla blanca y 4 maíz y frijol terciopelo (Mucuna sp. en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas, durante cuatro ciclos de cultivo (1999-2002 en Yucatán, México. Se midió la biomasa de cultivos, pH, N total, mineralización potencia l anaerobia del nitrógeno, evolución del CO 2, potasio (K, fósforo (P y materia orgánica del suelo, biomasa y frecuencia de arvenses. La cantidad de rastrojo en los tratamie ntos con leguminosas fue: 3436, 3425 y 4018 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer año, respectivamente. El nitrógeno aportado por los rastrojos al maíz fue 25,8; 31,9; 52,8 y 43,4 kg/ha para los tratamie ntos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente. El rendimie nto de grano de maíz fue en promedio 841, 843 y 460 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer ciclo, respectivamente; sin diferencias entre tratamie ntos. En el tercer ciclo, el frijol terciopelo disminuyó la biomasa de arvenses de 126 a 58 g MS /m2. Las coberturas ejercieron poca influencia en las variables de suelo y rendimie nto de grano de maíz.

  12. Brownea jaramilloi (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, Álvaro J.; Klitgård, Bente B.; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris;

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Brownea jaramilloi, a new species, endemic to the northeastern Ecuadorian Amazon, is described and illustrated, and its placement in the genus discussed. It is unique in the genus Brownea in being characterised by yellow flowers. In a 25-ha plot in Yasuni National Park, this new species ...... averaged 20 individuals (with dbh ≥ 1 cm) per hectare. © 2012 The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew....

  13. Regionalización y relaciones biogeográficas de la Península de Yucatán con base en los patrones de distribución de la familia Leguminosae The biogeographical regions and relationship of the Yucatán Peninsula based on distribution patterns of the Leguminosae family

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    Rodrigo Duno-de Stefano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución geográfica de 224 especies de leguminosas nativas de la Península de Yucatán (México en 48 unidades geográficas operativas (0.5° de latitud y 0.5 ° longitud. Las relaciones biogeográficas regionales se determinaron utilizando información de las leguminosas de 12 áreas de América Central, América del Norte, América del Sur y las Antillas. Se emplearon 3 métodos de análisis: coeficiente de Jaccard, análisis de parsimonia (PAE y un análisis de patrones generales de distribución, como una visualización general de los trazos individuales de Croizat. También se revisaron filogenias de algunos géneros de leguminosas para determinar patrones de evolución geográfica. La mayor riqueza de especies encontrada al sur de la península se asocia con el gradiente climático en sentido norte-sur. Los resultados indican que esta área se puede dividir en 2 áreas biogeográficas (distritos: una franja septentrional y una franja meridional y al menos 5 subdistritos. Los análisis de parsimonia (PAE y los patrones generales de distribución son congruentes con los análisis de similitud. Todos los resultados sugieren que la Península de Yucatán presenta la mayor afinidad con América Central, y le sigue América del Norte, América del Sur y finalmente las Antillas, mientras que el elemento endémico representa el 6.7 %.In order to assess biogeographical relationship of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, it was divided in 48 operational geographic units of 0.5 ° latitude and longitude and the distribution patterns of 224 native species of the family Leguminosae were analyzed. Biogeographic relations were determined comparing our results with legumes information of 12 neighboring areas of Central, North and South America, and the Caribbean. Three methodologies were used to analyze the information: the Jaccard's similarity coefficient, parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE, and a simple comparison of

  14. Análise morfológica de sementes, germinação e plântulas de jatobá (Hymenaea intermedia Ducke var. adenotricha (Ducke Lee & Lang. (Leguminosae-caesalpinioideae Morphologycal analysis of seeds, germination, and seedlings of jatobá (Hymenaea intermedia Ducke var. adenotricha (Ducke Lee & Lang. (Leguminosae-caesalpinioideae

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    Maria da Glória Gonçalves de Melo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As leguminosas são usadas para compor Sistemas Agroflorestais, cujo sucesso de implantação depende de informações básicas sobre as espécies que compõem os diferentes extratos. Hymenaea intermedia var. adenotricha é uma leguminosa com potencial para aproveitamento agroflorestal na região. As sementes foram coletadas de matrizes na área de floresta natural da Província Petrolífera de Porto Urucu - Amazonas. O estudo foi realizado em condições de viveiro e laboratório da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias (UFAM. A semente de Hymenaea intermedia var. adenotricha é eurispérmica, com testa de consistência pétrea (desidratada e cartácea (hidratada. O tegumento apresenta quatro estratos celulares com o primeiro formado por células finas e longas em paliçada, sendo visível a "linha lúcida". O embrião é axial, total, de cor amarelo-esverdeado. Os cotilédones são carnosos, inteiro com radícula escondida. A plúmula é rudimentar. A germinação é epígea fanerocotiledonar, com emergência curvada. A plântula apresenta sistema radicular pivotante com raiz primária axial, sub-lenhosa, estriada, glabra. As raízes secundárias são curtas, pouco ramificadas, porém entrelaçadas, resinosas e sem nódulos. O protófilo é composto, com folíolos opostos, sésseis. O primeiro metáfilo apresenta-se composto, bifoliolado, com folíolos assimétricos levemente falcado-oblongo.Species from the Leguminosae family are used in Agroforestry Systems. Their successful implementation depends on basic information about the species that constitute each extract. Hymenaea intermedia var. adenotricha is a specie from the leguminosae family with potential to be used in agroforestry in the Amazon region. The seeds were harvested from plants found in the natural forest of Petroleum Province Urucu Harbor. The studies were carried out under laboratory and nursery conditions at the Agrarian Sciences College the Amazonas University. H. intermedia var

  15. Tipificação polínica em Leguminosae de uma área prioritária para conservação da Caatinga: Caesalpinioideae e Papilionoideae Pollen typification of Leguminosae from a priority area for conservation of Caatinga: Caesalpinioideae and Papilionoideae

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    Maria Teresa Buril

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O município de Mirandiba, Pernambuco, foi considerado como área prioritária para a conservação da Caatinga e apresenta uma grande diversidade florística. Leguminosae desponta como família mais diversa, representando cerca de 25% das espécies conhecidas para o domínio. Foram caracterizados os grãos de pólen das subfamílias Caesalpinioideae e Papilionoideae, e estabelecidos grupos com afinidades na morfologia polínica. Em Caesalpinioideae, são discutidas diferenças especialmente quanto à ornamentação da exina, marcantes entre os gêneros estudados. Enquanto em Papilionoideae, a variação mais marcante está no tipo de aberturas, sendo encontrados poros, cólporos e colpos. Nas duas subfamílias, a maioria dos gêneros pode ser considerada estenopolínica, restringindo o reconhecimento de espécies por caracteres apenas morfométricos.The municipality of Mirandiba, in Pernambuco, is considered a priority area for conservation of Caatinga and has a diverse flora. In this region, the family with the greatest number of species is the Leguminosae, which is represented by about 25% of the species known from the Caatinga. In this study we characterized the pollen grains of the subfamilies Caesalpinioideae and Papilionoideae, and established groups based on pollen morphology. Differences found within the Caesalpinioideae are discussed, especially exine ornamentation, which is striking between the different genera. In Papilionoideae, the most conspicuous difference was the type of aperture, where pores, colpores, and colpi were observed. In the two subfamilies, most genera are considered stenopalynous, making it difficult recognize species by only morphometric characters.

  16. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  17. Evaluation of legumes and poultry manure for the early protection of burnt soils Evaluación de leguminosas y gallinaza para la protección temprana de suelos quemados Avaliaçao da utilizaçao de leguminosas e estrume de galináceos na protecção precoce de solos queimados

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    Serafín González Prieto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Organic amendments combined with the sowing of gramineous grasses are effective for the early protection of burnt soils (BS but cannot restore soil N status to pre-fire level; this has led to interest in combining their use with N2 fixer legumes. The effectiveness of applying poultry manure (PM; 2 Mg ha-1 and sowing legumes (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus and Trifolium repens for the early protection of BS was compared with that of applying PM + Lolium perenne and growing these four species without PM in a 3-month pot experiment, which also included a control consisting of an unburnt soil (US. In US, the shoot and root biomass increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus << Lolium < Lupinus. Compared with those grown in US, plants grown in BS were smaller and weaker in three species (Lupinus, Lolium and Trifolium. The reverse was true for the four species grown in BS+PM, which showed the benefits of PM addition. In all the treatments, plant N uptake, which prevents soil-N losses, increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus < Lupinus < Lolium. The lack of nodules observed suggested that none of the legumes fixed atmospheric-N2.

    Las enmiendas orgánicas combinadas con la siembra de gramíneas son efectivas para la protección temprana de los suelos quemados (SQ, pero insuficientes para restaurar el estatus pre-incendio del N-edáfico, lo cual deriva en el interés de emplear dichas enmiendas en combinación con leguminosas fijadoras de N2. La utilidad de la gallinaza (G, 2 Mg ha-1 y la siembra de leguminosas (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus y Trifolium repens para la protección temprana de SQ se comparó con la de G + Lolium perenne y esas cuatro especies sin G en una experiencia en invernadero durante tres meses que tambi

  18. Modificación del caldo extracto de levadura manitol para la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas

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    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El caldo extracto de levadura manitol (LM, un medio ampliamente utilizado para el cultivo de rizobios, fue modificado para reducir su costo y utilizarlo en la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas. Los dos ingredientes más costosos, el extracto de levadura y el manitol, fueron reducidos o reemplazados con substratos más económicos. Se pudo reducir la concentración de extracto de levadura a 0,05 g/L sin afectar el crecimiento cuando se agregó 1,1 g/L de ácido glutámico o glutamato de sodio grado alimento. El manitol pudo ser substituido por 12,5 g/L de glicerina grado farmacéutico para las cepas de Bradyrhizobium o por 10 g/L de azúcar grado alimento para las cepas de Rhizobium. No se alteraron las propiedades simbióticas de las cepas cultivados en los medios modificados.

  19. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das flores de Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don Leguminosae-Mimosoideae

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    C.A. Andrade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antibacteriana das flores da Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. (Leguminosae foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco. As bactérias testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. O meio de cultura utilizado foi ágar Müeller-Hinton. Foram utilizados discos de papel (6 mm de diâmetro impregnados com 1000, 500, 250 e 125 mg dos extratos: Etanol Bruto, fração Acetato de Etila e fração Diclorometano obtidas a partir do extrato etanólico bruto. Os resultados indicam que as amostras avaliadas exercem ação contra as cepas gram positivo testadas, em graus variáveis sendo que a fração Acetato de Etila apresentou maior atividade. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de fenóis e flavonoides nas flores de A. podalyriifolia.

  20. Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest Riqueza de rizóbios e de outras bactérias de nódulos de leguminosas em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Renato Lammel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of legumes occurring in Araucaria Forests, at Campos do Jordão State Park, Brazil. Nodule bacteria were isolated in YMA growth media and the obtained colonies were classified according to their growth characteristics (growth rate, color, extra cellular polysaccharide production and pH change of the medium. Data were analyzed by cluster and principal components analysis (PCA. From a total of eleven collected legume species, nine presented nodules, and this is the first report on nodulation of five of these legume species. Two hundred and twelve bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules, whose nodule shapes varied widely and there was a great phenotypic richness among isolates. This richness was found among legume species, individuals of the same species, different nodule shapes and even among isolates of the same nodule. These isolates could be classified into several groups, two up to six according to each legume, most of them different from the used growth standards Rhizobium tropici, Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Burkholderia sp. There is some evidence that these distinct groups may be related to the presence of Burkholderia spp. in the nodules of these legumes.A Floresta de Araucária é um sub-tipo da Mata Atlântica, cujo dossel é dominado por Araucaria angustifolia, uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. O sub-bosque dessa floresta tem alta diversidade, incluindo muitas espécies de leguminosas. Estas plantas podem formar nódulos e fixar nitrogênio atmosférico, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade da floresta

  1. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA FIJACIÓN BIOLÓGICA DE NITRÓGENO EN LEGUMINOSAS FORRAJERAS MEDIANTE LA METODOLOGÍA DEL 15N Estimation of biological nitrogen fixation in forage legumes using a 15N labeling methodology

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    Ricardo Campillo R.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la contribución de la fijación biológica de N2 (FBN en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras, trébol blanco (Trifolium repens L., trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense L., trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum L. y alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., con y sin inoculación específica de rhizobio, mediante la metodología isotópica del Valor A, empleando tres gramíneas, avena (Avena sativa L., ballica perenne (Lolium perenne L. y festuca (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. como cultivos de referencia. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un andisol (Typic fulvudand, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, IX Región, Chile, durante tres temporadas. Las dosis aplicadas de N correspondieron a 10 kg ha-1 como sulfato de amonio (10% átomos exceso 15N para las especies leguminosas y de 30 kg ha-1 como sulfato de amonio (5% átomos exceso 15N para las gramíneas de referencia. En las muestras de material vegetal se analizó N total (Kjeldahl y 15N (espectrometría de emisión óptica. Los tres cultivos de referencia mostraron estimaciones similares de la FBN en las leguminosas. La capacidad de FBN alcanzó el 90% en todas las temporadas y para todas las leguminosas. No se encontró efecto significativo respecto a la inoculación con rhizobium, excepto en alfalfa y sólo en la primera temporada. La cantidad de N fijado en todas las temporadas fue alta y con todas las leguminosas, variando entre 60 y 770 kg ha-1 año-1, para trébol subterráneo y alfalfa, respectivamente, ratificando la gran eficiencia del mecanismo de FBN en las leguminosas forrajeras en estudio.The contribution of biological nitrogen N2 fixation (FBN in four forage legumes: white clover (Trifolium repens L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L., subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., with and without specific rhizobium inoculation, was evaluated by the A value isotope technique, using three

  2. EVALUACIÓN DEL MÉTODO DE LA ABUNDANCIA NATURAL 15N EN LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE LA TRANSFERENCIA DE NITRÓGENO DE LA LEGUMINOSA Canavalia ensiformis (CANAVALIA) SOBRE LA NUTRICIÓN NITROGENADA DE LA PLANTA ASOCIADA Musa acuminata (PLÁTANO)

    OpenAIRE

    Natacha Motisi; Tournebize, R.; J. Sierra

    2007-01-01

    La asociación de una leguminosa con un cultivo de cosecha ha demostrado ser una práctica eficaz para aportar nitrógeno (N) al sistema suelo-planta y así reducir el uso de fertilizantes. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la utilidad del método de la abundancia natural 15N para evaluar ese aporte. Se realizó un ensayo en macetas bajo condiciones de invernadero con la asociación canavalia-plátano, con el objeto de estimar la contribución de los exudados de la leguminosa y del N producto d...

  3. Leguminosas leñosas de rápido crecimiento como cultivos energéticos en el Suroeste de la Península Ibérica

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    Tapias Martín, Raúl; Fernández Martínez, Manuel; Alaejos Gutiérrez, Joaquín; Salvador Nemoz, María Laura; Alesso, Patricia; González Duque, José Antonio; Alfaro Martínez, Ascensión; López Baldovín, Francisco; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Este estudio pretende evaluar las posibilidades del empleo de leguminosas leñosas de rápido crecimiento como cultivos destinados a la producción de biomasa como fuente de energía. El ensayo consistió en el cultivo de 14 especies / procedencias de los géneros Leucaena (L. leucocephala, L. salvadorensis, L. diversifolia, L. collinsi), Prosopis (P. alba y P. julyflora), Sesbania (S. sesban), Chamaecytisus (C. proliferus var palmensis) y Retama (R. monosperma). Las plan...

  4. Características agronômicas e produção de fitomassa de milho verde em monocultivo e consorciado com leguminosas Agronomic characteristics and phytomass of corn in isolated and associated cultivation with leguminous plants

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    Tadário Kamel de Oliveira; Gabriel José de Carvalho; Raimundo Nonato De Souza Moraes; Paulo Roberto Merlo Jerônimo Júnior

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características agronômicas e produção de fitomassa na cultura de milho verde, em cultivo exclusivo e consorciado com leguminosas. Utilizou-se a cultivar de milho DINA-170, específica para produção de milho verde. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram o cultivo exclusivo do milho (Zea mays L.) e os consórcios de milho com mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy) e milho co...

  5. As leguminosas como alimentos funcionais: o caso das dislipidémias e das doenças cardiovasculares Legumes as functional foods: the case of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases

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    J.M. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A dieta mediterrânica é rica em alimentos funcionais. As leguminosas, um dos alimentos-chave desta dieta, têm visto o seu papel na prevenção de dislipidémias, diabetes e cancro do cólon mencionado por muitos autores. O efeito do consumo de leguminosas na redução da colesterolémia deve-se a diferentes nutrientes e fitoquímicos, tais como: i proteína; ii lípidos, particularmente a componente polinsaturada e monoinsaturada; iii fibra, especialmente a fracção solúvel; iv saponinas; e v fitosteróis. O consumo da soja tem sido relacionado com tais efeitos benéficos, mas dados recentes obtidos na Universidade de Évora demonstraram que leguminosas como a ervilha e o tremoço de folhas estreitas também apresentam elevado potencial funcional na regulação do colesterol sanguíneo. O seu consumo levou a reduções de 30% na colesterolémia de animais experimentais, via redução do colesterol das LDL. A utilização destas leguminosas como alimentos funcionais e/ou como fornecedoras de fitoquímicos com potencial preventivo e terapêutico é promissora e poderá constituir uma maisvalia e uma fonte extra de rendimento para os agricultores que se dediquem ao cultivo destas espécies.The Mediterranean diet is rich in functional foods. Legumes are one of the key-foods of this diet and many authors mention their role in the prevention of dyslipidemias, diabetes and colon cancer. The hypocholesterolemic effect of legumes is related to several nutrients and phytochemicals. Among them: i protein; ii lipids, especially polyunsaturated and monounsaturated ones; iii dietary fibre, especially soluble fibre; iv saponins; and v phytosterols. Soybean consumption has been related with these benefic effects. However, recent data obtained at the University of Évora have demonstrated that other legumes, such as peas and blue lupin, can also present a high hypocholesterolemic potential. In fact, the consumption of these legumes led to a 30% reduction in

  6. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO EM CAPIM-TANZÂNIA NOS SISTEMAS DE PLANTIO SOLTEIRO E CONSÓRCIO COM LEGUMINOSAS GROWTH ANALYSIS OF TANZANIA GRASS DIFFERENT SISTEMS CROPPIN WITH LEGUMES

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    Tomas de Aquino Portes e Castro; Sérgio Renato Artiaga da Rosa; Itamar Pereira Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da competição no crescimento da gramínea forrageira Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia em consórcio com as leguminosas forrageiras Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão e Neonotonia wightii cv. comum, nos sistemas de plantio solteiro e consórcio. O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e os seguintes tratamentos: Tanzânia em sistema solteiro de plantio; Tanzânia em consórcio com soja perene; e Tanzânia em ...

  7. Effect of intercropping wheat with forage legumes on wheat production and ground cover Efeito do consórcio entre trigo e leguminosas forrageiras na produção de trigo e na cobertura de solo

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    Gilberto Omar Tomm

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of winter legumes in southern Brazil is hindered by the slow growth of these species during establishment exposing soil surface to erosion. Introduction of these species along with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied as a means of increasing ground cover during their initial establishment period, without reducing wheat grain yield. Two experiments were conducted in nearby areas, one in each year. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cultivar Quiñequelli, white clover (T. repens L., and arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi did not reduce cereal yield in either year. Wheat yield was reduced by intercropped red clover cultivar Kenland and by subclover (T. subterraneum L. in the first year. No grain yield differences due to intercropping with any legume were detected in the second year, when rainfall was below normal. Intercropping with wheat showed to be a practical alternative to enhance ground cover at establishing forage legumes.O uso de leguminosas forrageiras no sul do Brasil é dificultado pelo lento crescimento dessas espécies no ano de estabelecimento, o que expõe o solo à erosão. Estudou-se a introdução dessas leguminosas concomitantemente ao trigo (Triticum aestivum L. com o objetivo de aumentar a cobertura de solo durante o seu desenvolvimento inicial, sem reduzir o rendimento de grãos de trigo. Foram realizados dois experimentos em áreas próximas, um em cada ano. O cornichão (Lotus corniculatus L., o trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L., cultivar Quiñequelli, o trevo-branco (T. repens L. e o trevo-vesiculoso (T. vesiculosum Savi não reduziram o rendimento de trigo em nenhum dos anos. O rendimento de grãos de trigo foi reduzido pelo trevo-vermelho, cultivar Kenland, e pelo trevo subterrâneo (T. subterraneum L., no primeiro ano. No segundo ano, em que, durante o período de desenvolvimento de trigo, a precipitação pluvial foi inferior à normal, não se

  8. Decomposição e liberação de nutrientes acumulados em leguminosas herbáceas perenes consorciadas com bananeira Decomposition and nutrient release of perennial herbaceous legumes intercropped with banana

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    José Antonio Azevedo Espindola; José Guilherme Marinho Guerra; Dejair Lopes de Almeida; Marcelo Grandi Teixeira; Segundo Urquiaga

    2006-01-01

    A avaliação da decomposição dos resíduos vegetais adicionados ao solo pelas plantas de cobertura permite melhor compreensão do fornecimento de nutrientes para as culturas de interesse comercial. O presente estudo foi realizado no campo com o objetivo de avaliar a decomposição e a liberação de nutrientes pela parte aérea de leguminosas herbáceas perenes. Os tratamentos consistiram de diferentes plantas de cobertura do solo consorciadas com bananeira: amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov....

  9. Evaluation of Perennial Forage Legumes and Herbs in Six Mediterranean Environments Evaluación de Leguminosas y Hierbas Forrajeras Perennes en Seis Medioambientes Mediterráneos

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    Daniel Real

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an absence of drought tolerant herbaceous perennial forage legume and herb options other than lucerne (Medicago sativa L. for environments with Mediterranean-like climates common in extensive areas of Southern Australia, the Mediterranean basin, and Chile. Therefore, a collection of 174 forage perennial legume and herb entries from 103 species and 32 genera was evaluated for adaptation in a diverse range of Mediterranean climatic environments in Southern Australia. The seasonal rainfall distribution varied from moderately to highly winter dominant with long term average annual rainfall ranging from 318 to 655 mm. The entries were rated for productivity and persistence over 3 yr. The 12 entries identified as the most promising for winter, summer, or all-year round production included Bituminaria bituminosa (L. C.H. Stirt. var. albomarginata; Cichorium intybus L.; Cullen australasicum (Schltdl. J.W. Grimes; Dorycnium hirsutum (L. Ser.; Kennedia prostrata R. Br.; Lotononis bainesii Baker, Lotus pedunculatus Cav.; L. corniculatus L.; L. cytisoides L.; Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.; Medicago sativa subsp. caerulea (Less. ex Ledeb. Schmalh., and M. sativa subsp. falcata (L. Arcang. These entries maintained production and persisted for the period of the evaluation, with the exception of C. intybus and L. corniculatus that declined in persistence over time. The potential role of these species in extensive grazing systems in Mediterranean climatic zones, their attributes and limitations, and current progress in developing them as useful forage plants was discussed.Existe una escasez de leguminosas y hierbas perennes herbáceas además de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. tolerantes a sequía para ambientes con clima mediterráneo como los que se encuentran en el Sur de Australia, el Mediterráneo y Chile. Por lo tanto, una colección de 174 leguminosas perennes y hierbas correspondientes a 103 especies y 32 géneros fue evaluada por su adaptaci

  10. Evaluación de diez leguminosas con dos niveles de tecnología en un suelo ácido

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    Muñoz F. Jaime E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó durante dos semestres en la zona de Santander de Quilichao, con la finalidad de estudiar el comportamiento agronómico de diez leguminosas en suelos ácidos y sin riego; se empleó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con 10 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones. El análisis de varianza y la diferencia mínima significativa (DMS , permitieron comparar dos modalidades de tecnología: el manejo del agricultor y ligeras modificaciones en la fertilización. En los dos ensayos efectuados, no hubo diferencia entre tecnologías, el material de mejor comportamiento en rendimiento fue Caupí TV U 289-46, la menor variabilidad en los rendimientos la presentó el mungo PI 376873; existió mejor comportamiento de los materiales caupí y mungo, respecto a los Phaseolus en suelos ácidos.The present study was carried out during two halfyears at town of Santander de Quilichao (Cauca in order to study agronomic behaviour of ten leguminous in acid soils with and without watering; the experimental design used was the randomized blocks with an arrangement in split plots with 3 replications. The variance analysis and least significant difference aIlowed to compare 2 ways of technology: farmer management and slight modifications in the fertilizations. In two assays done, there were not differences between technologies, the material of best behaviour in yield was TUV 289- 46 cowpea,the smaIIest variability was observed in PI 376873 mungo; a better behaviour was observed in two Cowpea and mungo materials in relation with phaseolus in acid soils.

  11. Caracterização morfológica de frutos e sementes e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Tamarindus indica L. - Leguminosae: caesalpinioideae

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    Danielle Marie Macedo Sousa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O tamarindeiro (Tamarindus indica L. pertence à família Leguminosae e é uma árvore frutífera, nativa da África tropical, de onde se dispersou por todas as regiões tropicais do mundo. A caracterização morfológica de frutos e sementes é importante para identificação das espécies, bem como serve de base para estudos que visem a maiores conhecimentos ligados à germinação e vigor. Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever a morfologia de frutos, sementes e plântulas, bem como caracterizar o processo germinativo de Tamarindus indica L. Para o estudo do fruto, foram observados tipo, cor, dimensões, textura e consistência do pericarpo e deiscência e número de sementes por fruto. Os aspectos observados nas sementes foram: cor, dimensões, textura e consistência dos tegumentos; e forma, borda, posição do hilo e de outras estruturas presentes e características do embrião. O estádio de plântula foi considerado quando os protófilos já estavam totalmente formados. Os elementos vegetativos descritos e ilustrados foram radícula, coleto, hipocótilo, cotilédones, epicótilo, protófilos e caule. O fruto de Tamarindus indica é um legume indeiscente medindo aproximadamente 7,3 a 9,2 cm e contendo de 1 a 11 sementes. O eixo embrionário encontra-se inserido nos cotilédones, sendo axial e invaginado. A germinação da semente é do tipo epígea. A plântula apresenta protófilos compostos de seis a nove pares de folíolos pequenos opostos e glabros.

  12. Diversidade e razão sexual de syrphidae em leguminosas e plantas espontâneas, em León (Espanha Diversidad y proporción sexual de syrphidae en cultivos de leguminosas y plantas espontáneas, en León (España

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    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os sirfídeos adultos visitam flores para obter néctar e pólen. A disponibilidade de plantas em floração é essencial para a sobrevivência destes insectos. O presente estudo teve como objectivo determinar o efeito de plantas espontâneas na diversidade de sirfideos e sua influência na proporção sexual. Para o feito, foram identificados e sexados adultos capturados em culturas leguminosas e plantas espontâneas associadas. Em ambos os casos, a proporção entre os sexos foi de 1,4♀:1,0♂, mas a diversidade específica foi maior nas fêmeas. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H foi ligeiramente maior nas plantas espontâneas, do que nas culturas (2,12 contra 2,13. O índice de equidade foi maior nas culturas, e no caso das fêmeas nas plantas espontâneas. A diversidade vegetal ajuda a manter a diversidade de sirfideos, especialmente do sexo feminino. As famílias de plantas espontâneas, Umbelliferae, Asteraceae e Chenopodiaceae foram, por ordem decrescente de importância, aquelas onde se efectuaram mais observação.Los adultos de sírfidos visitan las flores para obtener néctar y polen. La disponibilidad de plantas en floración es esencial para la supervivencia de estos insectos. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el efecto de las plantas espontáneas en la diversidad de sírfidos y su influencia en la proporción sexual. Para ello se identificaron y se sexaron los adultos capturados en cultivos de leguminosas y en las plantas espontáneas asociadas. En ambos la proporción sexual fue 1,4♀:1,0♂, pero la diversidad específica de hembras fue mayor en las plantas espontáneas. La diversidad de Shannon (H fue apenas mayor en las plantas espontáneas que en los cultivos (2,12 vs. 2,13. El índice de equidad fue mayor en los cultivos y, en las hembras en las plantas espontáneas. La diversidad vegetal contribuye a mantener la diversidad de los sírfidos, especialmente de las hembras. Las familias de plantas espont

  13. Características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais submetidas a duas frequências de corte Morphologic and productive characteristics of tropical forage legumes under two harvest frequencies

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    Valdson José da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras submetidas a duas frequências de corte (28 e 56 dias a altura de 10 cm. Foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela e Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (7 leguminosas × 2 frequências de corte com quatro repetições, para avaliação das seguintes variáveis: acúmulo de biomassa, número de ramificações/planta, número de folhas vivas/planta, massa seca das raízes, número e massa seca dos nódulos. A produção acumulada de MS da parte aérea e das raízes foi equivalente para os cortes efetuados a cada 28 dias ou a cada 56 dias, com exceção do Arachis, Clitoria e Desmodium, que apresentaram maior biomassa aérea e de raízes no intervalo de corte de 56 dias. Houve diferenças entre leguminosas quanto à massa seca e ao número de nódulos, todavia, o maior número de nódulos foi observado na frequência de 56 dias. O número de folhas vivas/planta foi maior na frequência de 56 dias, com exceção das leguminosas Arachis e Calopogonium, cujos valores foram próximos quando cortadas nas diferentes frequências. A frequência de corte afetou de forma diferenciada as características morfológicas e produtivas das leguminosas estudadas, o que indica a necessidade de manejo diferenciado para as variedades testadas.The objective of this research was to evaluate morphological and productive characteristics of forage legumes under two harvest frequencies (28 and 56 days and 10 cm harvest intensity. The following legume species were evaluated: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela and Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. A randomized

  14. Leguminosas herbáceas perenes para utilização como coberturas permanentes de solo na Caatinga Mineira Perennial herbaceous legumes used as permanent cover cropping in the Caatinga Mineira

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    Ricardo Borges Teodoro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o comportamento e as potencialidades de leguminosas herbáceas perenes para o uso como cobertura permanente em solos da região da Caatinga Mineira, Médio Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, visando a introdução dessas plantas de cobertura em áreas agrícolas. O experimento foi conduzido de dezembro de 2008 a julho de 2009. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelas leguminosas: cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, calopogônio (Calopogonium mucunoides, amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, soja perene (Glycine wightii, estilosantes (Stylosanthes capitata, Stylosanthes macrocephala e pela testemunha (sem a presença de leguminosa. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: emergência das plântulas; taxa de cobertura do solo; promoção da retenção de umidade e temperatura do solo; capacidade de inibição da vegetação espontânea; potencial de deposição de folhas e de aporte de macronutrientes pela senescência de folhas; produção total de fitomassa seca e acúmulo de macronutrientes na parte aérea. A cobertura plena do solo foi alcançada pelo calopogônio, amendoim forrageiro e cudzu tropical. O calopogônio conferiu maior capacidade de retenção da umidade e inibição das plantas espontâneas. Em todos os tratamentos com leguminosas a temperatura do solo foi inferior à testemunha, a partir dos 120 dias de ciclo. Na região da Caatinga Mineira, as leguminosas perenes calopogônio e cudzu tropical, podem contribuir significativamente para o incremento de nitrogênio, aporte de outros macronutrientes (K, P, Ca e Mg e incremento da matéria orgânica do solo.The study objective was to evaluate the performance and potential of perennial herbaceous legumes for use as permanent soil cover in the Caatinga Mineira region MG, Brazil, for the introduction of these cover crops in agricultural areas. The experimental

  15. Dispersión endozoócora de leguminosas silvestres: desde la recuperación hasta el establecimiento en campo

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    María Eugenia Ramos-Font

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersión endozoócora de leguminosas silvestres: desde la recuperación hasta el establecimiento en campoLa dispersión de semillas mediante el tracto digestivo de los animales constituye un mecanismo esencial para la colonización de nuevos nichosecológicos, el mantenimiento de poblaciones vegetales, y para evitar la fragmentación de hábitats. Este trabajo evalúa la capacidad real de dispersiónendozóoora por ganado ovino de Adenocarpus decorticans (AD, A. telonensis (AT, Cytisus fontanesii (CF, C. striatus (CS, Genista florida (GF yG. versicolor (GV mediante el análisis de: recuperación de semillas en heces, germinación en cámara, emergencia en invernadero y establecimientoy supervivencia en campo durante dos años. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el ganado ovino es un agente de dispersión efectivo para la mayoríade las especies, excepto para CF. La recuperación de semillas osciló entre el 32% (AT y GV y el 3.4% (CS. Se observó que el paso por el tractodigestivo estimulaba o no afectaba a la germinación de las semillas en laboratorio. En invernadero, la mayoría de las especies incrementaban oigualaban su emergencia en las heces respecto a las semillas control. Sin embargo, el estiércol dificultó la germinación de la mitad de las especiesen condiciones naturales. A pesar de ello, la probabilidad de reclutamiento de las semillas dispersadas fue similar o superior a la de semillas intactas,excepto para CF. En conclusión, la oveja puede ser un dispersador eficaz de la mayoría de las especies estudiadas y esta capacidad podría utilizarseen planes de gestión y/o restauración forestal.

  16. Los cariotipos de Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae-Phaseoleae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México Karyotypes of Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae- Phaseoleae of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Mexico

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    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron citogenéticamente células provenientes de meristemos radiculares de 2 leguminosas, Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana, que en la actualidad están incluidas en la flora de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México, D. F., mediante una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para determinar los números cromosómicos somáticos. Por vez primera se obtuvieron la morfología cromosómica y otras características cuantitativas de los cariotipos en C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m +18sm y en E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm +2st sat, primeras también en ambos géneros. Cologania y Erythrina se reconocen como poliploides estabilizados y el hallazgo de un único par de cromosomas con satélites (dominancia nucleolar en las especies estudiadas aquí, favorece la opinión de un origen alopoliploide para estos taxa.Meristematic root cells from Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana from Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico, were analyzed cytogenenetically using a surface-spreading and air-drying method. The somatic chromosome numbers were determined. Chromosome morphology and others quantitative features of the karyotypes obtained for first time in C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m + 18sm and E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm + 2st sat and also the first in both genera. Cologania and Erythrina are recognized as stabilized polyploids and the finding of just one pair of chromosomes with satellites (nucleolar dominance in the species analyzed here supports the view of allopolyploid origin of these taxa.

  17. Influência de leguminosas no controle de fitonematóides no cultivo orgânico de alface americana e de repolho Influence of legumes in the control of nematodes in organic crisphead lettuce and cabbage crops

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    Sylvia R. G. Moraes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por produtos orgânicos é crescente devido às restrições ao uso dos agroquímicos sintéticos. Para verificar o efeito das plantas antagonistas no controle de fitonematóides na cultura da alface americana (Lactuca sativa e do repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, em cultivo orgânico, instalou-se um experimento na Universidade Federal de Lavras, no período de dezembro de 2001 a agosto de 2002. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com três repetições. O primeiro fator foi constituído pelas leguminosas mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea em cultivo orgânico e por uma testemunha (vegetação espontânea em cultivo convencional. O segundo, pelas culturas de alface americana cultivar Raider e repolho, cultivar Kenzan. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por todos em cultivo orgânico e testemunha (vegetação espontânea em cultivo convencional. As populações de Meloidogyne spp. e de Helicothylenchus dihystera foram avaliadas empregando-se a técnica de Jenkins. As amostras de solo utilizadas para quantificar os nematóides foram retiradas aos 45 dias após o plantio das leguminosas; aos 30 e 60 dias após o plantio da alface americana e aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após o plantio do repolho. A incorporação das leguminosas mucuna-preta e crotalária, em cultivo orgânico, reduziu a população de Meloidogyne spp. em 42 e 51%, respectivamente, nessas hortaliças. A leguminosa feijão-de-porco causou redução da população de nematóide apenas nas parcelas com repolho apos 90 dias.The demand for organic products is increasing because of restrictions on the use of synthetic agrochemicals. In order to verify the effect of antagonistic plants on the control of phytonematodes in the culture of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, an experiment was installed at the

  18. Estudo morfológico comparativo das cascas e folhas de Stryphnodendron adstringens, S. polyphyllum e S. obovatum - Leguminosae

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches, Andreia C. C.; Lopes, Gisely C.; Toledo, Cleyton E. M. de; Sacramento, Luis V. S. do; Sakuragui, Cássia Mónica; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo

    2007-01-01

    Stryphnodendron (S.) é um gênero da família Leguminosae, subfamília Mimosoideae, tipicamente de clima tropical e subtropical sul americano. Extratos das cascas são utilizadas pela população para diversas doenças, como leucorréias e diarréias, antiinflamatório, anti-séptico (antimicrobiano), promovendo a coagulação sangüínea, em casos de feridas como cicatrizantes, e em alguns casos de ulcerações gástricas. A revisão de literatura mostrou apenas estudos de morfoanatomia da espécie S. adstringe...

  19. Forage intake and botanical composition of feed for cattle fed Brachiaria/legume mixtures Consumo e composição da forragem ingerida por bovinos alimentados com Brachiaria e uma leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Macedo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A key contribution to study the cycling of nutrients in soil/plant/animal systems is the evaluation of the consumption of forage and their nutrients by cattle. The objective of this study was to test techniques to evaluate faecal production, in vitro digestibility, forage consumption and the proportion of legume in the acquired diet. Five Zebu steer calves were confined and fed five diets of different combinations of Brachiaria dictyoneura and Desmodium ovalifolium. All quantities of faeces were collected per animal and these values were found to compare favourably with those derived from using the chromium oxide technique. In vitro digestibility ranged from 7 to 10% higher than the actual in vivo digestibility. Faecal samples from steers fed with diets with 25% or more of grass in the mixture were found to be depleted in δ13C between 1.7 and 2.1‰, but no depletion was observed when the diet was 100% D. ovalifolium. There was a positive linear regression (r² = 0.97*** of the δ13C of the diet with the δ13C of faeces, but if the acquired diet contained a very high proportion of legume, the legume content could be underestimated by as much as 10%. None of the internal indicators, such as lignin or ash content of the diets, were useful to predict feed intake, but the chromium oxide external indicator performed satisfactorily. The 13C analysis of the faeces was an effective predictor of the proportion of the legume in the consumed diet.Uma contribuição fundamental para o estudo da ciclagem de nutrientes no sistema solo/planta/ animal é a avaliação do consumo pelo gado de forragem e dos nutrientes nela contidos. Testaram-se, sob condições controladas, técnicas para avaliar a produção fecal, digestibilidade in vitro, consumo de forragem e a proporção de leguminosa ingerida na dieta. Cinco novilhos de Zebu foram confinados e alimentados com quantidades conhecidas de cinco rações com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria dictyoneura e

  20. Estabelecimento de leguminosas arbóreas em pastos de capim-marandu e tanzânia Establishment of leguminous trees in marandu and tanzânia pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de mudas sem proteção (de cercas ou estacas de quatro espécies de leguminosas arbóreas e uma mistura eqüitativa dessas espécies, introduzidas em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, na presença de gado. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, duas gramíneas (marandu e tanzânia e quatro espécies de leguminosas (Mimosa artemisiana, Pseudosamanea guachapele, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia farnesiana e uma mistura dessas espécies, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se: altura da muda, diâmetro do caule, diâmetro da copa, sobrevivência da muda, freqüência de pastejo e ocorrência de formigas. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de três agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos M. artemisiana e mistura de leguminosas, nos dois pastos, mais E. contortisiliquum e A. farnesiana, nos pastos dos capins marandu e tanzânia, respectivamente. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos relativas a cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que mudas de M. artemisiana apresentaram maior altura e sobrevivência em pasto de capim-marandu. Mudas dessa leguminosa, sem proteção, são indicadas para ser introduzidas, nas pastagens de capim-marandu da região, na presença do gado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of nonprotected (by fences or pickets seedlings of leguminous tree species and an equitable mix of these species, introduced in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, in the presence of cattle. The experimental design was a completely randomized one, in a 2x5 factorial arrangement, with two grasses (marandu and tanzânia and four leguminous species (Mimosa artemisiana

  1. Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus campestris (Leguminosae); Flavonoides de Lonchocarpus campestris (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L., E-mail: opessoa@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DQOI/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    A new flavone named 3,4',5,6-tetramethoxy-[2'', 3'':7,8] furanoflavone besides the known flavonoids (2S,3R,4S)-3,4,5,8-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':6,7]-furanoflavan, 3,6-dimethoxy-2'',2''-dimethylcromene-[2'',3'':7,8]-flavone, 3,5,6-trimethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavone, 2,4',4,5-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':6,7]-furanodihydroaurone, (2R,3S,4S)-3,4,5,6-tetramethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavan and 3',4'-methylenedioxy-5,6-dimethoxy-[2'',3'':7,8]-furanoflavone were isolated from the root barks of Lonchocarpus campestris. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR assignments of the new furan flavonoid was performed using 1D and 2D pulse sequences, including COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. (author)

  2. Adubação verde com leguminosas em videira no submédio São Francisco Green manuring grapevine with legumes in the submiddle São Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. B. Faria

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os solos do Vale do Submédio São Francisco são, de modo geral, arenosos, com baixa capacidade de retenção de nutrientes e, por se localizarem numa região semi-árida, são muito pobres em matéria orgânica, conseqüentemente, são deficientes em N, tornando-se limitante para produção agrícola. Dessa forma, o uso de leguminosas como adubo verde pode contornar esse problema, porque adiciona C e N ao solo. O trabalho constituiu-se de dois experimentos de leguminosas consorciadas com a cultura da videira (Vitis vinifera irrigada, realizados em um Argissolo Amarelo de textura arenosa, em Petrolina (PE, de junho de 1996 a julho de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação verde nas características químicas do solo e na produtividade e qualidade da uva. O primeiro experimento foi realizado até à quarta safra de uva. Os tratamentos foram representados por duas leguminosas: crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, submetidas a dois manejos (subtratamentos: (a ceifada e deixada na superfície do terreno e (b ceifada e incorporada ao solo, havendo ainda uma testemunha sem leguminosa. O segundo experimento, que se iniciou com o quinto ciclo de produção de uva, abrangeu três tratamentos: (1 testemunha; (2 crotalária júncea e (3 feijão-de-porco, combinados com dois subtratamentos: (1 100 % da adubação recomendada pela análise de solo e (2 50 % dessa adubação. Ao todo, houve onze ciclos de leguminosas e nove safras de uva. A produção de biomassa das leguminosas decresceu ao longo do tempo. A adubação verde proporcionou uma melhoria nas características químicas do solo, aumentando os teores da MO e do Ca trocável e o valor da CTC na camada de 0-10 cm de profundidade. Não houve um efeito consistente da adubação verde na produtividade e qualidade da uva.The soils of the Submiddle São Francisco River Valley are generally sandy, with low nutrient retention capacity. Since they are

  3. Forage Legume Species for Cutting on Heavy Clay Soils with Bad Drainage Especies Leguminosas Forrajeras para Cortes en Suelos Arcillosos de Mal Drenaje

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    Patricio Soto O.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Forage yield of three species of leguminous forrages: alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.; red clover, Trifolium pratense L.; and birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus L. was evaluated in waterlogged soils in the VIIth Region, Chile, during four seasons with three fertilization rates: 2 t lime ha-1 + 150 kg P2O5 ha-1; no lime application + 150 kg P2O5 ha-1; and no lime + 70 kg of P2O5 ha-1, applying half of the fertilizer dose during the seasons following establishment. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four repetitions. An analysis of variance was carried out and means were compared using the Duncan test (P ≤ 0.05. Alfalfa needed high fertilization to achieve production comparable to birdsfoot trefoil and red clover, reaching its best production with complete fertilization in the first season (4.6 t DM ha-1. The red clover maintained high production until the second season independent of the fertilizer dose (11.8 t DM ha-1, but began to decline in the third season. The birdsfoot trefoil was the species best adapted to these soil conditions, DM yield was not affected by the dose of phosphorus in the four years, reaching production levels of 7.1 t DM ha-1 during the fourth season.Se evaluó el rendimiento de forraje en tres especies de leguminosas forrajeras: alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.; trébol rosado, Trifolium pratense L.; y lotera, Lotus corniculatus L. en suelos arcillosos de mal drenaje de la VII Región, Chile, durante cuatro temporadas, con tres niveles de fertlización: 2 t de cal ha-1 + 150 kg de P2O5 ha-1; sin aplicación de cal + 150 kg de P2O5 ha-1; y sin cal + 70 kg de P2O5 ha-1, aplicando durante las siguientes temporadas la mitad de la dosis de fertilizante aplicado al establecimiento. El diseño experimental utilizado fue de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se realizó análisis de varianza y en la comparación de medias se usó la prueba de Duncan (P ≤ 0,05. La alfalfa necesitó una alta

  4. Produtividade e valor nutritivo de pastos consorciados com diferentes espécies de leguminosas Productivity and nutritive value of mixed pastures with different legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a produtividade e o valor nutritivo de dois sistemas forrageiros (SF constituídos por capim elefante (CE, azevém (AZ, trevo branco (TB e espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE, como SF1; e CE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE, como SF2. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas espaçadas a cada quatro metros. Entre elas, foi estabelecido azevém, durante o período hibernal, permitindo-se o desenvolvimento de ECE no período estival. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa e o método de pastejo foi o rotacionado. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem inicial (MFI e a composição botânica e estrutural dos pastos. Para as estimativas de valor nutritivo, foram feitas amostragens simulando o pastejo e analisados a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e duas repetições, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os valores médios de massa de forragem inicial e da carga animal foram similares entre os SF. Observou-se resultado superior para o teor médio de PB da forragem do SF2. O uso do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo em consórcio com o CE permite manter massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity and nutritive value of two pasture-based systems (PS with elephant grass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS, for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS, for PS2. EG was established in rows spaced by four meters. Ryegrass was seeding in the space between rows during cool-season and development of SGS was permitted in the warm-season. Holstein cows under rotational grazing were used in the evaluation. The initial forage mass (IFM

  5. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N;

    2008-01-01

    Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from...... nuclear ribosomal (nrITS) and plastid (trnL, trnL-F and matK) DNA sequence data using parsimony and Bayesian methods. Divergence times are estimated using a Bayesian method assuming a relaxed molecular clock (multidivtime). Within the Pterocarpus clade, new sister relationships are recovered: Pterocarpus...

  6. Flavonoids from Lonchocarpus campestris (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new flavone named 3,4',5,6-tetramethoxy-[2, 3:7,8] furanoflavone besides the known flavonoids (2S,3R,4S)-3,4,5,8-tetramethoxy-[2,3:6,7]-furanoflavan, 3,6-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethylcromene-[2,3:7,8]-flavone, 3,5,6-trimethoxy-[2,3:7,8]-furanoflavone, 2,4',4,5-tetramethoxy-[2,3:6,7]-furanodihydroaurone, (2R,3S,4S)-3,4,5,6-tetramethoxy-[2,3:7,8]-furanoflavan and 3',4'-methylenedioxy-5,6-dimethoxy-[2,3:7,8]-furanoflavone were isolated from the root barks of Lonchocarpus campestris. The complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of the new furan flavonoid was performed using 1D and 2D pulse sequences, including COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. (author)

  7. Leguminosae (Fabaceae in Tribal Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Sushruta, no plant in this world is useless. A large number of crude drugs used in Ayurvedic system employ plants of family Fabaceae. The family Fabaceae popularly known as legumes, is the third largest order of seed-plants containing about 600 genera with 12,000 speices. All the three subfamilies of Fabaceae have been given the status of family and hence they will be treated here as distinct families. Details of medicinal plants of these families and their uses are presented here.

  8. Inhibidores de proteasas en leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    García Esteban, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Desde hace varios años se ha hecho hincapié en el estudio de los inhibidores de proteasas de las legumbres, en especial de la soja, y sus posibles funciones biológicas sobre el organismo humano. Las proteasas son importantes para digerir las proteínas, degradándolas a aminoácidos para su posterior absorción en intestino. El procesado por calor de las legumbres es imprescindible ya que al contener inhibidores de proteasas, los cuales no permiten una digestión adecuada de las proteasas, dificul...

  9. Evaluación oxidativa de las mezclas de aceites de leguminosas del Desierto de Sonora con aceites de maíz y soja durante su almacenamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available During storage, oils from seeds of wild legumes of the Sonoran Desert have shown greater stability than oils derived from conventional sources. In this work, oxidation process was evaluated during the storage (122 day of mixtures of oils: Mezquite Prosopis juliflora, Gatuña Mimosa grahamii, Palo fierro Olneya tesota, Vino rama Acacia constricta, Palo de brea Cercidium praecox and Palo verde Parkinsonia aculeata with oils from soy and maize. Ratios were 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. Evaluated parameters included: Peroxides (P.V., Iodine (I.V., Acid (A.V., p-Anisidine (p-A values. Results showed that mixtures containing wild and maize oil showed 2-4 meq/Kg as initial values of iodine, while after 122 days of storage the value was 4-7 meq/Kg. Mixtures containing soy oil presented 3-6 meq-Kg initially, and 8-15 meq-Kg were detected at the end experiment. No differences were observed in I.V. and A.V. values in maize mixtures. On the contrary, mixtures containing soy oil presented increments in I.V. Also, A.V. presented a slight increment in 1:1 mixtures. p-Anisidine values presented and small increment in maize mixtures (3:1 ratio while this increment was larger in mixtures containing soy oils and Gatuña or Palo fierro oil. These latter oils when were mixed with maize oils presented the lowest increments in all evaluated indexes.The oils of palo fierro and blended gatuña with oil of corn didn’t present changes in their concentration in the palmitic and araquidic acid during the storage. The concentration of the oleic acid in the mezquite oils (3:1, gatuña (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, vinorama (3:1, as well as the linoleic and erucic acids in gatuña in their three mixtures didn’t present changes neither alteration during the storage, for what you are considered the oils of palo fierro, gatuña and vinorama the most stable in the present study.Los aceites de semillas de leguminosas silvestres han mostrado mayor estabilidad que algunos aceites convencionales

  10. Efeito de leguminosas nos atributos físicos e carbono orgânico de um Luvissolo Effect of legumes on the physical attributes and organic carbon of an Alfisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Nascimento

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A degradação de um solo sob cultivo é resultante, principalmente, de seu manejo inadequado, com reflexos nas baixas produtividades das culturas. Com a finalidade de avaliar o efeito de leguminosas nos atributos físicos e carbono orgânico (CO de um Luvissolo, realizou-se, no município de Alagoinha (PB, um experimento entre 1997 e 1999, com as seguintes espécies: crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, L, guandu (Cajanus cajan,L, guandu anão (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp, calopogônio (Calopogonium mucunoides, L, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiforme, L, lab-lab (Dolichos lab lab, L, kudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, L, siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum, L, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, L, cunhã (Clitoria ternatea, L, mucuna preta (Styzolobium aterrimum, L, mucuna cinza (Styzolobium cinereum Piper e Tracy, e uma parcela com vegetação espontânea, como testemunha. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcela subdividida, com distribuição de treze tratamentos principais na parcela (12 leguminosas + 1 testemunha e três tratamentos secundários, representados pelas profundidades de coleta de amostras de solo (0,00-0,10; 0,10-0,20; e 0,20-0,30 m, na subparcela, com três repetições. Na condição edafoclimática deste experimento, durante os três anos de trabalho, constatou-se que o emprego das leguminosas em relação à testemunha manteve inalterados o CO do solo, a densidade do solo, a porosidade total, a argila dispersa em água e a estabilidade dos agregados do solo.Soil degradation under cultivation results mainly from the inadequate management and it reflects in low crop yields. With the purpose of evaluating the effect of legumes on physical attributes and organic carbon content of an Alfisol, an experiment was conducted in the Alagoinha County-PB, Brazil, between 1997 and 1999, with the following species: Crotalaria juncea L, Cajanus cajan L, Cajanus cajan (L Millsp, Calopogonium mucunoides

  11. Leguminosas e seus efeitos sobre propriedades físicas do solo e produtividade do mamoeiro 'Tainung 1' Leguminous plants and their effects on soil physical properties and productivity of papaya 'Tainung 1'

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    José Eduardo Borges de Carvalho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento no período de junho 1998 a dezembro de 2000 na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal da Bahia, em Cruz das Almas, em um Latossolo Amarelo álico coeso para avaliar o impacto do manejo de práticas melhoradoras sobre as propriedades físicas desses solos e a produtividade do mamoeiro. Os tratamentos foram: 1- capina em área total; 2- grade nas entrelinhas e herbicida nas linhas de plantio; 3- capina em área total + subsolagem; 4- subsolagem + feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis nas ruas da cultura; 5- Subsolagem + crotalária (Crotalaria juncea nas ruas da cultura; 6- subsolagem + caupi (Vigna uguiculata nas ruas da cultura; 7- subsolagem + calagem + gesso agrícola e feijão-de-porco nas ruas da cultura; 8- subsolagem + vegetação nativa nas ruas da cultura, roçada quando necessária. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Cada parcela foi composta por 36 plantas das quais 16 úteis, em espaçamento de 3 x 2 m. A subsolagem foi realizada de forma cruzada antes do plantio nos tratamentos correspondentes. As leguminosas foram plantadas em maio/junho e roçadas em setembro/outubro. O controle do mato nas linhas foi mecânico (T1 e T3 e químico com glifosato na dose de 1% v/v nos demais. Os tratamentos manejados nas entrelinhas da cultura do mamão com leguminosas proporcionaram as maiores alterações nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Amarelo álico coeso. Os tratamentos manejados com leguminosas e vegetação espontânea foram os que mais se evidenciaram em produtividade, expressada pelo peso total de frutos (PTF, em toneladas por hectare, e em número total de frutos por hectare NTF.An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy School of Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, Cruz das Almas, during the period of June 1998 to December 2000, with the objective of evaluating the impact of good management practices on soil physical properties of an alic and

  12. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  13. Species arboreal as a bioindicator of the environmental pollution: Analysis by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and countrysides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicle combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is often used in urban arborization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and an Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples were quantified P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb elements

  14. Sucessão vegetal em uma encosta reflorestada com leguminosas arbóreas em Angra dos Reis, RJ Natural succession under a nitrogen-fixing legume trees stand in a hillside at Angra dos Reis - RJ, Brazil

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    Sylvia de Souza Chada

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma encosta reflorestada há sete anos com leguminosas arbóreas (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora em Angra dos Reis, RJ, foi avaliada a composição florística e fitossociológica da regeneração natural, comparando-as com as de um fragmento de Mata Secundária situado a 200 m de distância. Foram considerados os três terços da encosta, com declividades decrescentes. Em 12 parcelas de 200 m², quatro em cada terço da encosta, foram amostrados 699 indivíduos vegetais a partir de 40 cm de altura, distribuídos em 25 famílias e 50 espécies. As famílias com maior nº de indivíduos foram Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 e Lauraceae (41. Já as famílias com maior nº de espécies foram Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 e Myrtaceae (5. As leguminosas plantadas não estavam regenerando na própria área. A evolução da sucessão natural apresentou um gradiente de desenvolvimento em razão da menor declividade e menor distância dos remanescentes florestais, com maior densidade de indivíduos e maior riqueza de espécies na área de menor declividade.The floristic composition and natural regeneration under a 7-year-old legume tree plantation (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora was investigated in comparing with a secondary forest 200 m away at Angra dos Reis, RJ. The hillside was divided in 3 parts following the slope. The lower part of the hillside was the nearest to the natural forest remnant. In 12 plots with 200 m² each, 4 of them in each section of the hillside, 699 plants larger then 40 cm height were observed, distributed in 25 families and 50 species. The families with the most individuals were Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 and Lauraceae (41. The families with the most species were Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 and Myrtaceae (5. None of the legume species introduced in the area had produced natural regeneration. The evolution of natural succession

  15. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  16. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. III. Botanical families providing oils of relatively high unsaturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngiefu, C.K.; Paquot, C.; Vieux, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the seed oil composition of 16 species of Leguminosae (including Albizia lebbeck, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Delonix regia), 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (including Aleurites moluccana, Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas) and 1 species (Kigelia africana) of Bignoniaceae. The most interesting for food and industrial purposes appear to be Afzelia bella, Adenanthera pavonina and Pentaclethra macrophylla, in addition to A. moluccana and H. brasiliensis.

  17. Study on Characters of Hard Seeds of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. (Leguminosae)and Methods for Breaking Dormancy%Study on Characters of Hard Seeds of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. (Leguminosae)and Methods for Breaking Dormancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifeng ZHANG; Xingwen WU; Yuehui SHE

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to understand the characters of hard seeds of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. (Leguminosae) and explore the methods for break- ing dormancy. [Method] For both aerial and subterranean seeds of A. edgeworthii, the morphological characteristics were observed and the appropriate temperature for germination was explored. For aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii, the characters of hard seeds were studied, and concentrated sulfuric acid treatment, hot water soak treat- ment and mechanical damage treatment were compared to explore the methods for breaking seed dormancy. [Result] The aerial seeds were oblate and averaged 3.38 mm in length, 3.02 mm in width, 1.88 mm in thickness, 15.32 g in thousand grain weight, with a hard seed rate after of up to 98% natural maturation. The subter- ranean seeds were approximately oblate with a maximum diameter of 15 mm and a hundred grain weight of (50.08-58.26 g); among all the treatments for breaking hardseededness, cutting seed coat treatment and concentrated sulfuric acid treatment for 20 minutes were the most effective methods, whereas hot water soak treatment was the least effective method; constant temperature between 20 and 30 ℃ was optimum for the germination of aerial seeds, and alternative temperature of 30/20 ℃ was most appropriate for the germination of subterranean seeds. [Conclusion] Cutting seed coat treatment and concentrated sulfuric acid treatment for 20 minutes were the most effective methods to break the hardseededness of A. edgeworthii.

  18. 两种豆科药材及其混伪品的可溶性蛋白质电泳鉴别%Electrophoresis identification of two leguminosae Chinese drugs and the ir adulterants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓莉; 史超群

    2001-01-01

    目的:对赤小豆、决明子及其混伪品进行电泳鉴别,并考察考马 斯亮蓝G-250的染色效果。方法:可溶性蛋白质凝胶电泳。 结果:赤小豆、决明子及其混伪品的电泳图谱存在显著差异。结论:电泳图谱可作为赤小豆、决明子及其混伪品的鉴别依据,考马斯亮蓝G-250可用于电泳 鉴别。%OBJECTIVE:To identify two leguminosae Chinese drugs,semen phaseoli,semen cassiae,and their adulterants by electrophoresis and to study the dyeing effect of coomassie brilliant blue G-250.METHOD:Gel electrophoresis of soluble protein was used.RESULTS:The elect rophoretograms of semen phaseoli,semen cassiae and their adulterants are used d ifferent.CONCLUSION:The electrophoretograms can be used to different iate semen phaseoli and semen cassiae from their adulterants.Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 can be used in the electrophoresis identification.

  19. Comportamento de dois genótipos de milho cultivados em sistema de aléias preestabelecido com diferentes leguminosas arbóreas Behaviour of two maize genotypes grown in alley cropping system pre-established with diferents leguminous trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Araújo Lima Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo em aléias tem sido recomendado como alternativa para a substituição da agricultura de corte e queima, no trópico úmido, devido à grande capacidade de produção de matéria orgânica e de reciclagem de nutrientes, mas algumas dúvidas quanto à sustentabilidade e à competição interespecífica são persistentes. O objetivo no trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da cultura do milho em um sistema de cultivo em aléias de leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições dos tratamentos: aléias de sombreiro (Clitoria fairchildiana, ingá (Inga edulis, guandu (Cajanus cajan e leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e uma testemunha sem aléias. Foram avaliadas a remobilização de carbono e nitrogênio, massa de grãos, massa de mil grãos e competição interespecífica entre as cultivares de milho e as leguminosas. A produção de grãos foi maior nas parcelas com C. fairchildiana e L. leucocephala. A produtividade do híbrido de milho foi superior à da variedade em todos os tratamentos. A produtividade e a massa de mil grãos de milho não são negativamente afetadas pela distância da linha da leguminosa arbórea. Esse estudo conclui que o sistema de aléias com leguminosas arbóreas é uma alternativa importante ao manejo sustentável dos agroecossistemas no tropico úmido. Além disso, nessa região a produtividade em grãos na cultura do milho é favorecida no sistema de aléias preeestabelecidas com as leguminosas arbóreas sombreiro, ingá e leucena e pela utilização de genótipos eficientes no aproveitamento do nitrogênio, cujo sincronismo entre a liberação e a absorção do N aplicado por meio das leguminosas deve ser aprimorado.Alley cropping has been recommended as alternative land use to slash-and-burn agriculture in humid tropics. However, interespecific competition between cash crop and hedgerow can reduce this potential. This study aimed to evaluate the

  20. Valor nutritivo da leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides como alternativa na suplementação alimentar de ruminantes na Amazônia Oriental Nutritive value of the leguminous Pueraria phaseoloides as an alternative of alimentary supplementation of ruminants in Eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwana Mara Moreira Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A pecuária é uma atividade de índices produtivos satisfatórios na região amazônica. Entretanto, alguns ruminantes são mantidos, na sua maioria, em pastagens implantadas em solos de baixa fertilidade, sujeitas a estresses climáticos, com reflexos negativos na disponibilidade e valor nutritivo da forragem produzida. Nesse aspecto, inovações tecnológicas adequadas à região, contribuirão para elevação dos padrões produtivos, através da intensificação no uso de suplementação alimentar, com leguminosas adaptadas. A leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides apresenta diversas vantagens como cultura intercalar, destacando-se: melhor conservação do solo, alta produção de massa verde, alta concentração de proteínas nas suas folhas, dentre outras. Assim, essa leguminosa desponta como alternativa na suplementação alimentar de ruminantes, devido ao seu potencial forrageiro.The animal production is a satisfactory index activity in the Amazon region. Ruminants are mainly kept on pastures cultivated, in soil of low fertility, submited to climatic stresses, with negative consequences on the availability and nutritional value of forage produced. In this aspect, technological innovations adjusted to the region will contribute to rise the productive standards of the cattle, by the intensification in the use of feed supplementation, with adapted leguminous. The Pueraria phaseoloides leguminous presents many advantages as a culture to intercalate, being distinguished as having better conservation of the ground, high production of green mass, high protein content of the leaf and other advantages. Thus, 'pueraria' is as an alternative for feed supplementation of ruminants, due to its forage potential.

  1. Técnicas para a obtenção de preparações citológicas com alta freqüência de metáfases mitóticas em plantas: Passiflora (Passifloraceae) e Crotalaria (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cuco Silvia Marina; Mondin Mateus; Vieira Maria Lúcia Carneiro; Aguiar-Perecin Margarida L. R. de

    2003-01-01

    Foram conduzidos experimentos visando à otimização de procedimentos para preparações citológicas de pontas de raiz com alta freqüência de metáfases mitóticas, apresentando cromossomos com morfologia nítida, em espécies pertencentes a dois gêneros de plantas, Passiflora (Passifloraceae) e Crotalaria (Leguminosae). Para o acúmulo de metáfases, bem como de prófases e prometáfases com cromossomos bem condensados, foram avaliados pré-tratamentos de raízes, em que foram utilizadas diferentes combin...

  2. Fixação biológica e transferência de nitrogênio por leguminosas em pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Gleicia Miranda Paulino; Bruno José Rodrigues Alves; Deborah Guerra Barroso; Segundo Urquiaga; José Antonio Azevedo Espindola

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN) e a transferência do N derivado da FBN das espécies leguminosas - gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium), crotalária (Crotalaria juncea) e feijão-guandu anão (Cajanus cajan) - para um pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira, pelo método da abundância natural de N. Foram avaliados os seguintes sistemas de cultivos consorciados: mangueira e gravioleira com gliricídia; mangueira e gravioleira com crotalária; mangueira e grav...

  3. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO EM CAPIM-TANZÂNIA NOS SISTEMAS DE PLANTIO SOLTEIRO E CONSÓRCIO COM LEGUMINOSAS GROWTH ANALYSIS OF TANZANIA GRASS DIFFERENT SISTEMS CROPPIN WITH LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas de Aquino Portes e Castro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da competição no crescimento da gramínea forrageira Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia em consórcio com as leguminosas forrageiras Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão e Neonotonia wightii cv. comum, nos sistemas de plantio solteiro e consórcio. O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e os seguintes tratamentos: Tanzânia em sistema solteiro de plantio; Tanzânia em consórcio com soja perene; e Tanzânia em consórcio com estilozantes. Considerando que a TCC máxima (kg.ha-1.dia-1 do Tanzânia foi obtida aos 84 DAE, o IAF observado nessa mesma data correspondeu ao IAF ótimo. Isso demonstra que os consórcios não afetaram o ciclo dessa gramínea, mas sim no que se refere aos valores obtidos para TCC e IAF, principalmente no consórcio do Tanzânia com estilozantes. O baixo valor observado para Tanzânia no consórcio com soja perene evidencia o efeito de inibição mútua. Desse modo, em relação à TCC e MS, os baixos valores observados para a Tanzânia no consórcio com soja perene sugerem um efeito supressor, promovido pela referida leguminosa. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Índice de área foliar (IAF, Neonotonia wightii, Panicum maximum, Stylosanthes guianensis, taxa de crescimento da cultura (TCC. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of the competition in the growth of the forage grasses Panicum maximum to Tanzânia cv. and two legumies forages Stylosanthes guianensis cv. Mineirão and Neonotonia wightii cv. Common, in the single and mixed crop systems. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with four replications and the treatments were: Tanzânia grass in a single crop system; Tanzânia grass in a mixed crop system with the Perennial Soy and Tanzânia grass in a mixed crop system with Stilozantes. Considering that maximum TCC (kg.ha-1.dia-1 of Tanzânia they were obtained 84 DAE, to leaf area index (IAF observed in this same

  4. Cubiertas Vegetales en Viñedos: Comportamiento de mezclas de Leguminosas Forrajeras Anuales y Efectos sobre la Fertilidad del Suelo Cover Crops in Vineyards: Performance of Annual Forage Legume Mixtures and Effects on Soil Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ovalle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar y seleccionar cubiertas vegetales como cultivos entre hileras, para mejorar el manejo del suelo en un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, se evaluaron cinco cubiertas: a testigo sin vegetación; b testigo con vegetación espontánea; c mezcla de leguminosas de cultivares precoces de trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum L. con hualputra (Medicago polymorpha L.; d mezcla de cultivares tardíos de trébol subterráneo con trébol balansa (T. michelianum Savi; e mezcla de leguminosas tardías con ballica anual (Lolium rigidum Gaud . El ensayo se realizó en el Centro Experimental Cauquenes del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, durante dos temporadas, 2005-2006 y 2006-2007. El diseño experimental fue bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Las tres mezclas forrajeras se establecieron adecuadamente y lograron altas poblaciones. La producción de biomasa fue significativamente más alta (P ≤ 0,05 en las mezclas de tréboles tardíos y trébol balansa, respecto de la mezcla de tréboles subterráneos precoces y hualputra (2,3 y 4 t MS ha-1 año-1 y 5,3 y 6,2 t MS ha-1 año -1 en el primer y segundo año, respectivamente. Los contenidos de N, P y K en la biomasa de las cubiertas fueron mayores que en las cubiertas de especies espontáneas, lo que incrementó el contenido de N disponible en el suelo. Se encontró un mayor contenido de K y P en el suelo. Las cubiertas ejercieron un efecto detrimental sobre la población de las especies espontáneas o malezas que crecen en la entre hilera del viñedo.With the objective of evaluating and selecting cover crops to improve soil management in vineyards (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, five cover pastures were evaluated: a control without vegetation; b control with spontaneous vegetation; c legume mixture of early maturing cultivars of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.; d legumes

  5. Cobertura do solo e estoque de nutrientes de duas leguminosas perenes, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio Soil cover and nutrient accumulation of two perennial legumes as functions of spacing and planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de leguminosas herbáceas perenes nos sistemas de produção constitui ainda um desafio, principalmente por apresentarem crescimento inicial lento. Para viabilizar sua implantação, este trabalho objetivou determinar as taxas de cobertura do solo, produção de matéria seca, teores e acumulação de N, P e K das leguminosas herbáceas perenes galáxia (Galactia striata e cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio. O experimento, instalado em dezembro/98 na Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, constou do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 x 4, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das espécies galáxia e cudzu tropical, plantadas em dois espaçamentos entre sulcos de plantio (25 e 50 cm e quatro densidades de plantas (5, 10, 15 e 20 plantas m-1. A densidade adequada para a rápida cobertura do solo para cudzu tropical e galáxia foi de 10 plantas m-1, no espaçamento de 25 cm entre os sulcos de plantio. A maior produção de matéria seca e acumulação de N, P e K na parte aérea das plantas foram evidenciadas apenas no primeiro corte, sendo os maiores valores obtidos no espaçamento de 25 cm e na densidade de 10 plantas m-1. O espaçamento de 25 cm com 10 plantas m-1 foi a combinação mais adequada para a plena formação da cobertura viva do solo com cudzu tropical e galáxia.The establishment of herbaceous perennial leguminous in production systems is still a challenge, mainly because of the slow initial growth. Evaluations of the soil cover ratio, dry matter production, contents and accumulations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium of the herbaceous perennial Galactia striata and Pueraria phaseoloides, sown in different densities and row spacing, aimed at making their establishments feasible. The experiment was conducted in December/98 at Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, in a completely randomized block design, as a factorial

  6. Avaliação da solubilidade de cobre e zinco em caldos de leguminosas Evaluation of the solubility of copper and zinc in a salty, watrry vegetatable soup

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    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os metais cobre e zinco podem se apresentar sob diversas formas químicas na natureza: como sais, estando sob a forma de íons I e II ou como compostos orgânicos, complexados com aminoácidos e proteínas. A forma mais biodisponível ao organismo é a forma de compostos organo quelados. Avaliando os teores dos metais em caldo de leguminosas processadas termicamente em meios salino e aquoso é possível avaliar a solubilidade destes metais. Duas marcas e dois lotes de amostras de feijão preto, feijão branco, feijão carioquinha, feijão mulatinho, feijão manteiga, ervilha e lentilha foram processadas termicamente em meios salino e aquoso e determinou-se os teores totais de cobre e zinco em seus caldos. Os caldos foram dissolvidos em HCl 2molL-1 e o teor total de cobre e zinco nas amostras foi determinado através da espectroscopia de absorção atômica em chama. Na análise da rejeição de resultados foi aplicado o teste Dixon e o teste t de student. Os resultados mostraram que a solubilidade média dos metais cobre e zinco nos meios aquoso e salino foram respectivamente 8 e 6%. Acredita-se que os compostos de cobre e zinco nas leguminosas analisadas não são compostos inorgânicos facilmente solúveis em água. Estudos de especiação podem auxiliar na análise da biodisponibilidade destes metais.Copper and zinc can appear in nature under chemical forms, such as salts, being as íons I and II or as organic compounds, synthesized as amino acids and proteins. The most bio-available form to the human body are organic compounds. The solubility of these metals can be determined by evaluating their ratio in a both of legumes thermally processed in an aqueous and a saline mediium. Samples of several varieties of beans, peas, lentils and chickpeas, in two batches containing two different brands of each variety, were thermally processeced in an aqueous and a saline medium and the total ratio of copper and zinc in their respective broths was

  7. Aerobic stability of triticale silage in single culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes Estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

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    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the aerobic stability and losses during the fermentation process of triticale silages in single crop or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The following crops were used for silage production: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack, triticale intercropped with forage pea (Pisum arvense and triticale intercropped with oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, forage pea and vetch (Vicia sativa. The dry matter content and its recovery did not differ among the silages. Buffer capacity was higher for tricale silage intercropped with oats, forage pea and vetch(88.67 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM followed by triticale intercropped with forage pea (80.80 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM. Electric conductivity values were higher in the intercropped triticale silages. Triticale silage presented the lowest temperatures observed in the silos, and the silages of intercropped triticale silages presented higher heat retention and higher pH values. Silage of triticale intercropped with oats and legumes presented lower aerobic stability but it did not reduce the aerobic stability of the total feed. Dry matter recovery during storage and in stability evaluations in aerobiosis is similar among the silages.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia e as perdas durante o processo de fermentação de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. As culturas utilizadas para produção das silagens foram: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack; triticale em consórcio com ervilha-forrageira (Pisum arvense; e triticale em consórcio com aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (Vicia sativa. O teor de matéria seca e a recuperação de matéria seca não diferiram entre as silagens. A capacidade tampão foi maior para a silagem de triticale cultivado em consórcio com aveia, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (88,67 m eq. NaOH/100 g de MS, seguida da silagem de triticale cultivado

  8. Digestibilidade in vitro de leguminosas do semiárido com inóculo cecal de avestruzes In vitro digestibility of legumes from semi-arid with caecal inoculum liquor of ostriches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a digestibilidade in vitro de leguminosas do semiárido nordestino usando inóculo cecal de avestruzes por meio da técnica Tilley e Terry Reversa, usou-se o feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa como referência aos fenos de canafístula (Senna multijuga, de cunhã (Clitoria ternatea, de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, de mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia e de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia. Verificou-se, pelo teste de Duncan (PTo evaluate the in vitro digestibility of forage legume from semi-arid northeast region using caecal inoculum liquor of ostriches with Reverse Tilley and Terry technique, the alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa was used as reference food for comparison between hays of canephori (Senna multijuga, clitoria (Clitoria ternatea, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, kills pasture (Senna obtusifolia and thrush (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia. There was, by Duncan test (P<0.05, significant difference to in vitro digestibility of the nutritional fractions among the legume hays resulting in general mean value of 49.62% for dry matter (DIVMS, of 23.38% for crude protein (DIVPB, of 17.88% for insoluble protein in neutral detergent fiber (DIVPIDN, of 34.52% for neutral detergent fiber (DIVFDN and of 42.07% for neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (DIVFDNcp. The nutritional composition of feedstuffs influenced the fermentative activity of microorganisms from cecum-colon of ostriches in these in vitro incubations, and the better digestibility values were observed for alfalfa hay, followed by kills pasture and leucaena hays, wich were higher than other legumes from semi-arid.

  9. Aporte de nutrientes pela serapilheira em uma área degradada e revegetada com leguminosas arbóreas Nutrient input through litter in a degraded area revegetated with legume trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Costa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o aporte de nutrientes pela deposição de serapilheira em uma área degradada, que sofreu empréstimo de solo, após dez anos da sua revegetação com as leguminosas arbóreas: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (sabiá, Acacia auriculiformis (acácia e Gliricidia sepium (gliricídia; e outra área vizinha, um fragmento da mata Atlântica em crescimento secundário (capoeira. O trabalho foi realizado no campo experimental da Embrapa-Agrobiologia, Km 47, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. Na amostragem, utilizaram-se coletores circulares do material formador da serapilheira com área de 0,25 m², determinando-se os teores de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca e Mg e polifenóis. A quantidade de serapilheira depositada foi influenciada pelas espécies de leguminosas utilizadas na revegetação, variando de 5,7 Mg ha -1 ano-1 de matéria seca (MS, onde predominava gliricídia, até 11,2 Mg ha-1 ano-1 , na faixa formada pela sabiá com contribuição do material de acácia. A deposição na capoeira foi de 9,2 Mg ha-1 ano-1 de MS. O material de gliricídia foi o mais rico em nutrientes (N, P, Ca e Mg e o que apresentou os menores teores de polifenóis; qualitativamente formou a serapilheira mais favorável ao processo de decomposição. O aporte de nutrientes correlacionou-se com a quantidade de serapilheira depositada. Na revegetação, o aporte anual de nutrientes, em kg ha-1 ano-1 , variou: para o N, de 130 a 170; para o P, de 4,9 a 7,9; para K, de 24 a 31; para o Ca, de 150 a 190, e para o Mg, de 28,6 a 40,0. Estes valores foram similares ou superiores aos observados para a capoeira, que foram para o N, 140, para o P, 4,9, para o Ca, 110, e para o Mg, 31,7, exceto para o K, 63. A revegetação com leguminosas, em áreas degradadas, adiciona, relativamente, em pouco tempo, grande quantidade de matéria orgânica e N por meio da produção de serapilheira, favorecendo a ciclagem de nutrientes e o processo de recuperação.The aim of

  10. The use of legume and herb forage species to create high performance pastures for sheep and cattle grazing systems Uso de leguminosas e forrageiras herbáceas para criar pastos de alto desempenho para sistema de pastejo de ovinos e bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter David Kemp

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and cattle farmers need pastoral systems that are more productive and environmentally sustainable. The role that high feeding value herb and legume forage species can play in the farms of the future is highlighted. It is shown that species such as chicory (Cichorium intybus, plantain (Plantago lanceolata, red clover (Trifolium pratense and white clover (T.repens can provide live weight gains in lambs that are 70% greater than those from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne based pastures. A case for replicated experiments that examine the value of whole technology packages based on herb and legume species, rather than component research, is made.Produtores de ovinos e bovinos necessitam de sistemas pastoris mais produtivos e ambientalmente sustentáveis. As espécies forrageiras herbáceas e leguminosas de alto valor nutricional podem ter um papel destacado no futuro desses produtores. Foi demonstrado que espécies tais como a chicória (Cichorium intybus, plantago (Plantago lanceolata, trevo vermelho (Trifolium pratense e trevo-branco (T. repens podem fornecer um ganho de peso 70% maior em carneiros quando comparado com pastagens de azevém (Lolium perenne. Mais que um componente de pesquisa, este é um caso para repetidos experimentos que examinem o valor de todos os pacotes tecnológicos baseados em espécies herbáceas e leguminosas.

  11. Biological Fixation of N2 in Mono and Polyspecific Legume Pasture in the Humid Mediterranean Zone of Chile Fijación Biológica de N2 en Praderas Mono y Poliespecíficas de Leguminosas en la Zona Mediterránea Húmeda de Chile

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    Soledad Espinoza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite annual legume pasture are of great importance for dryland agricultural systems in Mediterranean environments, there are few studies of N2 biological fixation (NBF reported in Chile. In this study the NBF of four annual legume species: subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L., yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus L., arrow-leaf clover (T. vesiculosum L., and crimson clover (T. incarnatum L. (Experiment 1, as well as seven mixtures of these species (Experiment 2 were assessed. The NBF was measured by the 15N natural abundance technique. The objective was to determine NBF in the legume species and in distinct mixtures used. The study was carried out in an Andisol of the Andean Precordillera located in the humid Mediterranean zone of Chile. Pasture was evaluated for biomass; and total N and natural abundance of 15N were analyzed in plant material samples. In Experiment 1 (monospecific legume species pasture, N derived from fixation ranged between 43 and 147 kg N ha-1 and where T. vesiculosum and T. subterraneum presented statistical differences (P ≤ 0.05 in connection with the other species. In the legume mixtures (Experiment 2, N derived by fixation varied between 97 and 214 kg N ha-1 where the 50-50 mixtures (T. subterraneum and O. compressus, or T. subterraneum and T. vesiculosum, respectively had the highest N fixation. Fixed N ranged between 12 and 25 kg N t-1 DM, showing significant differences among mono and polyspecific legume species.A pesar de la gran importancia que las praderas de leguminosas tienen en los sistemas agrícolas de secano en ambientes mediterráneos, existe muy poca información sobre la fijación biológica de N2 (FBN reportada en Chile. En este estudio se evaluó la FBN en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras anuales: trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum L., serradela amarilla (Ornithopus compressus L., trébol vesiculoso (T. vesiculosum L. y trébol encarnado (T. incarnatum L. (Experimento 1, adem

  12. EVALUACIÓN DEL MÉTODO DE LA ABUNDANCIA NATURAL 15N EN LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE LA TRANSFERENCIA DE NITRÓGENO DE LA LEGUMINOSA Canavalia ensiformis (CANAVALIA SOBRE LA NUTRICIÓN NITROGENADA DE LA PLANTA ASOCIADA Musa acuminata (PLÁTANO

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    Natacha Motisi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La asociación de una leguminosa con un cultivo de cosecha ha demostrado ser una práctica eficaz para aportar nitrógeno (N al sistema suelo-planta y así reducir el uso de fertilizantes. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la utilidad del método de la abundancia natural 15N para evaluar ese aporte. Se realizó un ensayo en macetas bajo condiciones de invernadero con la asociación canavalia-plátano, con el objeto de estimar la contribución de los exudados de la leguminosa y del N producto de la descomposición de sus raíces después del corte de la parte aérea. Las estimaciones fueron realizadas con un modelo de compartimientos que tiene en cuenta la discriminación isotópica en el suelo y en el plátano. Del N total absorbido por el plátano, 5 % provino de los exudados de canavalia, 53 % del N liberado por la descomposición de las raíces y 42 % del N del suelo. La contribución de los exudados fue relativamente baja a causa de una fuerte competición entre canavalia y plátano, principalmente por el fósforo disponible en el suelo. El contenido de 15N de la última media hoja adulta del plátano mostró una alta correlación con el de la planta entera. Esto sugiere que la última hoja podría ser utilizada como indicador de la transferencia de N desde la leguminosa. La determinación de la transferencia de N durante el ciclo de crecimiento de canavalia, así como la evaluación del indicador, necesitan una calibración en condiciones de campo, la cual debería ser desarrollada para cada tipo de suelo.

  13. Composição bromatológica de três leguminosas anuais de estação fria adubadas com fósforo e potássio Chemical composition of three cool season annual legumes fertilizet with phosphorus and potassium

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Holz Krolow; Claudio Mistura; Rogério Waltrick Coelho; Lotar Siewerdt; Élio Paulo Zonta

    2004-01-01

    O experimento foi estabelecido em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de doses crescentes de fósforo (P-P2O5) e de potássio (K-K2O) nos teores de proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e minerais (P, K, Ca e Mg) na matéria seca (MS) de três espécies de leguminosas forrageiras. As forrageiras de estação fria utilizadas foram: trevo-persa (Trifolium resupinatum L. cv. Kyambro), trevo-subt...

  14. Comportamento de dois genótipos de milho cultivados em sistema de aléias preestabelecido com diferentes leguminosas arbóreas Behaviour of two maize genotypes grown in alley cropping system pre-established with diferents leguminous trees

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    Andréia Araújo Lima Leite; Altamiro Souza de Lima Ferraz Junior; Emanoel Gomes de Moura; Alana das Chagas Ferreira Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    O cultivo em aléias tem sido recomendado como alternativa para a substituição da agricultura de corte e queima, no trópico úmido, devido à grande capacidade de produção de matéria orgânica e de reciclagem de nutrientes, mas algumas dúvidas quanto à sustentabilidade e à competição interespecífica são persistentes. O objetivo no trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da cultura do milho em um sistema de cultivo em aléias de leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos c...

  15. Dinâmica de decomposição e mineralização de nitrogênio em função da qualidade de resíduos de gramíneas e leguminosas forrageiras Decomposition dynamics and nitrogen mineralization in function of forage grasses and legumes quality residues

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    Hélida Christine de Freitas Monteiro; Reinaldo Bertola Cantarutti; Domicio do Nascimento Junior; Adair José Regazzi; Dilermando Miranda da Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica de decomposição e mineralização de nitrogênio de resíduos de algumas gramíneas e leguminosas forrageiras. Utilizaram-se quatorze resíduos, que variaram quanto à procedência e ao local de coleta, e a seleção foi realizada baseando-se nas características qualitativas desses resíduos e utilizando a distância euclidiana média, como medida de dissimilaridade. Desse modo, foram selecionados os resíduos de B. humidicola, B. brizantha, ...

  16. Dinâmica de decomposição e mineralização de nitrogênio em função da qualidade de resíduos de gramíneas e leguminosas forrageiras

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    Regazzi Adair José; Nascimento Junior Domicio do; Cantarutti Reinaldo Bertola; Monteiro Hélida Christine de Freitas; Fonseca Dilermando Miranda da

    2002-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica de decomposição e mineralização de nitrogênio de resíduos de algumas gramíneas e leguminosas forrageiras. Utilizaram-se quatorze resíduos, que variaram quanto à procedência e ao local de coleta, e a seleção foi realizada baseando-se nas características qualitativas desses resíduos e utilizando a distância euclidiana média, como medida de dissimilaridade. Desse modo, foram selecionados os resíduos de B. humidicola, B. brizantha, ...

  17. Perennial herbaceous legumes as live soil mulches and their effects on C, N and P of the microbial biomass Leguminosas herbáceas perenes como cobertura viva do solo e seu efeito no C, N e P da biomassa microbiana

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    Gustavo Pereira Duda

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of living mulch with legumes is increasing but the impact of this management technique on the soil microbial pool is not well known. In this work, the effect of different live mulches was evaluated in relation to the C, N and P pools of the microbial biomass, in a Typic Alfisol of Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. The field experiment was divided in two parts: the first, consisted of treatments set in a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial combination of the following factors: live mulch species (Arachis pintoi and Macroptilium atropurpureum, vegetation management after cutting (leaving residue as a mulch or residue remotion from the plots and four soil depths. The second part had treatments set in a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial combination of the following factors: absence of live mulch, A. pintoi, Pueraria phaseoloides, and M. atropurpureum, P levels (0 and 88 kg ha-1 and vegetation management after cutting. Variation of microbial C was not observed in relation to soil depth. However, the amount of microbial P and N, water soluble C, available C, and mineralizable C decreased with soil depth. Among the tested legumes, Arachis pintoi promoted an increase of microbial C and available C content of the soil, when compared to the other legume species (Pueraria phaseoloides and Macroptilium atropurpureum. Keeping the shoot as a mulch promoted an increase on soil content of microbial C and N, total organic C and N, and organic C fractions, indicating the importance of this practice to improve soil fertility.A adoção de práticas de cobertura do solo com leguminosas tem aumentado. Porém, o impacto desta prática sobre o compartimento microbiano ainda não é bem conhecido. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes leguminosas, sobre o C, N e P da biomassa microbiana, coletaram-se amostras de Argissolo oriundas de um experimento sob condições de campo em Seropédica-RJ. O experimento foi subdividido em dois ensaios. No primeiro, os tratamentos corresponderam à combinação de tr

  18. Qualidade de frutos de videira 'Niagara Rosada' em cultivo intercalar com gramínea e leguminosas Influence of green cover on fruit quality of table grape variety Niagara Rosada

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    Elaine Bahia Wutke

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao aumento do custo de produção com a utilização de cobertura morta com capim nas ruas da videira, no presente estudo, objetivou-se a possibilidade de substituição dessa cobertura morta por adubação verde intercalar, sem interferência nas características qualitativas dos frutos da videira 'Niagara Rosada', em experimentos realizados em Indaiatuba e Jundiaí-SP, de 1999 a 2002. Nas ruas da videira, instalaram-se seis tratamentos, em blocos ao acaso e 4 repetições, constando de testemunha no limpo; vegetação espontânea roçada; cobertura com capim braquiária; aveia-preta ou chícharo ou tremoço, de março a outubro, seguidos de mucuna-anã de outubro a março. Determinaram-se teores de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, pH, acidez total titulável (ATT e relação SST/ATT no suco. Os resultados obtidos com a cobertura verde, na média dos anos para os parâmetros, foram similares ou mais favoráveis do que os da cobertura com capim, podendo-se substituí-la pela adubação verde intercalar com gramínea e leguminosas, o ano todo, sem interferência negativa na qualidade dos frutos, que foi influenciada pelas condições climáticas anuais das regiões de cultivo.Grape vineyard in Southern Brazil utilize a large amount of mulch during autum-winter season demanding extra efforts and costs related to its acquisition, transportation and distribution in the plant inter-rows. In order to evaluate the possibility of replacing the tradicional use of mulch by cover cropped (green manuring species in the inter-row strip, two experiments were carried out in Indaiatuba and Jundiaí, SP, Brazil, from 1999 to 2002, with the table grape variety Niagara Rosada. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications and six treatments: 1.check (no weeded; 2. cutted spontaneous local vegetation; 3. mulch of Brachiaria decumbens; 4. Avena strigosa from March to October followed by Mucuna deeringiana from October to March; 5

  19. ATRIBUTOS Y ANTECEDENTES DEL COMPORTAMIENTO DE Biserrula pelecinus L. NUEVA LEGUMINOSA FORRAJERA ANUAL PARA CHILE MEDITERRÁNEO Attributes and behavioral background of Biserrula pelecinus L. a new annual forage legume for Mediterranean Chile

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    Carlos Ovalle M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biserrula pelecinus L. es en Chile una nueva especie leguminosa forrajera para suelos ácidos de texturas liviana a media, en zonas de secano mediterráneo subhúmedo y húmedo. Debido a su alta dureza seminal (99% al inicio de la segunda temporada de crecimiento, es una pradera anual, especialmente apropiada para sistemas agrícolas donde la pradera se encuentra en rotación con cereales (‘ley farming system’. Posee una fenología intermedia (132 a 136 días a floración, de hábito de crecimiento semi-erecto, flores de color azul, destacándose por poseer un tamaño de semilla pequeño (674 a 842 semillas g-1, y presenta alto índice de esfuerzo reproductivo (superior a 1,6. La producción de materia seca y de semillas es comparable, y en algunos años superior, a la de las especies de uso tradicional en estas zonas como trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum L. y hualputra (Medicago polymorpha L.. Sin embargo, su aporte en producción al segundo año es muy bajo debido al alto porcentaje de dureza seminal (99%. Actualmente existe el cv. Casbah, desarrollado por el equipo de investigadores del Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA del oeste de Australia. Los antecedentes de fenología y comportamiento productivo de fitomasa permiten su recomendación en zonas de secano interior y costero de las regiones 7ª y 8ª de Chile.In Chile Biserrula pelecinus L. is a new legume forage species for acidi soils, with medium - light texture, in dryland areas of the humid and sub-humid Mediterranean zone. Due to its high rate of hardseedness (99% at the beginning of the second growth season, it is an especially appropriate annual pasture for agricultural systems where the pasture is in rotation with cereals ('ley farming system'. It is an intermediate maturing plant (132 to 136 days to flowering, with a semi-erect growth habit, blue flowers, small seed size (674 to 842 seeds g-1, and has a high index of reproductive force

  20. Nodulation, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and growth of some legumes native from Brazil Nodulação, colonização micorrízica arbuscular e crescimento de algumas leguminosas nativas do Brasil

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    Camila M. Patreze

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rhizobial and mycorrhizal inoculation, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and initial growth were examined in Brazilian native plants, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Conc. Morong, Inga laurina (Sw. Willd., Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus Hassl and Platypodium elegans Vogel. The experiment was carried out in a glasshouse using plastic bags filled with a mixture of sandy soil from riparian forest and vermiculite (2:1 amended with basal nutrients including NP, P and N and infected with rhizobia (r, mycorrhiza (m or both (rm, amounting seven treatments: NP, P, P+r, P+rm, N, N+m and N+rm, with ten replications each. The plants were analyzed at 120 and 255 days after sowing. P deficiency negatively affected growth and nodulation of all species. Autochton arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonized host roots and fungal inoculations did not enhance mycorrhizal colonization, which was also favored by added P. Nodulation was relatively higher in E. contortisiliquum and L. muehlbergianus, mainly in treatments containing P, and with rhizobial inoculation (P+r. Plants from these treatments developed better than others and, despite the rhizobia inoculated had no synergistic relationship with inoculated AMF, they also showed the best percentages of mycorrhizal colonization. Moreover, these two species showed highest rates of acetylene reduction and highest leghemoglobin content. These results suggest that E. contortisiliquum and L. muehlbergianus can have advantages for establishment in soils with low nitrogen levels.Foram examinados os efeitos da inoculação com rizóbio e micorriza, da fertilização com nitrogênio e fósforo na nodulação, na colonização micorrízica e no crescimento inicial das leguminosas arbóreas brasileiras Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Conc. Morong, Inga laurina (Sw. Willd., Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus Hassl e Platypodium elegans Vogel. O experimento foi

  1. Efecto de la densidad de siembra sobre las interacciones biológicas entre las leguminosas Lupinus bogotensis y Vicia benghalensis con las nativas Solanum oblongifolium y Viburnum tinoides en parcelas experimentales de restauración ecológica del bosque altoandino / Effect of plant density on the biological interactions between the legume Lupinus bogotensis and Vicia benghalensis with natives Solanum oblongifolium and Viburnum tinoides in experimental plots of ecological restoration of the high Andean forest

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ruiz, Pilar Angélica

    2011-01-01

    Durante nueve meses, se evaluó la interacción entre las especies leguminosas Lupinus bogotensis y Vicia benghalensis, con las especies arbóreas nativas Solanum oblongifolium y Viburnum tinoides, en parcelas experimentales de restauración ecológica ubicadas en los alrededores del embalse de Chisacá (vereda El Hato, Usme, Bogotá). Las variables evaluadas en las especies nativas fueron: altura, diámetro, número de hojas o ramas y supervivencia. Los tratamientos corresponden a las especies le...

  2. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

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    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  3. ORNITHOPUS PERPUSILLUS L. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae IN LITHUANIA

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    K. K. VILKONIS

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Common birdsfoot serradella (Ornithopus perpusillus L. was first reported in Lithuania in 1898, from a single site, Klaipeda harbor. In 2000 the species was found on the Curonian Spit near Nida, and in two more places almost in the centre of the country. The ecology, community structure, habitat characteristics and distribution of the species are discussed and described. O. perpusillus is here regarded as native in both the Curonian Spit and the Prienai district. These are disjunct localities to the east of the main distribution area of the species. Collected seeds from 2005 are multiplying in Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture for further investigation.

  4. Revision of the genus Calpurnia (Sophoreae: Leguminosae

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    A. J. Beaumont

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxa recognised in this revision are:  Calpurnia aurea (Aiton Benth. subsp.  aurea; C.  aurea (Aiton Benth. subsp.  indica Brummitt; C. floribunda Harv ; C. glabrata Brummitt; C. intrusa (R.Br in W.T.Aiton E.Mey.; C. reflexus A.J.Beaumont sp nov.;  C. sericea Harv. and  C. woodii Schinz. A putative hybrid between  C. sericea and  C. woodii is recorded. With the exception of C aurea, all species are restricted to southern Africa.  C. reflexus is possibly extinct, and C.  woodii is considered rare. Characters examined in this revision are habitat, habit, vestiture, leaf morphology and anatomy; floral, pollen, fruit and seed morphology and anatomy; and seedling morphology. Illustrations and a key to taxa are provided.

  5. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles. PMID:24441368

  6. ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF LEGUMINOSAE PLANTS

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    Noemi D. PAGUIGAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disturbance resulting from an inadequate gastric mucosal defense. Several drugs are available in the market to address the disease; however, these drugs are associated with unnecessary side effects. Objectives Previous research have confirmed the efficacy of plant extracts for possible treatment of the disease. This research aims to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of medicinal plants. Methods Methanol extracts from the leaves of Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea and Saraca thaipingensis were evaluated for their anti-ulcer activity using HCl-ethanol as ulcerogen. Results All extracts showed inhibitory activity with I. bijuga, T. indica, S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis exhibiting more than 50% inhibition. S. thaipingensis showed the highest activity at 80%. S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis were partitioned further into hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of S. spectabilis showed significant increased in its activity while the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of S. thaipingensis gave higher activity than its aqueous portions. Conclusions We conclude that plant extracts are potential sources of new anti-ulcer agents.

  7. Produção de matéria seca e eficiência nutricional para P, Ca e Mg em leguminosas herbáceas Dry matter production and nutritional efficiency for P, Ca and Mg in herbaceous legumes

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    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As leguminosas para adubação verde têm sido introduzidas nos sistemas agrícolas para a recuperação de solos desgastados pelo uso intensivo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de leguminosas herbáceas à aplicação de calcário e fósforo sobre a produção de biomassa e eficiência nutricional para o P, Ca e Mg. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, utilizando-se um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico coletado na profundidade de 0 - 20 cm, em Belém, PA. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo de tratamentos em um fatorial 3³, onde foram comparadas três espécies de leguminosas: mucuna preta (Stizolobium atterrimum, mucuna cochinchinensis (Stilozobium cochinchinensis e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes; três níveis de calagem: de calcário dolomítico (0, 4 e 8 t.ha-1 e de fósforo (0, 25 e 45 mg.dm-3, com quatro repetições cada um. Mucuna cochinchinensis e o feijão de porco produziram maiores quantidades de biomassa vegetal do que a mucuna preta, sendo que a primeira espécie acumulou maior quantidade de P e a segunda maior quantidade de Ca. Mucuna cochinchinensis apresentou maior eficiência de utilização de P, Ca e Mg na ausência da calagem. Nos solos intemperizados com baixa concentração de P, Ca e Mg, o feijão-de-porco e a mucuna cochinchinensis poderão ter melhor desempenho do que a mucuna preta, visto que apresentaram maior eficiência de translocação e de utilização desses nutrientes, respectivamente.The legumes used for green manure have been introduced in agricultural systems for recovering degraded soils by intensive use. The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of herbaceous legumes to liming and P application on dry matter and its nutritional efficiency. The experiment was developed in greenhouse at the Soil Science Department of the Federal University

  8. Crescimento de leguminosas forrageiras afetado pela adição de fósforo, calagem do solo e micorrizas, em condições de casa de vegetação Growth of legume pasture affected by phosphorus addition, soil liming, and mycorrhizae under greenhouse condition

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    Danilo dos Santos Rheinheimer

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A contribuição de leguminosas forrageiras na produtividade das pastagens nativas de solos ácidos e com baixa disponibilidade de fósforo é pequena e limitada a algumas espécies. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliaro efeito da acidez da adição de fósforo e da micorrização no crescimento do trevo riograndense, desmódio e cornichão. Para tanto foram instalados quatro experimentos em casa de vegetação, sendo dois em Lages (SC, com amostras de Latossolo bruno argiloso e, dois em Santa Maria (RS com Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo arenoso. Testou-se doses de fósforo, valores de pH do solo e níveis de inoculação com fungos micorrízicos. Avaliou-se a massa seca, o fósforo absorvido e a porcentagem de colonização micorrízica no início do florescimento. A produtividade dessas leguminosas foi limitada pela baixa disponibilidade de fósforo e pela presença de alumínio trocável, sendo que a sua neutralização pela calagem favoreceu a resposta a esse nutriente. A eliminação dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA reduziu drasticamente o crescimento do desmódio, mas a inoculação em solo sem fumigação não incrementou a produção de massa seca do trevo riograndense, devido ao alto potencial de colonização dos FMA nativos.Acid soils under native pasture in Southern Brazil presents low diversity of legume species, minly due to the low availability of phosphorus and higth aluminum concentration. Four greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the efect of liming, phosphorus addition and micorrhizal inoculation on three legume species. Dry Matter production was limited by phosphorus availability and aluminum concentration. Lime and phosphorus aplication increased matter production. Soil fumigation decreased Desmodium incanum productivity. Mycorrhizal inoculation of soils without fumigation did not affect the Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium riograndense grouth, which might be explained by the high natural population

  9. Las leguminosas (Fabaceæ de Cuba. II. Tribus Crotatarieæ, Æschynomeneæ, Millettieæ y Robinieæ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyra Matos, Á.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of a monographic revision of the legumes of Cuba. It includes the four tribes listed in the title, one of them divided into fíve subtribes, with a total of 16 genera and 78 species. For each species, after the nomenclature. Description, habitat and distribution are recorded, as well as some data about dispersion and phenology, and sometimes ethnobotanical and chemical composition data. When found, karyologic information was also included. The chorological data are completed with 76 maps showing the Cuban distribution of as many taxa. Further on the text, 30 plates representing as many species are included, plus four indices. The first index shows the numerical reference of the 122 recognized taxa. The second one shows the position in the text of the distributional maps. The third one shows the illustrations. The fourth one, which has 322 small entries, shows all scientific names used, both accepted as well as synonyms.

    [es] Parte segunda de una revisión monográfica de las leguminosas de Cuba. Comprende las cuatro tribus que se enuncian en el título, una de ellas a su vez dividida en cinco subtribus, con un total de 16 géneros aceptados y 78 especies reconocidas. Para cada especie y tras la nomenclatura, además de la descripción, el hábitat y la distribución, se consignan diversos datos sobre dispersión y fenología, más algunos etnobotánicas o de composición química ocasionalmente. Cuando pudimos hallarla, incluimos información cariológica. Los datos corológicos se completan con 76 mapas que muestran la distribución cubana de otros tantos táxones nativos de Cuba. Acompañan al texto 30 láminas que representan otras tantas especies, más cuatro índices. En el primero se muestra la referencia numérica de los 122 táxones reconocidos. El segundo muestra la posición en el texto de los mapas distribucionales. El tercero señala las ilustraciones. En el cuarto, que reúne 322 entradillas, figuran todos los

  10. TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE) Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Krapovickas; Walton C. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Pasaron casi 100 años entre la designación por Linneo de la entonces única especie de Arachis (A. hypogaea L.) conocida por los europeos, y el primer tratamiento taxonómico del
    género por Bentham en 1841. Durante los siguientes 100 años, aparecieron cinco a diez
    descripciones de especies adicionales, que asignaban diferentes especies a los mismos
  11. TAXONOMY OF THE GENUS ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Pasaron casi 100 años entre la designación por Linneo de la entonces única especie de Arachis (A. hypogaea L. conocida por los europeos, y el primer tratamiento taxonómico del
    género por Bentham en 1841. Durante los siguientes 100 años, aparecieron cinco a diez
    descripciones de especies adicionales, que asignaban diferentes especies a los mismos
    nombres, y diferentes nombres a las mismas especies. A mediados del Siglo XX, era imposible
    examinar un ejemplar de herbario de Arachis y asignar con alguna certeza algún epíteto a algún
    espécimen (que no fuera un ejemplar tipo excepto a A. hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa y
    A. villosulicarpa.
    En nuestro tratamiento, la literatura de este caos botánico en Arachis esta revisada en detalle y
    se hace un análisis de los fundamentos de su ocurrencia. Se demuestra que las bases de la
    confusión moran en la combinación de la naturaleza esotérica de los caracteres morfológicos
    diferenciados de Arachis, de los especímenes fragmentarios de antaño, y de la representación
    de especies por plántulas.
    Además, se relata cómo, en 1959, decidimos reexplorar la localidad tipo de cada especie hasta
    entonces conocida, y recolectar allí especímenes de las plantas enteras y así resolver el
    problema. Después de treinta y cinco años, dos generaciones de coleccionistas de plantas, y
    alrededor de 2000 colecciones, presentamos aquí las descripciones de 69 especies de Arachis,
    especies distribuidas en Sudamérica al este de los Andes, al sud del Amazonas, al norte de La
    Plata y desde el noroeste argentino hasta el nordeste de Brasil.
    Descubrimos muy pronto que los caracteres más significativos de Arachis residen en sus
    estructuras subterráneas, incluyendo sus frutos, tallos rizomatosos, sistemas radicales e
    hipocótilos.
    Demostramos que estos caracteres determinantes tienden a aglomerar las colecciones en
    grupos que se asocian con áreas geográficas y formaciones ecológicas generalmente diferentes.
    Hicimos un muestreo de 100 materiales representativos de aquellos grupos, áreas, y formaciones
    y los arreglamos en un experimento dialélico de cruzamientos y mostramos, en cruzamientos
    entre materiales de los diferentes grupos, un número notable de fracasos completos en la
    fertilización cruzada y, en aquellos híbridos que se lograron, se observó una alta tasa de
    infertilidad en la F1. Cuando se combinaron estas incompatibilidades e infertilidades de polen
    híbrido con los datos de agrupamiento de caracteres morfológicos, se cristalizaron entonces las
    nueve distintas secciones del género aquí presentadas. Las figuras impuestas sobre mapas de
    Sudamérica ilustran las distribuciones geográficas de estas secciones.
    Las colecciones, entonces, fueron asignadas a las diferentes secciones sobre la base de las
    incompatibilidades de cruzamiento y de los agrupamientos de caracteres exo-morfológicos.
    Al hacer estos grupos, las caracteristicas esotéricas a las cuales se hace referencia arriba, tan
    confusas cuando se aplican a través de los límites seccionales, se volvieron altamente pertinentes
    al ser aplicadas al problema de la diferenciación específica entre materiales dentro de las
    secciones. Estas características, aplicadas en conjunto con la citología cromosómica, las reacciones
    cromatográficas y antigénicas, las variaciones en la fertilidad híbrida intra-seccional y las
    adaptaciones de forma de planta, y de hábito anual o perenne, nos permitió definir los siguientes
    taxa del género Arachis:
    Sección I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa. Sección II. ERECTOIDES
    nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A. Hatschbachii nov., 7. A.
    cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana nov., 11. A. gracilis nov.,
    12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a. A. paraguariensis subsp.
    paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov. Sección III. EXTRANERVOSAE
    nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A. marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A.
    lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A. Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa.
    Sección IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov. Sección V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26.
    A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Sección VI.
    CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Sección VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32.
    A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A.
    matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Sección VIII.
    RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Serie PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Serie
    RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A.
    glabrata var. Hagenbeckii. Sección IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A.
    monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A.
    Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox
    12 nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A.
    Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov.
    comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi,
    68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea, var. 2. hirsuta, 69b.
    A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3. aequatoriana nov.,
    var. 4. vulgaris.
    Se demuestra cómo los sistemas reproductivos autógamos, la reproducción agamética, el hábito
    de fructificación subterránea y el mecanismo limitado de dispersión de semillas están lógicamente
    ligados con la deriva de organización cromosómica que da origen a incrementos notables de
    infertilidad en cruzamientos entre diferentes accesiones de la misma especie, a una infertilidad
    variablemente más alta en cruzamientos entre especies dentro de las secciones, hasta una casi
    total infertilidad entre especies de diferentes secciones.
    Las relaciones evolutivas y filogenéticas entre las diferentes secciones están discutidas y
    también demostradas en una secuencia de diagramas ilustrando las ideas presentadas. Es
    evidente que las distancias genéticas que separan las secciones están lejos de ser todas de la
    misma magnitud. Las secciones presumiblemente más antiguas (Triseminatae, Trierectoides,
    Erectoides, Extranervosae y Heteranthae, excepto por la sección Erectoides, están mucho más
    aisladas de las secciones restantes y entre sí que aquellas secciones que se consideran de
    origen más reciente (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae y Arachis.
    La sección Arachis es por mucho la más grande, pues contiene cerca de 40% de las especies
    descritas. Parece que las especies de esta sección se están expandiendo hacia nuevos territorios
    e invadiendo áreas ocupadas por especies de otras secciones. Crecen entremezcladas con
    poblaciones de Extranervosae en la cuenca alta del río Paraguay y ocupan terrenos comunes
    con la sección Procumbentes en el Gran Pantanal. Han llegado hasta las orillas de La Plata y a la
    costa sureste de Brasil, y crecen desde Yala en el noroeste de la Argentina hasta el río Tocantins
    en el nordeste de Brasil. Incluyen el cultígeno de importancia mundial, A. hypogaea.
    Esencialmente cada trabajo publicado sobre la historia botánica y la taxonomía de Arachis está
    presentado aquí en las referencias a especímenes individuales y en la bibliografía general. La
    historia de A. hypogaea desde principios del Siglo XVI hasta tiempos más recientes, junto con los
    nombres comunes en varios idiomas autóctonos americanos, nos dan una perspectiva sobre la
    antigüedad de este cultivo y el nivel de civilización requerido para su creación.
    Seis apéndices proporcionan datos de apoyo e información de archivo. Claves diagnósticas a las
    secciones y a las especies dentro de cada sección seleccionan los rasgos más distintivos de las
    secciones y especies. Diecinueve dibujos de línea capturan las estructuras claves para distinguir
    las secciones y especies, incluyendo plantas enteras, sistemas radicales, orientaciones de
    frutos, reproducción agamética a partir de estructuras fructíferas, formas de carpelos, y la
    fisionomía superficial de hojas y tallos.
    Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus’ naming the then lone species of Arachis (A.
    hypogaea L. known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham in
    1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared, assigning
    different species to the same names, and different names to the same species. By mid-20th
    Century, it was impossible to examine any herbarium collection of Arachis and assign any epithet
    with any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A. hypogaea, A.
    guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa.
    In our treatment, the literature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and an
    assessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for the
    confusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphological
    features of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections, and the representation of species by
    seedling specimens.
    Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species then
    known, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty-five
    years, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later, we present here 69
    species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south of
    the Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil.
    We soon discovered that the most significant characters of Arachis lay in their underground
    structures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls.
    We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups which
    were associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features.
    We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these clusters, areas and features, and
    arranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between collections representing
    different clusters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures to
    cross-fertilize and, in those hybrids that were recovered, a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility.
    When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data on
    character clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized.
    Figures imposed upon maps of South America illustrate the geographic distributions of these
    sections.
    The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of cross-incompatibility
    and exo-morphologic character clustering. When these groups were made, the esoteric
    characteristics referred to above, so confounding when applied across sectional lines, became
    highly pertinent when applied to the problem of species differentiation between collections within
    sections. These characteristics, applied in conjunction with chromosome cytology,
    chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional hybrid fertility and
    adaptations of plant form, and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to assemble the following
    taxa of the genus Arachis: Section I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa.
    Section II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A.
    Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana
    nov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a.
    A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov.
    Section III. EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A.
    marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A.
    Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov.
    Section V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A.
    Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII.
    PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A.
    chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A.
    subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A.
    Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var.
    glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var. Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A.
    cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A.
    Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma
    nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A.
    decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A.
    correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi
    nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea,
    var. 2. hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3.
    aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris.
    The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit and
    the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal
    organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different
    collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within
    sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections.
    The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed and
    are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating the ideas presented. It is evident that the
    genetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude. The
    presumably older sections (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae and
    Heteranthae, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sections
    and from each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae,
    Rhizomatosae and Arachis.
    Section Arachis is by far the largest, containing about 40% of the species described. Species of
    this section appear to be spreading into new territory and to be invading areas occupied by
    species of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the upper
    Paraguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran Pantanal.
    They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and grow from
    Yala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They include the worldwide cultivar, A.
    hypogaea.
    Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is presented
    here in the individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A.
    hypogaea from the early 16th Century to more recent times, along with the common names in
    several native American languages, provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and the
    level of civilization required for its creation.
    Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the sections
    and to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing characteristics of the
    sections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures of
    whole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures,
    carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  12. TAXONOMIA DEL GENERO ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Pasaron casi 100 años entre la designación por Linneo de la entonces única especie de Arachis (A. hypogaea L. conocida por los europeos, y el primer tratamiento taxonómico del
    género por Bentham en 1841. Durante los siguientes 100 años, aparecieron cinco a diez descripciones de especies adicionales, que asignaban diferentes especies a los mismos nombres, y diferentes nombres a las mismas especies. A mediados del Siglo XX, era imposible
    examinar un ejemplar de herbario de Arachis y asignar con alguna certeza algún epíteto a algún espécimen (que no fuera un ejemplar tipo excepto a A. hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa y
    A. villosulicarpa.
    En nuestro tratamiento, la literatura de este caos botánico en Arachis esta revisada en detalle y
    se hace un análisis de los fundamentos de su ocurrencia. Se demuestra que las bases de la
    confusión moran en la combinación de la naturaleza esotérica de los caracteres morfológicos diferenciados de Arachis, de los especímenes fragmentarios de antaño, y de la representación
    de especies por plántulas.
    Además, se relata cómo, en 1959, decidimos reexplorar la localidad tipo de cada especie hasta
    entonces conocida, y recolectar allí especímenes de las plantas enteras y así resolver el problema. Después de treinta y cinco años, dos generaciones de coleccionistas de plantas, y
    alrededor de 2000 colecciones, presentamos aquí las descripciones de 69 especies de Arachis,
    especies distribuidas en Sudamérica al este de los Andes, al sud del Amazonas, al norte de La
    Plata y desde el noroeste argentino hasta el nordeste de Brasil.
    Descubrimos muy pronto que los caracteres más significativos de Arachis residen en sus estructuras subterráneas, incluyendo sus frutos, tallos rizomatosos, sistemas radicales e
    hipocótilos.
    Demostramos que estos caracteres determinantes tienden a aglomerar las colecciones en grupos que se asocian con áreas geográficas y formaciones ecológicas generalmente diferentes.
    Hicimos un muestreo de 100 materiales representativos de aquellos grupos, áreas, y formaciones y los arreglamos en un experimento dialélico de cruzamientos y mostramos, en cruzamientos entre materiales de los diferentes grupos, un número notable de fracasos completos en la fertilización cruzada y, en aquellos híbridos que se lograron, se observó una alta tasa de infertilidad en la F1. Cuando se combinaron estas incompatibilidades e infertilidades de polen
    híbrido con los datos de agrupamiento de caracteres morfológicos, se cristalizaron entonces las nueve distintas secciones del género aquí presentadas. Las figuras impuestas sobre mapas de Sudamérica ilustran las distribuciones geográficas de estas secciones.
    Las colecciones, entonces, fueron asignadas a las diferentes secciones sobre la base de las
    incompatibilidades de cruzamiento y de los agrupamientos de caracteres exo-morfológicos.
    Al hacer estos grupos, las caracteristicas esotéricas a las cuales se hace referencia arriba, tan confusas cuando se aplican a través de los límites seccionales, se volvieron altamente pertinentes al ser aplicadas al problema de la diferenciación específica entre materiales dentro de las
    secciones. Estas características, aplicadas en conjunto con la citología cromosómica, las reacciones cromatográficas y antigénicas, las variaciones en la fertilidad híbrida intra-seccional y las adaptaciones de forma de planta, y de hábito anual o perenne, nos permitió definir los siguientes
    taxa del género Arachis:
    Sección I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa. Sección II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A. Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana nov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a. A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov. Sección III. EXTRANERVOSAE
    nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A. marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A. Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa.
    Sección IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov. Sección V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Sección VI.
    CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Sección VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Sección VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Serie PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Serie RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var. Hagenbeckii. Sección IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A.
    Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox
    Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus' naming the then lone species of Arachis (A.
    hypogaea L., known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham
    in 1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared,
    assigning different species to the same names,different names to the same species. By mid20th
    century, it was impossible to examine anyherbarium collection of Arachis and assign any
    epithet with any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A.
    hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa.
    In our treatment the Iiterature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and an
    assessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for the
    confusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphological
    features of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections and the representation of species by
    seedling specimens.
    Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species then
    known, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty five
    years, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later we present here 69
    species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south
    of the Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil.
    We soon discovered that the most significant characters of Arachis lay in their underground
    structures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls.
    We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups which
    were associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features.
    We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these c1usters, areas and features and
    arranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between collections representing
    different c1usters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures
    to cross-fertilize and in those hybrids which were recovered a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility.
    When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data on
    character-clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized.
    Figures imposed upon maps of South America iIIustrate the geographic distributions of these
    sections.
    The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of crossincompatibility
    and exo-morphologic character clustering.
    When these groups were made the esoteric characteristics, referred to aboye, so confounding
    when applied across sectionallines, became highly pertinent when applied to the problem
    of species differentiation between collections within sections. These, applied in conjunction with
    chromosome cytology, chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional
    hybrid fertility and adaptations of plant form and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to
    assemble the following taxa of the genus Arachis:
    Section 1. TR/ERECTO/DES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa. Section 11. ERECTO/DES
    nov.: 3. A. Martií, 4. A. brevipetio/ata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A. Hatschbach;i nov., 7. A.
    cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. majar nov., 9. A. Benthamií, 10. A. douradiana nov., 11. A. gracilis
    nov., 12. A. Hermannií nov., 13. A. Archer; nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a. A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov. Section 111.
    EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A. marginata, 19.
    A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A. retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A. Pietrarellii nov.,
    24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov.. Section V.
    HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani
    nov. Section VI CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov.. Section VII.
    PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35.
    A. chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipi/a nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A.
    subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAEnov., Series. PRORHIZOMATOSAEnov.: 40.
    A. Burkartii. Series. RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata
    varo glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata varo Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44.
    A. cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaensis nov., 48. A. valida nov.,
    49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A.
    stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A.
    trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. vil/osa,
    62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66.
    A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmannii nov., 69a. A hypogaea subsp.
    hypogaea varo 1. hypogaea, var.2. hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var.1. fastigiata,
    var.2. peruviana nov., var.3. aequatoriana nov., varA. vulgaris.
    .The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit
    and the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal
    organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different
    collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within
    sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections.
    The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed
    and are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating ideas presented. It is evident
    that the genetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude.
    The presumably older (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae, and Heteranthae
    sections, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sections and
    each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae,
    Rhizomatosae, and Arachis.
    Arachis section is by far the largest section, containing about 40% of the species described.
    Species of the section appearto be spreading to newterritory and to be invading areas occupied
    by species of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the .
    upper Paraguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran
    Pantanal. They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and
    grow from Yala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They contain the world-wide
    cultivar A. hypogaea.
    Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is
    presented in individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A.
    hypogaea from the early 16th century to more recent times along with the common names in
    several native American languages provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and the
    level of civilization required for its creation.
    Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the
    sections and to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing guides
    to the sections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures
    of whole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures,
    carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  13. Efeito do fósforo e do potássio sobre o desenvolvimento e a nodulação de três leguminosas anuais de estação fria Effect of phosphorus and potassium on development and nodulation of three cool season annual legumes

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    Rodrigo Holz Krolow

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de fósforo e potássio na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, comprimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular, escore e eficiência da nodulação de três leguminosas forrageiras anuais de estação fria. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg/dm³ de P2O5 e K (0,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg/dm³ de K2O, correspondendo a 0,0 (controle 1, 2, 3 e 4 vezes a recomendação da análise de solo, em vasos, com 8 kg de solo tipo Planossolo, unidade de mapeamento Pelotas. As leguminosas utilizadas foram: Trifolium resupinatum L. cv. Kyambro (trevo-persa, Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Woogenellup e Lotus subbiflorus Lag. cv. El Rincón. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5 x 5, com três repetições. O trabalho foi conduzido no período de maio a outubro de 2000, sendo os dados colhidos ao final do período experimental, aproximadamente 170 dias após a semeadura. A maioria das características estudadas não foi influenciada pela aplicação de potássio, e sim pela aplicação de fósforo. Para as variáveis relacionadas com produção (MS parte aérea e raízes, o trevo-persa foi a espécie mais produtiva. Para a nodulação, o trevo-subterrâneo e o Lotus El Rincón apresentaram maior eficiência e quantidade de nódulos.This experiment was established in greenhouse at Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, with the objective to evaluate the effects of different doses of phosphorus and potassium on dry matter production of aerial biomass and roots, length of above ground parts and roots and efficiency and score of nodulation of three cool season annual forage legumes. The treatments were five doses of P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg de P2O5/dm³ and K (00,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg de

  14. Organic material decomposition and nutrient dynamics in a mulch system enriched with leguminous trees in the Amazon Decomposição de material orgânico e dinâmica de nutrientes em um sistema de cobertura morta enriquecido com árvores leguminosas na Amazônia

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    José Henrique Cattanio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The new techniques proposed for agriculture in the Amazon region include rotational fallow systems enriched with leguminous trees and the replacement of biomass burning by mulching. Decomposition and nutrient release from mulch were studied using fine-mesh litterbags with five different leguminous species and the natural fallow vegetation as control. Samples from each treatment were analyzed for total C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, lignin, cellulose content and soluble polyphenol at different sampling times over the course of one year. The decomposition rate constant varied with species and time. Weight loss from the decomposed litter bag material after 96 days was 30.1 % for Acacia angustissima, 32.7 % for Sclerolobium paniculatum, 33.9 % for Iinga edulis and the Fallow vegetation, 45.2 % for Acacia mangium and 63.6 % for Clitoria racemosa. Immobilization of N and P was observed in all studied treatments. Nitrogen mineralization was negatively correlated with phenol, C-to-N ratio, lignin + phenol/N ratio, and phenol/phosphorus ratios and with N content in the litterbag material. After 362 days of field incubation, an average (of all treatments, 3.3 % K, 32.2 % Ca and 22.4 % Mg remained in the mulch. Results confirm that low quality and high amount of organic C as mulch application are limiting for the quantity of energy available for microorganisms and increase the nutrient immobilization for biomass decomposition, which results in competition for nutrients with the crop plants.As novas técnicas propostas para a agricultura na Amazônia incluem sistema de rotação de capoeira enriquecido com árvores leguminosas e transformando a queima da biomassa em cobertura morta sobre o solo. A decomposição e a liberação de nutrientes da cobertura morta foram estudadas usando sacos de liteira com malha fina que continham cinco tratamentos com diferentes espécies de leguminosas em comparação a um tratamento-controle com vegetação natural. As amostras para

  15. Técnicas para a obtenção de preparações citológicas com alta freqüência de metáfases mitóticas em plantas: Passiflora (Passifloraceae e Crotalaria (Leguminosae

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    Cuco Silvia Marina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos experimentos visando à otimização de procedimentos para preparações citológicas de pontas de raiz com alta freqüência de metáfases mitóticas, apresentando cromossomos com morfologia nítida, em espécies pertencentes a dois gêneros de plantas, Passiflora (Passifloraceae e Crotalaria (Leguminosae. Para o acúmulo de metáfases, bem como de prófases e prometáfases com cromossomos bem condensados, foram avaliados pré-tratamentos de raízes, em que foram utilizadas diferentes combinações de 8-hidroxiquinolina, inibidor do fuso mitótico, com cicloheximida, inibidor da síntese protéica. As preparações foram coradas pelo método de Feulgen. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o tratamento com 8-hidroxiquinolina a 300ppm combinado com cicloheximida a 3,125ppm, por 1 hora e 30 minutos para as espécies de Passiflora, e a combinação de 8-hidroxiquinolina a 300ppm + cicloheximida a 6,25ppm também durante 1 hora e 30 minutos para as espécies de Crotalaria. Esta investigação ilustra a situação de dois gêneros de plantas em que a adequação de pré-tratamentos diferiu entre os grupos, e é fundamental para estudos envolvendo comparação do cariótipo das espécies, sobretudo para a detecção de marcadores cromossômicos evidenciados por meio de métodos diversos de citogenética (bandamento-C, bandamento com fluorocromos e hibridação in situ fluorescente.

  16. Utilização de cama sobreposta de suínos e sobressemeadura de leguminosas para aumento da produção e qualidade de pastagem natural Swine deep bedding amendment and legume sod-seeding to increase production and quality of natural pasture

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    Paulo Hentz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da fertilização com dois tipos de camas sobrepostas de suínos (CSS, à base de casca de arroz (CA e maravalha (MA, sobre a produção de uma pastagem natural, com predomínio de Axonopus sp. e Paspalum sp., sobressemeada com leguminosas (cornichão e trevo-branco. As camas sobrepostas foram aplicadas em quantidades equivalentes a 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg/ha de P2O5, constituindo quatro níveis de cama de casca de arroz (30, 60, 90 ou 120 t/ha e quatro níveis de cama de maravalha (20,6; 41,2; 62,2 ou 82,8 t/ha. Foram incluídos dois tratamentos-testemunha: 180 kg/ha de superfosfato triplo (SFT e ausência de adubação (AA. A sobressemeadura das leguminosas foi realizada em maio de 2004 e, a partir de agosto de 2004, foram realizados nove cortes da pastagem, a cada seis semanas. As maiores produções de matéria seca (MS anuais (setembro/2004 a agosto/2005 com as aplicações de cama de casca de arroz foram obtidas nos níveis 30 e 60 t/ha e, com cama de maravalha, nos níveis 62,2 e 82,8 t/ha, que resultaram em produções de MS de 8.083 e 8.276 kg/ha, superiores às obtidas com superfosfato triplo (4.091 kg MS/ha e sem adubação (3.071 MS kg/ha. A produção de MS de trevo-branco aumentou linearmente no outono e no inverno, de acordo com os níveis de adubação com cama de maravalha, mas não variaram com a adubação com cama de casca de arroz. O efeito fertilizante varia entre os tipos de cama sobreposta, que podem influenciar a composição botânica de pastagens mistas de leguminosas-gramíneas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of two swine deep beddings (SDB: rice husk (CA and sawdust coarse (MA on the production of natural pasture. The predominant species in this pasture were Axonopus sp. and Paspalum sp. that was sod-seeded with the forage legumes birdsfoot trefoil and white clover. The SDBs were applied in amounts equivalent to 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg/ha of P2O

  17. A study on temporal variation of elemental composition in tree barks used as air pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: eliane_csantos@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The study of air pollution using biological matrices has shown that tree barks may be used as biomonitor due to accumulation of aerosol particles on its porous surface. The bark elemental composition can provide information on pollution sources as well as characterize the aerial pollutants from a wide geographical region. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in elemental composition in barks with time of exposure. Tree barks from Tipuana (Tipuana tipu) and Sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides) species were collected in February 2013 and July 2014 in the city of São Paulo. For analysis, the barks were cleaned, grated, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of samples and synthetic standards of elements were irradiated with thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and after a suitable decay time, the induced gamma activities were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The elements As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined and the results indicated variability in the concentrations depending on the element, sampling period and also on tree species, indicating that there are not very well defined temporal trends. The quality control of the analytical results evaluated by analyzing INCT Virginia Tobacco Leaves certified reference material (CRM) presented values of |z-score| < 2, indicating that the procedure of NAA applied is suitable for the analyses. (author)

  18. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul Overcoming dormancy of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul

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    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais com sementes duras freqüentemente apresentam consideráveis problemas para os viveiristas, porque seus tegumentos duros e impermeáveis à água dificultam e retardam a germinação. Por isso, desenvolveu-se este experimento em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de determinar metodologias para superar a dormência de sementes de catingueira. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes. As sementes foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica feita manualmente com lixa nº. 80 (T2, desponte - pequeno corte na região oposta à micrópila (T3, imersão no ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 6, 8 e 10 min (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente, imersão em água nas temperaturas de 60, 70 e 80 ºC por 1 min (T7, T8 e T9, respectivamente e imersão em água fria por 24, 48 e 72 h (T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com areia umedecida esterilizada. Através de avaliações diárias durante 21 dias, verificaram-se as características de porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento e massa seca das plântulas. Os resultados evidenciaram que os tratamentos pré-germinativos promoveram a germinação das sementes de catingueira, e a escarificação manual com lixa, imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 8 e 10 min e imersão em água a 80 ºC por 1 min revelaram ser os métodos mais efetivos.Forest species with hard seeds often cause important problems for nursery managers because their hard and water impermeable seed coats hinder and delay germination. For this reason, an experiment was carried out to determine methodologies for overcoming dormancy of catingueira seeds, under greenhouse conditions, in the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Paraíba. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replicates of 25 seeds/treatment. Seeds were subjected to 12 treatments: control - intact seeds (T1, mechanical scarification using fine sandpaper nº. 80 (T2, coating cutting in the opposite side of micropylar region (T3, immersion in sulfuric acid (98% for 6, 8 and 10 minutes (T4, T5 and T6, respectively, immersion in water at 60, 70 and 80ºC for one minute (T7, T8 and T9, respectively, immersion in water at room temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hours (T10, T11 and T12, respectively. The seeds were sown in plastic trays with sterilized humidified sand. Daily evaluations were carried out during 21 days observing characteristics of emergence percentage, emergence first count, emergence velocity index, height and dry matter weight of seedlings. The results demonstrated that germinative pre-treatments increased seed germination of catingueira seeds, and higher values were observed with manual scarification with sandpaper, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid during eight and ten minutes and immersion in water at 80ºC for one minute were the most effective methods.

  19. Arrowleaf Clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: A New Species of Annual Legumes for High Rainfall Areas of the Mediterranean Climate Zone of Chile Trébol Vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: Una Nueva Especie de Leguminosa Anual para Áreas de Alta Precipitación en la Zona Mediterránea de Chile

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    Carlos Ovalle M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines the main attributes and agronomic characteristics of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi and its incorporation into production systems in dryland areas of the Andean foothills of the humid Mediterranean climate zone of Chile. It is a new species of annual legume in Chile for light and medium textured soils. The root system can reach a depth of 1.5 m and its seeds have a high percentage of hardseedness (99.8%. It is an upright plant, with purplish-white flowers. The mature plant has large arrow-shaped leaves up to 50 mm long, often marked with a large white “V”. Dry matter and seed production in the Andean foothills is high (3.9-8.8 t DM ha-1 and 700-900 kg ha-1, respectively, surpassing the productivity of sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mount Barker and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.. However, DM production in the second year was lower, possibly because the high percentage of hardseedness inhibited plant emergence. The phenological records and productive performance suggest that arrowleaf clover could contribute to improving pastoral production in dryland areas with annual rainfall levels of more than 800 mm, such as the Andean foothills in the central-southern region of Chile.En la presente revisión se examinan los principales atributos y características agronómicas del trébol vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi y su eventual incorporación a sistemas de producción en la precordillera andina de la zona de clima mediterráneo húmedo de Chile. Se trata de una nueva especie de leguminosa forrajera anual para suelos de textura liviana y media. El sistema radical puede alcanzar 1,5 m de profundidad y las semillas tienen un alto porcentaje de dureza seminal (99,8%. Es una planta de crecimiento erecto, flores de color blanco con una leve coloración púrpura. Las plantas adultas tienen grandes hojas con forma de flecha de más de 50 mm de largo, a menudo muestran una marca blanca en

  20. Fixação biológica e transferência de nitrogênio por leguminosas em pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

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    Gleicia Miranda Paulino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN e a transferência do N derivado da FBN das espécies leguminosas - gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-guandu anão (Cajanus cajan - para um pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira, pelo método da abundância natural de N. Foram avaliados os seguintes sistemas de cultivos consorciados: mangueira e gravioleira com gliricídia; mangueira e gravioleira com crotalária; mangueira e gravioleira com feijão-guandu; e a testemunha mangueira e gravioleira. Agliricídia apresentou maior potencial de FBN (80%, seguida da crotalária (64,5% e feijão-guandu (45%. Em dois cortes, a crotalária forneceu 149,5 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 96,5kg derivados da FBN. A gliricídia com três podas anuais forneceu 56,4 e 80,3 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 45 e 64 kg derivados da FBN, em dois anos consecutivos. A quantidade de N fornecida foi superior à demandada pela mangueira e gravioleira. Variações na abundância natural de 15N foram detectadas somente na gravioleira. Gliricídia e crotalária destacaram-se na transferência de N, com cerca de 22,5 e 40% do N fixado, respectivamente. A adubação verde com gliricídia possibilita o parcelamento do N, com melhor aproveitamento pelas espécies frutíferas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia, Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following intercropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80% , followed by sunnhemp (64.5% and pigeon pea (45%. After two sunnhemp prunes, 149

  1. Composição bromatológica de três leguminosas anuais de estação fria adubadas com fósforo e potássio Chemical composition of three cool season annual legumes fertilizet with phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Holz Krolow

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi estabelecido em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de doses crescentes de fósforo (P-P2O5 e de potássio (K-K2O nos teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e minerais (P, K, Ca e Mg na matéria seca (MS de três espécies de leguminosas forrageiras. As forrageiras de estação fria utilizadas foram: trevo-persa (Trifolium resupinatum L. cv. Kyambro, trevo-subterrâneo (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Woogenellup e Lotus El Rincon (Lotus subbiflorus Lag. cv. El Rincón. Foi utilizado delineamento experimental completamente ao acaso, com arranjo fatorial de 2x5x5, com três repetições, no período de maio a outubro de 2000. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg /dm³ de P2O5 e K (0,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg /dm³ de K2O, correspondendo a 0,0 (controle 1, 2, 3 e 4 vezes a recomendação da análise de solo, em vasos, com 8 kg de solo tipo Planossolo, unidade de mapeamento Pelotas. As amostras de forragem utilizadas para as determinações laboratoriais foram colhidas, secas em estufa e preparadas, ao final do período experimental, aproximadamente 170 dias após a semeadura. A adubação fosfatada influenciou positivamente os teores de PB, P e Mg na MS, enquanto o potássio, apenas o teor de K. Os teores de FDN e FDA não foram influenciados pela adubação.This experiment was established in a greenhouse at Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, with the objective to evaluate the effects of increasing doses phosphorus (P-P2O5 and potassium (K-K2O on crude protein (CP, acid detrgent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and minerals (P,K,Ca and Mg contents of dry matter (DM in three species of forages legumes. The three cool season annual legumes forage used were: persian-clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. cv. Kyambro, subterraneum-clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv

  2. Caratterizzazione funzionale della proteina PII nella leguminosa modello Lotus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Parlati, Aurora

    2011-01-01

    Le proteine PII fanno parte di una grande superfamiglia di proteine che agiscono come segnali di trasduzione e che sono ampiamente distribuite in natura. Negli organismi procariotici, PII gioca un ruolo chiave come integratore dei livelli cellulari di C, N ed energia, mentre il suo ruolo è ancora poco chiaro nelle piante superiori. Recenti dati di letteratura indicano che le proteine PII sono coinvolte nel pathway di biosintesi dell’arginina modulando l’attività dell’N-acetil-glutammato china...

  3. Eocene Podocarpium (Leguminosae from South China and its biogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing eXu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger is one of the most common legumes in the Neogene of Eurasia, including fossil fruits, seeds, leaves, and possible flower and pollen grains. This genus is not completely consistent with any extant genera according to gross morphological characters and poorly preserved cuticular structures reported in previous studies. The fossil pods collected from the coal-bearing series of the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island and Maoming Basin of Guangdong, South China, are examined by morphologically comparative work, with special reference to venation patterns and placental position. These distinctive features, as well as the ovule development of pods from different growing stages and the epidermal structure of the pods, as distinguished from previous records lead to the conclusion that these fossils can be recognized as a new species of Podocarpium, P. eocenicum sp. nov. This new discovery indicates that Podocarpium had arrived in South China by the Eocene. Investigation on the fossil records of this extinct genus shows that P. eocenicum is the earliest and lowest latitude fossil data. The possible occurrence pattern of this genus is revealed as follows: Podocarpium had distributed in the South China at least in the middle Eocene, and then migrated to Europe during the Oligocene; in the Miocene this genus reached its peak in Eurasia, spreading extensively across subtropical areas to warm temperate areas; finally, Podocarpium shrank rapidly and became extinct in Eurasia during the Pliocene.

  4. Natural hybridization in the genus Eriosema (Leguminosae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Stirton

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Both spontaneous and introgressive hybridization occur naturally in  Eriosema in South Africa. One case of hybrid swarming is reported and a catalogue of six hybrids is presented and discussed in detail.

  5. Allelopathic potential of catechins of the Tachigali myrmecophyla (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two compounds, (+)-catechin and epicatechin, were isolated from leaves of T. myrmecophyla, using chromatographic techniques. The structural identification was carried out on the basis of 1H and 13C NMR spectral data and comparison with literature data. The compounds (+)-catechin and epicatechin were submitted to germination inhibition and radicle and hypocotyl growth assays. Results showed some significant activities confirming the initial hypothesis about allelopathic properties of that plant. (author)

  6. Morphological and micromorphological characteristics of Desmodium fruits (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daiane M; Reis, Ademir; Bortoluzzi, Roseli L da Costa; Santos, Marisa

    2014-12-01

    The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomen- taceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM); and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicellular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit. PMID:25720190

  7. RECUENTOS CROMOSOMICOS EN ZORNIA, STYLOSANTHES Y DESMODIUM (LEGUMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vanni

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El número de cromosomas de tres especies de Zornia, tres de Desmodium y uno de Stylosanthes se presentan por primera vez. Está incluído un conteo previo para leiocarpum Desmodium el cual se confirma

  8. RECUENTOS CROMOSOMICOS EN ZORNIA, STYLOSANTHES Y DESMODIUM (LEGUMINOSAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Vanni

    2010-01-01

    El número de cromosomas de tres especies de Zornia, tres de Desmodium y uno de Stylosanthes se presentan por primera vez. Está incluído un conteo previo para leiocarpum Desmodium el cual se confirma

  9. Zuccagnia punctata (Leguminosae): ¿nuevo o viejo endemismo argentino?

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio A. Ulibarri

    2005-01-01

    El estudio bibliográfico y de colecciones botánicas pertenecientes a Zuccagnia punctata demostraron el caracter endémico de esta especie para la Argentina. Con la descripción, ilustración y otros datos complementarios, se brinda un panorama que enriquece el concepto sobre esta interesante especie.

  10. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Acacia nitidifolia Speg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae. Wood anatomy of Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Speg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfurações simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3 seriados e fibras libriformes septadas. A presença de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na série Vulgares Benth., que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  11. Allelopathic potential of catechins of the Tachigali myrmecophyla (Leguminosae); Potencial alelopatico de catequinas de Tachigali myrmecophyla (leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Livia T.; Castro, Kelly Christina Ferreira; Arruda, Mara Silvia P.; Silva, Milton N. da; Arruda, Alberto C.; Mueller, Adolfo Henrique; Arruda, Giselle Maria Skelding P.; Santos, Alberdan Silva [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: livia_lobo@yahoo.com.br; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro da Silva [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Agroindustria

    2008-07-01

    Two compounds, (+)-catechin and epicatechin, were isolated from leaves of T. myrmecophyla, using chromatographic techniques. The structural identification was carried out on the basis of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral data and comparison with literature data. The compounds (+)-catechin and epicatechin were submitted to germination inhibition and radicle and hypocotyl growth assays. Results showed some significant activities confirming the initial hypothesis about allelopathic properties of that plant. (author)

  12. Chemical constituents of leaves from Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae); Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Souza, Alex Fonseca; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMGS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Aquidauana

    2012-07-01

    A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), 1,2-di-O-{alpha}-linolenoy1-3-O-{alpha}-D-galactopyranosy1 -(1{yields}6)-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+)-catechin and the dimer (+)-catechin-(4{beta}-8)-catechin, glutinol, squalene, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, {beta}-carotene, a-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and based on literature data. (author)

  13. Dinâmica de decomposição e mineralização de nitrogênio em função da qualidade de resíduos de gramíneas e leguminosas forrageiras Decomposition dynamics and nitrogen mineralization in function of forage grasses and legumes quality residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélida Christine de Freitas Monteiro

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica de decomposição e mineralização de nitrogênio de resíduos de algumas gramíneas e leguminosas forrageiras. Utilizaram-se quatorze resíduos, que variaram quanto à procedência e ao local de coleta, e a seleção foi realizada baseando-se nas características qualitativas desses resíduos e utilizando a distância euclidiana média, como medida de dissimilaridade. Desse modo, foram selecionados os resíduos de B. humidicola, B. brizantha, A. pintoi, D. ovalifolium, L. leucocephala, S. guianensis e C. pubescens. A decomposição dos resíduos selecionados foi medida por meio da liberação de C-CO2. Para a análise dos dados de decomposição, adotou-se o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em que os resíduos constituíram as parcelas e as avaliações no tempo, as subparcelas. Às quantidades de CO2 evoluídas em função do tempo (horas ajustou-se uma função logística. Para o ensaio de mineralização, foram realizadas amostragens semanais de nitrogênio amoniacal e nítrico, por um período de sete semanas. Observou-se que o teor de polifenóis e a capacidade destes em complexarem proteínas foram os atributos qualitativos que mais afetaram os processos de decomposição e mineralização líquida de nitrogênio. Os resíduos vegetais que apresentaram carbono orgânico mais facilmente degradável apresentaram maior taxa de decomposição (evolução do CO2 e mineralização líquida de N. Os resíduos de C. pubescens e A. pintoi apresentaram as maiores taxas de decomposição e mineralização líquida de N. O resíduo de B. brizantha também apresentou alta taxa de decomposição. A nitrificação no solo foi mais intensa sob as condições de mineralização do resíduo de A. pintoi.The decomposition dynamics and mineralization of nitrogen of fourteen residues of grasses and legumes forages varying in origin and collecting places were evaluated. Seven species were

  14. Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa): The sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Joan Carles; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Jorba, Montse; Aribau, Joaquim; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the fruit of the tara tree as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with environment and social concerns. Tara tannins have been used in retanning formulas in leather processing and its properties are well known. This work aims to optimize formulations using tara as a pre-tanning agent. Combinations with a naphthalene sulphonic syntan are used to obtain an innovative wet-white rec...

  15. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherien Kamal Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract effectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Kinetics of solute leachate from imbibing Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Martini Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of leachates from imbibing seeds has been used as a vigor test for several species. The adaptation of this methodology to different species requires knowledge on the leaching kinetics of electrolytes. For Brazilwood seeds, the classic method was not satisfactory and rapid tests are essential because they have low storage capacity at room temperature. Leaching kinetics during seed imbibition is a function of physiological quality, presence or absence of seed coat, imbibing temperature and the initial moisture content of seed. In this study, the electrolyte leaching rate of six different categories of seeds, from two regions, was evaluated in seeds with and without seed coat and incubated with different moisture contents and at different temperatures. The results showed that the electrolyte leaching rate in Brazilwood seeds is independent of the physiological quality, the presence or absence of seed coat and imbibition temperature, but these factors changed the total amount of electrolytes leached. The leaching rate increased in the first few minutes of imbibition, suggesting that the adjustment of the methodology must consider the reduction in imbibition time, reduction in temperature, use of a controlled and slower pre-imbibition, and replacement of the imbibition solution after the first few minutes.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanto, Subur; Suyitno, Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda; Wibowo, Atmanto Heru; Hadi, Syamsul

    2016-03-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  18. PEMUNGUTAN BRAZILIN DARI KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L DENGAN METODE MASERASI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PEWARNAAN KAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pembuatan zat warna alami dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol dan aquades, variasi volume pelarut yang digunakan 75, 150, dan 250 ml. Variasi waktu perendaman 6, 12, 24, dan 48 jam. Serbuk zat warna alami Brazilin dianalisis dengan FTIR dan diaplikasikan pada kain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin lama waktu ekstraksi dan volume pelarut yang digunakan, maka rendemen yang dihasilkan semakin banyak. Rendemen serbuk brazilin maksimal sebesar 6,316% pada waktu ekstraksi 48 jam menggunakan volume pelarut etanol 250 ml. Gugus fungsi brazilin memiliki ikatan tertentu diantaranya C-H, O-H, C-O, C=O, C=C alkena. Adanya gugus fungsi –OH menunjukkan adanya senyawa brazilin. Serbuk brazilin diaplikasikan pada kain dengan teknik celup, zat pengikat seperti tawas, kapur, dan tunjung mempengaruhi kenampakan warna yang dihasilkan pada kain.Kata kunci : zat warna, ekstraksi, maserasi, brazilin, teknik celup. A production of natural dyes can be done by maceration method with using ethanol solvent and distilled water (aquadest, variations of solvent volumes which used were 75, 150, and 250 ml. Soaking times variations were 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Brazilin natural dye powder was analyzed by FTIR and applied to industry. The research results showed the longer of the extraction time and the volume of the used solvents, resulted in the higher yield. Yield of Brazilin powder maximum was 6.316% on the extraction time during 48 hours with using ethanol solvent of 250 ml. Functional groups of Brazilin have specific bond among CH, OH, CO, C = O, C = C alkenes. The existence of the functional groups -OH indicates the brazilin compound. Brazilin powder was applied to industry with dye techniques, binding agents such as alum, lime, and lotus (tunjung which affected the appearance of the fabric color.Keyword : natural dyes, extraction, maceration, brazilin, dye technique.

  19. PEMUNGUTAN BRAZILIN DARI KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L) DENGAN METODE MASERASI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PEWARNAAN KAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti; Ria Dwita Riski

    2015-01-01

    Pembuatan zat warna alami dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol dan aquades, variasi volume pelarut yang digunakan 75, 150, dan 250 ml. Variasi waktu perendaman 6, 12, 24, dan 48 jam. Serbuk zat warna alami Brazilin dianalisis dengan FTIR dan diaplikasikan pada kain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin lama waktu ekstraksi dan volume pelarut yang digunakan, maka rendemen yang dihasilkan semakin banyak. Rendemen serbuk brazilin maksimal sebesar 6,316% pada waktu e...

  20. Adaptación, Crecimiento y Producción de Nuevas Leguminosas Forrajeras Anuales en la Zona Mediterránea de Chile: II. Comportamiento de las Especies en Suelos Graníticos del Secano Interior Subhúmmedo Adaptation, Growth and Production of New Annual Forage Legumes in the Mediterranean Zone of Chile: II. Species Performance in Granitic Soils of the Sub-Humid Interior Dryland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ovalle M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la productividad y persistencia de nuevo germoplasma de leguminosas forrajeras anuales, en suelos graníticos degradados del secano interior mediterráneo sub-húmedo de Chile, se realizó un experimento de campo en el Centro Experimental Cauquenes, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile, entre julio de 2000 y marzo de 2002. Las especies estudiadas fueron Biserrula pelecinus (3 cultivares, Ornithopus compressus (7, O. sativus (2, Trifolium michelianum (1, T. resupinatum (1 y T. vesiculosum (1. Se incluyeron como testigo cultivares de Trifolium subterraneum sensu lato (3 y de Medicago polymorpha (1, puesto que ambas especies son de amplia utilización en la zona de estudio. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y el tamaño de las parcelas fue de 2 x 5 m. Los resultados de producción de fitomasa, semilla y dureza seminal indicaron diferencias significativas (P ≤ 0,05 entre las especies y cultivares, en los tres años de evaluación. B. pelecinus destacó sobre todo en el tercer año, por una alta producción de fitomasa (7840-8920 kg MS ha-1año-1y de semillas (1290-1603 kg MS ha-1año-1, y alta persistencia. O. compressus cvs. Madeira, Ávila, Santorini y Paros, también presentaron un alto potencial de producción de fitomasa (6650-8720 kg MS ha-1año-1 y de semilla en el tercer año de evaluación. La producción de O. sativus cv. Cádiz, en el tercer año fue superior (P ≤ 0,05 a T. subterraneum y M. polymorpha, pero inferior a los mejores cultivares de B. pelecinus y O. compressus. Por otra parte, T. michelianum cv. Paradana, T. resupinatum cv. Kymbro y T. vesiculosum presentaron una baja productividad y persistencia en este ambienteIn order to evaluate the productivity and persistence of new germplasm of annual forage legumes in degraded granitic soils of the interior dryland of the sub-humid Mediterranean climate region of Chile, a field experiment was carried

  1. Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo-resina produzido pela copaiba - Copaifera multijuga Hayne (Leguminosae Antimicrobial activity of the oil-resin produced by copaiba Copaifera multijuga Hayne (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidy Eduardo Mendonça

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa de plantas com fins medicinais tem grande importância para a comunidade médica, uma destas é o óleo-resina extraído da copaíba, Copaifera multijuga Hayne, o qual é natural da região Amazônica onde é encontrado uma grande diversidade dessa espécies. Seu uso medicinal, tão difundido o torna o fitofármaco mais usado e conhecido pelas populações mais pobres da região Norte do Brasil, sendo utilizado como diurético, laxativo, antitetânico, antiblenorrágico, anti-reumático, anti-séptico do aparelho urinário, antiinflamatório, antitussígeno, cicatrizante e remédio para o combate ao câncer. O presente trabalho apresenta os resultados da avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana deste óleo, onde foi avaliado pela a técnica de difusão em ágar em meio Muller-Hinton. As cepas avaliadas foram: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. As placas forma incubadas em estufas por 24 h em temperatura de 35 ºC. Como padrões foram utilizados os antibióticos amoxicilina (AMO-10 mg/disco, cloranfenicol (CLO-30 mg/disco e tetraciclina (TET-30 mg/disco. Os resultados mostraram que o óleo de copaíba possui capacidade de inibir o crescimento das três bactérias avaliadas, apresentando com isso uma concentração inibitória mínima de 1,56, 3,12 e 12,5% para E. coli, S. aureus e P. aeruginosa, respectivamente.The research of plants with medicinal purposes has great importance for the medical community, one of these is the oil-resin extracted of copaíba, Copaifera multijuga Hayne, which is natural of the Amazon region where a great diversity of this species is found. Its medicinal use, the way it is widely spread out, becomes it the phytopharmacs most used and known by the poor populations at the North region of Brazil, being used as diuretic, laxative, antitetanic, antiblenorragic, anti-rheumatic, anti-septic for urinary system, anti-inflammatory, anti-cough, cicatrizing and medicine for the combat to the cancer. The present work shows the evaluation results of this oil antimicrobial activity by the technique of diffusion in agar in Muller-Hinton ambience. The evaluated strains were: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, 25923 Staphylococcus aureus ATCC and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The plates were incubated in hot houses for 24 h under temperature of 35 ºC. Amoxicillin antibiotics (AMO-10 mg/disco, cloranfenicol (CLO-30 mg/disco and tetracycline used (TET-30 mg/disco as being standard. The results showed that the oil has the capacity to inhibit the growth of three evaluated bacteria, presenting a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1,56, 3,12 and 12.5% for E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively.

  2. Números cromosómicos en especies sudamericanas andinas de Lupinus (Leguminosae CHROMOSOME NUMBERS IN SOUTH AMERICAN ANDEAN SPECIES OF LUPINUS (LEGUMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Fiess Camillo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se determinó el número cromosómico en 22 poblaciones de 16 especies del género Lupinus
    L. de la región Andina. Todos presentaron 2n=48 cromosomas con excepción de L.
    bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36. Estos son los primeros recuentos cromosómicos para L.
    arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L. chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L.
    lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P. Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus
    C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L. pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L.
    smithianus Kunth y L. tominensis Wedd. Este trabajo también confirmó recuentos
    cromosómicos para L. mutabilis Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 y L. bandelierae
    (2n=36. Los resultados claramente confirman que, citológicamente, la mayoría de los Lupinus
    andinos son más próximos de las especies norteamericanas qué a las del este de América del
    Sur
    Chromosome numbers were determined in 22 accessions of 16 Lupinus L. species from the
    Andean region. All had 2n=48 chromosomes, except L. bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36.
    These are the first chromosome countings for L. arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L.
    chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L. lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P.
    Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L.
    pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L. smithianus Kunth and L. tominensis Wedd.
    The present study also confirmed literature data on chromosome numbers of L. mutabilis
    Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 and L. bandelierae (2n=36. The results clearly
    confirm that, cytologically, the vast majority of Andean species are closer to the North
    American than to the eastern South American taxa

  3. Especies nuevas y una lectotipificación en Lonchocarpus (Leguminosae) para Mesoamérica New species and one lectotypification in Lonchocarpus (Leguminosae) from Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Sousa S.

    2011-01-01

    Se describen e ilustran 7 especies nuevas de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae): Lonchocarpus bracteolatus endémica de Honduras, L. hydrophilus endémica de Guatemala, L. nebularis endémica de Panamá, L. sericocarpus endémica de Nicaragua, L. barbatus y L. multifoliolatus, ambas endémicas de la cuenca del golfo de México, y L. congestiflorus que se ubica en las montañas de Chiapas hasta Honduras. Estas especies pertenecen a la sect. Densiflori Benth., sect. Obtusifolii (Benth.) M. Sous...

  4. Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo-resina produzido pela copaiba - Copaifera multijuga Hayne (Leguminosae) Antimicrobial activity of the oil-resin produced by copaiba Copaifera multijuga Hayne (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Davidy Eduardo Mendonça; Sideney Becker Onofre

    2009-01-01

    A pesquisa de plantas com fins medicinais tem grande importância para a comunidade médica, uma destas é o óleo-resina extraído da copaíba, Copaifera multijuga Hayne, o qual é natural da região Amazônica onde é encontrado uma grande diversidade dessa espécies. Seu uso medicinal, tão difundido o torna o fitofármaco mais usado e conhecido pelas populações mais pobres da região Norte do Brasil, sendo utilizado como diurético, laxativo, antitetânico, antiblenorrágico, anti-reumático, anti-séptico ...

  5. Intoxicação experimental por sementes de Crotalaria spectabilis (Leguminosae em suínos Experimental poisoning by Crotalaria spectabilis (Leguminosae seeds in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bersane Araújo de Medeiros Torres

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar os efeitos da ingestão de sementes de Crotalaria spectabilis em suínos, 14 porcos foram divididos em 5 grupos; quatro (A-D eram formados por 3 porcos e um (Grupo E por dois porcos. Com exceção do grupo A, que serviu como controle, os porcos foram alimentados com ração contendo 0,3 e 0,5% (Grupos B e C e 1% (Grupos D e E de sementes moídas de C. spectabilis por 32 (Grupo D, 44 (Grupo E e 120 (Grupo B e C dias. Um suíno do Grupo D e 2 suínos do Grupo B, morreram 8, 70 e 137 dias após o início do experimento; os restantes 11 suínos foram sacrificados em períodos que variaram entre 52 e 159 dias após o início do experimento. Dez dos 11 suínos tratados apresentaram perda do apetite e subdesenvolvimento. Outros sinais clínicos observados foram depressão, perda localizada de pêlos e distúrbios respiratórios. As principais lesões ocorreram no fígado. Em um caso eram agudas e consistiam principalmente de padrão lobular acentuado resultante de necrose centrolobulara massiva. Os outros 11 suínos apresentavam lesões hepáticas crônicas; o fígado estava firme, com cápsula espessada e aderências fibrosas entre os lobos e a estruturas adjacentes. Microscopicamente havia fibrose capsular, interlobar, interlobular e intralobular; hepatomegalocitose e proliferação de ductos biliares. Bilestase foi observadada no fígado de dois suínos; num outro havia regeneração hepatocelular nodular. Os pulmões de 4 suínos estavam avermelhados e firmes. Histologicamente havia espessamento dos septos interalveolares e interlobulares por edema, fibrose e infiltração celular, e proliferação de pneumócitos tipo II. Alterações renais foram observadas apenas microscopicamente e incluíam, principalmente, hepatomegalocitose das células epiteliais tubulares. Em 6 porcos observaram-se edemas cavitários (ascite, hidrotórax e hidropericárdio de intensidade discreta a moderada. Alterações vasculares microscópicas consistindo de espessamento e hialinização da parede arterial foram observadas no pulmão de 5 suínos e no rim de 3. Quatro suínos tinham alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática. Essas alterações não foram observadas nos suínos controles.To study the effects of the ingestion of Crotalaria spectabilis seeds, fourteen pigs were alloted in 5 groups. Four groups (A-D consisted each of three pigs and the other (Group E of two pigs. With the exception of those from Group A, which served as control, pigs were fed a ration containing 0.3 and 0.5% (groups B and C and 1% (Groups D and E of ground seeds of C. spectabilis for 32 (group D, 44 (group E, and 120 (groups B and C days. One pig from Group D and two pigs from Group B died at 8, 70, and 137 days after the beginning of the experiment; the remaining 11 pigs were euthanatized at periods varying from 52 to 159 days from the beginning of the experiment. Ten of the 11 treated pigs had loss of apetite and poor growth rate. Depression, localized loss of hair, and respiratory distress were other observed clinical signs. Main pathological changes occurred in the liver. They were acute in one case and consisted of accentuation of the lobular pattern; due to centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis. The remaining 11 treated pigs had chronic hepatic lesions, which included firmness, thickening of the capsule and fibrous adhesions between lobes and between hepatic capsule and adjacent structures. Histologically there was capsular, interlobar, interlobular, and intralobular fibrosis, hepatomegalocytosis and proliferation of bile ducts. In two case there was bilestasis and, in one pig, nodular regeneration was observed. The lungs of 4 pigs were reddened and firm. Histologically there was thickenning of interalveolar and interlobular septa by edema, fibrosis, cell infiltration and type II pneumocytes proliferation. The kidneys were grossly unremarkable. Histologically there was megalocytosis of the tubular epithelium and of the cells of the glomerular tuft. Hialinization of the glomerular tuft was also observed. Mild to moderate cavitary edema (ascites, hydrothorax and hydropericardium was observed in 6 pigs. Microscopic vascular lesions consisting of arterial wall thickening and hialinization were seen in the lung of 5 pigs and in the kidney of 3 pigs. Four pigs had microscopic changes suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy. Those changes were not observed in the controls.

  6. Estudo preliminar da atividade antibacteriana das cascas de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae (Leguminosae Preliminary study of the antibacterial activity of Erythrina velutina Willd. Fabaceae (Leguminosae bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Virtuoso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A Erythrina velutina é popularmente conhecida como suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga dentre outros. Das várias espécies distribuídas pelo mundo cerca de doze estão no Brasil. A casca é utilizada, principalmente no nordeste brasileiro, pelas propriedades sudorífica, calmante, emoliente, peitoral, anestésica local e outras. Considerando-se que não existem estudos sobre o potencial microbiológico das cascas de Erythrina velutina este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliá-lo preliminarmente contra oito bactérias patogênicas. Foram utilizados os métodos de difusão em disco e concentração inibitória mínima para o extrato etanólico bruto e difusão em disco para a fração hexano. A atividade contra o Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pyogenes foi evidenciada para ambas as amostras. A viabilidade de futuras pesquisas com outras frações e substâncias isoladas na busca de novas alternativas, visando uma terapêutica racional a partir de fontes naturais foi apontada pelos resultados.Erythrina velutina is popularly known as suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga among others. Of the several species spread around the world about twelve are found in Brazil. Mainly in the Brazilian northeast the bark is used due to its sudorific, sedative, emollient, pectoral and topical anesthetic properties. Considering that there are no studies about the antibacterial potential of Erythrina velutina, this research aimed at evaluating, at least preliminarily, bark activity against eight pathogenic bacteria. The crude ethanol extract was tested by the disk diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the hexane fraction by the disk diffusion method. Both samples demonstrated activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The results pointed to the viability of future research on other fractions and substances isolated from Erythrina velutina in search for new rational therapeutic alternatives based on natural sources.

  7. Revisão taxonômica de Myrocarpus Allemão (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae Taxonomic revision of Myrocarpus Allemão (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela L.B. Sartori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Em Myrocarpus, gênero exclusivamente sul-americano, são reconhecidas cinco espécies: Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão, M. leprosus Pickel, M. venezuelensis Rudd, M. fastigiatus Allemãoe M. emarginatus A.L.B. Sartori & A.M.G. Azevedo. Na delimitação das espécies são discutidos dados de morfologia, hábitats e de distribuição geográfica. A morfologia das pétalas e a ornamentação da região seminífera são caracteres relevantes na identificação das espécies, embora não utilizados até o presente. Este estudo apresenta chave de identificação das espécies, descrições, ilustrações, mapa de distribuição e novos registros de ocorrência.In Myrocarpus, an exclusively South American genus, five species are recognised: Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão, M. leprosus Pickel, M. venezuelensis Rudd, M. fastigiatus Allemãoand M. emarginatus A.L.B. Sartori & A.M.G. Azevedo. Morphologic data, habitat information and geographic distribution of each taxon are discussed. Petal morphology and ornamentation of seed chamber are an important character for species identification, though not shown previously. Key to the species, descriptions, illustrations, distribution, and new registers are presented.

  8. Papilionoideae (Leguminosae nos campos rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, MG, Brasil Papilionoideae (Leguminosae in the campos rupestres of Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Ferreira Dutra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata do estudo florístico de Papilionoideae dos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (PEI, localizado no sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço. O trabalho de campo foi realizado no período entre setembro/2003 e outubro/2004. Foram encontradas 28 espécies de Papilionoideae, reunidas em 18 gêneros, sendo Desmodium o mais representativo, com cinco espécies. São fornecidos neste trabalho chaves analíticas, diagnoses, ilustrações e comentários sobre a distribuição geográfica e fenologia de cada espécie.A floristic study of Papilionoideae in the campos rupestres of Itacolomi State Park, South Espinhaço Range, was carried out. Field work took place from September 2003 to October 2004. Twenty eight species of Papilionoideae, grouped into 18 genera, were found. Desmodium was the most representative with five species. Analytical keys, diagnoses, illustrations and comments on the geographic distribution and phenology of each species are also presented.

  9. Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) nos campos rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, MG, Brasil Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) in the campos rupestres of Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Valquíria Ferreira Dutra; Flávia Cristina Pinto Garcia; Haroldo Cavalcante de Lima

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho trata do estudo florístico de Papilionoideae dos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (PEI), localizado no sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço. O trabalho de campo foi realizado no período entre setembro/2003 e outubro/2004. Foram encontradas 28 espécies de Papilionoideae, reunidas em 18 gêneros, sendo Desmodium o mais representativo, com cinco espécies. São fornecidos neste trabalho chaves analíticas, diagnoses, ilustrações e comentários sobre a distribuição geográfica...

  10. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena Rezende; Lucidalva Alves Cardoso; Antonio Luciano Vannucci

    1994-01-01

    Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo;...

  11. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo; o pecíolo, que possui dois pulvinos, um proximal e um distai, apresenta epiderme contendo grande quantidade de tricomas tecto res simples e glândulas; a lâmina foliar é anfiestomática com predomínio de estômatos dos tipos anomocítico e paracítico; a epiderme adaxial é monoestratificada, subpapilosa, desprovida de tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; a epiderme abaxial é subpapilosa, apresentando numerosos tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; e o mesofilo é formado predominantemente por parênquima paliçádico.A morphological and anatomical study of Bauhinia curvula Benth. leaf, a cerrado spe-cies, was perfomed. The observations, in grown up leaves, prepared according to the costumary methodology used in plant anatomy, showed the following characteristics of the species: bilobed leaves with foliar incision close to the motor region; one pair of membranaceous stipules; one pair of extrafloral nectaries located on the basis of the proximal pulvinus; acrodromous patterns of leaf venetion; the petiole, which has two pulvinus, one proximal and one distal, has an epidermis containing large quantities of simple tector trichomes and glands; the leaf blade, amphiestomatic, with predominance of anomocytic and paracytic stomata; the adaxial epidermis uniserial, sub papillose, without tector trichomes and glands; the abaxial epiderms, sub-papillose, presents a high number of simple trichomes and glands; and the mesophyll with a basic composition of palisadic parenchyma.

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTI- TUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA F. IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED COUGH IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Cough is a natural reflex expulsive defense mechanism of the body, for clearing excess secretions, mucous, inhaled irritants, toxins or foreign substance in the respiratory tract. It is the most common symptom of respiratory disease. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is a need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have res...

  13. Antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods in vitro and in model food emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Skowyra, Monika; Falguera, Víctor; Gallego Iradi, María Gabriela; Peiró, Sara; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The successful replacement of some synthetic food antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants has fostered intensive search for new vegetable sources of antioxidants. In our study the phenol and flavonoid content of extracts of tara pods was determined. The antioxidant activity was also studied by three different analytical assays: the measurement of scavenging capacity against a radical ABTS + , the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant ...

  14. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong from Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Tabosa Pereira da Silva; Tadeu José da Silva Peixoto Sobrinho; Valérium Thijan Nobre de Almeida e Castro; Danielle da Cunha Amaral Lima; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts from the bark and leaves of C. pyramidalis and S. glandulosum. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total tannin content (TTC) were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total flavonoids content (TFC) was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FIC (ferrous ion chelating) as...

  15. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Tabosa Pereira da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to quantify the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts from the bark and leaves of C. pyramidalis and S. glandulosum. The total phenolic content (TPC and total tannin content (TTC were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total flavonoids content (TFC was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and FIC (ferrous ion chelating assays. The TPC ranged between 135.55 ± 9.85 and 459.79 ± 11.65 tannic acid equivalents (TAE in mg/g material (mg TAE/g. The leaves of both species contained high levels of tannins and flavonoids. The crude ethanol extracts (CEE from the bark of C. pyramidalis showed high antioxidant activity when compared to ascorbic acid and rutin, whereas the CEE from the leaves was more efficient in chelating ferrous ions. C. pyramidalis had very high phenolic content and anti-radical activity, which indicates a need for further studies aimed at the purification and identification of compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  16. Una nueva especie de centrosema (dc.) benth. (leguminosae: papilionoideae) del orinoco

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze Kraft, Rainer; Williams, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    Una nueva especie de Centrosema es descrita como C. tetragonolobum. Su distribución está limitada a la región del río Orinoco entre latitudes 4° y 6° N en la Comisaría del Vichada, Colombia, y el Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Son características de la especie las legumbres aladas, hojas cartáceas a coriáceas, y un hábito de crecimiento erecto-trepador.

  17. Host Suitability of Twelve Leguminosae Species to Populations of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, G. D.; Rumbaugh, M D

    1996-01-01

    Legumes of the genera Astragalus (milkvetch), Coronilla (crownvetch), Lathyrus (pea vine), Lotus (birdsfoot trefoil), Medicago (alfalfa), Melilotus (clover), Trifolium (clover), and Vicia (common vetch) were inoculated with a population of Melaidogyne chitwoodi from Utah or with one of three M. hapla populations from California, Utah, and Wyoming.Thirty-nine percent to 86% of alfalfa (M. scutellata) and 10% to 55% of red clover (T. pratense) plants survived inoculation with the nematode popul...

  18. Mating system and genetic diversity of a rare desert legume Ammopiptanthus nanus (Leguminosae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing CHEN; Hong-Wen HUANG; Daniel J CRAWFORD; Bo-Rong PAN; Xue-Jun GE

    2009-01-01

    Ammopiptanthus nanus is an endangered evergreen shrub endemic to the deserts of central Asia and plays an important role in delaying further desertification. We examined allozyme variation and AFLP diversity in A. Nanus populations and investigated the mating system of this species using progeny arrays assayed for poly-morphic allozyme loci. Mating system analysis in the Keyi'eryongke'er population showed low levels of out-crossing, and strong inbreeding depression. Low levels of genetic variation were detected at both population (allozyme, Pp=14.0%,A=1.14, He=0.031; AFLP, Pp=14.5%, Shannon's information index I=0.063) and species (allozyme, Pp=21.1%,A=1.21, He=0.040; AFLP, Pp=20.9%, I=0.083) levels; while moderate genetic differentia-tion existed among populations, as indicated by allozymes (GST=0.081) and AFLP (GST=0.151-0.193). Founder effect, bottlenecks in evolutionary history, the mixed mating system and co-ancestry may have influenced the level of genetic diversity in A. Nanus. Markers of both types provide new insights for conservation management, indicating that the Biao'ertuokuoyi and Keyi'eryongke'er populations should be given priority for in situ conser-vation and regarded as seed sources for ex situ conservation.

  19. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  20. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae, a new species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayajirao Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat.

  1. Algunas leguminosas de la amazonía y orinoquia colombianas

    OpenAIRE

    Dugand, Armando

    2012-01-01

    Sabido es que el célebre explorador botánico Von Martius, organizador principal de la Flora Brasiliensis, recorrió una extensa parte del territorio suroriental de Colombia durante su viaje por el río Japurá o Yapurá (llamado Caquetá en Colombia) en enero y febrero de 1820. La parte colombiana de su itinerario -unos 370 kilómetros a vuelo de pájaro-- comprende las riberas del río Caquetá desde la boca del río Apaporis en la actual frontera colombo-brasileña, hasta los raudales de Araracuara, l...

  2. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene-(5''6''6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'', 2''-dimethylchromene-(5,6:6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 ± 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L-1 rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 μg mL-1) and 30 nmol L-1 rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 ± 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  3. Floral development in Tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae): Amherstia, Brownea, and Tamarindus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, S C

    2000-10-01

    Floral development was compared among three taxa in caesalpinioid tribe Detarieae sensu lato: Amherstia nobilis and Tamarindus indica have racemose, helically arranged inflorescences, while Brownea latifolia has cauliflorous capitate flower clusters that arise as racemes. All have acropetal flower order; initiation and development are sequential in all except Brownea, which is synchronous. All have paired persistent showy bracteoles. Floral symmetry is dorsiventral (zygomorphic) in all except Brownea, with radial symmetry at anthesis. Sepals initiate helically on a circular floral apex, starting with a median abaxial sepal, in all. Petals are initiated helically in Brownea, and unidirectionally in Amherstia and Tamarindus. Stamens are initiated unidirectionally in each stamen whorl in all except Amherstia, in which the outer whorl is bidirectional. The carpel initiates concurrently with the petals in Brownea, and with the outer stamens in the other taxa. The two upper (adaxial) sepal primordia become fused during development in all, so that the calyx appears tetramerous. Some reduced petals occur in Amherstia and Tamarindus, and some reduced stamens occur in all. All produce a hypanthium by zonal growth, and all except Tamarindus have the gynoecium attached adaxially to the hypanthial rim. PMID:11034916

  4. Uji Asosiasi Bakteri Rhizobium Terseleksi dengan Leguminosa Pakan dalam Kondisi Tercekam Salin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Fuskhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available (Test of Association Selected Rhizobium Bacteria with Legumes in Salinity Stress ABSTRACT. The research aim was to investigate association selected rhizobium bacteria with legumes in salinity stress. Plant media was salin soil that have EC = 20.45 mmhos/cm which taken from Morosari beach, Sayung, Demak. Rhizobium isolate applied was tolerant to 12.000 ppm of NaCl that equaled to electrical conductivity of 20 mmhos/cm. The research was carried out in green house of Laboratory of Forage Science Diponegoro University Semarang. The design arranged was completely randomized design with factorial design 2 x 4 in 3 repeatations. First factor was kind of legumes, T1 = lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala; T2 = turi (Sesbania grandiflora. and second factor was kind of rhizobium isolates, I1 = without isolate; I2 = rhizobium that was isolated from lamtoro, I3 = rhizobium that was isolated from turi; I4 = combination isolate from lamtoro and turi. The crop growth was observed up to 10 weeks of age. The parameters were 1 crops heigh; 2 sum of leaf crops; 3 fresh weight production; 4 dry weight production; 5 amount and fresh weigh of effective root nodules. The study showed the growth and production of turi in saline media of EC 20.45 mmhos/cm was higher than lamtoro. Root nodule of turi was formed, but lamtoro was not. Turi was more tolerant than lamtoro at very saline media.

  5. Índices de oxidación en aceites de algunas leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.; Robles-Burgueño, M. R.; Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    2001-01-01

    The oxidation process of crude and refined oils from wild leguminous seeds: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite), Mimosa grahamii (gatuña), Acacia constricta, (vinorama) Olneya tesota, (palo fierro) Cercidium praecox (palo de brea) and Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde) were evaluated during storage for 122 days, using corn and soybean oils as controls. Peroxide, Iodine, Acid and p-Anisidine values were determinated during 122 days of storage at room temperature. The wild leguminous raw oils sho...

  6. Biodisponibilidad de calcio, hierro y cinc en leguminosas mediante ensayos in vitro con cultivos celulares

    OpenAIRE

    Viadel Crespo, Mª Blanca

    2002-01-01

    RESUMEN Se pone a punto y optimiza en legumbres, un método in vitro de estimación de la biodisponibilidad mineral, que incluye una digestión gastrointestinal simulada e incorpora un cultivo celular (células Caco-2) para evaluar la captación y el transporte de calcio, hierro y cinc. Este sistema se aplica a alubias, garbanzos y lentejas (producto crudo y sometido a cocción). Se caracteriza la línea celular Caco-2 como modelo de captación y/o transporte mineral. Para evaluar el estado del...

  7. The evolutionary history of Mimosa (Leguminosae): toward a phylogeny of the sensitive plants

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, M. F.; Grether, R.; L.P. de Queiroz; Särkinen, T E; Dutra, V F; HUGHES, C E

    2011-01-01

    Premise of the study: Large genera provide remarkable opportunities to investigate patterns of morphological evolution and historical biogeography in plants. A molecular phylogeny of the species-rich and morphologically and ecologically diverse genus Mimosa was generated to evaluate its infrageneric classification, reconstruct the evolution of a set of morphological characters, and establish the relationships of Old World species to the rest of the genus. • Methods: We used trnD-trnT plastid ...

  8. Isozyme and RAPD studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. Velutina (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessega Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD techniques have been compared for their usefulness for genetic and taxonomic studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. velutina populations. Isozymes and RAPDs yielded similarly high estimates of genetic variability. Genetic structure and differentiation were analyzed through non-hierarchical Wright's F DT. For all populations considered, both markers produced low gene flow (Nm 1, in agreement with that expected for conspecific populations. However, in RAPD data the expected reduction in F DT and the increase in Nm were not observed. Correlation between F DT and geographical distance matrices (Mantel test for all populations was significant (P = 0.02 when based on isozymes, but not so (P = 0.33 when based on RAPDs. No significant associations among genetic and geographical or climatic variables were observed. Two isoenzyme systems (GOT and PRX enabled us to distinguish between P. glandulosa and P. velutina, but no diagnostic band for recognition of populations or species studied here were detected by RAPD. However, RAPD markers showed higher values for genetic differentiation among conspecific populations of P. glandulosa and a lower coefficient of variation than those obtained from isozymes.

  9. Pengaruh Pemberian Berbagai Tingkat Mikoriza Arbuskula pada Tanah Ultisol terhadap Produktivitas Leguminosa

    OpenAIRE

    Mustapa, Andrian

    2015-01-01

    Soil ultisol given arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased the nutrient content of the soil thereby increased the productivity of legume. The objective of this research to determine the response of various levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil ultisol on productivity of legume (Arachis glabrata, Centrosema pubescens and Pueraria javanica) as measured by the production of fresh, dry matter production and root biomass. The research conducted at field trial Animal Husbandry Depar...

  10. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae: Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Tundis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium pratense (red clover and T. repens (white clover edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  11. The endangered Ethiopian endemic Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) and its little-known habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile; van Breugel, Paulo;

    2016-01-01

    to limestone habitats in the Kubayo National Forest, where it forms almost monospecific stands of up to one thousand individuals in glades and at forest margins. Predictive distribution models suggest uncertain suitability of the present habitats under future climatic conditions. Based on this and other...

  12. Flavonol tetraglycosides and other constituents from leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum (Leguminosae) and related taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Stoneham, Charlotte A; Veitch, Nigel C

    2007-05-01

    Two flavonol tetraglycosides comprising a trisaccharide at C-3 and a monosaccharide at C-7 were isolated from the leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott and characterised as the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosides of quercetin and kaempferol. The 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside of kaempferol, the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-glucopyranosides of kaempferol and quercetin and the 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-galactopyranoside of kaempferol were also obtained from this species for the first time. Some or all of these flavonol tetra- and triglycosides were detected in 17 of 18 specimens of S. japonicum examined from living and herbarium material, although the most abundant flavonoid in the leaves was generally quercetin 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-glucopyranoside (rutin). The triglycosides, but not the tetraglycosides, were detected in herbarium specimens of Styphnolobium burseroides M. Sousa, Rudd & Medrano and Styphnolobium monteviridis M. Sousa & Rudd, but specimens of Styphnolobium affine (Torrey & A. Gray) Walp. contained a different profile of flavonol glycosides. The flavonol tetra- and triglycosides of S. japonicum were also present in leaves of Cladrastis kentukea (Dum. Cours.) Rudd, a representative of a genus placed close to Styphnolobium in current molecular phylogenies. An additional constituent obtained from leaves of Styphnolobium japonicum was identified as the maltol derivative, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one 3-O-(4'-O-p-coumaroyl-6'-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl))-beta-glucopyranoside. PMID:17462679

  13. Uji Asosiasi Bakteri Rhizobium Terseleksi dengan Leguminosa Pakan dalam Kondisi Tercekam Salin

    OpenAIRE

    Eny Fuskhah; R. Djoko Soetrisno; Syaiful Anwar; Florentina Kusmiyati

    2014-01-01

    (Test of Association Selected Rhizobium Bacteria with Legumes in Salinity Stress) ABSTRACT. The research aim was to investigate association selected rhizobium bacteria with legumes in salinity stress. Plant media was salin soil that have EC = 20.45 mmhos/cm which taken from Morosari beach, Sayung, Demak. Rhizobium isolate applied was tolerant to 12.000 ppm of NaCl that equaled to electrical conductivity of 20 mmhos/cm. The research was carried out in green house of Laboratory of Forage Sc...

  14. Exopolysaccharides produced by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria of leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, performed by symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria with legume species, commonly known as α and β rhizobia, provides high sustainability for the ecosystems. Its management as a biotechnology is well succeeded for improving crop yields. A remarkable example of this success is the inoculation of Brazilian soybeans with Bradyrhizobium strains. Rhizobia produce a wide diversity of chemical structures of exopolysaccharides (EPS. Although the role of EPS is relatively well studied in the process of BNF, their economic and environmental potential is not yet explored. These EPS are mostly species-specific heteropolysaccharides, which can vary according to the composition of sugars, their linkages in a single subunit, the repeating unit size and the degree of polymerization. Studies have showed that the EPS produced by rhizobia play an important role in the invasion process, infection threads formation, bacteroid and nodule development and plant defense response. These EPS also confer protection to these bacteria when exposed to environmental stresses. In general, strains of rhizobia that produce greater amounts of EPS are more tolerant to adverse conditions when compared with strains that produce less. Moreover, it is known that the EPS produced by microorganisms are widely used in various industrial activities. These compounds, also called biopolymers, provide a valid alternative for the commonly used in food industry through the development of products with identical properties or with better rheological characteristics, which can be used for new applications. The microbial EPS are also able to increase the adhesion of soil particles favoring the mechanical stability of aggregates, increasing levels of water retention and air flows in this environment. Due to the importance of EPS, in this review we discuss the role of these compounds in the process of BNF, in the adaptation of rhizobia to environmental stresses and in the process of soil aggregation. The possible applications of these biopolymers in industry are also discussed.

  15. EL CARIOTIPO DE ANADENANTHERA COLUBRINA VAR. CEBIL y DE PARAPIPTADENIA RIGIDA (LEGUMINOSAE-MIMOSOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Honfi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Los cromosomas somáticos de dos especies de árboles han sido estudiados, ambos tienen 2n = 26. Los cariotipos de Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Griseb. Altschul (18m + 8sm y Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (12m + 14sm se describen tor primera vez. Estas especies se distinguen por la fórmula de cariotipo y la longitud total del cariotipo.

  16. Pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala (leguminosae-papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Chiara Moço

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala was studied in the restinga of Maricá, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. S. apetala var. apetala is a shrub with asynchronic annual blooming, between the months of November and April (hot-rainy season. Each plant can exhibit more than one blooming episode in this period. Their flowers are hermaphrodites, apetalous, heterantherous, odoriferous, and the pollen represents the only reward offered to visitors. It is pollinized by species of Centris and Xylocopa, solitary and polyletic bees, which collect the pollen by means of vibratory movements. Other bees such as Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea and Trigona spinipes are only pollen-thieves. In this variety of Swartzia vibrating is an efficient method to collect pollen from the anthers despite non-poricidal dehiscence.. The flowering phenology and the behavior of visitors influence the rate of outcrossing.A ecologia da polinização de Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala foi estudada na restinga de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. S. apetala var. apetala é um arbusto com floração do tipo anual assincrônica, entre os meses de novembro e abril (estação quente- chuvosa. Cada planta pode apresentar mais de um episódio de floração neste período. As flores são hermafroditas, apétalas, heterândricas, odoríferas e o polem constitui a única recompensa oferecida aos visitantes. É polinizada por espécies de Centris e Xylocopa, abelhas solitárias e poliléticas, que coletam o polem através do método de vibração. Nesta variedade de Swartzia a vibração é um método eficiente de coleta de polem apesar das anteras apresentarem deiscência rimosa. Outras abelhas, como Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea e Trigona spinipes, são pilhadoras de pólen. A fenologia da floração e o comportamento dos visitantes florais influenciam a taxa de fertilização cruzada.

  17. Constituintes químicos das folhas de Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG, 1,2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+-catechin and the dimer (+-catechin-(4β-8-catechin, glutinol, squalene, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D and based on literature data.

  18. Breeding system of the Iberian endemic shrub Colutea hispanica (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, Adrián

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeding systems have been viewed as mechanisms to promote outcrossing in order to increase genetic variability and prevent inbreeding depression. However, reduced fitness after crossing, outbreeding depression, has been often observed between individuals from different populations and more rarely, within populations. We studied the breeding system of Colutea hispanica using experimental hand pollinations in field conditions in one population in Central Spain in 2004 and 2006. Pollination experiments showed that C. hispanica set fruits from both self and cross-pollinations, suggesting that the species is highly self-compatible. In addition, fruit set was highest following geitonogamy in both years and no flowers set fruits from xenogamy in 2004. Although such enhanced reproductive success following selfing rather than crossing has been largely ignored in many studies on plant reproduction, it seems to be not as rare in plants as previously thought.

    Los sistemas reproductivos en las plantas se han considerado como mecanismos que promueven los cruzamientos con la finalidad de aumentar la variabilidad genética y evitar la endogamia. Sin embargo se ha observado con frecuencia un reducido éxito reproductor tras cruzamientos entre individuos de diferentes poblaciones, lo que se ha denominado “depresión exogámica” e incluso más raramente entre individuos de la misma población. Se estudió el sistema de cruzamiento de Colutea hispanica mediante la aplicación de polinizaciones manuales en el campo en una población situada en Madrid (España durante los años 2004 y 2006. Se obtuvieron frutos tanto por autopolinización como por polinización cruzada, sugiriendo que la especie posee un sistema altamente compatible. La alta autocompatibilidad observada podría deberse a una adaptación a condiciones de escasez de polinizadores y de “parejas reproductoras”. El máximo valor de fruit set se alcanzó en los cruzamientos geitonogámicos en ambos años, y en el año 2004 los cruzamientos xenógamos no produjeron ningún fruto. Este último fenómeno parece ser más común entre plantas de lo que en principio se podría pensar, pero ha sido ignorado en la mayor parte de los estudios de biología reproductora.

  19. Nuevos taxa americanos del género pithecellobium martius (leguminosae: mimosoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan estas descripciones como resultado prelirninar de una revisión taxonómica efectuada sobre la Sección Caulanthon Benth., del género Pithecellobiuiw Martius para la Flora de Colombia. Los taxa descritos aquí pertenecen a diversas Series dentro de la Sección Caulanthon, Serie CAPITATI Bentham

  20. Apuntes sobre algunos Adenocarpus (Leguminosae) ibéricos

    OpenAIRE

    Castroviejo, Santiago

    1999-01-01

    Problems of different kinds, with species of the genus Adenocarpus -group complicatus and gr. hispanicus- are analysed. A. anisochilus Boiss, is accepted at the specific leve!. Within A. complicatus s.l. the problems of identity of A. parvifolius DC. an A. intermedius DC. are discussed. A. desertorum Castrov., sp. nov., is described. Within the group hispanicus, the type material of A. hispanicus (Lm.) DC. is studied to demónstrate that the ñame should continué to be used in the traditional s...

  1. Antioxidant and antiviral properties of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (Leguminosae and of quebracho (Schinopsis sp. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davyson de L. Moreira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins from P. contorta leaves and from a commercial quebracho extract were isolated and characterized. Flavonoids, catechins and gallic acid were also identified in the extracts of P. contorta. Compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and for their antiviral activity against an acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 strain. The low molecular weight phenolic derivatives and the proanthocyanidins from P. contorta showed the highest antioxidant activity. Purified proanthocyanidins from both P. contorta and quebracho showed the same maximum non toxic concentrations (25 µg/mL, with 82.2% and 100% of virus inhibition, respectively.

  2. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da, E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Laboratorio de Cromatografia Liquida, Universidade Federal do Para, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge [Laboratorio de Neuropatologia Experimental, Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1}rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  3. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C., E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; Silva, Milton N. da [Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Neuropatologia Experimental

    2012-10-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylchromene-(5''6''6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'', 2''-dimethylchromene-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  4. Transient expression of a reporter gene introduced by bioballistic bombardment into Racosperma mangium (Leguminosae family tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quoirin

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on an assay of direct transfer of DNA into calli and seeds of Racosperma (ex-Acacia mangium, using a bioballistic method. We observed transient expression of the GUS gene in the treated tissuesDescreve-se um experimento de introdução de DNA em calos e sementes de Racosperma (ex-Acacia mangium, utilizando um método biobalístico. A expressão do gene marcador GUS foi observada nos dois tipos de tecidos

  5. Recursos fitogenéticos para zonas salinas: leguminosas de las Marismas del Guadalquivir

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón, Teodoro; Luis V. García; Murillo Carpio, José Manuel; Clemente Salas, Luis

    1988-01-01

    6 páginas, 4 tablas, 1 figura. Comunicación presentada ante el citado Congreso que tuvo lugar en Sevilla, del 26 al 30 de septiembre de 1988. Publicada en la Sección VIII: Ecología de Suelos. Otras comunicaciones presentadas por el IRNAS: http://hdl.handle.net/10261/47681. http://hdl.handle.net/10261/37273.

  6. Protein kinase inhibitors in plants of the myrtaceae, proteaceae, and leguminosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, M; Brazier, J; Ternai, B; Polya, G M

    1993-12-01

    Methanolic extracts of leaves, flowers, stems, bark, and other parts of representative plants of the Myrtaceae, specifically of the EUCALYPTUS, MELALEUCA, THRYPTOMENA, CALLISTOMEN, ACMENA, AND ANGOPHORA genera, variously contain high levels of inhibitors of plant Ca (2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) and of Ca (2+)-calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). In terms of the protein kinase inhibition unit (PKIU), defined as the amount in the standard protein kinase assays causing 50% inhibition of protein kinase activity, these inhibitor levels ranged from the non-detectable to 179,000 PKIU (gram fresh weight) (-1) [(g FW) (-1)] and there was no consistent pattern of inhibitor distribution. A variety of other plants tested had low or non-detectable levels of CDPK and MLCK inhibitors. Plants of the EUCALYPTUS, MELALEUCA, ANGOPHORA, and GREVILLEA genera contained inhibitors of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK), inhibitor levels ranging from 20,000 to 9,600,000 PKIU (g FW) (-1). In general, cAK inhibitor levels found in the Myrtaceae were mostly much higher than levels of CDPK and MLCK inhibitors and reversed phase HPLC of such plant extracts revealed a multiplicity of components associated with cAK inhibitory activity. These IN VITRO screening procedures enable rapid detection and quantitation of levels of bioactive plant defence compounds with medicinal potential. PMID:17230363

  7. Fitomassa de adubos verdes e controle de plantas daninhas em diferentes densidades populacionias de leguminosas.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Marcelo Ferreira; Barreto, Antônio Carlos; Emídio Filho, João

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fitomassa de calopogônio, mucuna-preta, mucunarajada,feijão-de-porco, guandu de porte alto, Crotalaria spectabilis e C. breviflora sob diferentes densidades de semeadura (10, 20, 40, 80 e 160 sementes viáveis m-2), e o crescimento de plantas daninhas nessas densidades, em área de tabuleiros costeiros. O experimento foi desenvolvido de maio a agosto de 1996, no Campo Experimental “Antônio Martins”(EMDAGRO/Embrapa-CPATC), em Lagarto, SE. O número de plant...

  8. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae by Antonio Krapovickas and Walton C. Gregory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus’ naming the then lone species of Arachis (A.hypogaea L. known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham in1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared, assigningdifferent species to the same names, and different names to the same species. By mid-20thCentury, it was impossible to examine any herbarium collection of Arachis and assign any epithetwith any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A. hypogaea, A.guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa.In our treatment, the literature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and anassessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for theconfusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphologicalfeatures of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections, and the representation of species byseedling specimens.Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species thenknown, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty-fiveyears, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later, we present here 69species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south ofthe Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil.We soon discovered that the most significant characters of Arachis lay in their undergroundstructures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls.We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups whichwere associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features.We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these clusters, areas and features, andarranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between collections representingdifferent clusters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures tocross-fertilize and, in those hybrids that were recovered, a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility.When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data oncharacter clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized.Figures imposed upon maps of South America illustrate the geographic distributions of thesesections.The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of cross-incompatibilityand exo-morphologic character clustering. When these groups were made, the esotericcharacteristics referred to above, so confounding when applied across sectional lines, becamehighly pertinent when applied to the problem of species differentiation between collections withinsections. These characteristics, applied in conjunction with chromosome cytology,chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional hybrid fertility andadaptations of plant form, and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to assemble the followingtaxa of the genus Arachis: Section I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa.Section II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A.Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiananov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a.A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov.Section III. EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A.marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A.Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov.Section V. HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A.Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII.PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A.chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A.subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A.Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var.glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var. Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A.cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A.Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenospermanov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A.decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A.correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoinov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea,var. 2. hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3.aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris.The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit andthe limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomalorganization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between differentcollections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species withinsections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections.The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed andare further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating the ideas presented. It is evident that thegenetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude. Thepresumably older sections (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae andHeteranthae, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sectionsand from each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae,Rhizomatosae and Arachis.Section Arachis is by far the largest, containing about 40% of the species described. Species ofthis section appear to be spreading into new territory and to be invading areas occupied byspecies of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the upperParaguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran Pantanal.They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and grow fromYala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They include the worldwide cultivar, A.hypogaea.Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is presentedhere in the individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A.hypogaea from the early 16th Century to more recent times, along with the common names inseveral native American languages, provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and thelevel of civilization required for its creation.Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the sectionsand to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing characteristics of thesections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures ofwhole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures,carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  9. Clarifying the generic limits of Talbotiella and Hymenostegia (Detarieae, Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinder, B.; Wieringa, J. J.; Lunenburg, I.; Banks, H.

    2010-01-01

    The formal description of four species of Cameroonian forest legume trees new to science has been hampered by uncertainty as to whether their correct generic placement is within Hymenostegia Harms or Talbotiella Baker f. As there has been doubt as to whether these two genera differ from one another, an investigation was undertaken so that the new species could be correctly assigned to genus. Using morphological, molecular and pollen data, our study supports the recognition of Hymenostegia and...

  10. Algunos factores relacionados con la digestibilidad de la leguminosa Desmodium ovalifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posso L. Liliana del R.

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available El consumo y la digestibilidad por carneros en jaula de D. ovalifolium CIAT 350 fueron similares a los de Centrosema macrocarpum CIAT 5065 (52 vs 57 Y 55.6 vs 56.6 respectivamente. El análisis de varianza mostró diferencias significativas (P< 0.05 en la digestibilidad in vitro entre los tres métodos de secado (60 y 100°C en horno eléctrico y liofilización del forraje. Cuando el material se liofilizó aumentó la digestibilidad in vitro en hoja, tallo y planta entera en D. ovalifolium y C. macrocarpum (de 35 a 46 % de 51 a 56 % respectivamente. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (P> 0.05 en la digestibilidad in vitro de partes de la planta debida a medios y fuentes de inóculo de bacterias ruminales. Además se determinó el efecto del método de secado en el porcentaje de taninos, en la fibra ácida detergente (FAD ven el nitrógeno asociado con la FAO (N-FAD.Factors related to digestibility in Desmodium ovalifolium CIAT 350were studied, using Centrosema macrocarpum CIAT5065 as the control. Consumption and digestibility in vivo (caged sheep was similar in D. ovalifolium and C. macrocarpum (52 vs 57 and 55.6 vs 56.6, respectively. The variance analysis reported significant differences (P<0.05 in digestibility in vitro among the three drying methods (60 and 100°C in electric oven, and freeze dryinq of the forage. When material was freeze dried, digestibility in vitro increased for leaves, stems, and the whole plant of D. ovalifolium and C. macrocarpum(from 35 to 46 % and from51 to 56 %, respectively. No significant difference s (P> 0.05 were reported in digestibility in vitro of plant parts due to method or sources of inoculation with ruminal bacteria. As a complement, the effect of the drying method on the tanine percentage in the acid detergent fiber (AOF and on the nitrogen associated to the AOF(N-AOF was evaluated.

  11. Algunos factores relacionados con la digestibilidad de la leguminosa Desmodium ovalifolium

    OpenAIRE

    Posso L. Liliana del R.; Lascano Aguilar Carlos Eduardo; Ramírez V. Gloria S.

    1986-01-01

    El consumo y la digestibilidad por carneros en jaula de D. ovalifolium CIAT 350 fueron similares a los de Centrosema macrocarpum CIAT 5065 (52 vs 57 Y 55.6 vs 56.6 respectivamente). El análisis de varianza mostró diferencias significativas (P< 0.05) en la digestibilidad in vitro entre los tres métodos de secado (60 y 100°C en horno eléctrico y liofilización) del forraje. Cuando el material se liofilizó aumentó la digestibilidad in vitro en hoja, tallo y planta entera en D. ovalifolium y C....

  12. Diversity of bradyrhizobia from 27 tropical Leguminosae species native of Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Doignon-Bourcier, F.; A. Sy.; Willems, A.; Torck, U.; Dreyfus, Bernard; Gillis, M.; de Lajudie, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    We isolated 71 slow-growing bacterial strains from nodules of 27 native leguminous plants species in Senegal (West Africa) belonging to the genera #Abrus$, #Alysicarpus$, #Bryaspis$, #Chamaecrista$, #Cassia$, #Crotalaria$, #Desmodium$, #Eriosema$, #Indigofera$, #Moghania$, #Rhynchosia$, #Sesbania$, #Tephrosia$, and #Zornia$ playing an ecological role and having agronomic potential in arid regions. The isolates were charaterised by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PC...

  13. Efecto de varios inoculos de leguminosas sobre soya y fríjol

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Hennio; Agudelo D., Orlando; Varela G., Raúl

    2010-01-01

    El estudio se realizó en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-ICA en Palmira, durante los semestres 87B y 89B. Todas las especies nodularon a partir de los primeros 15 días después de emergencia, exceptuando Cassia tora. El resto de materiales presentaron nódulos efectivos. La posición de los nódulos fue en toda la raíz menos en las variedades de fríjol que sólo los presentaron en las raíces secundarias. La forma fue globosa excepto en Crotalaria (ovales, astragaloides yen forma de bastón) y ...

  14. SEED, SEEDLINGS AND GERMINATION MORPHOLOGY OF Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elane de Carvalho Guerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of seed and seedling morphology are extremely important to the identification and preservation of plant species. In order to studying seed and seedling morphology and seed germination of copaiba (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf seeds, experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and Laboratory of Botany of the Federal University of Ceará. In copaíba seeds the characteristics studied were shape, size (length, width, thickness and morphology. The kind of germination, the root systems, hypocotyls, epicotyls and first leaves were the characteristics evaluated in copaiba seedlings. Ruler and pachimeter were used to make the measurements, as well as optical microscope and magnifying glass. The seeds are exalbumin kind, have neuter photoblastism and epigeous germination. Seed coat shows a palisade cell layer with a conspicuous light line. The seedlings have compound first leaves and axial root system.

  15. LAS PROTEINAS SEMINALES DEL MANI (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA, LEGUMINOSAE y SU RELACION CON LAS CATEGORIAS INFRAESPECIFICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N R Grosso

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Las proteínas seminales de 122 muestras diferentes de Arachis hypogaea L. originarios de Bolivia, Perú y Ecuador fueron estudiadas por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida.
    Se detectaron siete bandas constantes y 27 bandas inconstantes. Los resultados de las últimas se utilizaron para analizar las similitudes entre las muestras empleando el coeficiente de Jaccard y el método de ligamiento promedio de la media aritmética no ponderada(UPGMA.
    Las proteínas seminales permitieron separar totalmente la subespecies de A.hypogaea y las variedades en menor medida.

  16. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook.) D. Dietr

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Calviño

    2014-01-01

    For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can...

  17. 苏木洗剂治疗跖筋膜炎疗效观察%Efficacy of Caesalpinia Sappan lotion in treatment of plantar fasciitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯玉文; 宋晓勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察活血祛瘀和解表散风类中药配伍治疗跖筋膜炎的临床疗效.方法 采用苏木洗剂(大黄、苏木、连翘、乌药、荆芥、桂枝、防风、红花、当归、川芎、艾叶、芒硝)治疗本病68例,共计95足.结果 治愈70足(73.68%),好转21足(22.11%),无效4足(4.21%),总有效率为95.79%.结论 苏木洗剂治疗跖筋膜炎疗效较好,值得临床推广使用.

  18. Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, F.; Chowdhary, A.; Prakash, A.; Yntema, J.B.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging and primary pathogen. There is a lack of information about its environmental spread outside outbreak regions in Mediterranean Europe, North and South America. Environmental sampling for C. gattii and molecular characterization

  19. Diphysa yucatanensis (Papilionoideae: Leguminosae), una especie nueva de la península de Yucatán Diphysa yucatanensis (Papilionoideae: Leguminosae), a new species from Peninsula of Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Hanan A.; Mario Sousa S.

    2009-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra Diphysa yucatanensis como una especie nueva. Se distribuye en la península de Yucatán (Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán, Belice y El Petén [Guatemala]) y zonas aledañas en Chiapas y Tabasco, México. Históricamente se le ha confundido con D. carthagenensis Jacq., la cual sólo recientemente ha sido encontrada en la parte más árida de la península.Diphysa yucatanensis is described and illustrated as a new species. It is distributed in Chiapas, Tabasco and the Yucatán Peninsu...

  20. Atividade alelopática de extratos brutos de três espécies de Copaifera (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Allelophatic activity of crude extracts from three species of Copaifera (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioidedae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.S Souza Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, atenção especial foi dada aos compostos químicos envolvidos na interação entre plantas, especialmente quando se sabe das possibilidades do seu uso em estratégia de manejo de plantas daninhas. A Amazônia, pela sua megabiodiversidade e abundância de espécies vegetais, pode oferecer excelente oportunidade para a descoberta de inovadoras moléculas químicas com potencial de uso na atividade agrícola. Dessa forma, neste trabalho analisou-se, comparativamente, a atividade potencialmente alelopática de três espécies de Copaifera, caracterizando-se as variações na intensidade dos efeitos alelopáticos em função da espécie doadora, da fração da planta e da polaridade dos constituintes químicos. Extratos hexânico e etanólico, preparados a 1,0% a partir de folhas, galhos e cascas de Copaifera duckei, C. martii e C. reticulata, foram testados sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da raiz das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Observaram-se variações nas intensidades dos efeitos em função das variáveis estudadas. O extrato etanólico de folhas e o de galhos de C. martii e C. reticulata apresentaram alto potencial para inibir a germinação de sementes, sobretudo da espécie malícia. A espécie C. duckei evidenciou baixo potencial alelopático inibitório na germinação das duas espécies receptoras. Cascas, folhas e galhos de C. duckei apresentaram potencial inibitório mais expressivo sobre o desenvolvimento da raiz, com destaque para as folhas. Compostos químicos apolares e polares estão envolvidos na atividade alelopática da espécie C. duckei, com ênfase maior para os compostos apolares. Diferentemente, para C. martii e C. reticulata, compostos polares estão envolvidos, preferencialmente, na atividade inibitória evidenciada por essas espécies, notadamente aqueles localizados nas folhas e cascas. Comparativamente, a tendência observada foi de que a espécie receptora malícia demonstrou maior sensibilidade aos efeitos alelopáticos dos extratos, especialmente no bioensaio de germinação.For the past few years, special attention has been given to chemical composites involved in interaction between plants, especially when the potential of their use in weed management is known. The Amazon region with its enormous biodiversity and abundance of plant species may offer excellent opportunities for the discovery of innovative chemical molecules capable of being used in agriculture. Thus, in this paper, a comparative analysis was made between the potential allelopathic activity of three species of Copaifera, characterizing the variations of the intensity of the allelopathic effects of the donating species, plant fraction and chemical component polarity. Hexanic and ethanolic extracts, prepared at 1.0% from the leaves, branches and barks of Copaifera duckei, C. martii and C. reticulata, were tested on seed germination and development of Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia weed roots. The results showed that the intensity of the effects varied according to the variables studied. The ethanolic extract of C. martii and C. reticulata leaves and barks showed high potential to inhibit seed germination, especially of M. pudica species. The species C. duckei showed low allelopathic inhibitory potential in the germination of two receptor species. Barks, branches and especially leaves of C. duckei presented more expressive inhibitory potential for root development. Polar, and especially non-polar chemical composites, are involved in the allelopathic activity of C. duckei. Differently for C. martii and C. reticulata, the polar composites are preferentially involved in the inhibitory activity evidenced by these species, especially those located on the leaves and barks. Comparatively, it was observed that the weed species receptor tended to show more sensitivity to the allelopathic effects of the extracts, especially in the germination bioassay.

  1. Separation of the genera in the subtribe Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidae using molecular markers Separação dos gêneros na subtribo Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidae utilizando marcadores moleculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmikanta Acharya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers were used to verify the segregation of the genus Cassia L. senso lato into three distinct genera namely Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. sensostricto Eighteen representatives of the three taxa were characterized using the molecular markers. 25 RAPD, six ISSR primers and six AFLP primer combinations resulted in the amplification of 612, 115 and 622 bands (loci respectively. Most of the loci are found to be polymorphic, showing high degrees of genetic diversity among the different taxa studied. The dendrogram constructed on the basis of the RAPD, ISSR and AFLP data using SHAN clustering, divided Cassia L. senso lato. into three different clusters as Chamaecrista Moench. Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. senso stricto High bootstrap value revealed that all the clusters were stable and robust. It was observed from the present investigation that these genera have their identity at molecular level, which supports the elevation of the genus Cassia L. senso lato to the level of subtribe Cassiinae and segregation into three distinct genera instead of intrageneric categories.Técnicas de Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR e Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers (AFLP foram utilizadas para verificar a segregação do gênero Cassia L. senso lato em três diferentes gêneros, Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. e Cassia L. senso stricto Dezoito representantes dos três táxons foram caracterizados com o uso de marcadores moleculares: 25 RAPD, seis iniciadores ("primers" ISSR e seis AFLP combinações de iniciadores, resultando na amplificação de 612, 115 e 622 bandas (loci, respectivamente. A maioria dos loci apresentou-se como polimórfico, mostrando um alto grau de diversidade genética entre os táxons estudados. O dendrograma construído com base nos dados de RAPD, ISSR e AFLP e agrupamento com procedimentos SHAN dividiu Cassia L. senso lato em três diferentes agrupamentos, chamados de Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. e Cassia L. senso stricto Valores altos de bootstrap revelaram que todos os agrupamentos foram estáveis e robustos. Foi observado pela presente investigação que estes gêneros possuem identidade ao nível molecular, o que sustenta a elevação do genero Cassia L. senso lato para o nível de subtribo e a segregação dos três gêneros ao invés de formarem categorias infra-genéricas.

  2. Especies nuevas de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae: Leguminosae para Costa Rica y Panamá: lectotipificación de la sect. Densiflori Benth New species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae: Leguminosae from Costa Rica and Panama: lectotypification of sect. Densiflori Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sousa S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae, L. haberi, L. latisiliquus, L. megacarpus y L. monteviridis, dos endémicas de Costa Rica, una de Panamá y la otra habita en ambos países. De las especies nuevas, tres pertenecen a la sect. Densiflori Benth., a la cual se le lectotipifica aquí, y se elaboró una clave de esta sección para Costa Rica y Panamá.Four new species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae, L. haberi, L. latisiliquus, L. megacarpus and L. monteviridis, are described and illustrated; two are endemic to Costa Rica, one to Panama and one is found in both countries. Of these new species, three belong to sect. Densiflori Benth., which is herein lectotypified; a key to the section for Costa Rica and Panama is provided.

  3. Aspects of leaf anatomy of kudzu (Pueraria lobata, Leguminosae-Faboideae related to water and energy balance Aspectos da anatomia foliar de Pueraria lobata (Leguminosae-Faboideae associados ao balanço de água e de energia

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    Adaucto Bellarmino de Pereira-Netto

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Kudzu is a cover crop that has escaped cultivation in some subtropical and warm temperate regions. Kudzu has previously demonstrated broad intraspecific physiological plasticity while colonizing new environments. The objective of this paper was to investigate characteristics of kudzu leaflet anatomy that might contribute to its successful growth in climatically distinct environments, and to escape cultivation as well. Fresh and fixed leaflet strips of field-grown plants were analyzed. The lower epidermis of kudzu showed a higher frequency of stomata (147 ± 19 stomata mm-2 than the upper epidermis (26 ± 17 stomata mm-2. The average number of trichomes per square milimeter was 8 for both the upper and the lower epidermis. The average trichome length was 410 ± 200 mum for the upper epidermis and 460 ± 190 mum for the lower epidermis. Cuticle thickness was not considerably different between lower and upper epidermis. The leaflet blade consisted basically of two layers (upper and lower of unicellular epidermis, two layers of palisade parenchyma and one layer of spongy parenchyma. One layer of paraveinal mesophyll was found between palisade and spongy parenchyma. In conclusion, leaflets of kudzu present anatomical characteristics that might contribute to the broad physiological plasticity shown by kudzu.Kudzu é uma cultura de cobertura que se tornou invasiva em algumas regiões subtropicais e temperadas. Kudzu tem demonstrado ampla plasticidade fisiológica quando coloniza novos ambientes. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar características da anatomia foliar de kudzu que poderiam contribuir para seu hábito invasivo e também para sua propagação em ambientes distintos do ponto de vista climático. Foram analisados cortes frescos e permanentes de lâminas foliares de plantas crescidas no campo. A epiderme inferior tipicamente apresentou maior freqüência de estômatos (147 ± 19 estômatos mm-2 do que a epiderme superior (26 ± 17 estômatos mm-2. O número médio de tricomas por milímetro quadrado foi 8 para ambas, epiderme superior e epiderme inferior. O comprimento médio dos tricomas foi 410 ± 200 mim para a epiderme superior e 460 ± 190 mim para a epiderme inferior. A espessura da cutícula não diferiu significativamente entre as epidermes inferior e superior. A lâmina foliar consistiu basicamente de duas camadas de parênquima paliçádico e uma camada de parênquima lacunoso. Uma camada de mesófilo paranerval foi encontrada entre os parênquimas paliçádico e lacunoso. Concluindo, folíolos de kudzu apresentam características anatômicas que podem contribuir para a ampla plasticidade fisiológica demonstrada pela espécie.

  4. Análise morfoanatômica comparativa da folha de Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae Comparative morphogical and anatomycal analyses of Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae leaves

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    Makeli Garibotti Lusa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho foi desenvolvido com o propósito de subsidiar o controle de qualidade das espécies medicinais Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. Essas foram coletadas em jardins e terrenos baldios de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. As amostras do limbo, pecíolo e pulvino foram fixadas em F.A.A. 50 e conservadas em etanol 70%. O seccionamento do material foi feito em micrótomo de rotação (material incluído em historresina ou a mão livre e as lâminas foram montadas de forma permanente ou semipermanente. Foram realizadas análises em microscopia fotônica e eletrônica de varredura. A folha de B. forficata é alongada, com folíolos unidos em torno da metade do limbo, ápices agudos, superfície adaxial lisa e mucro entre os folíolos. Enquanto que, B. variegata possui folha mais larga que longa, com folíolos unidos na porção terminal do limbo e ápices obtusos. Nos pulvinos de B. variegata ocorrem camadas de colênquima, ausentes em B. forficata. O formato e a bainha de fibras dos pecíolos, em secção transversal, são distintos entre as espécies, assim como a distribuição dos estômatos e tricomas no limbo e a forma do bordo em secção transversal. B. variegata possui maior quantidade de idioblastos com drusas e compostos fenólicos. As características morfológicas e anatômicas de B. forficata e B. variegata contribuem para a identificação e diferenciação das espécies, sendo importantes para o controle de qualidade do material destinado à pesquisa e à indústria farmacêutica.This work has been developed with the purpose of helping the quality control of the medicinal species Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn., which were collected in gardens and vacant lots in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The samples of leaf blade, petiole and pulvinus were fixed in FAA 50 and preserved in alcohol 70. The sectioning of the material was made in rotational microtome (with the material included in historesine or manually and the blades were mounted in permanent or semipermanent way. Analyses in photonic and scanning electronic micros betscopy were performed. The leaf of B. forficata is elongated, with the leaflets united around the middle of the leaf blade, acute apices, smooth adaxial surface and mucroween the leaflets. The B. variegata, on the other hand, possesses a broader than long leaf, with the leaflets united in the terminal portion of the blade and obtuse apices. In the pulvinus of B. variegata there are collenchyma layers, which are absent in B. forficata. The shape and the petiole fibers sheath, in cross section, are distinct in both species, as well as the distribution of the stomata and trichomes in the leaf blade and the shape of the border in transversal section. B. variegata possesses a higher quantity of idioblasts with druses and phenolic compounds. The morphologic and anatomic characteristics of B. forficata an B. variegata contribute to the identification and distinction of the species and they are important for the control of the material destined to research and to the pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Números cromossômicos em espécies de Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae Chromosome numbers in species of Acosmium Schott and Leptolobium Vogel (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae

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    Rodrigo Schütz Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a análise citotaxonômica de espécies de Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel, através da determinação de seus números cromossômicos. Foram estudadas as três espécies aceitas de Acosmium e cinco espécies de Leptolobium (representando 50% do gênero, a partir de sementes oriundas de diferentes regiões do Brasil. As contagens mitóticas apresentadas para todas as espécies de Acosmium e para quatro espécies de Leptolobium são inéditas. Acosmium cardenasii apresentou uniformemente 2n = 18, enquanto que em A. diffusissimum foram encontradas no mesmo meristema 2n = 18, 24 e 32 e em A. lentiscifolium 2n = 18 e 32. Para Leptolobium, o número cromossômico das espécies estudadas foi de 2n = 18, confirmando uma contagem mitótica anterior para L. dasycarpum. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram homogeneidade no número cromossômico de Acosmium e Leptolobium, confirmando x = 9 como o número cromossômico básico em ambos os gêneros. Portanto, o número cromossômico não é um caráter taxonômico utilizável na distinção entre Acosmium e Leptolobium.A cytotaxonomic analysis of species of Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel was carried out, by determining their chromosome numbers. The three species of Acosmium and five species of Leptolobium (representing 50% of the genus were studied from seeds obtained from different regions of Brazil. Chromosome counts were new for all Acosmium species and for four Leptolobium species. For Acosmium cardenasii, 2n = 18 was constantly observed, while occurring at the same meristem were found 2n = 18, 24 e 32 in A. diffusissimum and 2n = 18 e 32 in A. lentiscifolium. For Leptolobium, all studied species had 2n = 18, confirming a previous count for L. dasycarpum. The results showed that chromosome numbers of Acosmium and Leptolobium species are homogeneous, confirming the basic number x = 9 for both genera. Therefore, chromosome numbers do not provide a useful taxonomic character distinguishing Acosmium from Leptolobium.

  6. Padronização do teste de tetrazólio em sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae Tetrazolium test in Parkia velutina Benoist seeds (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae

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    Angela Maria da Silva Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar métodos de pré-condicionamento e concentrações da solução de tetrazólio na avaliação da qualidade de sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist. Os tratamentos pré-condicionantes das sementes foram avaliados com três métodos de escarificação: desponte na região oposta ao hilo, punção na região mediana e lixa nos dois lados da semente com posterior embebição em 200 ml de água para cada 25 sementes e permanência em câmara a 30 ºC por 16 horas. As concentrações da solução de tetrazólio testadas foram: 1,0%, 0,5% e 0,1% por duas horas na temperatura de 40 ºC. O tratamento de pré-condicionamento mais eficiente foi a combinação do desponte e lixamento nos dois lados da semente. A concentração de tetrazólio a 0,5% pode ser utilizada para avaliar a viabilidade das sementes de P. velutina como complemento ao teste de germinação. O teste de tetrazólio se mostrou eficiente na caracterização de lesões ocasionadas por insetos e danos mecânicos em sementes de P. velutina.This manuscript aimed to determine methods of daily pre-conditioning and concentrations of the tetrazolium solution for evaluating the quality of Parkia velutina Benoist seeds. The daily pre-condicionanting seed treatments were evaluated using three scarification methods: coating cutting on the opposite side of the hilum region, puncture in the medium region and scarification with sandpaper on both sides of the seed, followed by soaking each of the 25 seeds in 200 ml of wate and permanence in chamber 30 ºC for 16 hours. The concentrations of the tetrazolium solution tested were 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.1% for two hours at 40 ºC. The more efficient daily pre-conditioning treatlment was a combination of the coating cutting and the scarification n both sides of the seed. The 0.5% tetrazolium concentration can be used to evaluate the viability of P. velutina seeds as complement to the germination test. The tetrazolium test showed its efficiency in the characterization of injuries caused by insects and mechanical damages in P. velutina seeds.

  7. Spatial distribution of seeds and juveniles of Enterolobium glaziovii Bentham (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae in the Atlantic forest, Brazil Distribuição espacial de sementes e juvenis de Enterolobium glaziovii (Leguminosae, Mimosoidade na mata Atlântica, Brasil

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    Flavio Nunes Ramos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of fruits and juveniles of Enterolobium glaziovii Bentham were evaluated in four circular plots of 30 m radius, centered around reproductive individuals to determine whether the size of the parental crowns, topography, and canopy coverage influence these patterns. Each crown was subdivided into eight irregular triangles and the area of each was calculated. Each plot was subdivided into four sub-plots, two of them in an up-slope direction, and the other two in a down-slope direction. The canopy coverage for each plot was estimated at breast height (1.30 m and at ground level, every three months during 1998. The numbers of fruits and juveniles of E. glaziovii were recorded. Although there were more fruit under the parental crown (F1,12 = 0.01; p = 0.92, there was no difference in the number of juveniles under and beyond the reproductive trees (F1,12 = 0.88; p = 0.36. There was a positive correlation between the areas of the crowns and the numbers of fruits and juveniles under them (r = 0.62; df = 14; p Os padrões de distribuição espacial de frutos e juvenis de Enterobium glaziovii Bentham foram avaliados em quatro parcelas circulares de 30 m de raio, centralizadas em uma árvore reprodutiva para determinar se o tamanho das copas das plantas parentais, topografia e cobertura de dossel influenciam esses padrões. Cada copa foi subdividida em oito triângulos irregulares e suas áreas calculadas. Cada parcela foi subdividida em quatro sub-parcelas, sendo duas nos terrenos inclinados para cima e duas nos inclinados para baixo. A cobertura de dossel de cada parcela foi estimada tanto na altura do peito (1,30 m, quanto na altura do chão, a cada três meses em 1998. O número de frutos e juvenis de E. glaziovii foi quantificado. Apesar de ter havido mais frutos debaixo da copa da arvore parental (F1,12 = 0.01; p = 0,92, não houve diferenças no número de juvenis embaixo ou fora da copa da planta parental (F1,12 = 0,88; p = 0,36. Houve correlação positiva entre a área das copas e o número de frutos e juvenis embaixo delas (r = 0,62; df = 14; p < 0,05. A maioria dos frutos e juvenis foi encontrada nos terrenos inclinados para baixo. A cobertura de dossel foi menor na primavera, porém maior embaixo da copa das plantas reprodutivas (apenas na altura do peito. Esses resultados indicam que a copa das plantas parentais, topografia e cobertura de dossel influenciam o padrão de distribuição espacial e provavelmente também a dinâmica de sementes e juvenis de E. glaziovii.

  8. EARLY GROWTH AND SEEDLING MORPHOLOGY OF SPECIES OF Sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae, robinieae DESENVOLVIMENTO INICIAL E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DAS PLÂNTULAS DE ESPÉCIES DE Sesbania SCOP. (LEGUMINOSAE, ROBINIEAE

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    Elisabeth Ann Veasey

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize 17 accessions of Sesbania, representing S. exasperata, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, S. tetraptera and S. virgata at the seedling stage, and to evaluate the initial development during the first two months after planting. The trial was conducted in a greenhouse in a randomized block design, with 4 replications and 5 plants per plot. The traits recorded were: plant height (PH, from four observations at 15-day intervals, at 17, 32, 47 and 62 days after planting; length of hypocotyl (LH and epicotyl (LEP; length (LE1 and width (WE1 of the first eophyll; and number of leaflet pairs of the second metaphyll (NLP, evaluated 17 days after planting. Univariate analyses of variance were performed, estimating the genetic parameters: coefficient of genotypic determination (b and of genetic variation (CVg. Cluster analysis was also obtained, using the average Euclidean distance and Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic average (UPGMA method. At 17 days after planting, S. exasperata presented the highest PH, followed by S. virgata. At 62 days after planting, S. sesban registered the highest PH. Length of hypocotyl displayed inter but not intraspecific variation. The characters LEP, LE1, WE1 and NLP showed both inter and intraspecific variation. Cluster analysis indicated the existence of 7 groups, separating the species and revealing intraspecific variation as well. The occurrence in low frequencies of two unifoliolate opposite eophylls for some species was observed, as well as bi- or trifoliolate first eophylls for one of the S. sesban accessions. These informations are basic for the selection of traits to be utilized for characterization and differentiation of Sesbania germplasm at the juvenile phase.Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar 17 acessos de Sesbania, representando as espécies S. exasperata, S. grandiflora, S. sesban, S. tetraptera e S. virgata no estágio de plântula, avaliando também o desenvolvimento inicial nos primeiros dois meses após o plantio. O ensaio foi instalado em casa-de-vegetação, em blocos casualizados com 4 repetições e 5 plantas por parcela. Avaliaram-se os seguintes caracteres: altura da planta (AP em 4 avaliações, espaçadas de 15 dias, aos 17, 32, 47 e 62 dias após o plantio; comprimento do hipocótilo (CH e do epicótilo (CEP; comprimento (CE1 e largura (LE1 do eófilo 1; e número de pares de folíolos do metáfilo 2 (NPF. A primeira AP e os demais caracteres foram avaliados aos 17 dias do plantio. Foram realizadas análises de variância univariada, estimando-se os parâmetros genéticos: coeficiente de determinação genotípica (b e de variação genética (CVg, e uma análise de agrupamento, usando distância Euclideana média e método UPGMA (Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic average. Aos 17 dias do plantio, S. exasperata apresentou maior AP, seguida de S. virgata. Aos 62 dias do plantio, S. sesban apresentou a maior AP. O caráter CH apresentou variação inter mas não intraespecífica. Já os caracteres CEP, CE1, LE1 e NPF mostraram variação tanto inter como intraespecífica. A análise de agrupamento indicou a existência de 7 grupos, separando as espécies e mostrando variação intraespecífica. Foi também observada a ocorrência, em baixas freqüências, de dois eófilos unifoliolados e opostos para algumas espécies, bem como a ocorrência de eófilos nº 1 bi- ou trifoliolados para um dos acessos de S. sesban. Estas informações são básicas para a escolha de caracteres a serem utilizados na fase juvenil para a diferenciação e caracterização de germoplasma de Sesbania.

  9. Potencialidad de Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae para estudios dendrocronológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montaña Potential of Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamily: Mimosoideae for dendrochronological studies in high-montane subtropical deserts

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    MARIANO S. MORALES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la escasez de especies con anillos anuales de crecimiento, la dendrocronología de regiones áridas de montañas tropicales y subtropicales está muy poco desarrollada. En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de la especie arbórea Prosopis ferox,"churqui", para estudios dendrocronológicos analizando las características anatómicas del leño y las relaciones entre registros climáticos y cronologías de ancho de anillos de una colección realizada a 3.500 m, en la quebrada de Humahuaca (23°13' S, 65°20' O, Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Las observaciones microscópicas de cortes histológicos muestran que los anillos están claramente demarcados por una banda parenquimática terminal clara. Comparando la cronología estandarizada de ancho de anillos con los registros instrumentales de La Quiaca (22º06'S, 65º36'O, se observan correlaciones significativas con precipitaciones por encima de la media y temperaturas por debajo de la media durante los meses de verano (diciembre_marzo. Esto se interpreta como una relación positiva con la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo durante el período de crecimiento. Esta cronología representa no solamente el primer registro dendrocronológico desarrollado a partir de P. ferox, sino también la primera cronología de anillos de árboles en la provincia biogeográfica Prepuneña. La buena discriminación de los anillos anuales de crecimiento, la fuerte relación con variables climáticas, el amplio rango de distribución de la especie en el noroeste de Argentina y sur de Bolivia (20° a 25° S y la longevidad observada en individuos aislados (c. 500 años, hacen de P. ferox una especie muy promisoria para estudios dendroclimatológicos y dendroecológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montañaDue to the scarcity of species with annual tree rings, the use of dendrochronological techniques has received little attention in tropical and subtropical montane dry areas. In this study, we assess the dendrochronological potential of Prosopis ferox, "churqui", through the analysis of its wood anatomy and the relationships between climate and tree growth variations from trees collected at 3,500 m, in the Humahuaca valley (23°13' S, 62°20' W, Jujuy province, Argentina. Microscopic observations show that annual rings are clearly defined by a relatively lighter parenchyma belt formed at the end of the annual band. Comparisons between the standardized ring-width chronology and the instrumental records from La Quiaca (22º 06'S, 65º36'W indicated that above-average rainfall and below-average temperature during summer (i.e., December to March favor tree growth. This can be interpreted as a positive relationship between radial growth and abundant soil water content during the growing season. The chronology shown here represents not only the first dendrocronological record from P. ferox, but also the first tree-ring chronology for the Prepuna biogeographic province. The well-defined annual rings, the strong relationship between growth and climatic variables, the large range of distribution across northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia (20° to 25° S, and the longevity observed in some individuals (c. 500 years, indicate that P. ferox is a very promising species for dendroclimatological and dendroecological studies in subtropical montane ecosystems

  10. Diphysa yucatanensis (Papilionoideae: Leguminosae, una especie nueva de la península de Yucatán Diphysa yucatanensis (Papilionoideae: Leguminosae, a new species from Peninsula of Yucatán

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    Ana Hanan A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Diphysa yucatanensis como una especie nueva. Se distribuye en la península de Yucatán (Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán, Belice y El Petén [Guatemala] y zonas aledañas en Chiapas y Tabasco, México. Históricamente se le ha confundido con D. carthagenensis Jacq., la cual sólo recientemente ha sido encontrada en la parte más árida de la península.Diphysa yucatanensis is described and illustrated as a new species. It is distributed in Chiapas, Tabasco and the Yucatán Peninsula (Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán, Belize and El Petén, Guatemala and it has been historically mistaken for D. carthagenensis Jacq., a species only recently found in the most arid zone of the Peninsula.

  11. Ácido 1-amino-3-metilciclobutano carboxílico en semillas de Ateleia glazioviana Baillon (Leguminosae)

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    Marona, Hérida Regina Nunes; González Ortega, George; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Huet, Jean

    1996-01-01

    Un nuevo aminoácido del tipo no proteico, el ácido 1-amino-3-metilciclobutano carboxílico, fue aislado de las semillas de Ateleia glazioviana Baill. extraídas con etanol 50%. El extracto alcohólico, después de ser purificado por extracción sucesiva con diclorometano, acetato de etilo y n-butanol, fue fraccionado en una columna con resina de intercambio iónico. La separación final fue realizada por CC con sílica gel, con un rendimiento final de 0,02%. La estructura química fue establecida a tr...

  12. Diphysa yucatanensis (Papilionoideae: Leguminosae), una especie nueva de la península de Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Hanan A.; Mario Sousa S.

    2009-01-01

    Se describe e ilustra Diphysa yucatanensis como una especie nueva. Se distribuye en la península de Yucatán (Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán, Belice y El Petén [Guatemala]) y zonas aledañas en Chiapas y Tabasco, México. Históricamente se le ha confundido con D. carthagenensis Jacq., la cual sólo recientemente ha sido encontrada en la parte más árida de la península.

  13. PROPRIEDADES FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS E SENSORIAIS DE MASSAS ALIMENTÍCIAS ELABORADAS COM FARINHAS DE LEGUMINOSAS TRATADAS HIDROTERMICAMENTE

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    Marília Sbragia DEL BEM; Luís Fernando POLESI; Silene Bruder Silveira SARMENTO; Carlota Borali Prudente dos ANJOS

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da adição de farinhas de ervilha e de grão-de-bico modifi cadas por tratamento hidrotérmico nas características físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais de massa alimentícia. Três tipos de massas foram avaliadas: semolina, semolina adicionada de 35% de farinha de ervilha e semolina adicionada de 35% de farinha de grão-de-bico. O tratamento hidrotérmico (autoclavagem, 121°C, 30 min.) visou o aumento do teor de amido resist...

  14. Caracterización fisicoquímica de los aceites crudos de algunas semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.; Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Sonoran desert has a great variety of nutritional native plants, mainly from the leguminous family. Although in ancient times their products were used as food by native Americans, there is little information about their potential as a food source. For this reason, oils from the following seeds were studied: Acacia famesiana (huizache), Mimosa grahamii (gatuña), Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1), Cercidium sonorae

  15. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae) grown under semiarid conditions

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    Shahera Zaitoun; Ahmad Alqudah; Nezar Samarah; Abd Al-Majeed Al-Ghzawi

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E), Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1) Plants were covered in cages (control) or 2) Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed tha...

  16. Aspectos taxonômicos de Uredinales infetando leguminosas utilizadas na arborização urbana do Distrito Federal

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    REZENDE DENISE V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seis espécies de fungos causadores de ferrugem, Diorchidium copaiferae, Ravenelia hieronymi, Sphaerophragmium acaciae, Esalque holway, Uredo sp. e Uromyces neurocarpi foram estudadas e descritas com o acréscimo de detalhes adicionais e correções em suas descrições originais. Várias características morfológicas foram revisadas sendo a maioria delas ilustrada pela primeira vez em microscópio ótico e eletrônico de varredura. As exsicatas foram depositadas na Coleção Micológica de Referência da Universidade de Brasília

  17. Phenology and floral visitors of Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae) in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais; Raimunda Alice Coimbra Vieira Costa

    2008-01-01

    Erythrina crista-galli is a characteristic species of the Pampa biome also used as an ornament in urban arborization. Erythrina crista-galli flourishes more intensively from November to Decem¬ber. Anthesis starts around 7:00 am to 11:00 am, and flowers last five days. A total of 1,275 floral visits were registered over 57h of observations. Apidae bees (Trigona spinipes and Apis mellifera) were the most frequent visitors (88.23%), followed by Muscidae flies (5.50%), Formicidae ants (2.35%), Ve...

  18. Phenology and floral visitors of Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina crista-galli is a characteristic species of the Pampa biome also used as an ornament in urban arborization. Erythrina crista-galli flourishes more intensively from November to Decem¬ber. Anthesis starts around 7:00 am to 11:00 am, and flowers last five days. A total of 1,275 floral visits were registered over 57h of observations. Apidae bees (Trigona spinipes and Apis mellifera were the most frequent visitors (88.23%, followed by Muscidae flies (5.50%, Formicidae ants (2.35%, Vespidae wasps (1.56%, and Chrysomelidae beetles (1.56%. Trochilidae hummingbirds (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0.79% also visited the flowers. Trigona spinipes was observed at throughout the daytime and behaved as a probable pollinator, along with A. mellifera and C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli is autocompatible, producing fruits and seeds after manual pollination and under natural conditions.

  19. Acacia cyclops A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Leguminosae in Italy: first cases of naturalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasta, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of naturalization of Acacia cyclops are reported for Italy. Young trees were observed growing in the wild some 15 years ago on Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Strait of Sicily. A decade later, this alien plant should no longer be considered as a casual, since a very intensive process of self-sown regeneration has been observed in some plantations on Lampedusa, the major island of the same Archipelago. The available literature suggests the need for careful monitoring of the ongoing invasion process, as A. cyclops has already shown a very invasive behaviour elsewhere within Mediterranean-type biomes due to its ability to withstand high environmental stresses. As migrating birds are suspected to have played an important role in facilitating the arrival of A. cyclops, further propagules are likely to reach the islands in the future. We recommend that new plantations of A. cyclops should be forbidden, but that extant naturalized populations should be managed instead of eradicating them. In fact, the effect of Acacia plantations warrants investigation at different scales in order to assess their impact on local plant-diversity and ecological succession processes.

    Se muestran los dos primeros casos de naturalización de Acacia cyclops para el territorio italiano. Se observó que las plántulas de este arbol crecen en forma silvestre hace unos 15 años en Linosa (islas Pelagias, estrecho de Sicilia. Una década después, ya no puede ser considerada una xenófita casual ya que se observó una regeneración muy intensa en algunos proyectos de reforestación en Lampedusa, la isla más grande del mismo archipiélago. Publicaciones anteriores sugieren la necesidad de un monitoreo cuidadoso del proceso de invasión en curso, ya que A. cyclops ha expresado un comportamiento altamente invasivo en otros biomas de tipo mediterráneo, debido a su alta tolerancia al estrés ambiental. Dado que se sospecha que las aves migratorias han jugado un papel importante en la llegada de A. cyclops, es probable que en el futuro otros propágulos lleguen a las islas Pelagias. Se recomienda la prohibición de nuevas plantas, aunque también el manejo de poblaciones artificiales ya presentes en vez de su erradicación. El efecto de la forestación con A. cyclops, de hecho, merece ser investigado a diferentes escalas, a fin de aclarar su impacto tanto en la diversidad florística local como en los procesos de sucesión ecológica.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmodi, Farshid; Kadir, J B; Puteh, A; Pourdad, S S; Nasehi, A; Soleimani, N

    2014-03-01

    Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3) verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4%) and (15.5-19.9), respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers. PMID:25288981

  1. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmodi, Farshid; Kadir, J. B.; Puteh, A.; Pourdad, S. S.; Nasehi, A.; Soleimani, N.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3) verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific ...

  2. LEGUMINOSAS DE COBERTERA PARA MEJORAR Y SOSTENER LA PRODUCTIVIDAD DE MAÍZ EN EL SUR DE YUCATÁN

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ayala Sánchez; Krishnamurthy, L.; J. A. Basulto Graniel

    2009-01-01

    En Yucatán, México, más de 50 mil familias dependen de la producción de maíz mediante el sistema de roza, tumba y quema, mismo que, ante la escasez de terrenos con vegetación secundaria para la rotación, está reduciendo su productividad y perdiendo sostenibilidad. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la capacidad de Canavalia ensiformis y Mucuna pruriens, asociadas o en barbecho corto (período de descanso previo al cultivo de maíz), para mejorar la producción de maíz. En un diseño de b...

  3. Botanical remedies of the former Dutch East Indies (Indonesia). Part II: Dicotyledones up to and including leguminosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, H H

    1983-07-01

    The botanical remedies reported in Heyne's De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indië (Volumes I-IV, 1913-1922) have been screened out of economic botanical context, translated into English and summarized as a table of names, therapeutic indications, plant parts, and available details of preparation and use. PMID:6632938

  4. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera are frequently found in arid and semiarid shrublands, but scarce information is available about their influence on plant community structure and soil fertility. We compared plant community structure, diversity and soil nutrients of three semiarid shrubland sites located in Mezquital Valley, Mexico. These sites differ in their dominant species: Site 1 (Bingu P. laevigata, Site 2 (González M. biuncifera, and Site 3 (Rincón with the presence of both legumes. The results showed that the plant community with P. laevigata and M. biuncifera (Site 3 had more cover, taller plants and higher plant diversity than sites with only one legume (Site 1 and Site 2. Soil organic matter (SOM, soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (TN, phosphorus-Olsen (P and C mineralization were higher in the soil under the canopy of both legumes than in bare soil. In contrast, soil cation concentrations were lower under the canopy of P. laevigata, but not for M. biuncifera. In addition, the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores was higher within the soil under the canopy of M. biuncifera than in the soil under the canopy of P. laevigata. Thus, resource islands (RI created by P. laevigata increased the amounts of SOC, TN and P when compared with the RI of M. biuncifera. This study provided evidences about the importance of species identity in order to expand the niche availability for the establishment of other plants, and highlights that P. laevigata and M. biuncifera jointly influencing plant colonization within semiarid ecosystems

  5. A comparative study on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (Leguminosae root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian Gino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging effect of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG root in different antioxidant models and experimentally induced ischemic reperfusion in an isolated rat heart. The rats were divided into three groups namely control, reperfusion control, and drug treated. For in vivo study, ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI was induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion of Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 15 minutes or 30 minutes or 45 minutes. Oral administration of DG extract (50 and 100 mg/kg once daily for 30 days was performed in rats of drug group and an increase of enzymatic activity of SOD, catalase and GPx along with an inhibition of lipid per-oxidations were observed. However, a significant rise in lipid peroxidation and reduction in myocardial SOD, catalase, and GPx were observed during IRI. The inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 in DPPH, superoxide scavenging activity, hydroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation were found to be 51.3, 24.6, 52.7, 53.2 and 415 µg/mL respectively. The presence of cactine, an alkaloid used to treat irregular heartbeat, angina pectoris and cardiac neuralgia was reported in DG through GS-MS analysis. The above results suggest that the aqueous extract of DG root exhibit potential free radical scavenging effect that can reduce the oxidative stress exhibited by IRI.

  6. Acacia cyclops A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Leguminosae) in Italy: first cases of naturalization

    OpenAIRE

    Pasta, Salvatore; Badalamenti, Emilio; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    The first two cases of naturalization of Acacia cyclops are reported for Italy. Young trees were observed growing in the wild some 15 years ago on Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Strait of Sicily). A decade later, this alien plant should no longer be considered as a casual, since a very intensive process of self-sown regeneration has been observed in some plantations on Lampedusa, the major island of the same Archipelago. The available literature suggests the need for careful moni...

  7. Producción y valor nutricional del cultivo de morera (Morus alba L.) con intercalamiento de leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    María Judith Delgado; Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez-Molano

    2012-01-01

    Una de las principales preocupaciones en la alimentación animal es la búsqueda de alternativas rentables para el productor y eficientes desde el punto de vista nutricional para los animales. Para que el volumen de la producción de estos alimentos sea el adecuado, se han utilizado prácticas como las planteadas en la revolución verde, que incluyen el uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados químicos, lo que ha traído secuelas negativas sobre el medioambiente. En la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas nutr...

  8. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husen Asbanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of slicer and peeler. The slicer function is to slice the fruit before it sent into peeler unit which contains two cylindrical peeler. The peeler unit installed parallel so it let through the fruit pulp but still hold the Tamarind seeds that had been separated by the separator unit. Tamarind seeds separation prototype model has been succesfully made. Model testing was done by measuring the rotary speed of spindle peelers on 1065 rpm which considered work effectively for the test load of 100 grams, 200 grams and 300 grams. Further, shaft torque measurements in the process of peeling showed a significant increase in value and it is proportional to the increase in load level for all treatments. Greatest torque happened at 890 rpm rotation speed with a value of 1.45 Nm at 300 gram load. While the rotary speed of 1220 rpm produce 1.17 Nm torque at 300 grams load.

  9. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  10. Obtención de alimentos e ingredientes con propiedades antihipertensivas a partir de leguminosas germinadas y fermentadas

    OpenAIRE

    Limón Garduza, Rocío Ivonne

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química Agrícola. Fecha de lectura: 14-05-2015 La hipertensión es una patología que afecta aproximadamente a un tercio de la población adulta y constituye uno de los factores de riesgo de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, lo que supone un grave problema de salud pública mundial. La prevención primaria basada en el ejercicio físico y una dieta saludable representa una estrategia segura,...

  11. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.;

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hy...

  12. Composição florística do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Floristic survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Serra da Capoeira Grande Environmental Protection Area, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º59'03"S e 43º38'59"W tem área total de 80ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. no município do Rio de Janeiro. Além disso, ocorrem na área outras três espécies ameaçadas de extinção: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng. e Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. O levantamento fitossociológico foi realizado por meio do método dos quadrantes, tendo sido alocados 200 pontos e tendo-se como critério de inclusão 15cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30m de altura do solo. A composição florística é o resultado desta amostragem acrescida de coletas feitas durante caminhadas no fragmento, totalizando 29 famílias, 58 gêneros e 69 espécies. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de espécies foram: Leguminosae (13, Myrtaceae (6, Euphorbiaceae (5, Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Celastraceae, Flacourtiaceae, Moraceae, Rubiaceae e Solanaceae (3. Analisando a similaridade florística entre a APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande e outras 18 áreas florestais do Rio de Janeiro, observou-se maior identidade florística entre a área estudada e florestas de baixada localizadas próximas ao mar. Todas as florestas reuniram-se com um baixo nível de similaridade, refletindo a diversidade florística das florestas do Rio de Janeiro.The 80-hectare site (22º59'03"S and 43º38'59"W, is one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality, where brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. occurs naturally. Furthermore, three other endangered species occur in this area: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng., and Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH >15cm; a total of 200 points were surveyed. The floristic composition was comprised of the sampled

  13. The Growth and Species-by-site Interaction of 18 Central American Multipurpose Tree Species Grown at 15 Tropical Sites World-wide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From a world-wide plant introduction trial series utilising 25 central American species planted at over 100 sites in nearly 60 countries, eighteen species planted at 15 sites in the tropics were chosen for further study of the factors determining site productivity and site by species interactions. The species were Acacia pennatula, Acacia farnesiana, Albizia guachapele, Ateleia herbert-smithii, Caesalpinia coriaria, Caesalpinia eriostachys, Caesalpinia velutina, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Gliricidia sepi...

  14. Introdução e seleção de espécies arbóreas forrageiras exóticas na região semi-árida do Estado de Sergipe Introduction and selection of arboreal forage species in the semi-arid region of Sergipe State

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Antônio Drumond; Orlando Monteiro de Carvalho Filho; Visêldo Ribeiro de Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies arbóreas de uso madeireiro e forrageiro para a região semi-árida do Estado de Sergipe. Foram introduzidas quinze espécies procedentes da região semi-árida da América Central: Acacia farnesiana, Albizia caribaea, Albizia guachepele, Ateleia herbert-smithii, Caesalpinia coriaria, Caesalpinia eryostachys, Caesalpinia velutina, Entervlobium cyclocarpum, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena shannoni, Parkinso...

  15. Perspectives of recycling gamma irradiated sewage-sludge in agricultural applications: a study on methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.:leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in pot cultures have been studied. The gamma-irradiated sludge appeared to negatively affect the physical growth parameters of the plant. The significant positive effect of gamma-irradiated sludge was observed on the biochemical growth parameters and yield of methi plants. There was a 3.5-, 1.7- and 2-fold increase in the total protein content, total soluble sugars and starch content, respectively, of plants grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge after 45 days of growth. The gamma-irradiated sludge did not show any detrimental effect on any of the three biochemical parameters studied, even after 90 days of plant growth. The sludge obtained from the conventional treatment process was found to be inhibitory to the protein and starch content of plants in the latter stages of plant growth. A significant increase in the yield of methi plants, after 45 as well as 90 days, grown in the presence of gamma-irradiated sludge indicates a beneficial effect of recycling of irradiated sludge for agricultural applications. (author)

  16. Reproductive phenology, pollination and reproductive system of Sophora tomentosa L. (Leguminosae – Papilionoideae on coastal sand dunes of Joaquina beach, Florianópolis, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lícia Vaz de Arruda

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The shrub Sophora tomentosa flowers from the month of October to June. The fructification begins soon after the start of the flowering period and continues up to the next flowering. The anthesis takes place during the day, and does not have a defined schedule for the opening of the flower. Each inflorescence opens from 2 to 5 new flowers a day, lasting 4 or 5 days. Sophora tomentosa presents a rate of open pollination of 78%, cross pollination of 70%, spontaneous self-pollination of 48%, and agamospermy of 18%. Among the species of bees that visit S. tomentosa flowers, Pseudocentron sp. (Megachilidae presents the characteristics of an efficient pollinator. The bees Xylocopa (Megaxylocopa brasilionorum and Dialictus (Chloralictus sp. can also make the pollination. Epicharis sp. (Antophoridae and Augochloropsis sp. (Halictidae are visitors, which are only rarely observed in S. tomentosa. Other floral visitors are the butterfly Panoquina panoquinoides eugeon (Hesperiidae, the beetles Lystronychus sp. (Alleculidae and Horistonotus sp. (Elateridae, and the ant Camponotus rufipes (Formicidae. Lystronychus sp. and Camponotus rufipes can promote self-pollination.

  17. Optimización del tiempo de esterilización de soportes basados en suelo y compost en la producción de inoculentes para leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se elaboraron tres soportes consistentes en una mezcla de suelo y compost, y se sometieron a tres tratamientos de esterilización fraccionada en autoclave en dos días consecutivos. La eficiencia de los tratamientos de esterilización se evaluó monitoreando la disminución en las poblaciones de hongos y bacterias mediante recuentos estándar en placa. La esterilización de todos los soportes se logró mediante un tratamiento por 45 minutos el primer día y 30 minutos el segundo día.

  18. Aspectos morfoanatômicos e fisiológicos de sementes e plântulas de Amburana cearensis (Fr. All. A.C. Smith (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bruno Loureiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho consistiram em descrever e ilustrar os aspectos morfoanatômicos de sementes e plântulas de Amburana cearensis, relacionando o desenvolvimento dos tecidos às fases de germinação das sementes, para verificar as mudanças que ocorreram durante esse processo. Os ensaios foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Estudos em Meio Ambiente da Universidade Católica de Salvador (LEMA/UCSal. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por tratamento. A curva de embebição foi elaborada com base no peso fresco das sementes durante o processo de embebição, em períodos variando entre 0 e 318 h. Para análise morfológica das sementes e plântulas, ambas foram observadas a olho nu e ao microscópio estereoscópico, a fim de confeccionar a prancha. As secções anatômicas foram feitas com o auxílio do micrótomo rotativo, utilizando-se para tal as sementes durante as fases da germinação. Quanto à análise morfológica, as sementes são esternospermáticas e o embrião axial, sendo a germinação do tipo epígea e fanerocotiledonar. Quanto aos aspectos anatômicos, pôde-se verificar que as sementes de A. cearensis são bitegumentadas e exotestais e apresentam os cotilédones como principal tecido de reserva. O tegumento é composto por um estrato de macroesclereídes e por estratos de osteoesclereídes e possui compostos fenólicos, o que confere às sementes certo grau de dormência por impermeabilidade do tegumento, dificultando, assim, a absorção de água.

  19. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Bérgamo de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20% was higher than between these (22.80%. No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  20. Espécies de Uromyces em leguminosas do Cerrado com descrição de U. galactiae sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Denise V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas cinco espécies de Uromyces sobre Bauhinia spp. e uma espécie nova em Galactia peduncularis. Uromyces bauhiniae foi encontrada pela primeira vez sobre B. holophylla, onde somente Uromyces floralis havia sido descrita. Uromyces floralis foi estudada sobre B. curvula, hospedeiro inédito no Brasil para esta espécie. Uromyces foveolatus, comum em B. acuruana var. nitida, no cerrado do Mato Grosso e U. goyazensis sobre B. dumosa var. viscidula foram encontradas somente na fase telial em todas as exsicatas examinadas. Uromyces viegasii foi estudada em B. forficata. Uromyces galactiae sp. nov. é o primeiro fungo fitopatogênico associado ao gênero Galactia.

  1. Evaluación oxidativa de las mezclas de aceites de leguminosas del Desierto de Sonora con aceites de maíz y soja durante su almacenamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.; Robles-Burgueño, M. R.; Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    2001-01-01

    During storage, oils from seeds of wild legumes of the Sonoran Desert have shown greater stability than oils derived from conventional sources. In this work, oxidation process was evaluated during the storage (122 day) of mixtures of oils: Mezquite Prosopis juliflora, Gatuña Mimosa grahamii, Palo fierro Olneya tesota, Vino rama Acacia constricta, Palo de brea Cercidium praecox and Palo verde Parkinsonia aculeata with oils from soy and maize. Ratios were 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. Evaluated parame...

  2. Systematic positions of medicago edgeworthii and m. archiducis-nicolai (leguminosae) inferred from plastid trnk/matk, nuclear ga30x1 and its sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper characterizes the systematic positions of Medicago edgeworthii and M. archiducis-nicolai. The combined data set of chloroplast trnK/matK, nuclear GA3ox1 and ITS sequences provided a substantial amount of informative characters. The methods of Maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference, and Maximum likelihood were employed. The results showed that M. edgeworthii formed a monophyletic group with M. biflora and M. brachycarpa, both of which are members of section Lunatae; M. archiducis-nicolai is closely related to M. platycarpa and M. ruthenica. Our study supports the previous view that M. edgeworthii belongs to section Lunatae, and M. archiducis-nicolai belongs to section Platycarpae. In addition, the study suggests that M. lupulina is a member of a clade having M. tenoreana and M. minima, which indicates that M. lupulina and M. secundiflora should probably not be placed in the same section. (author)

  3. The reproductive ecology of Medicago citrina (Font Quer) Greuter (Leguminosae): a bee-pollinated plant in Mediterranean islands where bees are absent

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Bañón, Celeste; Juan Gallardo, Ana Isabel; Petanidou, Theodora; Marcos García, María Ángeles; Crespo Villalba, Manuel Benito

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive ecology of Medicago citrina was studied in the Columbretes archipelago (Mediterranean Sea), where bees are absent. The flowers were self-compatible, homogamous, nectar producers, depended on large floral visitors for tripping and pollination. Several characteristics of the reproductive biology of M. citrina indicate an adaptation to an isolated environment characterised by scarcity of appropriate pollinators. As a result of this scarcity, fruit and seed set under natural cond...

  4. EFECTO DE LA RIQUEZA DE ESPECIES DE LEGUMINOSAS SOBRE LA CAPACIDAD DE RETENER EL SUELO, BAJO CONDICIONES DE RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA

    OpenAIRE

    AUREOLES CELSO, ESTEBAN

    2012-01-01

    El lugar de estudio se encuentra en el paraje conocido como la Huertita, perteneciente al municipio de Atécuaro Michoacán. Se encuentra en una zona montañosa, en su mayoría deforestada, lo que provocó la erosión de ese lugar que con la subsecuente aparición de cárcavas que son comunes en todo el Municipio de Atécuaro. Como parte de un proyecto de restauración ecológica se llevaron a cabo una serie de experimentos. La restauración es un proceso que intenta formar estadios suc...

  5. Germinación, dispersión y establecimiento de plántulas de Mimosa tenuiflora (Leguminosae) en México

    OpenAIRE

    Sara L Camargo-Ricalde; Rosaura Grether

    1998-01-01

    Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. es un recurso natural importante para México debido a sus diversos usos. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se había estudiado la germinación, la dispersión y el establecimiento de plántulas de esta especie. Se recolectaron frutos y semillas de esta planta en el estado de Chiapas, México (S. L. Camargo et al. 118, UAMIZ). Las pruebas de germinación se hicieron después de cuatro años de almacenamiento; se sembraron en total 1 935 semillas en cajas de Petri con papel f...

  6. Effect of several strains of rizobium in soybean and dry bean Efecto de varios inoculos de leguminosas sobre soya y fríjol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Hennio

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-ICA of Palmira between the second semester of 1987 and second of 1989 with the objetive to see of nodulation form and the response of soybean and beans to seven strains of Rizobium of soybean, beans, mungobean, caupí, peanuts, crotalaria and Desmodium. All of especies nodulated after 15 days of emergence also, the nodules lasted in all of especies up to 60 days after emergence except in beans which deteriorated nodules were evident after flowering. The position of nodules were in the main root and secundaries except for beans that only presented nodules in secundary roots; besides, all species presented global shapes nodules except for Crotalaria which showed oval, astragal and baton shape. The size was small in all especies, however, soybean presented big nodules so as 5 mm of diameter. The soybean nodulated specifically with its strain; however, beans presented effective nodulation with other strains suggesting gesting a wide types strains for this legume and permitting more studies about it.El estudio se realizó en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-ICA en Palmira, durante los semestres 87B y 89B. Todas las especies nodularon a partir de los primeros 15 días después de emergencia, exceptuando Cassia tora. El resto de materiales presentaron nódulos efectivos. La posición de los nódulos fue en toda la raíz menos en las variedades de fríjol que sólo los presentaron en las raíces secundarias. La forma fue globosa excepto en Crotalaria (ovales, astragaloides yen forma de bastón y el tamaño fue pequeño (hasta 2.5 mm de diámetro excepto en soya (5 mm. En otro ensayo se probaron en soya y fríjol las cepas aisladas de Rizobios de soya, frijol, maní, frijolillo, Desmodium, Crotalaria y mungo. La soya únicamente noduló con su cepa especifica, mientras que el fríjol hizo con todas las cepas, por lo cual se recomienda que se hagan evaluaciones de fijación de nitrógeno en esta especie con otras cepas para conocer la respuesta.

  7. Anatomia ecológica do lenho stryphnodendron adstringens (mart.) Coville (leguminosae), barbatimao, no Parque Estadual do Cerrado - Jaguariaíva-PR

    OpenAIRE

    Montefusco, Ana Raquel Gomes

    2013-01-01

    A anatomia ecológica identifica a influência de fatores ambientais expressos nas características anatômicas e morfológicas das plantas, sendo definida como a relação entre a estrutura da planta e o ambiente. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a anatomia ecológica da espécie Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, Leg. No Parque Estadual do Cerrado, ao longo de uma topossequência, caracterizando e comparando os elementos anatômicos da estrutura do lenho (diâmetro tangencial dos vasos, c...

  8. Bioassay-Guided Chemical Study of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Senna villosa (Miller H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Leguminosae in TPA-Induced Ear Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana del Carmen Susunaga-Notario

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Senna villosa (Miller is a plant that grows in México. In traditional Mexican medicine, it is used topically to treat skin infections, pustules and eruptions and to heal wounds by scar formation. However, studies of its potential anti-inflammatory effects have not been performed. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of extracts from the leaves of Senna villosa and to perform a bioassay-guided chemical study of the extract with major activity in a model of ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA. The results reveal that the chloroform extract from Senna villosa leaves has anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. Nine fractions were obtained from the bioassay-guided chemical study, including a white precipitate from fractions 2 and 3. Although none of the nine fractions presented anti-inflammatory activity, the white precipitate exhibited pharmacological activity. It was chemically characterized using mass spectrometry and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, resulting in a mixture of three aliphatic esters, which were identified as the principal constituents: hexyl tetradecanoate (C20H40O2, heptyl tetradecanoate (C21H42O2 and octyl tetradecanoate (C22H44O2. This research provides, for the first time, evidence of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties of compounds isolated from Senna villosa.

  9. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae Ultrastructural alterations in larvae of Aedes aegypti subject to labdane diterpene isolated from Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae and a fraction enriched with tannins of Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.INTRODUCTION: Dengue is an important public health problem in many countries and its main vector Aedes aegypti, is the mosquito most adapted to urban areas. For the first time, the mechanism of action of labdane diterpenoid extracted from Copaifera reticulata and the fraction enriched of catechin tannins extracted from Magonia pubescens is demonstrated through ultrastructural alterations of Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Experiments were performed using a 0.9ppm solution of diterpenoid and 3.7ppm of the fraction as the main catechin tannin of molecular mass 846Da. The compounds were obtained by thin layer chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and mass spectrometry. Larvae that achieved lethargic state were collected and dissected. Next, they were contrasted with 1% uranyl acetate, dehydrated, embedded and polymerized. Ultrathin sections were made, mixed with 3% uranyl acetate and lead citrate and placed in an electron microscope. RESULTS: The main ultrastructural alterations caused by the diterpenoid and by tanins in larvae of Aedes aegypti were: cytoplasmic vacuolation, alteration of microvilli, cellular aging, cell disruption and degeneration, formation of secretion vesicles and structural changes in microvilli, irregular nuclei and displacement of cells in the basal lamina. CONCLUSIONS: The fraction containing tannins and the diterpenoid caused the death of Aedes aegypti larvae by cell destruction in the midgut.

  10. Synthesis of amide derivatives of 6{alpha},7{beta}-di-hydroxyvouacapan-17{beta}-oic acid isolated from the Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth fruits (leguminosae); Sintese de amidas derivadas do acido 6{alpha},7{beta}-di-hidroxivouacapan-17{beta}-oico isolado dos frutos de Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, A.L.; Belinelo, V.J.; Stefani, G.M.; Pilo-Veloso, D. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: dorila@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br; Reis, G.T. [Universidade de Itauna, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias; Ferreira-Alves, D.L. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia

    2001-04-01

    Hydro-alcoholic infusions from fruits of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth, commonly known as 'Sucupira branca', are used in Brazilian folk medicine for rheumatic problems and throat infections. Since it has been verified that furanediterpene 6?,7?-di-hydroxyvouacapan-17?-oic acid (ADV), isolated from the hexane extract of these fruits presents anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and plant growth regulatory activity, a variety of ADV derivatives has been synthesized with the aim of obtaining more information about the structure-activity relationships of this series of compounds. In this work four new amide (4-7) derivatives of ADV have been synthesized. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data, including 2D-NMR methods. (author)

  11. Evaluation of legumes and poultry manure for the early protection of burnt soils Evaluación de leguminosas y gallinaza para la protección temprana de suelos quemados Avaliaçao da utilizaçao de leguminosas e estrume de galináceos na protecção precoce de solos queimados

    OpenAIRE

    Serafín González Prieto; Arturo Castro; Tarsy Carballas

    2012-01-01

    Organic amendments combined with the sowing of gramineous grasses are effective for the early protection of burnt soils (BS) but cannot restore soil N status to pre-fire level; this has led to interest in combining their use with N2 fixer legumes. The effectiveness of applying poultry manure (PM; 2 Mg ha-1) and sowing legumes (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus and Trifolium repens) for the e...

  12. Los géneros Cajanus y Rhynchosia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Phaseoleae, Cajaninae) en la península de Yucatán, México The genera Cajanus and Rhynchosia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Phaseoleae, Cajaninae) in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Martínez-Bernal; Rodrigo Duno-de Stefano; Lilia Lorena-Can

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta información general de los géneros Cajanus DC. y Rhynchosia Lour. (subfamilia Papilionoideae, tribu Phaseoleae, subtribu Cajaninae) en la península de Yucatán. En esta región, Cajanus incluye 1 especie introducida y Rhynchosia incluye 6 nativas. Se presentan claves para géneros y especies, información ecológica, fenológica, nombres comunes y usos de cada especie.An overview of the genera Cajanus DC. and Rhynchosia Lour. (subfamily Papilionoideae, tribe Phaseoleae, subtribe Cajanin...

  13. Influência da remoção de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de leguminosas Effect of cotyledon removal on cotyledonal axillary shooting in seedlings of leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odaci Fernandes de Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos inteiramente casualizados foram conduzidos em condições de viveiro com o objetivo de verificar a importância da permanência de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. e Delonix regia L. Os tratamentos foram: remoção de ambos os cotilédones nos primeiro, segundo e terceiro dias da emergência, remoção de um só cotilédone no primeiro dia da emergência e não remoção de cotilédones. A recuperação do desenvolvimento em plântulas de P. vulgaris, avaliada através da ocorrência de ramificações, independe do número de cotilédones removidos no período de um a três dias da emergência, mas é menos eficiente que em V. unguiculata. A remoção de ambos os cotilédones em plântulas de V. unguiculata, no dia da emergência, afetou a recuperação do desenvolvimento dessas plântulas em comparação com os outros tratamentos. Em plântulas de L leucocephala, P. juliflora, T. indica e D. regia, a remoção de ambos os cotilédones, no período de um a três dias da emergência, sugere o aumento de mortalidade nessas plântulas. A remoção de um único cotilédone não afetou significativamente o percentual de sobrevivência das plântulas nem limitou o surgimento de brotações à axila cotiledonar correspondente ao cotilédone removido.Completely randomized experiments under greenhouse conditions were carried to study the role of cotyledons on the cotyledonal axillary shooting of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. and Delonix regia L. The seedlings underwent the following treatments: removal of both cotyledons on the first to the third day after emergence, removal of only one cotyledon on the first day of emergence, and no cotyledon removal. Growth recovery in P. vulgaris seedlings, as evaluated through shooting occurrence, is independent of the number of cotyledons removed on the first to the third day after emergence, but it was mostly less effective than that in V. unguiculata. Growth recovery in V. unguiculata seedlings was less effective when both cotyledons were removed on the first day of emergence as compared to the other treatments. In L. leucocephala, P. juliflora, T. indica, and D. regia seedlings, the removal of both cotyledons, on the first to the third day after emergence, suggests an increase in the mortality of seedlings. The removal of only one cotyledon did not significantly affect the percentage of seedling survival nor limit shooting to the corresponding axil of the removed cotyledon.

  14. A HEARTWOOD PIGMENT IN DALBERGIA CELL CULTURES. (R827612E02)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an extensive survey of the genera Baphia, Caesalpinia, Dalbergia, Haematoxylon, and Pterocarpus, we have identified a number of species whose cell cultures accumulated pigments similar to those in heartwood. Thirteen rosewood (Dalbergia) species produce...

  15. Qualidade de frutos de videira 'Niagara Rosada' em cultivo intercalar com gramínea e leguminosas Influence of green cover on fruit quality of table grape variety Niagara Rosada

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Bahia Wutke; Cássia Regina Limonta Carvalho; Fabio Costa; Maurilo Monteiro Terra; Erasmo José Paioli Pires; Ismael Luiz Secco; Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Devido ao aumento do custo de produção com a utilização de cobertura morta com capim nas ruas da videira, no presente estudo, objetivou-se a possibilidade de substituição dessa cobertura morta por adubação verde intercalar, sem interferência nas características qualitativas dos frutos da videira 'Niagara Rosada', em experimentos realizados em Indaiatuba e Jundiaí-SP, de 1999 a 2002. Nas ruas da videira, instalaram-se seis tratamentos, em blocos ao acaso e 4 repetições, constando de testemunha...

  16. Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest Riqueza de rizóbios e de outras bactérias de nódulos de leguminosas em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Renato Lammel; Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion; Carlos Tadeu Santos Dias; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of legumes occurring in Araucaria Forests, at Campos do Jordão State P...

  17. Germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plânturas de Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya (DC. G.P.Lewis & M.P.Lima (Leguminosae em diferentes anbientes de luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Gesteira Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da atividade madeireira e a elevada taxa de desmatamento na Amazônia têm intensificado a necessidade de estudos sobre as técnicas mais adequadas para a produção de mudas que possam ser usadas em atividades de reflorestamento e de plantio em florestas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar: a se a taxa de germinação de sementes de Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya difere entre sementes colhidas na copa e coletadas no chão da floresta; e b qual o efeito do grau de sombreamento no viveiro sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas dessa espécie. Seis repetições de 10 sementes colhidas na copa e coletadas no chão foram colocadas em germinador. A taxa de germinação não diferiu entre os dois métodos de obtenção de sementes, sendo recomendada a coleta de frutos no chão. No viveiro, quatro repetições de 25 sementes foram colocadas para germinar a pleno sol e em 30, 50 e 70% de sombra. Em cada tratamento de luz, 40 plântulas foram sorteadas, e sua "performance" foi avaliada quatro meses após a semeadura. Tanto a germinação das sementes quanto o crescimento em diâmetro e acúmulo de biomassa das plântulas foram superiores em 30 e 50% de sombreamento, em comparação com pleno sol. Os resultados indicaram que o crescimento de plântulas de P. psilostachya é favorecido em condições relativamente altas de iluminação, embora algum sombreamento seja necessário, e que a produção de mudas dessa espécie é de fácil execução, ao menos nos estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento das plântulas.The expansion of logging and deforestation in the Amazon forest increases the need for studies on techniques to grow seedlings that can be used in reforestation and enrichment planting programs. We addressed the following questions: a does the seed germination of Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya differ between seeds collected directly on the crown and the ones collected on the forest floor? b what is the effect of the shading level on the seed germination and the initial development of seedlings of this species? Six replicates of 10 seeds were germinated in a growth chamber. The germination rate did not differ between the seed collection methods and the collection of fruits in the forest floor is recommended. In the nursery, four replicates of 25 seeds were germinated under full sun and 30%, 50% and 70% shade. In each light treatment, the performance of 40 seedlings randomly selected was assessed four months after sowing. Seed germination, seedling growth and biomass accumulation were higher under 30% and 50% shade than under full sun. The results suggest that the growth of P. psilostachya seedlings is favored under high light levels, although some shade is required, and that it is relatively easy to produce seedlings of this species, at least on the initial developmental stage.

  18. Produção de forragem em pastagens consorciadas com diferentes leguminosas sob pastejo rotacionado = Forage production in pasture-based systems mixed with different legumes under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Steinwandter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar dois sistemas forrageiros, constituídos por capim-elefante, azevém, trevo branco ou amendoim forrageiro e espécies de crescimento espontâneo, quanto às taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS. Para avaliação utilizaram-se quatro piquetes, com 0,25 ha cada um, com capim-elefante estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4 m. No período hibernal, entre as linhas do capim-elefante, fez-se o estabelecimento do azevém; em dois piquetes foi semeado o trevo branco e nos demais se preservou o amendoim forrageiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. Para a determinação das taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS, avaliaram-se as massas de forragem de pré e pós-pastejo. Foram avaliadas a composição botânica e estrutural da pastagem e a lotação. Na média, as taxas de acúmulo e dedesaparecimento da MS e a lotação foram de 47,29 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,24% e 3,01 UA ha-1 e de 53,16 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,45% e 3,48 UA ha-1 para os sistemas constituídos por trevo branco e por amendoim forrageiro, respectivamente. Considerando-se a taxa de acúmulo deMS, a MS desaparecida e a lotação, os resultados demonstram melhores resultados para o sistema forrageiro constituído pelo amendoim forrageiro.The objective of this research was to evaluate two pasture-based systems, with elephantgrass, ryegrass, white clover or forage peanut and spontaneous growth species about the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass. The elephantgrass was established in rows with a distance of 4 m between rows. In the cool season, ryegrass was planted between rows of elephantgrass; white clover wassowed,in two paddocks, and in the other two the forage peanut was preserved. The experimental design was completely randomized. In order to stipulate the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass, the pre- and post-graze forage mass were evaluated.The botanical and structural composition, as well as the stocking rate were analyzed. The average rate of accumulation and disappearance of forage mass and the stocking rate were of47.29 kg of DM ha-1 day-1; 3.24% and 3.10 UA ha-1 and of 53.16 kg of DM ha-1 day-1; 3.45% and 3.48 UA ha-1 to the systems formed by white clover and forage peanut, respectively. Considering the accumulation rate of the pasture dry matter, the disappearance of foragemass and the stocking rate, the forage system associated with forage peanut showed a better performance.

  19. Underestimated endemic species diversity in the dry inter-Andean valley of the Río Marañón, northern Peru: An example from Mimosa(Leguminosae, Mimosoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Särkinen, T E; Marcelo-Peña, J L; Yomona, A D; Simon, M. F.; Pennington, T P; Hughes, C E

    2011-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies which include multiple accessions of species and near complete taxon sampling can be an important tool for estimating species diversity when used in combination with traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Here we use a densely sampled plastid gene tree for a morphologically complex group within the legume genus Mimosa (sect. Batocaulon ser. Andinae) to improve estimates of species limits and diversity in the poorly known dry inter-Andean valley of the Río Marañón, northe...

  20. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Leguminosae) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae) against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50), test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect ...

  1. Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards;Fixacao biologica e transferencia de nitrogenio por leguminosas em pomar organico de mangueira e gravioleira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Gleicia Miranda; Barroso, Deborah Guerra, E-mail: gleiciamiranda@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: deborah@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo, E-mail: bruno@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: urquiaga@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of {sup 15}N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

  2. Reemplazo de la Cama de Broiler por Granos de Cereales y Leguminosas en Raciones de Engorda Invernal de Novillos Replacement of Broiler Litter by Vereal and Legume Grains in Winter Steer Finishing Rations

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    Claudio Rojas G

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA ubicado en Temuco, se realizó un estudio durante 86 días de la temporada invernal de 2003, para lo cual se utilizaron 35 novillos Overo Colorado, de 19 a 20 meses de edad y 367 kg de peso vivo inicial, con el objetivo de evaluar el reemplazo de la cama de broiler por fuentes proteicas vegetales en raciones de engorda de novillos. Los tratamientos correspondieron a: T1: ensilaje pradera, cama de broiler y grano de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L. molido; T2: ensilaje pradera, granos de avena (Avena sativa L. y de cebada molidos; T3: ensilaje pradera, grano de lupino (Lupinus albus L. entero y avena entera; T4: ensilaje pradera, grano de avena molido y urea; y T5: ensilaje pradera, grano de cebada molido y urea. El diseño experimental utilizado fue bloques completos al azar, con siete repeticiones, usando el factor bloque para peso. Los resultados indicaron ganancias diarias de peso vivo (PV (kg d-1 de 1,0 bc; 0,916 cd; 0,825 d; 1,05 ab y 1,141 a (P ≤ 0,05, para los tratamientos 1 al 5, respectivamente. Los consumos diarios de materia seca (kg d-1 correspondieron a 8,7; 7,2; 7,3; 8,0 y 7,9; la conversión de alimentos (kg alimento kg-1 de incremento de PV-1 fue 8,7; 7,9; 8,8; 7,6 y 6,9 y los costos de las raciones ($ kg-1 PV-1 fueron de 533; 575; 545; 434 y 522 para cada uno de los tratamientos, respectivamente. Se concluyó que la ración con ensilaje de pradera más avena molida y urea y la ración con ensilaje de pradera más cebada molida y urea pueden reemplazar la cama de broiler con ventajas productivas y económicas en raciones de engorda de novillos.In the Carillanca Regional Research Center of the National Agricultural Research Institute located in Temuco, for 86 days during the 2003 winter season a study, which used 35 Overo Colorado steers, of 19 to 20 months of age and 367 kg initial liveweight, was conducted in order to evaluate the replacement of broiler litter by vegetal protein sources in steers finishing rations. Treatments were: T1: pasture silage plus broiler litter and ground barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.; T2: pasture silage plus ground oats grain (Avena sativa L. and barley grain; T3: pasture silage and whole lupin grain (Lupinus albus L. and whole oats grain; T4: pasture silage plus ground oats and urea; and T5: pasture silage plus ground barley grain and urea. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with seven replicates using the block factor for weighting. Results indicated daily liveweight (LW gains (kg d-1 of 1.0 bc, 0.916 cd, 0.825 d, 1.050 ab, and 1.141a (P ≤ 0.05 for treatments 1 to 5, respectively. Daily dry matter intake (kg d-1 was 8.7, 7.2, 7.3, 8.0, and 7.9 for each treatment, respectively, while feed conversion efficiency (kg of feed kg-1 LW produced-1 was 8.7, 7.9, 8.8, 7.6, and 6.9 respectively. At 2003 prices the cost of the rations ($ kg-1 LW-1 were 533, 575, 545, 434 and 522 for each treatment, respectively. It was concluded that the diet with pasture silage plus ground oats and urea, and the diet with pasture silage plus ground barley and urea can replace broiler litter with productive and economics advantages in steer finishing rations.

  3. Aspectos químicos e bioquímicos de leguminosas enlatadas em diferentes estádios de maturação Chemical and biochemical aspects of legumes canned at different maturation stages

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    M.F.P. BARCELOS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a composição química e aspectos bioquímicos dos grãos de soja cultivar IAC PL-1 e de guandu cultivar IAC Fava Larga, crus e pós-enlatamento em diferentes estádios de maturação avaliando os efeitos do processamento sobre os grãos dos dois cultivares. A composição química dos grãos crus , principalmente no último estádio verde, e na maturação de colheita foi de modo geral semelhante. O enlatamento conservou 95% e 98% do total das proteínas dos grãos de soja e guandu, respectivamente. Nos enlatados de soja obteve-se a inativação da atividade de lectinas. Os processamentos térmicos utilizados para os enlatamentos, 121ºC por 6 a 7 minutos para a soja e 5 a 6 minutos para o guandu foram suficientes para eliminar 83% da atividade dos inibidores de tripsina da soja e do guandu. A digestibilidade da proteína do guandu enlatado (62% foi inferior em relação à soja enlatada (78%. Com exceção do ácido glutâmico, prolina, lisina e histidina, os demais aminoácidos do grão de soja enlatado colhido no 64º DAF tiveram seus conteúdos iguais aos enlatados do 85º DAF pós-armazenados e pós-macerados. Os teores de aminoácidos dos grãos de guandu enlatados no 62º DAF, com exceção do ácido glutâmico e fenilalanina, foram iguais àqueles presentes na última colheita (92º DAF. A metionina disponível no grão de soja não se modificou com a evolução da maturação, porém a do guandu se elevou no 92º DAF e o processo de enlatamento reduziu a metionina disponível da soja apenas no 55º e 64º DAF e do guandu no 57º e 92º DAF. Rafinose e estaquiose nos grãos de soja estão mais elevadas no estádio verde, e nos grãos de guandu, apenas a estaquiose está mais elevada no estádio verde. O processo de enlatamento provocou um pequeno decréscimo nestes dois açúcares da soja e guandu nos dois últimos estádios de maturação estudados.This work intended to study the chemical composition and biochemical aspects of soybean grains, cultivar IAC PL-1 and pigeon pea cultivar IAC Fava Larga, both raw and post-canning at different maturation stages, evaluating the effects of the processing caused on the grain. The chemical composition of the raw grains, mainly in the last green stage and in the harvest maturation it was in general similar. The canning of soybean conserved by 95% and pigeon pea by 98% the whole protein content of grains. In soybean canned products, inactivation of the activity of lectins was obtained. The heat processings utilized for the cannings, 121ºC for 6 to 7 minutes for soybean and 5 to 6 minutes for pigeon pea, were enough to remove 83% the activity of soybean and pigeon pea trypsine inhibitors. The in vitro digestibility of the canned pigeon pea protein was lower (62% relative to canned soybean (78%. With exception of glutamic acid, proline, lysine and histidine, the other amino acids of the canned soybean grain harvested on the 64th DAF had their contents equal to those canned on the 85th DAF post stored and post-soaking. The amino acid of the pigeon pea grains canned on the 62nd DAF, with exception of glutamic acid and phenilalanine, were equal to those amino acids present at the last harvest (92nd DAF. The available methionine in soybean grain did’t change with the evolution of the maturation, but that of pigeon pea rose at the 92nd DAF and the canning process decreased the available methionine of the soybean at 55th and 64th and pigeon pea at 57th and 92nd DAF. Both raffinose and stachyose in soybean grains are higher in green stages and in pigeon pea grains only stachyose is higher in green stage. The canning process caused a small reduction in these two sugars of soybean and pigeon pea in the last two studied maturation stages.

  4. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

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    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  5. Efecto de residuos de leguminosas sobre estadios de una población de lombrices (Eisenia foetida y caracterización biológica del humus obtenido

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    Eneida Vilches

    2000-01-01

    significativa entre el tipo de alimento y los estadios analizados siempre a favor del juvenil. La mejor representación de organismos presentes en la fauna pertenecen a las clases: Chilopoda, Isopoda e Insecta del phylum Arthropoda

  6. Avaliação da digestibilidade aparente de fenos de gramíneas e de leguminosa para eqüinos Evaluation of apparent digestibility of grasses and legume hays for equines

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    Douglas Alexandre Aragão; João Waine Pinheiro; Nilva Aparecida Nicolao Fonseca; Lizete Cabrera; Carlos Eduardo Furtado; Emanoelle Belinelli; Chiara Albano de Araujo Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    Foram utilizados 4 eqüinos adultos, em delineamento experimental de quadrado latino (4x4), submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: FA - feno de alfafa, FC - feno de coast cross, FT - feno de tifton e FE - feno de estrela africana. O experimento teve duração de 65 dias, com 5 dias de período pré-experimental e 4 períodos subseqüentes de 15 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 5 dias de coleta de fezes total/diária). Os resultados apresentados pela análise de variância mostraram diferença (P < 0,05) entr...

  7. Characterization of condensed tannins from native legumes of the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid Caracterização dos taninos condensados em leguminosas nativas do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro

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    Patrícia Mendes Guimarães-Beelen; Telma Teresinha Berchielli; Roger Beelen; João Araújo Filho; Simone Gisele de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Despite the possible influence of tannins on the nutritional value of the forages from Caatinga vegetation, there are few studies that evaluated their tannin concentration. This study was conducted to characterize condensed tannins present in the legumes species Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta), Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá) and Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó), at three stages of their phenological cycle. The concentration of soluble tannin (ST), bound tannin (BT) and total tannin (TT) were deter...

  8. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

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    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

  9. Fijación biológica de nitrógeno por tres fabáceas (Leguminosae) en suelos ácidos de Tabasco, México

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    S. Córdova-Sánchez; M. Castelán-Estrada; S. Salgado-García; J. D. Palma-López; J. A. Vera-Núñez; J. J. Peña-Cabriales; L. C. Lagunes-Espinoza; R. Cárdena-Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar el potencial de fijación biológica de nitrógeno por las fabáceas Cajanus cajan L., Canavalia ensiformis L. y Mucuna deerengiana L., en rotación y asociación con maíz durante dos ciclos de cultivo, se desarrollaron dos experimentos en un suelo ácido de la sabana de Huimanguillo, Tabasco. En ambos sistemas se evaluaron variables relacionadas con la nodulación de estas fabáceas, así como su efecto sobre el rendimiento de maíz (Zea mays L.); también se cuantificó ...

  10. Fijación biológica de nitrógeno por tres fabáceas (Leguminosae) en suelos ácidos de Tabasco, México

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    S. Córdova-Sánchez; M. Castelán-Estrada; S. Salgado-García; J. D. Palma-López; J. A. Vera-Núñez; J. J. Peña-Cabriales; L. C. Lagunes-Espinoza; R. Cárdena-Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar el potencial de fijación biológica de nitrógeno por las fabáceas Cajanus cajan L., Canavalia ensiformis L. y Mucuna deerengiana L., en rotación y asociación con maíz durante dos ciclos de cultivo, se desarrollaron dos experimentos en un suelo ácido de la sabana de Huimanguillo, Tabasco. En ambos sistemas se evaluaron variables relacionadas con la nodulación de estas fabáceas, así como su efecto sobre el rendimiento de maíz (Zea mays L.); también se cuantificó el ...

  11. A comparative study on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (Leguminosae) root

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    Kurian Gino; Rajamani Thejeshvi; Ramanarayanan Pavithra; Paddikkala Jose

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging effect of aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG) root in different antioxidant models and experimentally induced ischemic reperfusion in an isolated rat heart. The rats were divided into three groups namely control, reperfusion control, and drug treated. For in vivo study, ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) was induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion of Krebs-Henseleit buffer for...

  12. Aplicación de modelos en los sistemas agrícolas de secano de la meseta central : Simulación de rotaciones y modelado de la arquitectura de la planta en leguminosas

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    Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo profundiza en el estudio de los sistemas agrícolas de secano de la Meseta Central. Sobre la base de la alternativa tradicional ce^eal^arbecho, se han estudiado durante tres años de cultivo 1995/96, 1996/97 y 1997/98 seis rotaciones diferentes: monocultivo de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.), cebada/barbecho, cebada/habas (Viciafaba L.), cebada/guisantes {Pisum sativum L.), cebada/habas/barbecho y cebada/guisantes/barbecho. Entre las rotaciones, se ha comparado la biomasa, el rendimien...

  13. Characterization of condensed tannins from native legumes of the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid Caracterização dos taninos condensados em leguminosas nativas do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro

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    Patrícia Mendes Guimarães-Beelen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possible influence of tannins on the nutritional value of the forages from Caatinga vegetation, there are few studies that evaluated their tannin concentration. This study was conducted to characterize condensed tannins present in the legumes species Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta, Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá and Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó, at three stages of their phenological cycle. The concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT were determined using the butanol-HCL method; astringency was by the radial diffusion method, and the monomeric composition of purified tannins by a high-performance liquid chromatograph with delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin as standards. Concentration and astringency of purified condensed tannins, as well as their monomeric composition varied between species, and in some cases among phenological cycles. The values observed were always above the limits considered beneficial for ruminal digestion (i.e. 5%. Jurema Preta presented the highest values (30.98% TT and 22% astringency at full growth stage, and Mororó the lowest (10.38% TT and 14% astringency during fructification. Jurema Preta presented a mean relationship prodelfinidin (PD: procyanidin (PC of 97:3, which did not vary during the phenological cycle, showing the high astringent capacity of these tannins. Sabiá presented a relationship of 90:20 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 40:50 at fructification. In Mororó the PD:PC relationship was more equilibrated, around 40:50 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 35:60 During fructification. Propelargonidin was not detected or was present at low concentration in the three species.Apesar da possível influência do tanino sobre o valor nutritivo das forrageiras da Caatinga, poucos são os estudos que avaliam a concentração de taninos nestas plantas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar os taninos condensados presentes nas espécies Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta, Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá e Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó, em três fases do ciclo fenológico. As concentrações de tanino solúvel (TS, tanino ligado ao resíduo (TL e tanino total (TT foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCl; a adstringência foi avaliada pelo método de difusão radial e a composição de monômeros dos taninos purificados através do sistema de cromatografia líquida de alta resolução, utilizando delfinidina, cianidina e pelargonidina como padrões. A concentração e adstringência dos taninos condensados purificados, assim como sua composição monomérica, variou entre as espécies e, em alguns casos, entre os ciclos fenológicos. Os valores foram superiores aos considerados benéficos a digestão ruminal (5%. Jurema Preta apresentou os maiores valores (30,98% TT e 22% de adstringência na vegetação plena e Mororó os menores valores observados (10,38 TT e 14% de adstringência na frutificação. A Jurema Preta apresentou uma relação prodelfinidina (PD:procianidina (PC média de 97:3 que se mostrou pouco variável, indicando uma alta capacidade adstringente dos taninos desta espécie em todas as fases do ciclo fenológico. O Sábia apresentou uma relação de 90:20 nas fases de vegetação plena e floração, diminuindo para 40:50 na fase de frutificação. A relação PD:PC do Mororó foi mais equilibrada, oscilando em torno de 40:50 nas fases de vegetação plena e floração e reduzindo para 35:60 durante a frutificação. A propelargonidina esteve ausente ou em pequena concentração nas espécies estudadas.

  14. Papilionoideae (Leguminosae arbóreas e lianas na estação de pesquisa, treinamento e educação ambiental (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira Trees and lianes of the papilionoideae (Leguminosae in the research, training and environmental education station (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira

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    Izabella Martins da Costa Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste em um levantamento florístico das árvores e lianas pertencentes à Papilionoideae da Mata do Paraíso, importante fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Submontana, no Município de Viçosa, Zona da Mata mineira. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada por meio de visitas à área de estudo, no período de julho/2004 a agosto/2005. Foram reconhecidos 12 táxons infra-específicos pertencentes a oito gêneros, sendo Machaerium Pers. (4 spp. e Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. os mais representativos. São apresentados chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações e comentários sobre os táxons analisados. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., espécie vulnerável, e Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endêmica da região, foram encontradas na EPTEA.This work is a floristic survey of trees and lianas of the Papilionoideae in the Mata do Paraíso, an important fragment of Submontane Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, in Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira. The fieldwork was carried out through visits to the studied area, from July/2004 to August/2005. Twelve taxa represented by eight genera were recorded. Machaerium Pers. (4spp. and Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. were the most representatives. Identification keys, descriptions and illustrations are presented for the analyzed taxa. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., vulnerable species and, Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endemic for the region were found at EPTEA.

  15. Variação intraspecífica do lenho de Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae de populações ocorrentes em dois remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica Intraspecific variation in wood anatomy of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (Leguminosae -Mimosoidae in two Atlantic rain forest remnants

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    Maria Luiza R. da Costa Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho compara populações distintas de Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima ocorrentes em dois remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas árvores de diâmetro semelhante retas e sem defeitos aparentes. Os resultados obtidos comprovam estatisticamente a ocorrência de variação intraspecífica na estrutura anatômica da madeira. Os caracteres qualitativos mantiveram-se constantes, enquanto os quantitativos variaram, sendo os significativos, de acordo com o teste t de Student, a freqüencia, comprimento e diâmetro dos elementos vasos, o comprimento e espessura da parede das fibras, a freqüência e largura dos raios. A análise dos componentes principais, utilizando características anatômicas quantitativas ordenou as duas populações separadamente. O eixo I responde por 33% da variância total principalmente pela relação positiva do diâmetro do elemento de vaso, enquanto o eixo II responde por 20% da variância total, principalmente pelo comprimento das fibras.This study compares distinct populations of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima occurring in two remnants of Atlantic rain forest in Rio de Janeiro state. Trees with similar diameters and with no apparent defects were selected. The results confirm intraspecific variation in wood anatomy. Qualitative features do not change, while according to the Student t test quantitative features showed significant differences in vessel-element frequency, width, and length, fiber length and wall thickness, and ray frequency and width. Principal component analysis showed two separate populations. Factor 1 explains 33% of the total variance, mainly due to the positive relationship of vessel-element tangential diameter; factor 2 explains 20% of the total variance, mainly due to fiber length.

  16. Gestão da vegetação herbácea em olival biológico

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    Rodrigues, M.A. (Manuel Augusto); Pavão, Francisco; Oliveira, Joana; Arrobas, Margarida

    2010-01-01

    A introdução de cobertos vegetais de leguminosas em olival biológico está a ser estudada no âmbito do projecto PTD C/AGR - AAM /098326/2008 em dois olivais em Trás-os-Montes. Duas hipóteses estão a ser equacionadas: o uso de leguminosas anuais de porte erecto (tremoço branco) ou sub-erecto (ervilhaca) e de leguminosas anuais de ressementeira natural e ciclo curto.

  17. Frações oxidáveis do carbono orgânico em argissolo vermelho-amarelo sob sistema de aleias Oxidizable organic carbon fractions of an ultisol under an alley cropping system

    OpenAIRE

    Arcângelo Loss; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Edilene Pereira Ferreira; Lauana Lopes dos Santos; Sidinei Julio Beutler; Altamiro Souza de Lima Ferraz Júnior

    2009-01-01

    O aporte de matéria orgânica ao solo via leguminosas em sistemas de aleias pode ser uma alternativa para o uso sustentável do trópico úmido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o aporte de matéria orgânica facilmente oxidável proveniente da combinação de resíduos de diferentes leguminosas utilizadas em sistemas de condução de culturas em aleias sob Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram avaliadas duas espécies de leguminosas de alta qualidade de resíduos - leucena (Leucaena leucocephala) e guan...

  18. A new cassane diterpenoid lactone from the seed of Caesalptma minax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cheng; Li Yan Ma; Jian Hua Miao; Xu Dong Xu; Jing Quan Yuan; Jun Shan Yang

    2009-01-01

    A new cassane diterpenoid lactone was isolated from the seed of Caesalpinia minax.On the basis of spectral evidences,its structure was established as 12α-methoxyl,5α,14β-dihydroxy-1α,6α,7β-triacetoxycass-13(15)-en-16,12-olide.

  19. Environ: E00125 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00125 Sappan wood (JP16) Crude drug Calcium oxalate [CPD:C17478], Brazilin [CPD:C0...9920], alpha-Phellandrene [CPD:C09875], Ocimene [CPD:C09873] Caesalpinia sappan [TAX:483143] Same as: D06754 Fabaceae (pea family) Sappan wood Major component: Brazilin [CPD:C09920] ...

  20. 78 FR 63795 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Chromolaena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... seaside oxeye), Caesalpinia bonduc (grey nicker), Capsicum annuum (bird pepper), Galactia striata (Florida... (October 11, 2012; 77 FR 61836) for a detailed description of previous Federal actions concerning these... rule on October 11, 2012, and closed on December 10, 2012 (77 FR 61836). Legal notices were...

  1. Botanical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Maxwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera caudata Dunn (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae is noted as a new record for Thailand. Two new combinations in Hedyotis from Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae are made, viz. Hedyotis krewanhensis (Pierre ex Pit. Maxw. and Hedyotis chevalieri (Pit. Maxw.

  2. Botanical notes

    OpenAIRE

    James F. Maxwell

    2010-01-01

    Indigofera caudata Dunn (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) is noted as a new record for Thailand. Two new combinations in Hedyotis from Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae) are made, viz. Hedyotis krewanhensis (Pierre ex Pit.) Maxw. and Hedyotis chevalieri (Pit.) Maxw.

  3. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  4. Differential activity of multiple saponins against omnivorous insects with varying feeding preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of saponin glycosides and aglycones from seven different plant families (Aquifoliaceae, Asparagaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae) were tested against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The corn earworm fe...

  5. Desenvolvimento de espécies arbóreas em sistemas agroflorestais para recuperação de áreas degradadas na floresta ombrófila densa, Paraty, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Soares de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas agroflorestais implantados consistiram da combinação de espécies leguminosas e não leguminosas em plantio "solteiro" (uma planta/cova e "casado" (duas plantas/cova. Aos quatro anos após o plantio, foram realizadas medições de circunferência na altura do peito (CAP, altura comercial (Hc e altura total (Ht. Os resultados indicaram a eficiência do plantio "casado" nos sistemas agroflorestais, independente do uso de espécies leguminosas ou não leguminosas, indicando seu potencial de produção silvicultural para a recuperação de áreas degradadas.

  6. Legumes in loamy soil communities of the carolina sandhills: their natural distributions and performance of seeds and seedlings along complex ecological gradients

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Legumes (Leguminosae) are an inportant group of plants in the frequently burned, longleaf pine -wiregrass ecosystem. 58 native taxa occur in the Carolina Sandhills....

  7. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation (N{sub 2}) contribution in several forage legumes and the transfer of N to associated grasses; Avaliacao da contribuicao da fixacao biologica de N{sub 2} em varias leguminosas forrageiras e transferencia de N para uma graminea consorciada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.S.V.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to compare two different techniques for labelling the soil mineral nitrogen with {sup 15} N, for studies to quantify the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to forage legumes using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. The two techniques for labelling the soil were: incorporation a {sup 15} N labelled organic compost (slow release treatment), and split applications of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate. The evaluation of the techniques was through the quantification of BNF in the Itaguai Hybrid of Centrosema using two non-Na- fixing control plants (P. maximum K K-16 and Sorghum bicolor). The objective of experiment 2 was to quantify the contribution of BNF to forage legumes and the transfer of fixed nitrogen to associated grasses in mixed swards again using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. This study was conducted on a red podzolic soil (Typic Hapludult), with 7 forage legumes and 3 grasses in monoculture, and 3 mixed swards of Brachiaria brizantha with the Centrosema hybrid, Galactia striata and Desmodium ovalifolium, respectively, with varying ratios of grass to legume (4:1 to 1:4). In order to quantify the BNF contributions to the legumes and the transfer of fixed N to the B. brizantha, the plots were amended 8 times with doses of 0.01 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate (12.5 atom % {sup 15} N) each 14 days, giving a total of 0.08 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N during the 97 days of the experiment. In monoculture the different forage legumes obtained the equivalent of between 43 and 100 kg N ha{sup -1} from BNF. Stylosanthes guianensis showed the greatest contributions from BNF at 100 Kg N ha{sup -1}. In mixed swards with Brachiaria brizantha the proportion of N derived from BNF in the three legumes studied (Centrosema hybrid, G. striata and D. ovalifolium) was significantly greater than when they were grown in monoculture. (author). 197 refs, 9 figs, 19 tabs.

  8. Valor nutritivo da leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides como alternativa na suplementação alimentar de ruminantes na Amazônia Oriental Nutritive value of the leguminous Pueraria phaseoloides as an alternative of alimentary supplementation of ruminants in Eastern Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Edwana Mara Moreira Monteiro; José de Brito Lourenço Júnior; Núbia de Fátima Alves dos Santos; Márcia Alessandra Brito de Aviz

    2009-01-01

    A pecuária é uma atividade de índices produtivos satisfatórios na região amazônica. Entretanto, alguns ruminantes são mantidos, na sua maioria, em pastagens implantadas em solos de baixa fertilidade, sujeitas a estresses climáticos, com reflexos negativos na disponibilidade e valor nutritivo da forragem produzida. Nesse aspecto, inovações tecnológicas adequadas à região, contribuirão para elevação dos padrões produtivos, através da intensificação no uso de suplementação alimentar, com legumin...

  9. Isolation and characterization of two plant growth-promoting bacteria from the rhizoplane of a legume (Lupinus albescens in sandy soil Isolamento e caracterização de duas bactérias promotoras de crescimento vegetal do rizoplano de uma leguminosa (Lupinus albescens de solo arenoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giongo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two bacterial strains that amplified part of the nifH gene, RP1p and RP2p, belonging to the genus Enterobacter and Serratia, were isolated from the rhizoplane of Lupinus albescens. These bacteria are Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, facultative anaerobic, and fast-growing; the colonies reach diameters of 3-4 mm within 24 h of incubation at 28 ºC. The bacteria were also able to grow at temperatures as high as 40 ºC, in the presence of high (2-3 % w/v NaCl concentrations and pH 4 -10. Strain RP1p was able to utilize 10 of 14 C sources, while RP2p utilized nine. The isolates produced siderophores and indolic compounds, but none of them was able to solubilize phosphate. Inoculation of L. albescens with RP1p and RP2p strains resulted in a significant increase in plant dry matter, indicating the plant-growth-promoting abilities of these bacteria.Duas linhagens bacterianas que apresentaram amplificação de parte do gene nifH, RP1p e RP2p, pertencentes aos gêneros Enterobacter e Serratia, foram isoladas do rizoplano de Lupinus albescens. Essas bactérias são Gram-negativas, com formato de bastonete, móveis, anaeróbias facultativas e apresentam multiplicação rápida, com colônias alcançando diâmetros de 3-4 mm em 24 h de incubação a 28 ºC. RP1p e RP2p também foram capazes de multiplicação em temperaturas elevadas, como 40 ºC, na presença de alta concentração de NaCl (2-3 % v/v e em valores de pH que variaram de 4 a 10. A linhagem RP1p foi capaz de utilizar 10 das 14 fontes de carbono avaliadas, enquanto a linhagem RP2p utilizou nove. Os isolados produziram sideróforos e compostos indólicos, mas foram incapazes de solubilizar fosfatos. A inoculação de L. albescens com as linhagens RP1p e RP2p resultou em aumento significativo do peso das plantas secas, o que demonstra que essas bactérias apresentam propriedades que favorecem o crescimento vegetal.

  10. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd y lupino (Lupinus albus L, para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L. y arroz (Oryza sativa L., originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificación de productos. En el presente trabajo se determinó la composición de los porcentajes de cada harina en la mezcla mediante Programación Lineal empleando la planilla Solver de la hoja de cálculo Excel. Se determinaron las prolaminas en las harinas de quinua y lupino por el método ELISA y se empleó la técnica del HPLC en los dos productos obtenidos, denominados "mezcla dulce" y "mezcla postre", para definir la cantidad de aminoácidos con la finalidad de suplementar alrededor del 15% de las proteínas requeridas en el día. Las mezclas de harina seleccionadas como óptimas, mezcla dulce, apropiada para la preparación de queques, así como para la mezcla postre, que por adición de agua o leche, da origen a un postre, se evaluaron después de tres meses de almacenamiento, siendo aceptables sus requisitos microbiológicos, bromatológicos y sensoriales, corroborándose los resultados, con la buena aceptación de los productos preparados a partir de las mezclas formuladas, por parte de los menores de 2 Jardines Infantiles de la Ciudad de Antofagasta-Chile.The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd and lupin (Lupinus albus L., to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L. and rice (Oryza sativa L., originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  11. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cerezal Mezquita; V. Urtuvia Gatica; V. Ramírez Quintanilla; N. Romero Palacios; R. Arcos Zavala

    2011-01-01

    La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupinus albus L), para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificació...

  12. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil Espécies leguminosas e forrageiras, solteiras ou consorciadas com milho, na sucessão soja-milho no centro-oeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gessí Ceccon; Luiz Alberto Staut; Edvaldo Sagrilo; Luís Armando Zago Machado; Danieli Pieretti Nunes; Valdecir Batista Alves

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil) depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L.) intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa) brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv...

  13. Nitrogenous compounds, phenolic compounds and morphological aspects of leaves: comparison of deciduous and semideciduous arboreal legumes Compostos nitrogenados, fenólicos e aspecto morfológico em folhas: comparação entre leguminosas arbóreas semidecíduas e decíduas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, perennial species contain higher concentrations of certain secondary compounds, such as phenolics, lower levels of nitrogenous compounds, and greater specific leaf mass (SLM than deciduous species. The aim of this study was to verify whether the comparative data reported in the literature regarding deciduous and evergreen species, also applies to four selected species of a semideciduous tropical forest (a remnant of the Atlantic Forest. The four species chosen for this study, each with apparently different leaf life spans, were two semideciduous (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., and Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, and two deciduous (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., and Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in plastic pots containing soil taken from their natural habitat. Mature leaves were harvested for determination of the SLM and contents of phenolic compounds, tannins, nitrate, protein, free amino acids, chlorophyll, and nitrogen. Data registered are in agreement with those of the literature. Leaves with the longest life span had the highest content of phenolics and the lowest levels of tannins, nitrate, protein, amino acids, chlorophyll and nitrogen, as well as presenting the greatest SLM.Em geral as espécies perenifólias possuem maior concentração de alguns compostos secundários, como por exemplo fenóis, menor concentração de compostos nitrogenados e maior massa foliar específica (MFE, quando comparadas a espécies decíduas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as observações encontradas na literatura, comparando espécies perenifólias e decíduas aplicam-se também a quatro espécies de uma mata semidecídua, remanescente da Mata Atlântica. Das quatro espécies usadas neste estudo, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes, duas eram semidecíduas (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme e duas decíduas (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. e Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos plásticos, contendo solo da mata. O cultivo foi feito em casa de vegetação. Folhas maduras foram coletadas para análise de fenóis totais, taninos condensados, nitrato, proteínas totais, aminoácidos livres totais, clorofila total, nitrogênio total e MFE. Os resultados obtidos corroboram os da literatura, já que as espécies com folhas mais longevas apresentaram concentrações maiores de fenóis totais, menores de taninos condensados, nitrato, proteínas solúveis totais, aminoácidos livres totais, clorofilas totais, nitrogênio total e maior MFE.

  14. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil Espécies leguminosas e forrageiras, solteiras ou consorciadas com milho, na sucessão soja-milho no centro-oeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.A viabilidade do plantio direto no Cerrado brasileiro depende da produção adequada de palha das culturas, que pode ser aumentada pela consorciação de milho (Zea mays L. com uma espécie forrageira. O trabalho foi implantado em março de 2005 com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de resíduos das espécies e de grãos de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e de milho safrinha em sucessão. Foram avaliados tratamentos de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis cv. comum, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, crotalaria juncea (Crotalaria juncea L., guandu [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp], e também o sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, a B. ruziziensis e o milho safrinha solteiro. Em outubro de 2005, as espécies foram dessecadas com glyphosate e a soja semeada. Após a colheita de soja em março de 2006, o milho safrinha foi cultivado em área total. O rendimento de grãos e palha de milho não foi influenciado pela espécie em consórcio. A massa seca da parte aérea foi maior quando o milho foi consorciado com Tanzânia (10,7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10,1 Mg ha-1 e Ruziziensis (9,8 Mg ha-1 do que com o milho solteiro (4,0 Mg ha-1. Nos tratamentos consorciados, houve aumento na porcentagem de solo coberto com os resíduos vegetais. O rendimento de grãos de soja e milho safrinha em sucessão foram maiores na ruziziensis solteira e no milho safrinha consorciado com ruziziensis. O cultivo de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria spp. ou com Panicum spp. aumenta a produção de resíduos culturais, preserva os nutrientes no solo sem reduzir a produtividade do milho e viabiliza o plantio direto no Centro-Oeste do Brasil.

  15. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cerezal Mezquita; V. Urtuvia Gatica; V. Ramírez Quintanilla; R. Arcos Zavala

    2011-01-01

    Las formulaciones alimenticias de alto contenido proteico, aportado por una mezcla de harinas a partir de dos cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupi-nus albus L), con dos cereales tradicionales maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), conllevaron a la preparación de una 'mezcla dulce' para la elaboración de queques y otra "mezcla postre" saborizada con plátano, que puede ser preparada con agua o con leche, constituyeron una buena alternativa como suplemento al...

  16. Produção animal em gramíneas de estação fria com fertilização nitrogenada ou associadas com leguminosa, com ou sem fertilização nitrogenada Animal production on cool season grasses with nitrogen fertilization or associated with legume with or without nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Flores Lesama

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Santiago, RS, Brasil. Foram avaliados no período de 24/04/96 a 05/11/96, distintos sistemas de produção animal, nos quais os tratamentos constavam de uma pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa, Schreb. + azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum, Lam. + trevo vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum, Savi (AV + AZ +Tv; aveia preta + azevém anual + trevo vesiculoso + 150kg de nitrogênio (AV + AZ + Tv + N e aveia preta + azevém anual + 300kg de nitrogênio (AV + AZ + N num delineamento completamente casualizado, com três repetições. O sistema de pastejo foi o contínuo, com lotação variável para manter a oferta de matéria seca (pressão de pastejo em 10%. Foram utilizados terneiros desmamados. Os parâmetros avaliados foram carga animal (CA, ganho médio diário (GMD e ganho de peso vivo por hectare. As CA foram maiores nos tratamentos com N. As cargas foram de 1140; 1490 e 1652kg PV/ha para os tratamentos AV + AZ + Tv; AV + AZ + Tv + N e AV + AZ + N respectivamente. Os GMD foram de 0,928; 1,091 e 0,839kg/an/dia, determinando ganhos de peso vivo por hectare de 515; 720 e 650kg/ha para os tratamentos AV + AZ +Tv; AV + AZ + Tv + N e AV + AZ + N, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos sugerem a utilização da fertilização nitrogenada em pastagens de aveia preta + azevém anual + trevo vesiculoso, criando uma nova alternativa para aumentar a eficiência de produção e colher altos ganhos de peso vivo por área.The experiment was conducted in Santiago, RS, Brazil, during the period from April 24, 1996 to May 11, 1996. Animal production systems in pastures were evaluated in which the treatments were comparisons between oats + annual ryegrass + arrowleaf clover (O + R + A; oats + annual ryegrass + arrowleaf clover + 150kg/ha of nitrogen (O + R + A + N and oats + annual ryegrass + 300kg/ha of nitrogen (O + R + N, in a complete randomized design, with three replications. The grazing method was the continuous, with stock adjustements to maintain the dry matter on offer (grazing pressure in 10%. It was used weaned calves. The parameters evaluated were stocking rate, average daily gain per animal (ADG and liveweigth gain per hectare (LWG. The stocking rates were higher in the treatments with nitrogen. They were 1140, 1490 and 1652kg LW/ha, respectively to O + R + A; O + R + A + N and O + R + N. The ADG were 0.928 1.091 and 0.839kg/an/day, determining liveweight gains per hectare of 515; 720 and 650kg LW/ha, to the treatments O + R + A; O + R + A + N and O + R + N. The obtained results suggest the utilization of nitrogen fertilization in pastures of oats + annual ryegrass + arrowleaf clover, raising a new alternative to increase the efficiency of pastures production, reduce costs, and achieve hight liveweight gains per area.

  17. Feijão-vagem semeado sobre cobertura viva perene de gramínea e leguminosa e em solo mobilizado, com adubação orgânica Snap bean planted on living perennial mulch of grass and legume and in tilled soil with organic amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Geraldo de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico do feijão-vagem, cv. Alessa, cultivado sobre cobertura viva perene de grama-batatais (Paspalum notatum Flüggé e de amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov & Gregory, e em solo convencionalmente preparado, como controle. Diferentes doses de cama de aviário (0, 7, 14 e 28 t ha-1 foram fornecidas, parceladamente, em um Planossolo, em Seropédica, RJ, de agosto a outubro de 2002. O delineamento adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se modelo quadrático para análise dos resultados. A produtividade de vagens foi semelhante nos três sistemas de cultivo sem efeito competitivo das espécies de cobertura viva, sobre as quais foi realizada a semeadura direta da cultura, com enxada. A produtividade máxima estimada pelo modelo de regressão foi 20,3 t ha-1 de vagens. Esse valor foi obtido com a dose de 26 t ha-1 de cama de aviário, aplicada de forma parcelada. A semeadura direta de feijão-vagem sobre cobertura viva perene de grama-batatais e de amendoim forrageiro é viável, com resultados preliminares positivos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of snap bean planted on living perennial mulch of bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé and of peanut (Arachis pintoi Krapov & Gregory and in a conventional tillage soil as a control. Different parcels and doses of poultry bed manure (0, 7, 14 and 28 t ha-1 were used in a Planosol soil from August to October of 2002. The statistical design was a split plot, in completely randomized blocks, with four replications, using a quadratic model to analyze the results. Snap bean yield was similar for the tillage system treatments without competition effect from the living mulch, in which direct seeding of the main crop was performed with a hoe. The greatest snap bean yield estimated by regression model was 20.3 t ha-1, corresponding to the dose of 26 t ha-1 of manure applied in parcels. The direct seeding of snap bean on living perennial mulch of bahia grass and perennial peanut is agronomicaly viable, with positive preliminary results on snap bean yield.

  18. Yield and botanical composition of a mixed grass-legume pasture in response to maintenance fertilization Produção e composição botânica de uma pastagem consorciada de gramínea e leguminosa em resposta à adubação de manutenção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on a low-productive Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture, mixed with Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte (forage peanut, established 13 years ago in a Red-Yellow Latosol in Acre State, western Brazilian Amazon. The purpose was to evaluate the response of this pasture to different fertilizer combinations, aiming at identifying the nutritional factors responsible for the fall of pasture carrying capacity and for the reduced vigor of forage peanut. It was used a randomized complete block design, with three replications and 12 combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, lime, sulfur, and micronutrients (100 kg/ha of N, P2O5 and K2O; 300 kg/ha of dolomitic lime; 30 kg/ha of sulfur and FTE BR-10. Fertilizers were broadcast in 5 × 5-m plots, and the experimental area was isolated from grazing for 35 days. Pasture response to fertilizations showed that nitrogen was the main limiting nutrient to forage production. The other nutrients, applied singly or in a combined way, without nitrogen source, did not change dry matter accumulation rate. Overall, fertilizations with nitrogen provided dry matter accumulation rate of 115 kg/ha/day in comparison to only 32 kg/ha/day when nitrogen was not applied. There was no response from forage peanut to fertilization, so, there are other factors responsible for its reduced vigor of regrowth.Este estudo foi realizado em uma pastagem pouco produtiva de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, consorciada com Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte (amendoim-forrageiro, estabelecida há 13 anos em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo no estado do Acre, Amazônia ocidental brasileira. Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta desta pastagem a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes, visando identificar os fatores nutricionais responsáveis pela queda da capacidade de suporte da pastagem e pelo reduzido vigor do amendoim-forrageiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições, com 12 combinações de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, calcário, enxofre e micronutrientes (100 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O; 300 kg/ha de calcário dolomítico; 30 kg/ha de enxofre e FTE BR-10. Os fertilizantes foram aplicados em cobertura, em parcelas de 5 × 5 m, e a área experimental foi isolada do pastejo durante 35 dias. A resposta do pasto à adubação indicou que o nitrogênio foi o principal nutriente limitante à produção de forragem. Os demais nutrientes, aplicados isoladamente ou de forma combinada, sem uma fonte de nitrogênio, não alteraram a taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. Em média, as adubações com nitrogênio proporcionaram taxa de acúmulo de massa seca de 115 kg/ha/dia, em comparação à de apenas 32 kg/ha/dia quando não foi aplicado nitrogênio. Não houve resposta do amendoim-forrageiro à adubação, logo há outros fatores responsáveis pelo seu reduzido vigor de rebrota.

  19. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las formulaciones alimenticias de alto contenido proteico, aportado por una mezcla de harinas a partir de dos cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd y lupino (Lupi-nus albus L, con dos cereales tradicionales maíz (Zea mays L. y arroz (Oryza sativa L., conllevaron a la preparación de una 'mezcla dulce' para la elaboración de queques y otra "mezcla postre" saborizada con plátano, que puede ser preparada con agua o con leche, constituyeron una buena alternativa como suplemento alimenticio para la nutrición de niños entre 6 y 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que contribuyen al mejoramiento de la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, son de bajo costo y permite un aumento en la disponibilidad de productos para los niños intolerantes al gluten. Se realizó la evaluación de algunas propiedades físicas, químicas, reológicas, mecánicas y de fluidez, así como el color de estas mezclas para un período de conservación de 90 días. Al finalizar el almacenamiento, la mezcla dulce resultó ser de "poco flujo" y la mezcla postre pasó de "poco flujo" a "flujo fácil". La viscosidad para la mezcla postre, con sus dos tipos de diluyentes, agua y leche, presentó un comportamiento de fluido pseudoplástico. Se pudo estimar que el tiempo de vida útil de las mezclas sería de 9 meses antes de llegar al límite de rancidez (10 mEq de oxígeno/kg de grasa, que inhabilitaría el producto para el consumo. Las coordenadas de color CIEL*a*b* no presentaron diferencias significativas manteniéndose el color en una tonalidad "beige".The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd and lupino (Lupinus albus L, with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L. and rice (Oryza sativa L., entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption. The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  20. Balur and Improving Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Gatra Ervi Jayanti; Saraswati Subagjo

    2016-01-01

    Balur treatment aimed to leach free radicals overwhelmingly produced in unhealthy body with rubbed over the human body. In Balur used some amino acid, bawang sabrang (Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr), kopi balur (Mixed Coffea arabica L. with Acetosal), coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L.), secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.) and “Divine” smoke from cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L). This is an observation research of balur application in voluntee...

  1. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Aly S. Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify th...

  2. Reserve carbohydrates and lipids from the seeds of four tropical tree species with different sensitivity to desiccation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello; Claudio José Barbedo; Antonio Salatino; Rita de Cássia Leone Figueiredo-Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Considering the importance of water content for the conservation and storage of seeds, and the involvement of soluble carbohydrates and lipids for embryo development, a comparative study was carried out among the seeds of Inga vera (ingá), Eugenia uniflora (pitanga), both classified as recalcitrant, and Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood) and Erythrina speciosa (mulungu), considered as orthodox seeds. Low concentrations of cyclitols (0.3-0.5%), raffinose family oligosaccharides (ca. 0.05%) and ...

  3. Crescimento de Bradyrhizobium elkanii estirpe Br 29 em meios de cultivo com diferentes valores de pH inicial Growth of Bradyrhizobium elkanii strain Br 29 in culture media with different pH values

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Barberi; Moreira, Fátima M. S.; Ligiane Aparecida Florentino; Maria Isabel D. Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    A soja, atualmente, é a leguminosa de maior expressão econômica no Brasil. Em razão da demanda crescente no mercado internacional, a cultura encontra-se em larga expansão em todo território brasileiro. Em alguns ensaios realizados em solos ácidos brasileiros, sob sistema de plantio direto, essa cultura tem mostrado baixa resposta à aplicação de calcário. Porém, a acidez é um dos fatores que limitam a eficiência da simbiose rizóbio-leguminosas. Para contornar esses problemas, poderiam ser util...

  4. Culturas de cobertura, acúmulo de nitrogênio total no solo e produtividade de milho

    OpenAIRE

    T. J. C. Amado; J. Mielniczuk; S. B. V. Fernandes; Bayer, C.

    1999-01-01

    A associação de preparos conservacionistas com culturas de cobertura é importante estratégia de melhoria da qualidade do solo. Quando leguminosas são utilizadas, verifica-se incremento na disponibilidade de nitrogênio (N) para a primeira cultura em sucessão (efeito imediato). Todavia, o uso de leguminosas por vários anos pode se refletir no incremento da capacidade do solo em suprir N (efeito residual). Com o objetivo de distinguir o efeito residual do efeito imediato do uso de culturas de co...

  5. Clonación, caracterización y análisis de expresión de genes que codifican asparragina sintetasa en Phaseolus vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Osuna Jiménez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    En el proyecto desarrollado en esta Tesis Doctoral se ha llevado a cabo la clonación de dos genes que codifican sendas asparragina sintetasas (AS) de una leguminosa ureida, como es Phaseolus vulgaris. Teniendo en cuenta la hipótesis de que existen factores moleculares responsables de la integración y corregulación de la biosíntesis de ureidos y amidas en raíces de leguminosas, y con el objetivo último de determinar los mecnismos de control de estos procesos, se ha iniciado u...

  6. Ocurrencia de tóxicos naturales en frijol colorado (phaseolus vulgaris) y arveja (pisum sativum). efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento y los tratamientos caseros.

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbao Reboredo Tania; Hampe Amador Sandra; Smith Ruth Addae; Puerta García Felicidad; Ledesma Rivero Luis

    2011-01-01

    Las leguminosas, consideradas como una de los principales alimentos para el hombre pueden contener diferentes sustancias conocidas como antinutrientes las cuales tienen cierto efecto en la nutrición humana y animal si no son removidos o inactivados adecuadamente. En Cuba existe muy poca información sobre cuales son los antinutrientes y en qué concentraciones se encuentran en dos de las leguminosas de importación de mayor consumo por nuestra población: el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) y la...

  7. Mycorriza and its contribution in plant nutrition in marginal soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of endomycorrizas in leguminosae growing in marginal soils in the region of Carajas project in Eucalyptus spp were studied to evaluate the plant dependence when associated with Mycorriza and to determine the contribution of the endomycorriza association in the efficiency increasing in the use of phosphorus fertilizers. (L.M.J.)

  8. Explotación de la nueva variación genética y mejora genética del complejo de Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Samayoa López, Luis Fernando

    2010-01-01

    125 páginas, 51 figuras, 27 tablas.-- Trabajo realizado en el Grupo de Leguminosas del Departamento de Recursos Fitogenéticos de la Misión Biológica de Galicia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, (MBG–CSIC), Pontevedra, España.

  9. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.): Identification and characterization of phenolic compounds and protective action against oxidative stress and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Saviranta, Niina; Veeroos, Laura; Granlund, Lars; Hassinen, Viivi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kaarniranta, Kai; Salminen, Antero; Karjalainen, Reijo

    2010-01-01

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), a widely used feed crop, has recently received considerable interest as a valuable source of phenolic compounds with multiple potential protective functions. It is a rich source of isoflavonoids, plant secondary metabolites widely distributed in the Leguminosae family.

  10. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  11. Flower Visitors of 32 Plant Species in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Makoto; ICHINO, Takao; HOTTA, Mitsuru; Abbas, Idrus; Okada, Hiroshi; カトウ, マコト; イチノ, タカオ; ホッタ, ミツル; オカダ, ヒロシ

    1989-01-01

    We recorded flower visitors of 32 plant species belonging to 14 families: Annonaceae (1), Cruciferae (1), Leguminosae (1), Melastomataceae (1), Balsaminaceae (7), Verbenaceae (3), Gesneriaceae (3), Rubiaceae (2), Compositae (2), Musaceae (4), Zingiberaceae (4), Palmae (1), Pandanaceae (1) and Araceae (1) (number of species studied being in parenthesis) in West Sumatra.

  12. Landmark Research in Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes are members of family Fabaceae or Leguminosae and include economically important grain legumes, oilseed crops, forage crops, shrubs and tropical or subtropical trees. Many legumes are rich source of quality protein for humans and animals and enrich the soil by producing their own nitrogen i...

  13. Study of the environment-friendly cultivation techniques optimizing the energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at discovering how to handle wheat so has to have the best energetic result. This analysis consists of three main parts. It first deals with the research of the nitrogen fertilization optimum level, then with the effect of a leguminosae on wheat nitrogen fertilization. It finally includes a synthesis of these results in growth notations. (TEC). 10 graphs., 17 tabs

  14. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  15. Is the response of aphids to alarm pheromone stable?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thieme, T.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 10 (2015), s. 741-746. ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : (E)-β-farnesene * dropping response * habituation * Leguminosae * pea aphid Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014

  16. Environ: E00829 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00829 Rooibos Medicinal herb Luteolin [CPD:C01514], Aspalathin, Tannin, Caffeate [...CPD:C01197] Aspalathus linearis [TAX:155124] Leguminosae Rooibos leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) E00829 Rooibos ...

  17. Environ: E00786 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00786 Soy bean Medicinal herb Protein [CPD:C00017], Daidzein [CPD:C10208], Geniste...X:3847] Leguminosae Soy bean seed Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Fabaceae (pea family) E00786 Soy bean ...

  18. Normalización del método de migración capilar para evaluar eritroaglutinación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda de Navarro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se normalizó el método de migración capilar para evaluar cuantitativamente la aglutinación de eritrocitos por lectinas. Usando este método se analizaron semillas de 18 especies de leguminosas respecto a la presencia eventual de lectinas

  19. Normalización del método de migración capilar para evaluar eritroaglutinación

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda de Navarro; Gerardo Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Se normalizó el método de migración capilar para evaluar cuantitativamente la aglutinación de eritrocitos por lectinas. Usando este método se analizaron semillas de 18 especies de leguminosas respecto a la presencia eventual de lectinas

  20. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003. PMID:24791478

  1. Large-scale microsatellite development in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.), an orphan legume of the arid areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L., 2n = 14), a member of the family Leguminosae, holds great agronomic potential as grain and forage legume crop in the arid areas for its superb resilience to abiotic stresses such as drought, flood and salinity. The crop could not make much progress through conventional...

  2. fRNAdb Summary: FR001134 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FR001134 AB102732,AB102733,AB102734,AB102735,AE007948,AE008167,AE008265,AE008290,AE008980,AE0092 ... s,Agrobacterium rhizogenes,Agrobacterium vitis,Sinorhizobium ... fredii,Sinorhizobium ... meliloti,Rhizobium ... leguminosa ... rum,Rhizobium ... leguminosarum bv. phaseoli,Rhizobium ... leguminosarum ...

  3. Caracterización químico-nutricional de forrajes leguminosos y de otras familias botánicas empleando análisis descriptivo y multivariado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el análisis descriptivo (AD, de componentes principales (ACP y correlaciones lineales (CL, se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar la composición nutricional del follaje de especies leguminosas de los géneros Pithecellobium, Gliricidia, Leucaena, Samanea, Acacia, Bauhinia, Cassia y Pentaclethra; y otras no leguminosas: Chlorophora, Morus, Guazuma, Cordia, Trichantera, Tithonia, Moringa, Azadirachta, Bulnesia, Capparis, Hibiscus y Wedelia. Se determinó la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS y de la proteína bruta (DPB. Las especies evaluadas presentaron excelente composición química para ser utilizadas como suplemento en la alimentación animal (PB: 23.46 ±4.43%; FDN: 39.33 ±2.55%; cenizas: 9.78 ±4.35%; DMS: 64.98 ±14.42%; DPB: 69.15 ±15.89%. Sin embargo, las especies leguminosas, comparadas con las no leguminosas, exhibieron numéricamente mayor concentración de taninos condensados (4.06 ±4.01 vs 0.49 ±0.31%, taninos que precipitan proteínas (1.95 ±1.37 vs 0.28 ±0.23% y digestibilidad de la proteína con pepsina (72.51 ±14.64 vs 66.90 ±16.92%. Aunque el porcentaje de inhibición de la tripsina fuese similar entre los dos grupos (50.84 ±6.81 vs 50.92 ±8.94, la actividad de estos inhibidores (3.29 ±2.76 vs 1.55 ±0.39 tripsina inhibida/ gMS y la cantidad de unidades inhibidas (625.10 ±524.01 vs 323.33 ±135.31 unidades/ gMS fueron superior en los forrajes leguminosos. Mediante el AD, ACP y las CL sepudo comprobar que las especies leguminosas exhibieron diferencias acentuadas en el patrón fitoquímico de la biomasa, comparadas con el resto. Los taninos precipitantes de las leguminosas afectaron la digestibilidad de las fracciones nutritivas, mientras que los fenoles y los esteroles presentes en las no leguminosas exhibieron mayor potencial antinutricional en ese tipo de especies.

  4. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa.

  5. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae) a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório.

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Peres Filho; Alberto Dorval; Evônio Berti Filho

    2010-01-01

    Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea), leucena (Leucaena leucocephala), pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea), albizia (Albizia lebbeck) e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum) e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis), jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis) e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa).

  6. PREFERÊNCIA DE SAÚVA LIMÃO, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE) A DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS, EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Peres Filho; Alberto Dorval; Evônio Berti Filho

    2002-01-01

    Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea), leucena (Leucaena leucocephala), pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea), albizia (Albizia lebbeck) e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum) e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis), jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis) e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa ).

  7. PREFERÊNCIA DE SAÚVA LIMÃO, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE A DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS, EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa .

  8. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira; Maria de Fatima Barbosa Coelho; Salvador Barros Torres; Francisco Ésio Porto Diógenes

    2016-01-01

    The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao) A.C. Sm.), the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart.), Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea) and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd.) on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.). Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for ea...

  9. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed

  10. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  11. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  12. Purpose of Introduction as a Predictor of Invasiveness among Introduced Shrubs in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Leonard Seburanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduced shrub flora in Rwanda was analyzed and the risk of invasion was assessed based on the species’ purposes of introduction. The results showed that more than half of invasive alien shrubs in Rwanda were introduced as ornamentals. They include Agave americana L., Bryophyllum proliferum Bowie ex Hook., Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston, Lantana camara L., and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray. However, these represented only 3.16% of the total number of introduced ornamental shrubs. At the time when the study was conducted, no introduced food crop had become invasive. Species introduced for purposes other than food or culinary use showed higher likelihood of becoming invasive.

  13. Teor de taninos em três espécies medicinais arbóreas simpátricas da caatinga Tannin concentration in three simpatric medicinal plants from caatinga vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Marcelino Monteiro; Ernani Machado de Freitas Lins Neto; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim; Ruth R. Strattmann; Elcida de Lima Araújo; Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque

    2005-01-01

    O teor de taninos em três espécies medicinais do semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil foi determinado. A partir de amostras das cascas do caule e folhas de 10 indivíduos de Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenam, Myracrodruon urundeuva (Engl.) Fr. All. e Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul., os teores de fenóis totais e taninos foram determinados em extratos metanólicos 80% pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau, seguido do método da precipitação de proteínas. Adicionalmente, testou-se a hipótese de que a conce...

  14. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTIVES AND DENSITY ON NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOODS TO TERMITE Nasutitermes corniger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the natural resistance of wood to wood-destroying organisms is of fundamental importance in the choice of species to be used in buildings and furniture industry. Thus, the effects of extractives and wood density on biological resistance of Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Corymbia torelliana, Eucalyptus cloeziana, Tectona grandis and Caesalpinia echinata woods to the xylophagous termite Nasutitermes corniger was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Test samples, with dimensions of 2.00 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal in four positions in pith-bark direction (internal heart, intermediate heart, outer heart and sapwood were taken. The woods were exposed to termite action for 28 days in no-choice feeding test. The samples not selected for the termite test were turned into sawdust and the extractive contents were obtained using the shavings that passed through the sieve of 40 and were retained in the sieve of 60 mesh. The wood natural resistance, within the pith-bark positions, for the studied species, is not correlated with the density and extractive content. However, among the woods, those with higher density and extractive content are more resistant. The woods with greater biological resistance to the termite Nasutitermes corniger (smaller mass loss, waste and survival time of insects are Corymbia torelliana and Caesalpinia echinata and of less resistance is Casuarina equisetifolia.

  15. Phylogenetic and Systematic Value of Leaf Epidermal Characteristics in Some Members of Nigerian Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga Olorunshola Alege

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken at the Botanical Garden of Biological Sciences Department, Kogi State University, Anyigba with the aim of assessing the systematic and phylogenetic relevance of leaf epidermal attributes in the 10 selected species of Fabaceae. Stomata, trichomes and epidermal cell attributes were taken from adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Results obtained in this study revealed that all the 10 plant species considered possess hypo-amphistomatic leaf condition, paracytic stomata type, polygon and irregular shape epidermal cells(on the abaxial surface which points to their common ancestry. All the analyzed leaf epidermal traits considered on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces showed significant variations among the 10 studied plant species which indicates that genetic diversity exists among members of Fabaceae for their delimitation. It was also observed that all the plants with tree habit considered in this study (i.e Delonix regia, Parkia biglobosa, Senna siamea, Daniella oliveri and Caesalpinia pulcherrima lack stomata on the adaxial surfaces which strongly suggest that absence of stomata on the adaxial surface may be peculiar to Legumes with such habit. Cluster analysis revealed 2 major clusters and 2 sub-clusters with the first cluster comprising only Senna siamea and Caesalpinia pulcherrima which confirms their close phylogenetic relationship. Variations in trichomes, stomata and epidermal attributes were obvious and could be used to resolve systematic and phylogenetic problems in this family.

  16. TÉCNICA PARA MARCAÇÃO DOS ADUBOS VERDES CROTALÁRIA JÚNCEA E MUCUNA-PRETA COM 15N PARA ESTUDOS DE DINÂMICA DO NITROGÊNIO

    OpenAIRE

    EDMILSON JOSÉ AMBROSANO; PAULO CESAR OCHEUZE TRIVELIN; TAKASHI MURAOKA

    1997-01-01

    Estabeleceu-se uma técnica de marcação de leguminosas com nitrogênio (15N), objetivando-se obter material vegetal marcado isotopicamente para estudos de dinâmica do nitrogênio. Cultivaram-se as leguminosas crotalária júncea (Crotalaria juncea L.) e mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima, sinonímia Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy), em um podzólico vermelho-amarelo, textura arenosa/média, em casa de vegetação e em vasos contendo 10 kg de terra. Aplicou-se 1,2 g de nitrogênio por vaso (sulfato de...

  17. Eficiência simbiótica de isolados de rizóbio noduladores de feijão-fava (Phaseolus lunatus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jadson Emanuel Lopes Antunes; Regina Lúcia Ferreira Gomes; Ângela Celis de Almeida Lopes; Ademir Sérgio Ferreira Araújo; Maria do Carmo Catanho Pereira de Lyra; Márcia do Vale Barreto Figueiredo

    2011-01-01

    Em leguminosas tropicais, a cuidadosa seleção de estirpes de rizóbio, entre outros fatores, é fundamental para a eficiência da fixação biológica de N2 (FBN). Essa seleção deve ser feita para as leguminosas de interesse social e econômico, entre elas o feijão-fava (Phaseolus lunatus L.). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência simbiótica de rizóbios nativos de duas regiões do Piauí produtoras de feijão-fava. Foram avaliados 17 isolados e duas estirpes de referência (CIAT 899 e NGR 2...

  18. Comparación de la fertilización sintética con orgánica en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris l.) en condiciones de fertirriego

    OpenAIRE

    Roblero Ramírez, Hugo Rubili

    2014-01-01

    En México, el frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es la leguminosa más importante por su superficie cultivada y su papel en la alimentación. En Sinaloa, la superficie cultivada es superada solamente por el cultivo de maíz; en el ciclo agrícola 2009-2010 se sembraron 139,751hectáreas, principalmente bajo régimen de riego, con una producción de 216,254 toneladas, la cual fue superada únicamente por el Estado de Zacatecas. El frijol es una leguminosa poco eficiente en la fijación biológica de nitróge...

  19. Mercado potencial de subproductos derivados del quinchoncho (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) para consumo humano en Maracaibo Potential market of by-products of (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) for human consumption in Maracaibo

    OpenAIRE

    Colina, A; A. Higuera; Gómez, A; N Rincón; J Puentes; Segovia, E.

    2008-01-01

    El quinchoncho, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp, es una leguminosa de amplia adaptación, con bajos costos de producción, por lo que los productos derivados de esta leguminosa son económicos y de fácil preparación. La investigación consistió en determinar el grado de percepción de los derivados del quinchoncho por la población marabina y su grado de aceptación, a través del perfil socio-económico y geo-demográfico del habitante del municipio. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de una encuesta, a...

  20. Non-woody life-form contribution to vascular plant species richness in a tropical American forest

    OpenAIRE

    Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Cardona, Victor; Hennig, Ernest; Hensen, Isabell; Hoffmann, Doreen; Lendzion, Jasmin; Soto, Daniel; Herzog, Sebastian; Kessler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We provide total vascular plant species counts for three 1-ha plots in deciduous, semi-deciduous and evergreen forests in central Bolivia. Species richness ranged from 297 species and 22,360 individuals/ha in the dry deciduous forest to 382 species and 31,670 individuals/ha in the evergreen forest. Orchidaceae, Pteridophyta and Leguminosae were among the most species-rich major plant groups in each plot, and Peperomia (Piperaceae), Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae) and Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae), al...

  1. Effects of Varying Concentrations of the Crude Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Dalbergia Sissoo Plant Parts on Biomphalaria Pfeifferi Egg Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Adenusi, Adedotun A; Odaibo, Alexander B

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated, using replicated laboratory bioassays, the toxicities of the crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. 1832 (family Leguminosae) fruits, leaves, roots and stem bark against egg masses of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848), the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907) in Nigeria. Viable 0–24 hr-old embryonated egg masses were separately exposed to five different concentrations (7.81–2000 mg/l) of extracts for 24 hrs, washed in ...

  2. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Terpenoids from Copaiba (Copaifera spp.) Oleoresins

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilly Kelly Oliveira Neves; José Alexsandro da Silva; Paula Cristina Souza Barbosa; Fabiano de Sousa Vargas; Lidiam Maia Leandro; Valdir Florêncio da Veiga-Junior

    2012-01-01

    Copaiba oleoresins are exuded from the trunks of trees of the Copaifera species (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae). This oleoresin is a solution of diterpenoids, especially, mono- and di-acids, solubilized by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The sesquiterpenes and diterpenes (labdane, clerodane and kaurane skeletons) are different for each Copaifera species and have been linked to several reported biological activities, ranging from anti-tumoral to embriotoxic effects. This review presents all the subs...

  3. Preliminary assessment of medicinal plants used as antimalarials in the southeastern Venezuelan Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraballo Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria in Bolívar State, Venezuela were recorded and they belonged to Compositae, Meliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bixaceae, Boraginaceae, Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae families. Antimalarial plant activities have been linked to a range of compounds including anthroquinones, berberine, flavonoids, limonoids, naphthquinones, sesquiterpenes, quassinoids, indol and quinoline alkaloids.

  4. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanion L. Jothy; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Lai Ngit Shin; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Yee Ling Lau; Yeng Chen; Zuraini Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary...

  5. Rentabilidad económica de las explotaciones agrarias de secano según tamaño y tipo de laboreo

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Bermejo, Arturo; Suárez de Cepeda, Mariano; Sánchez-Girón Renedo, Víctor

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar, desde un punto de vista economico, el efecto que supone pasar de un sistema de laboreo tradicional a uno de laboreo reducido en explotaciones cerealistas de la meseta castellana. Se utilizan datos experimentales de campo para estimar las producciones, asi como un sistema de decision experto para seleccionar el parque de maquinaria que conlleva el menor coste de utilization. La rotation de cultivos que se ha considerado ha sido trigo/leguminosa. No se en...

  6. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF THE BARK OF PARKINSONIA ACULEATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Saha,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Parkinsonia aculeata (fam. Leguminosae was studied to fix the parameters for pharmacognostical standards. The results of organoleptic study offer a scientific basis for the use of P. aculeata which possess characters like brown colour, characteristic odour and slightly bitter taste. The fluorescence analysis under visible light & under UV light by treatment with different chemical reagents showed different colour changes. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and reducing sugars was confirmed during preliminary phytochemical screening.

  7. Sesbania virgata stimulates the occurrence of its microsymbiont in soils but does not inhibit microsymbionts of other species Sesbania virgata estimula a ocorrência de seu microssimbionte nos solos, mas não inibe os microssimbiontes de outras espécies

    OpenAIRE

    Ligiane Aparecida Florentino; Ana Paula Guimarães; Márcia Rufini; Krisle da Silva; Fátima Maria de Souza Moreira

    2009-01-01

    The legume species Sesbania virgata establishes a specific and efficient symbiosis with Azorhizobium doebereinerae. Previous studies have shown that A. doebereinerae occurrence correlates to the presence of S. virgata. This work aimed to evaluate the occurrence of A. doebereinerae and of other nitrogen-fixing Leguminosae-nodulating bacteria (NFLNB) in soil samples collected adjacent to and 10 m away from the stems of five S. virgata plants in pasture areas. Symbiotic characteristics of isolat...

  8. The recognition and biology of Phalacrotophora quadrimaculata (Diptera : Phoridae) parasiting Olla v-nigrum (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae) used in attempts to control the Leucaena Psyllid

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, R. H. L.; Chazeau, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Le psylle néotropical #Heteropsylla cubana$ Crawford (#Homoptera$ : #Psyllidae$) est devenu l'un des plus grands ravageurs du #Leucaena leucocephala$ (Lam.) de Wit (#Leguminosae$ : #Mimosaceae$) en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Les tentatives de lutte biologique utilisent certaines coccinelles qui sont fortement parasitées par le Diptère #Phoridae$ #Phalacrotophora quadrimaculata$ Schmitz. Des données morphologiques et biologiques sont fournies sur la mouche. (Résumé d'auteur)

  9. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Lipi Purwal; Surya Prakash B. N. Gupta; S. Milind Pande

    2008-01-01

    Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae), Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae), Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae), Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae), Trigonella foenu...

  10. Comparative studies on ENOD40 in legumes and non-legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Vleghels, I.J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Plants, unlike animals, continue to form organs after the completion of embryogenesis. This continuous formation of new organs allows plants to be flexible in a constantly changing environment. A unique example of adaptation to an environmental signal can be found among members of the family of Leguminosae . Legumes can enter a symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria that leads to the formation of a complete new organ, the root nodule. Inside these nodules, the hosted bacteria fix atmospheric nitro...

  11. Plants on the move: Towards common mechanisms governing mechanically-induced plant movements

    OpenAIRE

    Scorza, Livia Camilla Trevisan; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2011-01-01

    One may think that plants seem relatively immobile. Nevertheless, plants not only produce movement but these movements can be quite rapid such as the closing traps of carnivorous plants, the folding up of leaflets in some Leguminosae species and the movement of floral organs in order to increase cross pollination. We focus this review on thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements, both in vegetative and reproductive parts of higher plants. Ultrastructural studies revealed that most thigmotropic ...

  12. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae) against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D) of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and...

  13. Energy crops for biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims at describing the effects on cropping systems, containing a.o. leguminosae plant leys for biogas production. Problems treated are effects on soil physics, circulation of crop nutrients, use of chemical pesticides, preceding crop effects, and the possibility of utilizing catch crops for methane production. It is observed that the studied biogas-crop sequences gives positive effects on soil structure, reduced need for artificial fertilizers and chemical pesticides. 26 refs, 28 tabs

  14. INVESTIGATION OF POSSIBLE HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Panigrahi Ghanshyam; Panda Chhayakanta; Mishra Uma Shankar; Mahapatra Sujata; Pasa Gourishyam; Acharya Ajit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Sesbania grandiflora (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), cultivate all over India, has wide range of therapeutic actions. The aim of the current study has been to investigate the possible hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extract of Sesbania grandiflora leaves. The methanolic extract of Sesbania grandiflora was tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats and hypoglycemic activity in overnight fasted normal rats. The extract was also evaluated fo...

  15. Use of Extracted Green Inhibitors as a Friendly Choice in Corrosion Protection of Low Alloy Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Jano, A.; Lame (Galo), A.; Kokalari (Teli), E.

    2012-01-01

    Mitigation of corrosion impact on environment is an important step in environmental protection. Use of environmentally friendly corrosion protection methods is very important. It is smart to choose cheap and safe to handle compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The use of green inhibitors (extracted inexpensively, from the seed endosperm of some Leguminosae plants), and investigation of their efficiency in corrosion protection is the aim of this study. As green inhibitor one kind of polys...

  16. Antioxidant Profile of Trifolium pratense L.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaurinovic, Biljana; Popovic, Mira; Vlaisavljevic, Sanja; Schwartsova, Heidy; Vojinovic-Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of Trifolium pratense L. (Leguminosae) leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent) the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic an...

  17. Antioxidant Profile of Trifolium pratense L.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidy Schwartsova; Mirjana Vojinovic-Miloradov; Sanja Vlaisavljevic; Mira Popovic; Biljana Kaurinovic

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of Trifolium pratense L. (Leguminosae) leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent) the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compar...

  18. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    OpenAIRE

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan; Babu Chidambaram; Nirmal Jayabalan; Ramanathan Muthiah

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS) Link, (Family: Leguminosae), also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carri...

  19. TRADITIONAL USES, MEDICINAL AND PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ERYTHRINA INDICA LAM: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Suryawanshi H.P.; Patel M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift to human society to make disease free healthy life. It plays a vital role to buildup and preserve our health. In our country more than thousands medicinal plants are recognized. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its Phytopharmacological properties. Erythrina indica belonging to the family Leguminosae is a compact shrub with knobby stems, growing wild throughout the costal forest of India. It is popu...

  20. NOOTROPIC ACTION OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA ROOT EXTRACT ON THE DENDRITIC MORPHOLOGY OF HIPPOCAMPAL CA1 NEURONS IN ONE MONTH OLD RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    Our earlier studies have shown that Glycyrrhiza glabra (family: Leguminosae) aqueous root extract treatment in Wistar albino rats enhances both spatial learning ability and retention of learned tasks accordingly, the present study was designed to investigated the nootropic action of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra treatment on the dendritic morphology (dendritic arborization and dendritic intersections) of hippocampal CA1 neurons in one month old male Wistar albino rats. Methods: T...