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Sample records for caesalpinia echinata lam

  1. Maturação de frutos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., pau-brasil Maturation of fruits of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brasil wood

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se parâmetros indicativos da maturação de frutos de árvores de Caesalpinia echinata, visando determinar a melhor época de colheita para propagação. Foram utilizadas 10 plantas-matriz cultivadas em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, nas quais foram etiquetadas 250 inflorescências no pico da floração para acompanhamento da maturação. As coletas de frutos tiveram início a partir da 5ª semana após a antese, prolongando-se até a 9ª, com intervalos de sete dias. Em cada coleta, analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento, largura e teor de água dos frutos; teor de água das sementes (após três dias de exposição ao sol para deiscência do fruto e extração da semente; porcentagem de germinação e peso de matéria seca de frutos, sementes e plântulas. Observou-se, ainda, a coloração dos frutos como parâmetro visual de maturação das sementes. O experimento foi repetido por três anos. Os testes de germinação foram realizados em caixas Gerbox contendo vermiculita umedecida com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara regulada para 30 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, nos anos de 1991, 1992 e 1993. As leituras de germinação foram realizadas nos 4º e 8º dias após a semeadura. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que o momento ideal para coleta dos frutos de C. echinata é no estádio de pré-dispersão (entre a 8º e 9º após a antese visualizado através da coloração, quando estes mudam de verde para castanho.Several indicative parameters regarding fruit maturity of Caesalpinia echinata were studied in order to establish the ideal harvest time. Ten matrix plants were cultivated in Moji-Guaçu, SP (22°11' to 1022°18' S and 47°13' to 47°20' WG, altitude between 600m and 730m. The climate of the region is classified as Cwa. Two hundred and fifty blossoms were tagged during the the peak

  2. Germinação de sementes e formação de mudas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Pau - Brasil: efeito de sombreamento Seed germination and seedling growth of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood: shading effect

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil é a árvore nacional do Brasil, possui grande potencial ornamental, estando atualmente em perigo de extinção devido à exploração extrativista. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação das sementes de C. echinata e o crescimento de mudas sob condições de sombreamento. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Seção de Ornamentais do IBt/SMA, São Paulo, SP. As sementes foram coletadas de frutos maduros, de árvores-matriz no arboreto experimental de C. echinata em Mogi-Guaçu, SP. Os testes de germinação foram realizados nos anos de 1999, 2000 e 2003, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada, sendo avaliadas a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, submetidas a cinco níveis de sombreamento (0, 20, 40, 60 e 80%. Mudas de C. echinata com nove meses de idade foram submetidas aos mesmos tratamentos de sombreamento das sementes, sendo as variáveis analisadas altura da planta, diâmetro do colo e número de folhas. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e 24 plantas por parcela, totalizando 96 mudas por tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a germinação e o IVE não sofreram influência dos níveis de sombreamento testados. O diâmetro do coleto das mudas a pleno sol, a 20 e 40% de sombreamento, não diferiram significativamente entre si, mas dos tratamentos de 60 e 80%.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood, Brazil's national tree, has ornamental potential, and due to years of exploitation this species has been reduced on the verge of extinction. This study was aimed to evaluate seed germination and seedling growth of brazil wood under shading conditions. The experiments were conducted at the IBt/SMA Ornamental Department, São Paulo-SP. Seeds were harvested from ripe fruits, from trees of the experimental arboretum of brazilwood at Mogí-Guaçu-SP. The germination tests were carried out in 1999

  3. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

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    Priscila Praxedes-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50∘C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO− or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+. It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

  4. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  5. Enraizamento de estacas de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tratadas com ácido indol butírico e ácido naftaleno acético Rooting cuttings of Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. treated with indole butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid

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    Laurício Endres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tem grande valor cultural no Brasil e a sua propagação por sementes é dificultada pela rápida perda do poder germinativo delas. A estaquia pode ser usada para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais, principalmente quando existem algumas dificuldades de propagação por sementes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o efeito de concentrações e fontes de auxinas sobre o enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil. Estacas com cerca de 12cm de comprimento e de um a dois pares de folhas foram tratadas na base com ácido indol butírico (AIB, ácido naftaleno acético (ANA na forma líquida ou na forma de pó nas concentrações de 0, 1.250, 2.500, 5.000, 10.000mg L-1 ou mg Kg-1, respectivamente. As estacas foram transferidas para substrato contendo areia e mantidas sob nebulização (90-95% UR. Aos 120 dias de estaquia, foram avaliados a mortalidade, a retenção foliar, a formação de calo e a percentagem de estacas enraizadas. As estacas apresentaram índices de sobrevivência de até 70%. A formação de calos não foi relacionada com a concentração de auxinas utilizadas. O maior índice de enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil, em torno de 16%, foi resgistrada com a utilização do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e do ácido naftalenoacético (ANA na concentração 2.500mg L-1. Os altos índices de sobrevivência e os baixos índices de enraizamento sugerem que as estacas devem permanecer por mais tempo sob nebulização, a fim de induzir o seu processo de enraizamento.The 'pau-brasil' tree (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. have a high cultural value in Brazil and its seed propagation is very difficult because of its rapid losses of germination potential. Cuttings propagation has been considered as alternative method to propagate forest species that seed propagation is poor. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthalene acetic (NAA acid on

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties of Caesalpinia Echinata Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Gomes, Elisangela Christhianne Barbosa; Jimenez, George Chaves; da Silva, Luis Claudio Nascimento; Sá, Fabrício Bezerra; de Souza, Karen Pena Cavalcanti; Paiva, Gerson S.; de Souza, Ivone Antônia

    2014-01-01

    Natural products contain important combinations of ingredients, which may to some extent help to modulate the effects produced by oxidation substrates in biological systems. It is known that substances capable of modulating the action of these oxidants on tissue may be important allies in the control of neovascularization in pathological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties of an ethanol extract of Caesalpinia echinata. The evaluation ...

  7. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

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    Elias Terra Werner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A regulação da calogênese é o primeiro passo para a embriogênese somática indireta in vitro. Nesse sentido, foram investigados os efeitos de diferentes meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes nitrogenadas no desenvolvimento de calos em tecidos foliares de Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil. Explantes foliares foram cultivados em meios de cultura MS, B5, White e WPM. Testou-se, também, o efeito dos compostos nitrogenados (NH4NO3, KNO3 e glutamina e a interação entre auxinas (2,4-D, AIA e AIB e citocininas (BAP e KIN na desdiferenciação celular indicado pela formação de calos. Os meios MS, B5 e White não foram significantemente diferentes e proporcionaram melhores resultados. Em meio MS contendo as fontes nitrogenadas 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 e 1,35 g L-1 glutamina + 4,11 g L-1 de KNO3 na presença de 1,0 mg L-1 2,4-D e 5,0 mg L-1 BAP ocorreu maior proliferação celular indicada pela massa fresca dos calos. As combinações dos reguladores 0,5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 AIB + 5,0 mg L-1 BAP suplementado com 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 em meio MS estimularam o crescimento dos calos. De maneira geral, os calos apresentaram aspectos friáveis, não embriogênicos, com acúmulo de fenóis e presença de áreas meristemáticas (meristemóides.The regulation of callus formation is the first step to indirect somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Therefore, we investigated hormonal and nutrient factors on development of callus in leaf tissues of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood. Explants were cultivated in culture media MS, B5, WPM, and White. The effect of nitrogen sources (NH4NO3, KNO3 and glutamine and the interaction between auxins (2,4-D, IAA and IBA and cytokinins (BAP and KIN were also evaluated. Media MS, B5 and White were not significantly different and provided better results. MS medium containing 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3, 1.35 g L-1 glutamine, and 4.11 g L-1 of KNO3 in the presence of 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D and 5 mg.L-1 BAP increased cellular

  8. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

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    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  9. Kinetics of solute leachate from imbibing Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood seeds

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    Nestor Martini Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of leachates from imbibing seeds has been used as a vigor test for several species. The adaptation of this methodology to different species requires knowledge on the leaching kinetics of electrolytes. For Brazilwood seeds, the classic method was not satisfactory and rapid tests are essential because they have low storage capacity at room temperature. Leaching kinetics during seed imbibition is a function of physiological quality, presence or absence of seed coat, imbibing temperature and the initial moisture content of seed. In this study, the electrolyte leaching rate of six different categories of seeds, from two regions, was evaluated in seeds with and without seed coat and incubated with different moisture contents and at different temperatures. The results showed that the electrolyte leaching rate in Brazilwood seeds is independent of the physiological quality, the presence or absence of seed coat and imbibition temperature, but these factors changed the total amount of electrolytes leached. The leaching rate increased in the first few minutes of imbibition, suggesting that the adjustment of the methodology must consider the reduction in imbibition time, reduction in temperature, use of a controlled and slower pre-imbibition, and replacement of the imbibition solution after the first few minutes.

  10. Lam's Conjecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Dickmann; F. Miraglia

    2003-01-01

    We introduce an algebraic K-theory for special groups, generalizing the mod 2 K-theory of fields due to Milnor, and apply it to give a positive answer to Lam's signature conjecture for quadratic forms over arbitrary formally real fields.

  11. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

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    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Euphorbia hirta and Asystasia gangeticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, M; Rao, Ch V; Rao, P M; Raju, D B; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2006-07-01

    The ethanolic extracts of the dry fruits of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta and flowers of Asystasia gangeticum were tested for antimicrobial activity. The three plants exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly against Escherichia coli (enteropathogen), Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:16730921

  13. KARAKTERISASI DAN UJI ANTIOSTEOPOROSIS EKSTRAK KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan)

    OpenAIRE

    Rifai, Yusnita; Subehan; Mufidah

    2008-01-01

    Abstrak, Standarisasi dan karakterisasi bahan obat dari bahan alam sangat penting untuk mendapatkan obat yang berkhasiat secara berkelanjutan dengan mutu yang terjamin. Salah satu bahan obat tradisional yang banyak digunakan adalah Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.). Karakterisasi dilakukan terhadap tiga jenis ekstrak yang diperoleh dengan penyari n-heksan, metanol dan etanol 70%. Metode karakterisasi yang digunakan adalah secara spektrofotometer UV-Vis, FT-IR, TLC Scanner, dan KCKT. Analisis ren...

  14. Control of planula migration by LWamide and RFamide neuropeptides in Hydractinia echinata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsukura, Yuki; Ando, Hiroshi; David, Charles N.; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Sugiyama, Tsutomu

    Planula larvae of Hydractinia echinata (Cnidaria) settled on a substratum migrate toward light. We observed that planula migration is not a continuous process. Instead, it consists of repeating cycles of active migration (about 8 min on average) and inactive resting periods (about 26 min on avera...

  15. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

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    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  16. ISOLATION OF TANNINS FROM CAESALPINIA CORIARIA AND EFFECT OF PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nallabilli Lokeswari; Peela Sujatha

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the present work is the study of the influence of particle size temperature, methanol content and time on the extraction of tannins from caesalpinia coriaria by pressure autoclaving method. The determination of these tannins by spectrophotometry, after extraction, enabled us to establish the qualitative and quantitative evolution of this component and the effect of each extraction conditions on the total tannins from caesalpinia coriaria. Under the extraction conditions examine...

  17. Pollination Ecology of Caesalpinia crista (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShi-Jint; ZHANGDian-Xiang; LILin; CHENZhong-Yi

    2004-01-01

    The flowering phenology, pollination ecology and breeding system of Caesa/pinia crista L.were studied in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Guangdong, China. The species started blooming in Februaryor March, then last till late April. It took about one week from first flower appearance to its full blooming,which lasted for 2-4 d. The pollen-ovule ratio was 18 000~500. The breeding system was self-incompatible,and protogynous xenogamy. Hymenoptera constituted the major group of pollinators. The pollination typeis ambophily, the species could be pollinated by wind if the pollinators were unavailable: this is the firstrecord of ambophily in the genus Caesalpinia. The floral structure adaptation to the pollinating behavior ofcarpenter bees was described. The influences of artificial treatments in pollination biological studies onthe flowering and fruiting of the plants were also discussed.

  18. Determination of the absolute configuration of sialic acids in gangliosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Fumiaki; Yamada, Koji; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuichi

    2007-07-01

    Enantiomeric pairs of sialic acid, D- and L-NeuAc (N-acetylneuraminic acid), were converted to D- and L-arabinose, respectively, by chemical degradation. Using this method, the absolute configuration of the sialic acid residues, NeuAc and NeuGc (N-glycolylneuraminic acid), in the gangliosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata was determined to be the D-form. Although naturally occurring sialic acids have been believed to be the D-form on the basis of biosynthetic evidence, this is the first report of the determination of the absolute configuration of the sialic acid residues in gangliosides using chemical methods. PMID:17603199

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

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    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  20. Composition and Functional Characterization of Microbiome Associated with Mucus of the Coral Fungia echinata Collected from Andaman Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Badhai, Jhasketan; Ghosh, Tarini S.; Das, Subrata K.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the community composition and functions of the microbiome associated with the mucus of the coral Fungia echinata based on metagenomic approach. Metagenome sequence data showed a dominance of the class Gammaproteobacteria followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Clostridia. At the order level, the most abundant groups were Pseudomonadales, Oceanospirillales, Alteromonadales, and Rhodobacterales. The genus Psychr...

  1. Microbiome structure of the fungid coral Ctenactis echinata aligns with environmental differences

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2015-06-19

    The significance of bacteria for eukaryotic functioning is increasingly recognized. Coral reef ecosystems critically rely on the relationship between coral hosts and their intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates, but the role of the associated bacteria remains largely theoretical. Here, we set out to relate coral-associated bacterial communities of the fungid host species Ctenactis echinata to environmental settings (geographic location, substrate cover, summer/winter, nutrient and suspended matter concentrations) and coral host abundance. We show that bacterial diversity of C. echinata aligns with ecological differences between sites and that coral colonies sampled at the species’ preferred habitats are primarily structured by one bacterial taxon (genus Endozoicomonas) representing more than 60% of all bacteria. In contrast, host microbiomes from lower populated coral habitats are less structured and more diverse. Our study demonstrates that the content and structure of the coral microbiome aligns with environmental differences and denotes habitat adequacy. Availability of a range of coral host habitats might be important for the conservation of distinct microbiome structures and diversity.

  2. Two New Phenolic Compounds from the Heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Bo Zhao; Jun Li; She-Po Shi; Chen-Qiu Cai; Peng-Fei Tu; Li Tang; Ke-Wu Zeng; Yong Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Two new phenolic compounds, epicaesalpin J and 7,10,11-trihydroxydracaenone, were isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis methods, such as 1D and 2D NMR, along with the high resolution mass spectral data. The NO inhibition activities of two new compounds and six known compounds were tested.

  3. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

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    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  4. Gelatine-based antioxidant packaging containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a coating for ground beef patties

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Iradi, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H.; Segovia Gómez, Francisco José; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  5. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Gallego; Gordon, Michael H.; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  6. Luffa echinata: A Valuable Medicinal Plant for Victims of Dog Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Yadav and Manoj Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use ofherbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases is increasing day by day due to no side effect. During survey it was observed that more than 80 medicinal plants are being used in curing the various diseases by the Tribal community (Tharus of Khatima. Luffa echinata is one such medicinal plant which has not grabbed considerable attention, however it is used to treat the victims of dog bite and more than 500 people have been treated successfully in this area. This research article illustrates how the victim of dog bite is treated with this plant and it also provides a novel idea for further research on the phytochemical aspects of this plants which might lead us towards the development of new medicines for the welfare of human being.

  7. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  8. Cassane diterpenes with oxygen bridge from the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xudong; Yuan, Jingquan; Zhou, Xingyang; Li, Weiping; Zhu, Nailiang; Wu, Haifeng; Li, Pengfei; Sun, Zhonghao; Yang, Junshan; Ma, Guoxu

    2016-07-01

    The seeds of the medicinal plant Caesalpinia sappan yielded fourteen cassane-type diterpenes, including six new rearranged ones named as caesalppans A-F (1-6). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The isolated new compounds 1-6 possess lactone-type cassane diterpenoid skeleton with an oxygen bridge between C-19 and C-20, and were tested cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines using the MTT method. PMID:27316975

  9. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

    OpenAIRE

    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes; Camila Machado; Thiago Vaz Lopes; Nilton Cunha Filho; Paulo Ribeiro Bretanha; Sandro Schons; Samuel Rodrigues Félix; Márcia de Oliveira Nobre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent ...

  10. Phytochemical, Anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhia. K. G; Bindu. A. R

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia bonduc possess anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic properties. The present study investigated anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer studies of stem bark of C.bonduc. The in vitro antiinflammatory study of different extracts were done by Protein denaturation method. The total ethanolic extract of stem bark of C.bonduc was investigated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan induced rat paw oedema) at the doses 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in male W...

  11. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  12. Melanogenesis Inhibition by Homoisoflavavone Sappanone A from Caesalpinia sappan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiou-Yu Ding

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Homoisoflavanone, sappanone A, was isolated from Caesalpinia sappan and proven to dose-dependently inhibit both melanogenesis and cellular tyrosinase activity via repressing tyrosinase gene expression in mouse B16 melanoma cells. To our knowledge, sappanone A is the first homoisoflavanone to be discovered with melanogenesis inhibitory activity. Our results give a new impetus to the future search for other homoisoflavanone melanogenesis inhibitors.

  13. Oligomerization process of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III purified from a sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Hiromiki; Yamasaki, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Aoyagi, Haruhiko; Fujisawa, Tetsuro

    2002-05-01

    CEL-III is a Ca(2+)-dependent lectin purified from a sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata. This protein exhibits strong hemolytic activity as well as cytotoxicity toward some cultured cell lines. Hemolysis is caused by CEL-III oligomers formed in the cell membrane after binding to specific carbohydrate chains on the cell surface. We have found that the oligomerization of CEL-III is also induced by the binding of simple carbohydrates, such as lactose, in aqueous solution under high pH and high ionic strength conditions. From gel filtration analysis of the oligomerization of CEL-III, it was found that the formation of the CEL-III oligomer is effectively induced by the binding of lactose and lactulose, disaccharides containing a beta-galactoside structure. Electron micrographs of the resulting oligomers revealed them to exist as particles with a size of approximately 20-30 nm. The oligomerization process required more than 1 h, which is consistent with the increase in surface hydrophobicity as measured using a fluorescent probe, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate. However, a change in the far-UV CD spectra as well as small-angle X-ray scattering occurred within a few minutes, suggesting that a structural change in the protein takes place rapidly, but the following growth of the oligomer is a much slower process. PMID:11983084

  14. Two New Isoflavones from Caragana Microphylla Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Caragana Microphylla lam. is a traditional Chinese folk medicine for promoting blood circle, treating hypertension and also can be used for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases1,but little is known about its chemical constituents except for several flavones. We have carried out a detailed chemical investigation of its stems and roots and have isolated tow new isoflavones

  15. Two New Isoflavones from Caragana Microphylla Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; ShangZhen

    2001-01-01

    Caragana Microphylla lam. is a traditional Chinese folk medicine for promoting blood circle, treating hypertension and also can be used for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases1,but little is known about its chemical constituents except for several flavones. We have carried out a detailed chemical investigation of its stems and roots and have isolated tow new isoflavones  ……

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of oligomers of the haemolytic lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata

    OpenAIRE

    Unno, Hideaki; Hisamatsu, Keigo; Nagao, Tomonao; Tateya, Yuki; Matsumoto, Naoki; Goda, Shuichiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2013-01-01

    CEL-III is a Ca2+-dependent haemolytic lectin isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata. This lectin binds to Gal/GalNAc-containing carbohydrate chains on the cell surface and, after conformational changes, oligomerizes to form ion-permeable pores in cell membranes. CEL-III also forms soluble oligomers similar to those formed in cell membranes upon binding of specific carbohydrates in high-pH and high-salt solutions. These soluble and membrane CEL-III oligomers were crystallize...

  17. Characterization of diterpenoids from Caesalpinia decapetala and their anti-TMV activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Cao, Xiangrong; Liu, Feng; Ma, Jun; Liu, Xingyu; Tong, Ling; Su, Guochen; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Lee, Dongho; Wang, Lizhong; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2016-09-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala is a versatile medicinal plant belonging to the Fabaceae plant family. In our survey on plant secondary metabolites to obtain bioactive substances for the development of new agricultural anti-TMV agents, the chemical constituents of C. decapetala were investigated. This investigation led to the isolation of three new and ten known diterpenoids. Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated based on the extensive NMR spectroscopic data analyses and the time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The following biological screenings revealed that most of these diterpenoids possessed anti-TMV activities. PMID:27491755

  18. [Seeds germination of Caesalpinia paraguariensis (Fabaceae): scarificator agents and cattle effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Baes, P; de Viana, M L; Larenas, G; Saravia, M

    2001-03-01

    The tree Caesalpinia paraguariensis grows in the Chaco region, Argentina. Fruits are indehiscent with many seeds. This species is an important source of wood and the fruits are consumed by cattle in Salta province. We studied seed germination under chemical, mechanical and biological scarification. Seeds from controls (without scarification) and those with biological scarification had a smaller (and similar) germination rate. The non-germinated seeds from biological treatments were mechanically scarified and their germination rate was similar to others under the mechanical treatment. Passage by digestive tracts would not enhance germination because viable seeds are still dormant due to their hard coats. PMID:11795158

  19. Germinação e crescimento de Caesalpinia ferrea mart. Ex tul. Em diferentes substratos

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana de Paula Quintao Scalon; Tiara Kesli Conticelli Teodósio; José Oscar Novelino; Camila Kissmann; Leandro Henrique de Sousa Mota

    2011-01-01

    A produção de mudas de espécies nativas para plantios comerciais e para recuperação de áreas degradadas faz com que haja grande procura por tecnologia que reduza os custos de estabelecimento dessas espécies, como substratos alternativos. Com o objetivo de proporcionar melhor emergência e crescimento inicial das plantas de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul., foram testados diferentes substratos, utilizando-se Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, textura argilosa - T, misturado com areia - A (0,5 dm...

  20. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of oligomers of the haemolytic lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oligomers of the haemolytic lectin CEL-III from the marine invertebrate C. echinata were crystallized and data were collected to 3.3 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. CEL-III is a Ca2+-dependent haemolytic lectin isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata. This lectin binds to Gal/GalNAc-containing carbohydrate chains on the cell surface and, after conformational changes, oligomerizes to form ion-permeable pores in cell membranes. CEL-III also forms soluble oligomers similar to those formed in cell membranes upon binding of specific carbohydrates in high-pH and high-salt solutions. These soluble and membrane CEL-III oligomers were crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected. Crystals of soluble oligomers and membrane oligomers diffracted X-rays to 3.3 and 4.2 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation and the former was found to belong to space group C2. Self-rotation functional analysis of the soluble oligomer crystal suggested that it might be composed of heptameric CEL-III

  2. Immunomodulatory activity of Bauhinia Racemosa Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Sohrab A.; Ghaisas, Mahesh M.; Deshpande, Avinash D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam swiss albino mice. Material and Methods: The specific humoral immunity was assessed by performing hemagglutinating antibody titer (H.A.Titer) and the non-specific immunity was assessed by performing carbon clearance test and neutrophil adhesion test. Results: The methanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia Racemosa (MEBR) was found effective in increasing the H.A.Titer. Primary and sec...

  3. Targeted Approaches Toward Understanding and Treating Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Hammes, Stephen R.; Krymskaya, Vera P.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease found almost exclusively in women that is characterized by neoplastic growth of atypical smooth muscle-like cells in the lung, destruction of lung parenchyma, and obstruction of lymphatics. These processes lead to the formation of lung cysts, rupture of which results in spontaneous pneumothorax. Progression of LAM often results in loss of pulmonary function and death. LAM affects predominantly women of childbearing age and is exacerba...

  4. Multiple Suppressive Effects of a Protein from Caesalpinia minax on Murine Melanoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭亚; 谢莉萍; 张勇; 王洪钟; 李重华; 陈朝银; 张荣庆

    2002-01-01

    Caesalpinia minax has a long history of use as a Chinese traditional herb medicine in Yunnan Province, China, for the treatment of skin-related diseases. A potent melanoma inhibitor, purified from the seeds of C. minax and termed Caesalpinia minax protein (CMP), is a protein with a relative molecular mass of 19.8×103. Experiments were conducted to assay the inhibitive effects of CMP on the proliferation, migration, and adhesion of murine melanoma cell line K1735M2. The results showed that cell proliferation was suppressed by about 60% with treatment of 22 μg/mL CMP. Furthermore, the migration of K1735M2 cells was inhibited by 30% in the presence of 22 μg/mL CMP. The results also demonstrated that the inhibitive effect of CMP on the migration was dose-dependent. Although low-doses of CMP had no obvious inhibitive effect on the adhesion of K1735M2, 22 μg/mL CMP inhibited the adhesion of K1735M2 by 50%. These results suggest that CMP might be a potential medicine for melanoma therapy.

  5. A new steroidal compound (β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl isolated from Caesalpinia gilliesii flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mohamed Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of total extracts from leaves, flowers and pods of Caesalpinia gilliesii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinoideae. In addition, a detailed phytochemical investigation of flower extracts was carried out to isolate and elucidate the structures of the bioactive compounds. Flower extract was the most cytotoxic against MCF7 and HepG2 cancer cells with IC50 values of 10 and 15.6 µg/mL, respectively. A new β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was isolated from dichloromethane fraction of flowers together with another known sterol (daucosterol, and two flavonoids (isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnoside. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was the most active compound against both HepG2 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 13.1 and 14.4 µg/mL, respectively. Isorhamnetin possesses a moderate antioxidant activity with an IC50 value 370 µg/mL as determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay.Industrial relevance. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl and the other phytosterols are responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extracts which would correlate with the known abortifacient, antimalarial and anthelmintic properties, which can provide a cheap alternative drug.Keywords. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant; Caesalpinia gilliesii; β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl; daucosterol; isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside

  6. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

    2005-08-01

    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and

  7. Anatomia do lenho de Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae uma espécie endêmica. Wood anatomy of Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae an endemic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Antonio DAROSCI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia vegetal é útil para a caracterização das espécies e do ambiente em que estas vivem. Muitas espécies respondem a algumas características ambientais com alterações na anatomia do lenho, por exemplo, na quantidade de vasos e raios, o que contribui para a sobrevivência no ambiente. Outras respostas anatômicas do lenho, devido às condições fisiológicas-estruturais presentes em diferentes regiões do caule, também são comuns. O presente estudo analisou a anatomia do lenho de Raulinoa echinata, espécie endêmica da mata ciliar do Vale do Itajaí, a fim de buscar alterações do lenho em resposta a algumas características ambientais, além daquelas provocadas pelas diferentes regiões do caule. Para tanto, amostras do lenho foram coletadas em duas regiões: próxima do solo e à altura do peito (1,30 m. Possíveis respostas de R. echinata ao ambiente ripário foram observadas no comprimento e na frequência das fibras, na largura dos raios e no comprimento e na frequência total de vasos, com diferenças significativas, entre as duas regiões, apenas em características quantitativas. A espécie apresentou, ainda, vasos múltiplos tangenciais e em cacho, características até então não descritas para Rutaceae. Não foram vistos na espécie canais traumáticos, característica comum para Rutaceae. Plant anatomy is useful for the characterization of species and their associated environment. Many species, because of habitat features, can show anatomical alterations of wood that permit their survival in the environment, quantity of vessels and rays, for example. Other anatomical alterations caused by structural-physiological conditions present in different regions of the stem are also common. In this study, the anatomy of Raulinoa echinata wood, an endemic riparian forest species of Itajaí Valley, was analyzed in order to identify alterations in wood because of specific habitat features, as well as adaptations in different

  8. Constituents of Holothuroidea, 17. Isolation and structure of biologically active monosialo-gangliosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Fumiaki; Yamada, Koji; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuichi

    2006-07-01

    Three new monosialo-gangliosides, CEG-3 (3), CEG-4 (4), and CEG-5 (5), were obtained, together with two known gangliosides, SJG-1 (1) and CG-1 (2), from the lipid fraction of the chloroform/methanol extract of the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata. The structures of the new gangliosides were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence to be 1-O-[4-O-acetyl-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-->11)-(N-glycolyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-ceramide (3) and 1-O-[alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-->11)-(N-glycolyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-ceramide (4, 5). The ceramide moieties of each compound were composed of heterogeneous sphingosine or phytosphingosine bases, and 2-hydroxy or nonhydroxylated fatty acid units. These gangliosides showed neuritogenic activity toward the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC-12 in the presence of nerve growth factor. PMID:16819216

  9. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of oligomers of the haemolytic lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Hideaki; Hisamatsu, Keigo; Nagao, Tomonao; Tateya, Yuki; Matsumoto, Naoki; Goda, Shuichiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2013-04-01

    CEL-III is a Ca(2+)-dependent haemolytic lectin isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata. This lectin binds to Gal/GalNAc-containing carbohydrate chains on the cell surface and, after conformational changes, oligomerizes to form ion-permeable pores in cell membranes. CEL-III also forms soluble oligomers similar to those formed in cell membranes upon binding of specific carbohydrates in high-pH and high-salt solutions. These soluble and membrane CEL-III oligomers were crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected. Crystals of soluble oligomers and membrane oligomers diffracted X-rays to 3.3 and 4.2 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation and the former was found to belong to space group C2. Self-rotation functional analysis of the soluble oligomer crystal suggested that it might be composed of heptameric CEL-III. PMID:23545649

  10. Stimulating the production of homoisoflavonoids in cell suspension cultures of Caesalpinia pulcherrima using cork tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Iwamoto, Yuko; Kouno, Isao; Egami, Yasukuni; Yamamoto, Hirobumi

    2004-09-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that cork tissue increases the efficiency of the production of lipophilic secondary metabolites in diverse plant cell suspension cultures. In the present study, three new homoisoflavonoids--named dihydrobonducellin, 2'-methoxydihydrobonducellin, and 2'-methoxybonducellin--and bonducellin and isobonducellin were isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima cultured cells coincubated with cork tissue. Cork tissue increased the production of 2'-methoxybonducellin by about 7-fold relative to control cells, and more than 80% of the product was recoverable from the cork tissue. When cork tissue and methyl jasmonate or yeast extract were added simultaneously to the medium, the amount of 2'-methoxybonducellin produced increased further. The production of the other four homoisoflavonoids was enhanced by variable amounts. Our results indicate that the addition of cork tissue would be an effective technique for investigating formation of secondary metabolites that usually accumulate only in trace amounts. PMID:15381409

  11. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  12. Screening of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn Flowers for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were extracted with methanol to determine their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Intraperitoneal administration of methanolic extract (75, 150 and 225 mg/kg produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test and hot plate tests and anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in experimental animals. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the side effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicines have less side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against pain and inflammation.

  13. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food. PMID:27043638

  14. OptiLam: design of optimised rolling schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, B.; Arribas, M.; Carrillo, A.R.; Barbero, J. I.; Calvo Muñoz, Jessica; Song, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays il is known that the Ihennomcchanical schedules applied during hot rolling of fIal products provide the steel with improvcd mechanical properties. In Ihis work an oplimisation tool, OptiLam (OptiLam v.l), bascd on él predictive software alld capabIe oC generating optimised rolling schedulcs to obtain Ihe dcsired mechanical properties in the fiual product is described. OptiLam includes somc well-knowll Illctallurgical modcls which predict microstmctural evolution duril1g h...

  15. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental

  16. SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of...

  17. Soliton Lattice and Single Soliton Solutions of the Associated Lam\\'e and Lam\\'e Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Bena, Ioana; Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh

    2004-01-01

    We obtain the exact nontopological soliton lattice solutions of the Associated Lam\\'e equation in different parameter regimes and compute the corresponding energy for each of these solutions. We show that in specific limits these solutions give rise to nontopological (pulse-like) single solitons, as well as to different types of topological (kink-like) single soliton solutions of the Associated Lam\\'e equation. Following Manton, we also compute, as an illustration, the asymptotic interaction ...

  18. A remarkable new species of Coeliccia from the Tuyen Lam Lake area, Lam Dong, southern Vietnam (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A

    2016-01-01

    Coeliccia suoitia sp. nov. (holotype ♂, from Suoi Tia, Tuyen Lam Lake, Da Lat, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, deposited in RMNH) is described from males from southern Vietnam. It is a distinctive species that possess highly unusual characters in the thorax and anal appendages that make its ultimate generic placement questionable. Relationships between Coeliccia Kirby, Asthenocnemis Lieftinck and Indocnemis Laidlaw, and within Coeliccia, are briefly discussed. PMID:27394751

  19. Composition and Functional Characterization of Microbiome Associated with Mucus of the Coral Fungia echinata Collected from Andaman Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhai, Jhasketan; Ghosh, Tarini S; Das, Subrata K

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the community composition and functions of the microbiome associated with the mucus of the coral Fungia echinata based on metagenomic approach. Metagenome sequence data showed a dominance of the class Gammaproteobacteria followed by Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Clostridia. At the order level, the most abundant groups were Pseudomonadales, Oceanospirillales, Alteromonadales, and Rhodobacterales. The genus Psychrobacter was the most predominant followed by Thalassolituus and Cobetia, although other genera were also present, such as Sulfitobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, Oleispira, Halomonas, Oceanobacter, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Marinobacter. The metabolic profile of the bacterial community displayed high prevalence of genes associated with core-housekeeping processes, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acid metabolism. Further, high abundance of genes coding for DNA replication and repair, stress response, and virulence factors in the metagenome suggested acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the microbiota. Comparative analysis with other coral metagenome exhibits marked differences at the taxonomical and functional level. This study suggests the bacterial community compositions are influenced by the specific coral micro-niche and the oligotrophic marine environment. PMID:27379066

  20. Bioefficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts against tobacco cutworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backiyaraj Muthusamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plant, Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella at different concentrations against Lepidopteran agricultural field pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied using leaf disc nochoice method and oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities were also assessed by adapting the standard protocols. Results: The antifeedant activity of C. bonducella showed significant antifeedant activity in methanol extract. Oviposition deterrency is higher in methanol extract than the other solvent extracts. Similarly, maximum egg mortality was observed in methanol leaf extract of C. bonducella Lethal concentration, LC50 value of benzene, diethylether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. bonducella were 470.02, 469.00, 465.47, 460.52 and 443.87 mg/L respectively. The Chi-square values are significant at P< 0.05 level. Among five solvent extracts, the methanol extract was responsible for strong lethal activity observed against selected pest species. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. bonducella could be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal agent against the field pest Helicoverpa armigera.

  1. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  2. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

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    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  3. Influência da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes Claudia Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento na porcentagem de germinação e no vigor das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna, por meio de testes fisiológicos. O teor de água aumentou nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e reduziu naquelas a 20 degreesC. A porcentagem de germinação das sementes mantidas a 5 e 20 degreesC apresentou redução aos 220 e 120 dias, respectivamente. O índice de velocidade de germinação decresceu de maneira similar. A condutividade elétrica não foi alterada nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e aumentou nas que permaneceram a 20 degreesC. O envelhecimento acelerado nos períodos de 24, 48 e 72 horas detectou redução significativa na qualidade das sementes em ambos os ambientes de armazenamento. A redução da porcentagem de germinação e do vigor foi maior nas sementes armazenadas a 20 degreesC.

  4. Antifertility potential of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Jitender Singh; Anupama Baghotia; Vineet Mehta; Vikas Thakur; Manjusha Choudhary; Surender Verma; Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antifertility activity of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn (C. pulcherrima) leaves in albino female mice. Methods: Acute toxicity study of the extract was carried out in adult albino mice. The antifertility activity of the extract at dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) was evaluated in two experimental animal models i.e. antiimplantation and esterogenic/antiestrogenic activity in female mice by observing no. of implants, estrus cycle, vaginal cornification, uertus weight and cholesterol content. Results: The extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 4 000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. A good antiimplantation (66.66 %) activity in female mice was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally). The extract further showed more significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight and cholesterol content in immature mice. Simultaneous administration of extract alongwith ethinyl estradiol showed significant estrogenic activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanolic extract of C. pulcherrima leaves possess significant antifertility activity, therefore, justifying the traditional use of this plant in fertility regulation.

  5. Phytochemical, Anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer activities of Caesalpinia bonduc stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhia. K. G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia bonduc possess anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, digestive, stomachic properties. The present study investigated anti-inflammatory and in vitro anticancer studies of stem bark of C.bonduc. The in vitro antiinflammatory study of different extracts were done by Protein denaturation method. The total ethanolic extract of stem bark of C.bonduc was investigated for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan induced rat paw oedema at the doses 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in male Wister albino rats. The in vitro cytotoxicity study was done by Trypan blue dye exclusion technique in Daltons Ascites Lymphoma (DLA cells at 200, 100, 50, 20, 10 μg/ml concentrations. Estimation studies by Folin Cio-calteau method and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method showed that phenolics and flavonoids are abundant in the stem bark. The in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory studies shows that TEE exhibits more anti-inflammatory effect which increases in a dose dependent manner. TEE exhibits 100% cytotoxicity even at 100 μg/ml concentrations. The present study revealed that presence high quantities of phenolics and flavonoids in the stem bark may be responsible for its anti-inflammatory anticancer properties.

  6. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  7. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on fertility in pregnant female albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lilaram; R Nazeer Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) on fertility in female Wistar albino rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into two groups containing eight animals in each group. Control group rats were orally administered with 1 mL/100 g b.wt of distilled water while rats in second group received 300 mg/kg of the seed extract from gestation day 1-7, once daily. The animals were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last dose on gestation day 12. Results:A significant reduction in implantation index and a contrasting significant increase in resorption index, pre-implantation and post-implantation loss was recorded in the seed extract treated rats. Progesterone level declined significantly in rats treated with seed extract. Ovary revealed degenerated corpora lutea in treated rats. The embryos were noticed with craniofacial deformities in extract treated group. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that the seeds of C. bonducella possess antifertility activity probably due to its antiprogesterogenic hormonal properties that can modulate the reproductive function of the experimental rats.

  8. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products. PMID:26263964

  9. Lipoarabinomanano (LAM de Mycobacterium spp: Respuesta inmune inducida en terneros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jolly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La paratuberculosis es una enfermedad que afecta al ganado vacuno cuyo agente etiológico es el Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. El LAM es el principal componente antigénico de superficie de las micobacterias, y se lo considera de relevancia en la patogenia de las enfermedades que éstas causan. Un extracto enriquecido en LAM fue obtenido a partir de un cultivo de Mycobacterium spp. y empleado para inocular terneros. Se evaluó en ellos la respuesta inmune humoral y celular inducida por la vacunación. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que el extracto enriquecido en LAM resultó ser inmunogénico en todos los animales inoculados, obteniéndose títulos considerables de anticuerpos específicos, sin generar falsos positivos a la prueba de intradermorreacción con el derivado proteico purificado utilizado para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis bovina. Estos hallazgos justifican continuar el trabajo en esta línea intentando finalmente establecer si el LAM es un candidato potencial para la elaboración de una vacuna a subunidades contra la paratuberculosis bovina.Paratuberculosis is a chronic enteric disease affecting cattle. The causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. LAM is the main antigenic component of mycobacterial surface, and it is considered a key virulence factor involved in its pathogenicity. A LAM-enriched extract obtained from a culture of Mycobacterium spp. was prepared with incomplete Freund's adjuvant for calves inoculation. Specific antibodies response and delayed-type hypersensitivity to intradermal injection of purified protein derivative antigen (PPD from Mycobacterium bovis were then evaluated in inoculated animals. Our results demonstrate that anti-LAM antibodies can be successfully obtained in calves immunized with LAM-enriched extract, without generating cross-reaction with PPD of M. bovis. This work could represent the initial step in order to determine the relevance of

  10. EVALUATION OF ANTI- TUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA F. IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED COUGH IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is a natural reflex expulsive defense mechanism of the body, for clearing excess secretions, mucous, inhaled irritants, toxins or foreign substance in the respiratory tract. It is the most common symptom of respiratory disease. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is a need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have respiratory suppressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-tussive activity of leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella in ammonium hydroxide induced cough model in mice.

  11. Development of a UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for analysis of total polyphenols from Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda G. Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia peltophoroides is a domesticated tree found in Brazil. It was necessary to develop an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP in this herbal drug. The pre-analytical method was standardized for analysis time, wavelength, and the best standard to use. The optimum conditions were: pyrogallol, 760 nm, and 30 min respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved to be reliable for TP of the crude extract and semipurified fractions from C. peltophoroides. Standardization is required for every herbal drug, and this method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform.

  12. Algebraic Solutions of the Lam\\'e Equation, Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    A minor error in the necessary conditions for the algebraic form of the Lam\\'e equation to have a finite projective monodromy group, and hence for it to have only algebraic solutions, is pointed out. [See F. Baldassarri, "On algebraic solutions of Lam\\'e's differential equation", J. Differential Equations 41 (1981), 44-58.] It is shown that if the group is the octahedral group S_4, then the degree parameter of the equation may differ by +1/6 or -1/6 from an integer; this possibility was misse...

  13. Characterization of functional domains of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yota; Nakano, Masahiro; Matsuyama, Kayo; Tojo, Sumiki; Kimura, Makoto; Yamasaki, Takayuki; Aoyagi, Haruhiko; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2003-09-01

    CEL-III is a Ca(2+)-dependent, galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectin isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata. This lectin exhibits strong hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity through pore formation in target cell membranes. The amino acid sequence of CEL-III revealed the N-terminal two-thirds to have homology to the B-chains of ricin and abrin, which are galactose-specific plant toxic lectins; the C-terminal one-third shows no homology to any known proteins. To examine the carbohydrate-binding ability of the N-terminal region of CEL-III, the protein comprising Pyr1-Phe283 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The expressed protein showed both the ability to bind to a GalNAc-immobilized column as well as hemagglutinating activity for rabbit erythrocytes, confirming that the N-terminal region has binding activity for specific carbohydrates. Since the C-terminal region could not be expressed in E. coli cells, a fragment containing this region was produced by limited proteolysis of the native protein by trypsin. The resulting C-terminal 15 kDa fragment of CEL-III exhibited a tendency to self-associate, forming an oligomer. When mixed with erythrocytes, the oligomer of the C-terminal fragment caused hemagglutination, probably due to hydrophobic interaction with cell membranes, while the monomeric fragment did not. Chymotryptic digestion of the preformed CEL-III oligomer induced upon lactose binding also yielded an oligomer of the C-terminal fragment comprising six molecules of the 16 kDa fragment. These results suggest that after binding to cell surface carbohydrate chains, CEL-III oligomerizes through C-terminal domains, leading to the formation of ion-permeable pores by hydrophobic interaction with the cell membrane. PMID:14561725

  14. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  15. Brazilin from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood and its pharmacological activities:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nilesh; P; Nirmal; Mithun; S; Rajput; Rangabhatla; G.S.V.Prasad; Mehraj; Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L.(CS) is a plant of Leguminosae family,commonly known as Brazil or Sappan wood.CS is distributed in Southeast Asia and its dried heartwood has been used as traditional ingredient of food or beverages and has a wide variety of medicinal properties.Higher extraction yield of CS wood was achieved with 95% ethanol for 2 h.Chemical constituent’s investigation of sappan wood resulled in the isolation of various structural types of phenolic components including one xanihone,one coumarin,three chalcones,two flavones three homoisoflavonoids and brazilin.Brazilin[(6a S-cis)-7,11b-dihydrobcnz[b]indeno[1.2-d]pyran-3.6a.9.10(6H)- tetroll.a major and active compound found in CS heartwood.Most of the folkloric uses of brazilin were validated by the scientific studies such as antioxidant,antibacterial,anti-inflammatory,anti-photoaging.hypoglycemic,vasorelaxant,hepatoproteetive and anti-acne activity.CS heartwood extract is safe and did not produce any acute or subacute toxicity in both male and female rats.Brazilin is the safe natural compound having potential to develop as a medicinal compound with application in food,beverage,cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries to screen its clinical use in modern medicine.The information gained could provide the important and potential approach for pharmaceutical researcher to implicate the knowledge of brazilin in the formulation of new drug and to reveal therapeutic and gaps requiring future research opportunities.More studies are needed to evaluate the potential application of brazilin as preservative and coloring agent in food processing industries.

  16. Brazilin from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood and its pharmacological activities:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nilesh P Nirmal; Mithun S Rajput; Rangabhatla GSV Prasad; Mehraj Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (CS) is a plant of Leguminosae family, commonly known as Brazil or Sappan wood. CS is distributed in Southeast Asia and its dried heartwood has been used as traditional ingredient of food or beverages and has a wide variety of medicinal properties. Higher extraction yield of CS wood was achieved with 95% ethanol for 2 h. Chemical constituent’s investigation of sappan wood resulted in the isolation of various structural types of phenolic components including one xanthone, one coumarin, three chalcones, two flavones three homoisoflavonoids and brazilin. Brazilin [(6a S-cis)-7, 11b-dihydrobenz[b]indeno[1,2-d] pyran-3,6a,9,10(6H)-tetrol], a major and active compound found in CS heartwood. Most of the folkloric uses of brazilin were validated by the scientific studies such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-photoaging, hypoglycemic, vasorelaxant, hepatoprotective and anti-acne activity. CS heartwood extract is safe and did not produce any acute or subacute toxicity in both male and female rats. Brazilin is the safe natural compound having potential to develop as a medicinal compound with application in food, beverage, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries to screen its clinical use in modern medicine. The information gained could provide the important and potential approach for pharmaceutical researcher to implicate the knowledge of brazilin in the formulation of new drug and to reveal therapeutic and gaps requiring future research opportunities. More studies are needed to evaluate the potential application of brazilin as preservative and coloring agent in food processing industries.

  17. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.

  18. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  19. The Hydractinia echinata Test-System. III: Structure-Toxicity Relationship Study of Some Azo-, Azo-Anilide, and Diazonium Salt Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Adrian Chicu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Structure-toxicity relationships for a series of 75 azo and azo-anilide dyes and five diazonium salts were developed using Hydractinia echinata (H. echinata as model species. In addition, based on these relationships, predictions for 58 other azo-dyes were made. The experimental results showed that the measured effectiveness Mlog(1/MRC50 does not depend on the number of azo groups or the ones corresponding to metobolites, but it is influenced by the number of anilide groups, as well as by the substituents’ positions within molecules. The conformational analysis pointed out the intramolecular hydrogen bonds, especially the simple tautomerization of quinoidic (STOH or aminoidic (STNH2 type. The effectiveness is strongly influenced by the “push-pull” electronic effect, specific to two hydroxy or amino groups separated by an azo moiety (double alternate tautomery, (DAT, to the –COOH or –SO3H groups which are located in ortho or para position with respect to the azo group. The levels of the lipophylic/hydrophilic, electronic and steric equilibriums, pointed out by the Mlog(1/MRC50 values, enabled the calculation of their average values Clog(1/MRC50 (“Köln model”, characteristic to one derivative class (class isotoxicity. The azo group reduction and the hydrolysis of the amido/peptidic group are two concurrent enzymatic reactions, which occur with different reaction rates and mechanisms. The products of the partial biodegradation are aromatic amines. No additive or synergic effects are noticed among them.

  20. Presence of SXT integrating conjugative element in marine bacteria isolated from the mucus of the coral Fungia echinata from Andaman Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhai, Jhasketan; Kumari, Prabla; Krishnan, Pandian; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Das, Subrata K

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we characterize 18 cultivable bacteria associated within the mucus of the coral Fungia echinata from Andaman Sea, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that all the 18 strains isolated in this study from the coral mucus belong to the group Gammaproteobacteria and majority of them were identified as Vibrio core group. Our objective was to investigate the presence of the SXT/R391 integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) targeting integrase int(SXT) and SXT Hotspot IV genetic elements in these isolates. SXT/ICE initially reported in Vibrio cholerae contains many antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes and acts as an effective tool for the horizontal transfer of resistance genes in other bacterial populations. Two of our strains, AN44 and AN60, were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin, in addition to other antibiotics such as neomycin, ampicillin, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Using PCR followed by sequencing, we detected the SXT/ICE in these strains. The SXT integrase genes of AN44 and AN60 had a 99% and 100% identity with V. cholerae serogroup O139 strain SG24. This study provides the first evidence of the presence of SXT/R391 ICEs in Marinomonas sp. strain AN44 (JCM 18476(T) ) and Vibrio fortis strain AN60 (DSM 26067(T) ) isolated from the mucus of the coral F. echinata. PMID:23083057

  1. Parallel Computing Method Based on LAM/MPI%基于LAM/MPI的并行计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 李春强; 马琪

    2006-01-01

    介绍了并行计算的设计标准之一MPI,并深入研究了MPI的一个实现版本LAM,研究LAM的目的是为了在VLSI设计中运用LAM来加快矩阵的运算速度.LAM/MPI是对MPI标准的一个高质量的运用和实现,提供了在不同平台上的高性能运行.

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M; Saha, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive – Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative – Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study.

  3. Light transmission measurements with LAMS in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long optical base transmissometer (LAMS-Long Arm Marine Spectrophotometer) constructed in 2008 by NESTOR group is described. The data of the recent water transparency measurements in the NESTOR site and in the Capo Passero site in the wavelength range 378-522 nm are presented

  4. Brazilin isolated from Caesalpinia sappan L. acts as a novel collagen receptor agonist in human platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazilin, isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological properties. Methods In this study, platelet aggregation, flow cytometry, immunoblotting analysis, and electron spin resonance (ESR spectrometry were used to investigate the effects of brazilin on platelet activation ex vivo. Moreover, fluorescein sodium-induced platelet thrombi of mesenteric microvessels was also used in in vivo study. Results We demonstrated that relatively low concentrations of brazilin (1 to 10 μM potentiated platelet aggregation induced by collagen (0.1 μg/ml in washed human platelets. Higher concentrations of brazilin (20 to 50 μM directly triggered platelet aggregation. Brazilin-mediated platelet aggregation was slightly inhibited by ATP (an antagonist of ADP. It was not inhibited by yohimbine (an antagonist of epinephrine, by SCH79797 (an antagonist of thrombin protease-activated receptor [PAR] 1, or by tcY-NH2 (an antagonist of PAR 4. Brazilin did not significantly affect FITC-triflavin binding to the integrin αIIbβ3 in platelet suspensions. Pretreatment of the platelets with caffeic acid phenethyl ester (an antagonist of collagen receptors or JAQ1 and Sam.G4 monoclonal antibodies raised against collagen receptor glycoprotein VI and integrin α2β1, respectively, abolished platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen or brazilin. The immunoblotting analysis showed that brazilin stimulated the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLCγ2 and Lyn, which were significantly attenuated in the presence of JAQ1 and Sam.G4. In addition, brazilin did not significantly trigger hydroxyl radical formation in ESR analysis. An in vivo mouse study showed that brazilin treatment (2 and 4 mg/kg significantly shortened the occlusion time for platelet plug formation in mesenteric venules. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that brazilin acts a novel collagen

  5. Efeitos da luminosidade no crescimento de mudas de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effects of luminosity on the growth seedlings of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea é uma espécie muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbano no estado do Amapá. Entretanto, informações ecofisiológicas a seu respeito são escassas. A luz é um importante fator ambiental que controla processos associados ao acúmulo de matéria seca, contribuindo assim para o crescimento vegetal. Diante disso, estudou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de luminosidade sobre o crescimento de mudas desta espécie. Para tal, plântulas foram repicadas para sacos plásticos contendo mistura de solo e areia (2:1, sendo mantidas a pleno sol, sob sombreamento artificial com redução de 50% e 70% da luminosidade e sob sombreamento natural de um dossel fechado de floresta. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Mudas submetidas ao sombreamento natural tiveram seu crescimento fortemente inibido. A pleno sol, as mudas apresentaram maiores taxas assimilatórias líquida (TAL, menor razão parte aérea/raiz (RPAR e menor razão de área foliar (RAF. Verificou-se pouca diferença no crescimento e alocação de biomassa entre mudas mantidas sob 50 e 70% de sombreamento, sendo que as mudas desses tratamentos atingiram valores mais altos de RPAR e RAF. Isto indica existência de plasticidade, o que reflete no aumento potencial da captura de luz, importante para manter o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em baixa luminosidade. Em conjunto, os resultados mostraram ajustamento morfológico e fisiológico aos diferentes níveis de luminosidade em Caesalpinia ferrea.Caesalpinia ferrea is a species used a lot as a medicinal plant, for urban arborization and landscape design in the state of Amapa. Yet there is not much ecophysiological information available on it. Light is an important environment factor that controls processes associates with the accumulation of dry matter, contributing thus for plant growth. The object of this research was to study the effect of

  6. Extração e caracterização da galactomanana de sementes de caesalpinia pulcherrima Extraction and characterization of the galactomannan from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin G. Azero

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A galactomanana de sementes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima foi extraída em água e purificada, com rendimento de 25 %. A razão D-manose/D-galactose, M/G = 3,1, viscosidade intrínseca, [h] = 11,2 dL/g (em água a 298 K, e a massa molar viscosimétrica média, ou = 1,7 x 10(6, foram determinadas. A variação da viscosidade específica sob taxa de cisalhamento zero, hsp0, em função do parâmetro de sobreposição, C[h], mostrou dependências de hsp0 a (C[h]1,1 e de hsp0 a (C[h]4,2, nos regimes diluído e concentrado, respectivamente. A correlação entre as propriedades reológicas sob cisalhamento contínuo e dinâmico obedeceram satisfatoriamente ao princípio de Cox-Merz.The galactomannan from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima was extracted in water and obtained in 25 % yield, after purification. The D-mannose to D-galactose ratio, M/G = 3.1, the intrinsic viscosity, [h] = 11.2 dL/g (in water and 298K, and the viscosity-average molar mass, or = 1.7 x 10(6, were determined. The dependence of the specific viscosity at zero shear rate, hsp0, on the coil overlap parameter, C[h], showed slopes of 1.1 and 4.2 for the dilute and concentrated regimes, respectively. The Cox-Merz rule was followed satisfactorily by solutions submitted to steady and dynamic flows.

  7. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Psausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. PMID:26283171

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of an invertebrate C-type lectin, CEL-I, from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Matsuo, Noriaki; Aoyagi, Haruhiko; Sugawara, Hajime; Uchida, Tatsuya; Kurisu, Genji; Kusunoki, Masami

    2002-01-01

    CEL-I is a GalNAc-specific carbohydrate-binding protein (lectin) isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata. This protein belongs to the widely distributed C-type lectin family of animal lectins, which require Ca(2+) for their carbohydrate-binding ability and play important roles in various molecular-recognition processes in organisms. CEL-I was crystallized with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. The CEL-I crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 92.38 (3), b = 69.94 (3), c = 76.69 (3) A, beta = 136.46 (2) degrees. Diffraction data were collected to 2.0 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The asymmetric unit contains one CEL-I molecule. PMID:11752793

  9. Mitogenic activity of CEL-I, an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific C-type lectin, isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata (Holothuroidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zedong; Kim, Daekyung; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Yamanishi, Tomohiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    An N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific Ca(2+)-dependent lectin (C-type lectin), isolated from the marine invertebrate Holothuroidea (Cucumaria echinata), CEL-I, showed potent mitogenic activity toward normal mouse spleen cells. The mitogenic activity of CEL-I, which reached a maximum at 100 microg/ml, was inhibited by GalNAc in a concentration-dependent manner. The mitogenic effect of CEL-I at 10 microg/ml on T cell- enriched splenocytes was at a similar level due to a well-known T cell mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A), at 10 microg/ml. Furthermore, CEL-I evoked a mitogenic response from nude mouse spleen cells, while no significant effects of Con A on this cell population were observed over a wide range of concentrations. These results suggest that CEL-I is a potent mitogenic lectin with the ability to stimulate both T and B cells. PMID:20699569

  10. Leaf-cutting ants toxicity of limonexic acid and degraded limonoids from Raulinoa echinata: X-ray structure of epoxy-fraxinellone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical survey of roots extracts of the South Brazilian endemic plant Raulinoa echinata Cowan, Rutaceae led to the isolation of known degraded limonoids: fraxinellone, fraxinellonone and epoxy-fraxinellone. The latter was previously isolated also from the stems, but the relative configuration could not be solved by NMR experiments. This paper deals with the X-ray diffraction analysis of epoxy-fraxinellone and its toxicity to leaf-cutting ants, describes the isolation of fraxinellonone and fraxinellone for the first time in Raulinoa. Epoxy-fraxinellone showed no toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa). The limonoid limonexic acid, isolated from stems, presented high toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants, diminishing considerably their longevity. (author)

  11. Leaf-cutting ants toxicity of limonexic acid and degraded limonoids from Raulinoa echinata: X-ray structure of epoxy-fraxinellone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biavatti, Maique W.; Westerlon, Rosangela [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: maique@univali.br; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima G.F. da; Fernandes, Joao B. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Penaflor, M. Fernanda G.V.; Bueno, Odair C. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais; Ellena, Javier [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-11-15

    Phytochemical survey of roots extracts of the South Brazilian endemic plant Raulinoa echinata Cowan, Rutaceae led to the isolation of known degraded limonoids: fraxinellone, fraxinellonone and epoxy-fraxinellone. The latter was previously isolated also from the stems, but the relative configuration could not be solved by NMR experiments. This paper deals with the X-ray diffraction analysis of epoxy-fraxinellone and its toxicity to leaf-cutting ants, describes the isolation of fraxinellonone and fraxinellone for the first time in Raulinoa. Epoxy-fraxinellone showed no toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa). The limonoid limonexic acid, isolated from stems, presented high toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants, diminishing considerably their longevity. (author)

  12. Clonal reproduction of Azolla filiculoides Lam.: implications for invasiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Zamundio, María del Rocio; Cirujano Bracamonte, Santos; Meco, Ana; García Murillo, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Clonal reproduction of Azolla filiculoides Lam., an aquatic floating fern, native from the American subtropics and a recent invader of Mediterranean wetlands, was assessed experimentally. Shoot fragmentation of the species was quantified under suitable room conditions for optimum growth. Azolla fililculoides showed high longevity, a low mortality percentage and a high potential for clonal reproduction (biomass obtained by shoot fragmentation from only one individual was multiplied ...

  13. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF IPOMOEA BATATAS (L.) LAM. DURING DROUGHT STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    La Rosa, R.; Contreras, J; Mendoza, A.; Macabilca, Y.; Gutierrez, A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the greatest problems in the world is desertification so we must to know physiological responses and morphological adaptations from species with tolerance to drought stress. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) is one of the most important crops of the world, especially because of its great tolerance to drought stress. Hence, we decided to know what morphophysiological and metabolic responses has I. batatas under drought stress. So, we got cuttings of variety INA-100, fro...

  14. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Maria; Ali Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate) and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate) along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and che...

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Maria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions.

  16. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  17. Using LAMS Version 2 for a game-based Learning Design

    OpenAIRE

    Dalziel, James

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of LAMS for modelling and running a game-based Learning Design. In particular, it focuses on the new features in LAMS Version 2 (including branching in LAMS V2.1) to implement the proposed game design. The article also considers implementation issues such as monitoring of student progress, teacher intervention in student activities, and "traces" (records of student activities). The article concludes with options for rapid re-use and adaptation of the proposed ga...

  18. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, P. S.; A.J.S. Raju

    2014-01-01

    Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag p...

  19. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima): incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

    OpenAIRE

    José George Ferreira Medeiros; Bruno Brito Silva; Aderson Costa Araújo Neto; Luciana Cordeiro Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and...

  20. Efeito da temperatura e do substrato na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effect of temperature and substrate on seed germination of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical que ocorre na região amazônica, sendo muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbanos. Para viabilizar a produção de mudas, determinaram-se a melhor temperatura e o melhor substrato para a germinação das sementes. Sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram teor médio de água de 7,46%, porcentagem de germinação de 3,33% e baixo ganho de água durante a embebição, mostrando dormência tegumentar. A escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 40 foi um método eficiente para superação da dormência, comprovado pela alta porcentagem de germinação e embebição de água em sementes escarificadas. A porcentagem de germinação dessas sementes foi influenciada pela temperatura, mas não pelo substrato. Com base no tempo médio de germinação, recomenda-se a temperatura de 30 ºC e areia como substrato para germinação mais rápida de sementes escarificadas.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. is a tropical legume tree occurring in the Amazon region, commonly used as medicine plant and in urban landscaping. To make seedling production feasible the best temperature and substrate for seed germination were determined. Recently harvested seeds present 7.46% mean moisture content, 3.33% germination percentage and lower moisture gain during soaking, showing tegument dormancy. Mechanical scarification with 40 grit sandpaper was proven an efficient method to overcome the dormancy, resulting in higher germination percentage and water imbibition in scarified seeds. The germination percentage of scarified seeds was influenced by temperature, but not by substrate. Based on the mean germination time, it is recommended the temperature of 30ºC and sand like substrate for faster germination of scarified seeds.

  1. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. LAM.) breeding through tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic embryogenesis was induced on MS medium containing NAA from apical meristems of aseptically growing sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.). It was observed 4 weeks (in earliest cultivar) after the explants were placed on callus induction media, MS containing 1 - 5 gm/INAA, 1 - 10 mg/l GA3, 3% sucrose and 0.2% Gellan Gum. Embryogenesis was observed in each cultivar tested, but the frequency of embryogenesis depended on genotype. Somatic embryogenesis was influenced by the amount of nitrogen supply in the callus induction media. The lower amount of nitrogen seemed to promote somatic embryogenesis. (author). 7 refs, 7 tabs

  2. Identication of potivirus present in lulo (solanum quitoense lam) Identificación de potivirus presentes en plantas de lulo (solanum quitoense lam)

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaranda J.; Aristizábal F.; Torres I.; Vaca J.

    1999-01-01

    The Solanaceous fruit Solanum quitoense Lam, is originally from Andean región of South America. This fruit has commercial prospective. The Leaf Yellowing Disease in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam) was first described by Zuluaga in 1991. It causes economically losses and has been associated with a virus attack. The disease's symptoms included stunting, yellow streaking or mosaic patterns in leaves, often with a curling of the leaf margins. In order to diagnostic the presence of virus, we applied ...

  3. Ladder Operators for Lamé Spheroconal Harmonic Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Méndez-Fragoso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of ladder operators in spheroconal coordinates and their respective actions on Lamé spheroconal harmonic polynomials are presented in this article. The polynomials are common eigenfunctions of the square of the angular momentum operator and of the asymmetry distribution Hamiltonian for the rotations of asymmetric molecules, in the body-fixed frame with principal axes. The first set of operators for Lamé polynomials of a given species and a fixed value of the square of the angular momentum raise and lower and lower and raise in complementary ways the quantum numbers $n_1$ and $n_2$ counting the respective nodal elliptical cones. The second set of operators consisting of the cartesian components $hat L_x$, $hat L_y$, $hat L_z$ of the angular momentum connect pairs of the four species of polynomials of a chosen kind and angular momentum. The third set of operators, the cartesian components $hat p_x$, $hat p_y$, $hat p_z$ of the linear momentum, connect pairs of the polynomials differing in one unit in their angular momentum and in their parities. Relationships among spheroconal harmonics at the levels of the three sets of operators are illustrated.

  4. Fabrication and evaluation of oral tablets using natural mucoadhesive agent from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. SW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevanandham S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucoadhesive sustained drug delivery systems of salbutamol sulfate were formulated using an isolated natural agent from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The isolated material was evaluated for various parameters, such as, melting point, viscosity, pH, elemental analysis, swelling index, phytochemical constituents, and solubility studies. The mucoadhesive characters of the isolated substance were identified by a comparative study with hydroxyl propyl cellulose and sodium alginate, by various in vitro methods, such as, Shear stress measurement, Wilhelmy′s method, Falling sphere method, and Detachment force measurement. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive oral tablets of salbutamol sulfate (100 mg, using isolated natural materials in different proportions, and in vitro release studies, were carried out for three different formulations according to the U.S.P apparatus two (paddle method. Each 100 mg tablet was taken in 900 ml of acid buffer 1.2 and maintained at 37˚C. After two hours the filtrate was collected and replaced in buffer 7.4. In vitro releases of three different formulations for nine hours were studied, which showed the sustained action of drug release with increasing the concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations.

  5. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han; Zhang, Le-Le; Liu, Qian-Yu; Feng, Lu; Ye, Yang; Lu, Jin-Jian; Lin, Li-Gen

    2016-01-01

    The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1-3) and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds 6-12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What's more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed. PMID:27322234

  6. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1–3 and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5, together with seven known compounds 6–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What’s more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed.

  7. Neurite Outgrowth and Neuroprotective Effects of Quercetin from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. on Cultured P19-Derived Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangsaengvit, Napat; Kitphati, Worawan; Tadtong, Sarin; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Nukoolkarn, Veena

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin has been isolated for the first time from ethyl acetate extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. C. mimosoides Lamk. (Fabaceae) or Cha rueat (Thai name) is an indigenous plant found in mixed deciduous forest in northern and north-eastern parts of Thailand. Thai rural people consume its young shoots and leaves as a fresh vegetable, as well as it is used for medicinal purposes.The antioxidant capacity in terms of radical scavenging activity of quercetin was determined as IC50 of 3.18 ± 0.07 µg/mL, which was higher than that of Trolox and ascorbic acid (12.54 ± 0.89 and 10.52 ± 0.48 µg/mL, resp.). The suppressive effect of quercetin on both purified and cellular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes was investigated as IC50 56.84 ± 2.64 and 36.60 ± 2.78 µg/mL, respectively. In order to further investigate the protective ability of quercetin on neuronal cells, P19-derived neurons were used as a neuronal model in this study. As a result, quercetin at a very low dose of 1 nM enhanced survival and induced neurite outgrowth of P19-derived neurons. Furthermore, this flavonoid also possessed significant protection against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation. Altogether, these findings suggest that quercetin is a multifunctional compound and promising valuable drugs candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:23840266

  8. Policy considerations for the introduction and promotion of the lactational amenorrhea method: advantages and disadvantages of LAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, K I; Kotelchuck, M

    1998-09-01

    Some attributes of LAM are unquestionably positive, such as the fact that it is effective. Clinical trials of LAM have upheld the Bellagio Consensus that the chance of pregnancy is less than 2% in the first 6 months postpartum in amenorrheic women who are fully or nearly fully breastfeeding. Secondary data analyses in numerous settings have drawn the same conclusion. Whether as a strategy or a method, used correctly or even if used imperfectly, LAM is a reliable way to avoid pregnancy. To the extent that LAM represents an additional contraceptive option, this is also clearly positive since a broad array of contraceptive options maximizes the likelihood of finding a good fit between user and method, and increases contraceptive use. Other characteristics of LAM represent potentially positive impacts. If LAM is shown to be an effective conduit to other modern methods, the implications are profoundly positive. If LAM is cost effective, for households and/or for programs, this will also make the method extraordinarily attractive. Conversely, some aspects of LAM are negative, such as the fact that it affords no protection against STDs, it requires counseling from a well-informed provider, and intensive breastfeeding can make heavy demands on the woman's time. Many of the remaining attributes of LAM may not be important to a policy decision about LAM promotion. For example, whether LAM is actualized as a strategy or a method may not be important to a decision to promote LAM, although it has a huge impact on how services are delivered. Some factors may be profound on a local or individual level. For example, one simple factor, such as the absence of full/nearly full breastfeeding, can rule out the method as an option, while another, such as the fact that it provides the needed waiting period during vasectomy counseling, can make LAM the method of choice. Although LAM seems unlikely to have widespread popularity in societies like the United States, within such settings are

  9. Amino acid sequence and carbohydrate-binding analysis of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific C-type lectin, CEL-I, from the Holothuroidea, Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Matsuo, Noriaki; Shiba, Kouhei; Nishinohara, Shoichi; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Sugawara, Hajime; Aoyagi, Haruhiko

    2002-01-01

    CEL-I is one of the Ca2+-dependent lectins that has been isolated from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata. This protein is composed of two identical subunits held by a single disulfide bond. The complete amino acid sequence of CEL-I was determined by sequencing the peptides produced by proteolytic fragmentation of S-pyridylethylated CEL-I. A subunit of CEL-I is composed of 140 amino acid residues. Two intrachain (Cys3-Cys14 and Cys31-Cys135) and one interchain (Cys36) disulfide bonds were also identified from an analysis of the cystine-containing peptides obtained from the intact protein. The similarity between the sequence of CEL-I and that of other C-type lectins was low, while the C-terminal region, including the putative Ca2+ and carbohydrate-binding sites, was relatively well conserved. When the carbohydrate-binding activity was examined by a solid-phase microplate assay, CEL-I showed much higher affinity for N-acetyl-D-galactosamine than for other galactose-related carbohydrates. The association constant of CEL-I for p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide (NP-GalNAc) was determined to be 2.3 x 10(4) M(-1), and the maximum number of bound NP-GalNAc was estimated to be 1.6 by an equilibrium dialysis experiment. PMID:11866098

  10. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and characterization of isolectin genes of hemolytic lectin CEL-III from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Shigeto; Yonekura, Masami; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    CEL-III is a hemolytic lectin purified from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata. Previous research has indictated that CEL-III is composed of several isoforms. Here we identified five CEL-III isolectin genes, designated CEL-III-L1, CEL-III-L2, CEL-III-S1, CEL-III-S2, and CEL-III-LS1, by cDNA cloning. The deduced amino acid sequences suggested they shared 94.0-99.8% identical residues. Among the amino acid residues involved in carbohydrate binding, the His residue, which contributes to stacking with sugar, in subdomain 1α was replaced by Tyr in CEL-III-L2. The recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli or insect cells. rCEL-III-L2 showed higher hemolytic activity than those of the other isolectins. Furthermore, an apparent oligomer band of rCEL-III-L2 was detected on erythrocyte membranes, although the other isolectins showed smear bands. These results suggest that Tyr36 of CEL-III-L2 is important for the expression of hemolytic activity and oligomerization. PMID:22313748

  11. Constituents of Holothuroidea, 18. Isolation and structure of biologically active disialo- and trisialo-gangliosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Fumiaki; Yamada, Koji; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuichi

    2006-09-01

    Three new disialo- and trisialo-gangliosides, CEG-6 (6), CEG-8 (8), and CEG-9 (9), were obtained, together with one known ganglioside, HLG-3 (7), from the lipid fraction of the chloroform/methanol extract of the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata. The structures of the new gangliosides were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence to be 1-O-[alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-->11)-(N-glycolyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->4)-(N-acetyl-alpha-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-ceramide (6) and 1-O-[(N-glycolyl-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->11)-(N-glycolyl-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->4)-(N-acetyl-D-neuraminosyl)-(2-->6)-D-glucopyranosyl]-ceramide (8, 9). The ceramide moieties of each compound were composed of an homogeneous sphingosine or phytosphingosine base and heterogeneous 2-hydroxy or nonhydroxylated fatty acid units. These gangliosides showed neuritogenic activity toward the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC-12 in the presence of nerve growth factor. PMID:16946538

  12. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4β?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4β?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4β?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4β?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 μL and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  13. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Rocha, Juliana C.B.; Mello, Joao C.P. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: mello@uem.br; Almeida, Glalber C. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 {mu}L and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Sharma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera tree is known as a Miracle tree as almost every part of this tree possesses product useful for humans. The leaves and pods are eaten. The plant is also reported to be medicinally important and almost all parts of the Moringa oleifera tree are considered to possess medicinal properties and are used in the treatment of ascites, rheumatism and venomous bites and as cardiac and circulatory stimulant Leaves are also known to have anti-oxidant properties and are known to cures hallucinations, dry tumors, hiccups and asthma. The root and bark are useful in treatment of heart complaints, eye diseases, inflammation, dyspepsia and enlargement of spleen. In Present study the antimicrobial activity was investigated by employing main model Kirby-bauer disc diffusion method. The results showed that 50% ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf have very little antibacterial activity and it shows mild inhibitory activity at high concentration of extract of Moringa oleifera.

  15. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  16. Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module (R-LAM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R-LAM (Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module), promises a new generation of both integrated navigation modules and stand-alone navigation subsystems including...

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Flovonoids from the Flowers of Butea Monosperma Lam (Pauk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four flavonoids, namely, butein (1), monospermoside (2), isobutrin (3) and butrin (4)were isolated from the dried flowers of Butea monosperma (Lam) Kuntze. The structures of compounds have been elucidated by UV, IR, NMR and mass spectroscopy

  18. Simultaneous identification and analysis of cassane diterpenoids in Caesalpinia minax Hance by high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shilong; Wu, Zhaohua; Fu, Chaofan; Wu, Caiyue; Yuan, Jiuzhi; Xian, Xiaoyan; Gao, Huiyuan

    2015-12-01

    Cassane diterpenoids were successfully and simultaneously identified in Caesalpinia minax Hance by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 59 peaks were detected, and among them 51 compounds, including 41 furanocassane diterpenoids, 10 furanolactone cassane diterpenoids were simultaneously identified and characterized on the basis of the protonated molecule, retention behavior, and fragments in MS(2) . Ten compounds, including seven novel compounds, were identified or tentatively identified for the first time in C. minax. In a positive ion mode, the fragmentation pathways of cassane diterpenoids were also analyzed for the first time. The relative amounts of the five main diterpenoids (caesalpinin L, caesalpinin F2 , bondcellpin C, caesalpinin E, and ξ-caesalmin) were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the newly discovered and known components of C. minax can be used to determine the material basis of bioactivity; this method can also be applied to analyze cassane diterpenoids in herbal medicines from the genus Caesalpinia belonging to the family Fabaceae. PMID:26394613

  19. Prevention of Alveolar Destruction and Airspace Enlargement in a Mouse Model of Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharova, Elena A; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Fehrenbach, Melane; Khavin, Irene; Ducka, Blerina; HINO, OKIO; Colby, Thomas V.; Merrilees, Mervyn J; Haczku, Angela; Albelda, Steven M.; Krymskaya, Vera P.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare genetic disease characterized by neoplastic growth of atypical smooth muscle–like LAM cells, destruction of lung parenchyma, obstruction of lymphatics, and formation of lung cysts, leading to spontaneous pneumothoraces (lung rupture and collapse) and progressive loss of pulmonary function. The disease is caused by mutational inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) or TSC2. By injecting TSC2-null cells int...

  20. LAMS as an assessment tool for teaching and learning English as a foreign language

    OpenAIRE

    Brenes-Castaño, Antonio; Contero-Urgal, Candela; Rodríguez-Gómez, Gregorio; Gallego-Noche, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe how LAMS (Learning Activity Management System) might help English language teachers to design and implement e-Learning-oriented e-Assessment and to enhance the techniques they employ to provide complete assessment units embracing all linguistic skills. In doing so, we present an example of an assessment unit in which such an implementation can be seen through the combination of different resources LAMS provides, thus improving the design of didactic sy...

  1. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario: Implications for Land Administration and Management (LAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Felino; Ballesteros, Marife M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...

  2. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  3. Crystal structure of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata: implications of domain structure for its membrane pore-formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Tatsuya; Yamasaki, Takayuki; Eto, Seiichiro; Sugawara, Hajime; Kurisu, Genji; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Kusunoki, Masami; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2004-08-27

    CEL-III is a Ca(2+)-dependent and galactose-specific lectin purified from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata, which exhibits hemolytic and hemagglutinating activities. Six molecules of CEL-III are assumed to oligomerize to form an ion-permeable pore in the cell membrane. We have determined the crystal structure of CELIII by using single isomorphous replacement aided by anomalous scattering in lead at 1.7 A resolution. CEL-III consists of three distinct domains as follows: the N-terminal two carbohydrate-binding domains (1 and 2), which adopt beta-trefoil folds such as the B-chain of ricin and are members of the (QXW)(3) motif family; and domain 3, which is a novel fold composed of two alpha-helices and one beta-sandwich. CEL-III is the first Ca(2+)-dependent lectin structure with two beta-trefoil folds. Despite sharing the structure of the B-chain of ricin, CEL-III binds five Ca(2+) ions at five of the six subdomains in both domains 1 and 2. Considering the relatively high similarity among the five subdomains, they are putative binding sites for galactose-related carbohydrates, although it remains to be elucidated whether bound Ca(2+) is directly involved in interaction with carbohydrates. The paucity of hydrophobic interactions in the interfaces between the domains and biochemical data suggest that these domains rearrange upon carbohydrate binding in the erythrocyte membrane. This conformational change may be responsible for oligomerization of CEL-III molecules and hemolysis in the erythrocyte membranes. PMID:15194688

  4. Luffa echinata Roxb. Induces Human Colon Cancer Cell (HT-29 Death by Triggering the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative properties and cell death mechanism induced by the extract of the fruits of Luffa echinata Roxb. (LER were investigated. The methanolic extract of LER inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HT-29 in both dose-dependent and time-dependent manners and caused a significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells. In addition, obvious shrinkage and destruction of the monolayer were observed in LER-treated cells, but not in untreated cells. Analysis of the cell cycle after treatment of HT-29 cells with various concentrations indicated that LER extracts inhibited the cellular proliferation of HT-29 cells via G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle. The Reactive oxygen species (ROS level determination revealed that LER extracts induced apoptotic cell death via ROS generation. In addition, LER treatment led to a rapid drop in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP as a decrease in fluorescence. The transcripts of several apoptosis-related genes were investigated by RT-PCR analysis. The caspase-3 transcripts of HT-29 cells significantly accumulated and the level of Bcl-XL mRNA was decreased after treatment with LER extract. Furthermore, the ratio of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis genes (Bax and Bcl-2 was sharply increased from 1.6 to 54.1. These experiments suggest that LER has anticancer properties via inducing the apoptosis in colon cancer cells, which provided the impetus for further studies on the therapeutic potential of LER against human colon carcinoma.

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar; Vrunda Vernekar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenu...

  6. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  7. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil Wood anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, an endemic species of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois municípios acima citados, em 2002. As análises das amostras seguiram os métodos usualmente empregados em estudo de anatomia de madeiras. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos do lenho e a elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que Caesalpinia pyramidalis revela grande quantidade de celulose e lignina, portanto apresentou perspectivas seguras para produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal. Pode-se propor o uso do lenho do tronco e dos galhos como combustível, desde a fase jovem da madeira, pela grande concentração de fibras, menor concentração de vasos e menor quantidade de parênquima, nos espécimes dos dois municípios.This work aimed to study the anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood, used by local populations in the municipalities of Serra Talhada and Sertânia (Pernambuco, to assess the percentage of wood elements in the trunk and branches in both localities, and in the tree itself, in order to establish total wood potential for energy production. Samples of the trunk (dbh and of branches from six trees of the species were collected in 2002. Sample analysis followed the usual methods of wood anatomy studies. Based on the anatomical parameters of the trunk and the high basic density (>0.84 g/cm³, we conclude that Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood contains an enormous amount of cellulose and lignin. Due to these features, this species showed good perspectives for the production of alcohol and charcoal. The

  8. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil Wood anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), an endemic species of Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva; Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos Santos; Peter Gasson; David Cutler

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois muni...

  9. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant' Anna, Carlos M.R., E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.b [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  10. Study of Antipyretic Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

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    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to screen the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. as per the method discribed by Bhalla et.al, (1971. Thirty six healthy rats weighing between 200-250gms were divided into six groups of six animals each, with 50% sex ratio. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 3 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 15% of brewer’s yeast and 2% gum acacia in normal saline sub-cutaneously below the nape of neck @ 1ml/100gm of animal weight. The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The extract showed marked antipyretic activity in a dose dependent manner. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 215-216

  11. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF IPOMOEA BATATAS (L. LAM. DURING DROUGHT STRESS

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    La Rosa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems in the world is desertification so we must to know physiological responses and morphological adaptations from species with tolerance to drought stress. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. is one of the most important crops of the world, especially because of its great tolerance to drought stress. Hence, we decided to know what morphophysiological and metabolic responses has I. batatas under drought stress. So, we got cuttings of variety INA-100, from INIA Huaral, and were planted in 22 recipients of 4 L with substrate consisting in a mixing of sand and humus (3:1. Half of them were irrigated monthly and other half only receives water to establish plants and no more after that. We measured transpiration, histological changes in leaves and metabolic changes at protein and starch level. We confirmed transpiration is not affected for air humidity or substrate humidity. But, the effect of drought can be better observed in foliage growth, therefore in histological changes in leaves. No significance in concentration of proteins but significance in carbohydrates concentration shows an osmotic regulation in order to maintain stomata open and also an increase in photosynthetic activity in stressed plants.

  12. Sistema de reprodução de Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Lam. DC Reproduction system of Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Lam. DC

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    Paulo José Fernandes Guimarães

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available R. dichotoma (Lam. DC. é um arbusto que ocorre na região central do Brasil em ambientes úmidos, brejosos, formando nestes locais grandes populações. O período de floração desta espécie é longo de 6-8 meses. Neste estudo realizado no município de Tanabi (São Paulo, o pico de floração ocorreu no mês de abril. Semelhante ao observado em outras Melastomataceae de anteras tubulares e deiscência poricida, R. dichotoma é polinizada por abelhas vibradoras. Este estudo constatou que esta espécie é autocompatível com 59% de sucesso obtido nas autopolinizações manuais (n=90 e não foi observada a presença de agamospernmia (n=85. A polinização cruzada (xenogamia foi predominante, sendo que 66% das flores polinizadas desenvolveram frutos (n=92. Surpreendentemente, apesar desta espécie apresentar anteras poricidas constatou-se a ocorrência de autopolinização espontânea em 33% das flores (n=92.R. dichotoma (Lam.. DC. is a shrub native of Central Brazil, occurring in large population in wet, marsh like environment. The present study was carried out at the municipality of Tanabi (São Paulo State. The flowering season of this species is long lasting ca. 6-8 months, but April is the month when most individuals are in flower. Similar to other Melastomataceae species possessing tubular and poricidal anthers, R. dichotoma is pollinated by buzz bees. The species, as indicated in this study, is self-compatible, 59% of success resulted from artificial self-pollination (n=90. Agamospermy did not occur (n=85. Cross pollination (xenogamy proved to be predominant: 66% fruits was obtained from cross-pollinated flowers (n=92. Although the present species has poricidal anthers, surprisingly spontaneous sef-pollination was observed 33% of success (n=92.

  13. Atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz Antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz

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    D.C. Braz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz pertence a família Crassulaceae e é conhecida vulgarmente como coirama, folha-da-fortuna, ou folha-do-ar, sendo usada popularmente como antifúngico, no tratamento da hipertensão, em úlceras e em inflamações. O presente estudo objetivou analisar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz em modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por indometacina em Rattus norvegicus, machos (150 a 250 g com idade de 70 dias. Os animais receberam por via oral: água, extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz (1 e 2 g Kg-1 ou ranitidina (60 mg Kg-1 , fármaco com ação gastroprotetora conhecida que atua bloqueando os receptores de histamina H2. Após uma hora dos tratamentos, todos animais receberam indometacina via intraperitoneal. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz possui ação gastroprotetora; na dose de 1 g Kg-1 inibiu 45,49% o índice de ulceração induzido pela indometacina, e, na dose de 2 g Kg-1, inibiu 49,50%. Sugere-se o envolvimento de vários mecanismos na ação gastroprotetora dessa planta e não somente uma possível participação das prostaglandinas nesse efeito. Estudos futuros com diferentes modelos de indução de úlcera gástrica tornam-se necessários para melhor avaliar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz.Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz belongs to the family Crassulaceae, is popularly known as "coirama", "folha-da-fortuna", or "folha-do-ar" and has been commonly used as antifungal, in the treatment of hypertension, ulcers and inflammation. The present study aimed to analyze the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz using indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in Rattus norvegicus, males (150-250 g aged 70 days old. The animals received by the oral route: water, aqueous extract from

  14. Antimicrobial activity of α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-ω-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl polymethylene from caesalpinia bonducella (L. flem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Kavitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound, α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-w-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-ylpolymethylene, isolated from ethyl acetate leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Flem. was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus citrus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. using agar diffusion method. The compound exerted inhibitory zone at all concentrations and revealed the concentration-dependent activity against all tested bacterial and yeast strains comparable to standards streptomycin sulphate and gentamycin for bacteria and fluconazole and griseofulvin for Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. The inhibition zones were wider and clear for C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. (IZ >20 mm and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. vulgaris and E. coli zones were greater than standards tested, whereas, zones for Klebsiella sp. and S. aureus were similar to standards.

  15. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research... Research Corporation (Lam), located in Fremont, California. The application was submitted pursuant to the... Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230-0002, and in the ``Reading Room'' section of the Board's Web...

  16. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  17. Morfo-anatomia foliar de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae Leaf morphoanatomy of Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae

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    A.M Donato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. são usadas na medicina popular como hipoglicemiantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfológica e anatomicamente as folhas desta planta, de modo que os dados obtidos possam ser utilizados como referência em exames de controle de qualidade de amostras de fármacos, com vistas a verificar a autenticidade. Folhas inteiras foram diafanizadas e coradas para o estudo da nervação. Secções transversais do pecíolo e transversais e paradérmicas da lâmina foliar foram analisadas em microscópio óptico (MO e a superfície do limbo foi observada, também, em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Foram aplicados testes histoquímicos em material fresco, para identificação e localização de glicídios, amido, taninos, lignina, cristais e sílica. Morfologicamente, a folha é simples, oval-elíptica, com margem inteira, base aguda, ápice acuminado e textura cartácea. A venação é do tipo camptódromo-broquidódromo. Anatomicamente, a folha é hipostomática, com mesofilo compacto e dorsiventral, com três estratos de parênquima paliçádico. A epiderme é uniestratificada, silicificada em algumas regiões e as células exibem paredes anticlinais retas. Em posição subepidérmica ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais e acompanhados por séries cristalíferas. Os dados obtidos são comparados com os de outras espécies de Myrtaceae e conclui-se que as características morfológicas e anatômicas de M. multiflora contribuem para a diagnose.Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. leaves have been used in folk medicine as hypoglycemic. The aim of this work is to describe morphoanatomically the leaves of this plant in order to use the obtained data as reference in quality control tests of drug samples, investigating their authenticity. Whole leaves were diaphanized and stained for venation study. Petiole transverse sections and leaf blade

  18. Tests of vigour in seeds of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. / Testes de vigor em sementes de Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esmeralda S. P. Desmatlê

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The work had as objective to verify the efficiency of vigour tests for identification of the physiologic potential in four lots of seeds of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. The study was developed at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis - UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP. Four lots of seeds from three places of São Paulo state were used: lots I and II, collected in the municipal district of Jaboticabal in 2000 and 2001; lot II,: collected in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro and lot IV, Luiz Antonio, both in 2001. To break seed dormancy the seeds used in all the tests were escarified with sulfuric acid during 50 minutes, and washed in running water during 20 minutes. The evoluations were: seed moisture content, germination percentage, first count test, germination speed index and electric conductivity with different numbers of seeds (50, 75, 100 put to soak in plastic containing 50 and 75mL of water, to the temperature at 250C, during for 72 hours. The seeds of the lot originating from lot III, presented physiologic potential superior to the other studied lots. The tests of electric conductivity, first count, and index of germination speed were appropriate for evaluation of the physiologic potential of the lots. For the electric conductivity test other studies are necessary, involving a larger number of lots, seeking the use possibility a pattern vigour test, while the tests of first count and index of germination speed were appropriate for evaluation of the vigour.O trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a eficiência dos testes de vigor para identificação do potencial fisiológico em sementes de Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. O estudo foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes – UNESP/Jaboticabal/SP, utilizando-se quatro lotes de sementes: sendo lotes I e II, coletados no município de Jaboticabal em 2000 e 2001, respectivamente lote III em Santa Rita do Passo Quatro e lote IV, em Luiz Antonio, ambos em 2001. Para superação da dormência, realizou-se a escarifica

  19. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  20. Chan-Evans-Lam Amination of Boronic Acid Pinacol (BPin) Esters: Overcoming the Aryl Amine Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantourout, Julien C; Law, Robert P; Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Atkinson, Stephen J; Watson, Allan J B

    2016-05-01

    The Chan-Evans-Lam reaction is a valuable C-N bond forming process. However, aryl boronic acid pinacol (BPin) ester reagents can be difficult coupling partners that often deliver low yields, in particular in reactions with aryl amines. Herein, we report effective reaction conditions for the Chan-Evans-Lam amination of aryl BPin with alkyl and aryl amines. A mixed MeCN/EtOH solvent system was found to enable effective C-N bond formation using aryl amines while EtOH is not required for the coupling of alkyl amines. PMID:27045570

  1. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Elshan Shamilov; Asim Abdullayev; Ibragim Azizov; Sitara Mustafaeva; Sevil Zeynalova

    2013-01-01

    The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL.) and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL.) which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  2. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J. M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) pr...

  3. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information. PMID:22100506

  4. Laser-assisted Microdissection (LAM) as a Tool for Transcriptional Profiling of Individual Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez Rueda, Ana Marcela; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schmidt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of developmental processes at the molecular level requires insights into transcriptional regulation, and thus the transcriptome, at the level of individual cell types. While the methods described here are generally applicable to a wide range of species and cell types, our research focuses on plant reproduction. Plant cultivation and seed production is of crucial importance for human and animal nutrition. A detailed understanding of the regulatory networks that govern the formation of the reproductive lineage (germline) and ultimately of seeds is a precondition for the targeted manipulation of plant reproduction. In particular, the engineering of apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) into crop plants promises great improvements, as it leads to the formation of clonal seeds that are genetically identical to the mother plant. Consequently, the cell types of the female germline are of major importance for the understanding and engineering of apomixis. However, as the corresponding cells are deeply embedded within the floral tissues, they are very difficult to access for experimental analyses, including cell-type specific transcriptomics. To overcome this limitation, sections of individual cells can be isolated by laser-assisted microdissection (LAM). While LAM in combination with transcriptional profiling allows the identification of genes and pathways active in any cell type with high specificity, establishing a suitable protocol can be challenging. Specifically, the quality of RNA obtained after LAM can be compromised, especially when small, single cells are targeted. To circumvent this problem, we have established a workflow for LAM that reproducibly results in high RNA quality that is well suitable for transcriptomics, as exemplified here by the isolation of cells of the female germline in apomictic Boechera. In this protocol, procedures are described for tissue preparation and LAM, also with regard to RNA extraction and quality control

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains, P1-7a, P1-9, P1-13-1a, P1-16-1b, P1-25, and P1-26, Which Induce Larval Settlement and Metamorphosis in Hydractinia echinata

    OpenAIRE

    Klassen, Jonathan L; Wolf, Thomas; Rischer, Maja; Guo, Huijuan; Shelest, Ekaterina; Clardy, Jon; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2015-01-01

    To gain a broader understanding of the importance of a surface-associated lifestyle and morphogenic capability, we have assembled and annotated the genome sequences of Pseudoalteromonas strains P1-7a, P1-9, P1-13-1a, P1-16-1b, P1-25, and P1-26, isolated from Hydractinia echinata. These genomes will allow detailed studies on bacterial factors mediating interkingdom communication.

  6. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  7. Invitro and Invivo anticancer activity of Ethanolic extract of Canthium Parviflorum Lam on DLA and Hela cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Purushoth Prabhu T; Selvakumari.S; Panneerselvam P; Sivaraman.D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Wild Jessamine, Canthium Parviflorum Lam, ( fam: Rubiaceae) is traditionally used for snake bite in some villages in shimoga district of Karnataka. Canthium Species are used in the treatment of tumor, cough, astringent and anthlementic. Objective: In this study, invitro and invivo anticancer activity of crude ethanolic extracts from the leaves of Canthium Parviflorum Lam was investigated Method: The invitro anticancer activity was measured by MTT assay and Exclusion method. The in...

  8. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for study on stone artefacts in Lam Ha'sites of Lam Dong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 55 samples of stone artifacts at some prehistory monuments in Lam Ha District. The concentration of 24 elements: Al, V, Mn, Cl, Na, K, As, La, Sm, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ce, Nd, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th in these stone artifacts were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element concentration of the stone samples were processed by statistical methods (including summary statistic and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Mahalanobis Distance (MD). Results showed that the concentration of the samples in these sites are similar and the sources of stone artefacts come from the locally rock sources. (author)

  9. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima: incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and the control was immersed in sterile water. For the germination test, 200 seeds were used, distributed in four replicates of 50 seeds per treatment. The vigor tests consisted of the first count and germination speed index. The evaluation of fungi transmission were performed during the germination test, by counting the symptoms in the primary root, hypocotyl and epicotyl. The treatments reduced the incidence of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. Nigrospora sp and Pestalotiasp..It was also found the fungus Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. associated with the lesions in the seed integument. The treatments provided a higher percentage of germination of seedlings. Higher percentages of germination were observed when oil extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum vulgare were used.

  10. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  11. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  12. Antisickling properties of divanilloylquinic acids isolated from Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, B; Jansen, O; Angenot, L; Guissou, I P; Frédérich, M; Fondu, P; Tits, M

    2009-03-01

    Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (syn. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides) (Rutaceae) is the most cited Fagara species for the treatment and the prevention of sickle cell disease crisis. Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a public health problem in many countries particularly in Africa. The present study was designed to evaluate the antisickling properties of three isomeric divanilloylquinic acids (3,4-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin A; 3,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin B and 4,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin C) identified previously by LC/MS/NMR analysis in the root bark of F. zanthoxyloides [Ouattara et al., 2004. LC/MS/NMR analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. Phytochemistry 65, 1145-1151]. The three isomers showed interesting antisickling properties which increased from burkinabins A to C. PMID:19110407

  13. Lunar digital elevation model and elevation distribution model based on Chang’E-1 LAM data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More than 8.2 million effective data samples were obtained by the Chang’E-1 Laser Altimeter (LAM).In order to produce a global topographic model of the moon with improved accuracy,a hierarchical many-knot spline method was proposed in this paper.This algorithm makes use of a hierarchy of control lattices to approximate or interpolate the LAM data.Based on the proposed algorithm,a 0.0625°×0.0625° grid of global lunar DEM was obtained and it was compared with ULCN2005,CLTMs01 and Kaguya models,respectively.At the same time,this paper explored the elevation distribution law and established the elevation distribution model.It is shown that the global lunar and nearside elevation distribution is positively skewed and leptokurtic normal distribution,and the farside elevation distribution is a positively skewed and platykurtic normal distribution.

  14. Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol Biji Kelor (Moringaoleifera Lam.) terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Manurung, Putri Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Kelor, Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant for whole body, because it has a high nutritional value. Moringa seeds contain bioactive compounds rhamnosyloxy - benzyl - isothiocyanate , which is able to neutralize the particles of mud as well, so it could potentially be used as a natural coagulant to clean water . Its ability to precipitate many metal ions dissolved and harmful bacteria such as Escherichia coli , and Salmonella typymurium Streptocoocus faecalis . This...

  15. Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Renata Longhini; dos Santos, Paulo Victor P.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Marcos Luciano Bruschi; Mello, João Carlos P

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (“Mutamba”), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2◦C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for det...

  16. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

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    Elshan Shamilov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL. and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL. which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  17. Ecological Study, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. in Golestan province (Deraznoo Mountain, Iran

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    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many of Ziziphora species have been used in traditional medicine in North of Iran. This work was determined on ecological requirements, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. from Bovanloo region, Iran. Materials and Methods: Aerial parts of plant in blooming were collected from Deraznoo mountain (2500 m in August 2013, ecological and traditional data were recorded. The aqueous and methanol extracts were isolated by maceration, antioxidant capacity were measured by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, reducing power (RP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in comparison with butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole BHA antioxidant standard and then their antibacterial activity were studied in vitro against 9 gram positive and negative bacteria by using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Z. clinopodioides Lam often grows in sunny environment in Deraznoo mountain (2500 m, with annual rainfall of 334 mm and annual temperature of 10.3°C in temperate cold climate and sandy loam soil with Ec = 0.6 and pH = 6.9. It has been used by the rural people as an antispasm, anti-inflammatory, antifungal , anti-infective, sedative and expectorant agent to treat cold, flu, diarrhea, gasterointestinal disorder and stomach ache. The ethanol extract of plant had high antioxidant activity with IC50 values (32.5 ± 0.4 μg/ml especially in DPPH assay and exhibited good antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with IZ (28.1 ± 0.5, 24.8 ± 0.1, 19.4 ± 1.1 and 14.8 ± 1 mm, respectively with high MIC value of 14.5 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The methanol extract of Z. clinopodioides Lam. have suitable antibacterial and antioxidant activity which can be used as natural anti-infective agent to treat many infectious diseases.

  18. Preliminary assessment of the chemical stability of dried extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Longhini, Renata; dos Santos, Paulo Victor P.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; João Carlos P. Mello

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (“Mutamba”), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determ...

  19. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

    OpenAIRE

    Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E.; Adelodun L Kolapo; Folarin, Akintomiwa O.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, ph...

  20. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

  1. DIFFERENT SUBSTRATA EFFECTS IN THE GERMINATION OF Ochroma pyramidale (CAV. EX LAM.) URB. (BOMBACACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino; Breno Pinto Rayol

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of different substrata in the germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urb. (Bombacaceae). The experiment was conducted in delineation randomized with three treatments (substratum) and four repetitions of 25 seeds. The following substrata had been tested: sand + vermiculite (1:1); vermiculite and, sand + shavings (1:1). The effect of substrata through the percentage of germination of the seeds, average time of germination and index...

  2. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar Amali Muhammad; Nur Aimi Syarina Pauzi; Palanisamy Arulselvan; Faridah Abas; Sharida Fakurazi

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to...

  3. Bacteriophage lambda receptor site on the Escherichia coli K-12 LamB protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Gehring, K; Charbit, A; Brissaud, E; Hofnung, M

    1987-01-01

    We have analyzed eight new phage-resistant missense mutations in lamB. These mutations identify five new amino acid residues essential for phage lambda adsorption. Two mutations at positions 245 and 382 affect residues which were previously identified, but lead to different amino acid changes. Three mutations at residues 163, 164, and 250 enlarge and confirm previously proposed phage receptor sites. Two different mutations at residue 259 and one at 18 alter residues previously suggested as fa...

  4. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF FRUITS OF MALLOTUS PHILIPPENENSIS (LAM). MUELL- ARG (EUPHORBIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadam Prasad Vijay; Bhingare Chandrashekhar Laxman; Soni Surajkumar Bansilal; Rathi Sandesh Ashok; Patil Manohar Janardhan

    2013-01-01

    Correct identification of starting material is necessary to ensure the quality of herbal medicines. Pharmacognostic evaluation is first step towards establishing identity and purity of crude drug. With this aim the present paper deals with study of pharmacognostic and physicochemical characteristics of fruits of Mallotus philippinensis (lam) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). The powder of Mallotus philippinensis was used for detection of various chemical constituents. The transverse section and th...

  5. Comparative Study of Erythrina indica Lam. (Febaceae) Leaves Extracts for Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Sakat, SS; Juvekar, AR

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam leaves by in vitro methods viz. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method on isolated rat liver tissues. Quantitative analysis of antioxidative components like total amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols were estimated using the spec...

  6. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, P Sathiya; Sasikumar, J M; Gowsigan, G

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  7. [Isolation of chemical constituents from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with recycling preparative high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guozhu; Meng, Qingyan; Luo, Bi; Ge, Zhenghong; Liu, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    The combination of alternate recycling and direct recycling preparative liquid chromatography method was developed for the isolation of chemical constituents from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The crude extract was obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by solvent extraction, column chromatography and reversed-phase (RP) flash chromatography. All the separations were performed with methanol and water as mobile phases and the developed recycling preparative method was used with twin RP columns switched by a two-position ten-way valve for the separation. The mobile phase was recycled in close loop with a two-position six-way valve. The fraction I and fraction II from reversed-phase flash chromatography were selected for the demonstration of separation power of the proposed protocol, and five compounds were obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The isolated five compounds were identified as pinocembrin-7-O-rutinoside, pinocembrin-7-O-rutinoside, acacetin-7-O-rutinoside, picein and protocatechuic acid with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results showed that the developed preparation method exhibited higher separation efficiency with less mobile phase used than the reported methods, and could be expected as an effective method for the separation of complex natural products, especially the compounds with similar structures. PMID:25958674

  8. INTEGRATING LMSs IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS:Greek Teachers’ Initial Perceptions about LAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros PAPADAKIS,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available E-learning with the use of Learning Management Systems, has been increasingly adopted in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education with the expectation to increase students’ motivation and infuse activity-centred learning strategies with various educational benefits. This study has investigated the initial perceptions of Greek teachers about the integration of LAMS, a Learning Activity Management System, in the educational praxis. Through a multifaceted research method, involving a small scale participatory action research, the research team attempted to investigate the preconditions required to integrate LAMS in the everyday lesson. Two tutorial workshops were organized with the participation of 46 educators from geographically diverse urban areas, from K-12 to Tertiary Education. Results indicated that teachers have developed a positive attitude towards LAMS and the use of collaborative online tools during the educational process. Although teachers have certain objections on integrating LMSs, which stem mainly from the current status of the Greek educational system, they accept relative advantages of integrating online collaborative approaches over the traditional face-to-face approach. Well-organized and carefully implemented tutorial workshops can spark teachers’ interest and bring about change in the educational process. Small scale interventions such as these can prove to foster dialogue among teachers of various backgrounds and set the foundations to create online communities of practice for innovative teachers.

  9. Interaction of Bacteriophage l with Its E. coli Receptor, LamB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy Chatterjee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The initial step of viral infection is the binding of a virus onto the host cell surface. This first viral-host interaction would determine subsequent infection steps and the fate of the entire infection process. A basic understating of the underlining mechanism of initial virus-host binding is a prerequisite for establishing the nature of viral infection. Bacteriophage λ and its host Escherichia coli serve as an excellent paradigm for this purpose. λ phages bind to specific receptors, LamB, on the host cell surface during the infection process. The interaction of bacteriophage λ with the LamB receptor has been the topic of many studies, resulting in wealth of information on the structure, biochemical properties and molecular biology of this system. Recently, imaging studies using fluorescently labeled phages and its receptor unveil the role of spatiotemporal dynamics and divulge the importance of stochasticity from hidden variables in the infection outcomes. The scope of this article is to review the present state of research on the interaction of bacteriophage λ and its E. coli receptor, LamB.

  10. Differentially methylated obligatory epialleles modulate context-dependent LAM gene expression in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedd, Laura; Kucharski, Robert; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Differential intragenic methylation in social insects has been hailed as a prime mover of environmentally driven organismal plasticity and even as evidence for genomic imprinting. However, very little experimental work has been done to test these ideas and to prove the validity of such claims. Here we analyze in detail differentially methylated obligatory epialleles of a conserved gene encoding lysosomal α-mannosidase (AmLAM) in the honeybee. We combined genotyping of progenies derived from colonies founded by single drone inseminated queens, ultra-deep allele-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing, and gene expression to reveal how sequence variants, DNA methylation, and transcription interrelate. We show that both methylated and non-methylated states of AmLAM follow Mendelian inheritance patterns and are strongly influenced by polymorphic changes in DNA. Increased methylation of a given allele correlates with higher levels of context-dependent AmLAM expression and appears to affect the transcription of an antisense long noncoding RNA. No evidence of allelic imbalance or imprinting involved in this process has been found. Our data suggest that by generating alternate methylation states that affect gene expression, sequence variants provide organisms with a high level of epigenetic flexibility that can be used to select appropriate responses in various contexts. This study represents the first effort to integrate DNA sequence variants, gene expression, and methylation in a social insect to advance our understanding of their relationships in the context of causality. PMID:26507253

  11. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of the hydro-methanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishalay Jana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No satisfactory effective treatment is available yet to cure diabetes mellitus. Though, synthetic drugs are used but there are several drawbacks. The attributed antihyperglycemic effects of many traditional plants are due to their ability for the management of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A hydromethanolic extract was administered orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 21 days. Its effects on the fasting blood glucose (FBG level, activities of key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the effect on the lipid peroxidation level in hepatic tissues were measured. Glycogen levels were also assessed in hepatic and skeletal muscles and some toxicity parameters, such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and alkaline phosphates activities were measured. Results: Treatment of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 recovery in the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes along with correction in FBG and glycogen levels as compared with the untreated diabetic group. The extract also resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 recovery in the activities of toxicity assessment enzyme parameters. Activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the lipid peroxidation levels were also recovered significantly (P < 0.05 after the treatment of the extract. The corrective effects produced by the extract were compared with the standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. Conclusion: Our findings provide that the extract shows possible antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  12. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

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    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  13. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  14. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest. PMID:25851516

  15. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems. PMID:24077919

  16. Design of Automatic Audit System of Medical Expenses Based on LAM/MPI Parallel Computing%基于LAM/MPI并行运算技术实现医疗费用自动审核的系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2010-01-01

    基于LAM/MPI并行运算技术,本文提出实现对医疗费用明细进行自动审核的系统设计.通过LAM/MPI的并行运算集群与Oracle底层OCI的直接交互访问,对药品明细进行计算审核,剔除违规药品,可以减少人工审核的工作量并提高管理效率.

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance.

  18. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  19. Efficient Design for the Implementation of Wong-Lam Multicast Authentication Protocol Using Two-Levels of Parallelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada F. Elkabbany

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Group communication can benefit from Internet Protocol (IP multicast protocol to achieve efficient exchange of messages. However, IP multicast does not provide any mechanisms for authentication. In literature, many solutions to solve this problem were presented. It has been shown that Wong and Lam protocol is the only protocol that can resist both packet loss and pollution attacks. In contrast, it has high computation and communication overheads. In the present paper, an efficient design for the implementation of Wong and Lam multicast authentication protocol is proposed. In order to solve the computation overhead problem, we use two-levels of parallelism. To reduce the communication overhead, we use Universal Message Authentication Codes (UMAC instead of hash functions. The design is analyzed for both NTRU and elliptic curve cryptography signature algorithms. The analysis shows that the proposed design decreases significantly the execution time of Wong-Lam protocol which makes it suitable for real-time applications.

  20. Formulasi Bedak Kompak Menggunakan Ekstrak Buah Merah (pandanus conoideus lam.) Sebagai Pewarna

    OpenAIRE

    Berhitu, Maria Renata

    2016-01-01

    Compact powder is widely used types of cosmetic and powder color is an factor that affects consumer acceptance of the product. Pandanus conoideus Lam known as red fruit of Papua has a attractive red color, can be used as natural dyes because contain carotenoids. The purpose of this study was to formulate a powder compact by using dyes of red fruit extracts. The extraction of the dye from the red fruit was done by maceration using ethanol 96%, and then extract concentrated by rotary evapora...

  1. Induction of anthocyanins accumulation by methyl jasmonate in shoots of Crassula multicava Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Saniewski; Marcin Harbowicz; Jerzy Puchalski

    2012-01-01

    In Crassula multicava Lam. anthocyanins are formed naturally mostly in the stem near nodes and only traces in other parts of internodes. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) applied in lanolin paste at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% on the middle part of internodes greatly stimulated anthocyanins accumulation in the internodes and in the nodes of Crassula multicava. The stimulatory effect was higher in younger tissues of the Crassula multicava stem than in older ones, and depends on the u...

  2. Induction of anthocyanins accumulation by methyl jasmonate in shoots of Crassula multicava Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Crassula multicava Lam. anthocyanins are formed naturally mostly in the stem near nodes and only traces in other parts of internodes. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me applied in lanolin paste at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% on the middle part of internodes greatly stimulated anthocyanins accumulation in the internodes and in the nodes of Crassula multicava. The stimulatory effect was higher in younger tissues of the Crassula multicava stem than in older ones, and depends on the used concentration of JA-Me. The possible role of jasmonates on anthocyanins formation in Crassula multicava is discussed.

  3. Identificación de potivirus presentes en plantas de lulo (solanum quitoense lam)

    OpenAIRE

    Vaca, J.; Torres, I.; Peñaranda, J.; F. Aristizábal

    2011-01-01

    El lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.), siendo una planta nativa de la región andina con gran potencial comercial, aún está en proceso de domesticación y presenta problemas fitosanitarios de importancia. La enfermedad del Amarillamiento de la hoja que causa pérdidas importantes fue descrita por Zuluaga (1996); de acuerdo con su sintomatología (enanismo, muestras de patrones de amarillamiento o de mosaico en hojas, las que a su vez sufren enrollamientos de los bordes hacia la parte baja), se atribuí...

  4. NGRI LAM-MC-ICPMS National Facility: reproducibility of Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory facility was established at the NGRI, primarily to support research in Isotope Geochemistry and Geochronology. Central to this facility are a Multiple Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS: Nu Plasma HR, Nu Instruments, UK) and a 213 nm Nd-YAG UV Laser Ablation Microprobe (LAM: UP-213, New Wave Research, USA) and a clean chemistry laboratory for dissolution and chromatographic extraction of a range of elements. This article presents a summary of the accuracy and precision of MC-ICPMS Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic measurements (solution mode) on Standard Reference Materials: SRM-987, JNdi and JMC-475 respectively, measured between October 2007 and August 2009

  5. Firewood yields of individual trees of Guazuma Ulmifolia Lam. In Pastures in Hojancha Guanacaste - Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, R.; Rose, D.

    1984-12-01

    Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (guacimo), because of its wide distribution, easy handling, and high firewood quality, is a promising native species for firewood production in the wet and dry regions of Central America. It is possible to make an accurate estimate of the firewood weight of the crown of a guacimo tree that has been periodically harvested, using regression models based on basal diameter of the branches and diameter at breast height crown diameter and age. Several firewood weight tables were developed which can be used to make estimates for periodically harvested individual trees growing in pastures.

  6. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A; C. H. Janaki Devi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluates the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Cananga odorata Lam (EECO) in experimental animals. Methods: Acute toxicity test was done following OECD guidelines. Carrageenan induced paw edema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of EECO (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. p.o) were used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st hr, ...

  7. Interaction of human laminin receptor with Sup35, the [PSI⁺] prion-forming protein from S. cerevisiae: a yeast model for studies of LamR interactions with amyloidogenic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Pampeno

    Full Text Available The laminin receptor (LamR is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrP(C. Whether LamR interacts with PrP(Sc exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrP(Sc, is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI⁺] and [psi⁻]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI⁺] strains. The presence of [PSI⁺] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI⁺] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI⁺] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases.

  8. Chemical and biomolecular characterization of Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important ingredient of the alpine liqueur "Genepi".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiolo, Patrizia; Matteodo, Maura; Bicchi, Carlo; Appendino, Giovanni; Gnavi, Giorgio; Bertea, Cinzia; Maffei, Massimo

    2009-05-13

    Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important alpine plant used for the preparation of flavored beverages, showed a remarkable intraspecific variability, at both genomic and gene product (secondary metabolites) levels. The variability of A. umbelliformis Lam. currently cultivated in Piedmont (Italy, Au1) and in Switzerland (Au2) was investigated by combining the chemical analysis of essential oil and sesquiterpene lactones and the molecular characterization of the 5S-rRNA-NTS gene by PCR and PCR-RFLP. Marked differences were observed between the two plants. Au1 essential oil contained alpha- and beta-thujones as the main components, whereas Au2 contained 1,8-cineole, borneol, and beta-pinene. Au1 sesquiterpene lactone fractions contained cis-8-eudesmanolide derivatives and Au2 the trans-6-germacranolide costunolide. Specific A. umbelliformis Au1 and Au2 primers were designed on the sequence of the 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. Furthermore, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied using RsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Chemical and biomolecular data contributed to the characterization of A. umbeliformis chemotypes. PMID:19326948

  9. Total polyphenolic (flavonoids content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuge Tian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts of different polarity. Materials and Methods: The total polyphenolic content was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content analysis was performed using the colorimetric method. Results: The total polyphenolic content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (19.27%, chloroform (4.99% and n-butanol extracts (3.94% containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The petroleum ether (0.23% and ethanol extracts (1.64% contain almost no polyphenolic content. The total flavonoid content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (65.61%, chloroform (14.36% and n-butanol extracts (10.76% containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The Z. clinopodioides Lam. ethyl acetate extract exhibits a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts contain a large number of polyphenolic compounds (19.27% and flavonoids (65.61% owing to good antioxidant capacity.

  10. Effect of different growth stages of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. on its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study is to monitor the changes in the chemical composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. throughout nine different growth stages. Materials and Methods: Volatile components such as essential oils were analyzed using the gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry, and the contents of non-volatile components were determined by a visible spectrophotometer. Results: Hydro-distilled essential oil content ranged from a minimum of 1.1% (in the post-flowering stage to a maximum of 1.8% (in the flowering stage. The essential oils included pulegone, which was the most abundant component (77.48-87.3%, p-menthanone (2.79-12.39%, trans-isopulegone (1.04-2.06%, d-limonene (0.51-3.03% and eucarvone (1.5-4.48%. The contents of non-volatile components, such as that of total phenolics (TPC, total flavonoids (TFC, total triterpenoids content (TTC and total free amino acids content (TFAAC were measured using visible spectrophotometry. In the growing stage, TPC, TFC, TTC and TFAAC were 9.91-12.80 mg/g, 29.84-50.63 mg/g, 0.57-1.41 mg/g and 13.33-28.56 mg/g, respectively. Conclusion: These data can be used as a basis to determine the optimal harvest time of Z. clinopodioide Lam.

  11. Identication of potivirus present in lulo (solanum quitoense lam Identificación de potivirus presentes en plantas de lulo (solanum quitoense lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peñaranda J.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceous fruit Solanum quitoense Lam, is originally from Andean región of South America. This fruit has commercial prospective. The Leaf Yellowing Disease in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam was first described by Zuluaga in 1991. It causes economically losses and has been associated with a virus attack. The disease's symptoms included stunting, yellow streaking or mosaic patterns in leaves, often with a curling of the leaf margins. In order to diagnostic the presence of virus, we applied two different strategies. The first one consisted of a modified technique of RNA double strand isolation (Morris and Dodds, 1979. The second one consisted on applying RT-PCR system using specific "primers" designed to amplify cDNA fragments spaning the 3'-terminal part of the Nlb cistron and the 5'-terminal part of the potyvirus CP cistron (Langeveld et al 1991. By applying the modified method of Morris and Dodds, it was possible to observe characteristic bands of double strand RNA. Amplification with "primers" POT1 and POT2 yielded a fragment of about 1 Kpb, whose length was in agreement with the known sequences of potyvirus. Here we report by the first time a potyvirus presence in Lulo plants affected with leaf yellowing disease, identified by dsRNA analysis and RT-PCR procedure.El lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam., siendo una planta nativa de la región andina con gran potencial comercial, aún está en proceso de domesticación y presenta problemas fitosanitarios de importancia. La enfermedad del Amarillamiento de la hoja que causa pérdidas importantes fue descrita por Zuluaga (1996; de acuerdo con su sintomatología (enanismo, muestras de patrones de amarillamiento o de mosaico en hojas, las que a su vez sufren enrollamientos de los bordes hacia la parte baja, se atribuía a la acción de un virus no identificado. Dada la especificidad mostrada por los virus y la semejanza de la enfermedad con la causada por potivirus en otras solanáceas, se planteó que

  12. Caracterização de alfagalactosidase e sua relação com a germinação das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae Alphagalactosidase characterization and its relationship with seed germination of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Legumonosae Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae - sibipiruna - foram colocadas para embebição por 144 h, sendo retiradas amostras para análise de proteína, quantificações da atividade de alfagalactosidase e de açúcares presentes na micrópila. A germinação iniciou-se com 96 h de embebição, sem que fossem detectadas modificações na parede celular da micrópila. Nesta, observou-se maior proporção de arabinose, que mostrou tendência de aumento com o decorrer da embebição. A atividade específica da alfagalactosidase foi detectada em sementes secas, tanto no eixo embrionário quanto nos cotilédones, aumentando no primeiro a partir de 24 h de embebição. O aumento da atividade nos cotilédones foi mais lento, sendo mais acentuado a partir de 120 h de embebição. O teor de proteína decresceu continuamente no eixo embrionário a partir de 24 horas de embebição, enquanto se manteve estável nos cotilédones. A atividade da alfagalactosidase foi máxima nas temperaturas de 55 e 50 ºC para o eixo embrionário e para os cotilédones, respectivamente. O pH que mais estimulou a atividade da enzima foi na faixa de 5,5 a 6,0 para o eixo embrionário e na de 4,5 a 5,0 para os cotilédones. As alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário e dos cotilédones foram inibidas por SDS, CuSO4, galactose e melibiose. Não houve efeito estimulante sobre a atividade da alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário por nenhum dos efetores, enquanto o mercaptoetanol estimulou a atividade da enzima dos cotilédones. Os K M para o substrato ro-NPGal para a alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário e dos cotilédones foram de 1,74 e 2,64 mM, respectivamente.Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae seeds were soaked in water for 144 hours. Samples were taken for protein analysis, quantification of alphagalactosidase activity and micropyle sugar composition. Germination began after 96 hours of imbibition, with no modifications in

  13. Synthesis and maturation of lambda receptor in Escherichia coli K-12: in vivo and in vitro expression of gene lamB under lac promoter control.

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, C.; Perrin, D; Hedgpeth, J; Hofnung, M

    1980-01-01

    The lambda receptor is an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli K-12 lamB, its structural gene, is part of the maltose regulon. We have cloned this gene in a phage so that it is under the control of the lac promoter. The phage was devised in such a way that it can infect lamB mutants and that chromosomal lamB mutations can be transferred to it. In vivo, the lambda receptor is expressed under lac promoter control and is exported normally to the outer membrane, independently of the expre...

  14. General method for fine mapping of the Escherichia coli K-12 lamB gene: localization of missense mutations affecting bacteriophage lambda adsorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofnung, M; Lepouce, E; Braun-Breton, C

    1981-01-01

    lamB is the structural gene for the bacteriophage lambda receptor, a multifunctional protein located in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K-12. We present a method for deletion mapping of any lamB mutations with a recognizable pheno-type. This method involves a transducing phage constructed by in vitro recombination which can also be used for complementation, deoxyribonucleic acid sequence, and in vitro protein synthesis studies with the mutated lamB gene. Using this method, we mapped 18...

  15. Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam] Yield Influenced by Seedlings and Mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Novak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam] needs a yearly minimum of three month with air temperatures above 15º C for its growth and development. For the purpose of achieving the highest possible sweet potato yield during a relatively short vegetation period in continental part of Croatia, a trial with differently produced seedlings and polyethylene (PE mulch was set up. A trial was set up to study the production of seedlings from dormant sweet potato root sprouts by standard methods, and the most recent method of seedling production in containers, along with testing black PE-fi lm mulched soil, and uncovered soil. The method of seedlings production had significant effect on the yield. Higher mass of marketable roots was achieved by growing seedling with a substrate lump about the root, as compared to the seedlings produced by traditional procedure. Compared to the uncovered soil, a significantly higher yield of marketable roots was obtained with black PE-film mulch.

  16. Biosystematic studies on Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal subsp. Axillare (Gentianaceae) in peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahina, P M; Nampy, Santhosh

    2014-05-01

    The pantropical genus Enicostema (Gentianaceae) has three species and two sub species world over, namely, E. verticillatum (L.) Engl. (America), E. elizabethae Veldkamp (Madagascar) and E. axillare having 3 subsp. viz., subsp. axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal (India), subsp. latilobum (N.E. Br.) A. Raynal (East Africa) and subsp. littorale (Blume) A. Raynal (Indonesia). The present study aims to delimit the Indian taxa based on field and herbarium studies. Comparative morphology is studied using live as well as consulting wide range of specimens housed at various herbaria. The anatomy of leaf, stem, and root is studied using free hand sections and from epidermal peelings. The seed and pollen morphology are studied under SEM. Information on anatomy, palynology and seed micromorphology of E. axillare subsp. axillare is provided for the first time. PMID:26031003

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects ofMorninga oleifera lam extract in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO; Nwankwoala RNP

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the acute and delayed anti-inflammatory effects ofMorning oleifera lam (MOL) crude methanolic extract.Methods: Compared the anti-inflammatory effects of MOL with that of standard anti-inflammatory agents like indomethacin and hydrocortisone using Air Pouch Model.Results: In both acute and delayed inflammation, the MOL extract produced dose dependent anti-inflammatory effect [acute IC50= (399.30 ±5.43) mg/kg; delayed IC50= (510.26±4.53) mg/kg]. The order of anti-inflammatory potency for the three drugs was hydrocortisone> indomethacin > MOL.Conclusions: These observations indicate that MOL possesses potential anti-inflammatory property.

  18. DIFFERENT SUBSTRATA EFFECTS IN THE GERMINATION OF Ochroma pyramidale (CAV. EX LAM. URB. (BOMBACACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of different substrata in the germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urb. (Bombacaceae. The experiment was conducted in delineation randomized with three treatments (substratum and four repetitions of 25 seeds. The following substrata had been tested: sand + vermiculite (1:1; vermiculite and, sand + shavings (1:1. The effect of substrata through the percentage of germination of the seeds, average time of germination and index of germination speed (IGS were evaluated. There had been significant difference between the treatments in of all the observed variable. The seeds, when conditioned in vermiculite, had presented the biggest tax of germination, greatest speed and lowest germination time.

  19. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera. PMID:26032590

  20. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF FRUITS OF MALLOTUS PHILIPPENENSIS (LAM. MUELL- ARG (EUPHORBIACEAE

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    Kadam Prasad Vijay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Correct identification of starting material is necessary to ensure the quality of herbal medicines. Pharmacognostic evaluation is first step towards establishing identity and purity of crude drug. With this aim the present paper deals with study of pharmacognostic and physicochemical characteristics of fruits of Mallotus philippinensis (lam Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae. The powder of Mallotus philippinensis was used for detection of various chemical constituents. The transverse section and the powder of fruit were studied for macroscopy, microscopy and physicochemical parameters. Fruit is globose, 3-lobed capsule with abundant orange or reddish glandular granules. The Microscopy showed the presence of epicarp, mesocarp endocarp. The cells also showed the presence of starch. From the pharmacognostical evaluation it was found that the fruit contains alkaloids, saponins, flavanoids etc. Physicochemical parameters were also within the limit. It can be concluded that Pharmacognostic evaluation can serve as tool for developing standards for identification, quality and purity of M. philippinensis.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassenschmidt, U; Jany, K D; Tauscher, B; Niebergall, H

    1995-04-13

    A flocculating protein from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. was isolated by extraction with phosphate buffer followed by cation exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of the protein determined by SDS-PAGE was about 6.5 kDa, the isoelectric point was above pH 10. Amino acid analysis and sequencing showed high contents of glutamine, arginine and proline, and a total of 60 residues. The amino terminus is blocked by pyroglutamate. The flocculant capacity, determined in glass powder suspension, is comparable to that of a cationic polymer on polyacrylamide basis. Flocculation activity may be explained by the patch charge mechanism due to low molecular weight and high charge density. PMID:7727523

  2. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

  3. Responses of Moringa oleifera Lam. plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi and submitted to water stress

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    Séfora Gil Gomes Farias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was to verify the efficiency of mycorrhizal in Moringa oleifera Lam. plants submitted to water deficit. The experiment was conducted in screenhouse distributted a completely randomized design in a 4x2 factorial with four replications. The first factor was the treatment of inoculation with Glomus etunicatum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, an indigenous community treatment and control (without inoculation. The second factor was the treatment of irrigation and water deficit. Plant height, accumulation of dry weight in the shoots, roots and total and mycorrhizal efficiency were evaluated. The plants inoculated with Glomus etunicatum increases in height, biomass and biomass underground when not subject to water stress. There was no contribution of mycorrhizae to increase the resistance of plants to water deficit, independent of the fungus employee. The efficiency of plants in mycorrhizal, was variable according to the species of fungi used.

  4. In vitro antioxidant studies of Begonia malabarica Lam. and Begonia floccifera Bedd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Velusamy Kalpanadevi; Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Begonia malabarica Lam. and Begonia floccifera Bedd. whole plant.Methods:Total phenolic content was estimated using the Folin Ciocalteu method. The flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride. In vitro antioxidant activities and reducing power capacity were determined using standard methods. Results: The total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated. The methanol extracts of whole plants of Begonia malabarica and Begonia floccifera showed potent in vitro antioxidant activities using various models viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide and ABTS radical scavenging activity. Conclusions: The present study confirmed that methanol extracts have potential in vitro antioxidant activity. The phytochemical phenolics and flavonoids could be the reason for its antioxidant activity.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the root, stem bark and seed extracts of moringa oleifera lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic extracts (Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol) and the aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam or horseradish (root, stem bark and seed) were tested against five bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method and against three fungal strains. The water extracts of the seed was active against a wide range of organisms tested. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark exhibited moderate activity. Of the fifteen extracts screened, five (33.3 percent) showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and against Trichophyton mentagrophytes while two were active against Microsporum gypseum. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the water extracts ranged from 6.25 to 50 mg/ml. The good activity observed on the water extract explains the success in traditional use of Moringa oleifera for the treatment of infectious diseases.(author)

  6. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam as a natural sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Garcia

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Jambolão (java plum, Eugenia jambolana Lam, was used as a natural sensitizer of a wide band-gap semiconductor (TiO2 in photoelectrochemical solar cells. The natural dye, adsorbed onto the semiconductor surface, absorbs visible light and promotes electron transfer across the dye/semiconductor interface. Photogenerated current and voltage as high as 2.3 mA and 711 mV, respectively, were obtained and effective conversion of visible light into electricity was achieved. The use of a natural product as the semiconductor sensitizer enables a faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmentally friendly solar cells.O extrato de Jambolão, Eugenia jambolana Lam, foi utilizado como um sensibilizador natural de um semicondutor com separação grande de bandas (TiO2 nas células solares fotoeletroquímica. O corante natural, adsorvido na superfície do semicondutor, absorve luz visível e promove transferência eletrônica na interface corante/semicondutor. A corrente e o potencial fotogerados tão altos como 2,3 mA e 711 mV, respectivamente, foram obtidos observando-se conversão eficiente de luz visível em eletricidade. O uso de um produto natural como o sensibilizador de semicondutor possibilita uma produção mais rápida e simples de células solares mais baratas que não agridem o meio ambiente.

  7. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

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    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  8. Investigation of chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

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    F. Yousefbeyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ziziphora clinopodioides is a perennial herb and grows widely in west and northwest of Iran. The aerial parts are used as appetizer, carminative and antiseptic as well as for the treatment of medical conditions such as high blood pressure, asthma hyperhidrosis, palpitation and insomnia Methods: The aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were extracted by ethanol (70% and fractionated by n-hexane. The n-hexane fraction was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. This fraction and the total extract were further investigated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against HT-29 (colon carcinoma, K-562 (leukemia, T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cells using MTT assay. Results:  Nineteen compounds were identified by GC/MS. The main constituents of the n-hexane fraction were pulegone (24.35%, menthol (14% and menthone (9.61%. The results of cytotoxicity evaluation showed that the n-hexane fraction strongly exhibited cytotoxic activity against T-47D and K-562 cells with IC50 value of 77.41±12.89 and 80±2.56 μg/mL. The total extract did not show considerable activity against any of the cell lines in comparison to the n-hexane fraction. Conclusion: The presence of compounds such as pulegone, menthol and menthone could explain the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane fraction of Z. clinopodioides Lam on K-562, T-47D and HT-29 cell lines.

  9. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. Pathogenity evaluation on Solanum quitoense Lam. Clones

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    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.Presence of plant disease caused by pathogens on 42 clones of Solanum quitoense Lam. were evaluated in the north-western region of Popayán, Colombia. The seed of the clons were planted in plastic bags during three weeks and afterwards transplanted to the field. The statistical design

  10. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

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    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  11. Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine is indicative of disseminated TB with renal involvement in patients living with HIV and advanced immunodeficiency: evidence and implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, SD; Gupta-Wright, A.

    2016-01-01

    TB is the leading cause of HIV/AIDS-related deaths globally. New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to avert deaths from undiagnosed HIV-associated TB. Although simple assays that detect lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine have been commercially available for years, their specific role and utility were initially misunderstood, such that they have been slower to emerge from the diagnostics pipeline than otherwise might have been expected. In this article, we review and explain how urine-LAM ass...

  12. Evaluation sensorielle du couscous de farine de manioc (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) substituée par celle de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas, Lam)

    OpenAIRE

    Amadou, NM.; Waingeh, NC.; Dung, MS.; Imele, H.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer Acceptance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) flour's fufu substituted by Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam) Flour. This study investigated the consumer acceptance of fufu made by substituting cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) flour with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam) flour at the Food Technology and Post-harvest laboratory of IRAD in Bambui, Cameroon. Four samples of Fufu flour samples F0, F1, F2 and F3 obtained by substituting cassava flour with 0%, 20%, 40% and 50% pot...

  13. 基于LAM-MPI和OpenMP的机群编程环境配置与应用%Configration and Application of Cluster Programming Environment Base on LAM-MPI and OpenMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向文; 刘青昆; 于方; 郑晓薇

    2007-01-01

    采用LAM-MPI实现节点间粗粒度并行和OpenMP实现节点内细粒度并行这种混合编程方式为SMP机群提供了一种有效并行策略.讨论了LAM-MPI+OpenMP混合编程环境的快速搭建以及多粒度混合并行编程方法,实现了分子动力学模拟问题的多粒度混合并行算法,并在搭建的8节点SMP机群环境中完成测试工作.

  14. Single zircon LAM-ICPMS U-Pb dating of Guidong complex (SE China) and its petrogenetic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xisheng; DENG Ping; S. Y. O'Reilly; W. L. Griffin; ZHOU Xinmin; TAN Zhengzhong

    2003-01-01

    Single zircon LAM-ICPMS U-Pb dating indicates that the Guidong granitic complex is a multistage batholith formed during Indosinian-Yanshanian time. The Luxi body (239 ± 5 Ma) and the Xiazhuang body (235.8 ± 7.6 Ma) intruded during Indosinian time, whereas the Aizi body (160.1 ± 6.1 Ma) and the Siqian body (151 ± 11 Ma) formed during Yanshanian time. Inherited zircons (1275-2137 Ma) in the Xiazhuang body imply that at least part of the source rocks of the Guidong complex are from the Proterozoic basement of southeast China. Detailed single zircon LAM-ICPMS U-Pb dating results provide important evidence for understanding the evolution, tectonic setting and mineralisation of the complex.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Minaiyan; Gholamreza Asghari; Diana Taheri; Mozhgan Saeidi; Salar Nasr-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups...

  16. Phytochemical screening and studies of analgesic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark extract on experimental animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Shumaia Parvin; Md. Abu Shuaib Rafshanjani; Md. Abdul Kader; Most. Afia Akhtar; Tahmida Sharmin

    2014-01-01

    The work has been done for the phytochemical investigation and study of analgesic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. ethanolic stem bark extract using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing method. The effect of extract was tested for qualitative chemical analysis which reveals the presence of alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, carbohydrate etc. For peripheral analgesic effect acetic acid induced writhing test was used and for this stem bark extract was administered intraperitoneally at...

  17. The invasion of Doñana National Park (SW Spain) by the mosquito fern (Azolla filiculoides Lam).

    OpenAIRE

    García Murillo, Pablo; Fernández Zamudio, María del Rocío; Cirujano Bracamonte, Santos; Sousa Martín, Arturo; Espinar, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, Azolla filiculoides Lam., a floating pteridophyte native to the New World, was found in Do˜nana National Park (SW Spain), an European protected area well known for its high value from a conservation point of view and for its ecological vulnerability. Until that time, there had been no exotic aquatic macrophyte observations in the National Park. Since then, surfaces covered by Azolla filiculoides have increased explosively forming thick floating mats which eliminate submersed...

  18. Generation and application of ssDNA aptamers against glycolipid antigen ManLAM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for TB diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Shi-Min; Xie, Yan; Song, Neng; Guan, Qing; Yuan, Chunhui; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2016-05-01

    The development of effective Mycobacterial antigen diagnostic reagents remains a high priority. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is a lipoglycan serving as a major cell wall component. ManLAM is also an early released antigen in the blood circulation system during Mycobacteria tuberculosis (M.tb) infection and is a perfect target antigen for TB diagnosis. In this study, ssDNA aptamers "antibodies" against ManLAM of the predominant clinical epidemic M.tb Beijing genotype strains were generated by the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) technique. The selected single aptamer T9 demonstrated the highest specificity and binding affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 668 ± 159 nmol/L. We further detected ManLAM antigens in serum and sputum samples from active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) patients, extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients and healthy donors by using a T9 based enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA). The results showed that the specificity and sensitivity were 95.31% and 83.00% (for 100 aPTB serum samples), 98.70% and 92.71% (for 96 aPTB sputum samples), and 94.44% and 88.71% (for 62 EPTB serum samples), respectively. A good correlation was observed between the T9 aptamer-based ELONA and the clinical T-SPOT.TB. Thus, T9 based ELONA has potentials for diagnosis of TB, including inactive TB, smear-negative TB, EPTB, and TB with immunodeficiency, and assist the diagnosis of LTBI albeit it could not distinguish LTBI and active TB. PMID:26850356

  19. Strong solutions to a Navier–Stokes–Lamé system on a domain with a non-flat boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we consider a Navier–Stokes–Lamé system modeling a fluid–structure interaction. For a general domain, we establish local well-posedness for strong solutions in which initial velocity u0 belongs to H1 while the initial data (w0, w1) for the elasticity equation belongs to (H3/2+k, H1/2+k) for any k in (0, k0) where k0 is an explicit positive constant

  20. Karakterisasi Simplisia dan Analisis Kalium, Kalsium, Natrium dan Magnesium pada Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Eka Yulia

    2016-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a plant which is classified to the family of Moringaceae and it can grow quickly. Moringa leave is useful. It has very good nutrients contents, and it also has a sufficient amount of minerals and vitamins. Moringa leaves can be consumed by being cooked, eaten raw, or dried up into moringa leaves powder. Moringa leaves powder has higher amount of nutrients content than fresh moringa leaves. Characterization of the Moringa leaves is not liste...

  1. Developmental and Cytochemical Features of Male Reproductive Organ in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers.

    OpenAIRE

    Aslıhan ÇETİNBAŞ; ÜNAL, Meral

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the development of male reproductive organ was analysed in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers., endemic to Turkey. Androecium is composed of 20 stamens which are attached at the base of the filaments. The anther wall formation follows the dicotyledonous type. The undifferentiated anther is ovoid-shaped, and the differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells. Mature anthers are dorsifix and tetrasporangiate. The anther wall is composed of an epidermis, endothe...

  2. Invitro and Invivo anticancer activity of Ethanolic extract of Canthium Parviflorum Lam on DLA and Hela cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushoth Prabhu.T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild Jessamine, Canthium Parviflorum Lam, ( fam: Rubiaceae is traditionally used for snake bite in some villages in shimoga district of Karnataka. Canthium Species are used in the treatment of tumor, cough, astringent and anthlementic. Objective: In this study, invitro and invivo anticancer activity of crude ethanolic extracts from the leaves of Canthium Parviflorum Lam was investigated Method: The invitro anticancer activity was measured by MTT assay and Exclusion method. The invivo studies was determined in mice using Dalton’s lymphoma ascetic (DLA cells. Results: The ethanolic extacts of C.Parviflorum greatly inhibited DLA and Hela cell growth with IC50 Of 61.24μg/ml and 43.15μg/ml respectively. A significant increase in the life span and a decrease in the cancer cell number & tumour weight were noted in the tumor induced mice after treatment with Canthium Parviflorum Lam. Conclusion: Anticancer activity of Canthium Parviflorum was may be due to flavonoid present in the plant . Further studies are also in process to evaluate the most potent fraction of the plant and to isolate the constituents of the fraction

  3. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., "subabul" stem lignin: Isolation, structural characterization and thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearla, Srinivasa Rao; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-06-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth after cellulose. It is being used in many industrial applications due to its abundance. In the present study, lignin was isolated from the stems of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., a high biomass yielding plant using acidic dioxane under N2 atmosphere. Structural characterization of isolated dioxane lignin (DL) was performed by analytical techniques: UV, FT-IR, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR. Their monolignol content was determined by nitrobenzene oxidation followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The data was compared with commercial alkali lignin (AL). The results showed that DL is of hardwood guaiacyl-syringyl (GS) type, whereas AL is softwood type with more guaiacyl units and trace amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of DL showed two stage thermal degradation profile similar to AL. The DTGmax for DL and AL were found in the second major loss event of second stage of TGA at 424°C and 404°C, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study exhibited the glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 132°C and 122°C for DL and AL, respectively. The results from thermal stability studies suggest that dioxane lignin isolated from the "miracle tree" (subabul) can be exploited in various thermoplastic industrial applications. PMID:27468468

  4. Effect of gamma-irradiation on growth and biomass yield of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial was conducted to study the effect of gamma-irradiation on the growth behaviour vis-a-vis biomass yield of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Subfamily Mimosoidae), one of the very fast growing trees of the tropical forests. Dry seeds were exposed to 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 kR doses of gamma irradiation. Irradiated seeds were sown in the field along with the control. Germination frequency was noted to be highest in case of 2 kR irradiated seeds. Growth data of the plants were recorded at every one month interval. It was observed that the vegetative growth of most of the irradiated plants was strikingly vigorous in comparison to the control. Total biomass yield of the plants after one year of growth was measured which revealed a significant difference between the irradiated and non-irradiated populations. The photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic biomass ratios were worked out. Possible implication of the findings have been discussed in the paper. (author). 3 tables, 5 refs

  5. Postharvest Quality and Physiological Behavior of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) Leaf Stalks Under Three Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yan; XU Yong-quan; DUAN Dao-fu; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    Sweet potato (lpomoea batatas Lam.) leaf stalks were cut into 20 cm length, and stored at 20, 6, and 2℃. The respiration rate, ethylene production, ascorbic acid, free amino acid, total chlorophyll content, freshness, and shelf life were determined during storage to investigate the effect of storage temperatures on the quality and physiological responses in sweet potato leaf stalks. Wound responses were observed as high respiration rate and ethylene production immediately after cutting. Sweet potato leaf stalks were found to be sensitive to chilling injury manifested as browning and water-soaking on the surface at 2℃. In contrast, sweet potato leaf stalks were susceptible to senescence, exhibited by etiolating and yellowing, at 20℃. Loss in weight and chlorophyll was minimized under low temperatures. High temperatures also caused the accumulation of amino acids with a significant loss of ascorbic acid and chlorophyll. Sweet potato leaf stalks had a storage life of 16 days at 6℃, 8 days at 2℃, and 6 days at 20℃, respectively.

  6. In vitro antioxidant activity of Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, J M; Maheshu, V; Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Darsini, D Teepica Priya

    2010-02-01

    The methanolic extract of the aerial part of Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (Rubiaceae) was screened for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) quenching assay, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) cation decolorization test, ferric reducing power (FRP), scavenging capacity towards hydroxyl ion (OH*) radicals and nitric oxide (NO) radical inhibition activity using established assay procedures. Total phenolics and total flavonoid contents were, also determined. The plant yielded 210 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g phenolic content and 55 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g flavonoid content. The extract exhibited high antiradical activity against DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals with EC50 value of 82, 150, 130, and 170 microg/ml, respectively. The FRP increased with increasing concentration of the sample. The antioxidant activity of the extract was comparable with that of the standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). High correlation between total phenolic/flavonoid contents and scavenging potential of different reactive oxygen species (R2 = 0.785-0.998) indicated the polyphenols as the main antioxidants. PMID:21086755

  7. Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gisely C; Longhini, Renata; Dos Santos, Paulo Victor P; Araújo, Adriano A S; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, João Carlos P

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. ("Mutamba"), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia. PMID:22291706

  8. Influence of growth phase on the essential oil composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamzeh

    2009-01-01

    Ziziphora clinopodioides belongs to the Lamiaceae family, that are widespread all over Iran. The leaves, flowers and stems of the plant are frequently used as wild vegetables or additives in food to offer aroma and flavour. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Z. clinopodioides Lam. in different growth stages were analysed by GC and GC-MS, and 29 components were identified. Pulegone (30.1%), thymol (21.3%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (12.9%) and piperitenone (9.3%) were the main components in the pre-flowering stage. In the flowering stage, pulegone (44.6%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (10.5%), 1,8-cineoil (10.4%), piperitenone (8.7%) and thymol (6.7%) were identified as the main constituents and in the post-flowering stage, pulegone (41.3%), isomenthone (11.6%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (11%), p-mentha-3,8-diene (7.2%) and thymol (5.8%) were identified as the major components. PMID:19401912

  9. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit. PMID:27181946

  10. The Effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Extracts on In Vitro Dengue Replication

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    Fitrien Husin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus.

  11. Growth and Forage Value of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. under Different Organic Fertilization and Cut Intervals

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    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in two UFPB Experimental Stations (NUPEARIDO (Luvissolo Planossólico (Bruno não Cálcico and Lameirão farms (Luvissolo located in the semi-arid region of Brazil, from February to August/2000. Its objective consisted to verify the influence of organic fertilizers (bovine, goat and donkey manures, and organic compost of plants remains and cut intervals (three and six months after seedling planting in the bromatological composition of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam above ground forage. Planting of 15cm high seedlings took place in February, into 0.30m x 0.30m x 0.30m openings in the soil, arranged in a 1.5m x 1.5m grid, in the beginning of the rainy season. Plants were cut three and six months after planting. Also, new stems were cut three months after the first cutting. Collected materials were analyzed for Dry Matter (DM, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF, Crude Protein (CP, ash and Hemicellulose (HC contents. Forage from six-month-old plants showed an increased HC content when fertilized with bovine or goat manure. Forage from three-month old plants showed different NDF, ADF, PB, and ash contents than the older ones, except for stem DM and HC. Three-month-old moringa sprouts showed higher CP and ash contents than material from three or six month old non-cut plants.

  12. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen. PMID:26669018

  13. Lam-Tung relation breaking in $Z^0$ hadroproduction as a probe of parton transverse momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Motyka, Leszek; Stebel, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The Lam-Tung relation breaking coefficient $A_{\\mathrm{LT}} = A_0 - A_2$ in the Drell-Yan dilepton angular distributions in the $Z^0$ boson mass region at the LHC is analyzed in the $k_T$-factorization approach. This observable was recently measured with high precision by ATLAS collaboration. Within the $k_T$-factorization approach we perform an approximate NNLO calculation of the off-shell parton hard matrix elements in which we include the leading contributions of valence quarks and off-shell gluons: the well known $q_{\\mathrm{val}} g^* \\to qZ^0$ channel and a new $g^*g^* \\to q\\bar q Z^0$ channel. The resulting $A_{\\mathrm{LT}}$ exhibits high sensitivity to the gluon transverse momentum distribution (TMD). Several gluon TMDs are probed derived from the CCFM and BFKL evolution equations, and given by QCD-inspired phenomenological parameterizations. The ATLAS data favor a simple "Weizs\\"{a}cker-Williams" (WW) hard gluon TMD with the asymptotic behavior of one-gluon exchange at large gluon transverse momenta a...

  14. A proteomic analysis of storage stress responses in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tuberous root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yusong; Chen, Cheng; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jianxi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2012-08-01

    During post-harvest storage, tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) usually undergo a biotic and abiotic stress influencing protein expression pattern and substance contents. This research compared the change of total proteins and carbohydrate content in tuberous roots of sweet potato during the storage period. The result of the two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there were 25 differentially expressed proteins between day 0 and day 75 during the storage. Among these proteins, 11 proteins were down-regulated and the other 14 were up-regulated. The results from MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analyses and mascot database searching showed that 11 of the 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified as store-stress regulated proteins. It was also found that the proteins involved in the energy metabolism and the stress-response were drastically up-regulated, whereas those in biomacromolecule synthesis were markedly down-regulated. Meanwhile, under the experimental conditions, the content of the starch and the cellulose was decreased by more than a quarter and the amylase activity was increased moderately. PMID:22547271

  15. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Amali Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  16. Spermidine Derivatives in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Fruit: Sensory (Taste) versus Biofunctional (ACE-Inhibition) Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Diana Paola; Masatani, Chieko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Peterson, Devin G; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-07-01

    The bitterness in lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit is increased during processing (juicing or drying). To identify the bitter-active compounds, the ethanolic fruit pulp extract was subjected to RP-18 solid-phase extraction, and then sensory-guided fractionated by HPLC. Two spermidine derivatives, N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine and N(1),N(8)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine, were isolated and their structures confirmed by analysis of their HPLC-ESI/MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR data. The N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine was synthesized and used as an authentic sample to unequivocally confirm the structure of this compound and to quantitate it in both fresh and dried fruit. In silico analyses demonstrated that spermidine derivatives identified in lulo pulp exhibited a strong ACE-I (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) inhibitory activity. Subsequently, these results were confirmed by in vitro analyses and showed the potential use of lulo fruit pulp as an ingredient of functional foods related to the prevention of blood hypertension. PMID:27292771

  17. Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D) of bottom particle deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Jenn Wei; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric; Yang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique, Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D), to acquire three-dimensional spatial characteristics and temporal development of bottom particle deposits. The new technique performs data acquisition with higher spatial and temporal resolution than existing approaches with laser and ultrasonic 3D profilers, and is therefore ideal for laboratory investigations with fast varying changes in the sediment bed, such as the developing deposition profile from sediment clouds commonly formed during dredging or land reclamation projects and the dynamic evolution in movable bed processes in rivers. The principle of the technique is based on the analysis of the light attenuation due to multiple light scattering through the particle deposits layer compared to the clear water column. With appropriate calibration, the particles size and distribution thickness can be quantified by the transmitted light spectrum. In the presentation, we will first show our measurement setup with a light panel for calibrated illumination and a system of DSLR cameras for the light capturing. Subsequently, we shall present the experimental results of fast evolving deposition profile of a barge-disposed sediment cloud upon its bottom impact on the sea bed.

  18. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Thaís Pochapski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP, has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed.

  19. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

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    Eric Diego Barioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA- stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

  20. Developmental and Cytochemical Features of Male Reproductive Organ in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam. Pers.

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    Aslıhan ÇETİNBAŞ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the development of male reproductive organ was analysed in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam. Pers., endemic to Turkey. Androecium is composed of 20 stamens which are attached at the base of the filaments. The anther wall formation follows the dicotyledonous type. The undifferentiated anther is ovoid-shaped, and the differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells. Mature anthers are dorsifix and tetrasporangiate. The anther wall is composed of an epidermis, endothecium, two or three rows of middle layers and secretory tapetum. Endothecial cells show fibrous thickening. Tapetum is characterized by enlarged secretory types with binucleate cells, which presented an intense reaction with regard to proteins, insoluble polysaccharides and lipids. Features of chromatin condensation and nucleus disorders identified with the application of DAPI (4´,6-diaminido-2-phenylindole point out programmed cell death. Epidermal and endothecial layers remain intact until anther dehiscence; however, middle layer and tapetum disappear during development. At the end of regular meiotic division, tetrahedral microspore tetrads are formed. Pollen grains are tricolparatae, tectate and sphaeroidea. Exine is made up of lipoidal substances and proteins, but the intine includes insoluble polysaccharides. Further, cytoplasm of pollen grains are rich in proteins, lipids and insoluble polysaccharides.

  1. Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extract of Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet by GC-MS Method

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    Vivekraj P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet (Malvaceae commonly known as Vadathuthi. It is used as one of the most important drugs in traditional system of medicine to treat various ailments. The plant is used for to its various properties as demulcent, diuretics, anti-diabetics, anthelmintic, laxative, wound healing properties, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The present study revealed the presence of phytochemicals like Diethyl Phthalate (19.171%,Benzaldehyde 4-propyl (5.219%,Methoxyacetic acid 3-tridecyl ester (5.196%,Sulfurous acid dodecyl 2-propyl ester (0.455%,Sulfurous acid, butyl dodecyl ester (0.442%etc., from the chloroform extracts of leaves in A. hirtum. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the phytochemical present in the extracts in the preliminary level by using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The study will provide information for the correct identification of the crude drug. This will be further considered for pharmacological activities and isolation of individual components would however, help to find new drugs.The results are reported for the first time in A. hirtum.

  2. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afzal Sheikh; Zahangir Alam Saud; Khaled Hossain; Fouzia Yeasmin; Smita Agarwal; Mashiur Rahman; Khairul Islam; Ekhtear Hossain; Shakhawoat Hossain; Md Rezaul Karim; Farjana Nikkon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice.Methods:non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M.oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice.Results:Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol.Conclusions:The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-effects of arsenic-induced toxicity.

  3. Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae

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    Gisely C. Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (“Mutamba”, with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD. The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45±2°C and humidity (75±5%. Thermogravimetry (TG was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers, namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2 and epicatechin (EP. The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

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    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  5. Performance of Late Sown Wheat in Response to Foliar Application of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extract Rendimiento de Trigo Sembrado Tarde en Respuesta a la Aplicación Foliar de Extracto de Hojas de Moringa oleifera Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Azra Yasmeen; Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra; Rashid Ahmad; Abdul Wahid

    2012-01-01

    A rise in temperature during early spring inducing early maturity is a key yield-reducing factor in late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves are rich in zeatin, a cytokinin that plays a role in delaying leaf senescence, in addition to other growth-enhancing compounds such as ascorbates, phenolics, and minerals. The objective of this study was to optimize dose and optimum growth stage for foliar-applied moringa leaf extract (MLE) and its role in delaying leaf senesc...

  6. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj G. Jain; Savita D. Patil; HASWANI, Nitin G.; Girase, Manoj V.; Surana, Sanjay J.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

  7. EXTRACCIÓN DE ENZIMAS PÉCTICAS DEL EPICARPIO DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam) INVOLUCRADAS EN EL PROCESO DE ABLANDAMIENTO Exytraction of Pectic Enzymes from of Lulo(Solanum quitoense Lam) Involved in Softening

    OpenAIRE

    JEIMMY MARCELA RODRÍGUEZ NIETO; LUZ PATRICIA RESTREPO SÁNCHEZ

    2011-01-01

    Durante el periodo de poscosecha el principal problema de deterioro del lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam) es el ablandamiento que es generado principalmente por actividad de enzimas pécticas que atacan la red estructural de la pared celular. Esta investigación se basó en la búsqueda de las mejores condiciones de extracción y medida de actividad de las enzimas pectinesterasa, poligalacturonasa y pectato liasa; herramientas necesarias para estudiar posteriormente el rol de estas enzimas en el deteri...

  8. Distinctive patterns of callose deposition provide an early sign of ovule abortion1 in the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii Patrones distintivos de deposición de calosa proveen evidencia temprana de aborto de óvulos en el arbusto andromonoico Caesalpinia gilliesii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calviño

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovule abortion may lead to the partial or complete reduction of the number of functional ovules in the ovary and then is the primary factor that determines the sexual expression of the plant. In different species, ovule abortion was associated with the presence of callose in advanced ovules. Based on these observations, we studied the pattern of ovule development and callose deposition in both perfect and staminate flowers of the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The obtained results showed that all ovules reached the 8-nucleate stage of embryo sac development and exhibited callose deposition at advanced stages. Nevertheless, from the 2-nucleate stage, a distinct spatial pattern of callose deposition within the ovule was observed between perfect and staminate flowers. Differences in callose deposition suggest that not callose per se but its distribution pattern in the ovule tissues is the main factor that triggers ovule isolation and abortion and leads to flowers with non-functional pistils in this species. Furthermore, previous observed differential growth rates between perfect and staminate flowers support for resource depletion as the likely underlying mechanism of ovule fate in C. gilliesii.El aborto de óvulos puede llevar a la reducción parcial o completa de óvulos fértiles en el ovario, pudiendo ser entonces un factor primario que determine la expresión sexual de toda la planta. En diferentes especies de plantas, el aborto de los óvulos ha sido asociado con la presencia de calosa en estadios avanzados del desarrollo de los óvulos. Basado en estas observaciones, se estudiaron el desarrollo de los óvulos y el patrón de deposición de calosa tanto en flores perfectas como estaminadas en el arbusto andromonoico C. gilliesii. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los sacos embrionarios alcanzan el estadio de desarrollo 8-nucleado en todos los óvulos, y que presentan deposición de calosa en los estadios avanzados. Sin

  9. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources. PMID:26588199

  10. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-01

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs. PMID:19663482

  11. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilayo E Adejumo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD. About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (P<0.05 antisickling activity in comparison to the leaf extract. The leaf extract, as well as those of the seed and flower, equally demonstrated a (P<0.05 reversal of sickled erythrocytes. Discussions and Conclusions: These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles.

  12. Effect of soil medium amendment on chemical composition and digestibility of Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of used soil medium amendment on the background of mineral fertilizers and on the chemical composition, and digestibility of dry matter of Lolium multiflorum Lam. (‘Gaza’ variety. Experiment with the cultivation of this species was carried out in the rings of polyurethane, in four replications. For each of the pots, eight ryegrass seeds were sown. After seeds germination when seedlings reached the two-three leaf stage, negative selection was made by removing the four weakest plants and then experimental factors were introduced in the form of the following combinations: NPK – mineral fertilization in annual doses of 0.6 g N, 0.25 g P2O5 and 0.9 g of K2O per ring, B-NPK – without fertilization, UG – soil medium amendment in the form of 0.25% solution and a dose of 3.7 cm3 per ring, B-UG – without soil medium amendment. Nitrogen fertilization (34% ammonium nitrate and potassium (60% potassium salt were used in three doses, and phosphorus (46% TSP in a single dose in spring. The soil medium amendment solution was used for watering plants in a phase of shooting. The full period of this experiment was in 2009-2010. During this time, the analysis of chemical composition of dry matter yield was performed for all cuts at the Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty. The using of soil fertilizer in cultivation of ryegrass led to increase the crude ash content, expand the sugar-protein ratio and slight improvement of dry matter digestibility of the tested plant material.

  13. Callogenesis in leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. by 2,4-D and BA action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. is a bush species of the Crassulaceae that is distinguished by its important medicinal properties. Its leaves are used as cataplasm to treat headaches and wounds. There is evidence for a hypotensive and anti-inflammatory effect. Techniques of plant tissue culture have been applied to plant species that produce substances likely to be explored in pharmacology, cell suspension being the main technique. At the industrial level, this method utilizes bioreactors in order to produce secondary metabolites on a large scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D and benzylaminopurine (BA on callus induction in leaf explants of K. pinnata. Leaf fragments were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 3.0% sucrose, 0.8% agar and factorial combinations of 2,4-D (0.00, 4.52, 9.06, 18.12 µM and BA (0.00, 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 µM. The cultures were kept in the darkness at 24±2ºC for 50 days. The percentage of callus induction and the area of explants covered by callus cells were evaluated. In the absence of growth regulators, callus induction did not occur, with necrosis of all explants. The highest percentage of callus induction was 100%, obtained with the combination of 9.06 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, but the calluses covered only 25% of the leaf area. The most efficient combination was 4.52 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, resulting in 91% callus induction with 50 to 100% of the explants being covered by callus cells.

  14. The aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. protect against NSAID-induced gastric lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, B; Trabadela, C; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Quílez, A; Miño, P; De la Puerta, R; Martín-Calero, M J

    2007-11-01

    Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., a member of the Sterculiaceae family, is used in folk medicine because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial and antihypertensive properties. Most of the research work carried out on this plant has focused on the bark because of its high concentration of antioxidant proanthocyanidins. The flowers and leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia, though less studied, are also used as a remedy for different conditions, such as kidney and gastrointestinal diseases, fever and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the gastroprotective effects of an aqueous suspension of the ethanolic extract from leaves and flowers of Guazuma ulmifolia in a model of acute gastric ulcer induced by diclofenac as ulcerogenic agent, using the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole as a protection reference. Therefore, the extract was administered two times orally to three groups of Wistar rats at doses of 500, 250 and 125mg/kg, with a 24-h interval between doses. Diclofenac (100mg/kg) was given 1h after the last administration of the extract. Pretreatment with Guazuma ulmifolia or omeprazole decreased the ulcerated area in a dose-dependent way. Myeloperoxidase activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration was slightly reduced in vivo, whereas in vitro, anti-inflammatory activity was clearly inhibited in a dose-dependent way. The lowest doses of the extract significantly decreased the levels of lipoperoxides, and superoxide dismuthase activity increased to a similar extent as with omeprazole (PGuazuma ulmifolia. Finally, there was a faint elevation in prostaglandin E(2) levels with all doses, though the depletion induced by diclofenac could not be reverted. We conclude that the aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of NSAIDs mainly by anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging mechanisms. PMID:17884315

  15. Identification of QTLs for Starch Content in Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-xia; ZHAO Ning; LI Hui; JIE Qin; ZHAI Hong; HE Shao-zhen; LI Qiang; LIU Qing-chang

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) breeding is challenging due to its genetic complexity. In the present study, interval mapping (IM) and multiple quantitative trait locus (QTL) model (MQM) analysis were used to identify QTLs for starch content with a mapping population consisting of 202 F1 individuals of a cross between Xushu 18, a cultivar susceptible to stem nematodes, with high yield and moderate starch, and Xu 781, which is resistant to stem nematodes, has low yield and high starch content. Six QTLs for starch content were mapped on six linkage groups of the Xu 781 map, explaining 9.1-38.8% of the variation. Especially, one of them,DMFN_4, accounted for 38.8% of starch content variation, which is the QTL that explains the highest phenotypic variation detected to date in sweetpotato. All of the six QTLs had a positive effect on the variation of the starch content, which indicated the inheritance derived from the parent Xu 781. Two QTLs for starch content were detected on two linkage groups of the Xushu 18 map, explaining 14.3 and 16.1% of the variation, respectively. They had a negative effect on the variation, indicating the inheritance derived from Xu 781. Seven of eight QTLs were co-localized with a single marker. This is the ifrst report on the development of QTLs co-localized with a single marker in sweetpotato. These QTLs and their co-localized markers may be used in marker-assisted breeding for the starch content of sweetpotato.

  16. Moringa Oleifera Lam Mitigates Oxidative Damage and Brain Infarct Volume in Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woranan Kirisattayakul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present, the therapeutic outcome of cerebral ischemia is still not in the satisfaction level. Therefore, the preventive strategy is considered. Based on the protective effect against oxidative damage of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves extract, we hypothesized that this plant extract might protect against cerebral ischemia, one of the challenge problems nowadays. In order to test this hypothesis, we aimed to determine the protective effect of M.oleifera leaves extract in animal model of focal cerebral ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 300-350 g, were orally given the extract once daily at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 2 weeks, then, they were permanently occluded the right Middle Cerebral Artery (MCAO. The animals were assessed the cerebral infarction volume and oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSHPx enzymes at 24 h after occlusion. Results: Rats subjected to M.oleifera extract at all doses used in this study significantly decreased brain infarct volume both at cortical and subcortical structures in accompany with the elevation of SOD activity in both hippocampus and striatum while only the rats exposed to the extract at doses of 100 and 400 mg kg-1 BW showed the increased GSHPx activity in hippocampus. No the changes were observed. Therefore, our results demonstrates the potential benefit of M.oleifera leaves to decrease oxidative stress damage and brain infarct volume. Conclusion: This study is the first study to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral ischemia of M.oleifera leaves. It suggests that M.oleifera may be served as natural resource for developing neuroprotectant against focal cerebral ischemia. However, the precise underlying mechanism and possible active ingredient are still required further study.

  17. Nematode resistance through mutation induction in a local variety of Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam) in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to achieve nematode resistance in Baeza, a traditional variety of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) in Ecuador. Mutations by using gamma ray irradiation (60Co) were performed on true seed and axillary buds of Baeza. Radiosensitivity tests determined the most effective doses for naranjilla mutation. Mutated plants from seeds (50 Gy dose) were evaluated until M2 generation. Nematode-resistant plants from greenhouse evaluation were evaluated in situ at the main center of local production of naranjilla (Palora). Nematode resistance was observed for these materials and a severe infestation of Fusarium oxisporum and Pseudomonas solanacearum provoked their loss except for 35 resistant genotypes that are conserved as seeds in the genebank (-15 deg. C). The evaluation of resistance of these materials in the future may present great interest for breeders. At that moment, our experience determined that the evaluation of materials by using seeds was time and labor consuming, and then we concluded that the vegetative multiplication (tissue culture) was more efficient for naranjilla propagation. By using in vitro mutated naranjilla plants we started with MV4 material received from the Plant Breeding unit in Seibersdorf, Austria. Materials irradiated with two selected doses (5 Gy and 7 Gy) were evaluated in a greenhouse and plants are ready for field evaluation in Palora. The results achieved so far show that by using mutations clearly nematoderesistant materials can be obtained. However, further evaluation (following generations) must be done, it is clear that naranjilla mutations will contribute, with nematode resistant materials, to overcome the environmental and technical problems that farmers from the center of production of this species experience in the field. (author)

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of Lateral Flow Urine LAM Assay for TB Screening of Adults with Advanced Immunosuppression Attending Routine HIV Care in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifa, Yasmeen; Fielding, Katherine L.; Chihota, Violet N.; Adonis, Lungiswa; Charalambous, Salome; Karstaedt, Alan; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Nicol, Mark P.; Ndlovu, Nontobeko T.; Sahid, Faieza; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    Background We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Determine TB-LAM (LF-LAM) to screen for tuberculosis among ambulatory adults established in HIV care in South Africa. Methods A systematic sample of adults attending for HIV care, regardless of symptomatology, were enrolled in the XPHACTOR study, which tested a novel algorithm for prioritising investigation with Xpert MTB/RIF. In this substudy, restricted to participants with enrolment CD495% irrespective of diagnostic reference standard, CD4 stratum, or whether grade 1 or grade 2 cut-off was used. Conclusion Sensitivity of LF-LAM is too low to recommend as part of intensified case finding in ambulatory patients established in HIV care. PMID:27271432

  19. Conservação e vigor de sementes de pau-de-balsa Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urban.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Antonio Moçambite

    2013-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido nos Laboratórios de Sementes do Departamento de Silvicultura e Manejo da Universidade Federal do Paraná e do Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Florestas da Embrapa e teve como objetivo definir um método para o armazenamento de sementes de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urbano As sementes foram embaladas em sacos de papel tipo kraft e sacos de plástico ( 0,10 mm ) e armazenadas em ambiente de laboratório (22°C e 65% UR), câmara úmida (5°C e 86% UR) e câmara seca (15...

  20. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS NA GERMINAÇÃO DE Ochroma pyramidale (CAV. EX LAM.) URB. (BOMBACACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Pinto Rayol; Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito de diferentes substratos na germinação de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urb. (Bombacaceae). O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (substratos) e quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foram testados os seguintes substratos: areia + vermiculita (1:1); vermiculita e, areia + serragem (1:1). Foi avaliado o efeito dos substratos pelo percentual de germinação das sementes, tempo médio de germinação e...

  1. Analisis Kandungan Kalsium, Kalium, dan Magnesium pada Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Segar dan Direbus Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam that we know as Moringa is the best-known species of the thirteen species of the genus Moringacae. Minerals contained in Moringa are calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur, and zinc. Moringa leaves as a source of vitamins and minerals can be consumed in a way cooked, or eaten raw or dried into powder. One of the cooking method is boiling in the water. Vitamins and minerals are easily soluble in water is a nutrient that is quick...

  2. Recommendations for CAMAC Serial Highway drivers and LAM Graders for the SCC-L2 Serial Crate Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional requirements of Drivers for the CAMAC Serial Highway defined in IEEE Standard 595-1976 are described. The description is independent of the implementation, and in particular no assumption is made about the boundary between hardware and software within the Driver. Topics covered are the user interface, the supporting system services required, demand handling, and a detailed discussion of the message analysis for various levels of error recovery. An appendix describes the recommended features of LAM Graders for use with the Serial Crate Controller Type L2 of IEEE Std 595-1976

  3. Investigation phytochimique d'une brosse à dents africaine Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepernick et Timler (Syn. Fagara zanthoxiloides L.) (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chaaib Kouri F.

    2004-01-01

    Résumé: Dans le but de rechercher de nouveaux composés naturels à intérêt thérapeutique, les extraits dichlorométhanique et méthanolique de Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepernick et Timler (Syn. Fagara zanthoxyloides L.) (Rutaceae), une brosse à dents africaine ont été soumis à un criblage chimique et biologique. Un dépistage des activités: antifongiques contre le champignon phytopathogène Cladosporium cucumerinum et la levure commensale responsable de mycoses chez l'homme Candida albica...

  4. Global uniqueness in inverse boundary value problems for the Navier–Stokes equations and Lamé system in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider inverse boundary value problems for the Navier–Stokes equations and the isotropic Lamé system in two dimensions. The question of global uniqueness for these inverse problems, without any smallness assumptions on unknown coefficients, has been a longstanding open problem for the Navier–Stokes equations and the isotropic Lamé system in two dimensions. We prove the global uniqueness for both inverse boundary value problems. Our methodology is the same for both systems. The key is the construction of complex geometric optics solutions after decoupling the systems into weakly coupling systems. (papers)

  5. Genetic study of a membrane protein: DNA sequence alterations due to 17 lamB point mutations affecting adsorption of phage lambda.

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, J M; Lepouce, E; Marchal, C.; Hofnung, M

    1983-01-01

    Gene lamB encodes the outer membrane receptor for phage lambda in Escherichia coli K12. We have determined the DNA sequence alterations of 17 lamB point mutations which result in resistance to phage lambda h+. The mutations correspond to four phenotypic classes according to the pattern of growth of three phages which use the lambda receptor: lambda h (a one-step host-range derivative of lambda h+), lambda hh* (a two-step host-range derivative of lambda h+) and K10 (another lambdoid phage). Fo...

  6. In vivo and in vitro functional alterations of the bacteriophage lambda receptor in lamB missense mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Braun-Breton, C; Hofnung, M

    1981-01-01

    lamB is the structural gene for the bacteriophage lambda receptor in Escherichia coli K-12. In vivo and in vitro studies of the lambda receptor from lamB missence mutants selected as resistant to phage lambda h+ showed the following. (i) Resistance was not due to a change in the amount of lambda receptor protein present in the outer membrane but rather to a change in activity. All of the mutants were still sensitive to phage lambda hh*, a two-step host range mutant of phage lambda h+. Some (1...

  7. Regional pulmonary function by 133Xe gas and 99mTc-MAA in 11 cases with lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was performed by 133Xe gas and 99mTc-MAA in 11 patients with LAM. We divided the lung images into six lung regions, the upper, middle, and lower lung fields of the left and right lungs, and classified the ventilation distribution pattern as one of three types according to the washout time. Prolongation of mean transit time (MTT) predominantly in the lower lung field was classified as type a, predominantly in the middle and upper lung fields as type b, and diffuse prolongation of MTT throughout the lung as type c. The classification included 16 cases of type b, four of type a, and two of type c. The 133Xe washout was predominantly delayed in the middle and upper lung fields in 73% of LAM cases. Pulmonary perfusion was reduced in the middle lung field and relatively increased in the lower lung field in comparison with healthy controls. A follow-up study of 133Xe gas lung scan was performed in three cases of type b. All the cases deteriorated and presented obstructive and restrictive disturbances without changes in the distribution pattern. These findings suggested that the washout type did not change with the progress of the stage of the disease. (author)

  8. Yönetimde yeni yönelimler bağlamında lider yöneticilik

    OpenAIRE

    Deliveli, Ömür

    2010-01-01

    Günümüzde değişen çağa uyum sağlayabilmek, yönetim örgütlerinin en önemli zorunluluğu haline gelmiş ve bu zorunluluk bütün yönetim örgütlerinin işleyişini, yapısını ve yöneticiden beklenen rolleri değiştirmiştir. Buna bağlı olarak günümüz yönetim yaklaşımlarında, yönetici değil daha çok lider yöneticiden beklenen olumlu davranışlar vurgulanmaya başlamıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı; yeni yönelimler bağlamında ideal lider yöneticiyi tanımlayabilmek, ideal lider yönetici davranışlarını ve özellikler...

  9. Performance Comparison of a Matrix Solver on a Heterogeneous Network Using Two Implementations of MPI: MPICH and LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer K.

    1995-01-01

    Two of the current and most popular implementations of the Message-Passing Standard, Message Passing Interface (MPI), were contrasted: MPICH by Argonne National Laboratory, and LAM by the Ohio Supercomputer Center at Ohio State University. A parallel skyline matrix solver was adapted to be run in a heterogeneous environment using MPI. The Message-Passing Interface Forum was held in May 1994 which lead to a specification of library functions that implement the message-passing model of parallel communication. LAM, which creates it's own environment, is more robust in a highly heterogeneous network. MPICH uses the environment native to the machine architecture. While neither of these free-ware implementations provides the performance of native message-passing or vendor's implementations, MPICH begins to approach that performance on the SP-2. The machines used in this study were: IBM RS6000, 3 Sun4, SGI, and the IBM SP-2. Each machine is unique and a few machines required specific modifications during the installation. When installed correctly, both implementations worked well with only minor problems.

  10. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Increases lifespan and ameliorates experimentally induced neurodegeneration in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Bezerra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, dyslipidemia (DL and inflammation (IF are associated with reduced lifespan (LS and increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases (NDG. Dysregulation in insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 (IIS signaling, forkhead box O transcription factor (FOXO and Silent Information Regulators or Sirtuins (SIRT may be responsible. We investigated the effect of spray dried Jambolan (Eugenia jambolana Lam. fruit in Caenorhabditis elegans model for lifespan, amyloid b1-42 (Ab1-42 aggregation induced paralysis and MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium induced neurodegeneration. Effect on modulating critical genes involved signaling pathways important in IIS, LS and NDG were also studied in C. elegans. Results show suggest statistically significant increase in lifespan (9-22.7% coupled with a delay in Ab1-42 induced paralysis (11.5% and MPP+ induced paralysis (38-43%. Gene expression studies indicated a significant upregulation in expression of  C. elegans homologs of foxo, sirt1, dopamine D1 receptor and suggested a non-FOXO mediated mechanism of action.Industrial relevance. Jambolan is a bioactive-rich tropical fruit with high colorant potential. Despite this fact, its perishability has hampered its market and industrial use beyond the countries where it is cultivated. Considering that drying is a popular technique able to extend fruits shelf life and concentrate their natural bioactive compounds, this research investigates the health relevance of spray dried jambolan. Here we addressed the potential of dried Jambolan fruit to extend lifespan and inhibit the progression of experimentally induced neurodegeneration using the C. elegans model. We demonstrated that this convenient fruit product was able to increase the lifespan of C. elegans. The jambolan extracts also influenced some critical genes of signaling pathways relevant to metabolic diseases, aging and neurodegeneration. Based on our results, some insight about

  11. Fatty Acid, Flavonol, and Mineral Composition Variability among Seven Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam. Verdc. Accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam. Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals should provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse gram accessions, geographically adapted to Griffin, GA, USA were analyzed for fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral concentrations using gas chromatography, reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. Significant year effects occurred for stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidic, gadoleic, and lignoceric acids. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid ranged from 8.9%–16.8%, 40.3%–45.6%, and 11.6%–14.3%, respectively, as percent of total fatty acids measured (total oil ranged from 2.32% to 2.87%. Seed concentrations of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol ranged from 0–36 μg/g DW, 0–27 μg/g DW, and 240–316 μg/g DW, respectively and the only year effect was observed for kaempferol among the horse gram accessions. Year effects were found for Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, and S. Mean concentrations of macrominerals (Ca, K, Mg, P, and S and microminerals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn ranged from 1.3–14 mg/g DW, and 1.0–95.0 μg/g DW, respectively. Several correlations were observed among several fatty acids, flavonols, and minerals. The mono-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid correlated significantly with linoleic acid (r = −0.64, arachidic acid (r = −0.61, Ca (r = 0.50 and Zn (r = 0.51, all at P < 0.01. The flavonol, myricetin correlated significantly with quercetin (r = 0.92, P < 0.0001, while quercetin correlated with Ca (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001 and kaempferol correlated with Mg (r = 0.61, P < 0.01. Several mineral correlations were found including Fe with K (r = 0.66 and Mg (r = 0.56, both at P < 0.01. These seven horse gram accessions can be used in breeding programs to

  12. Extraction of pectic enzymes from of Lulo (Solanum quitoense lam) involved in softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main problem of post-harvest deterioration of Lulo (Solanum quitoense lam) is the softening is the main problem of post-harvest deterioration of Lulo that is generated mainly by the activity of pectic enzymes, which attack the structural network of the cell wall. this research was based on finding the best conditions structural cell wall network for extraction and measurement of enzyme activity pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) and pectato liasa (PL); tools needed to study the further role of these enzymes in the deterioration of pectatelyase fruit softening, due to various metabolic changes. It was found that the first two enzymes can be extracted simultaneously with 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 0.06 m NaCl and 60 minutes of extraction, ratio 1:2 (plant material: extraction buffer), pectatelyase extracted with 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 20 mm cysteine and 30 minutes of extraction, ratio 1:3. for quantification of pectinesterase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes at 42 Celsius degrade, 2500 μl of crude enzyme extract (EE) in 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, to 0.15 m NaCl and 1.6% citrus pectin as (CP) substrate with apparent km values of 3.78% CP and vmax 17.95 mol h+/min, mg prot. for the quantification of pectinesterase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes to 42 Celsius degrade 2500 μl of crude enzyme extract (EE) in 20 mm phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 0.15 m NaCl and 1.6% citrus pectin as substrate with apparent km values of 3.78% CP and 17.95 μ vmax mol h+/min Mg prot. for the quantification of polygalacturonase activity is necessary to incubate 15 minutes to 37 Celsius degrade 30 μl (EE) in 200 mm acetate buffer pH 4.5, 0.25 m NaCl and 1.0% of APG as substrate, with apparent km values 0.141% of APG and vmax 28.46 nkat/s mg prot. for the quantification of the pectatelyase activity is necessary to incubate 2 minutes to 17 Celsius degrade, 100 μl (EE) in buffer tris: HCl pH 8.5, 50 mm 4 mm CaCl2 and 0.1% PGA as substrate, with

  13. Content of heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive material in Leucaena leucocaphala (Lam.) de wit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was done to determine the content of heavy metals in Leucaena leucocaphala (Lam.) de Wit (Petai Belalang) at 5 different areas. Those areas were in the middle of city, former mining area, industrial area, domestic waste disposal area, and on expressway roadside. Heavy metal poisoning can happen if the concentration is too high and will cause severe damage to human health. For instance, it may cause gene mutation, cancer and damage to the human body systems. This plant was selected for the study of heavy metals and radionuclide content in the soil. The reason of selecting this plant is because this plant can live in extreme conditions, and perhaps able to absorb those elements better than other legumes. The aim of this study was to determine the content of toxic heavy metals in leaves, stems and roots of Leucaena leucocaphala including the soil where it is grown. The second objective was determine NORM in the soil where the plant grew and the last objective was to determine the transfer factor of heavy metals by the plant. The content analysis of toxic heavy metals for example Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Gamma ray spectrometry on the other hand, was used to determine K-40, Ra-226, U-238 and Th-232 in the soil where the plant was sampled. The activity concentration of Ra-226, K-40, U-238 and Th-232 determined were 7.47 ± 3.03 Bq/ kg - 256.92 ± 164.36 Bq/ kg, 95.55 ± 72.62 Bq/ kg - 435.60 ± 88.32 Bq/ kg, 21.83 ± 8.83 Bq/ kg - 165.28 ± 109.61 Bq/ kg dan 43.41 ± 7.06 Bq/ kg - 91.19 ± 11.13 Bq/ kg respectively. In general, the former mining area recorded the highest heavy metal concentration for Cu (28.20 ± 32.54 mg/ kg), Zn (114.67 ± 75,61 mg/ kg), Cd (0.31 ± 0.11 mg/ kg) and Pb (48.08 ± 33.60 mg/ kg). Whereas the highest concentration of As recorded was on the roadside (261.92 ± 132.64) and Hg (0.44 ± 0.36 mg/kg) in the middle of the city. (author)

  14. Reserve carbohydrates and lipids from the seeds of four tropical tree species with different sensitivity to desiccation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello; Claudio José Barbedo; Antonio Salatino; Rita de Cássia Leone Figueiredo-Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Considering the importance of water content for the conservation and storage of seeds, and the involvement of soluble carbohydrates and lipids for embryo development, a comparative study was carried out among the seeds of Inga vera (ingá), Eugenia uniflora (pitanga), both classified as recalcitrant, and Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood) and Erythrina speciosa (mulungu), considered as orthodox seeds. Low concentrations of cyclitols (0.3-0.5%), raffinose family oligosaccharides (ca. 0.05%) and ...

  15. Characterization of a Thermobifida fusca beta-1,3-glucanase (Lam81A) with a potential role in plant biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Colleen E; Wilson, David B

    2006-11-28

    Thermobifida fusca is a filamentous soil bacterium that plays a major role in the breakdown of plant biomass. In this paper, we report the cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of the T. fusca enzyme, Lam81A. The Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Database (http://afmb.cnrs-mrs.fr/CAZY/) indicates that Lam81A belongs to a relatively uncharacterized family of beta-1,3-glucanases, family GH-81 [Coutinho, P. M., and Henrissat, B. (1999) in Recent Advances in Carbohydrate Bioengineering (Gilbert, H. J., Davies, G., Henrissat, B., and Svensson, B., Eds.) pp 3-12, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, U.K.]. Microarray analysis suggests that Lam81A plays a role in biomass degradation, where its natural substrate may be the plant cell wall polysaccharide, callose, which is a polymer of beta-1,3-linked glucose. Characterization of Lam81A has shown that the enzyme is specific for beta-1,3-linked glucose polysaccharides, is endohydrolytic, and utilizes an inverting mechanism for substrate hydrolysis. In addition, the enzyme has a broad pH optimum from 5.5 to 10, a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C, and demonstrates substrate inhibition, as well as showing a high basal level of expression. PMID:17115704

  16. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results i

  17. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  18. Constituintes químicos voláteis e não-voláteis de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B. Barreto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo fitoquímico do extrato etanólico das folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, resultou no isolamento dos derivados benzilnitrilas niazirina, niazirinina e 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila, enquanto que das cascas dos frutos somente o octacosano foi obtido. Os óleos essenciais das folhas, flores e frutos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa. Os constituintes principais identificados foram: fitol (21,6% e timol (9,6% nas folhas, octadecano (27,4% e ácido hexadecanóico (18,4% nas flores e docosano (32,7% e tetracosano (24,0% nos frutos. As estruturas dos compostos isolados foram identificadas a partir de técnicas espectroscópicas (RMN, IV e EM. A 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila está sendo citada pela primeira vez para o gênero Moringa e os óleos essenciais das flores e frutos estão sendo citados pela primeira vez para a espécie M. oleifera.Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, yield the benzylnitriles: niazirine, niazirinine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, while of fruit shells only octacosane was isolated. The essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents identified were: phytol (21.6% and thymol (9.6% in the leaves oil, octadecane (27.4% and hexadecanoic acid (18.4% in the flowers oil, docosane (32.7% and tetracosane (24.0% in the fruits oil. The structures of all compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses (NMR, IR and MS. 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile is reported for the first time to the Moringa genus and the essential oils of flowers and fruits are reported for the first time to the species M. oleifera.

  19. Superação da dormência em sementes de mutamba (guazuma ulmifolia lam. - sterculiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Severino de Paiva Sobrinho; Aline Gonçalves Siqueira; Petrina de Bessa Morais; Sérgio José da Silva

    2012-01-01

    A Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. possui sementes com acentuada impermeabilidade a água, o que dificulta sua germinação. Avaliou-se o efeito do período de imersão das sementes em ácido sulfúrico (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16 min) e em água a 60 ºC por 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16 min, na emergência de plântulas, início da emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. O experimento foi realizado em Laboratório de Biologia, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 2 (tratamento pré-germinativo) x 5 (períodos de ...

  20. The occurrence of Glyceria striata (Lam. Hitchc. in Europe and the new localities of the species in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Piwowarski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyceria striata (Lam. Hitchc. is a North American species that has been recorded in most, semi-natural habitats in Europe, e.g. in meadows, bog springs, margins of water bodies. It is circumscribed within two taxa of lower rank: G. striata subsp. striata and G. striata subsp. stricta. Only G. striata subsp. stricta has been reported from Europe. This paper gives a list of the European locali- ties of the species (48 and describes two newly discovered localities in Poland (the Wyżyna Małopolska upland and the Western Carpathian Mts.. The distribution of G. striata in Europe is mapped and potential migration routes of the species are discussed.

  1. Adi Çitlenbik (Celtis australis L.) ve Doğu Çitlenbiği (Celtis tournefortii Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEDAĞ, Cengiz; Hazin Cemal GÜLTEKİN

    2009-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, adi çitlenbik (Celtis australis L.) ve doğu çitlenbiği (Celtis tournefortii Lam.) tohumlarında soğuk-ıslak katlama ve ekim zamanının çimlenme oranına olan etkileri incelenmiştir. Bu işlemler, Eğirdir Orman Fidanlığı'nda iki ayrı deneme ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, ekim zamanları ve katlama işlemleri çimlenme oranları üzerinde önemli (p

  2. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS NA GERMINAÇÃO DE Ochroma pyramidale (CAV. EX LAM. URB. (BOMBACACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Pinto Rayol

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito de diferentes substratos na germinação de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urb. (Bombacaceae. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (substratos e quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foram testados os seguintes substratos: areia + vermiculita (1:1; vermiculita e, areia + serragem (1:1. Foi avaliado o efeito dos substratos pelo percentual de germinação das sementes, tempo médio de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em todas as variáveis observadas. As sementes, quando acondicionadas em vermiculita, apresentaram a maior taxa de germinação, maior velocidade e menor tempo de germinação.

  3. Prediction versus actual response of rocks in an excavation of underground cavern at the Lam Ta Khong pumped storage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lertsgoon, P.N. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Bangkruai Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    2003-07-01

    The Lam Ta Khong Pumped Storage Project represents the first underground power plant in Thailand, and involves the excavation of a large underground cavern. Its dimensions are a 25 span, 175 metres long and 49 metres high. It is excavated in sandstone and siltstone and houses 4 power generator units capable of producing a maximum of 1000 mega watts (MW). The work was completed in 2000. The feasibility study revealed questionable properties of the siltstone which governs the ceiling of the cavern, due to a slacking phenomenon. A comparison between prediction and actual ground responses during excavation was performed for construction safety. PHASES and PHASE2 software were used for the prediction, while the actual rock response was obtained using a monitoring system. The parameters on rock properties from back calculation used in the design were made obvious by the correspondence between the prediction and the actual responses. 2 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  4. Madeiras utilizadas na fabricação de arcos para instrumentos de corda: aspectos anatômicos Anatomical features of woods used in the manufacture of bows for stringed instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Angyalossy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A madeira de pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. é mundialmente empregada na confecção de arcos para instrumentos de corda, uma vez que apresenta características únicas de ressonância, densidade, durabilidade, beleza, entre outras qualidades, que a tornam ideal para tal uso. Diferentes amostras de pau-brasil, contudo, fornecem arcos com qualidades distintas. No comércio nacional outras madeiras estão sendo empregadas na produção de arcos. Realizou-se, neste estudo, uma análise qualitativa e quantitativa de diferentes amostras de pau-brasil com o objetivo de apontar diferenças na estrutura da madeira que possam contribuir para o entendimento das causas da variação na qualidade do arco, além da análise de outras espécies objetivando determinar, do ponto de vista estrutural, semelhanças ou diferenças com o pau-brasil. Conclui-se que variações no diâmetro dos vasos, distribuição e quantidade de parênquima axial e orientação dos elementos axiais e radiais são parâmetros que devem ser considerados quando se busca determinar as causas das diferenças na qualidade dos arcos de pau-brasil. Constatou-se que arcos de boa qualidade apresentam grã linheira e textura fina. Esta última característica decorre da menor proporção de vasos cujo diâmetro é reduzido, raios homogêneos e fibras com paredes espessas e/ou muito espessas. Assim, a relação entre a estrutura e a qualidade do arco está diretamente relacionada com as dimensões, a distribuição e a proporção das células do lenho.Pernambuco wood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. has special characteristics like resonance, density, durability, and beauty; for this reason, it is considered the best material for stringed instruments bows. Besides pernambuco wood has been used around the world, some samples, and consequently some bows, are better than others. In Brazil, others woody species have been used in the manufacture of bows. In this paper some wood samples of

  5. Composição florística do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Floristic survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Serra da Capoeira Grande Environmental Protection Area, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º59'03"S e 43º38'59"W tem área total de 80ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. no município do Rio de Janeiro. Além disso, ocorrem na área outras três espécies ameaçadas de extinção: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng. e Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. O levantamento fitossociológico foi realizado por meio do método dos quadrantes, tendo sido alocados 200 pontos e tendo-se como critério de inclusão 15cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30m de altura do solo. A composição florística é o resultado desta amostragem acrescida de coletas feitas durante caminhadas no fragmento, totalizando 29 famílias, 58 gêneros e 69 espécies. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de espécies foram: Leguminosae (13, Myrtaceae (6, Euphorbiaceae (5, Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Celastraceae, Flacourtiaceae, Moraceae, Rubiaceae e Solanaceae (3. Analisando a similaridade florística entre a APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande e outras 18 áreas florestais do Rio de Janeiro, observou-se maior identidade florística entre a área estudada e florestas de baixada localizadas próximas ao mar. Todas as florestas reuniram-se com um baixo nível de similaridade, refletindo a diversidade florística das florestas do Rio de Janeiro.The 80-hectare site (22º59'03"S and 43º38'59"W, is one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality, where brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. occurs naturally. Furthermore, three other endangered species occur in this area: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng., and Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH >15cm; a total of 200 points were surveyed. The floristic composition was comprised of the sampled

  6. Classical torus conformal block, N=2∗ twisted superpotential and the accessory parameter of Lamé equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory on the torus and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the N=2∗ (Ω-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theory is used to propose new formulae for the accessory parameter of the Lamé equation. This quantity is in particular crucial for solving the problem of uniformization of the one-punctured torus. The computation of the accessory parameters for torus and sphere is an open longstanding problem which can however be solved if one succeeds to derive an expression for the so-called classical Liouville action. The method of calculation of the latter has been proposed some time ago by Zamolodchikov brothers. Studying the semiclassical limit of the four-point function of the quantum Liouville theory on the sphere they have derived the classical action for the Riemann sphere with four punctures. In the present work Zamolodchikovs idea is exploited in the case of the Liouville field theory on the torus. It is found that the Lamé accessory parameter is determined by the classical Liouville action on the one-punctured torus or more concretely by the torus classical block evaluated on the saddle point intermediate classical weight. Secondly, as an implication of the aforementioned correspondence it is obtained that the torus accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called “critical” Young diagrams extremizing the instanton “free energy” for the N=2∗ gauge theory. Finally, it is pointed out that thanks to the known relation the sum over the “critical” column lengths can be expressed in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions

  7. Assessment of economic impacts using the Local Area Model (LAM) : Working Paper No. 7.2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a national level for Canada, the economic impact of the construction phase of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) is very small. The economy will not be greatly affected and unemployment will decline only slightly. However, the proposed project will have a greater impact in British Columbia and will dominate the economy in the Yukon. Most of the construction labour force will have to come from outside of the Yukon and possibly outside of British Columbia and Alberta, qualifying the AHPP as a mega-project that requires resources from beyond the region. The Local Area Model (LAM) tool was developed by Informetrica Ltd. to assist communities in thinking through the economic impact of the AHPP. It is designed to help communities plan on gaining what they want from the pipeline development. In some instances, this may imply enhancing possible economic impacts, or it may mean reducing impacts. It was noted that the model is not limited to the AHPP. It is a valuable tool that can evaluate the economic impact of any project or spending decision on local communities. It is estimated that Yukon residents can take up to 20 per cent of the expected 6,000 pipeline-related jobs. This employment number includes direct, indirect and induced effects. The LAM can quantify the effect an event or a business can have on a community. The model consists of nine modules which calculate and measure the income, employment and tax impact of AHPP construction on the communities of Whitehorse and Haines Junction. 1 ref., 14 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Expression of meningococcal epitopes in LamB of Escherichia coli and the stimulation of serosubtype-specific antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarvil, J; McKenna, A J; Grief, C; Hoy, C S; Sesardic, D; Maiden, M C; Feavers, I M

    1993-10-01

    The class 1 outer membrane protein (OMP), a major variable surface antigen of Neisseria meningitidis, is a component of novel meningococcal vaccines currently in field trials. Serological variants of the protein are also used to serosubtype meningococci. Most of the amino acid changes that give rise to antigenic variants of the protein occur in two variable regions (VR1 and VR2) that are thought to form loops on the cell surface. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the nucleotide sequences encoding VR1 and VR2 from the chromosomal DNA of N. meningitidis strain M1080. These were cloned in frame into the lamB gene of the Escherichia coli expression vector pAJC264. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), using monoclonal antibodies, and SDS-PAGE confirmed that, upon induction, strains of E. coli carrying these constructs expressed hybrid LamB proteins containing the N. meningitidis surface loops. These strains were used to immunize rabbits and the resultant polyclonal antisera reacted specifically with the class 1 OMP of reference strain M1080 (P1.7). Immunogold labelling of meningococcal cells and whole-cell dot-blot analyses with these antisera showed that the variable epitopes were exposed on the cell surface and confirmed that this approach could be used to obtain serosubtype-specific antisera. The binding profiles of the antisera were determined from their reactions with overlapping synthetic peptides and their reactivity compared with that of relevant serosubtype-specific monoclonal antibodies. This approach was used successfully to raise antisera against two other class 1 OMP VR2s. A fourth antiserum raised against a VR2, including the P1.1 epitope, was not subtype specific. PMID:7526119

  9. Purificação parcial de inibidores de tripsina de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea e Swartzia polyphylla e o efeito dos extratos protéicos sobre fungos fitopatogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bariani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de leguminosas apresentam alta concentração de inibidores de tripsina; estas proteínas estão envolvidas no metabolismo celular e também em mecanismos de defesa vegetal. A fim de confirmar ou não, a possível ação fungicida destas proteínas a partir de extratos de sementes de leguminosas arbóreas, o objetivo deste estudo foi detectar inibidores de tripsina em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea (CfTI e Swartzia polyphylla (SpTI e testar os extratos contra os fungos fitopatogênicos Colletotrichum guaranicola, Corynespora cassiicola, Fusarium oxysporum e Sclerotium rolfsii, avaliando o crescimento micelial e a esporulação. Para tanto, amostras do material biológico vegetal, sementes finamente pulverizadas, foram submetidas à extração em NaCl 150 mM. Os extratos protéicos foram parcialmente purificados em coluna Sephadex G-100, submetidos à detecção dos inibidores e SDS-PAGE (12,5% e, utilizados nos bioensaios contra os fungos. O perfil eletroforético revelou uma única banda em CfTI e oito bandas em SpTI. Os extratos de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla exibiram efeito na diminuição da esporulação dos fungos testados, mas S. rolfsii foi inibido apenas por C. ferrea. Quanto ao crescimento micelial, os dois extratos tiveram efeito sobre F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii, ao passo que C. guaranicola foi inibido apenas por S. polyphylla, e C. cassiicola por C. ferrea. Concluiu-se que sementes de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla apresentam inibidores de tripsina. Além disso, os resultados sugerem que estas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas são promissoras no que concerne à prospecção de fungicidas naturais, uma vez que os extratos diminuíram o crescimento micelial e a esporulação de C. guaranicola, C. cassiicola, F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii.

  10. Applicability of Moringa oleifera Lam. pie as an adsorbent for removal of heavy metals from waters Aplicabilidade da torta de Moringa oleifera Lam. como adsorvente para remoção de metais pesados de águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso C. Gonçalves Junior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of moringa seeds (Moringa oleifera Lam. as an adsorbent material for removing toxic heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and chromium from contaminated solutions. The effect of the adsorbent mass was investigated at two pH conditions (5.0 and 7.0. The optimized conditions were 0.300 g of adsorbent at pH 5.0, used for the isotherms construction, and linearized according to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Results showed that cadmium adsorption was similar in both the models used. For lead, the Freundlich model had the best adjustment and chromium was better adjusted by the Langmuir model. It was concluded that the adsorbent was effective in the remediation of solutions containing cadmium, lead and chromium, thus, its use as sustainable alternative material is feasible, since it has low cost, does not need a previous treatment and it is a byproduct.Este estudo objetivou avaliar a eficácia do uso da torta de moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. como material adsorvente dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio (Cd, chumbo (Pb e cromo (Cr de soluções contaminadas. Nos testes cinéticos foram variadas as massas do adsorvente em duas condições de pH (5,0 e 7,0. As condições otimizadas foram pH 5,0 e massa de 0.300 g de adsorvente, utilizados para a construção das isotermas e linearizadas conforme os modelos de Langmuir e Freundlich. Realizou-se a determinação dos metais por espectrometria de absorção atômica. Os resultados mostraram que houve semelhança em ambos os modelos utilizados para a adsorção do Cd. Para o Pb, o modelo de Freundlich apresentou o melhor ajuste e, para o Cr, houve melhor ajuste pelo modelo de Langmuir. Conclui-se, com base nos resultados obtidos, que o adsorvente foi eficaz na remediação de soluções contendo Cd, Pb e Cr e, assim, é viável a utilização desse adsorvente como material alternativo sustentável, pois apresenta baixo custo, não necessita de tratamento prévio e se trata de

  11. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem affected by sewage, mine and industrial pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wet, L.P.D. de; Schoonbee, H.J.; Pretorius, J.; Bezuidenhout, L.M. (Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg (South Africa). Depts. of Zoology and Botany, Research Unit for Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems)

    1990-10-01

    The bio-accumulation of the heavy metals, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cr by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem polluted by effluents from sewage works, mines and industries was investigated. Results showed that the different metals can be accumulated by the water fern at concentration levels not necessarily related to their actual concentrations in the aquatic environment, as measured in this case, in the bottom sediments. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Karakterisasi Simplisia Dan Skrining Fitokimia Serta Isolasi Senyawa Steroid/Triterpenoid Dari Fraksi N-Heksana Daun Gaharu (Aquilaria Malaccensis Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Purnamasari, Intan

    2015-01-01

    Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccencis Lam.) is an aromatic plant of the family Thymelaeaceae. The leaves are used as herbal tea that can cure a variety of diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, rheumatic and to relieve stress. The purpose of this research was to determine the simplex characteristics, and to determine the group of compounds contained in agarwood leaves and the isolation of steroid/triterpenoid compounds. The isolates were characterized by ultraviolet and infrared spectrophotometries. ...

  13. One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. (jackfruit fruit extract and its effect on pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Basavegowda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Novel approaches for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are of great importance due to its vast spectrum of applications in diverse fields, including medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Te presented study reports the successful AuNPs’ synthesis using [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. extract, and provides detailed characterization and evaluation of its antibacterial potential. [b]Objective[/b]. The aim was to develop a cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method of gold nanoparticles using aqueous fruit extract of [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. as a reducing and capping agent, which has proven activity against human pathogens, such as microbial species [i]E.coli[/i] and [i]Streptobacillus[/i] sps. [b]Materials and method[/b]. Characterizations were carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR. [b]Results[/b]. SEM images showed the formation of gold nanoparticles with an average size of 20–25 nm. Spectra collected while infra-red analysis contained broad peaks in ranges from 4000–400 cm -1 . [b]Conclusions[/b]. It can be concluded that the fruit of [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul [i]E. coli[/i], and [i]Streptobacillus[/i]. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  14. Cloning of the LamA3 gene encoding the alpha 3 chain of the adhesive ligand epiligrin. Expression in wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M C; Tizard, R; VanDevanter, D R; Carter, W G

    1994-09-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the entire 170-kDa chain of epiligrin (alpha 3Ep) and a genomic clone encoding the alpha 3Ep gene (LamA3). Analysis of multiple cDNA clones revealed two distinct transcripts (alpha 3EpA and alpha 3EpB). Sequencing of the alpha 3EpA transcript indicated sequence and structural homology to laminin alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains that extend from domain IIIa through the carboxyl-terminal G domain. The alpha 3EpB transcript encodes a larger amino-terminal domain and contains additional epidermal growth factor repeats and sequences corresponding to domain IV of alpha 1 laminin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the LamA3 gene is located on chromosome 18q11.2, a locus distinct from the LamA1 gene (18p11.3). The G domain of the epiligrin alpha 3 chain contains five subdomains that are individually related to the G subdomains reported for Drosophila and vertebrate laminin alpha chains. Sequence divergence within the G domain of alpha 3 epiligrin suggests that it is functionally distinct from laminin, consistent with our previous report showing that epiligrin interacts with different integrin adhesion receptors. Analysis of RNA from human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified multiple epiligrin transcripts that were down-regulated by viral transformation and differentiation. In contrast, epiligrin expression was up-regulated in wound sites of human skin. PMID:8077230

  15. Caracterización química del aceite y harina residual de solanum sisymbriifolium lam

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    Wiese, B.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds from Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam harvested at Olavarría (Buenos Aires, Argentine were defatted with hexane and the raw oil obtained with a yield of 20,6 % dry basis. The physicochemical characteristics of crude oil were: refractive index: 1,4610 (at 25ºC, iodine value: 112,8; saponification index: 170,0; unsaponifiable matter: 14,0 % and free fatty acid content: 2,4 (mg KOH/g. The fatty acid composition of seed oil was studied by gas-liquid chromatography. Major fatty acids of seed oil were: linoleic (52,3%, oleic (23,4 % and palmitic acid (16,4 %. The residual seed meal contained moderate level of crude protein (14,75%, dry basis, low level of available lysine (2,25 g/16gN and high content of crude fiber (51,5%, dry basis. Total and phytic acid phosphorous, calcium, ash, sugar and polysaccharides contents are reported.Semillas de Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam cosechadas en Olavarría (prov. de Buenos Aires, Argentina se trataron con hexano (soxhlet obteniéndose el aceite crudo (rendimiento:20,6% y la harina residual de extracción. Las características fisicoquímicas del aceite crudo fueron: Índice de refracción: 1.4610 (a 25ºC; Índice de iodo: 112,8; Índice de saponificación: 170,0; Insaponificable: 14,0%, Índice de acidez: 2,4 (mgKOH/g. Se determinó la composición acídica del aceite por cromatografía gas-líquido. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios fueron: ácido linoleico (52,3%, ácido oleico (23,4% y ácido palmítico (16,4%. La harina residual de extracción contenía una moderada proporción de proteína cruda (14,75% b.s, baja proporción de lisina disponible (2,25 g/16gN y un alto contenido de fibra cruda (51,5 %b.s. Se informan valores de fósforo total y de ácido fítico, cenizas, calcio e hidratos de carbono.

  16. Phytochemical screening and studies of analgesic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark extract on experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumaia Parvin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The work has been done for the phytochemical investigation and study of analgesic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. ethanolic stem bark extract using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing method. The effect of extract was tested for qualitative chemical analysis which reveals the presence of alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, carbohydrate etc. For peripheral analgesic effect acetic acid induced writhing test was used and for this stem bark extract was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight to young Swiss-albino mice. Both doses of the extract significantly inhibited writhing response induced by acetic acid in a dose dependent manner which is comparable to the positive control drug Diclofenac Na. These two different doses were found to exhibit 13.22% and 28.94% writhing inhibitory response respectively where the Diclofenac Na inhibited about 42.15% of writhes at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight. The obtained results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of these crude extract in the treatment of pain.

  17. PHYLOPLANE ASSESSMENT OF LEAF AND STALK FOR CONSUMPTION AND MICROBIAL DIVERSITY OF SWEET POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS (L LAM., CONVOLVULACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Ahana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient and microbial contents of the leaves and stalks of two varieties of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., Convolvulaceae were determined using standard analytical methods in order to ascertain its quality as a food material. The samples were found to contain a diverse array of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fats, crude fiber and ash containing mineral deposits with potential nutritional benefits. However, the quick perishability of the food material is a major constraint to its wider utilization for consumption and this was attributed to the microbial load in it. The leaves and stalks contained strains of bacteria and fungi whose analyses were determined using pour plate method. The purple variety samples had lesser numbers of microbial loads in it while the white variety samples had more microbial load in it on the pour plate method. The pour plate method is a microbiological procedure used for isolating and growing individual colonies of micro organisms in pure culture. Pure cultures of the isolated organisms were identified through their colony appearance and microscopic observation of the stained samples. Some biochemical tests were conducted for the characterization of bacteria isolates. The shelf life of sweet potato leaves and stalks can be ascertained knowing the particular microorganisms present. It is important that consumers of this food material always harvest cultivars that have no sign of deterioration and food safety precautions should be adhered to in order to avoid consuming the toxic anti-nutrients.

  18. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Akio, E-mail: watanabea@jfrl.or.jp [Japan Food Research Laboratories, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan); Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi [Japan Food Research Laboratories, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo [Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  19. Effect of Butea monosperma Lam. leaves and bark extracts on blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that has significant impact on the health, quality of life and life expectancy, as well as on the health care system. Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntze (Fabaceae, commonly known as palash, is widely used in the treatment of various diseases and disorders including diabetes. Materials and Methods: The present study was planned to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extracts of B. monosperma leaves and bark in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups, with each consisting of six rats, viz. control, diabetic control, leaf extract-treated and bark extract-treated groups. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. The biochemical estimations included blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Histopathology of pancreas was also performed. Results: The results indicated that both leaf and bark extracts of B. monosperma produced insignificant antihyperglycemic activity. The leaf and bark extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent of 28% and 11%, respectively. It was also evidenced that both leaf and bark extracts did not increase insulin synthesis or secretion and did not improve pancreatic architecture as reflected by the histopathologic studies. Conclusions: The findings of the study emphasize that B. monosperma does not possess significant antidiabetic activity in severe experimental diabetes at the dosage tested.

  20. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Lycopeneε-Cyclase (IbLCYe) Gene from Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ling; ZHAI Hong; CHEN Wei; HE Shao-zhen; LIU Qing-chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reported firstly successful cloning of lycopeneε-cyclase (IbLCYe) gene from sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), IbLCYe gene was cloned from sweetpotato cv. Nongdafu 14 with high carotenoid content. The 1 805 bp cDNA sequence of IbLCYe gene contained a 1 236 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 411 amino acids polypeptide with a molecular weight of 47 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.95. IbLCYe protein contained one potential lycopeneε-cyclase domain and one potential FAD (flavinadenine dinucleotide)/NAD(P) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-binding domain, indicating that this protein shares the typical characteristics of LCYe proteins. The gDNA of IbLCYe gene was 4 029 bp and deduced to contain 5 introns and 6 exons. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of IbLCYe gene was significantly higher in the storage roots of Nongdafu 14 than those in the leaves and stems. Transgenic tobacco (cv. Wisconsin 38) expressing IbLCYe gene accumulated significantly moreβ-carotene compared to the untransformed control plants. These results showed that IbLCYe gene has an important function for the accumulation of carotenoids of sweetpotato.

  1. Adi Çitlenbik (Celtis australis L. ve Doğu Çitlenbiği (Celtis tournefortii Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz YÜCEDAĞ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, adi çitlenbik (Celtis australis L. ve doğu çitlenbiği (Celtis tournefortii Lam. tohumlarında soğuk-ıslak katlama ve ekim zamanının çimlenme oranına olan etkileri incelenmiştir. Bu işlemler, Eğirdir Orman Fidanlığı'nda iki ayrı deneme ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, ekim zamanları ve katlama işlemleri çimlenme oranları üzerinde önemli (p<0.001 bir etkiye sahip bulunmuştur. İki çitlenbik türünde de uygun soğuk-ıslak katlama süresi için 30-90 gün arasında bir zaman periyodu ve uygun ekim zamanı için ise kasım, aralık ve ocak aylarında ön işlem uygulamadan ekim önerilebilir.

  2. La pertinencia de imaginar modelos universitarios: El caso del Laboratorio: Aula Multimedia (LAM en la UAM Xochimilco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Andión Gamboa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo parte de un cuestionamiento sobre la pertinencia de imaginar modelos universitarios y para darle respuesta se explica desde una perspectiva teórica el papel de los modelos universitarios en los proceso de cambio y reconfiguración de la organización universitaria. Posteriormente, se hace una descripción de la experiencia que significó implantar un modelo “autóctono” dentro de un aula universitaria multimedia, en la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Xochimilco, y su transfiguración en un laboratorio multifuncional. Al final, se reflexiona sobre este proceso de cambio organizacional, llegando a la conclusión que cuando los modelos se imaginan, diseñan, planean, aplican, evalúan y sirven a la comunidad, como es el caso del Laboratorio: Aula Multimedia (LAM, entonces resulta evidente la vigencia, relevancia y pertinencia de esta actividad académica.

  3. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (pcroton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group IV) compared to the control group (Group I ). The percentage inhibition of tumor multiplicity has been recorded to be 27, 72, and 81 in Groups II, III, and IV, respectively. These findings are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive potential of Moringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:12875626

  4. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes

  5. Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili Limit: Connecting Weak and Strong Coupling in the Mathieu and Lam'e Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Basar, Gokce

    2015-01-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of N=2 and N=2* supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lam'e equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Marino and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-pe...

  6. Aristoteles'in etik görüşü bağlamında ötanazi

    OpenAIRE

    Gök, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Ötanazi etik alanda ama özellikle tıp etiği alanında sıklıkla tartışılan önemli sorunlarından biridir. Ne var ki tartışma genellikle felsefi etikten kopuk olarak sürdürülmektedir. Oysa sorun etik (felsefi etik) alandan uzaklaşmadan yapılması durumunda, insan ve değer felsefesinin, etiğin ötanazi tartışmalarına ışık tutacağı söylenebilir. Bu tezde amaçlanan, ötanaziye Aristoteles’in etik görüşü bağlamında bakıldığında, bu bakışın, ötanazide ortaya çıkan kimi sorunların çözümünde...

  7. Antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (Lam. H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Woode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hilleria latifolia (Lam. H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae is a perennial herb used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of various painful conditions. Little scientific evidence exists in literature on the effect of this plant on pain. Materials and Methods : The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of H. latifolia in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, glutamate, formalin, and capsaicin tests and thermal (tail immersion test behavioral pain models in rodents. The possible mechanisms of the antinociceptive action were also assessed with various antagonists in the formalin test. Results : The H. latifolia extract (HLE together with morphine and diclofenac (positive controls, showed significant antinociceptive activity in all the models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by HLE in the formalin test was partly or wholly reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, theophylline, and atropine. Glibenclamide, ondansetron, yohimbine, nifedipine, and NG -l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, however, did not significantly block the antinociceptive effect of the extract. HLE, unlike morphine, did not induce tolerance to its antinociceptive effect in the formalin test after chronic administration; morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to HLE. Interestingly, also, the chronic concomitant administration of HLE and morphine significantly suppressed the development of morphine tolerance. Conclusion : Together, these results indicate that HLE produces dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical and thermal pain, without tolerance induction, through mechanisms that involve an interaction with adenosinergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and opioid pathways.

  8. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  9. Analysis of chemical composition and evaluation of antigenotoxic, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan; Rajarajeswaran Jayakumar; Murugaiyan Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from the leaves ofToddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. and to test its bioactive properties. Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis and antigenotoxicity, cytotoxicity and antioxidant studies of isolated oil. Results: GC-MS analysis of oil revealed the presence of 42 compounds. The major compound in the oil was β-phellandrene (21.35%). DNA protecting activity of oil was considerably significant against H2O2 induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. Concentration of oil needed to protect 50% of DNA was calculated as 100 μg/mL. Cytotoxicity of oil against breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HT-29) cancer cells were observed with the IC50 value of (7.80±0.03) μg/mL and (100.00±0.16) μg/mL respectively. Considerable DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical scavenging, iron chelation and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities of oil were also studied. Conclusions: The results of the present study clearly indicate oil could be a promising candidate for food and drug preparation.

  10. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  11. VARIABILIDAD MORFOLOGICA DE LA COLECCIÓN COLOMBIANA DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam. Y ESPECIES ELACIONADAS DE LA SECCIÓN Lasiocarpa MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF THE COLOMBIAN COLLECTION OF LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam. AND RELATED LASIOCARPA SECTION SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lobo Arias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se categorizó la variabilidad morfológica de la colección colombiana de lulo Solanum quitoense Lam, especies relacionadas de la sección Lasiocarpa y entidades biológicas Solanaceae de otras secciones, como grupo externo. Se encontró amplia variabilidad morfológica cualitativa y cuantitativa en las dos variedades botánicas del lulo y las otras entidades biológicas de Lasiocarpa. Los 58 atributos morfológicos cualitativos fueron polimórficos en éste conjunto, con presencia de 73,9% del total de estados incluidos en los descriptores y 4,2 morfoalelos por variable. En el caso de S. quitoense, 52 de los 58 caracteres cualitativos exhibieron variabilidad, con 60% de las variantes totales de la lista de descriptores y 3,4 morfoalelos por característica. Igualmente, se encontró polimorfismo considerable en S. hirtum, S. pseudolulo y potencial de utilización, en dos materiales estudiados de S. vestissimum. A nivel cuantitativo se determinó diversidad en todas las variables estudiadas. El análisis de componentes principales de los caracteres cuantitativos reveló una alta contribución de las variables de fruto a la explicación de la variabilidad total de esta índole. Los fenogramas cualitativo, cuantitativo y cualitativo-cuantitativo, no detectaron materiales idénticos en los taxa estudiados. La mayor consistencia taxonómica fue exhibida por el fenograma obtenido con todas las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas.The morphologic variability of the Colombian collection of lulo, Solanum quitoense Lam, related species of section Lasiocarpa and Solanaceae taxa of other sections, as outgroup, was studied. Ample qualitative and quantitative morphologic variability was found in the two botanical varieties of lulo and the other studied Lasiocarpa species. The 58 qualitative morphologic attributes were polymorphic in this set of taxa, with 73,9% of the total qualitative states included in the descriptor list up today, with 4,2 morphoalleles

  12. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

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    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE and its chloroform fraction (MCF on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4% and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg and normal saline (1 ml/kg were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6 and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

  13. Superação da dormência em sementes de mutamba (guazuma ulmifolia lam. - sterculiaceae

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    Severino de Paiva Sobrinho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. possui sementes com acentuada impermeabilidade a água, o que dificulta sua germinação. Avaliou-se o efeito do período de imersão das sementes em ácido sulfúrico (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16 min e em água a 60 ºC por 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16 min, na emergência de plântulas, início da emergência e índice de velocidade de emergência. O experimento foi realizado em Laboratório de Biologia, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 2 (tratamento pré-germinativo x 5 (períodos de imersão, com três repetições de 20 sementes. O precondicionamento das sementes em ácido sulfúrico como em água mostrou-se eficiente na superação da dormência dessa espécie, promovendo aumento na porcentagem de emergência de plântulas e velocidade de emergência e redução no tempo para o início da germinação. A eficiência do tratamento químico com ácido sulfúrico foi obtida com um tempo de imersão de 8 min, enquanto no tratamento físico com água a 60 ºC a eficiência foi obtida com o tempo de imersão de 16 min.

  14. Identification of a proteinaceous component in the leaf of moringa oleifera lam. with effects on high serum creatinine

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    S Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one.

  15. Combined use of stable isotopes and fallout radionuclides for assessing soil erosion and land degradation in Lam Dong region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout radionuclides 7Be and 137Cs were used to assess soil erosion rates at 90 sites within a 270 km2 catchment in Lam dong province. Soil erosion rates varied in a wide range and depended significantly on the slope, crops and farming practices. The rates ranged from 0.5 t ha-1y-1 to 14 t ha-1y-1 for forest land, from 5 t ha-1y-1 to 39 t ha-1y-1 for perennial crops and from 6 t ha-1y-1 to 42 t ha-1y-1 for annual crops. In areas with the same slope, the soil erosion rate was the highest for cashew plantations, lower for mulberry field and the lowest for tea or coffee plantations. Soil erosion had resulted in losing a significant quantity of plant nutrients such as OM, N, P2O5 and K2O every year, of which OM was lost up to 1435 kg ha-1 y-1 for annual crops and 1736 kg ha-1 y-1 for perennial crop land. Owing to soil erosion, the catchment has lost about 211200 tons of surface soil per year during last 50 years, corresponding to the rate of 7.8 t ha-1 y-1. The compound-specific stable isotopes technique was used for identifying sediment sources accumulated in Ham Thuan reservoir. The contribution of natural forest, planted forest, tea plantation, coffee plantation and annual crop lands to Ham Thuan reservoir sediment was 5%, 6%, 17%, 66% and 6% respectively. (author)

  16. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture.The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter,to maintain acceptable levels of soil,water and air quality.In this study,two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems;recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation Water in local communities with low income.In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation.It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen),90% for NO2--N,64.8% for NO3--N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN,82% for NO2--N and 60.5% for NO3--N.Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well,however,plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming.Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction,the treatment with L.perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality.A.viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge.The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves.

  17. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentiality of Randia dumetorum Lam. Leaf and Bark via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Saikia, Bikas; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Singh, Yogendra P; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Randia dumetorum Lam. (RD) (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used by some tribes of Assam and Manipur of North East India for the treatment of liver ailments. In this context, to scientifically validate this indigenous traditional knowledge, we have evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of RD leaf and bark. The methanol extracts of RD leaf and bark were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity which exhibited good antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power assay, total antioxidant assay and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found to be 112 ± 3.24 mg and 138 ± 2.46 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 2.6 ± 0.26 mg and 3.34 ± 0.31 mg rutin equivalents/g extract respectively for RD leaf and bark methanol extracts. The in vivo hepato protective activity of the RD leaf and bark extract was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in male wistar rats. CCl4 administration induced hepatic damage in rats resulted in increased levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, albumin, bilirubin, TNF-α, IL-1β and decreased levels of total protein and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. RD leaf and bark methanol extracts pre-treatment exhibited protection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by reversing all the abnormal parameters to significant levels. Histopathological results revealed that RD leaf and bark extracts at 400 mg/kg protects the liver from damage induced by CCl4. The results of this study scientifically validate the traditional use of RD leaf and bark for the treatment of liver ailments. PMID:27471465

  18. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves. PMID:17966513

  19. Composição química e atividade alelopática do óleo volátil de Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam (araliaceae) Chemical composition and allelophatic activity of essential oil from Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam (araliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane B. da Silva; Euclésio Simionatto; Sônia C. Hess; Marize T. L. P. Peres; Edésio L. Simionatto; Alberto W. Júnior; Nilva R. Poppi; Odival Faccenda; Ana C. da Silva Cândido; SILVANA P.Q. SCALON

    2009-01-01

    The volatile oil obtained from the leaves of Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam (Araliaceae) was analyzed by GC, Chiral-GC and GC-MS. It was identified 14 compounds and the monoterpene (+)-limonene (53.6%) and sesquiterpene γ-muurolene (10.5%) were the main components. The allelopathic effects of the oil were evaluated against two seeds, Lactuca sativa and Allium cepa. The results show that the oil exhibited inhibition effects in the germination and seedling growth of plants species relative to...

  20. Allelopathic effects of aqueous and organic fractions of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea and wheat Efectos alelopáticos de fracciones acuosas y orgánicas de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de garbanzo y trigo

    OpenAIRE

    Asif Tanveer; Muhammad Kamran Jabbar; Abdul Kahliq; Amar Matloob; Rana Nadeem Abbas; Muhammad Mansoor Javaid

    2012-01-01

    Identification of weed species with allelopathic potential and characterization of their adverse effects against associated crops is required for better understanding of weed-crop interactions. Phytotoxic activity of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated under controlled conditions. Two separate studies were done with each of four organic solvent fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl...

  1. Temperaturas cardeais e efeito da luz na germinação de sementes de mutamba Cardinal temperatures and effect of light on Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    João C de Araújo Neto; Ivor B. de Aguiar; Vilma M Ferreira; Teresinha J. D. Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., conhecida como mutamba, é uma espécie arbórea característica dos estádios iniciais da sucessão secundária, com ampla ocorrência natural no Brasil. Possui grande potencial para recuperação ambiental de áreas degradadas. Neste trabalho, conduziram-se dois experimentos, nos quais as sementes foram extraídas e escarificadas antes da instalação dos testes de germinação. O primeiro experimento foi desenvolvido com sementes colhidas em outubro de 1995 e teve por objetivo defi...

  2. Composição química e atividade alelopática do óleo volátil de Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam (araliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Cristiane Bezerra da; Simionatto, Euclésio; Hess, Sônia Corina; Peres, Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira; Edésio L. Simionatto; Wisniewski Junior, Alberto; Poppi, Nilva Ré; Faccenda, Odival; Cândido, Ana C. da Silva; Scalon, Silvana de Paula Quintao

    2009-01-01

    The volatile oil obtained from the leaves of Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam (Araliaceae) was analyzed by GC, Chiral-GC and GC-MS. It was identified 14 compounds and the monoterpene (+)-limonene (53.6%) and sesquiterpene γ-muurolene (10.5%) were the main components. The allelopathic effects of the oil were evaluated against two seeds, Lactuca sativa and Allium cepa. The results show that the oil exhibited inhibition effects in the germination and seedling growth of plants species relative to the ...

  3. Influência dos processos de secagem sobre o teor de flavonoides e na atividade antioxidante dos extratos de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Borgo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o teor de quercetina obtido dos extratos de partes aéreas de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae, submetidas a diferentes técnicas de secagem, bem como a avaliação de sua atividade antioxidante in vitro. Foi verificada maior concentração deste flavonoide nas amostras secas em estufa, porém não houve diferença significativa na atividade farmacológica das amostras analisadas.

  4. Effect of the Essential Oil Composition and Biological Activity of Ziziphora clinopodiodes Lam. on the Against Anopheles Stephensi and Culex pipiens Parva from Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. growing in Iran was analysed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-six components accounting to 97.62% of the total oil were identified. The major components were pulegone (36.45%), piperitenone (19.12%), Menth-2-en-1-ol (5.31%), carvacrol (5.10%) neomenthol (4.78) and menthone (4.46%). The essential oil was tested against Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens larvae. The results obtained show that the essential oil could be considered as natural larvicidal agents. (author)

  5. Respuesta Fisiológica del lulo (Solanun quitoense Lam.) a la fertilización orgánica en Tinjacá, Boyacá

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Almanza; Pablo Serrano; Oscar Castro

    2008-01-01

    El trabajo se orientó hacia la evaluación de la respuesta fisiológicadel lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. var. septentrionale). Para esto se emplearon tres tratamientos con fertilización orgánica (bocashi, mezcla bocashi + biol y biol), y uno con síntesis química (18-18-18), mediante la descripción de variables físicas y fisiológicas, con el fin de establecer el desarrollo y crecimiento óptimo de la planta durante tres intervalos. Se realizaron tres muestreos en diferentes estadios fisiológicosde...

  6. Correlations between the anatomical traits of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. in heartwood and sapwood of early- and latewood zones of growth rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows correlations between vessel characteristics and differences in growth-ring width in heartwood and sapwood. Analyzed samples were from an iron-wood tree (Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. that grew in the Mužljanski Rit area, of the Srpska Crnja municipality in Serbia. According to previous research, it was deduced that Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. belongs to ring-porous species with big vessel lumen in the earlywood zone and thicker cell walls in the latewood. Vessels were more numerous in the latewood zone, and the same was true for heartwood and sapwood. For both layers, sapwood possessed a few more vessels than heartwood, and a statistically significant difference was confirmed by t-test during the early phase. The greatest negative value of correlation coefficient was between the number of vessels and growth-ring width during the early phase for sapwood. The number of vessels decreased in the wider growth rings. The correlation between growth-ring width and the area of vessels had a statistically significant positive value of correlative coefficient, which means that wider growth rings had larger vessel areas in the early phase for sapwood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041

  7. Evaluation sensorielle du couscous de farine de manioc (Manihot esculenta, Crantz substituée par celle de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas, Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou, NM.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer Acceptance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz flour's fufu substituted by Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam Flour. This study investigated the consumer acceptance of fufu made by substituting cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz flour with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam flour at the Food Technology and Post-harvest laboratory of IRAD in Bambui, Cameroon. Four samples of Fufu flour samples F0, F1, F2 and F3 obtained by substituting cassava flour with 0%, 20%, 40% and 50% potato flour respectively were compared. A panel of 30 persons (habitual consumers of Cassava fufu flour carried out a sensory evaluation of the four samples and gave their level of appreciation with regards to taste, aroma, colour, and texture. The study showed that, the substitution of cassava flour with sweet potato flour had no effect on the aroma of the fufu. The sample containing 20% of sweet potato flour (F1 showed no significant difference in texture and aroma compared (p>0.05 to the control (F0. It was also considered as having the best taste (p<0.05 and was the sample preferred by the panelists. In conclusion, an increase in the proportion of sweet potato flour in the cassava flour had a negative influence on the colour, texture, taste and on the acceptance of the fufu.

  8. Performance of Late Sown Wheat in Response to Foliar Application of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extract Rendimiento de Trigo Sembrado Tarde en Respuesta a la Aplicación Foliar de Extracto de Hojas de Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Yasmeen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A rise in temperature during early spring inducing early maturity is a key yield-reducing factor in late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves are rich in zeatin, a cytokinin that plays a role in delaying leaf senescence, in addition to other growth-enhancing compounds such as ascorbates, phenolics, and minerals. The objective of this study was to optimize dose and optimum growth stage for foliar-applied moringa leaf extract (MLE and its role in delaying leaf senescence in late sown wheat. The wheat crop was shown on 16 December 2008; MLE (diluted 30 times was applied at different growth stages from tillering to heading and heading alone and distilled water was sprayed as a control. All the MLE treatment results were better than the control. However, an increase of 10.73%, 6.00%, 10.70%, and 4.00% was evident in 1000 grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index, respectively, with MLE spray at tillering + jointing + booting + heading. The MLE spray used only at heading gave 6.84%, 3.17%, 6.80%, and 3.51% more than the control 1000 grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index, respectively. The MLE extended seasonal leaf area duration (Seasonal LAD by 9.22 and 6.45 d over the control when applied at all growth stages and a single spray at heading, respectively. We conclude that it is possible that the presence of growth-promoting substances in MLE foliar spray can delay crop maturity and extend seasonal LAD and the grain-filling period, thereby leading to greater seed and biological yields in late sown wheat.Aumento en temperatura durante inicios de primavera induciendo madurez temprana es un factor clave en la reducción de rendimiento en siembra tardía de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.. Las hojas de Moringa oleifera Lam. son ricas en zeatina, una citoquinina que tiene rol en retraso de senescencia foliar, además de otros compuestos que mejoran crecimiento como ascorbatos, fenoles, y

  9. EXTRACCIÓN DE ENZIMAS PÉCTICAS DEL EPICARPIO DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam INVOLUCRADAS EN EL PROCESO DE ABLANDAMIENTO Exytraction of Pectic Enzymes from of Lulo(Solanum quitoense Lam Involved in Softening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEIMMY MARCELA RODRÍGUEZ NIETO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo de poscosecha el principal problema de deterioro del lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam es el ablandamiento que es generado principalmente por actividad de enzimas pécticas que atacan la red estructural de la pared celular. Esta investigación se basó en la búsqueda de las mejores condiciones de extracción y medida de actividad de las enzimas pectinesterasa, poligalacturonasa y pectato liasa; herramientas necesarias para estudiar posteriormente el rol de estas enzimas en el deterioro por ablandamiento sufrido por el fruto debido a diversos cambios metabólicos. Se encontró que las dos primeras enzimas pueden ser extraídas simultáneamente con buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + NaCl 0,06 M y 60 min de extracción, relación 1:2 (material vegetal: buffer de extracción, a su vez, pectato liasa se extrajo con buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + cisteína 20 mM y 30 min de extracción, relación 1:3. Para la cuantificación de la actividad pectinesterasa es necesario incubar 15 min a 42 °C 2.500 µL de extracto enzimático crudo (EE en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + NaCl 0,15 M y 1,6% de pectina cítrica como sustrato, con valores de Km aparente de 3,78% de PC y Vmax 17,95 µmolH+/min*mg prot. Para la cuantificación de la actividad poligalacturonasa es necesario incubar 15 min a 37 °C 30 µL (EE en buffer acetatos 200 mM pH 4,5 + NaCl 0,25 M y 1,0% de APG como sustrato, con valores de Km aparente 0,141% de APG y Vmax 28,46 nKat/s*mg prot. Para la cuantificación de la actividad pectato liasa es necesario incubar 2 min a 17 °C 100 µL (EE en buffer TRIS:HCl 50 Mm pH 8,5 + CaCl2 4 mM y 0,1% de APG como sustrato, con valores de Km aparente 0,0865% de APG y Vmax 82,75 µg/s*mg prot.The main problem of post-harvest deterioration of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam is the softening is the main problem of post-harvest deteriorarion of Lulo, that is generated mainly by the activity of pectic enzymes, which attack the structural network of the cell

  10. INDUCCIÓN DE FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA EN FRUTOS DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam INFECTADOS CON Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Peralta Sixta Tulia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la dinámica de la actividad fenilalanina amonio liasa (PAL en corteza de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam con el fin de determinar su participación en respuestas bioquímicas hacia Colletotrichum acutatum. Se establecieron como mejores condiciones para la extracción de la enzima, amortiguador ácido bórico-borato de sodio 0.1M pH 8.8, 1% SDS, 3% PVPP y para medir la actividad, sustrato L-fenilalanina 5 mM, pH 8,0, 20°C, 30 μL de extracto y 45 min. Se realizó un ensayo in vivo usando frutos en tres estados de madurez, los cuales fueron inoculados con el patógeno o tratados con agua estéril. A cinco tiempos (hpi se determinó la actividad PAL y el contenido total de fenoles, encontrándose que hay una respuesta diferencial de la enzima por efecto del patógeno y por el estado de madurez. Para frutos en el estado pintón se obtuvo el mayor aumento de PAL, el que perduró hasta 48 hpi, al compararlo con los controles y con los otros dos estados de madurez. Este aumento mostró relación con un marcado incremento en el contenido total de fenoles y con el desarrollo más tardío de síntomas característicos de antracnosis, observado para los frutos pintones. Estos resultados permiten postular, una posible relación positiva entre inducción de PAL, aumento de fenólicos y respuesta de tolerancia a C. acutatum. Para lulos en estado verde y maduro se observó aumento de PAL a 12 y 24 hpi que coincidió también con incremento en el contenido de fenoles totales, aunque para estos dos últimos estados dicho contenido disminuyó significativamente a tiempos mayores.

  11. Beyond vegetative propagation of indigenous fruit trees: case of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H. J. Lam and Allanblackia floribunda Oliv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaah, Ebenezar K.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fruits/nuts of Africa’s humid tropics are increasingly being recognized for their contribution to food security, health (nutrition/medicine, income generation, employment and environmental benefits. However, cultivation of the trees yielding these fruits/nuts is constrained by lack of improved planting materials that are true-to-type and have a short enough juvenile phase to fruit production. In addition, information on both above and belowground growth attributes of these species is scarce. This paper presents an overview of the results of a doctoral research focused on two African indigenous fruit tree species, i.e. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H. J. Lam (Burseraceae and Allanblackia floribunda Oliv. (Clusiaceae, which are currently under domestication. For D. edulis, the objective was to assess and compare the structural and fine rooting systems together with the above ground growth attributes of fruiting trees propagated either sexually or vegetatively. The research aim for A. floribunda was to shorten the long juvenile phase before first fruiting through grafting techniques. In summary, the results from the studies on D. edulis suggest that vegetative propagation of the species, reduces the long juvenile phase to fruiting and maintains trueness in the transfer of desirable traits over generations, it also results in trees that are apparently less competitive for below ground resources, have more stable root system, and are bigger in stature and higher in carbon sinks compared to trees of seed origin. In parallel, A. floribunda was shown to be amenable to grafting both under nursery and field (in situ conditions. Furthermore, a grafted A. floribunda tree transplanted in the field in 2007, flowered and carried a single fruit to maturity after 4 years, thereby reducing the long juvenile period to first fruit production from about 10-12 years reported in literature to less than 5 years. The findings of this doctoral research are

  12. Probing into Mobile Learning Applications on LAMS in Open Education%基于LAMS的移动学习在开放教育中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜俊

    2011-01-01

    基于LAMS的移动学习可以作为开放教育面授辅导教学的补充,满足成人学生自主学习的需要。根据移动学习与LAMS的特点,基于LAMS的移动学习能够根据学习时间的长短,实现单一性学习活动和序列性学习活动,从而满足多样化的自主学习需求。随着各类移动设备对LAMS的支持日渐完善,基于LAMS的移动学习将在教学领域拥有更广泛的应用空间。%Mobile learning based on LAMS(Learning Activity Management System) can be used as teaching supplement of face-to-face tutorial in open education,meeting the needs of adult students' autonomous learning.According to the characteristics of m-learning and LAMS,LAMS-based mobile learning enables a single sequence of learning activities and learning activities on sequentiality depending on the time of learning in order to meet the diverse learning needs.With the perfect support of all types of mobile devices to LAMS,LAMS-based mobile learning in the field of instruction will have a wider range of application.

  13. To identify Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis carymbasa(L.) Lam. by Macro photography%白花蛇舌草与水线草饮片的微距图像鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海; 冯倩茹; 邓广海; 龚又明; 郑显辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis carymbasa (L.) Lam. by Macro photography Method: Take the Macro photos of every place of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis carymbasa (L.) Lam. by Macro photography. Results: Gather the photos from inflorescence, stem, leaf of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis carymbasa(L.) Lam. . Conclusion:The Macro photography of inflorescence, leaf can be regard as the identification basis between Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and Hedyotis carymbasa(L.) Lam. .%目的:通过微距图像鉴别白花蛇舌草与水线草。方法:通过微距摄像采集白花蛇舌草与水线草各部位图像。结果:采集到白花蛇舌草与水线草的花序、茎、叶等微距图像。结论:白花蛇舌草和水线草的花序和叶的微距图像可作为其鉴别依据。

  14. Fast analysis of volatile components of Achillea tenuifolia Lam with microwave distillation followed by headspace single-drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds Achillea tenuifolia Lam with two methods, headspace single-drop microextraction and microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-SDME), for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by the simplex method. PMID:26329700

  15. Assessment of LaM0.25Mn0.75O3-δ (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) as promising cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A series of oxides LaM0.25Mn0.75O3−δ (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) were synthesized. • Multivalent states of M and Mn ions are confirmed by XPS characterization. • LaCu0.25Mn0.75O3−δ exhibits the most excellent electrochemical property. • First principles calculation is employed to assistant elucidate conduction behavior. • LaM0.25Mn0.75O3−δ (M = Fe, Co, Ni) are also good enough as cathodes. -- Abstract: A series of novel perovskites LaM0.25Mn0.75O3−δ (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) are considered as promising cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Polycrystalline powders of LaM0.25Mn0.75O3−δ are synthesized by a modified Pechini method. Powder X-ray Rietveld refinements reveal that LaM0.25Mn0.75O3−δ series are in the orthorhombic perovskite structure within Pnma (no. 62) space group at room temperature. In situ high temperature X-ray diffractions indicate the existence of phase transformation from the orthorhombic Pnma phase to a higher symmetrical rhombohedral phase at elevated temperatures without any second phase formation for all these compounds. Multivalent states of M (Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) and Mn ions are testified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement (XPS). The electrical conductivity are measured to be 39.6, 85.3 and 48.1, 99.4 S cm−1 for M = Fe, Co, Ni and Cu, respectively and the corresponding impedance are 0.131, 0.106, 0.107 and 0.0634 Ω cm2 at 850 °C. Among these compounds, LaCu0.25Mn0.75O3−δ exhibits the highest electrical conductivity and the lowest electrode polarization resistances, which is consistent with its calculated smallest band gap and lowest oxygen vacancy formation energy. Moreover, they all exhibit excellent chemical compatibility with prototypical electrolyte Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ (SDC). While the overall electrochemical properties of LaM0.25Mn0.75O3−δ (M = Fe, Co, Ni) are high enough to fulfill the practical applications. Thus, these LaM0.25Mn0.75O3

  16. How Is LAM Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developed to prevent the immune system from rejecting kidney transplants. However, studies have shown that the medicine helps ... a high risk of complications, including infections and rejection of the transplanted lung by the body. Studies ...

  17. Atividade antibacteriana in vitro de inflorescências de Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. - Asteraceae ("macela", "marcela") sobre agentes bacterianos de interesse em alimentos In vitro antibacterial activity of inflorescences of Achyroclines satureioides (Lam.) DC. - Asteraceae ("macela", "marcela") on bacterial agents of interest in food

    OpenAIRE

    F.M Mota; H.H.C. Carvalho; J.M. Wiest

    2011-01-01

    Através de Testes de diluição em sistema de tubos múltiplos determinou-se in vitro, atividade antibacteriana em inflorescências de Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. - Asteraceae ("macela", "marcela"), expressa como Intensidade de Atividade de Inibição Bacteriana (IINIB/bacteriostasia) e Intensidade de Atividade de Inativação Bacteriana (IINAB/bactericidia), a partir de formas de extração etanólica (hidroalcoolaturas) e hídrica (decoctos), sobre inóculos padronizados de Enterococcus faecalis...

  18. Otimização dos tempos de mistura e decantação no processo de coagulação/floculação da água bruta por meio da Moringa oleifera Lam = Otimizing mixture and decantation times in the process of coagulation/flocculation of raw water using Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cordeiro Cardoso

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversos coagulantes/floculantes estão sendo estudados ao que se refere à remoção de cor e turbidez da água bruta, entretanto, os coagulantes naturais têm demonstrado vantagens em relação aos químicos. A Moringa oleifera Lam é um polímero natural que vemganhando destaque no tratamento de água, pois atua como agente clarificante pela presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água em meio líquido. Estetrabalho propõe a otimização dos tempos de coagulação, floculação e decantação, utilizando como coagulante diferentes concentrações da solução extraída da polpa da semente de Moringa oleifera Lam, para verificar a eficiência de remoção da cor e turbidez da água. Os ensaios foram realizados em “Jar Test”, utilizando diferentes tempos de mistura e decantação, com várias concentrações do biopolímero. Verificou-se que o tempo para propiciar a mistura rápida elenta, assim como a concentração do coagulante influenciaram a remoção dos parâmetros durante a coagulação/floculação/sedimentação.Several natural coagulants/flocculants are being studied to remove color and turbidity from raw water; however, natural coagulants have demonstrated advantages over chemical ones. Moringa oleifera Lam is a natural polymer that has become an important alternative in watertreatment, acting as a clarifying agent due to the presence of a cationic protein that destabilizes the particles contained in water in liquid form. This work proposes the optimization of the coagulation, flocculation and decantation times, using differentconcentrations of the solution extracted from the pulp of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds as coagulant, in order to verify its efficiency in removing color and turbidity from water. Jar tests were carried out, using different mixture and decantation times, with varyingconcentrations of the biopolymer. It was verified that the time required to achieve a fast and slow

  19. Research on Web-based INC Collaborative Learning Based on LAMS%基于LAMS的INC网络协作学习研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颀

    2012-01-01

    This paper first analyzed the characteristics and deficiencies of web-based collaborative learning, constructed a web-based INC collaborative learning model combining incentive mechanisms. At last, the specific implementation was carried out in the LAMS (Learning Activity Management System)platform.%本文通过分析网络协作学习的特性和不足,构建了一个基于网络的Inc(incentive,富激励性的)协作学习模型,并在LAMS(Learning Activity ManagementSystem学习活动管理系统)平台上进行了具体实现。

  20. Análisis comparativo de la ejecución del algoritmo voraz de PRIM en modo lineal y paralelo (LAM-MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Márquez Diaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra cómo funciona el algoritmo voraz PRlM, tanto en ambientes paralelos como en secuenciales. El objetivo de estas pruebas es ver cómo la herramienta mpi puede trabajar en red y mostrar cómo los algoritmos voraces en lafase de ejecución pueden arrojar resultados satisfactorios al momento de utilizarlos. Para poder ejecutar el algoritmo voraz PRlM se usó un entorno de procesamiento secuencial utilizando un único computador y un entorno de procesamiento paralelo a partir de la implementaci6n dada con la programación de paso de mensajes (MP¡, denominada l.AM (Local Area MuIticomputer sobre el sistema operativo Linux. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que a través del paralelismo virtual se logra disminuir el tiempo de procesamiento de un programa de esta naturaleza.

  1. 辣木营养器官的解剖学特征初探%Study on anatomical characteristics of nutritional organs of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘春香; 闫文龙; 任安祥; 江雪媚

    2010-01-01

    关于辣木的栽培、繁殖、开发和利用等方面的研究报道相对较多,而辣木的形态解剖结构却尚无报道.以印度传统辣木品种Moringa oleifera Lam.为材料,采用石蜡包埋和徒手切片法系统观察比较了辣木的根、茎、叶及叶柄的形态解剖结构,指甲油粘片法观察了其叶表面的结构,明确了辣木营养器官的形态解剖结构特征,为辣木的生物学特性及相关研究提供解剖学依据.

  2. Caracterización palinológica y viabilidad polínica de physalis peruviana l. y physalis philadelphica lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Lagos, Tulio César; Caetano, Creuci María; Vallejo, Franco Alirio; Muñoz, Jaime Eduardo; Criollo, Hernando; Olaya, Cristián

    2010-01-01

    Physalis peruviana L. y P. philadelphica Lam. son dos solanáceas de importancia económica para Colombia y México. Existen grandes vacíos en el conocimiento de la palinología y viabilidad polínica de estas dos especies. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar su grano de polen y determinar su viabilidad bajo condiciones con­trastantes de climas frío y cálido. La caracterización del polen se hizo a través de la técnica de acetólisis (en microscopía de luz) y por microsco...

  3. Le savoir-faire local dans la valorisation alimentaire des fruits du safoutier (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noumi, GB.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Local Know-how in the Valorisation of (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam Fruits in Cameroon. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam (Burseraceae is an oleaginous plant highly appreciated in the forest zone of Cameroon. This tree yields fruits called african pear or safou, highly consumed by local populations and even abroad. African pear is at the centre of a great economic activity in the Central Africa subregion as its trade generates cash for local traders during the production period. However, the valorisation of african pear is hindered by its high perishable nature responsible for important post-harvest losses due to lack of proper post-harvest handling. Some studies addressed the problem, unfortunately, nothing was done on the local know-how which has still to be investigated. The present paper sheds light on african pear local harvesting, handling and marketing practices in Cameroon. Field surveys were carried out in different production zones in Cameroon savannah and humid forest lowlands: Adamawa, centre, east, littoral and west provinces. Results showed that african pear occupies an important place in the population daily life. This multipurpose tree specie appears to be a source of foodstuffs, cash income, drugs and wood. If, on one hand diverse strategies are developed by the population for a proper conservation of fruits, on the other hand there is not a real fruits transformation activity. Results of this study highlight the traditional know-how and bring out prospects for future works on african pear valorisation.

  4. Aquaculture Solids Management Using A Combination of Sand/Gravel or Unwoven Fabric Bed With Lolium perenne Lam as A Plant Biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective This work is an evaluation of the efficiency of a sand-gravel or unwoven fabric bed system and Lolium perenne Lam as plant biofiltter in the reduction of solids and nutrients removal from aquaculture discharge water. Methods The first step consisted of the collection of wastewater in the tank and the distribution at three different hydraulic loading regimes (0.5, 1, 1.5L/hour) to the different experimental systems. The second step was to evaluate the performance of the different systems. The first system consisted of a bucket filled with a substrate of sand/gravel (20 cm in depth), on the bottom of which was a 80 mesh/inch2 of nylon (S1); the second was similar, but was planted with Lolium perenne lam (S2); the third was planted with a grass plate consisting of 7 layers of unwoven fabric planted with L. perenne (S3). Results The second system showed the best performance in reducing solids as well as in nutrients (TN, TP, and COD) reduction. The removal rates for TS, TN, and TP were negatively correlated with the loading regimes, with 0.5 L/hour being the most efficient and thus taken as the reference. Conclusions Solids management using a sand/gravel substrate as bed culture and Lolium perenne L. as plant biofilter has proved to be an efficient technique for solids reduction with low operating cost. This grass plays an important role in wastewater eco-treatment by absorbing dissolved pollutants (TAN) as nutrients for its growth.

  5. Studies on antimicrobial effect of natural dyes and pigments obtained from the leaf of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and Tectona grandis L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanti Majhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present there is a renewed interest for value addition of textiles by using natural products. Many of the plant materials, from which natural dyes are obtained, also found to have some medicinal values. However, it is a matter of concern that the indigenous knowledge of extraction, processing and practice of using natural dyes has diminished to a great extent among the new generation of ethnic people due to easy availability of cheap synthetic dyes. In view of this, the present study was undertaken so as to revive and popularise the age-old art of dyeing with natural dyes.During the investigation dyeing materials were prepared from leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack fruit and Tectona grandis L.f. (Teak. Silk fabrics were dyed with the extracted colouring materials and were estimated for their wash fastness to ensure the durability of the colour on the fabrics. Finally, the antimicrobial effect of the two different natural dyed fabrics was studied against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus sp. The dye prepared from leaves of Tectona grandis L.f. was found to be most effective by showing maximum zone of inhibition as compared to Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. The textile material impregnated with two natural dyes resulted in the maximum zone of inhibition rate (65% against Escherichia coli as recorded in the silk samples dyed with Tectona grandis.It can be concluded that the natural dyes obtained from these two plants under study could provide special aesthetic values, which is not only environmentally friendly but gives added qualities to the textile production because of the antimicrobial potential of the dyes. 

  6. Efeito do glutaraldeído na adsorção de extrato proteico da Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam na superficie de uma zeólita analcima Effect of the glutaraldeide on the adsorption of proteic extract of the Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam in analcime zeolite surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Gondim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A zeólita analcime (Na16Al16Si32O96.nH 2O foi submetida a ataque ácido com HCl 0,25 mol.L-1, seguido da funcionalização com glutaraldeído, foi imersa em extrato protéico obtido da polpa da batata-doce (Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam, que tem em sua composição a enzima polifenol oxidase (PFO. As amostras foram submetidas a procedimentos de caracterização por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e termogravimetria.The analcime zeolite (Na16Al16Si32O96.nH2O was treated with hydrochloric acid 0.25 mol.L-1, followed by the funcionalization with glutaraldehyde and immersed in the proteic extract obtained from gross extract of sweet potato pulp (Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam, which presents in its composition the polyphenol oxidase enzyme (PPO. Other samples were submitted to the same procedure with characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry.

  7. Influence de Boscia senegalensis (Pers Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae sur les capacités de dispersion de Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera- Pteromalidae dans les systèmes de stockage traditionnels de niébé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumma, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Boscia senegalensis (Pers Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on the Dispersion Capacities of Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera- Pteromalidae in Traditional Storage System. In this study, the impact of Boscia senegalensis (Pers Lam. Ex Poir. (Capparaceae on dispersion capacities of Dinarmus basalis Rond (Hymenoptera-Pteromalidae, a solitary ectoparasitoïd of the development stages of bruchid pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp, within a traditional storage system is analysed. The results point out that, whatever the position of the treated patch, females of D. basalis are able to move between seeds of cowpea and some of them are able to localize and parasitize their hosts. In a non choice situation, the rates of parasitism observed were less important than the ones obtained when the patchs were not treated with B. senegalensis. Nevertheless in situation of choice, females seem to avoid the patch treated with the insecticidal plant B. senegalensis.

  8. Evaluation of extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds obtained with NaCl and their effects on water treatment - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.9605

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jurca Seolin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several natural coagulants have been studied for use in water treatment. The seed of Moringa oleifera Lam, for example, is a natural coagulant whose extract has been mentioned as effective not only for removing color, turbidity, and compounds with absorption at UV-254 nm, but also for significantly reducing the amount of sludge and bacteria in wastewaters. Therefore, the present study (1 evaluated the molecular weight of the extract of Moringa oleifera seed utilizing electrophoresis, and (2 compared the efficiency of different extracts obtained, using solutions of NaCl (0.01 M, 0.1 M and 1 M, distilled water, and Moringa oleifera Lam seed, acting as a natural coagulant in order to obtain drinking water. The tests were performed in Jar Test, and the effectiveness of the process was assessed regarding the removal of color, turbidity and UV-254 nm. It was observed that the molecular weight found in this study is consistent with literature data. Moreover, the highest removal efficiency of color, turbidity, and UV-254 nm occurred with 1M NaCl solution, with coagulant concentration between 100 and 300 mg L-1. The results obtained evidenced that the seed of Moringa oleifera Lam is a great alternative for use as a coagulant in drinking water treatment systems. 

  9. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  10. 菟丝子多糖H3的研究%STUDIES ON THE POLYSACCHARIDE H3 OF CUSCUTA CHINENSIS LAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王展; 方积年

    2001-01-01

    AIM To study the structural characterization of an acidic polysaccharide, H3, isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. METHODS Both chemical (such as sugar component analysis, methylation analysis, reduction of uronic acid, partial acidic hydrolysis, etc.) and spectral analysis (1HNMR, 13CNMR, IR, etc.) were used to investigate the structural characterization of H3. RESULTS The molecular weight of H3 was estimated to be more than 1.0×106. The analytical results of sugar components indicated that H3 composed of Rha, Ara, Gal, and Gal A. Methylation analysis, partial acidic hydrolysis and 1H, 13CNMR further identified the linkages and sequence of the residues of H3. CONCLUSION These results suggest that H3 is a highly branched heteropolysaccharide with structure elucidation for the first time.%目的研究从中药菟丝子(Cuscuta chinensis Lam.)种子中提取分离所得的酸性纯多糖H3的结构特征。方法利用化学方法(糖组分分析、甲基化分析、糖醛酸还原和部分酸水解等)和光谱分析方法(1HNMR谱、13CNMR谱、IR谱等)对其结构进行了研究。结果 H3的分子量大于1.0×106,糖组分分析显示其是由阿拉伯糖、鼠李糖、半乳糖和半乳糖醛酸组成的,甲基化分析,部分酸水解和NMR光谱分析进一步揭示H3分子中各糖残基的连接方式及次序。结论 H3为一多分枝的结构复杂的杂多糖,为首次从该植物中分得。

  11. Influência da temperatura e da quantidade de água no substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urban (pau-de-balsa) Influence of temperature and substrate moisture on seed germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urban (balsa wood)

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Braule Pinto Ramos; Vania Palmeira Varela; Maria de Fátima Figueiredo Melo

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes volumes de água no substrato e temperaturas na germinação de sementes de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urban. Antes da instalação dos testes de germinação, as sementes foram tratadas com imersão em água quente a 80º C até o resfriamento, para superar a dormência. A semeadura foi realizada em rolos de papel germitest, umedecidos com volumes (mL) de água equivalentes a 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 vezes o peso do substrato nas te...

  12. Otimização dos tempos de mistura e decantação no processo de coagulação/floculação da água bruta por meio da Moringa oleifera Lam = Otimizing mixture and decantation times in the process of coagulation/flocculation of raw water using Moringa oleifera Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Cordeiro Cardoso; Rosângela Bergamasco; Eneida Sala Cossich; Leila Cristina Konradt Moraes

    2008-01-01

    Diversos coagulantes/floculantes estão sendo estudados ao que se refere à remoção de cor e turbidez da água bruta, entretanto, os coagulantes naturais têm demonstrado vantagens em relação aos químicos. A Moringa oleifera Lam é um polímero natural que vemganhando destaque no tratamento de água, pois atua como agente clarificante pela presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água em meio líquido. Estetrabalho propõe a otimização dos tempos de coagulação, fl...

  13. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhuraju, Perumal; Becker, Klaus

    2003-04-01

    Water, aqueous methanol, and aqueous ethanol extracts of freeze-dried leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. from different agroclimatic regions were examined for radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. All leaf extracts were capable of scavenging peroxyl and superoxyl radicals. Similar scavenging activities for different solvent extracts of each collection were found for the stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) radical. Among the three different moringa samples, both methanol and ethanol extracts of Indian origins showed the highest antioxidant activities, 65.1 and 66.8%, respectively, in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system. Nonetheless, increasing concentration of all the extracts had significantly (P flavonoid groups such as quercetin and kaempferol. On the basis of the results obtained, moringa leaves are found to be a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their marked antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from freeze-dried moringa leaves. Overall, both methanol (80%) and ethanol (70%) were found to be the best solvents for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from moringa leaves. PMID:12670148

  14. Cambios en las propiedades fisicoquímicas de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. cosechados en tres grados de madurez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Isabel González Loaiza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación se evaluaron los cambios en las propiedades fisicoquímicas de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. en tres grados de madurez. Se utilizaron 300 frutos por grado de madurez y se determinaron las características físicas (peso, volumen, densidad, diámetro equivalente, índice de esfericidad, rendimiento de pulpa y cáscara y químicas (pH, acidez, sólidos solubles, índice de madurez (IM y contenido de vitamina C. Los resultados mostraron que la madurez no afecta significativamente las variables físicas, pero sí las propiedades químicas de los frutos (P < 0.01, de la forma siguiente: el pH (2.89 - 2.94, los sólidos solubles (6.58 - 9.04 °brix, el IM (1.83 - 2.84 y el contenido de vitamina C (ascórbico (4.17 - 11.95 mg/100 g de pulpa fresca; por el contrario, la acidez (cítrico disminuyó de 3.78 para 3.21 g/100 g de pulpa fresca (P < 0.01.

  15. Antioxidant Activity and Anti carcinogenic Properties of Combination Extract of Soursop (Annona Muricata Linn) and Pearl Grass (Hedyotis Corymbosa (L.) Lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soursop (Annona muricata) has numerous traditional medicinal uses in South American and the Caribbean, and it has become a popular nutritional medicinal supplement. In the other hand, pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.) has long been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory. In this study, soursop and pearl grass combined to obtain extracts that have anticancer effects and anti-inflammatory effects, as most patients with cancer, particularly advanced breast cancer often experience inflammation. Two types of combination of extracts made by different solvents ie ethanol extract combination (CSEPE) and water extract combination (CSWPW) have been used. The anti carcinogenic properties of both extracts have been studied by using MTT assay. The anti oxidative activity of the extracts which could contribute to their cytotoxic properties was also studied by using DPPH assay. The results showed that the combination extract of ethanolic extract of soursop and pearl grass (CSEPE) has potential anti carcinogenic properties and the properties was decreased during the increment of incubation time but increased with the increasement of doses. However, the combination extract of water extract of soursop and pearl grass (CSWPW) did not displayed the potential anti carcinogenic properties. The anti carcinogenic properties of CSEPE could be due to their high antioxidant activities. (author)

  16. Stress responses of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and water velvet (Azolla filiculoides Lam.) to anionic surfactant sodium-dodecyl-sulphate (SDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, C; Braglia, R; Harren, F J M; Cristescu, S M

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are used for several purposes and recently they have attracted the attention for their ability to modify the behavior of other preexistent or co-disposed contaminants, although their use or discharge in wastewaters can represent a real or potential risk for the environment. Lemna minor L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. are floating aquatic macrophytes, very effective in accumulating several pollutants including sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In this work we evaluated the effects of SDS on these species by determining the stress ethylene production via laser-based trace gas detection, and the activities of enzymes involved in stress response, such as guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol-oxidase (PPO). Phenolics content was also determined. The macrophytes were treated with different concentrations of SDS for one week. SDS affected duckweed enzymatic activities and phenol content. While in the fern phenolics amount, PAL, G-POD and PPO activities were not affected by SDS except for 100 ppm SDS, the only concentration that was taken up and not completely degraded. Stress ethylene production was induced only in the fern treated with 50 and 100 ppm SDS. PMID:22277247

  17. Radiation-induced DNA Double Strand Breaks and Their Modulations by Treatments with Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extracts: A Cancer Cell Culture Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiation brings deleterious effects upon human cells by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damages. Antioxidants have been shown to confer protective effects on irradiated normal cells. Moringa oleifera Lam. is a widely used nutritional supplement with antioxidant activities. This report showed that antioxidant-containing supplements, in addition to protecting normal cells, could protect cancer cells against genotoxic effects of gamma radiation. γ-H2AX immunofluorescent foci were utilized as an indicator of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells were irradiated with 2-8 Gy gamma radiation. A linear relationship between the formation of γ-H2AX foci and radiation dose was observed with an average of 10 foci per cell per Gy. A 30-minute pretreatment of the cells with either the aqueous or the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves could partially protect the cells from radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. A pretreatment with 500 µg/mL aqueous extract reduced the number of foci formed by 15% when assayed at 30 minutes post-irradiation. The ethanolic extract was more effective; 500 µg/mL of its concentration reduced the number of foci among irradiated cells by 30%. The results indicated that irradiated cancer cells responded similarly to nutritional supplements containing antioxidants as irradiated normal cells. These natural antioxidants could confer protective effects upon cancer cells against gamma radiation. (author)

  18. In-situ trace element analyses and Pb-Pb dating of zircons in granulite from Huangtuling, Dabieshan by LAM-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴元保; 陈道公; 夏群科; 涂湘林; 程昊; 杨晓志

    2003-01-01

    It is revealed by CL images that there are multi-stage growth internal structures of zircons in the Huangtuling granulite, including the inherited zircons, protolith zircons, sector and planar zone zircons and retrograde zircons. In-situ trace element compositions and Pb-Pb ages have been analyzed by LAM-ICP-MS. The sector and the planar zone domains show typical trace element characteristics of granulite zircon (low Th, U, Th/U, total REEs, clear negative Eu anomalies, relatively depleted HREE and small differential degree between MREE and HREE, etc.), indicating that they formed during granulite-facies metamorphism. The protolith zircons have trace element characteristics of crustal zircon (high Th, U, Th/U, total REEs and enriched HREEs, etc.). 12 analyzed spots on granulite-facies domains give a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of (2154±26) Ma (MSWD = 3.8), which is the best estimated age of granulite-facies metamorphism of this sample. The weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 5 analyzed spots on protolith zircon domains is (2714 ± 22) Ma (MSWD = 1.4), which represents the protolith forming time. The discovery of ca. 3.4 Ga inherited zircon indicates that there are Palaeoarchean continental materials in this area. The interpretation of formation conditions and the ages of zircons can be constrained by simultaneous in-situ analysis of trace elements and ages.

  19. Effect of Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's on growth, nutrients and content of secondary metabolites in Begonia malabarica Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Selvaraj

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae is one of the important medicinal plants whose main secondary metabolites are luteolin, quercetin and β-sitosterol. The leaves are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea, blood cancer and skin diseases. A study was undertaken to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, and some plant growth promoting rhizomicro-organisms (PGPR's on the growth, biomass, nutrients, and content of secondary metabolites of B. malabarica plant under green house conditions. Various plant growth parameters (total plant biomass, mycorrhizal parameter, shoot and root phosphorus, mineral content (potassium, iron, zinc, and copper, and secondary metabolites (total phenols, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids were determined and found to vary with different treatments. Among all the treatments, plants inoculated with 'microbial consortium' consisting of Glomus mosseae + Bacillus coagulans + Trichoderma viride performed better than with other treatments or uninoculated control plants. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that inoculation of B. malabarica with G. mosseae along with PGPR's enhanced its growth, biomass yield, nutrients and secondary metabolites.

  20. OBTENÇÃO DO BIODIESEL ATRAVÉS DA TRANSESTERIFICAÇÃO DO ÓLEO DE Moringa Oleífera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silva Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Moringa Oleífera Lam é uma oleaginosa que tem um grande potencial para a produção de bicombustível no semi-árido nordestino, uma vez que se adapta a várias condições climáticas. A semente produz entre 35 % a 40 % de óleo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter o biodiesel através do processo de transesterificação e caracterizar as propriedades físico-químicas do óleo e biodiesel de acordo com as normas estabelecidas pela ANP. O biodiesel foi produzido pela rota metílica com o catalisador KOH. Os resultados mostraram que a semente de moringa produz óleo em boa quantidade com características físico-químicas adequadas para ser usado como matéria prima na transesterificação para obtenção de biodiesel. O teor de óleo médio encontrado para as sementes de moringa foi de 40 %, fornecendo rendimento de 83,68% em biodiesel e conversão dos ácidos graxos em ésteres metílicos de 99,9 %.

  1. Morfologia de frutos e sementes e morfofunção de plântulas de Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Ramos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize external and internal morphologic aspects of thefruit, seed, and plant of Moringa oleifera Lam. The fruits were collected in the forest garden ofFalculty of Agrarian and Veterinarian Sciences, São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil.It was observed that the Moringa fruits are brown simple darkness, dry of the type capsule, tendson average: 28.50 cm of length, 2.21 cm of width, 9.91 g of mass and with 12 seeds by fruit, itconsiderated fruits of medium and small size. The seeds are brown dark and they present threelines clear chestnut tree. The embryo is oleaginous, has a pair of cotyledons and the germination ishypogeal-cryptocotyledonary. The seed has1.037 cm of length and 1.0 cm of thickness of averageand have a considerate medium and light weight (197g/1000 seeds. The germination began eightdays after the planting and in the 25th day they left the primary leaves.

  2. 辣木的组织培养与快速繁殖%Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马崇坚; 王玉珍; 任安祥; 李海渤; 李绍林

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1植物名称辣木(Moringa oleifera Lam.). 2材料类别3~7 d实生籽苗. 3培养条件以MS为基本培养基.(1)实生籽萌发诱导培养基:MS+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1(单位下同)+6-BA 0.5;(2)愈伤组织诱导培养基:MS+NAA 1.0+6-BA 1.0;(3)芽诱导培养基:MS+NAA 0.5+6-BA1.0;(4)增殖培养基:1/2MS;(5)生根诱导培养基:1/2MS+NAA 1.0.以上培养基均加入4%蔗糖和7 g·L-1琼脂,pH 5.6~6.2,于121℃以0.11 MPa高压灭菌20 min.培养温度为(25±2)℃,光照时间为12 h·d-1,光照强度为40~60 μm0l·m-2·s-1.

  3. „Fóður eða fæða?'“ Skólamáltíðir grunnskólabarna

    OpenAIRE

    Hneta Rós Þorbjörnsdóttir 1980

    2014-01-01

    Grunnstef ritgerðarinnar er tengslin milli náttúru, umhverfis, fæðu og heilsu. Fjallað verður um þessi hugtök eins og þau birtast í umræðu um skólamáltíðir íslenskra grunnskólabarna. Börn þjást í síauknum mæli af ýmsum kvillum og lífstílssjúkdómum. Því er brýnt að beina sjónum að þeim fæðuvíddum sem börn búa við ekki síst af þeim sökum að mörg börn eyða drjúgum hluta dags innan veggja skólans. Skv. kenningu Bourdieu mótast bragðskyn og smekkur einstaklinga m.a. vegna áhrifa frá umhverfinu. Ma...

  4. Activation of Cellular Immunity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Mice by the Oral Administration of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Masahiko; Wadhwani, Ashish; Kai, Hisahiro; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Sugita, Chihiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Matsuno, Koji; Hagiwara, Akinori

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is used as a nutritive vegetable and spice. Its ethanol extract has been previously shown to be significantly effective in alleviating herpetic skin lesions in mice. In this study, we evaluated the alleviation by the aqueous extract (AqMOL) and assessed the mode of its anti-herpetic action in a murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model. AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was administered orally to HSV-1-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 5 after infection. AqMOL significantly limited the development of herpetic skin lesions and reduced virus titers in the brain on day 4 without toxicity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen was significantly stronger in infected mice administered AqMOL and AqMOL augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice at 4 days post-infection. AqMOL administration was effective in elevating the ratio of CD11b(+) and CD49b(+) subpopulations of splenocytes in infected mice. As DTH is a major host defense mechanism for intradermal HSV infection, augmentation of the DTH response by AqMOL may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. These results provided an important insights into the mechanism by which AqMOL activates cellular immunity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26814058

  5. Radiation-induced DNA Double Strand Breaks and Their Modulations by Treatments with Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extracts: A Cancer Cell Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boonsirichai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma radiation brings deleterious effects upon human cells by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damages. Antioxidants have been shown to confer protective effects on irradiated normal cells. Moringa oleifera Lam. is a widely used nutritional supplement with antioxidant activities. This report showed that antioxidant-containing supplements, in addition to protecting normal cells, could protect cancer cells against genotoxic effects of gamma radiation. -H2AX immunofluorescent foci were utilized as an indicator of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells were irradiated with 2-8 Gy gamma radiation. A linear relationship between the formation of -H2AX foci and radiation dose was observed with an average of 10 foci per cell per Gy. A 30-minute pretreatment of the cells with either the aqueous or the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves could partially protect the cells from radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. A pretreatment with 500 µg/mL aqueous extract reduced the number of foci formed by 15% when assayed at 30 minutes post-irradiation. The ethanolic extract was more effective; 500 µg/mL of its concentration reduced the number of foci among irradiated cells by 30%. The results indicated that irradiated cancer cells responded similarly to nutritional supplements containing antioxidants as irradiated normal cells. These natural antioxidants could confer protective effects upon cancer cells against gamma radiation

  6. Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

  7. L'ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata (Lam. Hook. f. & Thomson] : une plante à huile essentielle méconnue dans une filière en danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benini, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata (Lam. Hook. f. & Thomson]: a barely known essential oil plant in an industry at risk. Cananga odorata is a tropical tree from the Annonaceae family, native of Indonesia. Only the forma genuina can be called ylang-ylang. Nowadays, it is mainly cultivated in the Indian Ocean Islands in order to extract the ylang-ylang essential oil for the cosmetic industry. Ylang-ylang develops on many types of soils, under high temperatures and average precipitations of 1,500 mm per year. The pollarding, the maintenance, the elimination of water sprouts and the weeding must be performed to insure a high flower yield and facilitate harvesting. Flower harvest takes place all year long but flowers and essential oils yields are higher during the dry season. Mature and fresh flowers are then distillated and fractionated to obtain essential oil. Generated incomes are important for the economy of the three main producers: Union of Comoros, Madagascar and Mayotte. However, this plant is still poorly known despite its great economic value. This lack of information is a bottleneck for solving the ylang-ylang industry problems which endanger it. Moreover, there is no improvement program of this plant despite the high added value of its essential oil, probably due to the fact that its reproduction biology is far from being known. A thorough study of the plant and its essential oil could generate information necessary to solve the aforementioned problems, maintain and develop the ylang-ylang industry.

  8. Antioxidant activities of trypsin inhibitor, a 33 KDa root storage protein of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam cv. Tainong 57).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W C; Chen, Y C; Chen, H J; Lin, Y H; Yang, L L; Lee, M H

    2001-06-01

    Trypsin inhibitors (TIs), root storage proteins, were purified from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas[L.] Lam cv. Tainong 57) roots by trypsin affinity column according to the methods of Hou and Lin (Plant Sci. 1997, 126, 11-19 and Plant Sci. 1997, 128, 151-158). A single band of 33 kDa TI was obtained by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. This purified 33 kDa TI had scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. There was positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (2 to 22%) and amounts of 33 kDa TI (1.92 to 46 pmol). The scavenging activities of 33 kDa TI against DPPH were calculated from linear regression to be about one-third of those of glutathione between 5 and 80 pmol. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for hydroxyl radical detection, it was found that 33 kDa TI could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of EPR signal were significantly decreased from 1.5 to 6 pmol of 33 kDa TI compared to those of the controls. It is suggested that 33 kDa TI, one of the sweet potato root storage proteins, may play a role as an antioxidant in roots and may be beneficial to health when it is consumed. PMID:11409996

  9. Respuesta Fisiológica del lulo (Solanun quitoense Lam. a la fertilización orgánica en Tinjacá, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almanza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se orientó hacia la evaluación de la respuesta fisiológicadel lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. var. septentrionale. Para esto se emplearon tres tratamientos con fertilización orgánica (bocashi, mezcla bocashi + biol y biol, y uno con síntesis química (18-18-18, mediante la descripción de variables físicas y fisiológicas, con el fin de establecer el desarrollo y crecimiento óptimo de la planta durante tres intervalos. Se realizaron tres muestreos en diferentes estadios fisiológicosde la planta seleccionando una por cada parcela. Las variables físicas analizadas fueron biomasa seca y área foliar, y las fisiológicas: índice de área foliar, tasa de crecimiento, tasa relativa de crecimiento y tasa de asimilación neta. Se utilizó, al azar, un diseño de bloques completos, con análisis de varianza y prueba de Duncan. Los resultados obtenidos en masa seca fueron altamente significativos; en las variables fisiológicas no se hallaron diferencias. En todos los tratamientos, las mejores respuestas fueron evidentes en la aplicación de abono de síntesis química, seguida por la mezcla de bocashi+ biol, la más eficiente económicamente.

  10. Temperaturas cardeais e efeito da luz na germinação de sementes de mutamba Cardinal temperatures and effect of light on Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. de Araújo Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., conhecida como mutamba, é uma espécie arbórea característica dos estádios iniciais da sucessão secundária, com ampla ocorrência natural no Brasil. Possui grande potencial para recuperação ambiental de áreas degradadas. Neste trabalho, conduziram-se dois experimentos, nos quais as sementes foram extraídas e escarificadas antes da instalação dos testes de germinação. O primeiro experimento foi desenvolvido com sementes colhidas em outubro de 1995 e teve por objetivo definir as temperaturas cardeais para a germinação das sementes. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura mínima é próxima de 10 ºC, a máxima se situa entre 35 e 40 ºC e as temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC encontram-se dentro da faixa ótima. No segundo experimento, visou-se avaliar o requerimento fotoblástico de sementes recém-colhidas (colheita de outubro de 1996 e armazenadas em câmara seca por um ano (colheita de outubro de 1995. Os testes de germinação foram conduzidos a 30 ºC e as sementes recém-colhidas tiveram a germinação promovida pelas luzes branca e vermelha, mas inibida pela luz vermelha-extrema e ausência de luz. As sementes armazenadas, entretanto, revelaram-se insensíveis à luz.Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae is a typical tree species of the initial stages of secondary succession in Brazil, with potential for use in restoring degraded areas. Two experiments were carried out in this work, in which seeds were extracted and scarified before conducting the germination tests. The first experiment was conducted with seeds harvested in October 1995 and aimed to determine the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Constant temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 ºC were tested under an eight hour photoperiod. The results showed that the minimum temperature is around 10 ºC, the maximum between 35 and

  11. Avaliação da qualidade das sementes de Moringa oleifera lam. durante o armazenamento Evaluation of quality of the drumstick seeds during the storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Esmeraldo Bezerra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.; Moringaceae, espécie perene originária do noroeste indiano, que se adapta tanto às condições irrigadas quanto às de sequeiro, pouco exigente em solos e fertilizantes, encontra-se disseminada na região nordeste, particularmente no Ceará, graças à sua utilização na clarificação de águas turvas. A despeito do seu reconhecido valor medicinal e como hortaliça não-convencional rica em vitamina A, ainda carece de estudos que focalizem a viabilidade das sementes durante o armazenamento. Baseado nessa premissa, conduziu-se um ensaio com os tratamentos dispostos num arranjo fatorial 2x4, correspondendo à combinação de dois ambientes (natural e câmara fria e quatro tempos de armazenamento (0, 6, 12 e 24 meses, segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. As amostras de sementes correspondentes aos tratamentos investigados foram acondicionadas em garrafa plásticas tipo PET de 600 mL. As variáveis de observação foram: teor de água, germinação, comprimento da raiz, massa seca de plântula e condutividade elétrica. Pela análise dos resultados, evidenciou-se que, aos 12 meses de armazenamento em embalagem plástica sob ambiente natural, as sementes perdem a sua viabilidade, enquanto na câmara aos 24 meses, as sementes apresentam redução na qualidade fisiológica.Drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae is a perennial species originating from the indian northwest that adapts to both irrigated and rain fed crop conditions and it is not very demanding on soils and fertilizers. It is grown in the brazilian northeast, specially in Ceará State, due to its use in clarification of cloudy waters. In spite of its recognized medicinal value and as non conventional vegetable rich in vitamin A no studies focalizing the viability of the seeds during the storage have been done. So, an experiment was carried out treatments arranged in a fatorial 2x4 scheme, corresponding the

  12. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTIVES AND DENSITY ON NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOODS TO TERMITE Nasutitermes corniger

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the natural resistance of wood to wood-destroying organisms is of fundamental importance in the choice of species to be used in buildings and furniture industry. Thus, the effects of extractives and wood density on biological resistance of Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Corymbia torelliana, Eucalyptus cloeziana, Tectona grandis and Caesalpinia echinata woods to the xylophagous termite Nasutitermes corniger was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Test samples, with dimensions of 2.00 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal in four positions in pith-bark direction (internal heart, intermediate heart, outer heart and sapwood were taken. The woods were exposed to termite action for 28 days in no-choice feeding test. The samples not selected for the termite test were turned into sawdust and the extractive contents were obtained using the shavings that passed through the sieve of 40 and were retained in the sieve of 60 mesh. The wood natural resistance, within the pith-bark positions, for the studied species, is not correlated with the density and extractive content. However, among the woods, those with higher density and extractive content are more resistant. The woods with greater biological resistance to the termite Nasutitermes corniger (smaller mass loss, waste and survival time of insects are Corymbia torelliana and Caesalpinia echinata and of less resistance is Casuarina equisetifolia.

  13. Leaf morphological and physiological adaptations of a deciduous oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) to the Mediterranean climate: a comparison with a closely related temperate species (Quercus robur L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    'White oaks'-one of the main groups of the genus Quercus L.-are represented in western Eurasia by the 'roburoid oaks', a deciduous and closely related genetic group that should have an Arcto-Tertiary origin under temperate-nemoral climates. Nowadays, roburoid oak species such as Quercus robur L. are still present in these temperate climates in Europe, but others are also present in southern Europe under Mediterranean-type climates, such as Quercus faginea Lam. We hypothesize the existence of a coordinated functional response at the whole-shoot scale in Q. faginea under Mediterranean conditions to adapt to more xeric habitats. The results reveal a clear morphological and physiological segregation between Q. robur and Q. faginea, which constitute two very contrasting functional types in response to climate dryness. The most outstanding divergence between the two species is the reduction in transpiring area in Q. faginea, which is the main trait imposed by the water deficit in Mediterranean-type climates. The reduction in leaf area ratio in Q. faginea should have a negative effect on carbon gain that is partially counteracted by a higher inherent photosynthetic ability of Q. faginea when compared with Q. robur, as a consequence of higher mesophyll conductance, higher maximum velocity of carboxylation and much higher stomatal conductance (gs). The extremely high gs of Q. faginea counteracts the expected reduction in gs imposed by the stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit, allowing this species to diminish water losses maintaining high net CO2 assimilation values along the vegetative period under nonlimiting soil water potential values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Q. faginea can be regarded as an example of adaptation of a deciduous oak to Mediterranean-type climates. PMID:26496958

  14. Systems to establish bioclimatic analogies to predict the area of adaptability of plant species to new environments: The case of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Chile

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    Fernando Santibañez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability of a species to new territories is generally assessed by costly trial and error in situ experiments distributed throughout different agroclimatic environments. Nowadays climatic data are available to allow the construction of climatic maps based on data provided through world or local networks of climatic weather stations. The objective of this work was to establish a bioclimatic protocol, based on current and available sources of climate information, to make rapid surveys of suitability for plant species in a given environment. Moringa oleifera Lam. species, native from India, was chosen considering its rusticity and the increasing interest on this species due to its multiple uses, nutritional value, and medicinal properties. The first phase of this work was a compilation of data from climatic downscaling (WorldClim, University of East Anglia database (CRU, FAO database, and an historic datasets from Chilean meteorological stations. This information was used to test two different models to compare bioclimatic profiles, considering relevant climatic variables for plant adaptation: maximum and minimum temperatures, accumulated degree days, frost regime, and air humidity. The first approach, based on climatic analogy, was to compare each of these variables between Chilean and foreign localities, and the second, based on bioclimatic suitability, focus on the degree of meeting the minimum bioclimatic requirements by the species in each locality. This paper provides some tools to make this kind of comparisons. Both approaches were tested using M. oleifera as target. Both approaches were complementary and prove to be useful for identifying potential areas where the species could be cultivated. The use of these approaches suggested the existence of some bioclimatic suitability for this species in the coastal areas with mild winters and frosts, from 27° to 37° S lat.

  15. Curvas de índice de sítio para leucena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit] no agreste de Pernambuco.

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    Emanuell Florencio Passos Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar e comparar modelos de curvas de índice de sítio para Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., variedade Hawaii (cv. K8, no Agreste de Pernambuco. Os dados foram obtidos na Estação Experimental da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA, no município de Caruaru - PE, considerando-se 544 árvores, cultivadas com e sem composto orgânico, com 19 mensurações ao longo do tempo (1990-2003. Foram ajustados e comparados os modelos de Schumacher, Chapman-Richards, Silva-Bailey, Mitscherlich, Weibull e Clutter-Jones. Para a seleção das equações, utilizaram-se os índices de ajuste (IA, o erro padrão da estimativa (, a distribuição gráfica dos resíduos e o teste de identidade dos modelos. O modelo de Clutter-Jones apresentou o maior valor de IA nos dois tratamentos. Nos gráficos das distribuições residuais, os modelos não apresentaram tendências. No teste de identidade dos modelos de regressão, verificou-se não haver diferença significativa ao nível de 5 % de probabilidade. Por ser um modelo com o menor número de parâmetros entre os testados e por ser freqüentemente utilizado na Ciência Florestal, o modelo de Schumacher merece especial destaque em trabalhos de índice de sítio.

  16. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L. ) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos,Eastern Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped “replacement” agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area “lost” to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  17. Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante Yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) fertilized with cattle manure and biofertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira; Arthur Hennys Diniz Barbosa; Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante; Walter Esfraim Pereira; Arnaldo Nonato Pereira de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a produção da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante, conduziu-se um experimento no período de Janeiro a Junho de 2004, em NEOSSOLO REGOLÍTICO, psamítico típico, na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia-PB. O delineamento experimental empregado foi de blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições com os tratamentos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1) e ausê...

  18. Effets des mycorhizes à arbuscules sur la tolérance à un stress hydrique de quatre arbres fruitiers : Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del., Parkiabiglobosa (Jacq.) Benth., Tamarindus indica L et Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Guissou, T.; Ba, A.M.; Plenchette, C; Guinko, S.; Duponnois, Robin

    2001-01-01

    L'influence de l'inoculation par un champignon mycorhizien à arbuscules (MA), #Glomus aggregatum$ Schenk et Smith emend Koske, sur la tolérance à un stress hydrique de 4 arbres fruitiers #Balanites aegyptiaca$ ((L.) Del., #Parkia biglobosa$ (Jacq.) Benth., #Tamarindus indica$ L. et #Zizphus mauritiana$ Lam. a été étudiée dans un sol déficient en P assimilable (2,18 microgr/g de P, Bray-1). Les pots inoculés ou non ont été maintenus par arrosage quotidien à la capacité au champ pendant les 4 p...

  19. Caracterização de solos de duas formações de restinga e sua influência na constituição química foliar de Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceaee Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae Soil characterization of two restinga formations and its influence on leaf chemistry in Passiflora mucronata Lam. (Passifloraceae and Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehová Lourenço Junior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As hipóteses sobre o posicionamento das formações de restinga são diversas sendo o gradiente salino e a fertilidade do solo as mais difundidas. Buscando elucidar essas questões, foram analisadas as propriedades dos solos das formações psamófila-reptante (FPR e Palmae (FP bem como a constituição química foliar de C. rosea (Sw. DC. restrita à FPR e P. mucronata Lam., na FP. O solo da FP destacou-se pela maior fertilidade. Maiores teores dos metais Fe, Zn e ISNa foram encontrados em solos da FPR. Não foi detectada a presença de Al nas duas formações. O pH dos solos é alcalino sem diferenças entre as duas formações. Os elementos químicos P, S, Cu e Zn acumulam-se em maiores concentrações em folhas de P. mucronata. C. rosea destacou-se pelos maiores teores foliares de N, Fe e B. Essa Fabaceae mostrou valores superiores do fator de concentração para o Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu e B enquanto que P. mucronata, para o P e Zn. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que as características pedológicas têm papel chave no estabelecimento de C. rosea na FPRe de P. mucronata na FP.Hypotheses as to the position of restinga formations are many, the most widespread being the salinity gradient and soil fertility. In order to elucidate these questions, soil properties of the creeping psammophyte (CPF and Palmae formations (PF as well as leaf chemistry of C. rosea (Sw. DC. restricted to the former and P. mucronata Lam. in the latter were analyzed. The PF soil was more fertile. Higher content of Fe, Zn and ISNa was found in CPF soil. The presence of Al in these two formations was not detected. Soil pH is alkaline, with no difference found between the two formations. The chemical elements P, S, Cu and Zn accumulate in greater concentrations in P. mucronata leaves. C. rosea was distinguished by a higher leaf content of N, Fe and B. This legume showed greater factor of concentration values for Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and B whereas P. mucronata, for P and Zn. The results

  20. Potential Environment and Public Health Risk Due to Contamination of Heavy Metals from Industrial Waste Water in Lam Thao, Phu Tho, Vietnam

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    Nguyen C. Vinh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Vietnam, rice cultivation plays an important role in national economic development and food security. However, rice production is facing many problems associated with rapid industrialization and urbanization in the country. Resultant emissions of solid and liquid wastes are often untreated and discharged directly to agricultural land. These practices have potential impacts on the environment and human health. Approach: The research was carried out within the frame of the collaborative research project “Towards the mitigation of environment and public health risks due to heavy metal contamination in irrigated rice-based systems of Vietnam” in 2006-2010. The study was implemented in the Lam Thao district, Phu Tho province with the aim to assess the effects of wastewater and other contamination sources on the environment and public health. Results: Surface water and soil in the field showed signs of significant contamination by wastewater from the industrial zones. Bio-indicators (DO, COD, BOD5 in the surface water were also strongly affected by waste. Paddy fields around the industrial zones had an elevated risk of heavy metal contamination (Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb, with concentrations exceeding Vietnamese Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MACs for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Soil contamination with heavy metals was resulting in elevated concentrations in rice grain. Where consumption of locally-produced food was high, exposure of individuals to heavy metals could present a public health risk. The partial Hazard Quotient (HQ; a ratio derived from comparing estimated exposure to heavy metals, i.e., Cd, (with toxicologically-derived„ safe’ daily doses for rice and vegetables (water spinach and the integrated Hazard Quotient of rice and vegetables (HQi was consistently greater in areas with soil contamination than in the reference area using Red River water for irrigation. The HQi for Cd was particularly high for children below the

  1. Variation Laws of Anthocyanin Content in Roots and Their Relationships with Major Economic Traits in Purple-Fleshed Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Variation laws of anthocyanin content in root during the development and among the varieties, and their relationships with major economic traits in purple-fleshed sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were studied in the present article. The dynamics of 20 economic traits in 13 purple-fleshed sweetpotato varieties at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 d after their transplanting were investigated, and these traits included anthocyanin content in root, length of the longest vine, number of base branches, root number, dry matter contents in stem, foliage and root, fresh/dry weight of root, fresh/dry weight of stem, fresh/dry weight of foliage, fresh/dry weight of stem and foliage, fresh/dry weight of whole plant, and rations of photosynthate to root, stem, and foliage. The correlations between the variations of anthocyanin content and the other 19 economic traits among varieties and during the whole developing stages, and the correlations of daily increase of anthocyanin content with other 10 kinds of yields were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) During the whole development, the anthocyanin content had three variation types, I.e. A slow-increase type, a fluctuating-change type, and a devious- rising type, and had different responses to the growth of length of the longest vine, number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, and photosynthate allotments. (2) The anthocyanin contents among 13 varieties began to have significant difference after 20 d, and showed completed differentiation during 40-100 d, which had significantly negative correlationships with the number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, photosynthate allotment ratio to root, and had significant positive correlationships with dry matter content of root, length of the longest vine, fresh/dry yield of stem, dry yield of whole plant and photosynthate allotment ratio to foliage. (3) Because of the significantly negative correlation between daily increase of anthocyanin content and dry matter

  2. COMPARISON OF BIOACTIVE ANTHOCYANIN COMPONENTS FROM BEGONIA MALABARICA LAM. AND BEGONIA REX-CULTORUM ?BABY RAINBOW? L.H.BAILEY BY GC-MS ANALYSIS

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    Aswathy JM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, derivatives of 2-phenylbenzopyryliumare are water-soluble natural pigments. Owing to extensive scientific research they have become not only the colouring food products but also therapeutic sources of bioactive compounds and continue to play role in the maintenance of human health. Begonia malabarica Lam. and Begonia rex-cultorum ‘baby rainbow’ L.H. Bailey are common ornamentals with varied leaf colour combinations were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to determine the bioactive constituents present in the methanolic extracts of the leaves. Powdered leaf samples were subjected to Soxhlet extraction method with methanol and the extract was fractioned by GC-MS. Totally, 7 different compounds each from B. malabarica [phenol, 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z, methyl ester, 9,12,15- octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, Spiro[furan-2(5H,2'(1'H- naphtho[2,1-b]furan]-5-one, 3'a,4',5',5'a,6',7',8',9',9'a,9'b-decahydro-3,3'a,6',6',9'a-pentamethyl and androst-1-en-3- one, 4,4-dimethyl-, (5.alpha.] and B. rex ‘baby rainbow’ [diethyl Phthalate, 1-(3,6,6-trimethyl-1,6,7,7atetrahydrocyclopenta[ c]pyran-1-yl ethanone, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 7,10-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z, 5,9 methanobenzocycloocten-1(2H-one,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10- octahydro-5,10-dihydroxy-3,3,7,7,9-pentamethyl and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester] were identified. All the compounds identified were medicinally proven for the treatment of various human ailments. Further studies are warranted to purify the lead molecules and to evaluate their biological properties including toxicological aspects for the development of novel drugs.

  3. In vitro analysis on bactericidal screening and antioxidant potentiality of leaf and root extracts of Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. An ethnobotanical plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saiba Abdul Wahab Nusaiba; Kumaraswamy Murugan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Natural products of plant origin are potential source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidative agents. Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. (T. siliquosa). A medicinal herb used by local tribals for treating various ailments. The present study aims at the phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antibacterial activity and antioxidant potentiality of root and leaf extracts of T. siliquosa.Methods:Hot continuous Soxhlet extraction, GC-MS analysis, antibacterial analysis by disc diffusion, microdilution assay and antioxidant potentialities by hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The data was statistically analyzed. Results: Phytochemical screening of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of leaf and root revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins and saponin. The extract revealed a pool of phytochemicals by comparison with authentic standards from spectral library. Both the extracts has shown their broad spectrum of inhibition against the selected bacteria Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia compared with standard antibiotic drug streptomycin. The extracts showed antioxidant activity by scavenging of free radicals such as hydroxyl and nitric oxide. The IC50 values of the ethyl acetate extracts leaf and root and standard in this assay were 167.5±0.67, 99.4±1.2, 192±2.5 µg/mL respectively. Similarly those methanolic extracts of leaf and root were 269.5±0.89 and 289.1±2.66 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts also caused a moderate dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide with an IC50 range 65.5±1.55 to 148 ±3.09 µg/mL. The inhibitory activities were found to be dose dependent.Conclusion:The present study provides evidence that ethyl acetate and methanol extract of leaf and root of T. siliquosa are potential source of natural antioxidants and bactericidal nature. It is essential that research should continue to isolate and purify

  4. “Pharmacognostical, SEM and XRF profile of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae – A contribution to combat the NTD

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    K Periyanayagam

    2013-05-01

    phyto, physico chemical examinations of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be used as a rapid, inexpensive botanical identification technique and is useful in standardization, hence would be of immense value in authentication of the leaf as it proved to have wide panel of pharmacological and ethno medical use including prevention and treatment of NTD

  5. 壮药白楸的生药学及毒理学初步研究%Preliminary study on the pharmacognosy and toxicology of Mallotus panicutus (lam) Muell.Arg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧; 马健雄

    2014-01-01

    目的 对大戟科植物白楸进行鉴别及急性毒性试验,确保用药安全.方法 采集药材标本并对其进行鉴别;白楸醇提取物以最大浓度及最大给药体积对实验组小鼠灌胃给药,观察14 d内不良反应情况.结果 化学反应结果显示白楸含有黄酮、皂苷等成分;急性毒性试验观察中未发现任何急性毒性反应.给药后14 d,空白组和药物组小鼠体质量增长率分别为73.5%和62.9% (P >0.05).结论 该实验结果可为白楸临床用药指导和制定质量标准提供参考依据.%Objective To identify Mallotus panicutus (lam) Muell.Arg and explore the acute toxicity.Methods Pharmacognostic identification and chemical reaction methods were adopted to the identification.The maximum concentration and maximum volume of ethanol extracts of M.panicutus (lam) Muell.Arg were given via intragastric administration in mice to observe the toxic and side effects after 14 days.Results The chemical reaction showed M.panicutus(lam) Muell.Arg concluded the constituents such as flavone and saponin and there was no acute toxicity in mice.After 14 days,the growth rate of mice weight of blank group and drug group were 73.5% and 62.9% (P > 0.05).Conclusion The results could be taken as the reference for analyzing the quality of this drug and guiding the clinical medication.

  6. Çevre Duyarlılığı Bağlamında Seyahat Acentelerinin Web Siteleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme / An Evaluation of Environmental Concerns of Travel Agencies in Their Web Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Nazmiye Erdoğan

    2012-01-01

    Seyahat acentelerinin web siteleri, acentelerin çevre konusundaki ilgi ve duyarlılığını yansıtan iletişim araçlarından birisidir. Bu çalışma, acentelerin web sitelerinde çevre ile ilgili anlatıların bulunup bulunmadığını incelemek, acentelerin çevreyle ilgili yönelimlerini tespit etmek ve bu yönelimin sürdürülebilirlik ve ekoturizm ilkeleri bağlamında değerlendirmesini yapmak üzere hazırlanmıştır. Analiz için gerekli verileri toplamak amacıyla, Türkiye Seyahat Acenteleri Birliği’nin (TÜRSAB) ...

  7. Influência da temperatura e da quantidade de água no substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urban (pau-de-balsa)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Michele Braule Pinto; Varela Vania Palmeira; Melo Maria de Fátima Figueiredo

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes volumes de água no substrato e temperaturas na germinação de sementes de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urban. Antes da instalação dos testes de germinação, as sementes foram tratadas com imersão em água quente a 80º C até o resfriamento, para superar a dormência. A semeadura foi realizada em rolos de papel germitest, umedecidos com volumes (mL) de água equivalentes a 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 vezes o peso do substrato nas te...

  8. Enraizamento adventício de estacas do maracujazeiro silvestre Passiflora mucronata Lam.: forma de veiculação e concentrações do ácido indol-3-butírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sobreira Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora mucronata Lam. apresenta como características ser ornamental, medicinal e resistente à bacteriose nas folhas, além de ser altamente resistente à antracnose nos frutos e ramos. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a forma de veiculação, líquida ou sólida, e as concentrações do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB no enraizamento adventício de estacas de P. mucronata. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5 (formas de veiculação do AIB: líquida e sólida x concentrações de AIB: 0; 250; 500; 750 e 1000 mg L-1, se líquido, ou mg Kg-1, se sólido, com quatro repetições, de 16 estacas cada. As características avaliadas foram enraizamento (%, número de raiz, comprimento da maior raiz (cm, volume de raiz (cm³ e massa de matéria seca de raiz (g. Verificou-se que o enraizamento de estacas de P. mucronata Lam. independe da forma como é veiculado o AIB, se sólida ou líquida, porém a qualidade do sistema radicular, avaliada por meio do número, volume e massa de matéria seca de raízes, foi superior à obtida ao se empregar o AIB sólido. O comportamento do enraizamento, do número e do comprimento de raízes foi linear crescente, até a máxima concentração de AIB (1000 mg L-1 ou mg Kg-1.

  9. Temporal variation in the biomass and nutrient status of Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Salviniaceae in a small shallow dystrophic lake Variação temporal de biomassa e estado nutricional de Azolla filiculoides Lam (Salviniaceae em um pequeno lago raso distrófico

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    Claudio Rossano Trindade Trindade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study determined the temporal variation of the biomass and the concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a small (0.5 ha shallow dystrophic lake located in the city of Rio Grande (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. METHOD: Sampling was conducted monthly between November 2000 and October 2001. The macrophytes were collected randomly in three replicates with a circular collector 0.3 m in diameter and subsequently washed with tap water and oven-dried at 60 ºC for determination of the dry weight and the nutrient status (i.e., carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Primary productivity was estimated by the variation in biomass among successive samples. RESULTS: A. filiculoides was present in the lake throughout the year and occupied between 50 and 80% of the surface area. The biomass values ranged from 34.2 g DW.m-2, recorded in May (autumn, to 170.9 g DW.m-2 in January (summer. The highest rate of primary productivity was 3.3 g DW.m-2.d-1, observed in June. The concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant ranged between 403 and 551 g.kg-1, 13.4 and 25.7 g.kg-1 and 0.5 and 1.9 g.kg-1, respectively. The water N:P ratio ranged between 19:1 and 368:1. CONCLUSION: The coverage of the surface of the lake by A. filiculoides throughout the study period and the nutritional status of the plant demonstrate the importance of the cycling of nutrients by macrophytes in this aquatic environment. The higher N:P ratio in the water column, compared with other neighboring environments without macrophytes, shows that the enrichment of the lake may result from the biological N-fixation activity produced by A. filiculoides.OBJETIVO: Este estudo determinou a variação temporal da biomassa e as concentrações de carbono, nitrogênio e fósforo de Azolla filiculoides Lam., em um pequeno lago raso distrófico situado no município do Rio Grande (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MÉTODO: As amostragens foram realizadas

  10. Allelopathic effects of aqueous and organic fractions of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea and wheat Efectos alelopáticos de fracciones acuosas y orgánicas de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de garbanzo y trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Tanveer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of weed species with allelopathic potential and characterization of their adverse effects against associated crops is required for better understanding of weed-crop interactions. Phytotoxic activity of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was investigated under controlled conditions. Two separate studies were done with each of four organic solvent fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, 1-butanol and crude aqueous (1:10 and 1:20 whole plant fractions of E. dracunculoides using distilled water and 0.05% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as control. Different aqueous and organic fractions of E. dracunculoides had a significant bearing on germination attributes and seedling growth that varied among tested species. The final germination percentage of wheat remained unaffected; nevertheless, root and shoot elongation and biomass accumulation in these parts were significantly retarded. Aqueous fractions appeared more phytotoxic than organic fractions and suppressed chickpea germination by 35-53%. These aqueous fractions also reduced root (64-75% and 33-34% and shoot (18-62% and 21% length and root (32-33% and 42-46% and shoot (7-32% and 80-84% dry weight of wheat and chickpea, respectively. Among organic fractions, n-hexane was more suppressive to test species. Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of four phytotoxins, furoic, p-coumaric, syringic, and caffeic acids, in aqueous whole plant (1:10 fractions. This study determined the phytotoxic allelopathic activity of E. dracunculoides against wheat and chickpea.Se requiere la identificación de especies de malezas con potencial alelopático y la caracterización de sus efectos adversos en contra de los cultivos asociados para una mejor comprensión de las interacciones cultivos-malezas. Se investigó la actividad fitotóxica de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. en la germinación y

  11. 新引1号东方山羊豆主要农艺性状初报%A preliminary Report on Main Agronomic Traits of Galega orientalis Lam.cv.Xinyin No.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾祥; 刘兴义; 张清斌; 朱忠艳; 王承军; 穆尼热; 田聪

    2012-01-01

    The protein and the amino acid content of Galega orientalis Lam.cv.Xinyin No.1 at the initial stage of blooming reached 23.88% and 14.17% individually. The hay production was 15 525.8kg/hm2, the stem-leaf ratio was 1: 1.62. The leaves didn't easily fall off when making hay. The tannin content was 0.02% and 0.93% during the branching period and early flowering period respectively. When the ruminants were fed by fresh forage, they did not occur bulging disease. When the Holstein was fed by hay, its milk yield, milk fat and milk pro.tein were increased by 0.21%, 0.35% and 0.24% individually compared with the Medicago sativa L.sv. 'Xinjiang Daye' . The seed diameter of Galega orientalis Lam.cv.Xinyin No.1 was 10- 12 mesh, so the mixed dodder seeds in the large quantities of seeds could be easily cleaned.%新引1号东方山羊豆初花期蛋白质含量达23.88%,氨基酸含量达14.17%,干草产量15525.8kg/hm2,茎叶比1:1.62,调制干草叶片不易脱落,分枝期和初花期分别含单宁0.02%和0.93%,青饲反刍家畜不发生臌胀病,干草饲喂荷斯坦奶牛比饲喂新疆大叶苜蓿产奶量、乳脂率和乳蛋白分别提高0.21%、0.35%和0.24%。种子粒径10-12目,批量种子如混杂有菟丝子种子(粒径14~16目)易清选。

  12. INDUCCIÓN DE FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA Y VARIACIÓN EN EL CONTENIDO DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS EN FRUTOS DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam INFECTADOS CON Colletotrichum acutatum. Induction of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and variation in phenolic compounds content in Lulo fruits (Solanum quitoense Lam infected by Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAIRA ANDREA ARRIETA-GUEVARA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica de la actividad fenilalanina amonio liasa (PAL en corteza de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam con el fin de determinar su participación en respuestas bioquímicas hacia Colletotrichum acutatum. Se establecieron como mejores condiciones para la extracción de la enzima, buffer ácido bórico-borato de sodio 0.1M pH 8.8, 1% SDS, 3% PVPP y para medir la actividad, sustrato L-fenilalanina 5 mM , pH 8,0, 20°C , 30 ΜL de extracto y 45 min. Se realizó un ensayo in vivo usando frutos en tres estados de madurez, los cuales fueron inoculados con el patógeno o tratados con agua estéril. A cinco tiempos (hpi = horas post-infección se determinó la actividad PAL y el contenido total de fenoles, encontrándose que hay una respuesta diferencial de la enzima por efecto del patógeno y por el estado de madurez. Para frutos en el estado pintón se obtuvo el mayor aumento de PAL, el que perduró hasta 48 hpi, al compararlo con los controles y con los otros dos estados de madurez. Este aumento mostró relación con un marcado incremento en el contenido total de fenoles y con el desarrollo más tardío de síntomas característicos de antracnosis, observado para los frutos pintones. Estos resultados permiten postular, una posible relación positiva entre inducción de PAL, aumento de fenólicos y respuesta de tolerancia a C. acutatum. Para lulos en estado verde y maduro se observó aumento de PAL a 12 y 24 hpi que coincidió también con incremento en el contenido de fenoles totales, aunque para estos dos últimos estados dicho contenido disminuyó significativamente a tiempos mayores.Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity induction was evaluated in lulo fruits to determine the role of this enzyme in biochemical responses towards the pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum. We studied the experimental conditions to obtain the enzyme, using lulo peel, and found that the best conditions for extraction were buffer of boric acid

  13. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e prospecção fitoquímica de Solanum paniculatum Lam. e Operculina hamiltonii (G. Don D. F. Austin & Staples, do semi-árido paraibano Evaluation of antibacterial activity and phytochemical prospection of Solanum paniculatum Lam. and Operculina hamiltonii (G. Don D. F. Austin & Staples from the semi-arid region of Paraíba State, Brazil

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    K.M.S Lôbo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao aparecimento de populações de parasitos resistentes, as drogas farmacêuticas, alternativas de controle, estão sendo pesquisadas utilizando plantas medicinais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana e realizar a análise fitoquímica do extrato etanólico de duas espécies do semi-árido paraibano, Solanum paniculatum Lam. e Operculina hamiltonii (G. Don D. F. Austin & Staples. As referidas espécies são muito utilizadas pela população rural contra verminoses gastrintestinais de ovinos. A prospecção fitoquímica foi obtida a partir dos extratos etanólicos para análise dos constituintes químicos existentes nas duas espécies. As análises dos extratos indicaram a presença de taninos flobabênicos, flavononóis, flavononas e alcalóides em ambas as espécies. A atividade antibacteriana foi determinada inicialmente pelo método de difusão em cavidade. A espécie S. paniculatum apresentou atividade contra Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 12692, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442, no entanto O. hamintonii não demonstrou atividade contra as linhagens bacterianas testadas.The emergence of resistant parasite populations has led to the study of pharmaceutical drugs, which represent an alternative control. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity and to perform the phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract from two species belonging to the semi-arid region of Paraíba State, Brazil: Solanum paniculatum Lam. and Operculina hamiltonii (G. Don D. F. Austin & Staples. Such species have been largely used by the rural population against ovine gastrointestinal helminthes. Phytochemical prospection was obtained from ethanol extracts for analysis of chemical compounds present in both species. Extract analyses indicated the presence of condensed tannins, flavonols, flavanones, and alkaloids in both species. The antibacterial activity was initially determined by the cavity

  14. 复方唇香草颗粒干预As斑块炎症反应信号通路的实验研究%Experimental study on compound ziziphora clinopodioides lam granule intervening as plaque inflammation signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁爽; 伍倩; 陈悦; 辛效毅

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the influence of compound Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam granule aortic atherosclerotic plaques IκK-β/IκB-α/NFκB signaling pathway of Apo-E Knockout mice and the possible mechanism in stabilizing As plaque.Methods 70 6-8 week-old Apo-E knockout mice were given a high-fat diet for 12 weeks,then 10 were randomly killed and their aortic root were taken,the formation of As was observed with HE staining ordinary light microscope.The remaining mice were randomly divided into 6 groups,namely,model group (saline group),traditional Chinese medicine control group (xuezhikang group),western medicine control group (simvastatin group),and the experimental groups (compound Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam granule high,medium and low dose groups).10 mice in each group were kill-ed after 1 2 weeks′dosing.The expression of IκK-β,IκB-αand NF-κB mRNA in mice plaque was detected with situ hybridization method.Results Compared with model group (saline group),traditional Chinese medicine control group (xuezhikang group),western medicine control group (group simvastatin),the ex-perimental groups (compound Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam granule high,medium and low dose groups) could reduce the IκK-βand NF-κB mRNA expression (P 0.05).Conclusion Compound Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam granule has the function of against scle-rosis of arterial congee appearance,its mechanism may be related to regulate the IκK-β/IκB-α/NF-κB sig-naling pathway activity and inhibit the inflammatory response.%目的:探讨以维吾尔药为主的复方唇香草颗粒对 Apo-E基因敲除小鼠动脉粥样硬化(As)斑块 IκK-β/IκB-α/NF-κB 信号通路的影响及其稳定 As斑块作用的可能机制。方法选择70只6~8周龄 Apo-E基因敲除小鼠,予高脂饮食喂养12 w后,随机处死10只,取主动脉根部,HE染色普通光镜下观察并确定As形成,其余小鼠随机分为模型组(生理盐水)、中药对照组(血脂康)、西药

  15. Güvenlik bağlamında Avrupa Birliği (AB), NATO ve ABD ilişkileri: AGSK'dan ODGP'ye geçiş

    OpenAIRE

    MENGİ, Ergun

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışmadan, Soğuk savaş (SS) sonrası ortaya çıkan küresel tehditler kapsamında Avrupa Güvenliği bağlamında AB'nin savunma boyutunda, AGSP'nin bağımsız güçlü Avrupa savunması yolunda mı ilerleyeceği, yoksa AGSP-NATO, dolayısıyla AB-ABD işbirliği içinde transatlantik bağı güçlü tutarak mı gelişeceğinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada başta Fransa olmak üzere AB ülkelerinin yaklaşımları ele alınmış, bulguların konjonktürel karşılaştırmalı bir analizi yapılarak, ta...

  16. AMIDO DE BATATA DOCE (Ipomoea batatas L, Lam: II – CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA E ESTUDO DE ALGUMAS PROPRIEDADES FUNCIONAIS

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    JOSé PASCHOAL BATISTUTI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfologicamente e estudar a relação estrutura: função do grânulo de amido extraído de tubérculos, de diferentes cultivares de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L, Lam. Nas condições do experimento e mediante os resultados obtidos, observou-se que o amido dos diferentes cultivares estudados mostrou diferenças acentuadas na sua morfologia. Foram observadas, também, diferenças nas propriedades viscoamilográficas, devidas particularmente à heterogeneidade de forças envolvidas na manutenção da estrutura do grânulo. O amido obtido, dos cultivares estudados, mostrou maior resistência à desintegração mecânica, durante a gelatinização, quando comparado aos padrões comerciais testados. Apenas um cultivar mostrou pico de viscosidade máxima. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Batata-doce; amido; funcionalidade; morfologia.

  17. The in-capillary DPPH-capillary electrophoresis-the diode array detector combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode for screening and quantifying major antioxidants in Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Tian, Ji; Li, Jin; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-07-01

    An in-capillary 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-CE-the DAD (in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD) combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode has been developed to screen and quantify the active antioxidant components of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. The operation parameters were optimized with regard to the pH and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, β-CDs, organic modifier, as well as separation voltage and temperature. Six antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were screened and the total antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully evaluated based on the decreased peak area of DPPH by the established DPPH-CE-DAD method. Sensitivity was enhanced under reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode and 10- to 31-fold of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity for each analyte was attained. The results demonstrated that the newly established in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD method combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode could integrate sample concentration, the oxidizing reaction, separation, and detection into one capillary to fully automate the system. It was considered a suitable technique for the separation, screening, and determination of trace antioxidants in natural products. PMID:26955793

  18. 活血化瘀药龙船花全草挥发油的GC-MS分析%GC-MS analysis of volatile oil from whole plant of Ixora chinensis Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任赛赛; 潘为高; 李勇; 朱小勇; 朱意麟; 罗彭

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究龙船花全草挥发油的化学成分组成.方法:分别采用水蒸气蒸馏法和超临界CO2萃取法提取制备2组挥发油;通过GC-MS和检索所用质谱库(NIST08.L,Wiley 275.L)检索研究其化学成分组成,用面积归一化法确定各成分的相对百分含量.结果:水蒸气蒸馏法挥发油中分离出27个色谱峰,鉴定了其中12个化合物,占挥发油总量的79.57%;超临界CO2萃取法挥发油中分离出107个色谱峰,鉴定了其中73个化合物,占挥发油总量的78.37%.结论:龙船花全株含挥发油种类丰富,涵盖脂肪族及其含氧和含氮衍生物,芳香族和萜及其含氧衍生物.超临界CO2萃取法得到的化学成分数目比水蒸气蒸馏法丰富.超临界CO2萃取物化学成分种类的阐述为龙船花多种药理活性的物质基础研究提供了借鉴.%Objective: To study the chemical constituents of volatile oil from the whole plant of hora chinensis Lam. . Methods: Two groups of volatile oil were separately prepared by steam distillation (SD) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE - C02) methods. The chemical components were analyzed by GC - MS with the area normalization method to determine the relative percentage content of each component. Results:In the total ion chromatogra-phy (TIC) graph,the steam distillation case included 27 peaks with 12 compounds identified which accounted for 79. 57% of the total essential oil,while the supercritical CO2 extraction case includes 107 peaks with 73 compounds identified which accounted for 78. 37% of the total essential oil. Conclusions: There were abundant types of chemical constituents in the volatile oil from the whole plant of /. chinensis including aliphatic derivatives, aromatic derivatives and terpene derivatives. Numbers of chemical constituents in SFE - CO2 case were far more than those in SD case. Investigation of the chemical constituents of SFE - CO2 extract from Ixora chinensis Lam. may provide some references for the

  19. Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante Yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. fertilized with cattle manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante, conduziu-se um experimento no período de Janeiro a Junho de 2004, em NEOSSOLO REGOLÍTICO, psamítico típico, na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia-PB. O delineamento experimental empregado foi de blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições com os tratamentos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1 e ausência e presença de biofertilizante. As parcelas foram constituídas por 80 plantas, espaçadas de 80 x 30 cm. O número de raízes comerciais por planta atingiu valores máximos estimados de 2,0 e 1,7 raízes, respectivamente, nas doses de 26 e 25 t ha-1 de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. O peso médio de raízes comerciais da batata-doce aumentou com elevação das doses de esterco bovino, atingindo na maior dose 360 e 224 g na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. As doses de 25,6 e 24,4 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pela máxima produção total de raízes de 21,4 e 21,2 t ha-1, respectivamente, na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. As máximas produções de raízes comerciais, 15,2 e 12,9 t ha-1 foram alcançadas com 25,5 e 21,3 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, na presença e ausência de biofertilizante, respectivamente.Aiming to evaluate the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. yield fertilization with bovine manure and biofertilizer, an experiment was carried out from January to July, 2004, on ustipsamment soil, at Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia-PB. The Experimental outline used was randomized blocks, with four replications and, treatments distributed in factorial arrangement 6 x 2, being six levels of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1 and absence and presence of biofertilizer. Plots were constituted by 80 plants, spaced 80 x 30 cm. Commercial roots number per plant reached

  20. Analysis of SSR Information in EST Resource of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.and Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth%甘薯与牵牛EST资源的SSR信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰孟焦; 吴问胜; 王瑞珍; 赵朝森; 赵现伟

    2013-01-01

    为挖掘番薯(Ipomoea)属EST-SSR资源,从NCBI数据库下载23406条甘薯(Ipomoea batatas(L.)Lam.) EST和62282条牵牛(Ipomoea nil(L.)Roth) EST,利用生物信息学软件预处理、去冗余、拼接后得到12812条无冗余的甘薯EST(6.70Mb)和28422条牵牛唯一序列(17.19 Mb).对这些序列进行SSR搜索,在甘薯上获得328个SSR位点,出现频率为2.56%;牵牛上筛选到962个SSR位点,出现频率为3.38%.甘薯和牵牛EST-SSR具有多个共同特征:在SSR位点中,主要是二核苷酸重复类型,其次是三核苷酸重复;在二核苷酸重复中,出现最多的重复基序为AG/CT,其次是AT/AT;在三核苷酸重复中,主要基序是AAG/CCT; SSR位点的长度主要集中在20~22 bp.结果表明,搜索出的EST-SSR重复基序类型丰富、多态性潜能高,具有较高的开发和利用价值.%To excavate the EST-SSR resourses of lpomoea,12812 non-redundant ESTs with the total length about 6.70 Mb were obtained by assembling 23406 ESTs from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.in NCBI.With the same way,28422 unique sequences covering 17.19 Mb were generated from Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth.A total of 328 SSR loci for Ipomoea batatas with the the frequency of 2.56% and 962 SSR loci for Ipomoea nil with the frequency of 3.38% were identified by MISA.The EST-SSRs from Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea nil had many common features.Among all the identified SSRs,dinucleotide repeats were dominant motifs and then were trinucleotide repeats.For dinucleotide repeats,AG/CT was the major motif,followed by AT/AT.And AAG/CCT was the most frequent motif among the trinucleotide repeats.The length of EST-SSRs was mainly distributed among 20-22 bp.The results indicated that these EST-SSRs with abundant repeat motif types and high potential polymorphism had high value for exploitation and utilization.

  1. Separation and purification of water-soluble flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaves%菠萝蜜叶中水溶性黄酮的分离与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江新德; 江桂仙; 邱深玉; 徐瑞兰; 彭勇

    2015-01-01

    Recently,separation and purification of flavonoids from natural product has drawn considerable attention in the field of medicine technology. In this study,the water-soluble flavonoids were isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaves by macroporous resin adsorption method. After static and dynamic adsorption/desorption analysis,AB-8 resin was selected for the isolation of flavonoids. The absorb behav-iors agree with Langmuir model,which belongs to monomolecular-layer absorption and favors for desorp-tion of flavonoids. The percentage of flavonoids to total dry weight of extract was raised to 74. 7℅ by mass spectrometry analysis and quantitative determination,and it is 1. 42 times higher than the original extract.%黄酮类化合物由于具有强抗氧化作用,在医学上有较高应用价值,近年来对它的分离纯化是研究热点之一。以菠萝蜜叶为原材料,采用大孔树脂吸附分离法提取其中的水溶性黄酮。经过静态与动态吸附解析筛选,AB-8树脂对黄酮的分离效果最为显著。AB-8树脂对黄酮的吸附更符合Langmuir模型,吸附属于单分子层吸附,有利于黄酮的解析。分离纯化的产品经质谱分析与定量测定,黄酮占总干重的百分比由原来的30.9℅提升到74.7℅。

  2. INFLUENŢA ADMINISTRĂRII UNOR AMENDAMENTE ŞI ÎNGRĂŞĂMINTE CHIMICE ASUPRA CONŢINUTULUI DE APĂ LA LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM. CULTIVATĂ PE CÂMPUL EXPERIMENTAL HIDROAMELIORAT DE LA SOCODOR (JUD. ARAD

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    A. Faur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the total water content and of the free and bound fractions in Lolium multiflorum Lam. were studied in a structural solonetz having moderate depth columns and sodium sulfate salinization. The plants were cultivated in conditions of an experimental field at the Experimental Center for the saline and alkalinous soil melioration from Socodor (Arad district. Before the experiment in the field was installed an underground drainage system consisting in ceramics tubes. After this installations followed a salts washing with a rate of 2500 m³ water/hectare. Three years after these hydromeliorated complex measures was set up an experiment of application of some different types and doses of chemical fertilizers in amendmented and unamendmented conditions three times administered in the next variants: V1 - N0P0K0; V2 - N120; V3 - K50; V4 - P80; V5 - N120K50; V6 - N120P80K50. The application of the amendments as 50 tons phosphogypsum/hectare determined water content increase in the leaf cells. The same effect had the chemical fertilizer applications but this effect was different according with the type of the fertilization. The highest action of the growth of the total water content and of bound water fraction had the nitrogen fertilization especially when this fertilization was made by the balance with phosphorous and potassium. It is notice a lower effect of potassium fertilization on the water keeping in the cells due probably of high content of sodium in the halomorphous soils suggesting an unspecific involving in the maintain of the cell turgor. The phosphogypsum application diminish the supplementary fertilization efficiency with phosphorous in the plants cultivated on halomorphous soils.

  3. Evaluación tecnológica y de explotación de conjuntos de máquinas en la labor de surcado para el cultivo del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (Lam Poir

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    Alfonso Enrique Ortiz Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de conjuntos de máquinas en la labor de surcado con aperos de diferentes características constructivas influye en los índices tecnológico y de explotación de los mismos. La investigación se desarrolló en la Unidad Básica de Producción Cooperativa "El Palmar" perteneciente a la Empresa de Cultivos Varios "Paquito Rosales Benítez" de Veguitas, municipio Yara, provincia de Granma, en el período de diciembre de 2005 a enero de 2008 (tres campañas, el método utilizado fue el analítico investigativo y la técnica de fotocronometraje, con el objetivo de evaluar en la labor de surcado para el cultivo del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (Lam Poir en un Fluvisol, el comportamiento de los índices tecnológicoy de explotación de los conjuntos formados por el tractor MTZ-50 con Surcador Fertilizador IIMA-BALDAN 4500 (T1, Surcador Aporcador SA-5 (T2 y SA-3 (T3. El tratamiento T1 obtuvo integralmente el mejor resultado, logrando un aprovechamiento del ancho de trabajo superior en 20 y 33%, la velocidad en 3 y 6%, el tiempo de turno en 9 y 13% y la productividad en 13 y 17%, disminuyendo los gastos totales en 20,7 y 37,0% con relación a T2 y T3 respectivamente.

  4. Çevre Duyarlılığı Bağlamında Seyahat Acentelerinin Web Siteleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme / An Evaluation of Environmental Concerns of Travel Agencies in Their Web Sites

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    Nazmiye Erdoğan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seyahat acentelerinin web siteleri, acentelerin çevre konusundaki ilgi ve duyarlılığını yansıtan iletişim araçlarından birisidir. Bu çalışma, acentelerin web sitelerinde çevre ile ilgili anlatıların bulunup bulunmadığını incelemek, acentelerin çevreyle ilgili yönelimlerini tespit etmek ve bu yönelimin sürdürülebilirlik ve ekoturizm ilkeleri bağlamında değerlendirmesini yapmak üzere hazırlanmıştır. Analiz için gerekli verileri toplamak amacıyla, Türkiye Seyahat Acenteleri Birliği’nin (TÜRSAB web sayfasında erişilen 5362 acenteden web sitesi olan 1382 acente seçilmiş ve bu acentelerin web sayfalarının içerik analizi yapılmıştır. Analizin ilk aşamasında, web sitelerinin sadece %2,7 gibi küçük bir kısmında, çevre ile ilgili anlatılar bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir. İkinci aşamasında, sürdürülebilirlik ve ekoturizm bağlamında belirlenen 12 çevresel göstergenin web sayfalarındaki anlatılarda varlığı araştırılmış ve web sitelerinin %2,4’ünde çevre/doğa koruma kavramının geçtiği, bunu, sırasıyla, yöre halkına saygı, alternatif turizm, ekoturizm, sürdürülebilir turizmin takip ettiği görülmüştür. Doğa/çevre koruma, çevresel eğitim, yerel kalkınma ve katılımcılık, sürdürülebilir kullanım gibi göstergelerle ilgili anlatıların sürdürülebilir turizm ve ekoturizm ilkeleri ile bütünleştiği, ancak yetersiz olduğu saptanmıştır. Bulgular acentelerin sürdürülebilir turizm bağlamında faaliyetlerde bulunmaları ve çevreye verdikleri önemi ve çevresel faaliyetlerini acente web sitesi gibi önemli bir iletişim kanalında yansıtmaları gerektiğine işaret etmektedir ve sadece kendilerini değil aynı zamanda turistleri de çevresel bağlamda geliştirmeleri gerektiğini göstermektedir. An Evaluation of Environmental Concerns of Travel Agencies in Their Web Sites The travel agency web site is one of the means of communication that

  5. Influencia de cinco tipos de embalagens na germinaçao e no vigor de sementes de Angico - Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth)Brenan, Caixeta - Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam)Dc. e caroba-Jacaranda micrantha Cham. armazenadas em câmara fria e a temperatura ambiente

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    Ramos, Adson

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Silvicultura do Departamento de Silvicultura e Manejo da Universidade Federal do Paraná, com o intuito de apresentar informações que permitam estudar a viabilidade de lotes de sementes de angico vermelho -Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan, caixeta -Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam.) DC. Caroba – Jacaranda micrantha Cham., através de um armazenamento adequado. Após uma secagem inicial, em estufa a 42ºC por períodos de 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 e 8 ...

  6. Evaluación de los niveles de expresión “in vitro” de enzimas pectinolíticas del hongo Colletotrichum acutatum en presencia de inductores naturales provenientes del fruto de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam). Avances para determinar sus niveles de transcripción

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    Martínez González, Ana Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Con el fin de aportar a la caracterización de los eventos bioquímicos que median la interacción del fruto de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam) con el patógeno Colletotricum acutatum, causante de la enfermedad conocida como antracnosis, se evaluó “in vitro” la secreción por parte del hongo de las enzimas pectinolíticas, poligalacturonasa y pectato liasa en presencia de exocarpo o pared celular del fruto en diferentes estados de maduración (verde, pintón y maduro). Las condiciones seleccionadas para...

  7. Gozāreš-e nahā’ī-ye kāvoš-e bāstān-šenāḫtī gūrestān-e Lamā, Yāsūj - Kohgīlūye va Boyer Aḥmad / Final Report of the Archaeological excavations at Lamā Cemetery, Yasudj - Kohgilouye va Boyer Ahmad. Tehrān, Pažūhešgāh-e mīrā

    OpenAIRE

    Boucharlat, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    Fouilles de sauvetage entreprises entre 2000 et 2005 sur une nécropole située près du village de Lamā à 50 km au nord de Yasuj. À part plusieurs tombes détruites par un bulldozer, 58 autres ont été fouillées par une mission archéologique. La plupart ont des parois élevées en moellons et la couverture est constituée de dalles disposées en bâtière, ou parfois posées à plat. Squelettes et dépôts d’objets ont été très endommagés par les infiltrations d’eau, car les tombes sont proches de la surfa...

  8. Influência da temperatura e da quantidade de água no substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urban (pau-de-balsa

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    Ramos Michele Braule Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes volumes de água no substrato e temperaturas na germinação de sementes de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urban. Antes da instalação dos testes de germinação, as sementes foram tratadas com imersão em água quente a 80º C até o resfriamento, para superar a dormência. A semeadura foi realizada em rolos de papel germitest, umedecidos com volumes (mL de água equivalentes a 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 vezes o peso do substrato nas temperaturas de 25, 30 e 35º C. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4 x 3. Para cada tratamento, utilizaram-se quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Após o encerramento do experimento (aos 21 dias, foi avaliada a porcentagem, o índice de velocidade de germinação e os comprimentos da raiz primária e do hipocótilo. A porcentagem de germinação final não foi influenciada pelos fatores estudados. O índice de velocidade de germinação foi favorecido pelas maiores temperaturas, 30 e 35º C. A temperatura de 30º C e a quantidade de água de 1,5 vezes o peso do papel, e 35º C e a quantidade de 3,0 vezes, foram as mais indicadas para o desenvolvimento da raiz primária e do hipocótilo da espécie. Para a germinação das sementes de O. pyramidale recomenda-se a temperatura de 30º C com a quantidade de água de 1,5 vezes o peso do papel, e a temperatura de 35º C com a quantidade de água de 3,0 vezes.

  9. Potencial productivo de esquejes de boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. procedentes de una nueva tecnología de producción de semilla agámica.

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    Roberto Díaz Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El trabajo se realizó en el Instituto de Investigaciones en Viandas Tropicales durante el periodo de septiembre del 2008 a abril 2009, con los objetivos de determinar la cantidad de esquejes que proporciona el vivero y la frecuencia de corte, así como comparar el potencial productivo de cada corte. El Experimento consistió en el montaje de cámaras de aproximadamente 1m de ancho y 15m de largo, se utilizaron raíces tuberosas del clon comercial INIVIT B2-2005 como material de plantación. Se comprobó que durante la fase del vivero este proporcionó un total de nueve cortes tanto en la época frío como en primavera con un total de 764 y 1390 esquejes respectivamente. Después de cortados los esquejes fueron llevados al campo donde se realizó un estudio para determinar los rendimientos correspondientes a cada tratamiento (número de cortes. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatros réplicas. Los resultados mostraron que en pequeñas áreas de viveros se puede obtener un número significativo de esquejes y de muy buena calidad productiva además de que los esquejes procedentes de diferentes momentos de cortes presentan igual comportamiento en cuanto al rendimiento. Productive potential of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam cuttings from a new technology for agamic seed production. ABSTRACT The work was conducted at the Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops from September 2008 to April 2009 with the objectives of determining the amount of cuts provided by the nursery and cut frequency, as well as, to compare the productive potential of each cut. The experiment consisted of mounting chambers about 1m wide and 15m long. Tuberous roots from the commercial clone INIVIT B2-2005 were used as planting seeds. During the nursery stage, nine cuts were provided in the winter and rainy seasons with a total of 764 and 1390 cuttings respectively. Cuttings were transferred to field conditions to determine corresponding

  10. Mobbing in primary schools in the context of gender perspectiveİlköğretim okullarındaki yıldırmaya (mobbing toplumsal cinsiyet bağlamında bir bakış

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    Serap Karabacak Aşır

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the degree of mobbing (psychological violence that primary schools teachers face with in the context of the gender variable. The study is carried out by using a Likert-type scale questionnaire answered by the participants. A 33-item questionnaire, consisting of 2 parts, is applied to 230 teachers, 115 females and 115 males, who work in public primary schools of Ministry of Education. The first part of the questionnaire consists of a form prepared by the scale of mobbing while the second part consists of a form in which the ideas of the participants about the effectiveness of in-service training for adults in the prevention of mobbing are asked. The study sample is composed of teachers who work in 4 primary schools in Mamak district of Ankara. The research is limited with variables such as gender, age, marital status, seniority and tenure. The obtained data are analyzed by considering gender context. According to the findings of research, mobbing is applied to female teachers more than male teachers in primary schools. Married female teachers working in primary schools who are between the ages of 21 to 30 are more exposed to mobbing. Female teachers who are experienced between 1 and 3 years are more exposed to mobbing compared to their colleagues. Besides, the mobbing rate decreases as the tenure increases. Participants think that administrators they work with should attend trainings on adult psychology and behaviors, yet they are not sure whether this training can change the behaviors of their administrators.  ÖzetBu araştırma, ilköğretim okullarında çalışan öğretmenlerin yıldırmaya uğrama düzeylerini toplumsal cinsiyet değişkeni bağlamında belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırma, likert tipi ölçek kullanılarak hazırlanan anketin katılımcılar tarafından cevaplanması ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. 33 maddelik 2 bölümden oluşan bu anket, Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’na ba

  11. BUTEA MONOSPERMA (LAM. KUNTZE: A REVIEW

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    Jindal Sumit

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional systems of medicine together with homoeopathy and folkore medicine continue to play a significant role largely in the health care system of the population. Butea monosperma (Palas belonging to the family leguminaceae grown wildly in many parts of India. The plant is highly used by the rural and tribal people in curing various disorders. The present paper enumerates various traditional and medicinal utility of the plant and attempt was made to gather information about the chemical composition and pharmacological aspects of the plant.

  12. BUTEA MONOSPERMA (LAM.) KUNTZE: A REVIEW

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    Jindal Sumit; Vasudeva Neeru; Sandhu Navgeet; Rajak Prakash; Rai Geeta

    2011-01-01

    The traditional systems of medicine together with homoeopathy and folkore medicine continue to play a significant role largely in the health care system of the population. Butea monosperma (Palas) belonging to the family leguminaceae grown wildly in many parts of India. The plant is highly used by the rural and tribal people in curing various disorders. The present paper enumerates various traditional and medicinal utility of the plant and attempt was made to gather information about the chem...

  13. Radioecology of Picea excelsa (L. Lam

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    Jan Sarosiek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the area of the radiation anomaly near Kowary (Sudeten Mountains the spruce (Picea excelsa occurs in habitats with natural soil gamma radiation within 0.05-1.48 mR/h. By way of detailed ecological analysis 5 stenotopic habitats of spruce development were selected differing in radiation intensity. In these habitats the intrapopulation variability, radioactivity and ecological properties of the Picea excelsa populations were investigated. It was demonstrated that radiation within the above mentioned range is an essential ecological limiting factor, conditioning ecotypic differences in Picea excelsa. The limiting influence of radiation is manifested in a high frequency of development anomalies in the spruce population.

  14. Radioecology of Picea excelsa (L.) Lam

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    Jan Sarosiek; Irena Iwen

    2015-01-01

    Within the area of the radiation anomaly near Kowary (Sudeten Mountains) the spruce (Picea excelsa) occurs in habitats with natural soil gamma radiation within 0.05-1.48 mR/h. By way of detailed ecological analysis 5 stenotopic habitats of spruce development were selected differing in radiation intensity. In these habitats the intrapopulation variability, radioactivity and ecological properties of the Picea excelsa populations were investigated. It was demonstrated that radiation within the ...

  15. Chromosome duplication in Lolium multiflorum Lam.

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    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chromosome duplication of diploid genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (2n=2x=14 is worthy to breeding, and aims to increase the expression of traits with agronomic interest. The purpose of this study was to obtain polyploid plants of L. multiflorum from local diploid populations in order to exploit adaptation and future verification of the effects of polyploidy in agronomic traits. Seedlings were immersed in different colchicine solutions for an exposure time of 3h and 24h. Ploidy determination was made by the DNA content and certified by chromosomes counts. The plants confirmed as tetraploids were placed in a greenhouse, and, at flowering, pollen viability was evaluated, and seeds were harvested to assess the stability of the progenies. The percentage of polyploids obtained was 20%. Pollen viability of the tetraploids generated ranged from 58% to 69%. The tetraploid plants obtained in the experiment generated 164 progenies, of which 109 presented DNA content compatible with the tetraploid level, showing stability of chromosome duplication in the filial generation.

  16. 不同硫取代度昆布多糖硫酸酯的合成及理化性质初步研究%Synthesis of Different Degree of Substitution of LAMS and Preliminary Study on Physical and Chemical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟德友; 汲晨峰; 季宇彬

    2012-01-01

    目的:对昆布多糖进行不同硫取代度的硫酸酯化修饰,并对其产物的硫酸基含量、糖含量与分子量进行检测,为研究不同硫取代度昆布多糖硫酸酯的生物活性奠定物质基础.方法:采用氯磺酸-吡啶法对昆布多糖进行硫酸化修饰,通过改变硫酸化修饰条件,来制取不同硫酸基取代度的昆布多糖硫酸酯;利用盐酸水解-硫酸钡比浊法测定昆布多糖硫酸酯的硫酸基含量,并通过公式求得其硫取代度;用苯酚-硫酸法测定昆布多糖硫酸酯的多糖含量,并使用HPGPC法测定其分子量.结果:两种不同硫取代度昆布多糖硫酸酯的硫酸基含量分别为37.8%、45.92%,取代度分别为1.07、1.51,糖含量分别为44.52%、37.19%,分子量分别为13000、16000.结论:利用氯磺酸-吡啶法对昆布多糖进行硫酸酯化修饰,该方法可以获取不同取代度产物,酯化率高.%Objective: To sulfate the laminarin for different degree of substitution. And its sulfate content, sugar content and molecular testing for the study of different degree of substitution of LAMS Iay the material foundation of biological activity. Methods: Using chlorosulfonic acid - pyridine method for sulfation of laminarin, sulfated by changing conditions, preparation of different degree of substitution of sulfate laminarin sulfate; the use of barium sulfate turbidimetric method LAMS of sulfate content, and calculate the degree of substitution; phenol - sulfuric acid method for the determination of laminarin sulfate polysaccharide content and its molecular weight determined using HPGPC. Results: LAMS of two different sulfur degree of substitution'of sulfate contents were 37.8%, 45.92%, the degree of substitution were 1.07,1.51, sugar contents were 44.52%, 37.19%, and molecular weight were 13000, 16000. Conclusion: LAMS was prepared from laminarin by chlorsulfonic acid-pyridine method. The rate of esterification are high and preparation of a different

  17. Otimização dos tempos de mistura e decantação no processo de coagulação/floculação da água bruta por meio da Moringa oleifera Lam - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v30i2.5493

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    Karina Cordeiro Cardoso; Rosângela Bergamasco; Eneida Sala Cossich; Leila Cristina Konradt Moraes

    2008-01-01

    Diversos coagulantes/floculantes estão sendo estudados ao que se refere à remoção de cor e turbidez da água bruta, entretanto, os coagulantes naturais têm demonstrado vantagens em relação aos químicos. A Moringa oleifera Lam é um polímero natural que vem ganhando destaque no tratamento de água, pois atua como agente clarificante pela presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água em meio líquido. Este trabalho propõe a otimização dos tempos de coagulação, ...

  18. Otimização dos tempos de mistura e decantação no processo de coagulação/floculação da água bruta por meio da Moringa oleifera Lam - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v30i2.5493

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    Karina Cordeiro Cardoso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Diversos coagulantes/floculantes estão sendo estudados ao que se refere à remoção de cor e turbidez da água bruta, entretanto, os coagulantes naturais têm demonstrado vantagens em relação aos químicos. A Moringa oleifera Lam é um polímero natural que vem ganhando destaque no tratamento de água, pois atua como agente clarificante pela presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água em meio líquido. Este trabalho propõe a otimização dos tempos de coagulação, floculação e decantação, utilizando como coagulante diferentes concentrações da solução extraída da polpa da semente de Moringa oleifera Lam, para verificar a eficiência de remoção da cor e turbidez da água. Os ensaios foram realizados em “Jar Test”, utilizando diferentes tempos de mistura e decantação, com várias concentrações do biopolímero. Verificou-se que o tempo para propiciar a mistura rápida e lenta, assim como a concentração do coagulante influenciaram a remoção dos parâmetros durante a coagulação/floculação/sedimentação.

  19. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) seeds Estudo histoquímico e ultraestrutural de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Borges Corte; Marília Contin Ventrella; Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges; Claudia Aparecida Pontes; Daniel Pinho

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to correlate data on light microscopy observations through histochemical analysis and polarized light techniques and investigations in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the reserve materials in C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae) cotyledons, popularly known as "sibipiruna", a tropical tree species with wide distribution in Brazil. The cotyledon mesophyll, especially in the abaxial face, is rich in unsaturated neutral lipid...

  20. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul Overcoming dormancy of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul

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    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais com sementes duras freqüentemente apresentam consideráveis problemas para os viveiristas, porque seus tegumentos duros e impermeáveis à água dificultam e retardam a germinação. Por isso, desenvolveu-se este experimento em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de determinar metodologias para superar a dormência de sementes de catingueira. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes. As sementes foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica feita manualmente com lixa nº. 80 (T2, desponte - pequeno corte na região oposta à micrópila (T3, imersão no ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 6, 8 e 10 min (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente, imersão em água nas temperaturas de 60, 70 e 80 ºC por 1 min (T7, T8 e T9, respectivamente e imersão em água fria por 24, 48 e 72 h (T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com areia umedecida esterilizada. Através de avaliações diárias durante 21 dias, verificaram-se as características de porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento e massa seca das plântulas. Os resultados evidenciaram que os tratamentos pré-germinativos promoveram a germinação das sementes de catingueira, e a escarificação manual com lixa, imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 8 e 10 min e imersão em água a 80 ºC por 1 min revelaram ser os métodos mais efetivos.Forest species with hard seeds often cause important problems for nursery managers because their hard and water impermeable seed coats hinder and delay germination. For this reason, an experiment was carried out to determine methodologies for overcoming dormancy of catingueira seeds, under greenhouse conditions, in the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Paraíba. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replicates of 25 seeds/treatment. Seeds were subjected to 12 treatments: control - intact seeds (T1, mechanical scarification using fine sandpaper nº. 80 (T2, coating cutting in the opposite side of micropylar region (T3, immersion in sulfuric acid (98% for 6, 8 and 10 minutes (T4, T5 and T6, respectively, immersion in water at 60, 70 and 80ºC for one minute (T7, T8 and T9, respectively, immersion in water at room temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hours (T10, T11 and T12, respectively. The seeds were sown in plastic trays with sterilized humidified sand. Daily evaluations were carried out during 21 days observing characteristics of emergence percentage, emergence first count, emergence velocity index, height and dry matter weight of seedlings. The results demonstrated that germinative pre-treatments increased seed germination of catingueira seeds, and higher values were observed with manual scarification with sandpaper, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid during eight and ten minutes and immersion in water at 80ºC for one minute were the most effective methods.

  1. Chemical constituents of Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae); Constituintes quimicos de Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Adalva Lopes; Aragao, Fabiana Martins; Bandeira, Paulo N.; Santos, Helcio Silva dos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R., E-mail: rjane_7@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia. Coordenaco de Quimica; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Nunes, Edson Paula [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Departamento de Biologia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-09-01

    The chemical investigation of hexane and ethanol extracts from the aerial parts of Vernonia scorpioides resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new polyacetylene lactone, rel-4-dihydro-4{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2-(5H)-one, along with the new ethyl 3,4-dihydroxy-6,8,10-triynyldodecanoate, and seven known compounds: taraxasteryl acetate, lupeyl acetate, lupeol, lupenone, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol and luteolin. The structure of all compounds was determined by spectrometric techniques (HR-ESI-MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and IV) and comparison with published spectral data. (author)

  2. Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa): The sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Joan Carles; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Jorba, Montse; Aribau, Joaquim; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Ollé Otero, Lluís

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the fruit of the tara tree as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with environment and social concerns. Tara tannins have been used in retanning formulas in leather processing and its properties are well known. This work aims to optimize formulations using tara as a pre-tanning agent. Combinations with a naphthalene sulphonic syntan are used to obtain an innovative wet-white rec...

  3. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherien Kamal Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract effectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanto, Subur; Suyitno, Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda; Wibowo, Atmanto Heru; Hadi, Syamsul

    2016-03-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  5. PEMUNGUTAN BRAZILIN DARI KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L DENGAN METODE MASERASI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PEWARNAAN KAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pembuatan zat warna alami dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol dan aquades, variasi volume pelarut yang digunakan 75, 150, dan 250 ml. Variasi waktu perendaman 6, 12, 24, dan 48 jam. Serbuk zat warna alami Brazilin dianalisis dengan FTIR dan diaplikasikan pada kain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin lama waktu ekstraksi dan volume pelarut yang digunakan, maka rendemen yang dihasilkan semakin banyak. Rendemen serbuk brazilin maksimal sebesar 6,316% pada waktu ekstraksi 48 jam menggunakan volume pelarut etanol 250 ml. Gugus fungsi brazilin memiliki ikatan tertentu diantaranya C-H, O-H, C-O, C=O, C=C alkena. Adanya gugus fungsi –OH menunjukkan adanya senyawa brazilin. Serbuk brazilin diaplikasikan pada kain dengan teknik celup, zat pengikat seperti tawas, kapur, dan tunjung mempengaruhi kenampakan warna yang dihasilkan pada kain.Kata kunci : zat warna, ekstraksi, maserasi, brazilin, teknik celup. A production of natural dyes can be done by maceration method with using ethanol solvent and distilled water (aquadest, variations of solvent volumes which used were 75, 150, and 250 ml. Soaking times variations were 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Brazilin natural dye powder was analyzed by FTIR and applied to industry. The research results showed the longer of the extraction time and the volume of the used solvents, resulted in the higher yield. Yield of Brazilin powder maximum was 6.316% on the extraction time during 48 hours with using ethanol solvent of 250 ml. Functional groups of Brazilin have specific bond among CH, OH, CO, C = O, C = C alkenes. The existence of the functional groups -OH indicates the brazilin compound. Brazilin powder was applied to industry with dye techniques, binding agents such as alum, lime, and lotus (tunjung which affected the appearance of the fabric color.Keyword : natural dyes, extraction, maceration, brazilin, dye technique.

  6. PEMUNGUTAN BRAZILIN DARI KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L) DENGAN METODE MASERASI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PEWARNAAN KAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti; Ria Dwita Riski

    2015-01-01

    Pembuatan zat warna alami dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol dan aquades, variasi volume pelarut yang digunakan 75, 150, dan 250 ml. Variasi waktu perendaman 6, 12, 24, dan 48 jam. Serbuk zat warna alami Brazilin dianalisis dengan FTIR dan diaplikasikan pada kain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin lama waktu ekstraksi dan volume pelarut yang digunakan, maka rendemen yang dihasilkan semakin banyak. Rendemen serbuk brazilin maksimal sebesar 6,316% pada waktu e...

  7. Reserve carbohydrates and lipids from the seeds of four tropical tree species with different sensitivity to desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of water content for the conservation and storage of seeds, and the involvement of soluble carbohydrates and lipids for embryo development, a comparative study was carried out among the seeds of Inga vera (ingá, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, both classified as recalcitrant, and Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood and Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, considered as orthodox seeds. Low concentrations of cyclitols (0.3-0.5%, raffinose family oligosaccharides (ca. 0.05% and unsaturated fatty acids (0-19% were found in the seeds of ingá and pitanga, while larger amounts of cyclitols (2-3% and raffinose (4.6-13% were found in brazilwood and mulungu, respectively. These results, in addition to higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (53-71% in orthodox seeds, suggested that sugars and lipids played important role in water movement, protecting the embryo cell membranes against injuries during dehydration.Os compostos de reserva das sementes, além de suprirem energia para o desenvolvimento embrionário, desempenham importantes funções relacionadas à proteção celular contra secagem e congelamento. Considerando a importância do teor de água para a conservação e para o armazenamento de sementes de espécies arbóreas e o envolvimento dos carboidratos solúveis e de lipídios nesses processos, foi realizada uma análise comparativa desses compostos em sementes de Inga vera (ingá e Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, consideradas recalcitrantes, e em Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil e Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, com comportamento ortodoxo. Baixas concentrações de ciclitóis (0,3-0,5%, de oligossacarídeos da série da rafinose (0,05% e de ácidos graxos insaturados (0-19% foram encontradas em sementes de ingá e pitanga, enquanto maiores quantidades de ciclitóis (2-3% e de rafinose (4,6-13% foram encontradas nas sementes de pau-brasil e mulungu, respectivamente. Estes resultados, juntamente com as altas proporções de

  8. Environ: E00626 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00626 Lappula echinata fruit Crude drug Lappula echinata, Lappula [TAX:203739] Bor...aginaceae (borage family) Lappula echinata mature fruit (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Boraginaceae (borage family) E00626 Lappula echinata fruit ...

  9. Simultaneous determination of quercetin, rutin and kaempferol in the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam.and Raphinus sativus Linn.by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry%液相色谱-串联质谱法测定辣木及萝卜叶的提取物中所含的槲皮素、芦丁及山柰酚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkatapura C. Devaraj; Burdipad G. Krishna; Gollapalle L. Viswanatha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze quercetin (QU),rutin (RU) and kaempferol (KA) simultaneously in the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam.and Raphinus sativus Linn.Methods:Samples were prepared by extracting the leaves of the M.oleifera and R.sativus by cold-maceration technique using 90% ethanol.Chromatographic separation was operated with a mixture of 0.2% formic acid in water and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column with a total run time of 5.01 min.Results:The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were 303.03 to 153.1 for QU,611.1 to 303.1 for RU,287.1 to 153.2 for KA and 180.1 to 110.1 for internal standard.The lower limit of quantitation achieved for QU,RU and KA was 5 ng/mL and the linearity was observed from 5 to 2 000 ng/mL.The correlation coefficients of linear regression analysis were 0.994 6,0.9951 and 0.9969 for QU,RU and KA,respectively.Conclusion:The results indicate that the LC-MS/MS method is fast and sensitive and may provide excellent specificity for simultaneous determination of QU,RU and KA in leaf extracts of M.oleifera and R.sativus.%目的:通过一种快速、敏感的液相色谱-串联质谱法测定辣木(Moringa olei fera Lam.)及萝卜(Raphinus sativus Linn.)叶的提取物中所含的槲皮素、芦丁及山柰酚.方法:使用冷浸法(90%乙醇)对辣木及萝卜叶进行提取.提取物与0.2%甲酸和氰化甲烷混合后以0.4 mL/min的速度通过Phenomenex Gemini C18色谱层析柱,通过时间为5.01 min.结果:串联质谱法测定的离子转换分别为槲皮素303.03~153.1,芦丁611.1~303.1,山柰酚287.1~153.2,内参180.1~110.1.对槲皮素、芦丁及山柰酚定量测量的最低浓度为5 ng/mL,线性分布为5~2000 ng/mL.槲皮素、芦丁及山柰酚的线性回归系数分别为0.994 6、0.995 1及0.996 9.结论:本研究的结果证明了液相色谱-串联质谱法具有快速

  10. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  11. Toplumsal Cinsiyet Bağlamında Türkiye’de Kadınların Bestecilik Eğitimine Erişimi ve Bestecilik Kariyeri Women’s Access to Composition Education and Career of Composition in Turkey in the Context in Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Gülçin ÖZKİŞİ

    2012-09-01

    ının sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik birçok nedeni mevcuttur. Bu nedenler arasında, 20. yüzyılın ilk yarısına dek kadınlara atfedilen müzikal yaratıcılık yetersizliği miti ve kadınların bestecilik eğitimine erişimlerinin kısıtlanmış olması yer almaktadır. Eğitim ve mesleki yönlendirmelerde, toplumsal cinsiyet ve cinsiyete dayalı fırsat eşitsizliği azalarak da olsa günümüzde de sürmektedir. Çalışmada, kadınların bestecilik eğitimine erişim durumları ile toplumsal cinsiyet ve cinsiyet rollerinin kariyer seçimine bestecilik özelindeki etkisi; Türkiye’de, Avrupa Akademik Müziği alanında genel müzik ve bestecilik lisans devresi öğrenimi veren kurumlardaki öğrencilerin profili, toplumsal cinsiyet bağlamında incelendi. Araştırmanın verileri, ilgili müzik öğretim kurumlarından edinilen, bu kurumlardan mezun olan kız ve erkek öğrencilerin listeleri temel alınarak toplandı. Söz konusu öğretim kurumlarından toplanan veriler, kız ve erkek öğrenci sayılarının birbirlerine oranları bakımından karşılaştırıldı. Bestecilik öğrenimine başlama yaşının ve üniversitelerin bestecilik öğretimi veren birimlerindeki öğretim elemanlarının cinsiyet bağlamındaki profili ise, lisans devresinde bestecilik öğrenimi görmüş olan 1960-1977 doğumlu kadın ve erkek besteciler özelinde ele alındı.

  12. Potencial energético de tres espécies florestais da regiao semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Ghislaine

    2013-01-01

    A caatinga, vegetação característica da região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil, possui potencial de utilização restrito devido seu porte arbóreo-arbustivo. Buscando ampliar a abrangência das aplicações tecnológicas desta vegetação, procurou-se estudar a viabilidade da transformação em carvão vegetal de três espécies que ocorrem nesta região: a exótica leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam) e as nativas catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul) e pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium Mart). As tr...

  13. Antioxidant properties of Plumbago auriculata Lam / Bongai Manyakara

    OpenAIRE

    Manyakara, Bongai

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, a disease first described by James Parkinson two centuries ago is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. The prominent feature of this disease is the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain resulting in a decrease in dopamine levels in the brain. The substantia nigra appears to be an area of the brain that is highly susceptible to oxidative stress. Supplementation with antioxidants may protect the neurons from the...

  14. Secondary radiance etalon source based on halogen lam with diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikheenko L. А.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose to use the radiators based on halogen lamps and milky diffusers, widespread in Ukraine, for brightness calibration of photometric precision instruments with multi-element radiation detectors. It is shown that the parameters of the luminance field formed in such a transducer, far exceed the parameters of strip lamps and similar sources of radiation. A mathematical apparatus is proposed and an engineering calculation method for the developed radiator using the set parameters is offered. The article also provides recommendations on the choice of the basic elements of the radiator for specific measurement tasks. High stability of the radiator and high accuracy of its calibration using domestic luminance meter TES 0693 are demonstrated experimentally.

  15. Reprodukce u samců lam a velbloudů

    OpenAIRE

    Zelenková, Anežka

    2013-01-01

    In my thesis I concentrated on facts concerning the reproduction of Camelids.  I started with anatomy which is not much different from other ruminants, apart the absence of seminiferous vesicles and size of individual organs. The only interesting fact is the strange form of phallus which is firmly connected with the prepuce after birth. At the age of three the connection loosens and a kind of a "hook" becomes visible, which makes it easier for the phallus to penetrate the cervix. There are no...

  16. In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of Corchorus acutangulus Lam. (Tiliaceae.

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    K Padmavathy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The herb, Corchorus acutangulus is an important medicinal plant belongs to the family Tiliaceae. The present study describes the efficient in vitro regeneration protocol standardized for this species through leaf explant. The leaf explants were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1.5 mgl-1 and NAA (0.2 mgl-1 for efficient callus induction (84.43%. Multiple shoots (83% were developed in the MS medium fortified with IBA (2.0 mgl-1 and TDZ (0.2 mgl-1. Better rooting response (74% was observed on half strength MS medium containing IBA (2.0 mgl-1 and Kn (0.2 mgl-1. Regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and hardened off inside the culture room and then transferred to green house with 81% survival rate.

  17. In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of Corchorus acutangulus Lam. (Tiliaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy, K.; Paulsamy, S.; J Thambiraj

    2013-01-01

    The herb, Corchorus acutangulus is an important medicinal plant belongs to the family Tiliaceae. The present study describes the efficient in vitro regeneration protocol standardized for this species through leaf explant. The leaf explants were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1.5 mgl-1) and NAA (0.2 mgl-1) for efficient callus induction (84.43%). Multiple shoots (83%) were developed in the MS medium fortified with IBA (2.0 mgl-1) and TDZ (0.2 mgl-1). Better ...

  18. Comparison of eleven heavy metals in moringa oleifera lam. products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Limmatvapirat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  19. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products

    OpenAIRE

    Limmatvapirat, C.; Limmatvapirat, S.; Charoenteeraboon, J.; Wessapan, C.; Kumsum, A.; Jenwithayaamornwech, S.; P Luangthuwapranit

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as li...

  20. Distribution of Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae in Poland

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    Ewa Szczęśniak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Azolla filiculoides has been an ephemeral plant in Poland since the end of the 20th century. In the last 15 years this species appeared in 5 locations in south-west Poland. Habitat and plants of two populations became destroyed, three other still exist. A. filiculoides occurs in eutrophic or even polluted water where it forms dense mats, up to 10 cm thick. It stays sterile and propagates only in a vegetative manner. Frost resistance of Lower Silesia populations is higher than reported so far; fern may winter and rebuild the population after frost reaching 22oC. Size of the populations is changeable during the vegetation season. A. filiculoides occurs in water habitats and plant communities in which it substitutes Lemna minor.

  1. Phytotoxic compounds from roots of Centaurea diffusa Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, Naira; El Kassis, Elie G; Stermitz, Frank R.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2009-01-01

    An extract of roots of Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed) yielded caryophyllene oxide and linoleic acid which were shown to be phytotoxic. Also isolated were germacrene B, a previously-known phytotoxin as well as the inactive polyene aplotaxene. A combination of these compounds, if transferred to the soil, could be one factor in the invasive behavior of this weed. Contrary to a literature report, 8-hydroxyquinoline was not detected in root exudates of in vitro grown C. diffusa nor could it ...

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar Sharma; Gurvinder Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera tree is known as a Miracle tree as almost every part of this tree possesses product useful for humans. The leaves and pods are eaten. The plant is also reported to be medicinally important and almost all parts of the Moringa oleifera tree are considered to possess medicinal properties and are used in the treatment of ascites, rheumatism and venomous bites and as cardiac and circulatory stimulant Leaves are also known to have anti-oxidant properties and are known to cures hall...

  3. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Satish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae leaf (MOL and root (MOR. Materials and Methods : Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results : Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05 in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aa and Bb subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions : These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing.

  4. ALLOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS IN Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit

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    Valdemir Aleixo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate simple allometric equations in order to estimate above and below ground dry biomass from Leucaena leucocephala individuals. Results indicated that biomass components show the following pattern: stem > branches > roots > leaves. Independently from individual size, 24 % of total sampled dry biomass was located below-ground, and 76 % above-ground. Log transformed linear equations using CBH (circumference at breast height as independent variable was statistically significant (P<0.05 to estimate leucaena total dry biomass.

  5. Study of Antiulcer Activity of Bauhinia racemosa lam in Rats

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    V.I. Borikar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the antiulcer effect of the dried fruit powder of the plant Bauhinia racemosa in Wistar albino rats. Thirty Wistar rats of either sex weighing between 150 - 200gm were selected and divided into five groups, each comprising of six rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups T1T2, T3, T4, and T5 and were given 0.5 ml normal saline, aqueous extract in the dose rate of100mg/kg body weight, 200mg/kg body weight, alcoholic extract @100mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg body weight respectively. After one hour all the groups were administered Paracetamol at a dose rate of 200mg/kg body weight orally. After 24hrs, the number of ulcers, ulcer score, percent incidence, ulcer index and healing index were recorded. From the results obtained it was concluded that aqueous extract in the dose rate of 200mg/kg body weight and alcoholic extract (100mg/kg & 200mg/kg body weight could produce antiulcer activity. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 217-218

  6. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  7. Pharmacognostical Standardisation and Antidiabetic activity of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Leaves Lam.

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    Nazli Shahin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to focus on the hypoglycemic effect of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus in normal and streptozocin induced diabetic rats. The Plant was subjected to pharmacognostic, physico-chemical and phytochemical evaluations which will assist in standardization for authenticity, quality and identification of the herbal products. Treatment with extract of the leaves at dose 250 mg/kg to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction of serum glucose, total cholesterol, whereas significant increased level of high density lipoprotein was observed.The present study clearly demonstrated that the plant is having potential hypoglycemic activity which may be beneficial for the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Generalized Lamé functions. II. Hyperbolic and trigonometric specializations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsenaars, S. N. M.

    1999-03-01

    In Part I [J. Math. Phys. 40, 1595 (1999)] we studied eigenfunctions of the quantum dynamics that defines the two-particle relativistic Calogero-Moser system with elliptic interaction. In the present paper we consider the same system with hyperbolic and trigonometric interactions. In these special regimes the eigenfunctions are shown to admit an elementary representation that is far more explicit than the "zero representation" of Part I. In particular, the new representation can be exploited to prove that the hyperbolic eigenfunctions can be chosen to be symmetric under interchanging position and momentum variables (self-duality). In the trigonometric case duality properties are derived, too, and several orthogonality and completeness results are obtained.

  9. Pharmacognostic standardisation of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isaac Kingsley Amponsah; AbrahamYeboah Mensah; Antonia Otoo; Merlin Lincoln Kwao Mensah; Jato Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    To establish the pharmacognostic characters for the correct identification and quality control of Hilleria latifolia (H. latifolia), an important herb in Ghanaian folklore medicine, for the treatment of infections, pain and inflammation. Methods: The macro-morphological, qualitative and quantitative microscopic features, physicochemical and phytochemical features of the medicinally used parts of H. latifolia were evaluated using standard methods. Results: The plant has simple, alternate leaves with entire margin. The lamina is ovate to broadly lanceolate with an acuminate apex. It is hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata. The plant contains abundant prismatic crystals in all parts. Starch grains abound in the roots. The quantitative indices of the leaf and physicochemical parameters have also been established. Conclusions: The pharmacognostic features established in this study may be used as part of the pharmacopoeial standard for the correct identification and quality control of H. latifolia.

  10. ANTISPASMODIC STUDIES ON LEAF EXTRACT OF ERYTHRINA INDICA LAM

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    R. Kamalraj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation to evaluate the antispasmodic activity of Erythrina indica leaf, an indigenous plant used in ayurvedic medicine in India. The antispasmodic effect of hexane extracts of Erythrina indica Leaf were studied in vitro in guinea pig ileum against three spasmogens; acetylcholine, histamine and barium chloride. The hexane extract produces a significant antispasmodic effect on the contractions of the guinea pig ileum induced by acetylcholine, histamine and barium chloride. The inhibitory concentration for each was determined. These results show that hexane extract of Erythrina indica Leaf possesses antispasmodic properties.

  11. The analysis of children’s books in the context of how they reflect environmental issuesÇocuk edebiyatı yapıtlarının çevre sorunlarını yansıtışı bağlamında incelenmesi

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    Canan Aslan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children’s books are among important variables that contribute to raising children as individuals sensitive to environment through providing aesthetic experiences. The purpose of this study is to analyze literary children’s books in the context of how they reflect environmental issues. The data sources of the study included the books covering environmental issues and first published in 2014 or 2015. The data were collected through document analysis that is a qualitative research method and were analyzed descriptively. As a result of the study it was seen that the analyzed books cover many topics related to environmental pollution and that environmental pollution is caused by lack of education, unawareness or insensitivity mostly for economic or arbitrary reasons. According to the books, everyone from administrators to large companies and local administrations is responsible for environmental pollution. The study showed that children and women are more sensitive to environment. The books of which the content is supported with quality visuals make children feel future problems and their solutions through the use of a literary language and in a way appropriate for the age and development of children.   Özet Çocukların çevreye duyarlı bireyler olarak yetişmelerinde katkı sağlayacak önemli bir değişken de etkisini estetik yaşantı sağlayarak gösteren çocuk edebiyatı yapıtlarıdır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, yazınsal çocuk kitaplarını çevre sorunlarını yansıtışı bağlamında incelemektir. Çalışmanın veri kaynağını, 2014-2015 yıllarında ilk baskıları yapılan çevre sorunları konulu kitaplar oluşturmaktadır. Veriler, nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden doküman incelemesi yoluyla toplanmış, betimsel olarak çözümlenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda incelenen kitaplarda çevre kirliliğine ilişkin birçok konunun ele alındığı ve çevrenin; eğitimsizliğin, bilinçsizliğin ve duyarsızlığın bir

  12. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. em função do peso da semente e do tipo de substrato Germination of seeds and seedling development of drumstick as a function of seed weight and substrate type

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    Antonio Marcos E. Bezerra

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. é uma espécie arbórea originária do noroeste indiano, cultivada graças ao seu valor alimentar, medicinal, industrial e no tratamento de água para o consumo humano. Os efeitos do peso de sementes e do substrato na germinação e desenvolvimento das plântulas foram determinados, sob condições de casa de vegetação (sombrite 50% com nebulização intermitente em Fortaleza (CE, de 29/11 a 14/12/02. Os tratamentos constaram de arranjo fatorial 3x3 referente a três categorias de semente: pesadas (272,41 g/1000 sementes, médias (218,88 g/1000 sementes e leves (177,07 g/1000 sementes; e três substratos: vermiculita; Plantmax® e uma mistura à base de solo esterilizado (S, húmus de minhoca (H e pó de coco lavado (PC, na proporção de 2:1:1, dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições (24 sementes/repetição. Efetuou-se a semeadura das três classes de pesos de sementes em bandejas de isopor de 72 células contendo os substratos, avaliando-se a percentagem, velocidade e tempo médio de germinação, altura da plântula, massa seca da parte aérea e massa seca total. As sementes pesadas e médias apresentaram maior percentagem e velocidade de germinação do que as leves; as sementes pesadas proporcionaram plântulas mais vigorosas; no substrato Plantmax® e na mistura (S+H+PC a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação foi superior à vermiculita; e as plântulas desenvolveram-se melhor no substrato Plantmax®.To compensate the shortage of information on the influence of seed weight and substrate over the germination and seedling development of Moringa oleifera an experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions (50% of natural light with intermittent nebulization in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of a 3x3 factorial arrangement [three seed weights: heavy (272.41 g/1000 seeds; medium (218.88 g/1000 seeds and light (177.07 g/1000 seeds and three substrates

  13. Bağlam temelli öğrenme ile lise fizik derslerinde kullanılabilecek günlük hayattan konular [Daily life subjects that can be used with context based learning in high school physics lessons

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    Ali ÇETİN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı bağlam temelli öğrenme sırasında kullanılabilecek günlük hayattan konuların belirlenmesi, bu konuların sınıf seviyelerine ve cinsiyetlere göre sınıflandırmasının yapılmasıdır. Çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Veri analizinde içerik analizi, yüzde ve frekans analizi gibi betimsel analizler kullanılmıştır. Bilgiler belirli kriterlere göre kategoriler halinde gruplandırılmış ve sayısal, yüzdesel ve oransal olarak görülme sıklığı ortaya konmuştur. Çalışmaya Ankara il sınırları içerisindeki bir okulun 9., 10. ve 11. sınıflarında okuyan 94 öğrenci katılmıştır ve günlük hayata ilişkin fizik konularında ayrı ayrı birer poster hazırlamaları istenmiştir. Toplanan posterler konu başlıklarına, sınıf seviyelerine ve cinsiyetlere göre sınıflandırılarak alt kategoriler oluşturulmuştur. Her alt kategoride hazırlanan poster sayıları kullanılarak, öğrencilerin bu alt başlığa olan ilgileri ortaya konmuştur. Başlıklar kullanılarak oluşturulan alt kategoride fizik dersindeki sekiz konu başlığı (mekanik, elektrik, uçan cisimler, astronomi ve uzay, gökyüzü, modern fizik, optik, dalgalar ortaya çıkmıştır. Sınıf seviyeleri kullanılarak oluşturulan alt kategoriye göre 9. sınıf öğrencilerinin en fazla gökyüzü, 10. sınıf öğrencilerinin en fazla astronomi ve uzay konularına ilgi duydukları ortaya çıkmıştır. Cinsiyete göre yapılan sınıflandırmada ise 9. sınıflarda sadece erkek öğrencilerin uçan cisimler konusunu seçtiği, mekanik, astronomi ve uzay konularında erkeklerin ilgilerinin kızlara göre daha yüksek olduğu, dalgalar konusunda ise kızların erkeklerden daha çok ilgi duydukları ortaya çıkmıştır. Çalışmanın sonuç kısmında ortaöğretim fizik programı ile öğrencilerin fizik derslerinde görmek istedikleri konuların benzerlik ve farklılıkları karşılaştırılmıştır.

  14. Crisis communication management within the context of strategic communication and perception managementStratejik iletişim ve algı yönetimi bağlamında kriz iletişim yönetimi

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    Fatih Demir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In paralel to crisis management, crisis communication management is also one of the leading point that effect the results and success of the crisis management. Crisis communication is a special area of communication which consist of many strategic communication tools and synchronized management of various vendors including government agencies, media and public. The main target of the crisis communication is obtaining crisis and/or eliminating negative effects of crisis and rapid response to match public attention with valid information in a before the crisis, b during the crisis and c after the crisis stages.  This research focus on the steps which needs to be taken on these three stages of crisis communication, implementing strategic communication with media and public and how to deal with crisis in terms of crisis communication management strategies. As part of the study a crisis scale/table has been created to define the possible effects both in current and prospective position. The possible effects and the steps which should be taken to minimize crisis effects could be retrieved by the help of the given scale. ÖzetKriz yönetimine paralel olarak kriz iletişim yönetimi kriz yönetimi başarısı ve sonuçlarına etki eden en önemli faktörlerden biridir. Kriz iletişimi; içerisinde stratejik iletişim araçları, kamu kurumları, medya ve kamuoyunu da içine alan farklı kriz aktörleri arasındaki iletişimin eş güdümle yürütülmesini kapsayan özel bir iletişim alanıdır. Kriz iletişiminin esas amacı krizi engellemek, krizin olumsuz etkilerini ortadan kaldırmak ve kamuoyunun bilgi ihtiyacını a kriz öncesi, b kriz sırası ve c kriz sonrası aşamalarında karşılamaktır. Bu araştırma kriz iletişiminde söz konusu üç aşamada atılması gereken adımları, medya ve kamuoyu ile stratejik iletişim yürütülmesi ve kriz iletişimi yönetimi stratejileri bağlamında krizle nasıl başa çıkılacağı konusunu ele

  15. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasora ou ruderal? Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasive or ruderal?

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    José Nicola Martorano Neves da Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de espécies exóticas em plantios de recuperação de áreas degradadas tem sido condenada com base no argumento de que tais espécies podem se comportar como invasoras e contaminar os ecossistemas naturais ao redor das áreas onde forem plantadas. Leucaena leucocephala (leucena é espécie leguminosa exótica que tem sido frequentemente cultivada no Brasil para recuperação florestal, uma vez que apresenta simbiose com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio, melhorando a fertilidade dos solos. O potencial de invasão e persistência da leucena foi analisado a partir de um plantio misto, efetuado em 1983 em terreno com afloramento rochoso, parte do mosaico de uma paisagem dominada por matriz agrícola, com alguns fragmentos remanescentes de floresta estacional semidecidual e plantios arbóreos diversos. Em uma área de 200 ha, cada uma das 11 unidades do mosaico foi amostrada por meio de seis parcelas de 16 x 3 m (48 m², em que foram identificados e medidos (DAP todos os indivíduos de espécies arbóreas (altura mínima de 50 cm, para verificar se a área ocupada pela espécie está se expandindo. Na área em que foi utilizada leucena no plantio, analisou-se a estrutura da comunidade, com base na distribuição dos indivíduos em classes de tamanho, para verificar se a proporção da espécie exótica tende a aumentar com o tempo, configurando a persistência no ecossistema. Uma vez que nenhum indivíduo de L. leucocephala foi registrado entre os 4.599 amostrados além dos limites da área onde a espécie foi plantada, a conclusão é de que a espécie não está se comportando como invasora de ecossistemas naturais nessa condição ambiental, enquadrando-se melhor como ruderal. A análise da comunidade em regeneração sob as árvores plantadas evidenciou que a proporção da espécie exótica, que é intolerante à sombra, tende a diminuir com o tempo, ainda que lentamente, perdendo espaço para espécies nativas tolerantes, que poderão ocupar o dossel no futuro.Exotic species have not been recommended for degraded lands reforestation, since they are reported to invade natural ecosystems in the surrounding areas. Leucena leucocephala, a leguminous N fixing species, was introduced in Brazil and has been widely cultivated, especially to recover degraded soils. The potential of L. leucocephala to expand over the landscape and its persistence in the plant community in the long term was analyzed. A stand planted in 1983 was assessed, which was installed on a rocky soil, immerse in an agricultural matrix, where some native and planted forest patches exists. Over a 200 ha area, eleven distinct patches were surveyed, where all individuals from arboreal species (minimum height 50 cm were identified and measured (dbh, to verify if the exotic species is expanding over areas where it has not been planted. In the stand where the species was planted, the community structure was assessed on the basis of relative density in size classes to verify if the proportion of the exotic species tends to increase with time, confirming persistence. Since, among the total of 4,599 individuals surveyed, not even a single individual of the species was recorded beyond the limits of the planted stand, invasion of natural ecosystems by Leucena leucocephala was refuted, the species being locally considered as ruderal. Even though a huge number of young individuals of L. leucocephala are regenerating under the planted trees, the relative density of the exotic species in the understorey tends to decrease with time. Apparently, some shade tolerant native species can slowly dominate the community in the future, taking advantage under light competition.

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTI- TUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA F. IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED COUGH IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Cough is a natural reflex expulsive defense mechanism of the body, for clearing excess secretions, mucous, inhaled irritants, toxins or foreign substance in the respiratory tract. It is the most common symptom of respiratory disease. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is a need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have res...

  17. Antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods in vitro and in model food emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Skowyra, Monika; Falguera, Víctor; Gallego Iradi, María Gabriela; Peiró, Sara; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The successful replacement of some synthetic food antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants has fostered intensive search for new vegetable sources of antioxidants. In our study the phenol and flavonoid content of extracts of tara pods was determined. The antioxidant activity was also studied by three different analytical assays: the measurement of scavenging capacity against a radical ABTS + , the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant ...

  18. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong from Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Tabosa Pereira da Silva; Tadeu José da Silva Peixoto Sobrinho; Valérium Thijan Nobre de Almeida e Castro; Danielle da Cunha Amaral Lima; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts from the bark and leaves of C. pyramidalis and S. glandulosum. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total tannin content (TTC) were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total flavonoids content (TFC) was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FIC (ferrous ion chelating) as...

  19. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Tabosa Pereira da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to quantify the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts from the bark and leaves of C. pyramidalis and S. glandulosum. The total phenolic content (TPC and total tannin content (TTC were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total flavonoids content (TFC was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and FIC (ferrous ion chelating assays. The TPC ranged between 135.55 ± 9.85 and 459.79 ± 11.65 tannic acid equivalents (TAE in mg/g material (mg TAE/g. The leaves of both species contained high levels of tannins and flavonoids. The crude ethanol extracts (CEE from the bark of C. pyramidalis showed high antioxidant activity when compared to ascorbic acid and rutin, whereas the CEE from the leaves was more efficient in chelating ferrous ions. C. pyramidalis had very high phenolic content and anti-radical activity, which indicates a need for further studies aimed at the purification and identification of compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  20. İshak Bağlamında Onat Kutlar’ın Öykücülüğü ve “Çatı” Öyküsünün Tahlili Onat Kutlar’s Story Telling In The Context Of The Ishak And Analysis Of “Çatı”

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    Mustafa KARADENİZ

    2013-03-01

    çilerin birikimini Varoluşçuluk, Sürrealizm gibi Batı kaynaklı düşünce ve sanat akımlarından mülhem etkilerle sentezleyen bu öykücüler, “birey”i ve onun iç yaşantısını, yalnızlığını, bunalımını, iletişimsizliğini modernist tekniklerle kurgu düzlemine taşımıştır.Onat Kutlar, henüz yirmi üç yaşındayken yazdığı İshak adlı öykü kitabıyla bu kuşağın önemli yazarlarından biri olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Dokuz öyküden oluşan bu tek öykü kitabıyla 1960 Türk Dil Kurumu Öykü Ödülü’nü kazanan Kutlar, İshak’ta, dâhil olduğu edebî anlayışa paralel temaları ve teknik özellikleri kendine özgü bir tutumla kullanmıştır. Hayatın monotonluğundan bunalarak bulunduğu ortamdan kaçıp kurtulmak, yeni ve başka bir yaşam kurmak isteyen muhtelif insanların çabaları, İshak’taki öykülerin tematik bağlamını oluşturmaktadır. Bu paralelde, öykülerde, ev içi yaşantıların ve aile çevresinin sert kalıpları içinden çıkmanın yolunu / yordamını arama çabasındaki karakterlerle karşılaşılır. Fantastik / gerçeküstü / kafkaesk öğeler, öykülerin kurgu düzlemindeki temel motifler olarak dikkat çeker. Genel bir nazarla bakıldığında, İshak’taki öykülerin dil, kurgu, atmosfer ve içerik özellikleri bakımından bütünlüklü bir yapıya sahip olduğu söylenebilir.Kitaptaki dördüncü öykü olan “Çatı”ya yönelik bir tahlil denemesi bu çalışmanın konusunu oluşturmaktadır. Tahlile katkıda bulunulacağı düşüncesiyle, çalışmanın giriş bölümünde, kabaca, “1950 Kuşağı” öykücülüğünü hazırlayan iç ve dış dinamiklere işaret edilmiş, ardından İshak dolayımında, Kutlar’ın öykücülüğüne dair genel birtakım tespitlerde bulunulmaya çalışılmıştır.

  1. Grotesk-Yabancılaşma İlişkisi Bağlamında Tanpınar’ın Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü Tanpınar’s Time Regulation Institute In Grotesque- Alienation Relationship Context

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    Hakan SAZYEK

    2013-07-01

    ılaşma sorunsalını irdeler. Bununla birlikte Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü, yabancılaşmayı işleyiş noktasında aynı kulvardaki türdeşlerinden farklı bir özellik taşır. ‘Absürt/ uyumsuzluk tiyatrosu’, 20.yüzyılın başlarında oluşan modernist sanat anlayışının tiyatroya yansımasıdır. Yabancılaşma, birey-toplum/ hayat uyumsuzluğu, absürt tiyatronun başlıca konularıdır. Beklenmedik durumlar, tuhaf olaylar, ürkünç figürler, zıtlıkların birlikteliğinden doğan gülünçlükler gibi ögeler, anılan konuların işlenişinde başatlık taşır ve bütün bunlar genelde grotesk bir yapıyı yaratır. Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü, bütün bu ögeleri, yabancılaşma zemininde roman sanatına aktarmasıyla dikkati çekmektedir. Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü, ürkünçlüğe, karşıtlığa, abartıya, absürde dayalı yapısıyla grotesk bir nitelik taşımaktadır. Dolayısıyla, Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü, yabancılaşmayı işleyiş tarzı bakımından ‘absürt tiyatro’nun izlerini taşır. Romanın ilk evresini oluşturan enstitü öncesindeki grotesk ögeler çoğunlukla ürkünç ve gizemli iken enstitü evresinde komik ve absürt bir hâle dönüşür. Tanpınar, bu özgün yapı içerisinde yabancılaşma içindeki bir kişinin macerasını anlatır. Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü’nün başkişisi Hayri İrdal, tam anlamıyla bir yenik kişidir. O, dışında kaldığı topluma ve hayata kendisi bağlamında sağlıklı; ancak dışarıdan yanlış görülen bir mantığın sorgulayıcı tutumuyla bakar. Bundan dolayı, o genellikle yenilir. Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü, bu yönleriyle Türk romanında özgün bir yere sahiptir. Bu makalede, Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü’nün modernist Türk romanındaki yeri vurgulanmaya çalışılmıştır.

  2. The Institution of Library/Archive in the Context of Socio-Economic and Cultural Structure of the Ancient Anatolian Civilizations İlkçağ Anadolu Uygarlıklarında Sosyo-Ekonomik ve Kültürel Yapı Bağlamında Kütüphane/Arşiv Kurumu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Yılmaz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the institution of library and archive in Ancient Anatolia in the context of socio-economical and cultural structure. In this study, first the basic characteristics of the culture process of Ancient Anatolia were examined. Then, the institution of library and archive was explored mainly in the framework of the geographic, socio-economic and cultural structure. The survey method was used. It was concluded that the fundamental condition of existence of the institution of library and archive had been the high level of socio-economic growth that engendered the cultural development. While the institution of archive was one of the administrative units of the ancient cities, generally, library functioned chiefl y as a means of social life spaces such as education, science, art, literature, culture, and religion. Moreover, the institution of library/archive had had an identity as a means of cultural rivalry among the cities in Ancient Anatolia. Libraries and archives have come into existence as an organic function of education and science. These institutions were founded and developed by the noblemen of the cities as prestige projects. The institution of library and archive in Ancient Anatolia and in neighboring civilizations had also had an identity inrelation to the culture and phenomena of religion and Turkish bath. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, İlkçağ Anadolusu’ndaki kütüphane ve arşiv kurumlarını sosyo-ekonomik ve kültürel yapı bağlamında değerlendirmektir. Çalışmada, öncelikle, İlkçağ Anadolusu kültür sürecinin temel özellikleri değerlendirilmiş, daha sonra arşiv/kütüphane kurumu, ağırlıkla, sözü edilen coğrafya ve sosyo-ekonomik-kültürel yapı çerçevesinde irdelenmiştir. Betimleme yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilen çalışma sonucunda Anadolu’da kültürel gelişmişliği yaratan sosyo-ekonomik gelişmişliğin kütüphane ve arşiv kurumu için temel varlık ko

  3. Antibacterial activity of peptides derived from the C-terminal region of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Suenaga, Tomoko; Eto, Seiichiro; Niidome, Takuro; Aoyagi, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    Several synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal domain sequence of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, were examined as to their action on bacteria and artificial lipid membranes. Peptide P332 (KGVIFAKASVSVKVTASLSK-NH(2)), corresponding to the sequence from residue 332, exhibited strong antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive bacteria. Replacement of each Lys in P332 by Ala markedly decreased the activity. However, when all Lys were replaced by Arg, the antibacterial activity increased, indicating the importance of positively charged residues at these positions. Replacement of Val by Leu also led to higher antibacterial activity, especially toward Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of these peptides was correlated with their membrane-permeabilizing activity toward the bacterial inner membrane and artificial lipid vesicles, indicating that the antibacterial action is due to perturbation of bacterial cell membranes, leading to enhancement of their permeability. These results also suggest that the hydrophobic region of CEL-III, from which P332 and its analogs were derived, may play some role in the interaction with target cell membranes to trigger hemolysis. PMID:14999010

  4. Study of Toxin Production by Isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum and Memnoniella echinata Isolated during a Study of Pulmonary Hemosiderosis in Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Bruce B.; Sorenson, W G; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa; Nikulin, Marjo; Zhou, Yihong; Jiang, Jian; Wang, Shengun; Hinkley, Simon; Etzel, Ruth A.; Dearborn, D.

    1998-01-01

    A cluster of cases of pulmonary hemosiderosis among infants was reported in Cleveland, Ohio, during 1993 and 1994. These unusual cases appeared only in infants ranging in age from 1 to 8 months and were characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, which caused the babies to cough up blood. A case-control study identified major home water damage (from plumbing leaks, roof leaks, or flooding) as a risk factor for development of pulmonary hemorrhage in these infants. Because of an interest in the poss...

  5. Genome Sequences of Three Pseudoalteromonas Strains (P1-8, P1-11, and P1-30), Isolated from the Marine Hydroid Hydractinia echinata

    OpenAIRE

    Klassen, Jonathan L; Rischer, Maja; Wolf, Thomas; Guo, Huijuan; Shelest, Ekaterina; Clardy, Jon; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The genomes of three Pseudoalteromonas strains (P1-8, P1-11, and P1-30) were sequenced and assembled. These genomes will inform future study of the genes responsible for the production of biologically active compounds responsible for these strains’ antimicrobial, biofouling, and algicidal activities.

  6. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  7. Examining digital competence of teachers within the context of lifelong learning based on of the twenty-first century skillsÖğretmenlerin yirmi birinci yüzyıl becerileri ışığında ve yaşam boyu öğrenme bağlamında dijital yeterliliklerinin incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Keskin

    2015-12-01

    suggestions were developed: 1- Teachers, especially senior teachers, should participate in in-service training in line with the teacher’s profile required by the 21st century. 2- Universities should renew their programs according to the needs of the era and should teach especially prospective teachers "learning to learn."  3- In this field, more detailed, more versatile studies on larger samples should be carried out and the findings should be presented to the attention of policy-makers in particular.   Özet Yirmi birinci yüzyıl hiç kuşkusuz bilgi dünyasında hızlı değişme ve gelişmelere sahne olmaktadır. Bilim ve teknolojinin gelişmesi ile bilgi üretimi ve bilginin paylaşımı hızlanmıştır. Bu bilgi üretimi ve paylaşımında dijital araçlar önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Dijital araçlar vasıtasıyla dünya küresel bir köy halini almıştır. Yirmi birinci yüzyıl becerileri arasında dijital beceriler önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Dijital beceriler aynı zamanda hayat boyu öğrenmenin de önemli bir alt boyutudur. Bu bağlamda bilgi üretiminin ve paylaşımın hızlandığı çağımızı yakalamak için çağımızın insanını yetiştirecek öğretmenlerimizin bu becerileri edinmeleri ve hayat boyunca kullanmaları gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı öğretmenlerin yirmi birinci yüzyıl becerileri ışığında ve hayat boyu öğrenme bağlamında dijital yeterliliklerinin incelenmesidir. Çalışmada betimsel araştırma modellerinden tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini 2015-2015 eğitim öğretim yılı bahar döneminde Diyarbakır ili merkez ilçelerinde görev yapan ortaokul ve lise öğretmenleri oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemini ise bu evrenden rastgele seçilen 286 öğretmen oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada ölçme aracı olarak araştırmacılara tarafından geliştirilen 30 maddeden oluşan bir ölçek kullanılmıştır. Verilerin çözümlenmesinde SPSS Statistic 22 programı kullan

  8. Türkiye’deki “Hayat Bilgisi” İle Singapur’daki “Vatandaşlık Ve Ahlak Eğitimi” Derslerinin Değerler Eğitimi Bağlamında Karşılaştırılması The Comparison of "Life Science" In Turkey to "Citizenship and Moral Education" in Singapore in the Context of Values Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat YAŞAROĞLU

    2013-09-01

    nümüz toplumlarında yaşanan bireysel ve toplumsal nitelikli sorunlar, sadece akademik anlamda değil aynı zamanda ahlaki anlamda da nitelikli bireyler yetiştirme vb. ihtiyaçlar ailelerin ve eğitimcilerin dikkatini değerler eğitimine çekmiştir. Son yıllarda ülkemizde değerler eğitimine olan ilgi de artmış, bu ilgi 2010 yılında yayınlanan İlk Ders Genelgesi ile resmi bir hal almıştır. İster ailede, ister okulda olsun pek çok kişi topluma faydalı bireyler haline gelmeleri için çocukların ahlaki anlamda da eğitilmeleri konusunda hemfikirdirler. Bu eğitim farklı şekillerde yapılmakta ise de en uygun olanı, planlanmış olması ve ders programlarında değerler eğitimine vurguların yapılarak çeşitli şekillerde programlarda yer almasıdır. Ayrıca değerler eğitimi ile ilgili yapılan akademik çalışmalara farklı bakış açılarıyla da bakılmalı ve farklı alanlarda da çalışmalar yürütülmelidir. Bu bağlamda uluslararası sınavlarda (TIMSS, PIRLS başarılar yakalamış olan ülkelerin değerler eğitimi uygulamalarına bakmakta yarar vardır. Bu çalışma, Singapur eğitim sisteminde ilköğretimde okutulmakta olan Vatandaşlık ve Ahlak Eğitimi dersi ile Türkiye Milli Eğitim Sisteminde okutulmakta olan Hayat Bilgisi dersini değerler eğitimi bağlamında karşılaştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. İki ders karşılaştırıldığında; Singapur’da değerlerin ayrı bir ders olarak okutulduğu ama Türkiye’de değerler eğitiminin pek çok ders içeriğine serpiştirildiği görülmektedir. Öğretim programlarının öğeleri (kazanımlar, öğrenme – öğretme süreci vb. incelendiğinde de pek çok benzer noktaların bulunduğu görülmektedir. Bu çalışmanın, eğitimciler, program geliştirme uzmanları başta olmak üzere değerler eğitimi ile ilgilenen herkese faydalı olacağı umulmaktadır.

  9. Métodos para quebra da dormência em sementes de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit Procedure for dormancy breakage in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit

    OpenAIRE

    Margareth Maria Teles; Arnaud Azevêdo Alves; José Crisóstomo Gomes de Oliveira; Antonio Marcos Esmeraldo Bezerra

    2000-01-01

    Objetivando superar a dormência tegumentária e avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas, sementes de Leucaena leucocephala sofreram escarificação química e mecânica e tratamento com água quente, seguindo-se o modelo inteiramente casualizado. Houve baixa germinação das sementes utilizadas como testemunha (32,7%) e aumento da germinação, quando da imersão das sementes em água a 80ºC, por 5 e 15 minutos, e em H2SO4 concentrado, por 10, 15 e 20 minutos. O índice de velocidade de emergência das plântula...

  10. Métodos para quebra da dormência em sementes de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit Procedure for dormancy breakage in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Maria Teles

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando superar a dormência tegumentária e avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas, sementes de Leucaena leucocephala sofreram escarificação química e mecânica e tratamento com água quente, seguindo-se o modelo inteiramente casualizado. Houve baixa germinação das sementes utilizadas como testemunha (32,7% e aumento da germinação, quando da imersão das sementes em água a 80ºC, por 5 e 15 minutos, e em H2SO4 concentrado, por 10, 15 e 20 minutos. O índice de velocidade de emergência das plântulas mostrou-se superior após os tratamentos das sementes com água a 80ºC, por 5 min, e H2SO4 concentrado, por 20 min. Os tratamentos utilizados para superar a dormência das sementes não influenciaram o desenvolvimento das mudas resultantes.Leucaena leucocephala seeds were allotted to chemical and mechanical scarification and hot water treatment, to overcome the seed-coat dormancy and to evaluate seedling development, according to a complete randomized design. There was decrease in germination for the control (32.7% and an increase when seeds were immersed in water with 80ºC during 5 and 15 minutes, and concentrate H2SO4 during 10, 15 and 20 minutes. The emergency rate index was better in the treatment with water 80ºC during 5 minutes and concentrate H2SO4 during 20 min. The used treatments to overcome the seed-coat dormancy did not affect the resultant seedling developments.

  11. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook.) D. Dietr

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Calviño

    2014-01-01

    For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can...

  12. 苏木洗剂治疗跖筋膜炎疗效观察%Efficacy of Caesalpinia Sappan lotion in treatment of plantar fasciitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯玉文; 宋晓勇

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察活血祛瘀和解表散风类中药配伍治疗跖筋膜炎的临床疗效.方法 采用苏木洗剂(大黄、苏木、连翘、乌药、荆芥、桂枝、防风、红花、当归、川芎、艾叶、芒硝)治疗本病68例,共计95足.结果 治愈70足(73.68%),好转21足(22.11%),无效4足(4.21%),总有效率为95.79%.结论 苏木洗剂治疗跖筋膜炎疗效较好,值得临床推广使用.

  13. Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, F.; Chowdhary, A.; Prakash, A.; Yntema, J.B.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging and primary pathogen. There is a lack of information about its environmental spread outside outbreak regions in Mediterranean Europe, North and South America. Environmental sampling for C. gattii and molecular characterization

  14. Uji Aktivitas Koagulan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Secara In Vitro Dan In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Heriyanto, Albert Darwin

    2016-01-01

    Haemostatis is a spontaneus stop for bleeding process at blood vessels, related to trombocyte and blood coagulation factors. Some of haemostatis disorders that could prolonged blood coagulation and bleeding time are coagulopathy, haemophilia, and Von Willebrand disease. Medication that could be done is to shortened blood coagulation time and bleeding time that interconnected with blood coagulation factors. The purpose of this research is to find out coagulation activity of ethanolic extract o...

  15. Antimicrobial, antityrosinase and brine shrimp lethality test of Bauhinia rufescens Lam (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate leaves and stem bark extracts of Bauhinia rufescens for antimicrobial activities, tyrosinase enzyme inhibition potentials and lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina. Methods: The plant materials were extracted based on polarity gradient of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were investigated for their antimicrobial, antityrosinase and cytotoxicity potentials. Results: The antimicrobial results indicated that the extracts inhibited the microbial growth in the range of 6.00-12.57 mm (450-1 800 µg/mL for bacterial strains and 7.33-14.03 mm (225-1 800 µg/mL for fungal strains. While the tyrosinase enzyme inhibition assay of the extracts showed that both the petroleum ether leaves and stem bark extracts exhibited a moderate inhibition (39.60% and 39.89% towards the action of mushroom tyrosinase enzyme on L-DOPA. In the brine shrimp lethality assay, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves of the plant were found toxic to the Artemia salina with IC 50 values of 0.059 mg/mL and 0.389 mg/mL. However, both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark were nontoxic to the larvae. Conclusions: The result of the present study suggest the presence of phytochemicals possessing antimicrobial and antityrosinase activity as well as cytotoxic agents.

  16. MORPHO-ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRYPSIS SCHOENOIDES (L.) LAM. SPECIES OF POACEAE FAMILY

    OpenAIRE

    C. G. Simeanu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents data on the morphology and anatomy of vegetative organs. The root is fasciculated and has a primary structure. The stem is ramified at the base, it has also primary structure and the transport vases are disposed on three concentrically circles. The leaf has homogenous mesophyl; the epidermal cells are longitudinally disposed parallel with the leaf nerves and the stomata are of biperigen type.

  17. MORPHO-ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRYPSIS SCHOENOIDES (L. LAM. SPECIES OF POACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Simeanu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on the morphology and anatomy of vegetative organs. The root is fasciculated and has a primary structure. The stem is ramified at the base, it has also primary structure and the transport vases are disposed on three concentrically circles. The leaf has homogenous mesophyl; the epidermal cells are longitudinally disposed parallel with the leaf nerves and the stomata are of biperigen type.

  18. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF COBB BROILERS GIVEN VARYING CONCENTRATIONS OF MALUNGGAY (Moringa oleifera Lam. AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. PORTUGALIZA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the growth performance of Cobb broilers supplemented with varying concentrations of Moringa oleifera Aqueous Leaf Extract (MoALE via the drinking water. A total of four hundred day-old chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups, replicated four times with twenty-five broilers per replicate. The growth performance of broilers was evaluated based on their feed consumption, live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR and return of investment (ROI. Results of the study showed that at 90 mL MoALE (T3, the feed consumption of broilers was consistently lower than the control group (T0 and this was statistically significant (P<0.01. The live weight of broilers given 30 mL (T1, 60 mL (T2 and 90 mL (T3 MoALEs were significantly higher than the control group (T0 and this was also statistically significant (P<0.01. In terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR, the MoALE treated broilers (T1-T3 were more efficient converter of feeds into meat than the control group (T0 and this was statistically significant (P<0.01. Furthermore, the return of investment (ROI of MoALE treated broilers (T1-T3 was significantly higher (P<0.01 than the control group (T0 with a revenue per peso invested of Php 0.62 in T1 and T2, and Php 0.63 in T3 compared to Php 0.50 in T0.

  19. Moving beyond access: widening participation in post compulsory teacher education through the integration of LAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Priti

    2010-01-01

    The School of Education at Greenwich University offers a range of courses in primary, secondary, higher and community teacher education from foundation degrees to doctorate programmes. The postgraduate certificate in teaching in the post compulsory sector registers approximately 2,000 students on its part-time, flexible, full time and subject specialist additional diploma courses every year. In addition, 28 Further Education colleges in London work in partnership with Greenwich University to ...

  20. Desenvolvimento dos frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense LAM, em Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monteiro Matarazzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O lulo é um fruto tropical e exótico, originário dos Andes, tem cor laranja quando maduro, e é uma baga globosa, assemelha- se a um tomate, o epicarpo é grosso e coriáceo, sua polpa é verde-clara, pegajosa, ácida e suculenta, contendo muitas sementes. Objetivou-se acompanhar as características físicas, químicas e fisiológicas ocorridas durante o desenvolvimento do fruto de lulo, da antese ao amadurecimento completo, em Viçosa-MG. Os frutos apresentaram um padrão de crescimento sigmoidal simples em resposta à variação do tempo. O desenvolvimento do fruto foi dividido em três fases. A primeira foi até os 7,39 dias após a antese (DAA, sendo caracterizada pela alta taxa respiratória, provavelmente devido à intensa multiplicação celular, e o pericarpo apresentava coloração verde-clara. A segunda fase estendeu-se a partir dos 7,39 até os 57,63 DAA, sendo caracterizada pelas taxas máximas das características estudadas. A taxa respiratória cresceu até 45 DAA, mantendo-se estável até os 52 DAA. A última fase estendeu-se a partir dos 57,63 DAA até os 95,00 DAA. Essa fase foi caracterizada pela estabilização nas dimensões e no acúmulo de massa fresca. Nesse período, ocorreu a ascensão climatérica (dos 52 aos 59 DAA. O climatério respiratório ocorreu aos 66 DAA, com pico de produção de CO2 de 110,99 mg de CO2 kg-1h-1. O pós-climatério ocorreu dos 73 aos 95 DAA, quando houve aumento no teor de sólidos solúveis e queda da acidez titulável e vitamina C da polpa. Nessa fase, o pericarpo dos frutos apresentava-se com coloração alaranjada.

  1. Biochemical Impact of Fodder Galega (Galega orientalis Lam. on Agro-ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligita Baležentienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional allelochemicals activities stimulate an increase in an employment spectrum of biologically active compounds in biological farming. The understanding of the allelochemical action mechanisms makes it possible to use these compounds to enhance crop production and develop a more sustainable agriculture, including weed and pest control through crop rotations, residue management and a variety of approaches in bio-control. The aim of this research was to establish and to compare the total amount of phenolic compounds and allelopathic activity of the aqueous extracts produced of different shoot parts (leaves, stems, blossoms and seed and roots of new crop, namely fodder galega at their different growth stages. Biochemical impact of the aqueous extracts produced of fodder galega ground part and roots on the germination data of the test–object subjected significantly on the galega growth stage and extract concentration. The biochemical effect of all tested extracts and concentrations had the same tendency to inhibit the test–object seed germination. The extracts of the ground part were more toxic than those of roots and had a stronger suppressive effect on the test–plant germination. Phenols concentration and conventional coumarine unit (CCU content increased evenly in dependence on total phenols concentration at all plant development stages accordingly to the extracts concentration gradient. Phenols concentration as well as their activity of ground part and roots increased from shooting to flowering stage.

  2. Polysakkarider med biologisk aktivitet isolert fra en tradisjonell medisinplante fra Mali Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoås, Gunhild

    2014-01-01

    Fagara zanthoxyloides er en viktig medisinplante innenfor tradisjonell medisin i Vest-Afrika og Kamerun. Den brukes til daglig som tyggestilk av mange, særlig i Nigeria. Planten har en lang rekke andre bruksområder blant annet som anti-helmintikum, malaria inkludert. Malaria er en utbredt sykdom som rammer et stort antall mennesker i Mali og på verdensbasis hvert år. Ved stimulering av immunsystemet kan malaria-rammede føle seg bedre. Polysakkarider har i mange studier vist en immunologisk ak...

  3. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subcellular root tissues of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the increasing quantity and high toxicity to humans of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the environment, several bioremediation mechanisms and protocols have been investigated to restore PAH-contaminated sites. The transport of organic contaminants among plant cells via tissues and their partition in roots, stalks, and leaves resulting from transpiration and lipid content have been extensively investigated. However, information about PAH distributions in intracellular tissues is lacking, thus limiting the further development of a mechanism-based phytoremediation strategy to improve treatment efficiency. Results Pyrene exhibited higher uptake and was more recalcitrant to metabolism in ryegrass roots than was phenanthrene. The kinetic processes of uptake from ryegrass culture medium revealed that these two PAHs were first adsorbed onto root cell walls, and they then penetrated cell membranes and were distributed in intracellular organelle fractions. At the beginning of uptake ( Conclusions Transpiration and the lipid content of root cell fractions are the main drivers of the subcellular partition of PAHs in roots. Initially, PAHs adsorb to plant cell walls, and they then gradually diffuse into subcellular fractions of tissues. The lipid content of intracellular components determines the accumulation of lipophilic compounds, and the diffusion rate is related to the concentration gradient established between cell walls and cell organelles. Our results offer insights into the transport mechanisms of PAHs in ryegrass roots and their diffusion in root cells.

  4. Coronatine Induces an Accumulation of Anthocyanin and Starch in Purple-fleshed Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoqing WANG; Beitao XIE; Haiyan ZHANG; Liming ZHANG; Qingmei WANG

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this research was to examine the effects of COR on anthocyanin and starch content in storage roots of two PFS genotypes, and to explore the relationships between anthocyanin synthesis and starch accumula-tion. [Method] A field experiment was carried out to determine the changes in yield components, yield, contents of anthocyanin and starch, activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and adenosine 5-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AG-Pase) in two genotypes of PFS (Ipomoea batatas L., var. ‘Ayamurasaki’ and‘Jishu18’). [Result] The application of COR significantly increased starch and antho-cyanin content in storage roots of Jishu18 across developmental stages by inducing the activities of PAL and AGPase, and final y enhanced yield by promoting fresh weight of storage roots. Ayamurasaki was insensitive to treatment with COR al-though its PAL activity temporal y increased. The starch and anthocyanin content of Aya, and the anthocyanin content of Jishu18 increased progressively across devel-opmental stages with or without COR application, but the starch content of Jishu18 increased initial y, then decreased before increasing again without application of COR. Treatment with COR reduced downward trend of starch accumulation in Jishu18. Thus, the effect of COR on accumulation of anthocyanin and starch in storage roots of PFS differs according to genotypes. [Conclusion] The application of 0.05 μmol/L COR may increase starch and anthocyanin content in PFS genotypes with lower starch and anthocyanin content in storage roots.

  5. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5-7.5 mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25-7.5 mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5-7.5 mg/mL and 2.5-10 mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7  μ g/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1  μ g/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds. PMID:23662099

  6. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Agyare; Anita Serwaa Dwobeng; Nicholas Agyepong; Yaw Duah Boakye; Kwesi Boadu Mensah; Patrick George Ayande; Martin Adarkwa-Yiadom

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a...

  7. The incredible queen of green: Nutritive value and therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib Amjad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera, rightly called as the miracle tree, is the extensively grown and highly valuable species of Moringaceae family. The tree has a pantropical distribution with nativity to Indian subcontinent. Nutritionally and therapeutically, it is a highly valued plant. Vitamins, proteins, β-carotene, aminoacids and various phenolics such as β-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and zeatin with potential for nutritional and therapeutic applications are enriched in different plant parts. Different plant parts of this plant such as roots, leaves, bark, flowers, fruit of immature pods and seeds possess a number of therapeutic properties such as diuretic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities, and are being operational in various traditional medicine system for curing different health problems. Moringa is higly beneficial in depression, malnutrition, general weakness and osteoporosis. The present review is intended to emphasize the phytochemical constitution, traditional medicinal uses along pharmacological properties with the purpose to create public awareness regarding therapeutic and nutritive potential of this multipurpose tree as well as to facilitate the pharmacists and the researchers to fill the gap by exploring novel therapeutic compounds that will, of course, be in favor of humanity.

  8. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Variations in Thirteen Moringa oleifera Lam. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwell R. Ndhlala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to assess variation in antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of thirteen Moringa oleifera cultivars obtained from different locations across the globe. Standard antioxidant methods including the DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing power (FRAP and β-carotene-linoleic acid model were used to evaluate the activity. Variation in the antioxidant activity was observed, with TOT4951 from Thailand being the most active, with activity five times higher than that of ascorbic acid (reference compound. A different trend was observed for the activity in the FRAP and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae strains using the microdilution method. Acetone extracts of all cultivars exhibited good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae (MIC values of 0.78 mg/mL. The remaining extracts exhibited weak activity against the two microorganisms. For the antifungal activity, all the extracts exhibited low activity. Variations were observed in the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Cultivars TOT5169 (Thailand and SH (South Africa exhibited highest amounts of total phenolic compounds while TOT5028 (Thailand exhibited the lowest amounts of five times lower than the highest. The information offer an understanding on variations between cultivars from different geographical locations and is important in the search for antioxidant supplementation and anti-ageing products.

  9. [Textual research on Amara (Mangifera Indica Linn), Butea monsperma (Lam) Kuntze, and Ferula asatoitida L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    In the Buddhist canons, there are lots of medicines imported from abroad recorded. The dictionary works of such Buddhist canons give detailed annotations and explanations to all these foreign medicines, from which we can investigate the features of all these medicines. It is also clear that these three medicines were imported into China no later than the Tang Dynasty. Amara was originally grown in the xi yu (Western Region) , now called Mango. Its form and connotation appeared no later than the eastern Han Dynasty, and the explanation of this medicine appears in the A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is wrong. While its explanation for Butea monsperma should be supplemented. There are two kinds of asafoitida, herbaceous and woody. Only the former one is used for medical purpose, and the annotation appeared in A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is problematic. PMID:26268251

  10. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Jafarain; Gholamreza Asghari; Erfaneh Ghassami

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-water (70-30) extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method...

  11. Amelioration of ionizing radiation induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver by Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Swiss albino mice, selected from an inbred colony, were administered with MoLE (300 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days before exposing to a single dose of 5 Gy 60Co-gamma radiation. After treatments, animals were necropsied at different post irradiation intervals (days 1, 7 and 15) and hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were estimated to observe the relative changes due to irradiation and its possible amelioration by MoLE. It was observed that, MoLE treatment restored GSH in liver and prevented radiation induced augmentation in hepatic lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess various phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention of hepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals. (author)

  12. Enhancement of emergence potential and stand establishment of Moringa oleifera Lam. by seed priming

    OpenAIRE

    NOUMAN, Wasif; SIDDIQUI, Muhammad Tahir; BASRA, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed; Afzal, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a miracle tree that can be used in multiple ways, including as foodstuff, livestock fodder, a plant growth enhancer, or a water purifier. While the stem cutting method is easy and successful for tree propagation, the recent introduction of moringa as a field crop for biomass production requires propagation through seeds. The germination of stored moringa seeds is a problem of great concern that may be overcome by employing seed priming techniques. A pot study was conducted...

  13. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Methanolic Extract Of Moringa Olieifera Lam. Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abu Sayeed; Mohammad Shahadat Hossain; Mohammad Ehsanul Hoque Chowdhury; Mohsinul Haque

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate antibacterial and antifungal activity of Methanol extract from the fruits of Moringa oleifera. The extract were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity by Disc diffusion method. The fruit extract of Moringa oleifera showed a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and antifungal activity. The highest zone of inhibition was found at the concentration of 200µg/ disc for Pseudomonas aeruginosa(22mm) and Colletotrichum Sp (14mm). Methanol ext...

  14. A PANORAMIC VIEW ON PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHARMACOLOGICAL, NUTRITIONAL, THERAPEUTIC AND PROPHYLACTIC VALUES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM

    OpenAIRE

    Ganatra Tejas H; Joshi Umang H; Bhalodia Payal N; Desai Tusharbindu R; Tirgar Pravin R

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera or Moringa pterygosperma, one of the miracle tree, is widely cultivated throughout India, belongs to family Moringaceae. It is widely used as a nutritive herb and possesses valuable pharmacological activities. Present article describes habitat, pharmacognostic features, phytochemistry, nutritive values and pharmacological activities like anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, hypotensive, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-asthmatic, anthelminti...

  15. The incredible queen of green:Nutritive value and therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad ShoaibAmjad; Huma Qureshi; MuhammadArshad; Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari; Maria Masood

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, rightly called as the miracle tree, is the extensively grown and highly valuable species of Moringaceae family. The tree has a pantropical distribution with nativity to Indian subcontinent. Nutritionally and therapeutically, it is a highly valued plant. Vitamins, proteins, β-carotene, aminoacids and various phenolics such as β-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and zeatin with potential for nutritional and therapeutic applications are enriched in different plant parts. Different plant parts of this plant such as roots, leaves, bark, flowers, fruit of immature pods and seeds possess a number of therapeutic properties such as diuretic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities, and are being operational in various traditional medicine system for curing different health problems. Moringa is higly beneficial in depression, malnutrition, general weakness and osteoporosis. The present review is intended to emphasize the phytochemical constitution, traditional medicinal uses along pharmacological properties with the purpose to create public awareness regarding therapeutic and nutritive potential of this multipurpose tree as well as to facilitate the pharmacists and the researchers to fill the gap by exploring novel therapeutic compounds that will, of course, be in favor of humanity.

  16. Research progress of Moringa oleifera Lam.%辣木的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玲; 何舒澜

    2013-01-01

    辣木属植物辣木,易于生长且具有极高的营养价值.近年研究发现辣木在抗氧化保肝、降血糖、降血脂、抗真菌方面均有较强的活性,本文就辣木近几年在这些方面的研究进展做一个总结.

  17. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Methanolic Extract Of Moringa Olieifera Lam. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abu Sayeed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate antibacterial and antifungal activity of Methanol extract from the fruits of Moringa oleifera. The extract were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity by Disc diffusion method. The fruit extract of Moringa oleifera showed a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and antifungal activity. The highest zone of inhibition was found at the concentration of 200µg/ disc for Pseudomonas aeruginosa(22mm and Colletotrichum Sp (14mm. Methanol extract possessed moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains- Staphylococccus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species and Proteus species and antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi- Alternaria SP, Colletotrichum SP, Curvularia SP and Fusarium SP.

  18. TRADITIONAL USES, MEDICINAL AND PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ERYTHRINA INDICA LAM: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Suryawanshi H.P.; Patel M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift to human society to make disease free healthy life. It plays a vital role to buildup and preserve our health. In our country more than thousands medicinal plants are recognized. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its Phytopharmacological properties. Erythrina indica belonging to the family Leguminosae is a compact shrub with knobby stems, growing wild throughout the costal forest of India. It is popu...

  19. TRADITIONAL USES, MEDICINAL AND PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ERYTHRINA INDICA LAM: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryawanshi H. P.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift to human society to make disease free healthy life. It plays a vital role to buildup and preserve our health. In our country more than thousands medicinal plants are recognized. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its Phytopharmacological properties. Erythrina indica belonging to the family Leguminosae is a compact shrub with knobby stems, growing wild throughout the costal forest of India. It is popular in indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. In the traditional system of medicine various plant parts such as bark, root, leaves and fruits are used in fever, liver ailment, rheumatism, relieve joint pain, and to kill tapeworm, roundworm and threadworm.

  20. Dyeing Performance of Aqueous Extract and Flavanone Glycosides from the Flowers of Butea monosperma (Lam. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Badoni Semwal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract and two flavanone glycosides named 5,7-dihydroxy-4’-methoxy flavanone-5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and 5,5’-dihydroxy-4’,7-dimethoxyflavanone-5,5’-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 obtained from the flowers of Butea monosperma were studied for evaluate their dyeing properties on cotton fibers. The stem bark of Myrica esculenta was used as natural mordant whereas SnCl 2 and FeCl 3 as synthetic mordants. The combination of dye with mordants showed interesting shades with excellent washing and light fastness properties.