WorldWideScience

Sample records for caesalpinia echinata lam

  1. Light as an indicator of ecological succession in brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mengarda,Liana H. G.; Souza,Rogério L. F. de; Campostrini, Eliemar; Reis,Fabrício O.; Vendrame,Wagner A.; Cuzzuol,Geraldo R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The ecophysiological behavior of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.) plants was evaluated as affected by light quantity and quality. Nine-month-old plants were cultivated under 0%, 50%, and 80% artificial shading, and natural shading imposed by a closed canopy for a period of 392 days. At the end of that period growth parameters were measured, including relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf mass (SLM) and root:shoot ratio (R:S). Highe...

  2. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  3. Avaliação do potencial toxicológico e farmacológico das folhas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Sampaio Grangeiro, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Caesalpinia echinata Lam, popularmente conhecida como pau-brasil ou pernambuco, é uma árvore considerada de valor histórico e econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a toxicidade aguda e as atividades antinociceptiva, antiinflamatória e antitumoral frente ao Sarcoma 180 do extrato bruto etanólico das folhas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. A toxicidade aguda foi avaliada através da metodologia da Organização para Cooperação Econômica e Desenvolvimento (OECD 423), que pr...

  4. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  5. Maturação de frutos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., pau-brasil Maturation of fruits of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brasil wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se parâmetros indicativos da maturação de frutos de árvores de Caesalpinia echinata, visando determinar a melhor época de colheita para propagação. Foram utilizadas 10 plantas-matriz cultivadas em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, nas quais foram etiquetadas 250 inflorescências no pico da floração para acompanhamento da maturação. As coletas de frutos tiveram início a partir da 5ª semana após a antese, prolongando-se até a 9ª, com intervalos de sete dias. Em cada coleta, analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento, largura e teor de água dos frutos; teor de água das sementes (após três dias de exposição ao sol para deiscência do fruto e extração da semente; porcentagem de germinação e peso de matéria seca de frutos, sementes e plântulas. Observou-se, ainda, a coloração dos frutos como parâmetro visual de maturação das sementes. O experimento foi repetido por três anos. Os testes de germinação foram realizados em caixas Gerbox contendo vermiculita umedecida com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara regulada para 30 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, nos anos de 1991, 1992 e 1993. As leituras de germinação foram realizadas nos 4º e 8º dias após a semeadura. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que o momento ideal para coleta dos frutos de C. echinata é no estádio de pré-dispersão (entre a 8º e 9º após a antese visualizado através da coloração, quando estes mudam de verde para castanho.Several indicative parameters regarding fruit maturity of Caesalpinia echinata were studied in order to establish the ideal harvest time. Ten matrix plants were cultivated in Moji-Guaçu, SP (22°11' to 1022°18' S and 47°13' to 47°20' WG, altitude between 600m and 730m. The climate of the region is classified as Cwa. Two hundred and fifty blossoms were tagged during the the peak

  6. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - BRAZILWOOD: THERMAL BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESISTANCE TO BIODETERIORATION IN STATIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pinto Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wood is the best-known biological material used as a raw material since the dawn of mankind until present days. As a natural and renewable composite, its lifetime is limited by the degradation of its basic elements. This degradation can be caused by chemical reactions or by biological agents capable of accelerating the process of deterioration. In this work, the wear, thermal, and micro-structural characteristics, as also the bio-degradation behavior in static systems, of the wood species Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata were studied under laboratory conditions in order to use these woods in design. The results show that Brazilwood has a good visual performance after abrasion test, since it has not shown any representative roughness increase. In addition, Brazilwood has high level of crystallinity of, approximately, 68% and was almost insensitive to fungi attack, forming only 5.3 x 103 CFU/mL. Besides, its texture did not change due to exposure to water or sweat.

  7. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio S S; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia M A; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Santos, Vera Lúcia dos; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  8. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fraga Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae. We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL. Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  9. Estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração com ocorrência de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p75   Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento remanescente de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração no município de Aracruz-ES em uma floresta de tabuleiro com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Foram instaladas 10 unidades amostrais (parcelas de 10 x 50m sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com DAP≥5cm e <10cm. Ao todo foram amostrados 500 indivíduos distribuídos em 181 espécies. As famílias com maior riqueza foram Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18 e Myrtaceae (14. As espécies mais importantes foram Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess. e Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. O índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 4,89 e a equabilidade (J’ foi de 0,94. Essa área é um dos últimos fragmentos remanescentes com pau-brasil nativo do estado do Espírito Santo e a população dessa espécie encontra-se bem preservada no local, ocorrendo com grande frequência, enfatizando a importância da preservação de pequenos fragmentos florestais para conservação da biodiversidade.

  10. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Praxedes-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50∘C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO− or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+. It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

  11. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  12. Leaf antioxidant fluctuations and growth responses in saplings of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood) under an urban stressing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbovas, Patricia; de Moraes, Regina Maria; Spasiani Rinaldi, Mirian Cilene; Luiza Cunha, Adriana; Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz; Domingos, Marisa

    2010-05-01

    We intended to establish how efficient the leaf antioxidant responses of C. echinata are against oxidative environmental conditions observed in an urban environment and their relations to growth and biomass parameters. Plants were grown for 15 months in four sites: Congonhas and Pinheiros, affected by pollutants from vehicular emissions; Ibirapuera, affected by high O(3) concentrations; and a greenhouse with filtered air. Fifteen plants were quarterly removed from each site for analysis of antioxidants, growth and biomass. Plants growing in polluted sites showed alterations in their antioxidants. They were shorter, had thicker stems and produced less leaf biomass than plants maintained under filtered air. The fluctuations in the levels of antioxidants were significantly influenced by combined effects of climatic and pollution variables. The higher were the antioxidant responses and the concentrations of pollutant markers of air contamination in each site the slower were the growth and biomass production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enraizamento de estacas de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tratadas com ácido indol butírico e ácido naftaleno acético Rooting cuttings of Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. treated with indole butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurício Endres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tem grande valor cultural no Brasil e a sua propagação por sementes é dificultada pela rápida perda do poder germinativo delas. A estaquia pode ser usada para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais, principalmente quando existem algumas dificuldades de propagação por sementes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o efeito de concentrações e fontes de auxinas sobre o enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil. Estacas com cerca de 12cm de comprimento e de um a dois pares de folhas foram tratadas na base com ácido indol butírico (AIB, ácido naftaleno acético (ANA na forma líquida ou na forma de pó nas concentrações de 0, 1.250, 2.500, 5.000, 10.000mg L-1 ou mg Kg-1, respectivamente. As estacas foram transferidas para substrato contendo areia e mantidas sob nebulização (90-95% UR. Aos 120 dias de estaquia, foram avaliados a mortalidade, a retenção foliar, a formação de calo e a percentagem de estacas enraizadas. As estacas apresentaram índices de sobrevivência de até 70%. A formação de calos não foi relacionada com a concentração de auxinas utilizadas. O maior índice de enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil, em torno de 16%, foi resgistrada com a utilização do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e do ácido naftalenoacético (ANA na concentração 2.500mg L-1. Os altos índices de sobrevivência e os baixos índices de enraizamento sugerem que as estacas devem permanecer por mais tempo sob nebulização, a fim de induzir o seu processo de enraizamento.The 'pau-brasil' tree (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. have a high cultural value in Brazil and its seed propagation is very difficult because of its rapid losses of germination potential. Cuttings propagation has been considered as alternative method to propagate forest species that seed propagation is poor. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthalene acetic (NAA acid on

  14. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Terra Werner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A regulação da calogênese é o primeiro passo para a embriogênese somática indireta in vitro. Nesse sentido, foram investigados os efeitos de diferentes meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes nitrogenadas no desenvolvimento de calos em tecidos foliares de Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil. Explantes foliares foram cultivados em meios de cultura MS, B5, White e WPM. Testou-se, também, o efeito dos compostos nitrogenados (NH4NO3, KNO3 e glutamina e a interação entre auxinas (2,4-D, AIA e AIB e citocininas (BAP e KIN na desdiferenciação celular indicado pela formação de calos. Os meios MS, B5 e White não foram significantemente diferentes e proporcionaram melhores resultados. Em meio MS contendo as fontes nitrogenadas 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 e 1,35 g L-1 glutamina + 4,11 g L-1 de KNO3 na presença de 1,0 mg L-1 2,4-D e 5,0 mg L-1 BAP ocorreu maior proliferação celular indicada pela massa fresca dos calos. As combinações dos reguladores 0,5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 AIB + 5,0 mg L-1 BAP suplementado com 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 em meio MS estimularam o crescimento dos calos. De maneira geral, os calos apresentaram aspectos friáveis, não embriogênicos, com acúmulo de fenóis e presença de áreas meristemáticas (meristemóides.The regulation of callus formation is the first step to indirect somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Therefore, we investigated hormonal and nutrient factors on development of callus in leaf tissues of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood. Explants were cultivated in culture media MS, B5, WPM, and White. The effect of nitrogen sources (NH4NO3, KNO3 and glutamine and the interaction between auxins (2,4-D, IAA and IBA and cytokinins (BAP and KIN were also evaluated. Media MS, B5 and White were not significantly different and provided better results. MS medium containing 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3, 1.35 g L-1 glutamine, and 4.11 g L-1 of KNO3 in the presence of 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D and 5 mg.L-1 BAP increased cellular

  15. Germination, carbohydrate composition and vigor of cryopreserved Caesalpinia echinata seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood seeds stored at negative temperatures. Recently harvested seeds were cryopreserved at -18º or -196ºC and periodically evaluated for germination, seed vigor and carbohydrate composition. The temperatures did not influence the germination percentages or vigor. The germination percentage decreased from 88% in recently harvested seeds to 60% after 730 days of storage. The different temperature and storage times tested did not affect the vigor seed germination as indicated by the measures of plant growth and survival. The different temperatures used did not cause changes in the carbohydrate composition. The tegument cell walls were rich in lignin, arabinose and xylose. The cytoplasm of the cotyledons and embryos had high levels of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The cryopreservation technique here presented was effective in the conservation of Brazilwood seeds for the medium term.

  16. Effects of nutrient omission in Caesalpinia echinata plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Valiengo Valeri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, the morphological alterations and the mineral composition of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata plants caused by mineral nutrients omission in a green house experiment. The experimental units were distributed in the green house according to a completely random design. The treatments, each repeated five times, were the following : check (natural soil, complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn and a complete solution but for the omission of one of the nutrients in parenthesis. Each plot was represented by a plant growing in a 7 dm3 vase filled with Quartzarenic Neosol. The analyzed variables were the following: visual nutritional deficiency symptoms, plant height, stem diameter, shoot dry matter, stem, branches and leaves included, and leaf nutrients level. The omission of nitrogen limited plant growth in height and shoot biomass production. The first visual deficiency symptoms were those due to N omission followed by those caused by P, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn omissions. Later on the K and B deficiency symptoms became visible. The omission of a nutrient always caused its level in the leaves to be significantly lower than that found when it was not omitted.

  17. ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS DE CAESALPINIA ECHINATA LAM. EM HIDROPONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Valiengo Valeri

    2012-01-01

    ethanol solution containing 0, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg L-1 of IBA during 5 seconds. The cuttings were maintained in the hydroponic system for 90 days and, for additional 90 days in plastic bags containing substrate (Plantmax® under intermittent mist. After 90 and 180 days of rooting, the percentage of cuttings that survived, the rooting percentage and the number and length of adventious root were evaluated. Cuttings should be treated with IBA at 100 mg L-1 for 14 hours and placed to root in a hydroponic system.

  18. Leishmanicidal compounds of Nectria pseudotrichia, an endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Barros Cota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood, is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data. The antileishmanial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis expressing firefly luciferase as reporter gene, and cytotoxicity was determined in Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines by MTT assay. FINDINGS Fractionation of the extract yielded seven compounds: 10-acetyl trichoderonic acid A (1, 6′-acetoxy-piliformic acid (2, 5′,6′-dehydropiliformic acid (3, piliformic acid (4, hydroheptelidic acid (5, xylaric acid D (6, and cytochalasin D (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were more active, with IC50 values of 21.4, 28.3, and 24.8 µM, respectively, and showed low toxicity to Vero and THP-1 cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS N. pseudotrichia produces secondary metabolites that are more toxic to intracellular amastigote forms of L. (V. braziliensis than to mammalian cells.

  19. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  20. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  1. Karyomorphology and karyotype asymmetry in the South American Caesalpinia species (Leguminosae and Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P S; Souza, M M; Corrêa, R X

    2014-10-20

    With the purpose of addressing the pattern of karyotype evolution in Caesalpinia species, chromosome morphology was characterized in five species from Brazil, and karyotypic asymmetry was analyzed in 14 species from South America. All accessions had the chromosome number 2n = 24, which was first described here for Caesalpinia laxiflora Tul. and Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. The karyotype formula of C. laxiflora, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul., and C. macrophyllum was 12 m. The formula varies amongst the populations of Caesalpinia bracteosa Tul. (11 m + 1 sm) and Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (10 m + 2 sm and 9 m + 3 sm). The intra- and interspecific variations in chromosome length were significant (analysis of variance, P karyotype (AI = 10.52), whereas Caesalpinia paraguarienses (D. Parodi) Burkat. and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Benth. had the most symmetrical karyotypes (AI = 0.91 and 1.10, respectively). There has been a trend to lower AI values for the Caesalpinia s.l. species assigned in Libidibia and intermediate values for those combined into Poincianella. On the other hand, the karyotypes of Erythrostemon species had extremely different AI values. This study confirms the existence of karyotype variability in Caesalpinia s.l. while revealing a possible uniformity of this trait in some of the new genera that are being divided from Caesalpinia s.l. More broadly, the 2n = 24 chromosome number is conserved. Metacentric chromosomes and low AI values predominate among Caesalpinia s.l. and Cenostigma.

  2. Kinetics of solute leachate from imbibing Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Martini Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of leachates from imbibing seeds has been used as a vigor test for several species. The adaptation of this methodology to different species requires knowledge on the leaching kinetics of electrolytes. For Brazilwood seeds, the classic method was not satisfactory and rapid tests are essential because they have low storage capacity at room temperature. Leaching kinetics during seed imbibition is a function of physiological quality, presence or absence of seed coat, imbibing temperature and the initial moisture content of seed. In this study, the electrolyte leaching rate of six different categories of seeds, from two regions, was evaluated in seeds with and without seed coat and incubated with different moisture contents and at different temperatures. The results showed that the electrolyte leaching rate in Brazilwood seeds is independent of the physiological quality, the presence or absence of seed coat and imbibition temperature, but these factors changed the total amount of electrolytes leached. The leaching rate increased in the first few minutes of imbibition, suggesting that the adjustment of the methodology must consider the reduction in imbibition time, reduction in temperature, use of a controlled and slower pre-imbibition, and replacement of the imbibition solution after the first few minutes.

  3. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  4. LAM (Lymphangioleiomyomatosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... had previously been used to treat LAM, newer analyses suggest they do not produce clinical benefit in ... including its role with the Rare Lung Disease-Clinic Network and the annual international LAM research conferences ...

  5. Lam lam o lam (6/4 e)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Laulun sanat: Lam, lam o lam, Så undersan, Förtryckt, försökt; Dock likväl älskadt högt! Mitt hjerta är ej mitt, Men ditt: Din lön, Guds Lam, För hån och skam, För sårens flod Och för ditt kors och blod.

  6. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  7. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  8. ( Moringa oleifera Lam).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Planting methods and Pinching on growth and vegetative yield of drumstick ( Moringa oleifera Lam). ... branches were not significantly affected by planting methods. Fresh vegetative yield were obtained with direct sowing + pinching at 2 and 4 WAS and transplanting at 2 WAT and pinching at 2 WAT respectively.

  9. Moringa oleifera lam.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés: Moringa oleifera, germination in vitro, micropropagation, milieu MS/2, subcultures. English Title: Micropropagation of nutritional and pharmacological interest plant: Moringa oleifera lam. English Abstract. To establish Moringa oleifera in vitro, peeled seeds were used and germination, under the conditions of ...

  10. Immunomodulatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; John, Jinu; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-07

    Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) is a plant well known for its medicinal value in Indian Ayurveda. However, to prove its efficiency for the clinical utilization, more experimental data will be beneficial. The present study involved the investigation of immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression were determined by in vivo experiments. The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential by oral administration of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (200-500 mg/kg) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers as well as a dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values, and potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Also it prevented myelosuppression in cyclophosphamide drug treated rats and good response towards phagocytosis in carbon clearance assay. The results obtained in this study indicate that Caesalpinia bonducella possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases.

  11. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  12. Flavonoids content in extracts secang (Caesalpinia Sappan L. maceration method infundation analysis and visible ultraviolet spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youstiana Dwi Rusita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L has a component of a chemical compound essential oils, flavonoids, benzopyran, sapanin, brazilin, caesalpin S, caesalpin P, sapanon A, sapanon B. Flavonoids are chemical components that can be used in medical and industrial fields. This study aimed to determine the levels of flavonoids contained in extracts secang results maceration and extraction methods infundation. This study used quantitative and descriptive research design. This study using purposive sampling with two sample of Caesalpinia sappan L extract result of infundation and maceration. Analysis using univariate analysis. This study shows that there are types of flavonoids flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration method, and there are flavonoid types of flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation method. Flavonoid content test results showed that the levels of flavonoids in extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration 0.0539% whereas the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation methods 0.1902%. Necessary standardization of botanicals Caesalpinia sappan L to determine the levels of flavonoids using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, and the analysis of the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L using different solvents. As a follow-up is necessary to design the manufacture of dosage formulations of the active ingredient flavanoid compounds from the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L.

  13. Test de germination des graines de Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objectif d'évaluer la germination des graines de deux provenances (Ouèdo/Bénin et Atakpamè/Togo) de Caesalpinia bonduc sur différents types de substrats (terreau chauffé, terreau traité aux fongicide et insecticide-nématicide et terreau non traité). Pour chacune des provenances, deux lots de ...

  14. Regeneration Methods Affect Genetic Variation and Structure in Shortleaf Pine (Pinus Echinata Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv G. Raja; Charles G. Tauer; Robert F. Wittwer; Yinghua Huang

    1998-01-01

    The effects of regene ration methods on genetic diversity and structure in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) were examined by quantifying the changes in genetic composition of shortleaf pine stands following harvest by monitoring changes in allele number and frequency at heterozygous loci over time. The results were also compared to the genetic...

  15. Ustilago echinata: Infection in a Mixed Martial Artist Following an Open Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ethan; Waldman, Sarah; Sutton, Deanna A; Sanders, Carmita; Lindner, Jonathan; Fan, Hongxin; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Thompson, George R

    2016-04-01

    Ustilago, a common fungal parasite of grains, is infrequently isolated as a pathogen in humans. We describe a case of Ustilago echinata infection following an open distal tibia fracture, review the current literature of this genus as a cause of invasive fungal infection in humans, and discuss management issues.

  16. The genetics of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata mill.) with implications for restoration and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Barbara S. Crane; C. Dana Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is an important commercial timber resource and forest ecosystem component in the southeastern USA. The species occurs in mainly drier sites as an early- to mid-successional species, is fireadapted, and it plays an important role in the fire ecology of the region. However, shortleaf pine genetics are not well-studied, especially in...

  17. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  18. Caragana arborescens Lam.: Siberian peashrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Dietz; Paul E. Slabaugh; Franklin T. Bonner

    2008-01-01

    Siberian peashrub - Caragana arborescens Lam. - is one of the most hardy small deciduous trees or shrubs planted on the northern Great Plains (George 1953; Rehder 1940). Introduced into North America in 1752 (Rehder 1940), Siberian peashrub is native to Siberia and Manchuria and occurs from southern Russia to China (Graham 1941). Varieties include the dwarf (C. a. nana...

  19. Petricola pholadiformis Lam. in Holz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Icke, H.

    1915-01-01

    In einer Abhandlung von Caesar R. Boettger über Petricola pholadiformis Lam. 1) führt derselbe, über die Erscheinung dieser Muschel in Europa sprechend, die folgende Ansicht von Loppens an: „Pour expliquer l'apparition subite sur nos côtes en 1899 de ces animaux perforants, qui vivent sur les côtes

  20. Morfoanatomia foliar da reófita Raulinoa echinata R.S. Cowan - Rutaceae Leaf morphoanatomy of the rheophyte Raulinoa echinata R. S. Cowan - Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagiane Arioli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Reófitas são espécies vegetais confinadas aos leitos de rios e riachos de fortes corredeiras, crescendo acima do nível das inundações, mas não além do alcance da ocorrência regular das rápidas enchentes. A morfoanatomia foliar de Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae foi investigada objetivando compreender a adaptação às peculiaridades do hábitat reofítico. As folhas de R. echinata são dorsiventrais e hipoestomáticas. A epiderme é uniestratificada e os estômatos são anomocíticos. As células-guarda estão dispostas acima do nível das demais células epidérmicas (característica hidromórfica, mas com átrio externo conspícuo (característica xeromórfica. Aspectos mais marcantes relacionados ao hábitat reofítico são estenofilia e presença de suberina nas paredes periclinais internas das células epidérmicas. A área foliar varia com a intensidade de exposição ao sol, a densidade estomática varia com o fluxo do rio; as espessuras dos tecidos do mesofilo variam com ambas condições. Ductos secretores e idioblastos com cristais de fosfato de cálcio ocorrem no mesofilo. Os dados revelaram plasticidade da estrutura foliar às condições peculiares do ambiente reofítico e as condições sombreadas ou expostas ao sol.Rheophytes are plants confined to the beds of swift-running streams and rivers, growing above flood level but not beyond the normal reach of flash floods. Leaf morphoanatomy of the rheophyte Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae was investigated with a focus on understanding adaptation to the peculiarities of the rheophytic habitat. R. echinata leaves are dorsiventral and hypostomatic. The epidermis has a single layer of cells and the stomata are anomocytic. The guard cells rise above the level of the other epidermal cells (a hydromorphic characteristic, but with a conspicuous outer cavity (a xeromorphic characteristic. Prominent traits related to the rheophytic habitat are stenophylls and the presence

  1. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  2. Microbiome structure of the fungid coral Ctenactis echinata aligns with environmental differences

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2015-06-19

    The significance of bacteria for eukaryotic functioning is increasingly recognized. Coral reef ecosystems critically rely on the relationship between coral hosts and their intracellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates, but the role of the associated bacteria remains largely theoretical. Here, we set out to relate coral-associated bacterial communities of the fungid host species Ctenactis echinata to environmental settings (geographic location, substrate cover, summer/winter, nutrient and suspended matter concentrations) and coral host abundance. We show that bacterial diversity of C. echinata aligns with ecological differences between sites and that coral colonies sampled at the species’ preferred habitats are primarily structured by one bacterial taxon (genus Endozoicomonas) representing more than 60% of all bacteria. In contrast, host microbiomes from lower populated coral habitats are less structured and more diverse. Our study demonstrates that the content and structure of the coral microbiome aligns with environmental differences and denotes habitat adequacy. Availability of a range of coral host habitats might be important for the conservation of distinct microbiome structures and diversity.

  3. Historic Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) Abundance and Fire Frequency in a Mixed Oak - Pine Forest (MOFEP, Site 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey

    1997-01-01

    Historic and present day shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) abundance was measured and compared using 84 plots along 16 transects in site 8 of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project. Remnant pine stumps were used to estimate historic pine density and to construct a dendrochronological record of fire frequency. There has been a 66-percent...

  4. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  5. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Gallego; Gordon, Michael H.; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  6. Clearance and Organ Distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in the Presence and Absence of LAM-Binding Immunoglobulin M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Mednick, Aron J.; Lendvai, Nikoletta; Casadevall, Arturo

    2000-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a component of the mycobacterial surface which has been associated with a variety of deleterious effects on immune system function. Despite the importance of LAM to the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection, there is no information available on its fate in vivo. In this study, we determined the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of exogenously administered LAM in mice. For measurements of serum and tissue LAM concentrations, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which used monoclonal antibodies of different isotypes to capture and detect LAM at concentrations of ≥0.4 μg/ml. Intravenous administration of LAM to mice resulted in transient serum levels with organ deposition in the spleen and in the liver. Immunohistochemical studies localized LAM to the spleen marginal zone macrophages and, to a lesser degree, to liver macrophages. When LAM was administered to mice previously given a LAM-binding immunoglobulin M (IgM), LAM was very rapidly cleared from circulation. In those mice, deposition of LAM in the spleen was significantly reduced while LAM deposition in the liver increased. Administration of LAM-binding IgM resulted in significant levels of IgM to LAM in bile consistent with an increased hepatobiliary excretion of LAM in the presence of specific antibody. Bile, liver extracts, and bile salts were found to rapidly inactivate the immunoreactivity of LAM. The results indicate that serum clearance and organ deposition of LAM in mice are affected by the presence of LAM-binding antibody and suggest a mechanism by which antibody could modify the course of mycobacterial infection. PMID:10603406

  7. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  8. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  9. In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic Acid Isolated From Caesalpinia Decapetala Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhadoriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of Gallic Acid isolated from plant Caesalpinia decapetala were investigated. Caesalpinia decapetala is a plant used to treat burns, biliousness and stomach disorders. Methods: The antioxidant activity was estimated by the ABTS and DPPH methods. The total phenolic was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Identification of isolated Gallic Acid was also performed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC using Cosmosil C18 column (150mm x 4.6mm, 5毺 m particle. The mobile phase was a mixture of ethyl acetate: ethanol: water (1:5:4, v/v/v delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Results: The total phenolic content was found to be 4.31% (w/w. Isolation of Gallic Acid with optimum yield was performed using a mixture of solvents (Ethanol: Water 65:35. Isolated Gallic Acid showed significant in vitro free radical scavenging activity in both model; but in ABTS assay significant % inhibition of free radical was observed as compared to DPPH assay. Conclusions: Research concluded that Caesalpinia decapetala extract can be used as potent antioxidant which can play vital role against the diseases like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infections and gastric ulcer

  10. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development.

  11. Trophic ecology of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata on Chilean rocky shores Ecología trófica del chitón Acanthopleura echinata en costas rocosas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A CAMUS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyplacophorans are common herbivores on rocky shores, but basic aspects of their ecology remain scarcely studied and their role within communities could be more complex than previously considered. Such is the case of Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, one of the largest and most conspicuous chitons in the world, and at the same time, one of the least known intertidal species in the southeastern Pacific. To improve the basic ecological knowledge of this potentially important intertidal consumer, we studied the diet of A. echinata and its variation among sites of varying levels of coastal upwelling spread over 1000 km along the coast of northern Chile. A seasonal evaluation of diet, body size distribution and density at sites expected to vary in overall nutrient loadings, benthic algal productivity and sea surface temperature, allowed us to examine plasticity in Acantholeura diet and body size. Overall, A. echinata consumed 85 items of algae (64.7 %, mainly fleshy and calcified encrusting thalli and invertebrates (35.3 %, mainly barnacles. Diet was always dominated by encrusting corallines, although the proportion of algae increased with body size suggesting an ontogenetic variation in feeding habits. Although the number and occurrence frequency of dietary items varied significantly in time and space, there were no consistent seasonal patterns and the dominant items in the diet remained the same at all places. The density of A. echinata showed no significant spatial variation, but its body size and diet breadth correlated positively among sites and both tended to increase with latitude. Our results show that A. echinata is a generalist, polyphagous consumer with a high potential for affecting the space-occupancy dynamics in the intertidal system, and also that among site variation in diet bears no simple relationship with variation in sea surface temperature and upwelling intensity.Los poliplacóforos son herbívoros comunes en costas rocosas, pero

  12. Schistosomacidal activity of Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the schistosomacidal effect of Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell. on Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Three different concentrations (6.0, 3.0 and 1.5) mg/ml of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant roots was given orally to different groups of infected mice. Praziquantel was ...

  13. Ocurrencia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick (1909 (Lepidoptero: Tortricidae en Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los derivados de las vainas de tara (Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824, presentan crecientes demandas industriales. En octubre del 2015 en la provincia de San Marcos, región Cajamarca, se verificó la ocurrencia de ataque de Argyrotaenia aphaleropa Meyrick (1909 a vainas de tara, produciendo daños directos, interfiriendo en su desarrollo y crecimiento, depreciando comercialmente el producto, generando restricciones en las exportaciones; por lo que esta plaga demanda su manejo integrado para disminuir la incidencia y evitar el ingreso a otras regiones libres de ataques.

  14. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie...AND SUBTITLE LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0132 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...designed to generate short-term safety and efficacy data regarding imatinib mesylate (imatinib) in the treatment of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis ( LAM

  15. On LAM's and SAM's for Halley's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peale, Stanton J.

    1992-01-01

    Non principal axis rotation for comet Halley is inferred from dual periodicities evident in the observations. The modes where the spin axis precesses around the axis of minimum moment of inertia (long axis mode or LAM) and where it precesses around the axis of maximum moment of inertia (short axis mode or SAM) are described from an inertial point of view. The currently favored LAM model for Halley's rotation state satisfies observational and dynamical constraints that apparently no SAM can satisfy. But it cannot reproduce the observed post perihelion brightening through seasonal illumination of localized sources on the nucleus, whereas a SAM can easily produce post or pre perihelion brightening by this mechanism. However, the likelihood of a LAM rotation for elongated nuclei of periodic comets such as Halley together with Halley's extreme post perihelion behavior far from the Sun suggest that Halley's post perihelion brightening may be due to effects other than seasonal illumination of localized sources, and therefore such brightening may not constrain its rotation state.

  16. Evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam) as seed protectant against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamaismotsch . on stored cowpea and maize under tropical conditions.

  17. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston (Fabaceae (CD is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay, mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  18. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H.; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:28273843

  19. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Saravana Kumar, G; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-02-25

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Substrate in the emergence and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnólia Martins Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia pulcherrima is an exotic species belongs to the Fabaceae family commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and widely used for urban forestry. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the emergence and early seedlings growth of C. pulcherrima . The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba. The experimental design was completely randomized and treatments had 14 substrates: sand, vegetable soil, vermiculite, wood dust, carbonized rice straw, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, sand + wood dust 1:1, sand + carbonized rice straw 1:1, earth + wood dust 1:1, vegetable soil + carbonized rice straw 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + wood dust 1:1, vermiculite + earth 1:1 and vermiculite + carbonized rice straw 1:1. Evaluation of the effect of the treatments was through the following determinations: percentage of emergency, first count, index of germination speed, length and dry weight of roots and shoots. The vermiculite, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + saw dust 1:1, are suitable for emergence and early growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima . Substrates saw dust and carbonized rice straw were responsible for the worst performers on emergence and seedling development.

  1. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-03-04

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  2. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

    2005-08-01

    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and

  3. Effect of initial seedling size, understory competition, and overstory density on the survival and growth of Pinus echinata seedlings underplanted in hardwood forests for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Benjamin O. Knapp; Daniel C. Dey; David R. Larsen

    2015-01-01

    There is interest in restoring shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) in pine–oak woodlands where it once was abundant. Because of its shade intolerance and slow initial growth rate, shortleaf pine restoration has remained a challenge because competition from hardwoods exhibits greater initial growth following canopy removal but greater shade tolerance with...

  4. Actividad antiinflamatoria de flores y hojas de Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers and leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Matiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Partes aéreas de la planta Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz han sido usadas en medicina tradicional al sur del Departamento de Cundinamarca para el tratamiento de afecciones inflamatorias. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de flores, hojas y frutos verdes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima para cuantificar su actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos de inflamación aguda y subcrónica. Metodología: Este estudio cuantificó la actividad antiinflamatoria de diferentes extractos de tejidos aéreos de esta especie encontrada en Colombia por dos modelos de inflamación aguda, el edema auricular inducido por TPA (acetato de 12-O-tetradecanoil-forbol y el edema plantar inducido por carragenina; así como el modelo de inflamación sub-crónico de granuloma inducido por pellet de algodón. Resultados: Los extractos de flores mostraron la mayor actividad antiinflamatoria en el modelo del TPA, en tanto que las hojas fueron más efectivas en disminuir el granuloma, en el modelo del pellet de algodón. No se observó ninguna actividad antiinflamatoria de ningún extracto en el modelo de carragenina. Los frutos verdes no mostraron actividad en ningún modelo. Conclusión: Los resultados demostraron la efectividad que el uso etnobotánico le atribuye a esta planta. Los extractos activos obtenidos mostraron el potencial uso de esta planta en la fabricación fitoterapéuticos efectivos. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (3: 281-287Introduction: Aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz have been used in traditional medicine in southern Cundinamarca Department for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Objective: Evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of flowers, leaves and green fruits of the plant to quantify inflammatory activity of acute and subchronic murine inflammation models. Methodology: This study quantified the anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of aerial tissues of this species for two models of acute

  5. Anatomia do lenho de Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae uma espécie endêmica. Wood anatomy of Raulinoa echinata R.S.Cowan (Rutaceae an endemic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Antonio DAROSCI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia vegetal é útil para a caracterização das espécies e do ambiente em que estas vivem. Muitas espécies respondem a algumas características ambientais com alterações na anatomia do lenho, por exemplo, na quantidade de vasos e raios, o que contribui para a sobrevivência no ambiente. Outras respostas anatômicas do lenho, devido às condições fisiológicas-estruturais presentes em diferentes regiões do caule, também são comuns. O presente estudo analisou a anatomia do lenho de Raulinoa echinata, espécie endêmica da mata ciliar do Vale do Itajaí, a fim de buscar alterações do lenho em resposta a algumas características ambientais, além daquelas provocadas pelas diferentes regiões do caule. Para tanto, amostras do lenho foram coletadas em duas regiões: próxima do solo e à altura do peito (1,30 m. Possíveis respostas de R. echinata ao ambiente ripário foram observadas no comprimento e na frequência das fibras, na largura dos raios e no comprimento e na frequência total de vasos, com diferenças significativas, entre as duas regiões, apenas em características quantitativas. A espécie apresentou, ainda, vasos múltiplos tangenciais e em cacho, características até então não descritas para Rutaceae. Não foram vistos na espécie canais traumáticos, característica comum para Rutaceae. Plant anatomy is useful for the characterization of species and their associated environment. Many species, because of habitat features, can show anatomical alterations of wood that permit their survival in the environment, quantity of vessels and rays, for example. Other anatomical alterations caused by structural-physiological conditions present in different regions of the stem are also common. In this study, the anatomy of Raulinoa echinata wood, an endemic riparian forest species of Itajaí Valley, was analyzed in order to identify alterations in wood because of specific habitat features, as well as adaptations in different

  6. Nutritional characterization of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. B Moyo, PJ Masika, A Hugo, V Muchenje. Abstract. Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. moringaceae) is a highly valued plant that is mostly cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. It is used for food, medication and industrial purposes. The objective of the ...

  7. Visualising Learning Design in LAMS: A Historical View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, James

    2011-01-01

    The Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) provides a web-based environment for the creation, sharing, running and monitoring of Learning Designs. A central feature of LAMS is the visual authoring environment, where educators use a drag-and-drop environment to create sequences of learning activities. The visualisation is based on boxes…

  8. Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    proven treatment for LAM is lung transplantation, which carries significant one-year mortality and after which LAM can recur in the transplanted...production of PGE2 and 6-K-PGF1. This result has been published (Figure 4j-k, Li et al., J Expt Med 2014, please see the Appendix 1). 2) Inhibition

  9. Hepatoprotective Potential of Caesalpinia crista against Iron-Overload-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhitajit Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the ameliorating effect of Caesalpinia crista Linn. (CCME extract on iron-overload-induced liver injury. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron dextran into mice. CCME attenuated the percentage increase in liver iron and serum ferritin levels when compared to control group. CCME also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and liver fibrosis. The serum enzyme markers were found to be less, whereas enhanced levels of liver antioxidant enzymes were detected in CCME-treated group. In presence of CCME, the reductive release of ferritin iron was increased significantly. Furthermore, CCME exhibited DPPH radical scavenging and protection against Fe2+-mediated oxidative DNA damage. The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of CCME against the model hepatotoxicant iron overload and the activity is likely related to its potent antioxidant and iron-chelating property.

  10. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  11. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Kumar Paikra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. or munga is one of the most important plant widely cultivated in India. It belongs to family Moringaceae. This plant is widely used as nutritional herb and contains valuable pharmacological action like anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti- fertility, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, cardiovascular, anti-ulcer, CNS activity, anti-allergic, wound healing, analgesic, and antipyretic activity, Moringa oleifera Lam. The plant is also known as Horse - radish tree, Drumstick tree. Every part of this plant contains a valuable medicinal feature. It contain rich source of the vitamin A, vitamin C and milk protein. Different types of active phytoconstituents like alkaloids, protein, quinine, saponins, flavonoids, tannin, steroids, glycosides, fixed oil and fats are present. This plant is also found in the tropical regions. Some other constituents are niazinin A, niazinin B and niazimicin A, niaziminin B. The present review discusses the phytochemical composition, medicinal uses & pharmacological activity of this plant.

  12. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishalay Jana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC 50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC 50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC 50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC 50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants.

  13. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H.; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food. PMID:27043638

  14. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  15. In vitro antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and total phenolic content in extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, M R; Sivakumar, T; Udavant, P B; Dhake, A S; Surana, A R

    2012-04-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Swartz (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant also used as a common medicinal plant in India, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries. Majority of the diseases/disorders are mainly linked to oxidative stress due to free radicals. The aims of this study were to screen for phytochemical constituents, evaluate cytotoxicity, in vitro antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. The LC50(microg mL(-1)) values obtained for extracts as 750 microg mL(-1) for petroleum ether extract, 800 microg mL(-1) for chloroform extract and 900 microg mL(-1) for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 38.04% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 microg mL(-1), respectively. Methanolic extract was good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 microg mL(-1), respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Our conclusion provides support that the crude extracts of C. pulcherrima is a probable source of natural antioxidants and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  16. OptiLam: design of optimised rolling schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, B.; Arribas, M; Carrillo, A.R.; Barbero, J. I.; Calvo Muñoz, Jessica; Song, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays il is known that the Ihennomcchanical schedules applied during hot rolling of fIal products provide the steel with improvcd mechanical properties. In Ihis work an oplimisation tool, OptiLam (OptiLam v.l), bascd on él predictive software alld capabIe oC generating optimised rolling schedulcs to obtain Ihe dcsired mechanical properties in the fiual product is described. OptiLam includes somc well-knowll Illctallurgical modcls which predict microstmctural evolution duril1g h...

  17. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental

  18. Antileishmanial compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Preet Kamal; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Inder Pal

    2014-01-01

    The antileishmanial activity of extracts and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera Lam. was investigated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania donavani. The 70% ethanolic extract of roots and the methanolic extract of leaves showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 83.0 microg/ml and 47.5 microg/ml, respectively. Antileishmanial activity of the methanolic extract of leaves increased upon fractionation, as its ethyl acetate fraction was found to be more active with an IC50 value of 27.5 microg/ml. The most active antileishmanial compound niazinin, a thiocarbamate glycoside isolated from this fraction, showed an IC50 value of 5.25 microM. Results presented in this study indicate that extracts from M. oleifera may be developed as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  19. The LAM space active optics facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Escolle, C.; Bonnefois, A.; Bernot, M.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Fusco, T.; Laubier, D.; Liotard, A.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of large lightweight space telescopes will require the use of active optics systems to enhance the performance and increase the spatial resolution. Since almost 10 years now, LAM, CNES, THALES and ONERA conjugate their experience and efforts for the development of space active optics through the validation of key technological building blocks: correcting devices, metrology components and control strategies. This article presents the work done so far on active correcting mirrors and wave front sensing, as well as all the facilities implemented. The last part of this paper focuses on the merging of the MADRAS and RASCASSE test-set up. This unique combination will provide to the active optics community an automated, flexible and versatile facility able to feed and characterise space active optics components.

  20. SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of...

  1. Efficacy of Candlewood Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Lam.) for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lam.) was assessed in the laboratory for their ability to protect stored grains from damage by Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus on maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams of sterilized grains were measured in glass ...

  2. Toxicity and persistence of Boscia senegalensis Lam. (Ex Poir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity and persistence of Boscia senegalensis Lam. (Ex Poir.) (Capparaceae) leaves on Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae). A Doumma, BY Alfari, M Sembene, SDR Sidikou, A Sanon, GK Ketoh, AH Kadidia, IA Glitho ...

  3. In vitro regeneration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) yield. The establishment of in vitro regeneration protocol for this plant is essential to improve it through tissue culture and genetic engineering. The objective of this study was to establish in vitro regeneration protocol ...

  4. Charring Rate for Fire Exposed X-Lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Bernice VY; Fah Tee, Kong

    2017-06-01

    Design of timber structures has been outlined in Eurocode 5. Notional charring rate for softwood and hardwood timber is given. For the performance of X-LAM panels in fire, only little information on charring is available and whether the fire behaviour of X-LAM is similar to homogenous timber panels has not yet been systematically analysed. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of X-LAM and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature as an element of structure in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Numerical study has been carried out based on available experimental results. Charring rates for X-LAM panels obtained from experimental results are compared with those obtained from Eurocode 5 and proposed simplified model.

  5. Hardwood press-lam crossties : processing and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Tschernitz; E.L. Schaffer; R.C. Moody; R.W. Jokerst; D.S. Gromala; C.C. Peters; W.T. Henry

    1979-01-01

    Crossties were made by the Press-Lam process, in which logs are peeled into veneers, dried, and glued into billets in a continuous procedure. Billets were made from 8.5-foot-long veneers and from 4-foot-long veneers, cut into final product dimensions, and treated with preservative. In laboratory tests, bending strength and stiffness of the Press-Lam ties were found to...

  6. Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

  7. A remarkable new species of Coeliccia from the Tuyen Lam Lake area, Lam Dong, southern Vietnam (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A

    2016-04-15

    Coeliccia suoitia sp. nov. (holotype ♂, from Suoi Tia, Tuyen Lam Lake, Da Lat, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, deposited in RMNH) is described from males from southern Vietnam. It is a distinctive species that possess highly unusual characters in the thorax and anal appendages that make its ultimate generic placement questionable. Relationships between Coeliccia Kirby, Asthenocnemis Lieftinck and Indocnemis Laidlaw, and within Coeliccia, are briefly discussed.

  8. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanand M Kannur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy′s Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students′ ′t′ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  9. Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Caesalpinia bonducella against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Kumar, Ramanathan Sambath; Sivakumar, Thangavel; Vamsi, Madgula Lakshmi Mohan

    2004-02-01

    The methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves (MECB) were evaluated for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The extract was administered at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days after 24 h of tumor inoculation. After the last dose and 18 h fasting, the mice were sacrificed. The present study deals with the effect of MECB on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological profile, and biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. MECB caused significant (P<0.01) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume, and viable cell count; and it prolonged the life span of EAC-tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile converted to more or less normal levels in extract-treated mice. MECB significantly (P<0.05) decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. The MECB was found to be devoid of conspicuous short-term toxicity in the mice when administered daily (i.p.) for 14 days at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. The treated mice showed conspicuous toxic symptoms only at 300 mg/kg. The results indicate that MECB exhibited significant antitumor and antioxidant activity in EAC-bearing mice.

  10. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  11. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Robson Borges-dos-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n=12: negative control (G1 (untreated, positive control (G2 (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w., and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP. Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC, hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P<0.05. An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P<0.05, during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition.

  12. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  13. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannur, Dayanand M.; Paranjpe, Mukta P.; Sonavane, Lalit V.; Dongre, Prerana P.; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

  14. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-07-31

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of Caesalpinia gilliesii and Cajanus cajan proteins against acetoaminophen overdose-induced hepatic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Maha Z; Aly, Hanan F; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Desoky, M M; Ibrahim, N; Younis, Eman A

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate two proteins derived from the seeds of the plants Cajanus cajan (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Leguminosae) for their abilities to ameliorate the toxic effects of chronic doses of acetoaminphen (APAP) through the determination of certain biochemical parameters including liver marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin. Also, total protein content and hepatic marker enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase were studied. Moreover, liver antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, and lipid peroxides were determined in this study. Hepatic adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), adenylate energy charge (ATP, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and inorganic phosphate), and phosphate potential, serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and myeloperoxidase were also examined in the present study. On the other hand, histopathological examination of intoxicated and liver treated with both proteins was taken into consideration. The present results show disturbances in all biochemical parameters and hepatic toxicity signs including mild vascular congestion, moderate inflammatory changes with moderate congested sinusoids, moderate nuclear changes (pyknosis), moderate centrilobular necrosis, fatty changes, nuclear pyknosis vascular congestion, and change in fatty centrilobular necrosis liver. Improvement in all biochemical parameters studied was noticed as a result of treatment intoxicated liver with C. gilliesii and C. cajan proteins either paracetamol with or post paracetamol treatment. These results were documented by the amelioration signs in rat's hepatic architecture. Thus, both plant protein extracts can upregulate and counteract the inflammatory process, minimize damage of the liver, delay disease progression, and reduce its complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. In vitro propagation of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz from axillary buds of selected trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Núñez Núñez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Guarango or tara [Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz] is a tree native to the Andes, with great economic importance and for reforestation programs. The aim of this work was to in vitro propagate this specie from axillary buds of selected trees. During in vitro establishment, the effect of sodium hypochlorite (3.0% with different times of disinfection (5.0, 10, 15 min, as well as the effect of 6-BAP on the in vitro response of buds were studied. For multiplication, different combination of 6-BAP with 0.1 mg l-1 ANA were tested. A free-growth regulator culture medium was used for rooting. The best results for in vitro establishment were achieved with a disinfection treatment with sodium hypochlorite 3.0% for 10 minutes and cultivation in a culture medium with 0.25 mg l-1 6-BAP, which 90% of buds in vitro established, with a length of 6.71 cm. The highest multiplication rate of shoot (2.88 per explant was obtained with 1.0 mg l-1 6-BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 ANA, after 60 days of culture. The 55% of these shoots developed roots in a half-strength basal salts MS culture medium free of regulators of growth.   Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forest plant, guarango, tissue culture

  17. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  18. Ethnopharmacological uses of Antidesma madagascariense Lam. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antidesma madagascariense Lam. is an indigenous plant of the Mascarene Islands which has interestingly shined as a promising traditional medicinal plant. The ethnobotanical uses of this plant were geared toward the treatment and management of dysentery, albumin in the urine, jaundice, fever, diabetes, skin infections, rheumatic and body aches among others. Preliminary screening of this plant coupled with a plethora of in vitro and in vivo tests have furnished scientists with documented findings that have appraised its traditional use in the treatment and management of infectious diseases. The presence of antidesmin, a commonly characterized component of Antidesma species, might justify the medicinal virtues of this plant. The present monograph aims at providing the botanical description, traditional uses and latest findings documented on A. madagascariense. Nonetheless, continued research on this plant needs to be completed in order to rationalize the use of this promising plant as a potential source of beneficial constituents for the treatment and management of human diseases and hence set up promising optimism for drug development. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 86-89

  19. Micropropagation of Pluchea sagittalis (Lam. Cabrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. ROSSATO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro protocol for the micropropagation of Pluchea sagittalis (Lam. Cabrera. Plants were regenerated in vitro from stem segments. The procedure employed includes: 1 surface sterilization of shoots by immersion in 70% ethanol for 10 s followed by 1.0% NaOCl for 10 min, and subsequent immersion in 0.05% HgCl2 for 3 min and two washes with sterile distilled water; 2 induction of root and shoot by culture on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium (MS; 3 acclimatization of 60 day-old-plantlets in soil under ex vitro conditions. Minimum contamination was observed for apical shoot explants (10%. However, independently of the explant position in the stem, all explants regenerated new shoots. Various successive cultivations from stem explants every 60 days during more than 1 year have been shown to be a suitable method to propagate P. sagittalis in vitro. Low salt concentration (25% of the normal concentration in the medium promoted greater growth of plantlets because the plants had a higher number of roots and longer roots in such an environment. Our protocol for the micropropagation of P. sagittalis can be accomplished as a two-step procedure within a short period of time (two months before transplanting.

  20. Development of a UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for analysis of total polyphenols from Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda G. Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia peltophoroides is a domesticated tree found in Brazil. It was necessary to develop an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP in this herbal drug. The pre-analytical method was standardized for analysis time, wavelength, and the best standard to use. The optimum conditions were: pyrogallol, 760 nm, and 30 min respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved to be reliable for TP of the crude extract and semipurified fractions from C. peltophoroides. Standardization is required for every herbal drug, and this method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform.

  1. 75 FR 76952 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer... distribution facilities of Lam Research Corporation, located in Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, California... equipment at the facilities of Lam Research Corporation, located in Fremont, Newark, and Livermore...

  2. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Elbaz-Alon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure, vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch, and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction. We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication.

  3. A comparative view of early development in the corals Favia lizardensis, Ctenactis echinata, and Acropora millepora - morphology, transcriptome, and developmental gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Nami; Hayward, David C; Forêt, Sylvain; Ball, Eldon E

    2016-02-29

    Research into various aspects of coral biology has greatly increased in recent years due to anthropogenic threats to coral health including pollution, ocean warming and acidification. However, knowledge of coral early development has lagged. The present paper describes the embryonic development of two previously uncharacterized robust corals, Favia lizardensis (a massive brain coral) and Ctenactis echinata (a solitary coral) and compares it to that of the previously characterized complex coral, Acropora millepora, both morphologically and in terms of the expression of a set of key developmental genes. Illumina sequencing of mixed age embryos was carried out, resulting in embryonic transcriptomes consisting of 40605 contigs for C.echinata (N50 = 1080 bp) and 48536 contigs for F.lizardensis (N50 = 1496 bp). The transcriptomes have been annotated against Swiss-Prot and were sufficiently complete to enable the identification of orthologs of many key genes controlling development in bilaterians. Developmental series of images of whole mounts and sections reveal that the early stages of both species contain a blastocoel, consistent with their membership of the robust clade. In situ hybridization was used to examine the expression of the developmentally important genes brachyury, chordin and forkhead. The expression of brachyury and forkhead was consistent with that previously reported for Acropora and allowed us to confirm that the pseudo-blastopore sometimes seen in robust corals such as Favia spp. is not directly associated with gastrulation. C.echinata chordin expression, however, differed from that seen in the other two corals. Embryonic transcriptomes were assembled for the brain coral Favia lizardensis and the solitary coral Ctenactis echinata. Both species have a blastocoel in their early developmental stages, consistent with their phylogenetic position as members of the robust clade. Expression of the key developmental genes brachyury, chordin and

  4. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  5. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β(0)e(β1 • E-1)), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R(2)>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12 cm in diameter and 550 cm(3) of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80 g • cm(-3)), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC • ha(-1)) at the highest density of 2500 trees • ha(-1) (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC • ha(-1) are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits.

  6. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  7. Haematological effects of leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological effects of leaves extract of Moringa oleifera Lam were investigated in normal and myelo-suppressed Wistar rats. Acute toxicity and phytochemistry of Moringa oleifera were determined. Wistar-rats (n=35), aged 2 to 3 months, weighing 120 - 170 grams were divided into 5 groups of 7 rats per group, labeled A ...

  8. Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam leaves effective against two leukemias and a hepatocarcinoma. Mutasim M. Khalafalla, Eltayb Abdellatef, Hussain Mohammed Dafalla, Amr A. Nassrallah, Khalid M. Aboul-Enein, David A. Lightfoot, Fadl E. El-Deeb, Hany A. El-Shemy ...

  9. Hypotensive Activity of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the hypotensive activity and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) roots. Methods: The fresh roots of M. oleifera was cut into small pieces and successively extracted with petroleum ether (PE) and dichloromethane (DC). PE extract was further divided into MRP and MRP -1.

  10. Extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam . showing inhibitory activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is one of the many medicinal plants employed by herbalist to treat or manage people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in African Traditional Medicine (ATM) and there are many claims to the fact that it improves quality of life and reverses the course of the HIV/AIDS disease progression.

  11. Genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeats markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. from Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Chongqing City and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China. 100 primers were carried out on 22 wild populations, 14 could produce highly ...

  12. Genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. from Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Chongqing City and. Guangxi Zhuang autonomous Region in China. 10 primer combinations were carried out on 180 different individuals ...

  13. Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    expression in TSC2- reexpressing LAM patient-derived cells (Fig. 1g). To address how estradiol exerts its action on COX-2 expression and prostaglandin...lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Journal of medical genetics 37:55-57. Auricchio, N., I. Malinowska, R. Shaw, B.D. Manning, and D.J. Kwiatkowski. Therapeutic trial of metformin

  14. Targeting Autophagy for the Treatment of TSC and LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    15ng/ml) and hyrdroxychloroquine (200mg or 400mg) will be taken orally daily for 6 months. Up to 18 female subjects ages 18 and older with LAM will be...if data is collected before the 6 month timepoint. Summary of Amendment 03  Instructions for use of contraceptives were clarified in the protocol

  15. Når TV-kokken ofrer lam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    programmet Jamie’s Italian Escape (Channel 4, 2006) og det franske madprogram Le Chef en France (M6, 2012) med kokken Cyril Lignac. De to analyseeksempler har det til fælles, at det i begge tilfælde er lam, der slås ihjel og tilberedes. I artiklen analyseres, hvordan slagtningerne i disse madprogrammer...

  16. Phytochemical and anti-diarrheal studies of Bauhinia rufescens Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bauhinia rufescens Lam, family Leguminosae – Caesalpinoideae, an economic, ornamental and medicinal plant with fruits edible to human and animals, was subjected to phytochemical and anti-diarrheal studies. The phytochemical screening of the leaves, roots and stem bark showed the presence of saponins, tannins, ...

  17. Structured Dialogue Design in LAMS through Interactive Lecture Podcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the utility of interactive lecture podcasting in LAMS and the impact of structured dialogue design. It reports how curriculum renewal and innovation were greeted with scepticism by teacher education students enrolled in a compulsory curriculum unit at an Australian university. An analytic induction methodology in conjunction…

  18. Coagulation of some humic acid solutions by Moringa oleifera Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Experiments were carried out to study humic acid solutions and surface waters coagulation by Moringa oleifera Lam seeds aqueous extract. High amounts of such extract (up to. 10 g/L) were required to clarify humic acid solutions whereas 0.5 g/L were used to remove 90% of initial turbidity of a surface water.

  19. Genetic diversity of Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of. Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack. from Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Chongqing City and. Guangxi Zhuang autonomous Region in China. 10 primer combinations were carried out on 180.

  20. In vitro clonal propagation of Fuchsia magellanica Lam. | Parveen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuchsia magellanica Lam. is a famous ornamental plant which is rarely found in Pakistan. Its beauty and ... This study is undertaken to perform in vitro clonal propagation and acclimatization of F. magellanica in order to get hundreds of F. magellanica plants in the laboratory in comparatively less time. Hence, it would be ...

  1. (Chlorophyta) biomass production using Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorella sorokiniana Shih. et Krauss, a unicellular green alga was assayed to assess its to promotion potentials response of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. C. sorokiniana grown in 200 ml aliquots of modified basal medium for two weeks: was treated with the aqueous and ethanolic extracts at ...

  2. Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. moringaceae) is a highly valued plant that is mostly cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. It is used for food, medication and industrial purposes. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional value of Moringa leaves of the South African ecotype. Proximate and.

  3. Hypotensive Activity of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the hypotensive activity and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) roots. Methods: The fresh roots of M. oleifera was cut into small pieces and successively extracted with petroleum ether (PE) and dichloromethane (DC). PE extract was further divided into MRP and MRP -1.

  4. The Hydractinia echinata Test-System. III: Structure-Toxicity Relationship Study of Some Azo-, Azo-Anilide, and Diazonium Salt Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Adrian Chicu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Structure-toxicity relationships for a series of 75 azo and azo-anilide dyes and five diazonium salts were developed using Hydractinia echinata (H. echinata as model species. In addition, based on these relationships, predictions for 58 other azo-dyes were made. The experimental results showed that the measured effectiveness Mlog(1/MRC50 does not depend on the number of azo groups or the ones corresponding to metobolites, but it is influenced by the number of anilide groups, as well as by the substituents’ positions within molecules. The conformational analysis pointed out the intramolecular hydrogen bonds, especially the simple tautomerization of quinoidic (STOH or aminoidic (STNH2 type. The effectiveness is strongly influenced by the “push-pull” electronic effect, specific to two hydroxy or amino groups separated by an azo moiety (double alternate tautomery, (DAT, to the –COOH or –SO3H groups which are located in ortho or para position with respect to the azo group. The levels of the lipophylic/hydrophilic, electronic and steric equilibriums, pointed out by the Mlog(1/MRC50 values, enabled the calculation of their average values Clog(1/MRC50 (“Köln model”, characteristic to one derivative class (class isotoxicity. The azo group reduction and the hydrolysis of the amido/peptidic group are two concurrent enzymatic reactions, which occur with different reaction rates and mechanisms. The products of the partial biodegradation are aromatic amines. No additive or synergic effects are noticed among them.

  5. Linfangioleimiomatose pulmonar - LAM. Um caso de associação de LAM e angiomiolipoma renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mendonça

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Relatase o caso clínico de uma jovem mulber, que é submetida a uma nefrectomia radical por volumoso tumor à direita, tendo verificado tratarse dum angiomiolipoma. Até então sem qualquer queixa, sinal ou sintoma do foro respiratório. No decurso do pós-operatório, fez complicação aparatosa no contexto da qual foi identificado um pneumotorax espontâneo bilateral. Após a alta hospitalar, foram observados e registados vários episódios de pneumotorax espontâneo, unilateral. A partir do episodio inicial desenvolve, lenta e progressivamente, um quadro clínico de dispneia. Apresenta-se a evolução clínica e alguns parâmetros caracterizadores das alterações funcionais respiratórias, ao longo de seis anos, bem como a documentação de TAC-HR do tórax e histológica, que permitiram fundamentar o diagnóstico desta associação de entidades raras. SUMMARY: We present the case report of a young woman submited to a radical nefrectomy of the right kidney due to the presence of a large tumor diagnosed as an angiomyolipoma. Until such time no respiratory signs and symptoms were referred. Complications during post-op led to the identification of a bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. After being released from the hospital the patient returned several times due to unilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. After the first of these episodes she developed slowly progressive dyspnea. We present the clinical evolution and respiratory function parameters for a six year follow-up as well as thoracic HR-CT scan documentation and histologic studies that permit the diagnosis of these associated and rare entities. Palavras chave: Linfangioleirniomatose pulmonar - LAM, angiomiolipoma, pneumotorax espontâneo bilateral, : Key -words, Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis - LAM, angiomyolipoma, Bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces

  6. Efeitos da luminosidade no crescimento de mudas de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effects of luminosity on the growth seedlings of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea é uma espécie muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbano no estado do Amapá. Entretanto, informações ecofisiológicas a seu respeito são escassas. A luz é um importante fator ambiental que controla processos associados ao acúmulo de matéria seca, contribuindo assim para o crescimento vegetal. Diante disso, estudou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de luminosidade sobre o crescimento de mudas desta espécie. Para tal, plântulas foram repicadas para sacos plásticos contendo mistura de solo e areia (2:1, sendo mantidas a pleno sol, sob sombreamento artificial com redução de 50% e 70% da luminosidade e sob sombreamento natural de um dossel fechado de floresta. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Mudas submetidas ao sombreamento natural tiveram seu crescimento fortemente inibido. A pleno sol, as mudas apresentaram maiores taxas assimilatórias líquida (TAL, menor razão parte aérea/raiz (RPAR e menor razão de área foliar (RAF. Verificou-se pouca diferença no crescimento e alocação de biomassa entre mudas mantidas sob 50 e 70% de sombreamento, sendo que as mudas desses tratamentos atingiram valores mais altos de RPAR e RAF. Isto indica existência de plasticidade, o que reflete no aumento potencial da captura de luz, importante para manter o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em baixa luminosidade. Em conjunto, os resultados mostraram ajustamento morfológico e fisiológico aos diferentes níveis de luminosidade em Caesalpinia ferrea.Caesalpinia ferrea is a species used a lot as a medicinal plant, for urban arborization and landscape design in the state of Amapa. Yet there is not much ecophysiological information available on it. Light is an important environment factor that controls processes associates with the accumulation of dry matter, contributing thus for plant growth. The object of this research was to study the effect of

  7. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from the seed coat of Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Lubna; Saeed, Syed Asad; Ali, Rashida; Saeed, Syed Ghufran; Ahmed, Rahil

    2017-09-26

    Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction. It was interesting to note that the phenolic acid fractions of both samples was found more active against gram-negative bacteria, while gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive towards flavonol fractions. The phenolic acid and flavonol fractions being potent antibacterial were selected to demonstrate the antifungal capacity of two samples. Among them, phenolic acid fraction of both samples was found active towards all the fungal strain.

  8. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Saulo Luis da; Figueiredo,Patrícia Maria; Yano,Tomomasa

    2007-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A-549 (human lung carcinoma), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), Vero (monkey kidney) cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool) were also tested to ve...

  9. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  10. Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de diferentes concentraciones del extracto etan??lico de Caesalpinia spinosa (tara) frente a Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668

    OpenAIRE

    AUTOR: Centuri??n Villar, Karina Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto antibacteriano in vitro del extracto etan??lico de Caesalpinia Spinosa (Tara) sobre Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668. La muestra estuvo conformada por 64 observaciones, distribuidas en 4 grupos de 4 placas Petri cada uno, en cada placa se coloc?? el porcentaje de concentraci??n de estudio, frente a tres controles: control positivo (Clorhexidina al 0.12%), control negativo (Etanol) y un porcentaje de concentraci??n similar (para comp...

  11. Estudio de factibilidad para la implementación de una finca productora de guaranga (Caesalpinia spinosa) en el sector San Guillermo, Imbabura, Ecuador 2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga Rodríguez, Byron Apolinario

    2015-01-01

    The Ecuador by geography is rich in flora fauna country, same to be exploited in different areas. The rich Ecuadorian soil is one of the key factors to promote the development of agricultural projects, benefiting sectors of popular economy, where agriculture is the main income source. The guarango (Caesalpinia spinosa) is a wild plant which are harvested pods and nuggets, which since ancient times they were used as plant input - natural in the method of tanning leather to waterproof Pondos...

  12. Leaf-cutting ants toxicity of limonexic acid and degraded limonoids from Raulinoa echinata: X-ray structure of epoxy-fraxinellone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biavatti, Maique W.; Westerlon, Rosangela [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: maique@univali.br; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima G.F. da; Fernandes, Joao B. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Penaflor, M. Fernanda G.V.; Bueno, Odair C. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais; Ellena, Javier [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2005-11-15

    Phytochemical survey of roots extracts of the South Brazilian endemic plant Raulinoa echinata Cowan, Rutaceae led to the isolation of known degraded limonoids: fraxinellone, fraxinellonone and epoxy-fraxinellone. The latter was previously isolated also from the stems, but the relative configuration could not be solved by NMR experiments. This paper deals with the X-ray diffraction analysis of epoxy-fraxinellone and its toxicity to leaf-cutting ants, describes the isolation of fraxinellonone and fraxinellone for the first time in Raulinoa. Epoxy-fraxinellone showed no toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa). The limonoid limonexic acid, isolated from stems, presented high toxicity to the leaf-cutting ants, diminishing considerably their longevity. (author)

  13. SENYAWA KIMIA DAN ARAH WARNA KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan Linn DAN GAMBIR (Uncaria gambir PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI EKSTRAKSI UNTUK PEWARNAAN BATIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Pujilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTumbuhan pembawa warna mengandung senyawa kimia yang berbeda beda baik jumlah maupun jenis senyawanya. Senyawa-senyawa dominan pembawa warna mempunyai ketahanan tertentu pada berbagai kondisi suhu . Suhu ekstraksi zat warna alam dari tumbuhan mempengaruhi arah warna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimia dan arah warna kayu secang dan gambir. Ekstraksi zat warna alam dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu pemanasan yaitu 50 oC, 75 oC, 100 oC dan perendaman dalam alkohol selama 7 (tujuh hari pada suhu kamar. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik pada kain katun dan sutera. Arah warna ditentukan melalui fiksasi menggunakan tawas, kapur dan tujung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh pada senyawa kimia zat warna alam kayu secang dan gambir.  Jumlah senyawa zat warna alam pada kayu secang semakin berkurang seiring dengan peningkatan suhu ekstraksi.  Pada gambir jumlah senyawa zat warna paling banyak diperoleh pada suhu ekstraksi 75 oC. Senyawa zat warna dominan pada kayu secang adalah cyclohexanone sedang pada gambir  adalah methyl 3,4 dideutero 3 nonenoate 3. Arah warna kayu secang merah sampai merah kecoklatan dan pada gambir warna kecoklatan sampai coklat tua.ABSTRACTColor bearing plant contains chemical compounds that vary both the number and types of compounds. Compounds dominant color carriers having different resistance at various temperature conditions. The temperature of the extraction of natural dyes from plants affects the direction of color. This study aims to determine the content of chemical compounds and direction color of Caesalpinia sappan Linn and Uncaria gambir. Extraction of natural dyes made at various heating temperature is 50 ° C, 75 ° C, 100 ° C and soaking in alcohol for seven (7 days at room temperature. Natural dyes obtained is applied to dye batik on cotton and silk. Directions color is determined by fixation using alum, lime and

  14. Efeito da temperatura e do substrato na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effect of temperature and substrate on seed germination of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical que ocorre na região amazônica, sendo muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbanos. Para viabilizar a produção de mudas, determinaram-se a melhor temperatura e o melhor substrato para a germinação das sementes. Sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram teor médio de água de 7,46%, porcentagem de germinação de 3,33% e baixo ganho de água durante a embebição, mostrando dormência tegumentar. A escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 40 foi um método eficiente para superação da dormência, comprovado pela alta porcentagem de germinação e embebição de água em sementes escarificadas. A porcentagem de germinação dessas sementes foi influenciada pela temperatura, mas não pelo substrato. Com base no tempo médio de germinação, recomenda-se a temperatura de 30 ºC e areia como substrato para germinação mais rápida de sementes escarificadas.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. is a tropical legume tree occurring in the Amazon region, commonly used as medicine plant and in urban landscaping. To make seedling production feasible the best temperature and substrate for seed germination were determined. Recently harvested seeds present 7.46% mean moisture content, 3.33% germination percentage and lower moisture gain during soaking, showing tegument dormancy. Mechanical scarification with 40 grit sandpaper was proven an efficient method to overcome the dormancy, resulting in higher germination percentage and water imbibition in scarified seeds. The germination percentage of scarified seeds was influenced by temperature, but not by substrate. Based on the mean germination time, it is recommended the temperature of 30ºC and sand like substrate for faster germination of scarified seeds.

  15. Retention Rates, Graduates, and LAM-Series Completers for the Legal Assistant Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John

    In February 1996, Gainesville College, in Georgia, conducted a study of students in its Legal Assistant Management (LAM) Program to determine retention rates, numbers of graduates, and course pass rates. Retention and graduation rates were calculated for 175 students who enrolled in at least one LAM course from spring 1991 to fall 1995. In…

  16. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research..., requesting special-purpose subzone status for the wafer fabrication equipment manufacturing facilities of Lam Research Corporation (Lam), located in Fremont, California. The application was submitted pursuant to the...

  17. Las Webquest en la docencia universitaria: aprendizaje colaborativo con LAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Holgado Sáez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las WebQuest son un recurso didáctico basado en el aprendizaje constructivista y en la metodología colaborativa que está teniendo mucho éxito en las etapas de Infantil, Primaria y Secundaria. En el presente artículo pretendemos ofrecer una propuesta de utilización de este recurso en la etapa universitaria con LAMS -Sistema de Control de Actividades de Aprendizaje- a través de entornos virtuales de aprendizaje, como Moodle.

  18. Regulation of leukocyte migration by activation of the leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1) selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertini, O; Kansas, G S; Munro, J M; Griffin, J D; Tedder, T F

    1991-02-21

    A central feature of host defence is the ability of leukocytes to enter tissues in response to immune or inflammatory stimuli. The leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1) regulates the migration of human leukocytes by mediating the binding both of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules of peripheral lymph nodes and of neutrophils to endothelium at inflammatory sites. As lymphocytes and neutrophils express the same LAM-1 protein, it is not clear how lineage-specific differences in leukocyte migration are controlled. We now report that the affinity of LAM-1 for a carbohydrate-based ligand, PPME, is dramatically increased following lymphocyte and neutrophil activation by lineage-specific stimuli. In addition, activation of lymphocytes by physiological stimuli enhanced LAM-1-dependent binding to high endothelial venules. Thus, transient changes in LAM-1 affinity after leukocyte stimulation probably directly influence leukocyte migration.

  19. Estrutura do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Phytossociological survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Forest, in Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º54'10"S e 43º12'27"W tem área total de 80 ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil no município do Rio de Janeiro. A estrutura deste importante fragmento florestal foi estudada utilizando-se o método dos quadrantes. Foram alocados 200 pontos amostrais e o critério de inclusão foi de 15 cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m acima do solo. Nos 200 pontos amostrados foram encontradas 44 espécies distribuídas em 36 gêneros e 22 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram maiores valores de importância (VI foram Solanaceae (com 34,1% do VI, Leguminosae (Mimosoideae com 16,4%, Papilionoideae com 7,9% e Caesalpinioideae com 2,1%, Nyctaginaceae (13%, Anacardiaceae (6,5% e Flacourtiaceae (6,1%. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos na área apresentaram também maior VI: Metternichia princeps Mik. (com 40,4% dos indivíduos e 33,7% do VI, Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (9,3 e 12,6%, Guapira hirsuta (Choisy Lundell (7,5 e 7,8%, Astronium fraxinifolium Schott ex Spreng. (5,6 e 5,7%. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. apresentou 2,4% dos indivíduos amostrados e 2,1% do VI. A distribuição diamétrica da comunidade, assim como da maioria das principais populações, apresentou grande número de indivíduos nas menores classes, decrescendo gradualmente. Este fato reflete uma abundante regeneração da maioria das espécies amostradas.The Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra da Capoeira Grande is a 80 ha site and one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality where Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood occurs naturally. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH ³ 15 cm and a total of 200 points were surveyed. 44 species were identified, belonging to 36 genera and 22 botanical families The families with the higher

  20. Proposed mechanism of antibacterial mode of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil against food-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial mechanism of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil on membrane permeability of Listeria monocytogenes NCIM 24563 (MIC: 2 mg/mL and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC: 4 mg/mL was determined by measuring the extracellular ATP concentration, release of 260-nm absorbing materials, leakage of potassium ions and measurement of relative electrical conductivity of the bacterial cells treated at MIC concentration. Its mode of action on membrane integrity was confirmed by release of extracellular ATP (1.42 and 1.33 pg/mL, loss of 260-nm absorbing materials (4.36 and 4.19 optical density, leakage of potassium ions (950 and 1000 mmol/L and increase in relative electrical conductivity (12.6 and 10.5% against food-borne pathogenic bacteria L. monocytogenes and E. coli, respectively. These findings propose that C. bonducella oil compromised its mode of action on membrane integrity, suggesting its enormous food and pharmacological potential.

  1. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1–3 and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5, together with seven known compounds 6–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What’s more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed.

  2. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on female reproductive system of albino rat: a focus on antifertility efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on the reproductive system in Wistar female albino rat. Methods: The study was divided into four groups. The group I received distilled water and served as vehicle treated control. Groups II, III and IV were orally administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight dose of seed extract respectively, for 10 consecutive days and subsequently euthanized twenty four hours after the last dose. Results: The treatment prolonged the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage. The analysis of the principal hormones viz. LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone showed significantly decreased levels in dose-dependant manner. Ovarian and uterine weight was significantly reduced as compared to that of the control group. Histoarchitectural observations revealed follicular atresia and degeneration of corpora lutea in ovary. Oviduct showed degeneration of mucosal folds and epithelium cells. Uterus showed evidence of degeneration of endometrial epithelium and endometrial glands. Lamina propria and muscularis layer of vagina were found slightly disorganized. Conclusions: It can be concluded that significant decrease in the hormone levels, reproductive organs weight and alterations in histoarchitecture of reproductive organs might be due to antiestrogenic nature of seed extract.

  3. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  4. Ladder Operators for Lamé Spheroconal Harmonic Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Méndez-Fragoso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of ladder operators in spheroconal coordinates and their respective actions on Lamé spheroconal harmonic polynomials are presented in this article. The polynomials are common eigenfunctions of the square of the angular momentum operator and of the asymmetry distribution Hamiltonian for the rotations of asymmetric molecules, in the body-fixed frame with principal axes. The first set of operators for Lamé polynomials of a given species and a fixed value of the square of the angular momentum raise and lower and lower and raise in complementary ways the quantum numbers $n_1$ and $n_2$ counting the respective nodal elliptical cones. The second set of operators consisting of the cartesian components $hat L_x$, $hat L_y$, $hat L_z$ of the angular momentum connect pairs of the four species of polynomials of a chosen kind and angular momentum. The third set of operators, the cartesian components $hat p_x$, $hat p_y$, $hat p_z$ of the linear momentum, connect pairs of the polynomials differing in one unit in their angular momentum and in their parities. Relationships among spheroconal harmonics at the levels of the three sets of operators are illustrated.

  5. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragunathan Muthuswamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV, and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

  6. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos, Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; GASSON, PETER; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois muni...

  7. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos, Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; GASSON, PETER; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    p.436-445 Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas ...

  8. Mannose-Capped Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces CD4+ T cell Anergy via GRAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sande, Obondo J.; Karim, Ahmad F.; Li, Qing; Ding, Xuedong; Harding, Clifford V.; Rojas, Roxana E.; Boom, W. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall glycolipid, Lipoarabinomannan, can inhibit CD4+ T cell activation by down-regulating phosphorylation of key proximal TCR signaling molecules Lck, CD3ζ, ZAP70 and LAT. Inhibition of proximal TCR signaling can result in T cell anergy, in which T cells are inactivated following an antigen encounter, yet remain viable and hyporesponsive. We tested whether LAM-induced inhibition of CD4+ T cell activation resulted in CD4+ T cell anergy. The presence of LAM during primary stimulation of P25TCR-Tg murine CD4+ T cells with M. tuberculosis Ag85B peptide resulted in decreased proliferation and IL-2 production. P25TCR-Tg CD4+ T cells primed in the presence of LAM also exhibited decreased response upon re-stimulation with Ag85B. The T cell anergic state persisted after the removal of LAM. Hypo-responsiveness to re-stimulation was not due to apoptosis, generation of FoxP3-positive regulatory T cells or inhibitory cytokines. Acquisition of the anergic phenotype correlated with up-regulation of GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes) protein in CD4+ T cells. Inhibition of human CD4+ T cell activation by LAM also was associated with increased GRAIL expression. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of GRAIL before LAM pre-treatment abrogated LAM induced hypo-responsiveness. In addition, exogenous IL-2 reversed defective proliferation by down-regulating GRAIL expression. These results demonstrate that LAM up-regulates GRAIL to induce anergy in Ag-reactive CD4+ T cells. Induction of CD4+ T cell anergy by LAM may represent one mechanism by which M. tuberculosis evades T cell recognition. PMID:26667170

  9. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Rocha, Juliana C.B.; Mello, Joao C.P. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: mello@uem.br; Almeida, Glalber C. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 {mu}L and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  10. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  11. Anisotropic Snowman-Like Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized byCaesalpinia sappanExtract andIn VitroAntibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You Jeong; Park, Youmie

    2018-06-01

    Anisotropic snowman-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using the extract of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood as a reducing agent in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Two surface plasmon resonance bands of the orange solution were observed at 446 nm and 539 nm in UV-visible spectra. High-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of the AgNPs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images clearly revealed snowman-like AgNPs with an average size of 34.36 ± 11.44 nm. The C-O functional group was most likely involved in the synthesis of the AgNPs, which was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Most interestingly, the snowman-like AgNPs exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the spherical AgNPs and the extract alone. Among the tested strains, the snowman-like AgNPs showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4.69 μg/mL for the extract and 0.443 μg/mL for the silver. The antibacterial activity of the snowman-like AgNPs increased 24-fold against S. aureus. These results strongly suggested that the snowman-like AgNPs synthesized from C. sappan extract have potential for treating infected disease caused by S. aureus when the antibacterial activity was combined from plant extract and AgNPs. To our knowledge, the present report is the first in which the snowman-like AgNPs synthesized using a plant extract as a reducing agent showed excellent In Vitro antibacterial activity.

  12. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, B N; Girish, T K; Raghavendra, R H; Naidu, K Akhilender; Rao, U J S Prasada; Rao, K S

    2014-04-01

    Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory) in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments...

  14. Group Theoretical Properties and Band Structure of the Lamé Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Li, H; Iachello, Francesco; Li, Hui; Kusnezov, Dimitri

    2000-01-01

    We study the group theoretical properties of the Lamé equation and its relation to su(1,1) and su(2). We compute the band structure, dispersion relation and transfer matrix and discuss the dynamical symmetry limits.

  15. Potentiel de germination de Moringa oleifera Lam. Sous différents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentiel de germination de Moringa oleifera Lam. Sous différents traitements à Dshang dans les Hautes terres de l\\'Ouest-Cameroun. TE Pamo, B Boukila, SMC Momo, JR Kana, F Tendonkeng, LB Tonfack ...

  16. Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module (R-LAM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R-LAM (Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module), promises a new generation of both integrated navigation modules and stand-alone navigation subsystems including...

  17. A gallotannin-rich fraction from Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze displays cytotoxic activity and raises sensitivity to doxorubicin in a leukemia cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Diana M; Pombo, Luis Miguel; Urueña, Claudia Patricia; Hernandez, John Fredy; Fiorentino, Susana

    2012-04-10

    Enhancement of tumor cell sensitivity may help facilitate a reduction in drug dosage using conventional chemotherapies. Consequently, it is worthwhile to search for adjuvants with the potential of increasing chemotherapeutic drug effectiveness and improving patient quality of life. Natural products are a very good source of such adjuvants. The biological activity of a fraction enriched in hydrolysable polyphenols (P2Et) obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa was evaluated using the hematopoietic cell line K562. This fraction was tested alone or in combination with the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, camptothecin and taxol. The parameters evaluated were mitochondrial depolarization, caspase 3 activation, chromatin condensation and clonogenic activity. We found that the P2Et fraction induced mitochondrial depolarization, activated caspase 3, induced chromatin condensation and decreased the clonogenic capacity of the K562 cell line. When the P2Et fraction was used in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs at sub-lethal concentrations, a fourfold reduction in doxorubicin inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was seen in the K562 cell line. This finding suggested that P2Et fraction activity is specific for the molecular target of doxorubicin. Our results suggest that a natural fraction extracted from Caesalpinia spinosa in combination with conventional chemotherapy in combination with natural products on leukemia cells may increase therapeutic effectiveness in relation to leukemia.

  18. CARP Institutional Assessment in a Post-2008 Transition Scenario: Implications for Land Administration and Management (LAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Felino; Ballesteros, Marife M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the land administration and management (LAM) issues on CARP and determine the necessary institutional reforms on LAM in view of CARP expiration in 2008. The paper discussed the adverse effects brought about by weak land policy and poor land administration on attaining the objectives of CARP. The poor land records, the lack of information sharing among government land agencies, the tedious land titling and registration process, the unclear land policie...

  19. Moringa oleifera Lam. improves lipid metabolism during adipogenic differentiation of human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, I; Vanella, L; Distefano, A; Nicolosi, D; Maravigna, A; Lazzarino, G; Di Rosa, M; Tibullo, D; Acquaviva, R; Li Volti, G

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including inflammation, cancer and metabolic disorders. We investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. on adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and its impact on lipid metabolism and cellular antioxidant systems. We showed that Moringa oleifera Lam. treatment during adipogenic differentiation reduces inflammation, lipid accumulation and induces thermogenesis by activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α). In addition, Moringa oleifera Lam. induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a well established protective and antioxidant enzyme. Finally Moringa oleifera Lam. significantly decreases the expression of molecules involved in adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of mediators involved in thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that Moringa oleifera Lam. may promote the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue inducing thermogenesis and improving metabolic homeostasis.

  20. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  1. Luffa echinata Roxb. Induces Human Colon Cancer Cell (HT-29 Death by Triggering the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative properties and cell death mechanism induced by the extract of the fruits of Luffa echinata Roxb. (LER were investigated. The methanolic extract of LER inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HT-29 in both dose-dependent and time-dependent manners and caused a significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells. In addition, obvious shrinkage and destruction of the monolayer were observed in LER-treated cells, but not in untreated cells. Analysis of the cell cycle after treatment of HT-29 cells with various concentrations indicated that LER extracts inhibited the cellular proliferation of HT-29 cells via G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle. The Reactive oxygen species (ROS level determination revealed that LER extracts induced apoptotic cell death via ROS generation. In addition, LER treatment led to a rapid drop in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP as a decrease in fluorescence. The transcripts of several apoptosis-related genes were investigated by RT-PCR analysis. The caspase-3 transcripts of HT-29 cells significantly accumulated and the level of Bcl-XL mRNA was decreased after treatment with LER extract. Furthermore, the ratio of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis genes (Bax and Bcl-2 was sharply increased from 1.6 to 54.1. These experiments suggest that LER has anticancer properties via inducing the apoptosis in colon cancer cells, which provided the impetus for further studies on the therapeutic potential of LER against human colon carcinoma.

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar; Vrunda Vernekar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenu...

  3. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  4. Stiochiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, K.; Cheng, Chaohsiung; Jap, B.K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Nikaido, H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The authors have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 {mu}M for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of their results.

  5. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil Wood anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, an endemic species of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois municípios acima citados, em 2002. As análises das amostras seguiram os métodos usualmente empregados em estudo de anatomia de madeiras. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos do lenho e a elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que Caesalpinia pyramidalis revela grande quantidade de celulose e lignina, portanto apresentou perspectivas seguras para produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal. Pode-se propor o uso do lenho do tronco e dos galhos como combustível, desde a fase jovem da madeira, pela grande concentração de fibras, menor concentração de vasos e menor quantidade de parênquima, nos espécimes dos dois municípios.This work aimed to study the anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood, used by local populations in the municipalities of Serra Talhada and Sertânia (Pernambuco, to assess the percentage of wood elements in the trunk and branches in both localities, and in the tree itself, in order to establish total wood potential for energy production. Samples of the trunk (dbh and of branches from six trees of the species were collected in 2002. Sample analysis followed the usual methods of wood anatomy studies. Based on the anatomical parameters of the trunk and the high basic density (>0.84 g/cm³, we conclude that Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood contains an enormous amount of cellulose and lignin. Due to these features, this species showed good perspectives for the production of alcohol and charcoal. The

  6. The diagnostic accuracy of pericardial and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays in patients with suspected tuberculous pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandie, Shaheen; Peter, Jonathan G; Kerbelker, Zita S; Meldau, Richard; Theron, Grant; Govender, Ureshnie; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Dheda, Keertan; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-09-16

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of urinary and pericardial fluid (PF) lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays in tuberculous pericarditis (TBP). From October 2009 through September 2012, 151 patients with TBP were enrolled. Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and/or pericardial histology were the reference standard for definite TBP. 49% (74/151), 33.1% (50/151) and 17.9% (27/151) of patients had definite-, probable-, and non-TB respectively; 69.5% (105/151) were HIV positive. LAM ELISA had the following sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value and negative predictive values (95% confidence interval): urinary - 17.4% (9.1-30.7), 93.8% (71.7-98.9), 2.8 (0.1-63.3), 0.9 (0.8-0.9), 88.9% (56.5-98.0), and 28.3% (17.9-41.6); PF - 11.6% (6.0-21.3), 88% (70.0-95.8), 0.9 (0.08-12.0), 1.0 (0.9-1.1), 72.7% (43.4-90.1), and 26.6% (18.2-36.9). Sensitivity increased with a CD4 ≤ 100 cells/mm(3) from 3.5% to 50% (p LAM ELISA; for urinary LAM strip test, grade 1 and 2 cut-points performed similarly, irrespective of HIV status or CD4 count. For PF LAM strip tests, switching cut-points from grade 1 to 2 significantly reduced test sensitivity (54.5% versus 19.7%; p LAM assays have low sensitivity but high specificity for diagnosis of TBP. The sensitivity of urinary LAM is increased in HIV-infected patients with a CD4 ≤ 100 cells/mm(3).

  7. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant' Anna, Carlos M.R., E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.b [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  8. Antibacterial phenolic compounds from the spines of Gleditsia sinensis Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ligang; Li, Duan; Wang, Jingguo; Liu, Yuanshuai; Wu, Jianyong

    2007-04-01

    This study was to isolate antibacterial compounds from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. spines through bioassay-guided fractionation (against a Gram-positive bacterium Xanthomonas vesicatoria and a Gram-negative bacterium Bacillus subtilis). The crude ethanol extract of G. sinensis spines was partitioned sequentially with solvents of increasing polarity. The ethyl acetate fraction, which exhibited the most significant antibacterial activities among all the solvent fractions, was further separated by column chromatograph, yielding seven phenolic compounds including ethyl gallate (1) and caffeic acid (7), and five flavonoids, dihydrokaempferol (2), eriodictyol (3), quercetin (4), 3,3',5',5,7-pentahydroflavanone (5) and (-)-epicatechin (6). Compounds 4, 5 and 7 showed moderate inhibitory activities against both bacterial species, with compound 7 having the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.125 mg mL(-1), while compounds 1 and 2 showed a weak inhibitory activity only against B. subtilis (MIC 1.00 mg mL(-1)), and compounds 3 and 6 showed insignificant activity against the two bacteria.

  9. Sistema de reprodução de Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Lam. DC Reproduction system of Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Lam. DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Fernandes Guimarães

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available R. dichotoma (Lam. DC. é um arbusto que ocorre na região central do Brasil em ambientes úmidos, brejosos, formando nestes locais grandes populações. O período de floração desta espécie é longo de 6-8 meses. Neste estudo realizado no município de Tanabi (São Paulo, o pico de floração ocorreu no mês de abril. Semelhante ao observado em outras Melastomataceae de anteras tubulares e deiscência poricida, R. dichotoma é polinizada por abelhas vibradoras. Este estudo constatou que esta espécie é autocompatível com 59% de sucesso obtido nas autopolinizações manuais (n=90 e não foi observada a presença de agamospernmia (n=85. A polinização cruzada (xenogamia foi predominante, sendo que 66% das flores polinizadas desenvolveram frutos (n=92. Surpreendentemente, apesar desta espécie apresentar anteras poricidas constatou-se a ocorrência de autopolinização espontânea em 33% das flores (n=92.R. dichotoma (Lam.. DC. is a shrub native of Central Brazil, occurring in large population in wet, marsh like environment. The present study was carried out at the municipality of Tanabi (São Paulo State. The flowering season of this species is long lasting ca. 6-8 months, but April is the month when most individuals are in flower. Similar to other Melastomataceae species possessing tubular and poricidal anthers, R. dichotoma is pollinated by buzz bees. The species, as indicated in this study, is self-compatible, 59% of success resulted from artificial self-pollination (n=90. Agamospermy did not occur (n=85. Cross pollination (xenogamy proved to be predominant: 66% fruits was obtained from cross-pollinated flowers (n=92. Although the present species has poricidal anthers, surprisingly spontaneous sef-pollination was observed 33% of success (n=92.

  10. Atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz Antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Braz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz pertence a família Crassulaceae e é conhecida vulgarmente como coirama, folha-da-fortuna, ou folha-do-ar, sendo usada popularmente como antifúngico, no tratamento da hipertensão, em úlceras e em inflamações. O presente estudo objetivou analisar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz em modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por indometacina em Rattus norvegicus, machos (150 a 250 g com idade de 70 dias. Os animais receberam por via oral: água, extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz (1 e 2 g Kg-1 ou ranitidina (60 mg Kg-1 , fármaco com ação gastroprotetora conhecida que atua bloqueando os receptores de histamina H2. Após uma hora dos tratamentos, todos animais receberam indometacina via intraperitoneal. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz possui ação gastroprotetora; na dose de 1 g Kg-1 inibiu 45,49% o índice de ulceração induzido pela indometacina, e, na dose de 2 g Kg-1, inibiu 49,50%. Sugere-se o envolvimento de vários mecanismos na ação gastroprotetora dessa planta e não somente uma possível participação das prostaglandinas nesse efeito. Estudos futuros com diferentes modelos de indução de úlcera gástrica tornam-se necessários para melhor avaliar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz.Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz belongs to the family Crassulaceae, is popularly known as "coirama", "folha-da-fortuna", or "folha-do-ar" and has been commonly used as antifungal, in the treatment of hypertension, ulcers and inflammation. The present study aimed to analyze the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz using indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in Rattus norvegicus, males (150-250 g aged 70 days old. The animals received by the oral route: water, aqueous extract from

  11. Emergency contraceptive pills as a backup for lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) of contraception: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Omar M; Hassen, Shaimaa G; Nour, Sanna A; Kames, Mervat A; Yones, Entsar M

    2013-03-01

    The use of breastfeeding as a method of birth spacing occasionally ends in "unplanned pregnancy." This is due to unexpected expiration of one or more of the lactation amenorrhea method (LAM) prerequisites. The current study tests a new concept that the in-advance provision of single packet of progestogen emergency contraception (EC) pills during the postpartum LAM counseling may decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy during breastfeeding. This was a registered two-armed randomized controlled trial (NCT 01111929). Women intending to breastfeed and to postpone pregnancy for 1 year or more were approached. They received adequate postpartum contraceptive counseling. Women intending to use LAM were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The LAM-only group received the proper LAM counseling and did not receive counseling about EC. The LAM-EC group received counseling for both LAM and EC with in-advance provision of one packet of EC pills. They were advised to use these pills if one of the prerequisites of LAM expires and sexual relation has occurred before the initiation of another regular contraceptive protection. All the participants were advised that they need to use another regular method upon expiration of any of the LAM prerequisites. Eligible women were 1158 parturients randomized into two equal groups. Forty-four percent of the women provided with EC used them. Significantly more women in the LAM-EC group initiated regular contraception within or shortly after the first 6 months postpartum when compared with those in the LAM-only group (30.5% vs. 7.3%, respectively; p=.0004). Pregnancy occurred in 5% of the LAM-only group as compared with 0.8% in the LAM-EC group (p=.005). Minimal side effects were reported after EC use. In-advance provision of EC pills can increase the rate of initiation of regular contraception once one or more of the prerequisites of LAM expire. Consequently, the use of EC pills as a temporary backup of LAM can decrease the incidence

  12. Predictive and prognostic properties of TB-LAM among HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elia, Alexander; Evans, Denise; McNamara, Lynne; Berhanu, Rebecca; Sanne, Ian; Lönnermark, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment LAM +ve at baseline. LAM had poor sensitivity (0.0% 95% CI 0.00-23.2) to predict incident TB within 6 months of initiation. We analyzed 22 patients with a confirmed TB diagnosis at initiation separately. Of these, LAM +ve patients (27%) showed lower CD4 gains compared to LAM negative patients (median increase 103 vs 199 cells/mm(3); p = 0.08). LAM has limited value for accurately predicting incident TB in patients with higher CD4 counts after ART initiation. LAM may help identify TB/HIV co-infected patients at ART initiation who respond more slowly to treatment and require targeted interventions to improve treatment outcomes. Larger studies with longer patient follow-up are needed.

  13. New Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM sublineage with geographical specificity for the Old World revealed by phylogenetical and Bayesian analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-12-01

    We recently showed that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineage LAM9 could be subdivided as two distinct subpopulations - each reflecting its unique biogeographical structure and evolutionary history. We subsequently attempted to verify if this genetic structuration could be traced in an enlarged global sample. For this purpose, we analyzed global evolutionary relationships of LAM strains in a large dataset (n = 1923 isolates from 35 countries worldwide) with concomitant spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data, followed by a deeper analysis of LAM9 sublineage (n = 851 isolates). Based on a combination of phylogenetical analysis and Bayesian statistics, a total of three different clusters, tentatively named LAM9C1, C2 and C3 were described in this dataset. Closer inspection of the phylogenetic tree with concomitant data on origin of isolates with genetic clusterization revealed LAM9C3 being the most tightly knit group exclusively found in the Old World as opposed to LAM9C2 being a loosely-knit group without any phylogeographical specificity; while LAM9C1 appeared with a majority of strains being well-clustered despite some isolates that intermixed with unrelated LAM clusters. Subsequently, we hereby describe a new M. tuberculosis LAM sublineage named LAM9C3 with phylogeographical specificity for the Old World. These findings open new perspectives to study respective migration histories and adaptation to human hosts of specific M. tuberculosis clones during the exploration and conquest of the New World. We therefore plan to reevaluate the nomenclature and evolutionary history of various LAM sublineages using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea de duas populações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Barbosa Coelho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 O objetivo no presente trabalho foi superar a dormência de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea. As sementes foram obtidas em duas populações no município de Acarape e no distrito de Antonio Diogo no Ceará. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições de 50 sementes. Os tratamentos usados foram a sementes de Acarape intactas, b sementes de Acarape escarificadas, c sementes de Antonio Diogo intactas e d sementes de Antonio Diogo escarificadas. A escarificação foi feita com desponte com tesoura de poda no tegumento do lado oposto ao hilo da semente. As características avaliadas foram porcentagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz principal das plântulas. O maior pico de emergência ocorreu aos sete dias após a semeadura. A porcentagem de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (58,25 e 58,50 respectivamente, enquanto as sementes não escarificadas apresentaram menos de 15% de emergência. O índice de velocidade de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (7,94 e 7,20 respectivamente. Os resultados comprovam a dormência tegumentar de sementes de Caesalpinia férrea, a eficiência da escarificação mecânica na superação da dormência e que há diferença no processo germinativo de sementes de diferentes populações Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  15. The Role of Context Free Collaboration Design Patterns in Learning Design within LAMS: Lessons Learned from an Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordaki, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an experiment aimed at the design of short learning courses in the context of LAMS, using a number of specific context-free collaboration design patterns implemented within LAMS. In fact, 25 Prospective Computer Engineers (PCEs) participated in this experiment. The analysis of the data shows that PCEs fully used these context…

  16. A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

  17. The de Bono LAMS Sequence Series: Template Designs as Knowledge-Mobilising Strategy for 21st Century Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the five interlocking de Bono LAMS sequences are introduced as a new form of generic template designs. This transdisciplinary knowledge-mobilising strategy is based on Edward de Bono's attention-directing ideas and thinking skills, commonly known as the CoRT tools. The development of the de Bono LAMS sequence series is an important…

  18. Crescimento inicial de mudas de pau ferro (Caesalpinia ferreaMart. ex Tul. var. leiostachya Benth. sob diferentes regimes hídricos Initial growth of wood iron (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul var. leiostachya Benth under different hydric regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Regina Lenhard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul. var. leiostachya Benth -Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae sob quatro regimes hídricos (alagamento, 70%, 40% e 12,5% de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram submetidas aos tratamentos aos 60 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de oito mudas por tratamento. Após 7 dias de permanência sob tratamento, iniciaram-se as avaliações. O diâmetro (6,5 mm, teor relativo de água (52,45%, área foliar específica (174,58 g cm², taxa de crescimento relativo (0,0160 g g-1, taxa assimilatória líquida (0,0004 g dm-2 dias-1 e peso específico de folha (0,0062 g cm² não variaram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. As mudas sob 70% CC apresentaram maior altura (84,6cm, tamanho da raiz (28,9 cm, massa seca da raiz (6,24 g, área foliar (376,0 cm², massa seca da folha (1,98 g, massa seca da parte aérea (8,27 g e teor de clorofila (31,67 ìg cm². A razão de peso específico (0,2368 g g-1 e o teor de nitrogênio (0,37 g kg-1 foram maiores sob 12,5% CC. A razão de área foliar (35,09 g g-1 foi menor sob 12,5% CC. Dessa forma, a melhor condição para a produção das mudas é em 70% da capacidade de campo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of Caesapinia ferrea Mart ex. Tul var. leiostachva Benth (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae under four hidric regimes (overflow, 70, 40 and 12.5% of field capacity. The seedlings were submitted to the treatments after 60 days of age. The experimental delineation was completely randomized with four repetitions of eight seedlings for treatment. After 7 days of permanence under treatment, the evaluations had been initiated. The diameter (6,5 mm, relative water content (52.45%, specific foliar area (174.58 g cm², rate of relative growth (0.0160 g g-1, liquid assimilated rate (0.0004 g dm-2 days-1 and specific weight of leaf (0.0062 g

  19. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  20. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE MORINGA (Moringa oleifera Lam SOB OMISSÃO DE NUTRIENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam is a leguminous species well adapted to arid and semi arid conditions and is largely used as ornamental for parks and gardens in the animal feeding and human diet and as medicinal. Since research informations on this plant species are scarce, the current work aimed to evaluate the production of leaves, stems and roots dry matter in Moringa oleifera Lam seedlings hidroponicaly grown under physiological conditions or not. The treatments used were the following: (1 nutrient solution containing all required macronutrients (experimental control or lacking (2 N; (3 P; (4 K; (5 Ca; (6 Mg and (7 S. The Moringa oleifera Lam showed different responses to the imposed treatments. Nutrient solution free of N, P and Mg decreased whole dry matter production (WDM and increased root to shoot ratios (R/S, however both parameters were not affected in plants grown under absence of K, Ca and S in the nutrient solution.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of induced sputum LAM ELISA for tuberculosis diagnosis in sputum-scarce patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, J. G.; Cashmore, T. J.; Meldau, R.; Theron, G.; van Zyl-Smit, R.; Dheda, K.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To examine whether a lipoarabinomannan (LAM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that offers diagnostic utility using urine in patients with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection can be used in induced sputum to diagnose sputum-scarce patients with suspected TB. DESIGN LAM was measured in induced sputum samples obtained from 61 consecutively recruited sputum-scarce TB suspects in a tertiary hospital respiratory clinic in South Africa. Liquid culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was used as the reference standard. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess alternative LAM concentration cut-offs. RESULTS A total of 87% (53/61) of study patients had a valid M. tuberculosis culture result; 49% (23/53) were HIV-infected and 17% (9/53) were culture-positive for M. tuberculosis. Induced sputum smear microscopy and LAM ELISA had an overall sensitivity of 56% (95%CI 27–81); however, the specificity of LAM ELISA was 48% (95%CI 34–62), while the positive and negative predictive values were respectively 18% (95%CI 8–36) and 84% (95%CI 65–94). An optimal rule-in cut-off selected by receiver operating characteristic (LAM concentration > 5.73 ng/ml) increased test specificity to 98% and reduced sensitivity to 22%. Normalisation of the assay for sample total protein or cell count did not improve diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSIONS In this proof-of-concept study, the ELISA was not clinically useful for TB diagnosis using induced sputum. PMID:22710609

  2. EFECTO INHIBIDOR DEL EXTRACTO ETANÓLICO DE CAESALPINIA SPINOSA (TAYA) EN COMPARACIÓN A HIDRÓXIDO DE CALCIO, PARAMONOCLOROFENOL ALCANFORADO Y CLORHEXIDINA EN GEL AL 2%, SOBRE CEPAS DE ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS. ESTUDIO IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    FLORES ARMAS, CINTYA LISET

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare the inhibitory effect in vitro of the etanolic extract Caesalpinia spinosa (taya) to calcium hidroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The susceptibility test was made, using the method of dissemination in discs. The strains os e. faecalis were sown in plates containing culture médium Mueller Hinton, and placed discs with differents concentrations of etanolic extract, calcium hidroxide...

  3. Coagulation of some humic acid solutions by Moringa oleifera lam seeds: effect on chlorine requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Bawa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to study humic acid solutions and surface waters coagulation by Moringa oleifera Lam seeds aqueous extract. High amounts of such extract (up to 10 g/L were required to clarify humic acid solutions whereas 0.5 g/L were used to remove 90% of initial turbidity of a surface water. The treatment of water with low turbidity (Moringa oleifera Lam seeds extract released a high amount of organic compounds in treated solutions leading to a high chlorine requirement.

  4. Bioassay-guided isolation of vasorelaxant compounds from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senejoux, François; Demougeot, Céline; Kerram, Parhat; Aisa, Haji Akber; Berthelot, Alain; Bévalot, Françoise; Girard-Thernier, Corine

    2012-03-01

    Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae) is traditionally used in Uighur's medicine for the treatment of hypertension. Our study determined and evaluated the bioactive compounds by performing an activity-guided fractionation of a hydroalcoholic extract of the whole plant, using an in vitro model of rat isolated thoracic aortic rings. Seven compounds were identified as active principles: acacetin, apigenin, chrysin, thymonin, acetovanillone, 4-hydroxyacetophenone and ethyl 4-coumarate. Apigenin, chrysin and ethyl 4-coumarate were found to be the most effective. Our results provide the first evidence that the vasodilation induced by Z. clinopodioides Lam. is mediated, at least in part, by phenolic components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  6. Morfo-anatomia foliar de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae Leaf morphoanatomy of Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Donato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. são usadas na medicina popular como hipoglicemiantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfológica e anatomicamente as folhas desta planta, de modo que os dados obtidos possam ser utilizados como referência em exames de controle de qualidade de amostras de fármacos, com vistas a verificar a autenticidade. Folhas inteiras foram diafanizadas e coradas para o estudo da nervação. Secções transversais do pecíolo e transversais e paradérmicas da lâmina foliar foram analisadas em microscópio óptico (MO e a superfície do limbo foi observada, também, em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Foram aplicados testes histoquímicos em material fresco, para identificação e localização de glicídios, amido, taninos, lignina, cristais e sílica. Morfologicamente, a folha é simples, oval-elíptica, com margem inteira, base aguda, ápice acuminado e textura cartácea. A venação é do tipo camptódromo-broquidódromo. Anatomicamente, a folha é hipostomática, com mesofilo compacto e dorsiventral, com três estratos de parênquima paliçádico. A epiderme é uniestratificada, silicificada em algumas regiões e as células exibem paredes anticlinais retas. Em posição subepidérmica ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais e acompanhados por séries cristalíferas. Os dados obtidos são comparados com os de outras espécies de Myrtaceae e conclui-se que as características morfológicas e anatômicas de M. multiflora contribuem para a diagnose.Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. leaves have been used in folk medicine as hypoglycemic. The aim of this work is to describe morphoanatomically the leaves of this plant in order to use the obtained data as reference in quality control tests of drug samples, investigating their authenticity. Whole leaves were diaphanized and stained for venation study. Petiole transverse sections and leaf blade

  7. Gastroprotective activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, F F B P; Fernandes, H B; Piauilino, C A; Pereira, S S; Carvalho, K I M; Chaves, M H; Soares, P M G; Miura, L M C V; Leite, J R S A; Oliveira, R C M; Oliveira, F A

    2011-09-01

    The stem barks of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae), locally known as "mamica de cadela", are popularly used in dyspepsies, stomachic, tonic, antitumoral, antipyretic and are used in treating flatulence and colic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (EEZR) stem barks in acute gastric lesion models, investigating their possible mechanisms. Mice were used for the evaluation of the acute toxicity, and mice and rats to study the gastroprotective activity. The gastroprotective action of EEZR was analyzed in the absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesion models in mice, hypothermic-restraint stress, and ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In the investigation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of EEZR, the participation of the NO-synthase pathway, ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)), the levels of the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NP-SH) and the catalase activity using the ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesion model and the quantification of the gastric mucus and the antisecretory activity through pylorus ligature model in rats were analyzed. The animals did not present any signs of acute toxicity for the EEZR (up to the 4 g/kg dose, po), and it was not possible to calculate the DL(50). EEZR (125-500 mg/kg) exhibited a significant gastroprotective effect in absolute ethanol, HCl/ethanol, hypothermic-restraint stress, and ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric lesion models. EEZR (250 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited still a gastroprotective activity in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model. Gastroprotection of EEZR was significantly decreased in pre-treated mice with l-NAME or glibenclamide, the respective nitric oxide synthase and K(ATP) channels inhibitors. Our studies revealed that EEZR (500 mg/kg) prevented the decrease of the non-protein sulfhydril groups (NP-SH) and increased the catalase levels in ethanol-treated animals. Furthermore, the extract (500 mg

  8. Effect of Moringa oleifera lam . leaves powder on the evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) leaves have exceptional nutritional qualities and they are used against malnutrition in Africa and Asia. The deficiency corrected by M. oleifera leaves powder administration into daily meal of HIV positive and negative patients has been determined during 14 weeks nutritional recovery by ...

  9. Effets des aliments contenant les folioles de Moringa oleifera Lam et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zootechniques et économiques) et à la qualité de la viande des lapins nourris aux aliments à base de folioles de Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) ou aux aliments commerciaux. Au total 144 lapereaux de race locale âgés de 35 à 40 jours dont 79 ...

  10. Effect of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) pods as feed additive on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lam.) pod meal (MPM) on production, immunity, and functional food index of chicken eggs. Two hundred HyLine W36 layer birds aged 50 weeks, 1469 ± 46.63 g, were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design, with five ...

  11. Basic Density and Strength Properties Variations in Cordia Africana (Lam) Grown Under Agroforestry in Arumeru, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahonge, C.P.I.

    2007-01-01

    Variations in basic density and strength properties of Cordia africana (lam) grown under agroforestry in Arumeru district Arusha Tanzania were determined. Tree sampling procedure and data collection based on standard methods (ISO 3129.of 1975). The main results indicated that basic density increased

  12. Adopting Learning Design with LAMS: Multi-Dimensional, Synchronous Large-Scale Adoption of Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilescu-Buga, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) has been trialled and used by users from many countries around the globe, but despite the positive attitude towards its potential benefits to pedagogical processes its adoption in practice has been uneven, reflecting how difficult it is to make a new technology based concept an integral part of the…

  13. Performance of a Press-Lam bridge : a 5-year load-testing and monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Gromala; R. C. Moody; M. M. Sprinkel

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of load tests on an experimental highway bridge erected and put into service on the George Washington National Forest in Virginia in 1977. The bridge, made entirely of Press-Lam, a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) product, was load tested 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after erection. The bridge continues to perform quite well and,...

  14. Solutions of several coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . We provide an extensive set of exact quasiperiodic solutions of a number of coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé polynomials of arbitrary order. The models discussed are: (i) coupled Salerno model, (ii) coupled Ablowitz–Ladik model, ...

  15. Nicosulfuron Biodegradation by a Novel Cold-Adapted Strain Oceanisphaera psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan; Song, Jinlong; Dong, Weiwei; Mu, Yingchun; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Ziwen; Wang, Yanwei; Kong, Delong; Zhou, Yiqing; Jiang, Xu; Zhao, Bin; Han, Gang; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2017-11-29

    Nicosulfuron is a common environmental pollutant, posing a great threat to aquatic systems and causing significant damage to crops. This study reported a cold-adapted strain Oceanisphaera psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC, which efficiently degrades nicosulfuron over a wide range of temperatures (5 to 40 °C). The Box-Behnken design method was used to optimize the degradation conditions. O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC can degrade 92.4% and 74.6% of initially supplemented 100 mg/L nicosulfuron under the optimum and low temperature of 18.1 and 5 °C, respectively, within 7 days. O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC was found to be highly efficient in degrading cinosulfuron, chlorsulfuron, rimsulfuron, bensulfuron methyl, and ethametsulfuron methyl. Metabolites from nicosulfuron degradation were identified by UPLC-MS, and a possible degradation pathway was proposed. Furthermore, O. psychrotolerans LAM-WHM-ZC can also degrade nicosulfuron in soil; 78.6% and 67.4% of the initial nicosulfuron supplemented at 50 mg/kg were removed at 18.1 and 5 °C, respectively, within 15 days.

  16. Solutions of several coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coupled discrete models are ubiquitous in a variety of physical contexts. We provide an extensive set of exact quasiperiodic solutions of a number of coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé polynomials of arbitrary order. The models discussed are: coupled Salerno model,; coupled Ablowitz–Ladik model,; coupled 4 ...

  17. Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. of Moraceae is a large evergreen tree with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. of Moraceae is a large evergreen tree with milky latex. This species occurs wild and is also cultivated for its fruit, which is edible. Leaves are simple and dark green. The branchlets are covered with rust-brown hairs. Inflorescence is axillary. The female inflorescence is globose with individualjlowers ...

  18. Growth and yield of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batates (L.) Lam.) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batates (L.) Lam.) as influenced by type of planting material. O A Namo, O E Michael. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 37-42. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information.

  20. The Diagnostic Value of Urine Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) Antigen in Childhood Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Agustin; Nursiloningrum, Erlin; Arthamin, Maimun Zulhaidah; Olivianto, Ery; Chandrakusuma, Mas Slamet

    2017-03-01

    Diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult because the clinical presentation is not specific, the chest X-ray interpretation has low accuracy and sputum sample is difficult to obtain. Antigen detection test such as rapid urine LAM is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing TB . Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is the main component of M.tuberculosis cell wall. To determine the diagnostic value of urinary LAM antigen for diagnosis of childhood TB. In the present cross-sectional study, subjects were included using consecutive sampling method. All the children aged 0-14 years Suspected of pulmonary or extra pulmonary TB suffering from cough more than two weeks, fever without clear aetiology, loss of body weight or poor weight gain, fatigue, malaise, chronic lymph node enlargement, spine angulation, joint swelling and had history of contact with positive sputum smear adult TB patient were enrolled in the study. Pulmonary and extra pulmonary diagnosis was based on clinical presentation, Tuberculin Skin Test (TST), chest X-ray, Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB) staining and or sputum culture. Urinary LAM level was measured by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Cut off value and Area Under the Curve (AUC) were determined using ROC statistical analysis (SPSS 21.0). Sensitivity and specificity was measured from 2x2 cross table. Out of 61 subjects suspected as TB, 49 (80.3%) were eventually diagnosed with TB. Of those diagnosed with TB, 21 (42.9%) were microbiologically confirmed cases either by sputum microscopy (34.7%) or culture (8.2%), whereas 28 subjects were unconfirmed cases (57.1%). The urinary LAM level was higher in subjects with TB (1.80+1.02) mg/l compared to non-TB group (0.46+0.3) mg/l; pLAM had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity with cut off value 0.98 mg/l using microbiological and clinical confirmation as standard reference and 33% sensitivity and 60% specificity with cut off value 1.69 mg/l using microbiological confirmation only. Urinary LAM

  1. DESCOMPOSICIÓN Y LIBERACIÓN DE NITRÓGENO Y MATERIA ORGÁNICA EN HOJAS DE Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Y Moringa oleifera Lam. EN UN BANCO MIXTO DE FORRAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Petit-Aldana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las tasas de descomposición, la liberación de N y MO en hojas de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. y Moringa oleifera Lam. en un banco mixto de forraje en Yucatán, México, en las épocas de lluvias y sequía, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Se llenaron 120 bolsas con hojas frescas de las especies colectadas, y se colocaron en cada unidad experimental. Se evaluaron tres periodos de incubación para cada tratamiento: cuatro, ocho, y 16 semanas por cada época. A finales del experimento se observó que el proceso de descomposición fue más rápido en la temporada de lluvias. La pérdida de peso y la liberación de N y MO fueron más aceleradas en M. oleifera en monocultivo y en la asociación L. leucocephala con M. oleifera. Los patrones de descomposición de todas las especies siguieron el modelo exponencial simple, con más del 80 % de la masa inicial incorporada al final del periodo de estudio. Se concluye que L. leucocephala, G. ulmifolia y M. oleifera en monocultivo y asociadas, demostraron su capacidad para producir considerables cantidades de materia orgánica y liberar importantes cantidades de N en cortos periodos.

  2. Avaliação da incorporação de galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em sorvetes e comparação com estabilizantes comerciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Ariana Camelo Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o mercado cada vez mais competitivo e consumidores mais exigentes é de suma importância buscar alternativas mais eficientes e diversificadas para a melhoria da qualidade de sorvetes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver sorvetes sabor goiaba utilizando galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em substituição a estabilizantes, avaliar suas propriedades e comparar com dois estabilizantes comumente utilizados (goma xantana e super liga neutra. Para caracterizar os sorvetes foram feitas análises de overrun, resistência ao derretimento, umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos, sólidos totais e pH. A qualidade microbiológica foi investigada pelas análises de coliformes a 45 °C/g, Estafilococos coagulase positiva/g e Salmonella sp/25 g. Sensorialmente, foram avaliados a intenção de compra e os atributos sensoriais de cor, aroma, textura, sabor e impressão global. Foram realizadas três formulações de sorvetes, modificando o estabilizante empregado: super liga neutra (T1, galactomanana de C. pulcherrima (T2 e goma xantana (T3. A taxa de derretimento mostrou-se similar até 35 minutos para as três formulações, mostrando-se comportamentos lineares. As amostras de sorvetes apresentaram um bom valor de overrun. Nenhuma das variáveis físico-químicas apresentou diferença estatística entre si. Sensorialmente, a formulação T2 apresentou desempenho semelhante a T1 e T3. No entanto, o sorvete da formulação T3 apresentou no atributo textura uma nota melhor que o estabilizante super liga neutra (T1. Todas as formulações apresentaram altos índices de intenção de compra por parte dos provadores. Todos os sorvetes produzidos apresentaram-se de acordo com a legislação vigente demonstrando que a galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima pode ser utilizada como substituto aos estabilizantes convencionais.

  3. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  4. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family.

  5. In vitro propagation, ex vitro rooting and leaf micromorphology of Bauhinia racemosa Lam.: a leguminous tree with medicinal values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Udit; Kataria, Vinod; Shekhawat, N S

    2017-01-01

    A micropropagation system for Bauhinia racemosa Lam. was developed involving axillary shoot proliferation and ex vitro rooting using nodal explants obtained from mature tree. MS medium with 3.0 mg l−1 BA (6-benzyladenine...

  6. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S

    2016-02-11

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (Determine(TM) TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm(3) (IQR 89-256/mm(3)). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1-55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4-33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0-66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51-0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression.

  7. Análisis farmacognóstico preliminar de las semillas de Moringa oleifera Lam cosechadas en Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Campo Fernández, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Moringa oleifera Lam (moringa) is a species of recognized use for both humans and animals. The seeds are a source of fixed oils with high content of unsaturated fatty acids and especially oleic acid. This oil can be used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products and as well as in biodiesel. Objective: to develop preliminary pharmacognostic analysis using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam harvested in Jovellanos municipality, Matanzas, Cuba. Methods: moringa seeds were evaluated ...

  8. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  9. Caracterização físico-química e biológica do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Z. Frasson

    Full Text Available Visando estabelecer parâmetros para o controle da qualidade do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, foram realizados testes preconizados pela Farmacopéia Brasileira IV e pela Organização Mundial da Saúde para a avaliação da pureza, através das determinações de materiais estranhos, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis em ácido, umidade, ensaios-limites de cloretos e sulfatos, além da pesquisa de contaminantes microbianos no material pulverizado. Para a caracterização dos constituintes, eventualmente presentes na droga vegetal, foram realizadas as determinações de taninos, dos índices de espuma, intumescimento e amargor e o teste de hemólise; também foi realizada a caracterização do extrato etanólico bruto e suas frações por cromatografia em camada delgada.

  10. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Pin-Ju; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25) by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells), and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells). The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  11. Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ferry; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Prakash, Anupam; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Meis, Jacques F

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging and primary pathogen. There is a lack of information about its environmental spread outside outbreak regions in Mediterranean Europe, North and South America. Environmental sampling for C. gattii and molecular characterization of the obtained isolates will provide an insight into the global spread of the various genotypes. Woody debris of native divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria) trees were sampled across Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean. Colonies suspected for Cryptococcus species were subjected to standard mycology investigations and identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Isolates identified as C. gattii were subjected to amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping, mating-type analysis and multi-locus sequence typing. Ten colonies of C. gattii were cultured from different trunk hollows of the same divi-divi tree. Molecular characterization showed that all isolates were genotype AFLP6/VGII and mating-type α. Multi-locus sequence typing revealed that all isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other. C. gattii is present in the environment of Bonaire, which suggests that this yeast is likely to be present in the environment of other Caribbean islands. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína P. Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. (EECp possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg, vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx- were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx- induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg. Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg. EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats.

  13. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Janaína P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx − were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx − induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  14. BIOMETRIA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES E SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DE JUCÁ (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Augusto Alves Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the characteristics biometrics of the fruit and the effect of the physical and chemical scarification in the germination of seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. Ripe fruits were collected in August of 2007 of existent trees in the campus of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-arid, Mossoró- RN. The evaluations were carried at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Department of Vegetable Sciences of UFERSA. The germination test was constituted of witness and 4 treatments (types of common vinegar: vinegar of alcohol, vinegar of red wine and vinegar of white wine and hot water to 65ºC, with 4 repetitions of 50 seeds. The sowing was in containers plastic with dimensions of 32.5 x 24 x 4 cm (length, width and depth. The used substrates were sand washed sterilized previously and being irrigated with water distilled. The appraised characteristics were: mass of the fresh matter and matter dries of the seedling, germination percentage and index of emergency velocity. The immersion of the seeds in vinegar of white wine favors the germination, the index of germination velocity and the accumulation of fresh and dry matter of the juca seedlings.

  15. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  16. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima: incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and the control was immersed in sterile water. For the germination test, 200 seeds were used, distributed in four replicates of 50 seeds per treatment. The vigor tests consisted of the first count and germination speed index. The evaluation of fungi transmission were performed during the germination test, by counting the symptoms in the primary root, hypocotyl and epicotyl. The treatments reduced the incidence of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. Nigrospora sp and Pestalotiasp..It was also found the fungus Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. associated with the lesions in the seed integument. The treatments provided a higher percentage of germination of seedlings. Higher percentages of germination were observed when oil extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum vulgare were used.

  17. Metalloadsorption by Escherichia coli Cells Displaying Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Anchored to the Outer Membrane Protein LamB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carolina; Kotrba, Pavel; Ruml, Tomas; Cebolla, Angel; De Lorenzo, Víctor

    1998-01-01

    Yeast (CUP1) and mammalian (HMT-1A) metallothioneins (MTs) have been efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the outer membrane protein LamB. A 65-amino-acid sequence from the CUP1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast [Y] MT) was genetically inserted in permissive site 153 of the LamB sequence, which faces the outer medium. A second LamB fusion at position 153 was created with 66 amino acids recruited from the form of human (H) MT that is predominant in the adipose tissue, HMT-1A. Both LamB153-YMT and LamB153-HMT hybrids were produced in vivo as full-length proteins, without any indication of instability or proteolytic degradation. Each of the two fusion proteins was functional as the port of entry of lambda phage variants, suggesting maintenance of the overall topology of the wild-type LamB. Expression of the hybrid proteins in vivo multiplied the natural ability of E. coli cells to bind Cd2+ 15- to 20-fold, in good correlation with the number of metal-binding centers contributed by the MT moiety of the fusions. PMID:9573175

  18. Immunosuppressive activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. in experimental immune inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2010-07-06

    Traditionally, the plant Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is used for the treatment of ascites and rheumatism, while the dried seeds of the plant are used as an 'anti-allergic' agent. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ethanolic extract of seeds from Moringa oleifera Lam. in experimental immune inflammation. Circulatory and splenic leukocyte counts, delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and humoral antibody responses were measured in mice using SRBC as the antigen. In addition, macrophage phagocytosis was measured by the carbon clearance test. The extract dose-dependently (50, 100 and 200mg/kg) inhibited spleen weight as well as circulatory leukocyte and splenocyte counts. The delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction was significantly inhibited (PMoringa oleifera have immunosuppressive activity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effets du tractus digestif de chèvres sur la germination de Zizyphus mauritiana Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guèye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Goat Digestive Tractus on the Seeds Germination of Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. The jujube tree (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam., a plant of numerous uses, native of Africa is threatened to extinction. The presence of lignified endocarpe scarcely permeable to water and to air inhibits seed germination and consequentiy limits its regeneration. Its preservation requires good knowledge of various factors controlling seed dormancy. The mechanisms involved in breaking seed dormancy were studied in light of natural scarification. The results showed that isolated seeds obtained after breaking endocarpe gave the highest germination rate (88 %. In this case, seeds germinated sooner, five days after sowing. The fruits which have passed in transit in the digestive tube of goat presented germination rate (69 % significantly more important than those of intact fruits (61 %. However, the germination rate of ingested fruits was, in average, more important than those of the seeds with endocarpe and no ingested (65 %.

  20. Antidiabetic Activity of Cocor Bebek Leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Dwiatmi Dewiyanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity of Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor and south of Tangerang city has been studied. The study was conducted in vitro using α glucosidase inhibitor method. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is 40.94 ppm, 33.58 ppm and 16.12 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is 10.22 ppm. The results showed that Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers. ethanolic extract had antidiabetic activity with IC50 less than 100 ppm. However, the activity is lesser than quercetin.

  1. New α-glucosides of caffeoyl quinic acid from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Ahmed, Fakhruddin Ali; Kurimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kim, Sang-Yong; Shibata, Hirofumi; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Two new caffeoyl quinic acid α-glucosides, together with three known caffeoyl quinic acids and five known flavonoid glucosides, were isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 4-O-(4'-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (2) by spectroscopic analyses.

  2. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Claudia R. B.; Mazzafera, Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils). Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium c...

  3. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshan Shamilov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL. and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL. which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  4. Performance Indicators in a Lean Manufacturing Enterprise : Case: Oy CrossLam Kuhmo Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Sirviö, Janika

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was assigned by Oy CrossLam Kuhmo Ltd., a recently established lean company that manufactures CLT panels. There was a need to start measuring the performance of the company. Therefore, the objective of the thesis was to discover the factors affecting the performance indicator selection and accordingly, to define the appropriate performance indicators. The balanced scorecard served as a framework for defining the indicators. The research approach is qualitative. The primary data...

  5. Evaluation of Two Moringa oleifera Lam Varieties Using Different Substrates in Nursery Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Damisela Pacheco Veiga; Idania Yero Pino; Nelson Heriberto Martin Cuesta; Delmy Triana González; Oscar Loyola Hernández

    2016-01-01

    A nursery study was made on brown soil with typical carbonate to evaluate agroproductive behavior of Plain and Supergenious Moringa oleifera Lam varieties, using different substrates. Three substrates were studied (worm castings, decomposed cattle manure and compost), using a randomized block experimental design, with 8 treatments and three replicas. The evaluation included the amount of leaves 30 days after germination, plant height until transplantation every ten days and at 30 days, stem d...

  6. INTEGRATING LMSs IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS:Greek Teachers’ Initial Perceptions about LAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros PAPADAKIS,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available E-learning with the use of Learning Management Systems, has been increasingly adopted in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education with the expectation to increase students’ motivation and infuse activity-centred learning strategies with various educational benefits. This study has investigated the initial perceptions of Greek teachers about the integration of LAMS, a Learning Activity Management System, in the educational praxis. Through a multifaceted research method, involving a small scale participatory action research, the research team attempted to investigate the preconditions required to integrate LAMS in the everyday lesson. Two tutorial workshops were organized with the participation of 46 educators from geographically diverse urban areas, from K-12 to Tertiary Education. Results indicated that teachers have developed a positive attitude towards LAMS and the use of collaborative online tools during the educational process. Although teachers have certain objections on integrating LMSs, which stem mainly from the current status of the Greek educational system, they accept relative advantages of integrating online collaborative approaches over the traditional face-to-face approach. Well-organized and carefully implemented tutorial workshops can spark teachers’ interest and bring about change in the educational process. Small scale interventions such as these can prove to foster dialogue among teachers of various backgrounds and set the foundations to create online communities of practice for innovative teachers.

  7. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  8. Interaction of Bacteriophage l with Its E. coli Receptor, LamB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy Chatterjee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The initial step of viral infection is the binding of a virus onto the host cell surface. This first viral-host interaction would determine subsequent infection steps and the fate of the entire infection process. A basic understating of the underlining mechanism of initial virus-host binding is a prerequisite for establishing the nature of viral infection. Bacteriophage λ and its host Escherichia coli serve as an excellent paradigm for this purpose. λ phages bind to specific receptors, LamB, on the host cell surface during the infection process. The interaction of bacteriophage λ with the LamB receptor has been the topic of many studies, resulting in wealth of information on the structure, biochemical properties and molecular biology of this system. Recently, imaging studies using fluorescently labeled phages and its receptor unveil the role of spatiotemporal dynamics and divulge the importance of stochasticity from hidden variables in the infection outcomes. The scope of this article is to review the present state of research on the interaction of bacteriophage λ and its E. coli receptor, LamB.

  9. Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae en la provincia de Alicante [Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae in the province of Alicante (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pablo FERRER GALLEGO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se cita por primera vez para la flora de la Comunidad Valenciana la presencia de Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. en la provincia de Alicante, especie hasta el momento únicamente localizada dentro de la Península Ibérica en las provincias de Almería y Murcia, y con una cita dispersa en Córdoba. La planta se ha localizado cerca del límite con la Región de Murcia. Aparentemente se trata de la cita mundial más septentrional para la especie en el Mediterráneo Occidental.. ABSTRACT: A first citation of Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. in the Valencian Community (Spain is reported. Formerly the species was citated in the Iberian peninsule from the provinces of Murcia and Almeria; in addition there is a disperse citation from Cordoba. This plant has been found in the province of Alicante, close to the borderline with the neighbouring Region of Murcia. It deals apparently with the Northernmost site for this species in the Western Mediterranean.

  10. Stool Xpert MTB/RIF and urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) for diagnosing tuberculosis in hospitalized HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCourse, Sylvia M; Pavlinac, Patricia B; Cranmer, Lisa M; Njuguna, Irene N; Mugo, Cyrus; Gatimu, John; Stern, Joshua; Walson, Judd L; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Oyugi, Julius; Wamalwa, Dalton; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-10-12

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. Hospitalized, HIV-infected children ≤12 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent to poststabilization ART initiation in Kenya underwent TB evaluation. At enrollment, sputum or gastric aspirates (GA) were collected for TB culture and Xpert, stool for Xpert, and urine for lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LAM ). When possible, a second sputum/GA culture was obtained. Stool Xpert and urine LAM performance were compared to reference sputum/GA culture. Among 165 HIV-infected children, median age was 24 months (IQR 13-58), median CD4% was 14.3% (IQR 8.9-22.0%), and 114 (69.5%) had severe immunosuppression. Thirteen (7.9%) children had confirmed TB (positive culture and/or Xpert). Sputum/GA Xpert, Stool Xpert, and urine LAM sensitivities were 60% (95% CI 26-88%), 63% (95% CI 25-92%), and 43% (95% CI 10-82%), respectively. Specificity was 98% (95% CI 94-100%) for sputum/GA Xpert, 99% (95% CI 95-100%) for stool Xpert, 91% (95% CI 84-95%) for urine LAM . Stool Xpert and urine LAM sensitivity increased among children with severe immunosuppression (80% [95% CI 28-100] and 60% [95% Cl 15-95%]). Stool Xpert had similar performance compared to sputum/GA Xpert to detect TB . Urine LAM had lower sensitivity and specificity, but was higher among children with severe immunosuppression. Stool Xpert and urine LAM can aid rapid detection of TB in HIV-infected children using easily accessible samples .

  11. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  12. Synergy of aminoglycoside antibiotics by 3-Benzylchroman derivatives from the Chinese drug Caesalpinia sappan against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, G Y; Han, Z Q; Hao, X Y; Han, J; Li, Z S; Wang, G C

    2014-06-15

    The in vitro antimicrobial activities of three 3-Benzylchroman derivatives, i.e. Brazilin (1), Brazilein (2) and Sappanone B (3) from Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae) were assayed, which mainly dealt with synergistic evaluation of aminoglycoside and other type of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the three compounds through the Chequerboard and Time-kill curve methods. The results showed that Compounds 1-3 alone exhibited moderate to weak activity against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and other standard strains by MICs/MBCs ranged from 32/64 to >1024/>1024 μg/ml, with the order of activity as 1>2>3. Chequerboard method showed significant anti-MRSA synergy of 1/Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Amikacin, Etimicin and Streptomycin) combinations with (FICIs)50 at 0.375-0.5. The combined (MICs)50 values (μg/ml) reduced from 32-128/16-64 to 4-8/4-16, respectively. The percent of reduction by MICs ranged from 50% to 87.5%, with a maximum of 93.8% (1/16 of the alone MIC). Combinations of 2 and 3 with Aminoglycosides and the other antibiotics showed less potency of synergy. The dynamic Time-killing experiment further demonstrated that the combinations of 1/aminoglycoside were synergistically bactericidal against MRSA. The anti-MRSA synergy results of the bacteriostatic (Chequerboard method) and bactericidal (time-kill method) efficiencies of 1/Aminoglycoside combinations was in good consistency, which made the resistance reversed by CLSI guidelines. We concluded that the 3-Benzylchroman derivative Brazilin (1) showed in vitro synergy of bactericidal activities against MRSA when combined with Aminoglycosides, which might be beneficial for combinatory therapy of MRSA infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  14. One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit fruit extract and its effect on pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Basavegowda

    2015-02-01

    It can be concluded that the fruit of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul E. coli, and Streptobacillus. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  15. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  16. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Bapat, V A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant capacity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Fam. Moracae) fruit pulp (JFP) obtained from Western Ghats India was determined by evaluating the scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power assays and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical cation decolorization assay. JFP was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). The ethanol and water are the best solvents for the extracting phenols and flavonoids from the JFP. The antioxidant activities of JFP extracts were correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. The results indicated that the jackfruit pulp is one natural source of antioxidant compounds.

  18. Periodic differential equations an introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and allied functions

    CERN Document Server

    Arscott, Felix M; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1964-01-01

    Periodic Differential Equations: An Introduction to Mathieu, Lamé, and Allied Functions covers the fundamental problems and techniques of solution of periodic differential equations. This book is composed of 10 chapters that present important equations and the special functions they generate, ranging from Mathieu's equation to the intractable ellipsoidal wave equation.This book starts with a survey of the main problems related to the formation of periodic differential equations. The subsequent chapters deal with the general theory of Mathieu's equation, Mathieu functions of integral order, and

  19. Aislamiento e identificación de volátiles de Physalis philadelphica LAM

    OpenAIRE

    Humberta G. Calyecac Cortero

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue aislar e identificar los componentes volátiles del tomate de cáscara Physalis philadelphica Lam. Por lavado con hexano, aireación dinámica (AD) y micro extracción en fase sólida (MEFS) se aislaron volátiles de P. philadelphica, los cuales se analizaron e identificaron por cromatografía de gases (CG) y CG acoplada a espectrometría de masas (CG-EM). Los compuestos recolectados por AD y MEFS se identificaron como salicilato de metilo, β-cariofileno, β-pi...

  20. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and urease inhibitory potential of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammad Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the antimicrobial, antiradical and urease inhibitory potential along with photochemical investigation of the crude extracts of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam. Phytochemical screening of both the crude (hot/cold) alcoholic and aqueous extracts of C. digitatum showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. The crude methanolic extract (hot/cold) exhibited good antioxidant activity, while the aqueous extract was a weak antioxidant. The crude methanolic extract was found to be more active against Bacillus subtilis, while both the extracts showed moderate antifungal potential, the methanolic crude extract showed good urease inhibitory activity compared with the aqueous crude extract.

  1. Composition of the essential oil of Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. leaves from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, J D; Boligon, A A; Machado, M M; Athayde, M L

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from Buddleja thyrsoides Lam leaves from south Brazil. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the detection of 12 components, representing 91.4% of the total oil composition. Germacrene D (27.16%), 1,10-di-epi-Cubenol (13.37%), α-Cadinol (12.95%), Bicyclogermacrene (9.00%), Globulol (8.59%) and caryophylene E (5.26%) were the main components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the composition of essential oil of the B. thyrsoides collected in Brazil.

  2. Evaluation of Two Moringa oleifera Lam Varieties Using Different Substrates in Nursery Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damisela Pacheco Veiga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A nursery study was made on brown soil with typical carbonate to evaluate agroproductive behavior of Plain and Supergenious Moringa oleifera Lam varieties, using different substrates. Three substrates were studied (worm castings, decomposed cattle manure and compost, using a randomized block experimental design, with 8 treatments and three replicas. The evaluation included the amount of leaves 30 days after germination, plant height until transplantation every ten days and at 30 days, stem diameter, and root length and diameter. The best results were achieved with soil + wormcast in the two varieties.

  3. LAM add-on ADV combination therapy or ETV monotherapy for CHB patients with suboptimal response to ADV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongyu; Ding, Feng; Chen, Jianyang; Zhang, Yimin; Xiang, Dairong; Lian, Jiangshan; Zeng, Linyan; Yu, Liang; Hu, Jianhua; Li, Yongtao; Lu, Yingfeng; Liu, Yuanchun; Zheng, Lin; Li, Lanjuan; Yang, Yida

    2015-01-01

    Among the available nucleos(t)ide analogues adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) is relatively cheap and widely used in rural area in China. However, there are insufficient data on recommendation for patients with suboptimal response to ADV after 48 weeks of treatment in order to reduce the resistance rate in the long term. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of LAM add-on combination therapy versus ETV monotherapy for patients with suboptimal response to ADV. 136 patients with suboptimal response to ADV were randomly assigned to the add-on LAM with ADV combination therapy (68 patients) group and the ETV monotherapy (68 patients) group. Patients in the add-on group were prescribed 100 mg LAM and 10 mg ADV per day, while the monotherapy group received 0.5 mg ETV per day for 48 weeks. Tests for liver and kidney function, HBV serum markers, HBV DNA load, were performed every 3 months. The mean patient age in LAM add-on group and ETV monotherapy was 38.59 ± 7.65 and 37.56 ± 8.67 years respectively. The HBV DNA undetectable rate in the LAM add-on group and the ETV group were not significant difference at week 4, 12 and 24 (P > 0.05). However, the HBV undetectable rate in the ETV group was higher than that in the LAM add-on group at week 36 and 48 (P = 0.043 for week 36 and P = 0.038 for week 48). There was no significant difference both for HBeAg loss and HBeAg seroconversion between two groups (P > 0.05) at 48 weeks. Meanwhile, our study also demonstrated that the mean eGFR levels in LAM add-on group was decreased from 99.6 ± 8.71 at baseline to 86.4 ± 9.83 at the end of 48 weeks, which was significantly higher than that in the ETV monotherapy group (P add-on group experienced eGFR reduction by 20-30% from baseline at 48 weeks. No patients developed hyposphosphatemia in our study. Our study clearly showed that switch to ETV monotherapy was the more effective and more safe than that of LAM add-on combination therapy for patients with suboptimal response

  4. Interaction of human laminin receptor with Sup35, the [PSI⁺] prion-forming protein from S. cerevisiae: a yeast model for studies of LamR interactions with amyloidogenic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Pampeno

    Full Text Available The laminin receptor (LamR is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrP(C. Whether LamR interacts with PrP(Sc exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrP(Sc, is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI⁺] and [psi⁻]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI⁺] strains. The presence of [PSI⁺] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI⁺] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI⁺] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases.

  5. Stress polishing of E-ELT segment at LAM: full-scale demonstrator status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Rousselet, Nicolas; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel; Floriot, Johan; Vivès, Sébastien; Lemaitre, Gérard; Carré, Jean François; Cayrel, Marc

    2011-10-01

    The Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) is involved in the prototyping of a full scale demonstrator for stress polishing of segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). Stress polishing method is developed at LAM since more than 40 years, and this mature technology has recently been used with success for VLT instruments. Stress polishing is now considered as a promising manufacturing method for mass production of large off axis mirrors, specifically for ELT segments. This powerful method, based on elasticity theory, allows the generation of super-smooth off-axis aspherics with a minimal amount of high spatial frequency ripples by spherically polishing a warped blank with a full-sized tool. Thanks to the simple spherical polishing, the operation time can be strongly reduced compared to the time-consuming sub-aperture tool methods of grinding and polishing. The goal is to rapidly converge to less than 1 micron RMS of optical quality on a circular blank which will be finally cut hexagonally and finished using Ion Beam Finishing. In this paper we will present the status of the demonstrator and the design of the warping harness prototype that must be able to precisely warp the circular blank.

  6. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical and biomolecular characterization of Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important ingredient of the alpine liqueur "Genepi".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiolo, Patrizia; Matteodo, Maura; Bicchi, Carlo; Appendino, Giovanni; Gnavi, Giorgio; Bertea, Cinzia; Maffei, Massimo

    2009-05-13

    Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important alpine plant used for the preparation of flavored beverages, showed a remarkable intraspecific variability, at both genomic and gene product (secondary metabolites) levels. The variability of A. umbelliformis Lam. currently cultivated in Piedmont (Italy, Au1) and in Switzerland (Au2) was investigated by combining the chemical analysis of essential oil and sesquiterpene lactones and the molecular characterization of the 5S-rRNA-NTS gene by PCR and PCR-RFLP. Marked differences were observed between the two plants. Au1 essential oil contained alpha- and beta-thujones as the main components, whereas Au2 contained 1,8-cineole, borneol, and beta-pinene. Au1 sesquiterpene lactone fractions contained cis-8-eudesmanolide derivatives and Au2 the trans-6-germacranolide costunolide. Specific A. umbelliformis Au1 and Au2 primers were designed on the sequence of the 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. Furthermore, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied using RsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Chemical and biomolecular data contributed to the characterization of A. umbeliformis chemotypes.

  8. Incremental Yield of Including Determine-TB LAM Assay in Diagnostic Algorithms for Hospitalized and Ambulatory HIV-Positive Patients in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Helena; Ferlazzo, Gabriella; Bevilacqua, Paolo; Kirubi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Wanjala, Stephen; Sitienei, Joseph; Bonnet, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    Determine-TB LAM assay is a urine point-of-care test useful for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. We assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM to algorithms based on clinical signs, sputum smear-microscopy, chest X-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB (PTB). Prospective observational cohort of ambulatory (either severely ill or CD4LAM was the difference in the proportion of confirmed TB patients (positive Xpert or MTB culture) diagnosed by the algorithm with LAM compared to the algorithm without LAM. The multivariable mortality model was adjusted for age, sex, clinical severity, BMI, CD4, ART initiation, LAM result and TB confirmation. Among 474 patients included, 44.1% were severely ill, 69.6% had CD4LAM, smear-microscopy, Xpert and culture in sputum were positive in 39.0% (185/474), 21.6% (76/352), 29.1% (102/350) and 39.7% (92/232) of the patients tested, respectively. Of 156 patients with confirmed TB, 65.4% were LAM positive. Of those classified as non-TB, 84.0% were LAM negative. Adding LAM increased the diagnostic yield of the algorithms by 36.6%, from 47.4% (95%CI:39.4-55.6) to 84.0% (95%CI:77.3-89.4%), when using clinical signs and X-ray; by 19.9%, from 62.2% (95%CI:54.1-69.8) to 82.1% (95%CI:75.1-87.7), when using clinical signs and microscopy; and by 13.4%, from 74.4% (95%CI:66.8-81.0) to 87.8% (95%CI:81.6-92.5), when using clinical signs and Xpert. LAM positive patients had an increased risk of 2-months mortality (aOR:2.7; 95%CI:1.5-4.9). LAM should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms in parallel to microscopy or Xpert request for HIV-positive patients either ambulatory (severely ill or CD4LAM allows same day treatment initiation in patients at higher risk of death and in those not able to produce sputum.

  9. Incremental Yield of Including Determine-TB LAM Assay in Diagnostic Algorithms for Hospitalized and Ambulatory HIV-Positive Patients in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Huerga

    Full Text Available Determine-TB LAM assay is a urine point-of-care test useful for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. We assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM to algorithms based on clinical signs, sputum smear-microscopy, chest X-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB (PTB.Prospective observational cohort of ambulatory (either severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl or with Body Mass Index<17Kg/m2 and hospitalized symptomatic HIV-positive adults in Kenya. Incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM was the difference in the proportion of confirmed TB patients (positive Xpert or MTB culture diagnosed by the algorithm with LAM compared to the algorithm without LAM. The multivariable mortality model was adjusted for age, sex, clinical severity, BMI, CD4, ART initiation, LAM result and TB confirmation.Among 474 patients included, 44.1% were severely ill, 69.6% had CD4<200cells/μl, 59.9% had initiated ART, 23.2% could not produce sputum. LAM, smear-microscopy, Xpert and culture in sputum were positive in 39.0% (185/474, 21.6% (76/352, 29.1% (102/350 and 39.7% (92/232 of the patients tested, respectively. Of 156 patients with confirmed TB, 65.4% were LAM positive. Of those classified as non-TB, 84.0% were LAM negative. Adding LAM increased the diagnostic yield of the algorithms by 36.6%, from 47.4% (95%CI:39.4-55.6 to 84.0% (95%CI:77.3-89.4%, when using clinical signs and X-ray; by 19.9%, from 62.2% (95%CI:54.1-69.8 to 82.1% (95%CI:75.1-87.7, when using clinical signs and microscopy; and by 13.4%, from 74.4% (95%CI:66.8-81.0 to 87.8% (95%CI:81.6-92.5, when using clinical signs and Xpert. LAM positive patients had an increased risk of 2-months mortality (aOR:2.7; 95%CI:1.5-4.9.LAM should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms in parallel to microscopy or Xpert request for HIV-positive patients either ambulatory (severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl or hospitalized. LAM allows same day treatment initiation in patients at

  10. Qualidade de jaca (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. desidratada sob diferentes condições de processo Quality of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. dehydrated under different processing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice Freiman de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos da jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. são consumidos na forma in natura pelas mais diversas camadas da população e sua alta perecibilidade leva a um índice elevado de perda pós-colheita, acarretando prejuízos para os produtores dessa frutífera. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura de secagem (50, 60 e 70 °C e do teor de umidade final (20 e 25% sobre as características químicas e sensoriais da jaca desidratada. Foram realizadas análises de matéria seca, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, carboidratos, além da avaliação sensorial. Os resultados globais obtidos mostraram que a jaca desidratada possui teor de matéria seca de 74,2 a 80,9%, cinzas de 3,1 a 3,8%, proteínas de 3,2 a 6,6%, lipídeos de 0,09 a 1,2% e carboidratos de 89,8 a 92,4%. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que o produto de maior aceitação (média de 5,95 foi aquele desidratado a 50 °C e com 20% de umidade final, demonstrando que este pode ser uma alternativa alimentar para as regiões produtoras de jaca.Jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. are consumed in natura by the most diverse sectors of the population, and their high perishability lead to high indexes of postharvest losses, leading to prejudice for the producers of this fruit. Thus the objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of the drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C and the final moisture content (20 and 25% on the chemical and sensory characteristics of dried jackfruit. The overall results obtained showed that the dehydrated jackfruit had a dry matter content of from 74.2 to 80.9%, ash content from 3.1 to 3.8%, protein content from 3.2 to 6.6%, fat content from 0.09 to 1.2% and carbohydrate content from 89.8 to 92.4%. The sensory evaluation showed that the most accepted product (average of 5.95 was dehydrated at 50 °C, with a final moisture content of 20%, showing that this could be a food alternative for areas producing jackfruit.

  11. "Phloem sap analysis of Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub. and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam) and hemolymph of Kerria lacca (Kerr) using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishtha, Amit; Rathi, Brijesh; Kaushik, Sandeep; Sharma, K K; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-10-01

    Females of lac insects especially of Kerria lacca (Kerr) secret a resin known as lac for their own protection, which has tremendous applications. Lac insect completes its lifecycle on several host taxa where it exclusively feeds on phloem sap but Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) are its major hosts. Analysis of phloem sap constituents as well as hemolymph of lac insect is important because it ultimately gets converted into lac by insect intervention. Main phloem sap constituent's viz. sugars and free amino acids and hemolymph of lac insect were analyzed using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The results were transformed to relative percentage of the total sugars and free amino acids analyzed in each sample for comparison among lac insect hemolymph and the phloem sap of the three different host taxa. Sucrose (58.9 ± 3.6-85.6 ± 0.9) and trehalose (62.3 ± 0.4) were the predominant sugars in phloem sap of three taxa and hemolymph of lac insect, respectively. Glutamic acid (33.1 ± 1.4-39.8 ± 1.4) was found to be main amino acid among the phloem sap of three taxa while tyrosine (61 ± 2.6) was the major amino acid in hemolymph of lac insect. The relative percentage of non-essential amino acids (60.8 %-69.9 %) was found to be more in all the three host taxa while essential amino acids (30.1 %-35.4 %) were present at a lower relative percentage. In contrast to this, the relative percentage of essential amino acids (81.9 %) was observed to be higher as compared to non-essential amino acids (17.7 %) in lac insect hemolymph. These results led to the detection of lac insect's endosymbionts. Moreover, this study revealed a clue regarding the importance of development of a synthetic diet for this insect so that a precise pathway of lac biosynthesis could be investigated for thorough understanding.

  12. Understanding the susceptibility to HIV of female and male students case study of LAMS school in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissezounnon, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This research project aims to understand the factors that influence susceptibility to HIV for female and male students in LAMS (Lycee Agricole Meidji o Sekou in Benin), in order to contribute to the reduction of the phenomenon. The results of questionnaires, group discussions and interviews show the

  13. Arabinosylated lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM) mediated intracellular mechanisms against tuberculosis infection: involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shibali; Bhattacharjee, Oindrila; Goswami, Avranil; Pal, Nishith K; Majumdar, Subrata

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis causes severe immunosuppression thereby ensuring the loss of the host protective immune responses. During Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, the pathogen modulates TLR-2 receptor down-stream signaling, indicating the possible involvement of TLR-2 in the regulation of the host immune response. Moreover, different PKC isoforms are also involved in the course of infection. Arabinosylated lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM) possesses immuno-modulatory properties which induce the pro-inflammatory responses via induction of TLR-2-mediated signaling. Here, we found that pretreatment of M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages with Ara-LAM caused a significant increase in the conventional PKC expression along with their active association with TLR-2. This association activated the TLR-2 -mediated downstream signaling, facilitating the activation of MAP kinase P38. All these events culminated in the up-regulation of proinflammatory response, which was abrogated by treatment with PKC-α and P38 inhibitors. Moreover, pretreatment of macrophages with Ara-LAM abrogated the IL-10 production while restored MHC-II expression in the infected macrophages. This study demonstrates that Ara-LAM confers protection against tuberculosis via TLR-2/PKC signaling crosstalk which is responsible for the induction of host protective immune response against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Histochemical aspects of reserves mobilization of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae seeds during germination and seedlings early growth Estudo Histoquímico da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae durante a germinação e crescimento inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Borges Corte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate reserve mobilization in Caesalpinia peltophoroides seeds during germination and initial seedling growth. The variation in these compounds was analyzed from the pre-germination period (0 to 5 days after sowing - DAS to the total cotyledon senescence and abscission at 35 DAS. For this histochemical tests were made on cotyledons fixed in FAA50 or included in glycol-metacrylate. To follow the mobilization of the main reserve compounds, sudan III was used to detect total lipids, xylidine Ponceau to detect total proteins, lugol to detect starch and polarized light to visualize the crystals. The lipids, present in a great quantity in the cotyledon, gradually decreased in the period studied. A greater quantity of starch was observed on the 10th DAS than in the previous periods and it was totally consumed by 30 DAS. The distribution pattern and the morphology of the protein material were very modified by 10 DAS, a period during which it was intensely consumed, remaining only parietally fragments distributed, that practically disappeared at 25 DAS. The calcium oxalate druses were not consumed during the period studied, there was only crystal agglutination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nesses compostos foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS. Para isso, foram realizados testes histoquímicos em cotilédones fixados em FAA50 ou incluídos em glicol-metacrilato. Para acompanhamento da mobilização dos principais compostos de reserva, foi usado o sudan III para detecção de lipídios totais, xylidine Ponceau para proteínas totais, Lugol para amido e luz polarizada para visualização dos cristais. Os lipídios, presentes em maior

  15. Recursos genéticos del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. en Cuba. Especies silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Leopoldo Parrado Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presentan los resultados de la valoración de los recursos genéticos del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam a partir del estudio de material de herbario y fuentes bibliográficas teniendo en consideración el criterio de grupo taxón de Maxted de acuerdo con el cual en Cuba se reporta la presencia de los grupos siguientes: Grupo Taxón 2 – misma serie o sección que el cultivo (7 especies; Grupo Taxón 3 – mismo subgénero que el cultivo Eriospermum (45 especies dentro de este grupo se encuentran 21 especies endémicas y el Grupo Taxón 4 – mismo género que el cultivo (57 especies lo que potencia a Cuba como un centro de diversidad importante para Ipomoea batatas en Latinoamérica y el Caribe . Se ofrece una descripción sucinta de las especies tratadas que incluye distribución, fenología, datos etnobotánicos y el material de herbario consultado. Genetic resources of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. lam. in Cuba. Wild species. ABSTRACT The results of the evaluation of the genetic resources of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam are presented from the study of herbarium material and bibliographic sources taking into account the criterion of Maxted´s taxon group according to which in Cuba is reported the presence of the following groups : Taxon group 2 - same series or section cultivation (7 species Taxon group 3 - same subgenus Eriospermum the crop (45 species within this group are 21 endemic species and Taxon group 4 - same genus as the crop (57 species that fact potenciate to Cuba as an important center of diversity for Ipomoea batatas in Latin America and the Caribbean. A brief description of the treated species including distribution, phenology, ethnobotanical data and herbarium material consulted is provided. A brief description of the treated species including distribution, phenology, ethnobotanical data and herbarium material consulted is provided.

  16. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj G. Jain

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.

  17. Calculation of carbon sequestration and soil fauna associated with Moringa oleifera Lam. in living fences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Loyola Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was completed under edaphoclimatic conditions in Camagüey during one year. The objective was to determine the carbon retention and the soil fauna associated with Moringa oleifera Lam, used for living fences, specifically a one-year-old fence, built on a typical brown soil without carbonate. The approximate carbon sequestration and the soil fauna associated with the species were calculated. The results indicated the advantages of using M. oleifera for living fences, due to their positive environmental effect when sequestring high levels of carbon dioxide (the carbon stored by this species is of 68 kg/a, which is closely equal to 45,35 t of C/km, and they also create a favorable environment for soil fauna. In the assessed period, the worms and the coleopterons were the main groups found, which are also important for maintaning a healthy ecosystem.

  18. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadi, Ravindra V; Gadge, Navneet B; Alagawadi, K R; Savadi, Rudraprabhu V

    2006-04-21

    In India, drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)) is commonly used as a phytotherapeutic agent. The effect of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been studied in male Wistar albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats was also significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment using aqueous and alcoholic extracts. The results indicate that the root-wood of Moringa oleifera is endowed with antiurolithiatic activity.

  19. Biosorption and removal of chromium from water by using moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Meneghel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the adsorption capacity of chromium from contaminated aqueous solutions by using Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm calculated to be 3.191 mg g-1 for the biosorbent. Activated carbon was used for comparison purposes in addition to the biosorbent. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model for both adsorbents. The average desorption value indicated that both the biosorbent and activated carbon have a strong interaction with the metal. The results showed that the biosorbent has advantages owing to its low cost and efficiency in Cr3+ removal from contaminated waters.

  20. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam)--a valuable medicinal food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, Remya; Sivasankar, Subha

    2014-07-01

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam, also known as sweet potato, is an extremely versatile and delicious vegetable that possesses high nutritional value. It is also a valuable medicinal plant having anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Sweet potato is now considered a valuable source of unique natural products, including some that can be used in the development of medicines against various diseases and in making industrial products. The overall objective of this review is to give a bird's-eye view of the nutritional value, health benefits, phytochemical composition, and medicinal properties of sweet potato. Specifically, this review outlines the biological activities of some of the sweet potato compounds that have been isolated, the pharmacological action of the sweet potato extract, clinical studies, and plausible medicinal applications of sweet potato (along with a safety evaluation), and demonstrates the potential of sweet potato as a medicinal food.

  1. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera.

  4. DIFFERENT SUBSTRATA EFFECTS IN THE GERMINATION OF Ochroma pyramidale (CAV. EX LAM. URB. (BOMBACACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to analyze the effect of different substrata in the germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urb. (Bombacaceae. The experiment was conducted in delineation randomized with three treatments (substratum and four repetitions of 25 seeds. The following substrata had been tested: sand + vermiculite (1:1; vermiculite and, sand + shavings (1:1. The effect of substrata through the percentage of germination of the seeds, average time of germination and index of germination speed (IGS were evaluated. There had been significant difference between the treatments in of all the observed variable. The seeds, when conditioned in vermiculite, had presented the biggest tax of germination, greatest speed and lowest germination time.

  5. Chemotherapeutic potential of the volatile oils from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Saulo L; Figueiredo, Patrícia M S; Yano, Tomomasa

    2007-12-08

    In this work, the anti-tumor properties of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves and some terpenes (alpha-humulene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice with 20 mg/kg of the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene for 4 days has significantly increased survival, whereas administration of alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were ineffective in affording protection. Volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene exhibited little direct activity against Ehrlich tumor cells in vitro, while alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene did not such activity. Investigation of the effects of the volatile oil (and terpenes) treatment on total natural killer cells (NK cell) activity from tumor-bearing mice as a possible mechanism of these compounds in vivo revealed that volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene significantly improved NK cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1, a Moloney virus-induced mouse T-cell lymphoma of A/SN origin and Ehrlich ascites cells. As expected, tumor growth in non-treated mice markedly suppressed NK cell cytolysis while the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene reversed this effect when mice were treated with 20-mg/kg dosages of these compounds for 4 days. Summing up, volatile oil exhibits anti-tumor efficacy and significative immunomodulatory action in vivo, which may be related to beta-caryophyllene associated to the synergism of other natural compounds presented in volatile oil from Z. rhoifolium Lam leaves.

  6. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam as a natural sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Garcia

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Jambolão (java plum, Eugenia jambolana Lam, was used as a natural sensitizer of a wide band-gap semiconductor (TiO2 in photoelectrochemical solar cells. The natural dye, adsorbed onto the semiconductor surface, absorbs visible light and promotes electron transfer across the dye/semiconductor interface. Photogenerated current and voltage as high as 2.3 mA and 711 mV, respectively, were obtained and effective conversion of visible light into electricity was achieved. The use of a natural product as the semiconductor sensitizer enables a faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmentally friendly solar cells.O extrato de Jambolão, Eugenia jambolana Lam, foi utilizado como um sensibilizador natural de um semicondutor com separação grande de bandas (TiO2 nas células solares fotoeletroquímica. O corante natural, adsorvido na superfície do semicondutor, absorve luz visível e promove transferência eletrônica na interface corante/semicondutor. A corrente e o potencial fotogerados tão altos como 2,3 mA e 711 mV, respectivamente, foram obtidos observando-se conversão eficiente de luz visível em eletricidade. O uso de um produto natural como o sensibilizador de semicondutor possibilita uma produção mais rápida e simples de células solares mais baratas que não agridem o meio ambiente.

  7. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. B. Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  8. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  9. Retention Of Phenolics, Carotenoids, And Antioxidant Activity In The Taiwanese Sweet Potato ( Ipomoea batatas Lam.) Cv Tainong 66 Subjected To Different Drying Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duvivier, P; Hsieh, P.C; Lai, P.Y; Charles, A.L

    2010-01-01

    ...) of Tainong 66 cultivar sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas Lam.) were investigated. Roots of 12 batches of freshly harvested tuberous root were washed in tap water, allowed to dry, peeled and cut into small pieces...

  10. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  11. Diversidade funcional em sistemas de montado: fluxo de nutrientes em Quercus rotundifolia Lam. Functional diversity in “montado” systems: nutrients fluxes in Quercus rotundifolia Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes dos ciclos de nutrientes em montados de Quercus rotundifolia Lam., relacionados com a precipitação foram estudados na região de Évora, de Novembro de 1996 a Dezembro de 2000. A precipitação bruta, o gotejo a diferentes distâncias do tronco e o escorrimento ao longo do tronco das árvores foram quantificados de modo contínuo, sendo colhidas amostras semanalmente para se proceder à respectiva caracterização química. A quantidade de nutrientes transferidos para o solo através das diferentes soluções foi também determinada. Verificou-se um acréscimo da concentração das espécies iónicas no gotejo em relação à precipitação bruta, o qual foi ainda mais manifesto no escorrimento ao longo do tronco. Estudaram-se, igualmente, as características físico-químicas do solo sob e fora da influência da copa destas árvores, num montado relativamente esparso. Além disso, também se avaliou a quantidade das camadas orgânicas e a quantidade de nutrientes aí retidos. As características físicas e químicas do solo apresentaram, de um modo geral, uma diferenciação positiva em resultado da presença das árvores. Avaliou-se a taxa de mineralização de N nas áreas sob e fora da acção do coberto das árvores, tendo-se observado uma mais elevada disponibilidade deste nutriente nas áreas do sob coberto.Nutrient cycling in Quercus rotundifolia Lam. systems, regarding precipitation was studied at Évora (Southern Portugal, since November of 1996 until December of 2000. The amounts of gross rainfall, throughfall (at different distances from the tree trunk and stemflow were measured continuously and samples for chemical analysis were collected weekly. The concentration of nutrients was higher in the throughfall than in the gross rainfall, especially in the areas closer to the tree trunk. Nutrients transferred to soil, through bulk rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were quantified. The highest concentration of nutrients

  12. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. Pathogenity evaluation on Solanum quitoense Lam. Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.Presence of plant disease caused by pathogens on 42 clones of Solanum quitoense Lam. were evaluated in the north-western region of Popayán, Colombia. The seed of the clons were planted in plastic bags during three weeks and afterwards transplanted to the field. The statistical design

  13. Can Point-of-Care Urine LAM Strip Testing for Tuberculosis Add Value to Clinical Decision Making in Hospitalised HIV-Infected Persons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jonathan G.; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan

    2013-01-01

    Background The urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) strip-test (Determine®-TB) can rapidly rule-in TB in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. However, given high rates of empiric treatment amongst hospitalised patients in high-burden settings (∼50%) it is unclear whether LAM can add any value to clinical decision making, or identify a subset of patients with unfavourable outcomes that would otherwise have been missed by empiric treatment. Methods 281 HIV-infected hospitalised patients with suspected TB received urine LAM strip testing, and were categorised as definite (culture-positive), probable-, or non-TB. Both the proportion and morbidity of TB cases identified by LAM testing, early empiric treatment (initiated prior to test result availability) and a set of clinical predictors were compared across groups. Results 187/281 patients had either definite- (n = 116) or probable-TB (n = 71). As a rule-in test for definite and probable-TB, LAM identified a similar proportion of TB cases compared to early empiric treatment (85/187 vs. 93/187, p = 0.4), but a greater proportion than classified by a set of clinical predictors alone (19/187; pLAM-positive patients who had either definite- or probable-TB were missed by early empiric treatment, and of these 25/39 (64%) would also have been missed by smear microscopy. Thus, 25/187 (8%) of definite- or probable-TB patients with otherwise delayed initiation of TB treatment could be detected by the LAM strip test. LAM-positive patients missed by early empiric treatment had a lower median CD4 count (p = 0.008), a higher median illness severity score (p = 0.001) and increased urea levels (p = 0.002) compared to LAM-negative patients given early empiric treatment. Conclusions LAM strip testing outperformed TB diagnosis based on clinical criteria but in day-to-day practice identified a similar proportion of patients compared to early empiric treatment. However, compared to empiric treatment, LAM

  14. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves Avaliação citotóxica do óleo volátil extraído das folhas do Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo Luis da Silva; Patrícia Maria Figueiredo; Tomomasa Yano

    2007-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A-549 (human lung carcinoma), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), Vero (monkey kidney) cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool) were also tested to ve...

  15. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  16. Karakterisasi Simplisia dan Analisis Kalium, Kalsium, Natrium dan Magnesium pada Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Eka Yulia

    2016-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a plant which is classified to the family of Moringaceae and it can grow quickly. Moringa leave is useful. It has very good nutrients contents, and it also has a sufficient amount of minerals and vitamins. Moringa leaves can be consumed by being cooked, eaten raw, or dried up into moringa leaves powder. Moringa leaves powder has higher amount of nutrients content than fresh moringa leaves. Characterization of the Moringa leaves is not liste...

  17. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human ...

  18. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory activity and melanogenesis inhibition of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeva Nayak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. belongs to Moraceae family and is endemic to Western Ghats and Kerala in India. This species is found to be effective in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer diarrhea and pimples. However extensive biological evaluation on each component of this specific species rarely appears in the literature which restricts its applicability as medicinal herb. The leaf bark and wood of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. were separately extracted with hot ethanol. The wood extract was further fractionated to isolate major active molecule whose structure was determined from its NMR spectra and LCMS analysis. All the extracts of A. hirsutus Lam. were then studied in vitro to evaluate their potential on tyrosinase inhibition free radical scavenging activity by 11-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl DPPH method and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC. Furthermore their effects on melanogenesis inhibition were also evaluated by using murine melanoma cells. Activity guided fractionation of wood extract yielded a pure molecule that was characterized as oxyresveratrol. It was observed that antioxidant activity was higher in wood extract compared to the leaf and bark extracts. Isolated pure oxyresveratrol exhibited a significant antioxidant potential with ORAC value of 366532570 mol Trolox equivalentg and having an IC50 of 4.3 gmL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This molecule was found to be effective for the tyrosinase inhibition with an IC50 of 0.1 gmL and melanogenesis inhibition in cultured melanoma cells by 44.62 at 0.2 gmL. Oxyresveratrol also exhibited significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharide LPS induced tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF-amp945 secretion from J774A1 murine macrophage cell lines. This study provides substantial evidence for the presence of oxyresveratrol in the wood of A. hirsutus Lam. with promising anti-inflammatory antioxidant and skin lightening property.

  19. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    MELO NETO, BERNARDO; LEITÃO, JOSEANA M.S.R.; OLIVEIRA, LUCIANO G.C.; SANTOS, SÉRGIO E.M.; CARNEIRO, SABRINA M.P.; RODRIGUES, KLINGER A.F.; CHAVES, MARIANA H.; ARCANJO, DANIEL D.R.; CARVALHO, FERNANDO A.A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated ...

  20. Analisis Kandungan Mangan dan Zink Pada Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Kering dan Rebus Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Faza, Afina

    2017-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is included in the family Moringaceae, the utilizaation of moringa plant in indonesia society has been a long a time, but moringa’s leaves is the most common used to be dietary fiber. Moringa contains excess nutrients for body needed, one of them is mineral such as calcium, cromium, cupri, flour, iron, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum, phosphor, potasium, sodium, selenium, sulphur, and zinc. The aim of this study is to determine the differentiation content of m...

  1. Uji Aktivitas Antiinflamasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Terhadap Kaki Tikus Jantan yang Diinduksi λ-Karagenan

    OpenAIRE

    Sipayung, Presty

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a complex process, which is often associated with pain and involve events such as increased vascular permeability, increased protein denaturation and membrane changes. One of the medicinal plants used for the treatment of inflammatory / anti-inflammatory is the leaves of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.). Moringa leaves have the potential to be developed into an anti-inflammatory medicine because it contains polyphenols, saponins and essential oils. This study aims to determine ...

  2. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Pankla Sranujit, Rungnapa; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)—induced cytokine production by human...

  3. Efectos del ataque de fitófagos perforadores en el fruto de la encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Cano Sánchez, Esperanza; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    1996-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realizan pruebas de germinación de frutos de encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) afectadas por los fitófagos Curculio elephas Gyll. (COL., CURCULIONIDAE) y las especies del género Cydia, C. penkleriana (D. & Schiff.) y C. fagiglandana (Zel.) (LER, TORTRICIDAE). También recoge una serie de mediciones del fruto cuya finalidad es valorar los daños directos de estas especies.

  4. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  5. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Moringa oleifera Lam. EM DIFERENTES SUSTRATOS E TEMPERATURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLEANE TARGINO OLIVEIRA PEREIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. is an exotic species, from the Indian Northeast, the Moringaceae family and has significant economic importance, with many applications in industry and medi-cine. This species spreads mainly by seed, so obtaining information on the behavior of different temperature and substrate on germination becomes essential since there is no standardized methodology for installation of the germination test. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the influence of substrate and temperature on germination and vigor of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid (UFERSA. The statistical design was completely randomized in a 5x2 factorial scheme (temperature x substrate, totaling ten treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds. The substrates were tested roll paper and vermiculite. Then the seeds were incubated at room Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D. at constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and 20-30 °C alternating with a photoperiod of 8 hours. We evaluated the percentage, the average time and the germination speed index and the shoot length and root and total dry weight of seedlings. The roll paper substrate at temperatures of 25 to 30 °C, as well as vermiculite of 30 °C temperature are the most suitable combinations to evaluate germination and vigor of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam.

  6. Utility of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in diagnosing tuberculosis and predicting mortality with and without HIV: prospective TB cohort from the Thailand Big City TB Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Kawkitinarong, Kamon; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Gatechompol, Sivaporn; Ohata, Pirapon June; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Iampornsin, Thatri; Katerattanakul, Pairaj; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the applicability and accuracy of the urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test in tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infected patients and HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB. Frozen urine samples obtained at baseline from patients in the TB research cohort with proven culture-positive TB were selected for blinded urine LAM testing. One hundred and nine patients were categorized into four groups: (1) HIV-positive patients with TB; (2) HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB; (3) HIV-negative immunocompromised patients with TB; and (4) patients with diseases other than TB. The sensitivity of urine LAM testing for culture-positive TB, specificity of urine LAM testing for patients without TB, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed. The sensitivity of the urine LAM test in group 1 patients with a CD4 T-cell count of >100, ≤100, and ≤50 cells/mm3 was 38.5%, 40.6%, and 45%, respectively. The specificity and PPV of the urine LAM test were >80%. The sensitivity of the test was 20% in group 2 and 12.5% in group 3, and the specificity and PPV were 100% for both groups. A positive urine LAM test result was significantly associated with death. This promising diagnostic tool could increase the yield of TB diagnosis and may predict the mortality rate of TB infection, particularly in TB/HIV co-infected patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Early morning urine collection to improve urinary lateral flow LAM assay sensitivity in hospitalised patients with HIV-TB co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina, Phindile; Randall, Philippa J; Muchinga, Tapuwa E; Pooran, Anil; Meldau, Richard; Peter, Jonny G; Dheda, Keertan

    2017-05-12

    Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensitivity of early morning urine (EMU) versus random urine sampling using the Determine® lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) in HIV-TB co-infected patients. Consenting HIV-infected inpatients, screened as part of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial, that were treated for TB, and could donate matched random and EMU samples were included. Thus paired sample were collected from the same patient, LF-LAM was graded using the pre-January 2014, with grade 1 and 2 manufacturer-designated cut-points (the latter designated grade 1 after January 2014). Single sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and/or TB culture positivity served as the reference standard (definite TB). Those treated for TB but not meeting this standard were designated probable TB. 123 HIV-infected patients commenced anti-TB treatment and provided matched random and EMU samples. 33% (41/123) and 67% (82/123) had definite and probable TB, respectively. Amongst those with definite TB LF-LAM sensitivity (95%CI), using the grade 2 cut-point, increased from 12% (5-24; 5/43) to 39% (26-54; 16/41) with random versus EMU, respectively (p = 0.005). Similarly, amongst probable TB, LF-LAM sensitivity increased from 10% (5-17; 8/83) to 24% (16-34; 20/82) (p = 0.001). LF-LAM specificity was not determined. This proof of concept study indicates that EMU could improve the sensitivity of LF-LAM in hospitalised TB-HIV co-infected patients. These data have implications for clinical practice.

  8. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Amali Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  9. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PLÂNTULAS DE MORINGA oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naedja Nara Araújo Neves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró - RN, for screening the effect of substrate for germination of seeds and seedling growth of Moringa oleifera Lam. It was utilized a completely randomized design with four treatments (substrates: T1= 75% sand + 25% bovine manure, T2= 100% washed sand, T3= 75% sand + 25% worm castings and T4= 75% sand + 25% sawdust and four replications of 25 seeds. The seeds were sown in the substrates contained in wooden boxes (7,5 cm long x 23,5 cm wide x 39 cm deep. Each box was filled with approximately 6 kg of substrate. The substrates were irrigated once a day (until the tenth day, then twice a day until the end experiment (19 th day. Seedling height, root length, number of leaves, whole seedling fresh and dry matter weights, germination velocity index and germination percent were evaluated. It was concluded that the mix 75% sand + 25% worm castings was the most suitable for the initial growth of moringa and the substrate containing 100% sand provided the best germination index for this species.

  10. Influence of shade on the biomass and essential oil production of Lippia citriodora (Lam., Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernane Ronie Martins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shading on the production of essential oil and biomass in Lippia citriodora (Lam. – known as cidrão – in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of four levels of photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR using “Sombrite” black shade netting of 25, 50, 70% of light and full sunlight as the control. The variables root dryness, shoot dryness, number of flowers, total dry weight, root/shoot ratio, and production and content of essential oil were analyzed. Statistically significant differences were observed for the root and shoot dry masses and total dry mass, number of flowers, total dry weight, root/shoot ratio, oil production and trichome number, but not for the oil content. The results showed that at full sunlight the biomass production and trichome number of cidrão were altered, but that the content of essential oil was unaffected.

  11. MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. IDENTIFICATION OF OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE BRAZILIAN MARKET THROUGH PATENT LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Gama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. is an arboreal species originated from the northwest if the Indian subcontinent. This species is cultivated due to its high protein content, its perceived medicinal use, and multiple other applications, including as forage plant. More recently, moringa has been recognized as a potential source of drop-in biodiesel and of biodiesel stabilizing agents. Given these and other characteristics, moringa has great economic potential and possible applicability in many areas. This work presents a brief introduction to the plant itself and its uses. In order to investigate its potential and current uses, with an eye for encumbrances to, and opportunities for, their implementation in the Brazilian market, an intellectual property (IP landscape analysis was carried out. Sources of data used were the EPO (Europe, USPTO (US, WIPO, INPI (Brazil, CPTO (China and TIPO (Taiwan. Of especial interest are those applications for which patent protection does not exist at all or, at least, IP protection in Brazil has not been sought.

  12. Clinical Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Stems Bark in Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common problem in clinical practice. Usually they are asymptomatic and are commonly present with distressing symptoms like pain and burning sensation on urination. Antibiotics are widely used to treat UTIs; however, they have their own limitations like resistance, reinfection, and relapses. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the value of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark as a potential medicine for UTIs. Study Design. 30 patients with UTI were randomly divided into two groups with 15 patients in each group. Shigru bark was given to patients of the first group (trial group) and modern medicines were prescribed to the other group of patients. At least three follow-ups are taken in both groups at the end of every week of treatment. Results. After treatment 66.67 % were cured, 13.33 % improved, 13.33% patients have no change, and 6.67% relapsed in trial group and in control group 46.67% were cured, 26.66% improved, 6.67% patients have no change, and 20% relapsed. Interpretation and Conclusion. The trial drug is significant in the management of UTI. This study needs to be done on a large scale and for a long time.

  13. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity.

  14. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E; Kolapo, Adelodun L; Folarin, Akintomiwa O

    2012-04-01

    Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (PMoringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles.

  15. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2014-08-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves aqueous extract therapy on hyperglycemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Dolly; Kumar Rai, Prashant; Kumar, Amit; Mehta, Shikha; Watal, Geeta

    2009-06-25

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, Moringa oleifera Lam. Syn. Moringa pterygosperma Gaerth (Moringaceae) is commonly used as healing herb to treat diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of M. oleifera leaves aqueous extract therapy on glycemic control, haemoglobin, total protein, urine sugar, urine protein and body weight. Variable doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg kg(-1) of aqueous extract were administered orally by gavage for evaluating their hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and post prandial glucose (PPG) of normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced sub, mild and severely diabetic rats. The dose of 200 mg kg(-1) decreases blood glucose level (BGL) of normal animals by 26.7 and 29.9% during FBG and OGTT studies respectively. In sub and mild diabetic animals the same dose produced a maximum fall of 31.1 and 32.8% respectively, during OGTT. In case of severely diabetic animals FBG and PPG levels were reduced by 69.2 and 51.2% whereas, total protein, body weight and haemoglobin were increased by 11.3, 10.5 and 10.9% respectively after 21 days of treatment. Significant reduction was found in urine sugar and urine protein levels from +4 and +2 to nil and trace, respectively. The study validates scientifically the widely claimed use of M. oleifera as an ethnomedicine to treat diabetes mellitus.

  17. Moringa oleifera Lam prevents acetaminophen induced liver injury through restoration of glutathione level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakurazi, S; Hairuszah, I; Nanthini, U

    2008-08-01

    Initiation of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicities is believed to be promoted by oxidative stress during the event of overdosage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam (MO), an Asian plant of high medicinal value, against a single high dose of APAP. Groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-administered with MO (200 and 800 mg/kg) prior to a single dose of APAP (3g/kg body weight; p.o). Silymarin was used as an established hepatoprotective drug against APAP induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of MO extract was observed following significant histopathological analysis and reduction of the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in groups pretreated with MO compared to those treated with APAP alone. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione (GSH) was found to be restored in MO-treated animals compared to the groups treated with APAP alone. These observations were comparable to the group pretreated with silymarin prior to APAP administration. Group that was treated with APAP alone exhibited high level of transaminases and ALP activities besides reduction in the GSH level. The histological hepatocellular deterioration was also evidenced. The results from the present study suggested that the leaves of MO can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP induced through preventing the decline of glutathione level.

  18. Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thoms. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, V J; Latha, P G; Shyamal, S; Suja, S R; Anuja, G I; Sini, S; Pradeep, S; Rajasekharan, S

    2009-09-07

    Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thoms. (Menispermaceae), locally called 'Padathaali/Padakizhangu' is used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat peptic ulcer. To evaluate the gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activity of Cyclea peltata. The ethanolic extract of Cyclea peltata root was used to evaluate its gastric antisecretory and antiulcer effect in the pylorus-ligated rat model and gastric lesions induced by ethanol or ethanol and indomethacin respectively in rats. The levels of gastric wall mucus, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde, protein and catalase activity in the stomach samples of Cyclea peltata treated and control groups of rats were also quantified. The ethanolic extract of Cyclea peltata roots showed significant antisecretory activity as evidenced by decreased pepsin secretion, gastric juice volume and acid output in pylorus-ligated rats. Pretreatment with Cyclea peltata extract provided significant protection against the peptic ulceration caused by ethanol administered individually, or in combination with indomethacin. Our studies also revealed that pretreatment with Cyclea peltata significantly increased the gastric protein and catalase concentration of ethanol treated rats. Further, it showed significant gastroprotective effects on the stomach wall of ethanol or ethanol and indomethacin treated rats by decreasing malondialdehyde level, increasing the gastric wall mucus and non-protein sulfhydryl groups. The present findings demonstrate that Cyclea peltata ethanolic extract has potent antisecretory and antiulcer effects and justify the traditional/ethnic usage of this herb to treat peptic ulcers and consequent stomach ache.

  19. Identification of volatile compound markers during the ripening and senescence of lulo (Solanum quitoenseLam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpas Iguarán, Eduardo; Taborda Ocampo, Gonzalo; Tapasco Alzate, Omar

    2018-01-01

    Lulo ( Solanum quitoense Lam.) is an exotic fruit cultivated in Colombia. During ripening and senescence, this climactic fruit undergoes biochemical processes that produce the volatiles responsible for its aroma. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the volatile content during the ripening and senescence of lulo. Analysis of the volatile composition of lulo harvested in each of its five ripening stages and during its senescence time when stored at 18 ± 2 °C was performed using HS-SPME with GC-MS. Throughout ripening, the most notable change was the transformation of alcohols such as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-penten-3-ol to afford esters such as (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and ketones such as 1-penten-3-one. Some acids reacted with alcohols to produce acetate and hexanoate esters, concentrations which increased more than sixfold between stage one and five. Moreover, all the major compounds were C 6 straight chain compounds related to the lipoxygenase pathway. During senescence, majority of compounds were methyl esters, which increased in concentration consistently until day eight. Remarkably, the content of methyl butanoate increased from 0.9% of the total amount of volatiles on day two up to 76.4% on day eight. Some of these volatiles are probably contributors to the "off flavor" during senescence.

  20. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spermidine Derivatives in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Fruit: Sensory (Taste) versus Biofunctional (ACE-Inhibition) Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Diana Paola; Masatani, Chieko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Peterson, Devin G; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-07-06

    The bitterness in lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit is increased during processing (juicing or drying). To identify the bitter-active compounds, the ethanolic fruit pulp extract was subjected to RP-18 solid-phase extraction, and then sensory-guided fractionated by HPLC. Two spermidine derivatives, N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine and N(1),N(8)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine, were isolated and their structures confirmed by analysis of their HPLC-ESI/MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR data. The N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine was synthesized and used as an authentic sample to unequivocally confirm the structure of this compound and to quantitate it in both fresh and dried fruit. In silico analyses demonstrated that spermidine derivatives identified in lulo pulp exhibited a strong ACE-I (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) inhibitory activity. Subsequently, these results were confirmed by in vitro analyses and showed the potential use of lulo fruit pulp as an ingredient of functional foods related to the prevention of blood hypertension.

  2. Activity of pectic enzymes involved in the ripening process of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Nieto Jeimmy Marcela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the ripening process of the lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. physicochemical changes are produced by pectics enzymes as Polygalacturonase (PG, Pectinesterase (PE and Pectateliase (PL that acting on pectics substrates of plant tissue, being responsible of the physiological alteration of cells and tissues that results in the fruit softening and the beginning of the premature senescence period. This research explores the foundations of the softening enzymes behavior of lulo epicarp for the activity measurement of PL, PG and PE of fruit´s epicarp and determining their relationship with the softening process during the ripening and senescence process of fruits through follow up of the enzyme expression, the ripening index and instrumental hardness during the lulo fruit ripening under three storage treatments: 1 Control (18° C, 57 days, 2 Refrigeration (18° C, 1 day; 4° C, 14 days; 18° C, 42 days and 3 Pre-cooling heat shock (27° C, 1 day; 4° C, 14 days; 18° C, 42 days found that the enzymes expression and softening is reduced by heat treatment, compared with the control group; however, the cold storage inhibit the fruit softening process but chilling injuries was produced, while heat shock, in addition to inhibiting the enzymes expression, inhibited the fruit softening process and protect against chilling injuries prolonging the shelf life in 10 days, showing that it´s the best post-harvest treatment for this type of fruit.

  3. Identifying carotenoids and phenolic compounds in naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam. var. Puyo hybrid), an Andean fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancel, Anne-Laure; Alter, Pascaline; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Ruales, Jenny; Vaillant, Fabrice

    2008-12-24

    The naranjilla or lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a little known fruit that originated in the Andes. Commonly consumed as a fresh drink, it is particularly appreciated for its aroma. Besides its organoleptic qualities, the naranjilla also seems to have good antioxidant properties. We therefore studied the physicochemical characteristics of variety "Puyo hybrid"; determined its juice composition; identified its carotenoids and phenolic compounds, using HPLC-DAD and HPLC/ESI-MS, respectively, in each fruit part; and measured the antioxidant capacities of each part, using the ORAC and DPPH methods. We found the following bioactive compounds: all-trans-beta-carotene, 13-cis-beta-carotene, and 9-cis-beta-carotene and the lutein (carotenoids); chlorogenic acids and their hexosides in the flesh and placental tissues, and flavonol glycosides in the skin (phenolic compounds); and many dihydrocaffeoyl spermidines in all three parts of the fruit. The naranjilla appeared to be a fruit with good nutritional potential that can provide the basis for a new fruit-drink flavor or other fruit derived-products.

  4. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was the most effective method on antioxidant activities of extracts and extraction yield of phenolic compounds compared to other extraction techniques. Protective effect of methanol-water extract of jujube leaf obtained with ultrasound-assisted extraction (ULMW) at 500 and 700 ppm in stability of sunflower oil was compared to synthetic antioxidants by measuring total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), oxidative stability index (OSI), conjugated dienes (CD), and trienes values (CT). Results showed ULMW at 700 ppm had higher stabilization efficiency than synthetic antioxidants.

  5. Cytoprotective effect against mercury chloride and bioinsecticidal activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina E. Sobral-Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often utilized in genetic research, and in the last decades, it has become one of best organisms for studies of human diseases and toxicological research. Mercury chloride (HgCl2, the main representative of mercury compounds, is the target of numerous investigations, not only because of its intrinsic toxicity but also because it accounts for the toxicity of elemental mercury since the latter is converted to Hg+2 by oxidation. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Myrtaceae, known in Brazil as “jambolão”, is of great interest because of its medicinal applications, especially its leaves and fruits. The aim of this work was to characterize, by CG–MS, the chemical constituents of the essential oil of Eugenia jambolana and to evaluate its bioinsecticidal action in the Drosophila melanogaster model, as well as to determine the cytoprotective and chelating effect of the extract of E. jambolana. The results obtained here point to the potential of essential oils as a source in biological prospecting for bioinsecticides. Because of their biodegradability, essential oils can be important tools in the biological control of pests. The results demonstrated that the extract has an allelopathic effect on lettuce seeds and that its interaction with mercury chloride allows a greater growth of the radicle and plumule of Lactuta sativa seedlings, showing that this plant can provide an alternative solution to the problem of contamination by heavy metals, besides having cytoprotective potential and moderate chelating activity.

  6. Antifilarial activity of gum from Moringa oleifera Lam. on human lymphatic filaria Brugia malayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kushwaha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Currently available antifilarial drugs diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole and their combinations, are not able to control lymphatic filariasis. Therefore, a better antifilarial agent is urgently required for proper management of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the antifilarial activity of gum extract of plant Moringa oleifera Lam. against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using adult worms and microfilariae (mf in two in vitro assays (motility and inhition in MTT reduction for viability and two animal models, primary (Meriones unguiculatus implanted with B. malayi adult worms in the peritoneal cavity and secondary (subcutaneous B. malayi infective larvae induced Mastomys coucha, the model closer to the natural human filarial infection screens. Results: The gum extract inhibited 100% motility (irreversible loss of motility of mf and inhibited more than 56% MTT reduction potential of the adult female worms. The extract was safe in cytotoxicity test using Vero cell line, therefore followed in vivo in primary and secondary screens. In primary screen, the extract (5×500 mg/kg caused 69% macrofilaricidal and 83% sterilization of female worms and 44% macrofilaricidal activity in secondary screen (5 × 1000 mg/kg by oral route. Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that the gum of the plant is macrofilaricidal in both in vitro and in vivo and may provide valuable leads for design and development of new antifilarial agents. This is the first ever report on the antifilarial efficacy of M. oleifera.

  7. First chemical constituents from Cordia exaltata Lam and antimicrobial activity of two neolignans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Tiago Bezerra; de Sá de Sousa Nogueira, Raquel Bezerra; E Silva, Davi Antas; Tavares, Josean Fechine; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; da Silva Maciel, Jéssica Karina; de Souza Fernandes, Milen Maria Magalhães; de Medeiros, Fernando Antônio; do Socorro Ferreira Rodrigues Sarquis, Rosangela; Filho, Raimundo Braz; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

    2013-09-10

    The phytochemical study of Cordia exaltata Lam. (Boraginaceae) led to the isolation, through chromatographic techniques, of nineteen secondary metabolites: 8,8'dimethyl-3,4,3',4'-dimethylenedioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (1), 8,8'-dimethyl-4,5-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenodioxy-7-oxo-2,7'cyclolignan (2), sitosterol (3a), stigmasterol (3b), sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4a), stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4b), phaeophytin A (5), 13²-hydroxyphaeophytin A (6), 17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (7), 13²-hydroxy-17³-ethoxypheophorbide A (8), m-methoxy-p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (9), (E)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-propenoic acid (10), 1-benzopyran-2-one (11), 7-hydroxy-1-benzopyran-2-one (12), 2,5-bis-(3',4'-methylenedioxiphenyl)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran (13), 3,4,5,3',5'-pentamethoxy-1'-allyl-8.O.4'-neolignan (14), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavonol (15), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (16), 5,8-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (17), kaempherol 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-6''-α-L-ramnopyranoside (18) and kaempherol 3,7-di-O-α-L-ramnopyranoside (19). Their structures were identified by ¹H and ¹³C-NMR using one and two-dimensional techniques. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of compounds 1, 2, 13 and 14 against bacteria and fungi are reported here for the first time.

  8. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. – A Kazakh and Uygur ethnomedicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. (Lamiaceae is an annual or perennial herb or subshrub widely distributed from the Mediterranean to central Asia and Afghanistan. In Xinjiang, China, the whole herb has been used in traditional Kazakh and Uygur medicines as anti-febrile and detoxicating drug. Aims: To characterize macroscopical, microscopically of the overground part of the Z. clinopodioides, explore and establish the macro-morphology, micro-morphology, quality and physicochemical parameters standards for this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigations were conducted in terms of macroscopic, microscopic and preliminary phytochemical parameters. Results: The vegetable material can be identified by structural features of the flowers, structural characteristics of the stem, specific pale brown hesperidin can be regarded as identification character. This crude drug showed the characteristic physicochemical values like total ash (7%, insoluble ash (1.3%, water soluble ash (3.7%, moisture (7.5%. The ethanolic extract contained flavonoids, organic acids, alkaloids, and glycosides. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostical characters that observed in this study can be an effective supplement to further research of this ethnomedicinal plant. Meanwhile, the results of this paper deal with pharmacognostical studies on the Ziziphora clinopodioides in an attempt to mitigate the adulteration to the crude drug.

  9. Physicochemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kexue; Zhang, Yanjun; Nie, Shaoping; Xu, Fei; He, Shuzhen; Gong, Deming; Wu, Gang; Tan, Lehe

    2017-01-02

    A water-soluble polysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) pulp (JFP-Ps) was purified and its physicochemical properties were investigated. The in vitro antioxidant activities of JFP-Ps was evaluated by measuring DPPH and OH radicals scavenging activities, as well as reducing power. The results showed that JFP-Ps contained 79.12% of total sugar, 5.83% of protein, 15.65% of uronic acid, and 15 kinds of amino acids with high levels of Asp, Glu, Val, Leu and Lys. JFP-Ps was mainly composed of Rha, Ara, Gal, Glc, Xyl and GalA, with an average molecular weight of 1668kDa. FT-IR results showed the bands at the range of 1200-850cm -1 suggested the presence of carbohydrates in JFP-Ps. The results of antioxidant activities showed that JFP-Ps exhibited strong DPPH and OH radical scavenging activities, with a relatively lower reducing power, suggesting that JFP-Ps can be exploited as effective natural antioxidant applications in medical and food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamalamma, S; Chandra, S B C; Hegde, M; Naryanswamy, P

    2008-07-22

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly called jackfruit, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that bears high yields of the largest known edible fruit. Yet, it has been little explored commercially due to wide variation in fruit quality. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 50 jackfruit accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Of 16 primer pairs evaluated, eight were selected for screening of genotypes based on the number and quality of polymorphic fragments produced. These primer combinations produced 5976 bands, 1267 (22%) of which were polymorphic. Among the jackfruit accessions, the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.137 to 0.978; the accessions also shared a large number of monomorphic fragments (78%). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis grouped all jackfruit genotypes into three major clusters. Cluster I included the genotypes grown in a jackfruit region of Karnataka, called Tamaka, with very dry conditions; cluster II contained the genotypes collected from locations having medium to heavy rainfall in Karnataka; cluster III grouped the genotypes in distant locations with different environmental conditions. Strong coincidence of these amplified fragment length polymorphism-based groupings with geographical localities as well as morphological characters was observed. We found moderate genetic diversity in these jackfruit accessions. This information should be useful for tree breeding programs, as part of our effort to popularize jackfruit as a commercial crop.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  12. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  14. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  15. Fatty acids and physiological quality of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica Lam. seed during natural ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Pichardo-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In México, 44 thousand hectares are planted with tomatillo or husk tomato (Physalis philadelphica Lam., which occupies fourth place among the country's vegetable species. However, research on this species is scarce, especially that related to the process of seed deterioration. We studied the effects of deterioration in tomatillo seed, var. CHF1-Chapingo, stored from 2-mo up to 7 yr with no climate control, 18.2 ± 5 °C and 41 ± 10% relative humidity, on physiological and biochemical variables during germination. It was found that germination, vigor, and respiratory activity decrease significantly from the first year of storage; thus, after 7 yr, germination and vigor decreased 99%, and respiratory activity of seed after 48 h imbibition decreased 78%. Linoleic acid (unsaturated content correlated positively with germination (R = 0.78** and with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.79**. Germination correlated with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.99** and with respiratory activity after 48 h of imbibition (R = 0.79**. Both respiratory activity and fatty acid content are involved in natural deterioration of tomatillo seed.

  16. Identification of Ellagitannins and Flavonoids from Eugenia brasilienses Lam. (Grumixama) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luciane de Lira; Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto

    2015-06-10

    The grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), also known as Brazilian cherry, is a fruit native to Brazil. This study identified the flavonoids in the flesh and seeds and ellagitannin in the flesh of purple and yellow varieties. The physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of these fruits were also evaluated. Anthocyanins and flavonols were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (32-180 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (13-41 mg 100 g(-1) FW), respectively. The major flavonoids identified were cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin aglycone. Furthermore, ellagitannins were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (82-243 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (92 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and seeds (2220-2905 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW). The ellagitannin profiles of both varieties were first characterized in which pedunculagin isomers, strictinin isomers, and ellagic acid galloyl hexoside were the major ellagitannins identified. In summary, both varieties of the grumixama fruit as well as the seeds could be good sources of bioactive compounds, mainly ellagitannins.

  17. Contribuição para o estudo da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. de Siqueira-Jaccoud

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor, após tecer rápidas considerações sôbre Phytomonas da planta em questão e do gênero Manihot, passa a dar: métodos por êle empregados na confecção da presente nota; sucinta descrição da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam. e suas variedades; nomes vulgares por que é a mesma conhecida no Brasil; resultado negativo, por êle encontrado, nas pesquisas de alcalóide e, finalmente, descrição anatômica da fôlha e caule. Fôlha. a - limbo: epidermes com cutícula e estoma, uma camada de células paliçadicas, tecido lacunoso, ramificações dos tubos laticiferos e bainha dos feixes bem desenvolvida. b - nervura principal: epidermes com cutícula, uma camada de tecido paliçadico, bainha dos feixes em semicírculo, xilema, floema e parênquima. Caule - Epiderme com cutícula, colênquima, parênquima cortical, tubos laticíferos, esclerócitos, floema, câmbio e fibras do lenho (inclusive gelatinosas, vasos e, finalmente, parênquima fundamental.

  18. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen.

  19. In vitro wound healing potential and identification of bioactive compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  20. Aproveitamento da torta da Moringa oleifera Lam para tratamento de água produzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Farias Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de coagulantes ambientalmente corretos apresenta-se como uma alternativa viável na separação água/óleo. A polpa da semente do polímero natural conhecido como Moringa oleifera Lam atua como agente clarificante de águas devido à presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água. O objetivo neste trabalho foi estudar o tratamento de água produzida, obtida na extração de petróleo, utilizando o coagulante extraído das sementes moringa em meio salino e em aquoso. Os resultados mostraram que se obteve 96% de eficiência na remoção de óleo, utilizando 0,5 mL/L do coagulante extraído em meio salino; e 76%, usando 2,5 mL do coagulante extraído em meio aquoso. Isso indica que o extrato da moringa pode ser uma excelente alternativa para o tratamento da água produzida na extração do petróleo.

  1. The Effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Extracts on In Vitro Dengue Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrien Husin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus.

  2. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  3. Semi-viviparous embryo development and dehydrin expression in the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Flora Abdulrahman; Nitsch, Lisette M C; Wolters-Arts, Mieke M C; Mariani, Celestina; Derksen, Jan W M

    2010-06-01

    Rhizophora mucronata Lam. is a tropical mangrove with semi-viviparous (cotyledon body protrusion before shedding), non-quiescent and non-desiccating (recalcitrant) seeds. As recalcitrance has been thought to relate to the absence of desiccation-related proteins such as dehydrins, we for the first time systematically described and classified embryogenesis in R. mucronata and assessed the presence of dehydrin-like proteins. Embryogenesis largely follows the classic pattern till stage eight, the torpedo stage, with the formation of a cotyledonary body. Ovule and embryo express radical adaptations to semi-vivipary in the saline environment: (1) A large, highly vacuolated and persistent endosperm without noticeable food reserves that envelopes the developing embryo. (2) Absence of vascular tissue connections between embryo and maternal tissue, but, instead, transfer layers in between endosperm and integument and endosperm and embryo. Dehydrin-like proteins (55-65 kDa) were detected by the Western analysis, in the ovules till stage 10 when the integuments are dehisced. An additional 50 kDa band was detected at stages 6-8. Together these results suggest a continuous flow of water with nutrients from the integument via the endosperm to the embryo, circumventing the vascular route and probably suppressing the initially induced dehydrin expression.

  4. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Diego Barioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA- stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

  5. Reaction of genotypes of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. to Meloidogyne spp. under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Salazar-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, root-knot nematodes Meloidog yne spp. are considered as one of the main constraints in lulo crop production . These nematodes can cause root damage resulting in low production. The aim of this study was to evaluate under field conditions the reaction of 16 genotypes of lulo, Solanum quitoense Lam. (Solanaceae, of the Castilla variety and the species S. hirtum Vahl., previously selected in a greenhouse experiment and categorized as moderately resistant and resistant to the attack by Meloidog yne sp. A chemical treatment and a control treatment, the latter based on the most susceptible genotype in greenhouse experiments were also included. The experiment was conducted in a lulo grove naturally infested with root-knot nematodes under a randomized complete block design with three replications and nine plants per experimental unit. The response variables were incidence, severity and yield. The incidence was higher than 80 % in all cases, but the severity varied because of their genetic condition; BR03 and BR01 being genotypes with lower rates of severity, with values of 1.0 % and 0.8 %, respectively. The yield analysis of variance showed significant differences, indicating that genotypes SQBR01 and SQLF04, reached the highest values with 4.77 and 4.74 t/ha in a total of three harvests.

  6. Distinctive patterns of callose deposition provide an early sign of ovule abortion1 in the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii Patrones distintivos de deposición de calosa proveen evidencia temprana de aborto de óvulos en el arbusto andromonoico Caesalpinia gilliesii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calviño

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovule abortion may lead to the partial or complete reduction of the number of functional ovules in the ovary and then is the primary factor that determines the sexual expression of the plant. In different species, ovule abortion was associated with the presence of callose in advanced ovules. Based on these observations, we studied the pattern of ovule development and callose deposition in both perfect and staminate flowers of the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The obtained results showed that all ovules reached the 8-nucleate stage of embryo sac development and exhibited callose deposition at advanced stages. Nevertheless, from the 2-nucleate stage, a distinct spatial pattern of callose deposition within the ovule was observed between perfect and staminate flowers. Differences in callose deposition suggest that not callose per se but its distribution pattern in the ovule tissues is the main factor that triggers ovule isolation and abortion and leads to flowers with non-functional pistils in this species. Furthermore, previous observed differential growth rates between perfect and staminate flowers support for resource depletion as the likely underlying mechanism of ovule fate in C. gilliesii.El aborto de óvulos puede llevar a la reducción parcial o completa de óvulos fértiles en el ovario, pudiendo ser entonces un factor primario que determine la expresión sexual de toda la planta. En diferentes especies de plantas, el aborto de los óvulos ha sido asociado con la presencia de calosa en estadios avanzados del desarrollo de los óvulos. Basado en estas observaciones, se estudiaron el desarrollo de los óvulos y el patrón de deposición de calosa tanto en flores perfectas como estaminadas en el arbusto andromonoico C. gilliesii. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los sacos embrionarios alcanzan el estadio de desarrollo 8-nucleado en todos los óvulos, y que presentan deposición de calosa en los estadios avanzados. Sin

  7. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    OpenAIRE

    Jain,Pankaj G.; Savita D Patil; Nitin G. Haswani; Girase, Manoj V.; Sanjay J. Surana

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

  8. Quality improvement of sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) roots as feed by ensilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y H; Huang, T C; Huang, C

    1988-07-01

    1. Sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) strips (SPS) mixed with maize powder (CP) in proportions 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, and 7:3 were ensiled for 1, 2 or 3 months. 2. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased during ensilage in samples of all treatments while the SPS-CP mixture (7:3, w/w) ensiled for 3 months contained the lowest TIA. 3. SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) dried or ensiled for 2 months, or ensiled for 2 months and dried, were each mixed with twice the amount of control diet (1:2, w/w) to make three diets. These three diets together with the control diet were used for a feeding experiment with rats to evaluate the nutritive value. 4. General composition analysis (including metabolizable energy), fatty acid composition and amino acid analysis (including percentage of essential amino acids) of the samples did not change during ensilage to an extent which could explain the improved performance of rats fed on ensiled diets. 5. Rats fed on diets containing dried SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) showed significantly lower (P less than 0.05) body-weight gain than rats fed on the control diet or ensiled SPS diets, at the end of the 8th week. They also showed enlargement of the pancreas. The adverse effect of SPS was associated with TIA which seemed to be prevented to some extent by ensilage. 6. The possibility that the starch of SPS may also contribute to the adverse effect cannot be excluded at present.

  9. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2008-08-01

    To determine the therapeutic potential of herbal medicine Moringa oleifera Lam. family: Moringaceae in the control of allergic diseases, the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of the plant (MOEE) against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs was examined. During the experimental period, the test drugs (MOEE or dexamethasone) were administered by oral route prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% OVA. Bronchoconstriction tests were performed and respiratory parameters (i.e., tidal volume and respiratory rate) were measured. At the end of experiment, blood was collected from each animal to perform total and differential counts and serum was used for assay of IL-4, IL-6, and TNFalpha. Lung lavage fluid (BAL) was collected for estimation of cellular content and cytokine levels. Lung tissue histamine assays were performed using the homogenate of one lobe from each animal; a separate lobe and the trachea were subjected to histopathology to measure the degree of any airway inflammation. The results suggest that in OVA-sensitized control animals that did not receive either drug, tidal volume (V(t)) was decreased, respiration rate (f) was increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and BAL fluid were increased significantly. MOEE-treatment of sensitized hosts resulted in improvement in all parameters except BAL TNFalpha and IL-4. Moreover, MOEE-treatment also showed protection against acetylcholine-induced broncho-constriction and airway inflammation which was confirmed by histological observations. The results of these studies confirm the traditional claim for the usefulness of this herb in the treatment of allergic disorders like asthma.

  10. Chemical characterization, antioxidant properties, and volatile constituents of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) cultivated in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Oscar; Pérez, Ana M; Vaillant, Fabrice

    2009-03-01

    Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a native fruit of the Andes, cultivated and consumed mainly in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America. Because of its pleasant aroma and attractive color, it has high potential as an ingredient of products such as juices, nectars, and jams. The main characteristics of mature naranjilla fruits cultivated in Costa Rica were assessed, including sugar content, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC), and total polyphenolic and ascorbic acid content. Carotenoid and volatile compound identification was also done. The samples showed sucrose, glucose, and fructose content of 1.6 +/- 0.3, 0.68 +/- 0.05, and 0.7 +/- 0.1 g/100 g, respectively. Total titratable acidity was 2.63 +/- 0.07 g citric acid equivalent / 100 g and total soluble solids amounted to 9.1 +/- 0.5 degrees Brix. H-ORAC value was 17 +/- 1 micromol Trolox equivalent /g, total polyphenolic content was 48 +/- 3 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g and ascorbic acid content was 12.5 +/- 0.0 mg/100 g. Carotenoid content of the whole fruit and pulp was 33.3 +/- 0.6 and 7.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g, respectively. The predominant carotenoid among the compounds identified in the whole fruit was beta-carotene. Ten volatile compounds were identified in naranjillapulp, the predominant being methyl butanoate. The chemical composition of naranjilla cultivated in Costa Rica does not seem to differ from that previously reported in studies at different locations.

  11. Anti-nutritional factors in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera (Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwilo, I O; Ezeonu, F C; Ezekwesili-Ofili, J O; Igwilo, S N; Nsofor, C I; Abdulsalami, M S; Obi, E

    2014-01-01

    The evergreen plant, Moringa oleifera (Lam) has been known to have both medicinal and nutritional properties, thus its wide use in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia. The roots, in particular, have been reported to possess antibiotic, anti-tumour and anti-oxidative activities. This study therefore seeks to determine the levels of the anti-nutritional factors and other proximate analyses in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera which might be responsible for such activities. The concentrations of oxalates and phytates in the roots were determined using the methods of Munro and Bassir and Griffith and Thomas, respectively. The methods of Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to estimate the amount of tannins, saponins and cyanogenic glycosides while the Technicon sequential Multi-sample amino acid analyzer (TSM) was used determine the amino acid concentration in the roots. Tannins (45 mg 100 g(-1)) and oxalates (17.08 mg 100 g(-1)) were present in the roots at higher levels while saponins (4.20mg 100 g(-1)), cyanogenic glycosides (2.72 mg 100 g(-1)) and phytates (0.07 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred at much lower levels. The roots contained (Mean +/- Standard Error of mean) %crude lipid (6.33 +/- 1.64), %crude proteins (5.02 +/- 1.52), %carbohydrates (76.75), %ash (4.97 +/- 0.53) and %moisture (6.93 +/- 0.58). The roots lacked the water-soluble vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine but contained ascorbic acid (48.13 mg 100 g(-1)) and niacin (5.83 mg 100 g(-1)). This study has shown that Moringa oleifera roots are rich in anti-nutritional factors and that is why they are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia and Americas for its medicinal importance.

  12. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.

  13. Variation in chemical components and biological activity of Pterocarya fraxinifolia Lam. stems at different developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhbari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Pterocarya fraxinifolia Lam. is a deciduous, fast-growing tree from walnut family. The stem barks and fruits of the plant have been used as diaphoretic in traditional medicine. Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil and extract of stems of the plant at different developmental stages was evaluated in addition to assessing the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and radical scavenging activities in the present study. Methods: Different developmental stages of the plant’s stem (i.e. vegetative, flowering, immature fruit and mature fruit were subjected to hydro-distillation for obtaining the essential oil. The methanol extract of the samples was obtained by Soxhlet apparatus. Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Antimicrobial activity of the oils and extracts were determined against three Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria and two fungi by disc diffusion method. Antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-carotene assays. Total phenolics content of extracts was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and cytotoxic effect was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: Hexadecanoic acid was one of the major components in all essential oil samples. All samples showed good antimicrobial activity against tested strains. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was comparable to the synthetic standard (butylated hydroxytoluene. The highest total phenolic content and cytotoxic effect were detected for the mature fruit stage of the plant extract and essential oil, respectively. Conclusion: Showing considerable antioxidant and cytotoxic effects, suggested the plant as a good candidate for further investigations.

  14. Transcriptional response of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam. following exposure to heat stress and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Negri

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major factor that may affect biological organization, especially in marine ecosystems and in coastal areas that are particularly subject to anthropogenic pollution. We evaluated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and copper concentrations on lysosomal membrane stability (N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA in the gill of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.. Temperature and copper exerted additive effects on lysosomal membrane stability, exacerbating the toxic effects of metal cations present in non-physiological concentrations. Mussel lysosomal membrane stability is known to be positively related to scope for growth, indicating possible effects of increasing temperature on mussel populations in metal-polluted areas. To clarify the molecular response to environmental stressors, we used a cDNA microarray with 1,673 sequences to measure the relative transcript abundances in the gills of mussels exposed to copper (40 µg/L and a temperature gradient (16°C, 20°C, and 24°C. In animals exposed only to heat stress, hierarchical clustering of the microarray data revealed three main clusters, which were largely dominated by down-regulation of translation-related differentially expressed genes, drastic up-regulation of protein folding related genes, and genes involved in chitin metabolism. The response of mussels exposed to copper at 24°C was characterized by an opposite pattern of the genes involved in translation, most of which were up-regulated, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins and "microtubule-based movement" proteins. Our data provide novel information on the transcriptomic modulations in mussels facing temperature increases and high copper concentrations; these data highlight the risk of marine life exposed to toxic chemicals in the presence of temperature increases due to climate change.

  15. Immunomodulatory potential of Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal, a traditional medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Prakash Babu, N; Pandikumar, P; Karunai Raj, M; Gabriel Paulraj, M; Ignacimuthu, S

    2012-03-27

    Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal., (Gentianaceae) has been used in traditional Indian system of medicine as depurative and for the treatment of psoriasis, intermittent fever and cancer. Ethnobotanical survey conducted in Theni District indicated a high consensus for this plant as blood purifier and to treat dermatopathy and venereal infections. The present study evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extract of Enicostema axillare. In vivo immunomodulatory activity of Enicostema axillare methanol extract (100 and 200mg/kg b.w) was evaluated by assessing its effect on the total and differential leukocyte count, organ weight, hemaggultinating antibody titer, plaque forming cells, quantitative hemolysis of SRBC and delayed type hypersensitivity. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC, 5×10(8)cells/0.1mL) were used to immunize the animals. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of the extract was studied using peritoneal macrophages by evaluating its effects on NBT reduction, NO production and cytokine release. The animals treated with Enicostema axillare methanol extract showed a significant (P≤0.05) increase in weight of the thymus and spleen. The total leukocyte and lymphocyte count was increased significantly (P<0.005) by the treatment. There was no significant alteration in neutrophil count. A dose dependent increase in antibody titer value was observed. A decreased response to DTH reaction induced by SRBC was recorded. A potential phagocytic response was seen on treatment with the extracts at 10 and 25μg/mL. The extract inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of NO significantly in a dose dependent manner. These findings suggested that the methanol extract of Enicostema axillare acted on both humoral and cell mediated immune functions and decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the peritoneal macrophages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical characteristics and fractionation of proteins from Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Estelamar Maria Borges; Carvalho, Maria Regina Barbieri; Neves, Valdir Augusto; Silva, Maraíza Apareci; Arantes-Pereira, Lucas

    2014-03-15

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a leguminous plant, originally from Asia, which is cultivated in Brazil because of its low production cost. Although some people have used this plant as food, there is little information about its chemical and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise the leaves of M. oleifera in terms of their chemical composition, protein fractions obtained by solubility in different systems and also to assess their nutritional quality and presence of bioactive substances. The whole leaf flour contained 28.7% crude protein, 7.1% fat, 10.9% ashes, 44.4% carbohydrate and 3.0mg 100g(-1) calcium and 103.1mg 100g(-1) iron. The protein profile revealed levels of 3.1% albumin, 0.3% globulins, 2.2% prolamin, 3.5% glutelin and 70.1% insoluble proteins. The hydrolysis of the protein from leaf flour employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) resulted in 39.5% and 29.5%, respectively. The total protein showed low in vitro digestibility (31.8%). The antinutritional substances tested were tannins (20.7 mg g(-1)), trypsin inhibitor (1.45TIU mg g(-1)), nitrate (17 mg g(-1)) and oxalic acid (10.5 mg g(-1)), besides the absence of cyanogenic compounds. β-Carotene and lutein stood out as major carotenoids, with concentrations of 161.0 and 47.0 μg g(-1) leaf, respectively. Although M. oleifera leaves contain considerable amount of crude protein, this is mostly insoluble and has low in vitro digestibility, even after heat treatment and chemical attack. In vivo studies are needed to better assess the use of this leaf as a protein source in human feed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilayo E Adejumo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD. About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (P<0.05 antisickling activity in comparison to the leaf extract. The leaf extract, as well as those of the seed and flower, equally demonstrated a (P<0.05 reversal of sickled erythrocytes. Discussions and Conclusions: These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles.

  18. Acclimation responses to high light by Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) leaves at different stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzavara, A K; Rocha, J S; Lourenço, G; Sanada, K; Medri, C; Bianchini, E; Pimenta, J A; Stolf-Moreira, R; Oliveira, H C

    2017-09-01

    The re-composition of deforested environments requires the prior acclimation of seedlings to full sun in nurseries. Seedlings can overcome excess light either through the acclimation of pre-existing fully expanded leaves or through the development of new leaves that are acclimated to the new light environment. Here, we compared the acclimation capacity of mature (MatL, fully expanded at the time of transfer) and newly expanded (NewL, expanded after the light shift) leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) seedlings to high light. The seedlings were initially grown under shade and then transferred to full sunlight. MatL and NewL were used for chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange analyses, pigment extraction and morpho-anatomical measurements. After the transfer of seedlings to full sun, the MatL persisted and acclimated to some extent to the new light condition, since they underwent alterations in some morpho-physiological traits and maintained a functional electron transport chain and positive net photosynthesis rate. However, long-term exposure to high light led to chronic photoinhibition in MatL, which could be related to the limited plasticity of leaf morpho-anatomical attributes. However, the NewL showed a high capacity to use the absorbed energy in photochemistry and dissipate excess energy harmlessly, attributes that were favoured by the high structural plasticity exhibited by these leaves. Both the maintenance of mature, photosynthetically active leaves and the production of new leaves with a high capacity to cope with excess energy were important for acclimation of G. ulmifolia seedlings. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Moringa oleifera Lam. A herbal medicine for hyperlipidemia: A preclinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanandh MG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Herbal medicine is a use of plant’s seeds, roots, barks, leaves, berries or flowers for medicinal purposes. In this present study, leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam were evaluated for its hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anticoagulant, platelet antiaggregatory and antiinflammatory activity in experimental animals. Methods: The experimental animals were divided into five groups of male Wistar rats each. The hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera (HEMO was prepared and administered orally to hyperlipidemic rats for a period of 28 days. Results: The results showed that oral administration of HEMO at two different dose level (100 and 200mg/kg/b.wt showed significant (P<0.001 reduction in elevated levels of body weight, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and similarly significant (P<0.001 increase in high density lipoprotein level. Atherogenic index was significantly reduced in the Moringa oleifera treated groups at tested dose levels. The antioxidant parameters of SOD, Catalase, MDA was significant (P<0.001 in vivo. The intravenous administration of HEMO delayed the plasma recalcification time in rabbits and also inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation in vitro, which was comparable to commercial heparin. The significant (P<0.001 inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-毩 and IL-1毩 by HEMO were taken as it s antiinflammatory activity. Conclusions: All these results revealed the therapeutic potential of HEMO against vascular intimal damage and atherogenesis leading to various types of cardiovascular complications. Thus, Moringa oleifera can be prescribed as food appendage for coronary artery disease patients along with their regular medicines.

  20. CARACTERÍSTICAS AGRONÓMICAS Y FORRAJERAS DE Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Manríquez Mendoza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Los árboles nativos son una fuente importante de forraje para el ganado, sobre todo en regiones con época de estiaje prolongada. Algunas especies arbóreas son de rápido crecimiento y buena calidad nutricional, además de tener la capacidad de producir forraje durante la época seca, cuando la necesidad de forraje es mayor. El guácimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. es un árbol nativo de América tropical que tiene un alto potencial forrajero y del que aún se conoce poco sobre su manejo agronómico. El guácimo es una especie que aparece en muchos estudios de diagnóstico de especies forrajeras en diversos sitios y asociaciones de vegetación, pero existe escasa información publicada sobre su manejo agronómico adecuado para ser cultivado como árbol forrajero. Existe información sobre el valor nutricional del guácimo, aunque la suplementación y la respuesta animal con esta especie tampoco han sido estudiadas de manera extensa. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la literatura existente sobre la presencia, el manejo y la calidad forrajera del guácimo en sistemas productivos con rumiantes domésticos.

  1. Callogenesis in leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. by 2,4-D and BA action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. is a bush species of the Crassulaceae that is distinguished by its important medicinal properties. Its leaves are used as cataplasm to treat headaches and wounds. There is evidence for a hypotensive and anti-inflammatory effect. Techniques of plant tissue culture have been applied to plant species that produce substances likely to be explored in pharmacology, cell suspension being the main technique. At the industrial level, this method utilizes bioreactors in order to produce secondary metabolites on a large scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D and benzylaminopurine (BA on callus induction in leaf explants of K. pinnata. Leaf fragments were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 3.0% sucrose, 0.8% agar and factorial combinations of 2,4-D (0.00, 4.52, 9.06, 18.12 µM and BA (0.00, 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 µM. The cultures were kept in the darkness at 24±2ºC for 50 days. The percentage of callus induction and the area of explants covered by callus cells were evaluated. In the absence of growth regulators, callus induction did not occur, with necrosis of all explants. The highest percentage of callus induction was 100%, obtained with the combination of 9.06 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, but the calluses covered only 25% of the leaf area. The most efficient combination was 4.52 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, resulting in 91% callus induction with 50 to 100% of the explants being covered by callus cells.

  2. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract from Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. stems and roots in mice: A comparison to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Pérez, A; Hernández-Medel, M del R

    2016-04-01

    In ancient and current traditional medicine in México, extracts from the leaves or whole plant of 'life leaf' (Kalanchoe pinnata [K. pinnata]Lam) have been used to treat an entity known locally as 'yellow epilepsy' (alferecía amarilla) when it is accompanied by seizures. However, the anticonvulsive activity of its stems and roots remains unexplored The anticonvulsant activity of the methanolic root extract (MER) or stem (MES) of K. pinnata Lam. was evaluated in a pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure model in Balb/C mice, and effects were compared to those of diazepam. The stem extract fractions that produced anticonvulsant activity were subsequently evaluated using the pentylenetetrazol -induced seizure model. We observed increased latency of tonic-clonic seizures that was inversely proportional to the dose of MRE, with a similar impact on the lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol. Different doses of the MSE showed a dose-dependent increase in latency to myoclonus, clonus, and tonic-clonic seizures, acting similarly to diazepam and offering 100% protection against the lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol. Fractioning MSE decreased its effectiveness, but when fractions were mixed with fractions of chloroform and ethyl acetate, anticonvulsive activity was restored. The preliminary phytochemical analysis identified alkaloids and sterols in MRE, and sterols and terpenes in MSE CONCLUSIONS: The anticonvulsant activity of K. pinnata Lam. decreases with increased doses of MRE, whereas the effect of MSE is dose-dependent and preserved in the mixture chloroform and ethyl acetate. We suggest that the metabolites responsible for these effects are sterols in MRE, and sterols and terpenes in MSE. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperaturas cardinales de germinación en cuatro variedades de tomate de cáscara (Physalis philadelphica Lam.).

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada López, Sandra Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Physalis philadelphica Lam. (tomate de cáscara) es una hortaliza de importancia económica y cultural en México, su fruto se utiliza principalmente con fines alimenticios. Ocupa el cuarto lugar entre las hortalizas cultivadas en México. Las temperaturas para la germinación de semillas, generalmente se consideran en relación a su respuesta: mínima, óptima y máxima; también llamadas temperaturas cardinales de germinación. La temperatura mínima y máxima son aquellas en las cuales se obtiene el me...

  4. Analisis Kandungan Kalsium, Kalium, dan Magnesium pada Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Segar dan Direbus Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam that we know as Moringa is the best-known species of the thirteen species of the genus Moringacae. Minerals contained in Moringa are calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur, and zinc. Moringa leaves as a source of vitamins and minerals can be consumed in a way cooked, or eaten raw or dried into powder. One of the cooking method is boiling in the water. Vitamins and minerals are easily soluble in water is a nutrient that is quick...

  5. Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    OpenAIRE

    Jain,Pankaj G.; Savita D Patil; Nitin G. Haswani; Girase, Manoj V.; Sanjay J. Surana

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

  6. Relationship between Neumann solutions for two-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problems with convective and temperature boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarzia Domingo Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain for the two-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem for a semi-infinite material an equivalence between the temperature and convective boundary conditions at the fixed face in the case that an inequality for the convective transfer coefficient is satisfied. Moreover, an inequality for the coefficient which characterizes the solid-liquid interface of the classical Neumann solution is also obtained. This inequality must be satisfied for data of any phase-change material, and as a consequence the result given in Tarzia, Quart. Appl. Math., 39 (1981, 491-497 is also recovered when a heat flux condition was imposed at the fixed face.

  7. Distribución espacial y variaciones temporales de curculio elephas gyllenhal en bellotas de quercus rotundifolia Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, A.; Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Villagrán Pinteño, Miguel; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    2005-01-01

    En las dehesas españolas las especies arbóreas más frecuentes pertenecen al género Quercus L.Sus frutos son atacados por varios insectos carpófagos, entre los que hay que destacar a Curculio elephas, un pequeño curculiónido cuyas larvas se alimentan y desarrollan dentro de las bellotas. En este trabajo se ha realizado un seguimiento, durante tres años, de C. elephasen frutos de encina, Q. rotundifolia Lam. Los resultados obtenidos indican que: 1) la distribución espacial de esta ...

  8. Group exhibition: Ensemble sin órganos (Ensemble without organs) at Centro de Arte Contemporáneo Wifredo Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Schwindt, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble sin órganos \\ud (Ensemble without organs)\\ud July 7–24, 2016 \\ud \\ud Centro de Arte Contemporáneo Wifredo Lam, Havana \\ud San Ignacio No.22, Esquina a Empedrado\\ud Plaza de la Catedral\\ud Havana\\ud Cuba \\ud \\ud T +53 7 8646284 \\ud \\ud \\ud www.wlam.cult.cu \\ud \\ud Curated by Blanca Victoria López and Victor Wang\\ud \\ud Participating artists include: \\ud Ana Mendieta (Cuba) / Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker (Belgium) / Carlos Martiel (Cuba) / Cibelle Cavalli Bastos ...

  9. Farinhas de moringa (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) e ora-pro-nóbis (Pereskia aculeata Mill.): biomateriais funcionais

    OpenAIRE

    Marinelli, Paulo Sérgio [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    As hortaliças não-convencionais como ora-pro-nóbis (Pereskia aculeata Mill.) e moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) são uma alternativa alimentar com excelente valor nutricional, de fácil cultivo e baixo custo. Têm sido descritas como importantes fontes de proteínas de composição equilibrada de aminoácidos, alto teor de fibras e de lipídios, principalmente ácidos graxos insaturados. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo a elaboração e caracterização das farinhas das folhas de Pereskia aculeata M...

  10. Target site mutation and reduced translocation are present in a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; Brants, Ivo; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    The resistance mechanism of a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype collected in Córdoba (Southern Spain) was examined. Resistance Factor values at three different growth stages ranged between 4.77 and 4.91. At 96 hours after treatment (HAT) the S biotype had accumulated seven times more shikimic acid than the R biotype. There were significant differences in translocation of (14)C-glyphosate between biotypes, i.e. at 96 HAT, the R biotype accumulated in the treated leaf more than 70% of the absorbed herbicide, in comparison with 59.21% of the S biotype; the R biotype translocated only 14.79% of the absorbed (14)C-glyphosate to roots, while in the S population this value was 24.79%. Visualization of (14)C-glyphosate by phosphor imaging showed a reduced distribution in the R biotype compared with the S. Glyphosate metabolism was not involved in the resistance mechanism due to both biotypes showing similar values of glyphosate at 96 HAT. Comparison of the EPSPS gene sequences between biotypes indicated that the R biotype has a proline 182 to serine amino acid substitution. In short, the resistance mechanism of the L. multiflorum Lam. biotype is due to an impaired translocation of the herbicide and an altered target site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance Comparison of a Matrix Solver on a Heterogeneous Network Using Two Implementations of MPI: MPICH and LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer K.

    1995-01-01

    Two of the current and most popular implementations of the Message-Passing Standard, Message Passing Interface (MPI), were contrasted: MPICH by Argonne National Laboratory, and LAM by the Ohio Supercomputer Center at Ohio State University. A parallel skyline matrix solver was adapted to be run in a heterogeneous environment using MPI. The Message-Passing Interface Forum was held in May 1994 which lead to a specification of library functions that implement the message-passing model of parallel communication. LAM, which creates it's own environment, is more robust in a highly heterogeneous network. MPICH uses the environment native to the machine architecture. While neither of these free-ware implementations provides the performance of native message-passing or vendor's implementations, MPICH begins to approach that performance on the SP-2. The machines used in this study were: IBM RS6000, 3 Sun4, SGI, and the IBM SP-2. Each machine is unique and a few machines required specific modifications during the installation. When installed correctly, both implementations worked well with only minor problems.

  12. Caracterização de Passiflora mucronata Lam.: nova alternativa de maracujá ornamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Molina Meletti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a família Passifloraceae possui ampla diversidade genética devido ao elevado número de espécies nativas, entretanto, o valor ornamental da família ainda é praticamente inexplorado. Passiflora mucronata Lam. é uma das espécies nativas que integram o Banco de Germoplasma de Maracujazeiros do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, que estão sendo caracterizadas para fins ornamentais, em condições de campo, objetivando sua utilização comercial. Foram avaliados desenvolvimento vegetativo, época de florescimento, período de antese, compatibilidade, viabilidade polínica, produção de frutos, comportamento germinativo e longevidade das sementes. As flores de P. mucronata são brancas, fosforescentes e têm antese noturna, atraindo mariposas e morcegos. A viabilidade polínica permaneceu elevada (75,8%, desde a antese (18h00min h até a manhã seguinte. A espécie mostrou-se autoincompatível. A polinização cruzada resultou em frutos ovoides, com 14,82g de peso médio, 4,59cm de diâmetro longitudinal por 2,73cm de diâmetro equatorial. A casca do fruto é delgada, amarelo-canária quando totalmente maduro. A polpa apresentou pouca suculência, sem aroma característico, mas sabor agradável. As sementes são achatadas, de coloração marrom-enegrecida, com dormência quando recém-colhidas, o que pode ser superado efetivamente com armazenamento em câmara fria e seca mais choque térmico, associados. A longevidade das sementes foi de cerca de um ano. Os acessos avaliados de P. mucronata evidenciaram se tratar de uma planta de vigor vegetativo intermediário, tolerante ao frio, com intenso florescimento, que se estende por um longo período do ano. Em função destas vantagens adicionais, pode ser utilizada como planta ornamental, uma alternativa dentro do grupo das trepadeiras indicadas para cercas vivas ou caramanchões.

  13. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rojas Consuelo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a 'tresbolillo' a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.

  14. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil from Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Christiane; de-Faria, Felipe Meira; de Almeida, Ana Cristina Alves; Valim-Araújo, Deborah de Arantes e Oliveira; Rehen, Camilla Souza; Dunder, Ricardo José; Socca, Eduardo Augusto Rabelo; Manzo, Luis Paulo; Rozza, Ariane Leite; Salvador, Marcos José; Pellizzon, Claúdia Helena; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2011-04-26

    Hyptis Jacq. (Lamiaceae) is being used in traditional medicine to treat fever, inflammation and gastric disturbances. Hyptis spicigera Lam. is a native plant distributed across the central region of Brazil. The essential oil extracted from this plant is used in folk medicine as antipyretic. The effects of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Hyptis spicigera (OEH) were evaluated for their gastroprotective and healing activities. OEH chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The gastroprotective action of the OEH was evaluated in rodent experimental models (ethanol and NSAID). To elucidate mechanisms of action, the antisecretory action and involvements of NO, SH, mucus and PGE2 were evaluated. The acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model and Western Blot assay (COX-2 and EGF) were also used to evaluate the OEH healing capacity. GC-MS analysis of OEH indicated three monoterpenes as major compounds: alpha-pinene (50.8%), cineole (20.3%) and beta-pinene (18.3%) and, at the dose of 100 mg/Kg, p.o., OEH provided effective gastroprotection against lesions induced by absolute ethanol (97%) and NSAID (84%) in rats. OEH do not interfere with H+ secretion in gastric mucosa and its gastric protection does not depend on nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl compounds (SH). The gastroprotective action of OEH occurs due to an increase in the gastric mucus production (28%) induced by PGE2 levels. Furthermore, OEH demonstrated a great healing capacity with 87% of reduction in ulcerative lesion area. It accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric lesions due to an increase in COX-2 (75%) and EGF (115%) expression in gastric mucosa. No sign of toxicity was observed in this study, considering the analyzed parameters. All these results suggest the efficacy and safety of Hyptis spicigera in combating and healing gastric ulcer. Considering the results, it is suggested that the OEH could probably be a good therapeutic agent for

  15. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results

  16. Spatial and temporal seed dispersal of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. ssp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) in west central Utah, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Jensen; Stephen B. Monsen; Pat Fosse

    2008-01-01

    This case study documents temporal and spatial squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. spp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) seed dispersal from study sites in central Utah. Felt seed traps were placed along transects extending from sites occupied by squarrose knapweed into adjacent plant communities. Seed dispersal from knapweed...

  17. One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (jackfruit) fruit extract and its effect on pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Dhanya Kumar, Gowri; Tyliszczak, Bozena; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Novel approaches for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are of great importance due to its vast spectrum of applications in diverse fields, including medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Te presented study reports the successful AuNPs' synthesis using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. extract, and provides detailed characterization and evaluation of its antibacterial potential. The aim was to develop a cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method of gold nanoparticles using aqueous fruit extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a reducing and capping agent, which has proven activity against human pathogens, such as microbial species E.coli and Streptobacillus sps. Characterizations were carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR). SEM images showed the formation of gold nanoparticles with an average size of 20-25 nm. Spectra collected while infra-red analysis contained broad peaks in ranges from 4000-400 cm -1 . It can be concluded that the fruit of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul E. coli, and Streptobacillus. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  18. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Heider, B.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Sosa, C.C.; Miller, R.E.; Scotland, R.W.; Wood, J.R.I.; Rossel, G.; Eserman, L.A.; Jarret, R.L.; Yencho, G.C.; Bernau, V.; Juarez, H.; Sotelo, S.; Haan, de S.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which

  19. Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine is an independent predictor of mortality risk in patients receiving treatment for HIV-associated tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Peters, Jurgens A; Flach, Clare; Lawn, Stephen D

    2016-03-23

    Simple immune capture assays that detect mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine are promising new tools for the diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis (HIV-TB). In addition, however, recent prospective cohort studies of patients with HIV-TB have demonstrated associations between LAM in the urine and increased mortality risk during TB treatment, indicating an additional utility of urinary LAM as a prognostic marker. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the evidence concerning the strength of this relationship in adults with HIV-TB in sub-Saharan Africa, thereby quantifying the assay's prognostic value. We searched MEDLINE and Embase databases using comprehensive search terms for 'HIV', 'TB', 'LAM' and 'sub-Saharan Africa'. Identified studies were reviewed and selected according to predefined criteria. We identified 10 studies eligible for inclusion in this systematic review, reporting on a total of 1172 HIV-TB cases. Of these, 512 patients (44 %) tested positive for urinary LAM. After a variable duration of follow-up of between 2 and 6 months, overall case fatality rates among HIV-TB cases varied between 7 % and 53 %. Pooled summary estimates generated by random-effects meta-analysis showed a two-fold increased risk of mortality for urinary LAM-positive HIV-TB cases compared to urinary LAM-negative HIV-TB cases (relative risk 2.3, 95 % confidence interval 1.6-3.1). Some heterogeneity was explained by study setting and patient population in sub-group analyses. Five studies also reported multivariable analyses of risk factors for mortality, and pooled summary estimates demonstrated over two-fold increased mortality risk (odds ratio 2.5, 95 % confidence interval 1.4-4.5) among urinary LAM-positive HIV-TB cases, even after adjustment for other risk factors for mortality, including CD4 cell count. We have demonstrated that detectable LAM in urine is associated with increased risk of mortality during TB treatment, and that this

  20. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  1. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj G. Jain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o. e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o., juntamente com dieta hiperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.

  2. Antinociceptive effect of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) in models of acute pain in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S S; Lopes, L S; Marques, R B; Figueiredo, K A; Costa, D A; Chaves, M H; Almeida, F R C

    2010-05-27

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) is locally known as "mamica de cadela", and its bark is popularly used for toothache and earache. The objective of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from this species' stem bark (EtOH), its fractions of partition (hexane-HEX, ethyl acetate-AcOEt, aqueous-AQ) and lupeol (a triterpene obtained from HEX) in models of acute pain. Male and female Swiss mice (25-35 g, n=6-12 animals/group) were used to assess acute toxicity and nociception (Animal Ethics Committee/UFPI, No. 09/2008). Acute toxicity was studied up to 2 g/kg p.o. of EtOH. In the formalin test (2%, 20 microL/paw), the licking time of the stimulated paw was quantified during the first 5 min (first phase) and at 15-30 min (second phase), 1h after oral treatment with EtOH, HEX, AcOEt or saline, and 30 min after use of morphine-MOR (5 mg/kg i.p.). The same response evoked by capsaicin (2 microg/20 microL/paw) was quantified during 5 min, after administration of EtOH, HEX, AcOEt, AQ, saline and MOR. The licking time of the paw that was stimulated with glutamate (10 micromol/20 microL) was measured (15 min) after treatment with EtOH, HEX, AcOEt, AQ, lupeol, saline or MK801 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.). Mice were submitted to the rota-rod task and open-field test in order to assess any non-specific muscle-relaxant or sedative effects of EtOH (250 mg/kg p.o.) and HEX (500 mg/kg p.o.). The animals did not exhibit any acute toxicity to EtOH (up to 2 g/kg p.o.), so it was not possible to calculate the LD50. EtOH, HEX and AcOEt (62.5-250 mg/kg) produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the formalin and capsaicin tests. However, AQ was ineffective. EtOH, HEX, AcOEt and lupeol reduced the glutamate-evoked nociceptive response, but AQ had no effect. EtOH and HEX did not alter the locomotion of animals in the open-field or rota-rod tests, which suggest a lack of a central depressant effect. The results confirm the popular use of Zanthoxylum

  3. Bioactive secondary metabolites from Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, L W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, C L

    2012-05-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam. Based on analyzing the rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Nigrospora sp. This is the first report of the isolation of endophytic Nigrospora from M. oleifera. By bioassay-guided fractionation, four antifungal secondary metabolites were isolated from liquid cultures of the fungus Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, and their chemical structures were determined to be griseofulvin (1), dechlorogriseofulvin (2), 8-dihydroramulosin (3) and mellein (4) on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from Nigrospora sp. for the first time. In vitro antifungal assay showed that griseofulvin displayed clear inhibition of the growth of 8 plant pathogenic fungi. Dechlorogriseofulvin and mellein exhibited only weak antifungal activities, whereas 8-dihydroramulosin displayed no antifungal activities.

  4. Application of a puffer fish skin gelatin film containing Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract to the packaging of Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to develop a puffer fish skin gelatin (PSG) film that contains Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract (ME) as a new biodegradable film. With the increase in ME concentration, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PSG film increased, whereas the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability decreased. In addition, the PSG film with ME exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and antioxidant activity. To apply the ME-containing PSG film to food packaging, Gouda cheese was wrapped with the ME-containing PSG film. During storage, the cheese packaging with the ME-containing PSG film effectively inhibited the microbial growth and retarded the lipid oxidation of cheese compared with the control sample. Thus, the ME-containing PSG film can be used as an antimicrobial and antioxidative packaging material to improve the quality of food products.

  5. Studies of Pb2+ adsorption by Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds from an aqueous medium in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Ana Paula; Gonçalves, Affonso Celso; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Stangarlin, José Renato; Rubio, Fernanda; Nacke, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seeds for removing lead ions (Pb(2+)) from water was evaluated. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the biosorbent was found to be 12.24 mg g(-1). In order to verify the effectiveness of this material, comparative studies were performed with activated carbon under the same optimal conditions for the construction of isotherms and the desorption process. Average desorption rate values led to the assumption that a strong interaction took place between the adsorbents and the metal ions. Thus, it has been concluded that the biosorbent studied herein can be considered very effective and feasible for remediating Pb(2+)-contaminated solutions, since this material is itself an untreated and low-cost byproduct.

  6. USE OF GUACIMO (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. AS A FORAGE SOURCE FOR EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN A TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the traditional uses of guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, compared to other local forage resources for livestock. The expectative of farmers on the use of trees as alternative sources of forage in Angostillo, Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, Mexico was also investigated. Data was collected through interviews and direct observation. All farmers practice ranching and 85% combine animal production with crop cultivation; allocating 40% of their land to corn and 60% to dual purpose cattle production. The principal uses of guacimo are as forage, firewood, timber, shade, and living fence posts. Guacimo has the highest value as forage compared to other local fodder trees such as guaje de indio (Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, espino (Acacia cavenia Mol. and huizache (A. farnesiana Willd.. Farmers showed interest in establishing silvopastoral systems including forage banks using guacimo. However, they foresaw limitations due to a lack of consulting, agronomic training and financial support to establish the crops.

  7. Potencial productivo de Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. en bancos de forraje y asociado a gramíneas tropicales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Vargas, Eloisa

    2012-01-01

    Se realizaron dos experimentos en un rodal de árboles de Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. El primero para determinar el momento en que el árbol debe podarse en la época de lluvias para producir forraje que se conserve verde durante la época seca. Se realizaron tres podas (P-1 en agosto, P-2 en septiembre y P-3 en octubre) y cuatro cosechas (C-a en febrero, C-b y C-c en marzo, y C-d en abril). El momento de poda afectó la cantidad de biomasa forrajera (P = 0.001), siendo mayor en P-1 (P = 0.001). La bio...

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the vitamins, phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Taj Ur

    2016-10-01

    Plant based food products and medicines are given more consideration for their efficacy, safety and synergistic effects. Radiation processing has been valuably used for microbial decontamination and value addition of the plant materials. The current study is about the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves. The leaves of the plant were irradiated at the dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 kGy. The irradiated and control samples were evaluated for vitamin, phytochemicals, antibacterial and DPPH scavenging activities. The results showed that gamma irradiation doses up to 12.5 kGy enhanced the levels of certain phytochemicals and augmented the biological activities.

  9. The occurrence of Glyceria striata (Lam. Hitchc. in Europe and the new localities of the species in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Piwowarski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyceria striata (Lam. Hitchc. is a North American species that has been recorded in most, semi-natural habitats in Europe, e.g. in meadows, bog springs, margins of water bodies. It is circumscribed within two taxa of lower rank: G. striata subsp. striata and G. striata subsp. stricta. Only G. striata subsp. stricta has been reported from Europe. This paper gives a list of the European locali- ties of the species (48 and describes two newly discovered localities in Poland (the Wyżyna Małopolska upland and the Western Carpathian Mts.. The distribution of G. striata in Europe is mapped and potential migration routes of the species are discussed.

  10. Evaluación de dos variedades de Moringa oleifera Lam. utilizando diferentes sustratos en condiciones de vivero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damisela Pacheco Veiga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agroproductivo de las variedades Plain y Supergenious de Moringa oleifera Lam. sobre diferentes sustratos, en condiciones de vivero, se realizó el estudio sobre un suelo Pardo con carbonato típico. Se estudiaron tres sustratos (humus de lombriz, estiércol vacuno descompuesto y compost para el aviveramiento, en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con 8 tratamientos y tres réplicas, evaluándose: cantidad de hojas a los 30 días después de germinadas las plantas, altura de las plantas hasta el trasplante cada 10 días, y a los 30 días; diámetro del tallo, longitud y diámetro de la raíz. Los mejores resultados se alcanzaron con el sustrato, suelo + humus de lombriz en ambas variedades.

  11. Suppressive effects of Moringa oleifera Lam pod against mouse colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budda, Sirintip; Butryee, Chaniphun; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Wangnaithum, Supradit; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Kupradinun, Piengchai

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) is a major ingredient in Thai cuisine and has some medicinal properties. Previous studies have shown potentially antioxidant, antitumor promoter, anticlastogen and anticarcinogen activities both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was conducted to investigate chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into 8 groups: Group 1 served as a negative control; Group 2 received AOM/DSS as a positive control; Groups 3-5 were fed boiled freeze-dried M. oleifera (bMO) at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively supplemented in basal diets for 5 weeks; Groups 6-8 were fed with bMO diets at the designed doses above for 2 weeks prior to AOM, during and 1 week after DSS administration. At the end of the study, colon samples were processed for histopathological examination. PCNA indices, and iNOS and COX-2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the incidences and multiplicities of tumors in Groups 6-8 to be decreased when compared to Group 2 in a dose dependent manner, but this was significant only in Group 8. The PCNA index was also significantly decreased in Group 8 whereas iNOS and COX-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in Groups 7 and 8. The findings suggest that M. oleifera Lam pod exerts suppressive effects in a colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model induced by AOM/DSS and could serve as a chemopreventive agent.

  12. Classical torus conformal block, = 2∗ twisted superpotential and the accessory parameter of Lamé equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek, Marcin

    2014-03-01

    In this work the correspondence between the semiclassical limit of the DOZZ quantum Liouville theory on the torus and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the = 2∗ (Ω-deformed) U(2) super-Yang-Mills theory is used to propose new formulae for the accessory parameter of the Lamé equation. This quantity is in particular crucial for solving the problem of uniformization of the one-punctured torus. The computation of the accessory parameters for torus and sphere is an open longstanding problem which can however be solved if one succeeds to derive an expression for the so-called classical Liouville action. The method of calculation of the latter has been proposed some time ago by Zamolod-chikov brothers. Studying the semiclassical limit of the four-point function of the quantum Liouville theory on the sphere they have derived the classical action for the Riemann sphere with four punctures. In the present work Zamolodchikovs idea is exploited in the case of the Liouville field theory on the torus. It is found that the Lamé accessory parameter is determined by the classical Liouville action on the one-punctured torus or more concretely by the torus classical block evaluated on the saddle point intermediate classical weight. Secondly, as an implication of the aforementioned correspondence it is obtained that the torus accessory parameter is related to the sum of all rescaled column lengths of the so-called "critical" Young diagrams extremizing the instanton "free energy" for the = 2∗ gauge theory. Finally, it is pointed out that thanks to the known relation the sum over the "critical" column lengths can be expressed in terms of a contour integral in which the integrand is built out of certain special functions.

  13. Caracterización cinética de la enzima polifenol oxidasa en seis estadios de maduración en lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) var. Castilla/Kinetic characterization of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in six ripening stages in lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) var. Castilla

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clara M Mejía-Doria; Duverney Gaviria-Arias; Roque Bru-Martínez; Lucero Rengifo-Ramos; Álvaro H Alegría-Soto; Enrique Aguilar-Fernández

    2014-01-01

    .... In lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.), with a cultivated area in Colombia of 4,868 hectares and an annual production of 38,910 tons, it is an important problem because of the relevance of this crop for the national economy...

  14. Applicability of Moringa oleifera Lam. pie as an adsorbent for removal of heavy metals from waters Aplicabilidade da torta de Moringa oleifera Lam. como adsorvente para remoção de metais pesados de águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso C. Gonçalves Junior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of moringa seeds (Moringa oleifera Lam. as an adsorbent material for removing toxic heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and chromium from contaminated solutions. The effect of the adsorbent mass was investigated at two pH conditions (5.0 and 7.0. The optimized conditions were 0.300 g of adsorbent at pH 5.0, used for the isotherms construction, and linearized according to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Results showed that cadmium adsorption was similar in both the models used. For lead, the Freundlich model had the best adjustment and chromium was better adjusted by the Langmuir model. It was concluded that the adsorbent was effective in the remediation of solutions containing cadmium, lead and chromium, thus, its use as sustainable alternative material is feasible, since it has low cost, does not need a previous treatment and it is a byproduct.Este estudo objetivou avaliar a eficácia do uso da torta de moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. como material adsorvente dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio (Cd, chumbo (Pb e cromo (Cr de soluções contaminadas. Nos testes cinéticos foram variadas as massas do adsorvente em duas condições de pH (5,0 e 7,0. As condições otimizadas foram pH 5,0 e massa de 0.300 g de adsorvente, utilizados para a construção das isotermas e linearizadas conforme os modelos de Langmuir e Freundlich. Realizou-se a determinação dos metais por espectrometria de absorção atômica. Os resultados mostraram que houve semelhança em ambos os modelos utilizados para a adsorção do Cd. Para o Pb, o modelo de Freundlich apresentou o melhor ajuste e, para o Cr, houve melhor ajuste pelo modelo de Langmuir. Conclui-se, com base nos resultados obtidos, que o adsorvente foi eficaz na remediação de soluções contendo Cd, Pb e Cr e, assim, é viável a utilização desse adsorvente como material alternativo sustentável, pois apresenta baixo custo, não necessita de tratamento prévio e se trata de

  15. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves Avaliação citotóxica do óleo volátil extraído das folhas do Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Luis da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma, A-549 (human lung carcinoma, HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma, Vero (monkey kidney cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool were also tested to verify their possible influence in the oil cytotoxic activity. The results obtained permitted to confirm that the essential oil is cytotoxic against tumoral cells (CD50 = 82.3, 90.7 and 113.6 µg/ml for A-549, HeLa e HT-29 cell lines, respectively, while it did not show cytotoxicity against non-tumoral cells (Vero and mice macrophages. Thus, the essential oil from Z. rhoifolium leaves seems to present a possible therapeuthic role due to its selective cytotoxic activity against tumoral cell lines.O Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. é uma planta popularmente utilizada como antimicrobianos, no tratamento da malária e de inflamações. O óleo volátil do Z. rhoifolium foi extraído e posteriormente foi avaliada a sua citotoxicidade contra células HeLa (carcinoma cervical humano, A-549 (carcinoma de pulmão humano, HT-29 (adenocarcinoma de cólon humano, Vero (rim de macaco e macrófagos de camundongos. Alguns terpenos constituintes do óleo volátil (beta-cariofileno, alfa -humuleno, alfa -pineno, mirceno e linalool também foram testados para verificar as possíveis influências sobre a citotoxicidade do óleo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que o óleo volátil é citotóxico contra células as tumorais (CD50 = 82.3, 90.7 e 113.6 µg/ml para A-549, HeLa e HT-29 cell lines, respectivamente, mas não apresenta citotoxicidade contra as células não tumorais (Vero e macrófagos de camundongos. Desta forma o óleo volátil das folhas do Z. rhoifolium demonstra

  16. One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. (jackfruit fruit extract and its effect on pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Basavegowda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Novel approaches for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are of great importance due to its vast spectrum of applications in diverse fields, including medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Te presented study reports the successful AuNPs’ synthesis using [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. extract, and provides detailed characterization and evaluation of its antibacterial potential. [b]Objective[/b]. The aim was to develop a cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method of gold nanoparticles using aqueous fruit extract of [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. as a reducing and capping agent, which has proven activity against human pathogens, such as microbial species [i]E.coli[/i] and [i]Streptobacillus[/i] sps. [b]Materials and method[/b]. Characterizations were carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR. [b]Results[/b]. SEM images showed the formation of gold nanoparticles with an average size of 20–25 nm. Spectra collected while infra-red analysis contained broad peaks in ranges from 4000–400 cm -1 . [b]Conclusions[/b]. It can be concluded that the fruit of [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul [i]E. coli[/i], and [i]Streptobacillus[/i]. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  17. Electro-flocculation associated with the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam as natural coagulant for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Souza dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although an important significant sector in world economy, the textile industry is known for its large volumes of wastewater generated in production processes. In the search for cleaner technologies, the application of electrochemical processes, such as electro-flocculation, or natural coagulants, such as Moringa oleifera Lam extract, have become recurrent in literature. Since the required operating conditions for alternative technologies are such that they hamper effective application, current paper presents results obtained with the use of a hybrid system of treatment which combines electro-flocculation and the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera lam to evaluate the removal of reactive blue 5G dye from aqueous solutions. Milder conditions of electric current intensity (0.10 – 1.50 A and natural coagulant concentration (250-2000 mg L-1 were tested. Through a Central Composite Rotatable Design, it was possible to obtain a quadratic model which subsidized the optimization of operating conditions. Applying an electric current of 0.97 A to sacrificial electrodes of iron and a concentration of 2000 mg L-1 for the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam, an average 86.79% color removal was obtained, considered a satisfactory rate.

  18. Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine is indicative of disseminated TB with renal involvement in patients living with HIV and advanced immunodeficiency: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Stephen D; Gupta-Wright, Ankur

    2016-03-01

    TB is the leading cause of HIV/AIDS-related deaths globally. New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to avert deaths from undiagnosed HIV-associated TB. Although simple assays that detect lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine have been commercially available for years, their specific role and utility were initially misunderstood, such that they have been slower to emerge from the diagnostics pipeline than otherwise might have been expected. In this article, we review and explain how urine-LAM assays should be understood as diagnostics for disseminated TB in HIV-positive patients with advanced immunodeficiency, in whom haematogenous TB dissemination to the kidneys serves as the primary mechanism by which LAM enters the urine. These insights are critical for the appropriate design of studies to evaluate these assays and to understand how they might be most usefully implemented. This understanding also supports the 2015 WHO recommendations on the restricted use of these assays in sick HIV-positive patients with advanced immunodeficiency. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Cadaba indica lam leaf extract and its larvicidal and pupicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalimuthu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Green nanoparticle synthesis was achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extracts and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. In the present study, activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs synthesized using Cadaba indica lam plant against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. A range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 ppm and crude extract (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ppm were tested against A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. indica lam were much more toxic than crude extract in both mosquito species. The cured extract high mortality values were 50% lethal concentration (LC50=88.22, 90.84 ppm; 90% lethal concentration (LC90=172.94, 178.55 ppm, and the AgNPs high mortality values were LC50=3.90, 4.39 ppm; LC90=19.04, 17.35 ppm against A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results recorded from ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transformed infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. These results suggest that the leaf cured extracts of C. indica lam and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus.

  20. Madeiras utilizadas na fabricação de arcos para instrumentos de corda: aspectos anatômicos Anatomical features of woods used in the manufacture of bows for stringed instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Angyalossy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A madeira de pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. é mundialmente empregada na confecção de arcos para instrumentos de corda, uma vez que apresenta características únicas de ressonância, densidade, durabilidade, beleza, entre outras qualidades, que a tornam ideal para tal uso. Diferentes amostras de pau-brasil, contudo, fornecem arcos com qualidades distintas. No comércio nacional outras madeiras estão sendo empregadas na produção de arcos. Realizou-se, neste estudo, uma análise qualitativa e quantitativa de diferentes amostras de pau-brasil com o objetivo de apontar diferenças na estrutura da madeira que possam contribuir para o entendimento das causas da variação na qualidade do arco, além da análise de outras espécies objetivando determinar, do ponto de vista estrutural, semelhanças ou diferenças com o pau-brasil. Conclui-se que variações no diâmetro dos vasos, distribuição e quantidade de parênquima axial e orientação dos elementos axiais e radiais são parâmetros que devem ser considerados quando se busca determinar as causas das diferenças na qualidade dos arcos de pau-brasil. Constatou-se que arcos de boa qualidade apresentam grã linheira e textura fina. Esta última característica decorre da menor proporção de vasos cujo diâmetro é reduzido, raios homogêneos e fibras com paredes espessas e/ou muito espessas. Assim, a relação entre a estrutura e a qualidade do arco está diretamente relacionada com as dimensões, a distribuição e a proporção das células do lenho.Pernambuco wood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. has special characteristics like resonance, density, durability, and beauty; for this reason, it is considered the best material for stringed instruments bows. Besides pernambuco wood has been used around the world, some samples, and consequently some bows, are better than others. In Brazil, others woody species have been used in the manufacture of bows. In this paper some wood samples of

  1. Composição florística do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Floristic survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in Serra da Capoeira Grande Environmental Protection Area, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º59'03"S e 43º38'59"W tem área total de 80ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. no município do Rio de Janeiro. Além disso, ocorrem na área outras três espécies ameaçadas de extinção: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng. e Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. O levantamento fitossociológico foi realizado por meio do método dos quadrantes, tendo sido alocados 200 pontos e tendo-se como critério de inclusão 15cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30m de altura do solo. A composição florística é o resultado desta amostragem acrescida de coletas feitas durante caminhadas no fragmento, totalizando 29 famílias, 58 gêneros e 69 espécies. As famílias que apresentaram maior número de espécies foram: Leguminosae (13, Myrtaceae (6, Euphorbiaceae (5, Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Celastraceae, Flacourtiaceae, Moraceae, Rubiaceae e Solanaceae (3. Analisando a similaridade florística entre a APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande e outras 18 áreas florestais do Rio de Janeiro, observou-se maior identidade florística entre a área estudada e florestas de baixada localizadas próximas ao mar. Todas as florestas reuniram-se com um baixo nível de similaridade, refletindo a diversidade florística das florestas do Rio de Janeiro.The 80-hectare site (22º59'03"S and 43º38'59"W, is one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality, where brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. occurs naturally. Furthermore, three other endangered species occur in this area: Cariniana ianeirensis R. Knuth, Acosmium lentiscifolium Spreng., and Machaerium incorruptible (Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH >15cm; a total of 200 points were surveyed. The floristic composition was comprised of the sampled

  2. Caracterización química del aceite y harina residual de solanum sisymbriifolium lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiese, B.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds from Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam harvested at Olavarría (Buenos Aires, Argentine were defatted with hexane and the raw oil obtained with a yield of 20,6 % dry basis. The physicochemical characteristics of crude oil were: refractive index: 1,4610 (at 25ºC, iodine value: 112,8; saponification index: 170,0; unsaponifiable matter: 14,0 % and free fatty acid content: 2,4 (mg KOH/g. The fatty acid composition of seed oil was studied by gas-liquid chromatography. Major fatty acids of seed oil were: linoleic (52,3%, oleic (23,4 % and palmitic acid (16,4 %. The residual seed meal contained moderate level of crude protein (14,75%, dry basis, low level of available lysine (2,25 g/16gN and high content of crude fiber (51,5%, dry basis. Total and phytic acid phosphorous, calcium, ash, sugar and polysaccharides contents are reported.Semillas de Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam cosechadas en Olavarría (prov. de Buenos Aires, Argentina se trataron con hexano (soxhlet obteniéndose el aceite crudo (rendimiento:20,6% y la harina residual de extracción. Las características fisicoquímicas del aceite crudo fueron: Índice de refracción: 1.4610 (a 25ºC; Índice de iodo: 112,8; Índice de saponificación: 170,0; Insaponificable: 14,0%, Índice de acidez: 2,4 (mgKOH/g. Se determinó la composición acídica del aceite por cromatografía gas-líquido. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios fueron: ácido linoleico (52,3%, ácido oleico (23,4% y ácido palmítico (16,4%. La harina residual de extracción contenía una moderada proporción de proteína cruda (14,75% b.s, baja proporción de lisina disponible (2,25 g/16gN y un alto contenido de fibra cruda (51,5 %b.s. Se informan valores de fósforo total y de ácido fítico, cenizas, calcio e hidratos de carbono.

  3. Evaluation of bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. from Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Sharad; Gupta, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., the miracle tree, is widely used as a traditional medicine. The analyses of phytochemicals and antioxidant potential of hydroethanolic extract of various plant parts of M. oleifera revealed that leaves possessed the highest content of total phenolics (9.58 mg/g), β-carotene (14.10 mg/g) and lycopene (2.60 mg/g). Flowers and bark showed the highest content of total flavonoids (3.5 mg/g) and anthocyanin (52.80 mg/g), respectively. Leaves also showed maximum antioxidant potential using nitric oxide scavenging assay (IC50 - 120 µg/ml) and deoxyribose degradation assay (IC50-178 µg/ml). Highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in flowers (IC50-405 µg/ml). The GC-MS study revealed the presence of 29, 36 and 24 compounds in bark, leaf and flower, respectively. The major constituent identified were epiglobulol (41.68% in bark), phytol (23.54% in leaf) and β-sitosterol (15.35% in flower).The phytochemicals identified possess several therapeutic activity, including antioxidant potential, which was confirmed through earlier reports. Moreover, the presence of 1,1,3-triethoxubutane in all the plant parts analyzed, projects it as an important source of waste water treatment as hydrophobic modifiers.

  4. MODELAMIENTO ESTRUCTURAL Y ACOPLAMIENTO MOLECULAR DE LA PROTEÍNA POLIFENOL OXIDASA DEL LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam. var. Castilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian C. Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describió la posible estructura 3D y algunas características importantes para la actividad oxidorreductasa de la proteína polifenol oxidasa del lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. var. Castilla (sqPFO por medio de herramientas bioinformáticas; a partir de esta estructura se realizó estudios de acoplamiento molecular para el sitio activo de la sqPFO evaluando varios ligandos reportados como inhibidores de Polifenol oxidasas (PFO, se usó el ácido kójico como control. Los ligandos usados como posibles inhibidores del sitio activo de la sqPFO presentaron energías bajas con relación a la presentada por el ácido kójico, además de interacciones con residuos importantes del sitio activo de las PFO; el ligando Naftilchalcona hidroxilado presentó la energía de afinidad de enlace más baja y además no presentó características tóxicas. Éste es el inicio para el estudio del mecanismo de inhibición y toxicidad de posibles inhibidores para el sitio activo de la sqPFO.

  5. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARDO MELO NETO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  6. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bernardo; Leitão, Joseana M S R; Oliveira, Luciano G C; Santos, Sérgio E M; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Chaves, Mariana H; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Carvalho, Fernando A A

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  7. La pertinencia de imaginar modelos universitarios: El caso del Laboratorio: Aula Multimedia (LAM en la UAM Xochimilco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Andión Gamboa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo parte de un cuestionamiento sobre la pertinencia de imaginar modelos universitarios y para darle respuesta se explica desde una perspectiva teórica el papel de los modelos universitarios en los proceso de cambio y reconfiguración de la organización universitaria. Posteriormente, se hace una descripción de la experiencia que significó implantar un modelo “autóctono” dentro de un aula universitaria multimedia, en la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Xochimilco, y su transfiguración en un laboratorio multifuncional. Al final, se reflexiona sobre este proceso de cambio organizacional, llegando a la conclusión que cuando los modelos se imaginan, diseñan, planean, aplican, evalúan y sirven a la comunidad, como es el caso del Laboratorio: Aula Multimedia (LAM, entonces resulta evidente la vigencia, relevancia y pertinencia de esta actividad académica.

  8. Ekstraksi Kayu Nangka (Artocarpus heterophyllus lam dengan Pelarut Etanol sebagai Pewarna Tekstil Menggunakan Metode Microwave-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaniar Rulandri Widoretno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seiring berkembangnya teknologi menyebabkan kebanyakan industri tekstil di Indonesia lebih memilih menggunakan pewarna sintetis pada proses pewarnaan kain. Pada kenyataannya pewarna sintetis dapat berdampak negatif karena bersifat toxic bagi kesehatan pekerja dan lingkungan. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut, salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan penggunaan zat warna alami. Salah satu potensi yang belum termanfaatkan di Indonesia adalah limbah kayu nangka dari industri meubel, kayu nangka sendiri mengandung zat warna yang memberikan pigmen warna kuning sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai alternatif sumber bahan pewarna alami. Dalam penelitian ini bahan yang akan diekstraksi adalah kayu nangka (Artocarpus heterophyllus lam dengan ukuran serbuk antara 35 mesh – 60 mesh. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol 96% sebanyak 200 mL. Ekstraksi dengan menggunakan metode Microwave-Assisted Extraction dilakukan pada kondisi operasi yang berbeda, yakni meliputi perbandingan rasio bahan terhadap pelarut (0,02; 0,04; 0,06; 0,08; 0,1 g/mL, daya microwave (100; 264; 400; 600: 800 watt, serta waktu ekstraksi (10; 20; 30; 40; 50; 60; 70: 80; 90 menit. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, diperoleh yield optimum sebesar 3,39% pada daya 400 watt, 3,67% pada rasio bahan terhadap pelarut 0,02 g/mL, dan 3,49% pada waktu ekstraksi 30 menit dengan daya microwave 600 watt. Hasil pengujian pewarnaan pada tekstil menunjukkan bahwa pewarna alami kayu nangka dapat digunakan sebagai pewarna pewarna tekstil karena dapat memberikan hasil pewarnaan yang permanen.

  9. Investigation of active biomolecules involved in the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles by Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinde; Sun, Daohua; Zhang, Genlei; He, Ning; Liu, Hongyu; Huang, Jiale; Odoom-Wubah, Tareque; Li, Qingbiao

    2013-06-01

    The effects of different biomolecules in Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract on the morphology of obtained gold nanoparticles were investigated in this study. The results indicated that reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols consisting of about 79.8 % dry weight of the leaf extract were mainly involved in providing the dual function of reduction and the size/shape control during the biosynthesis. The gold nanoparticles present included 64 ± 10 nm nanospheres, 131 ± 18 nm nanoflowers, and 347 ± 136 nm (edge length) nanoplates and they were synthesized using the main content of reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols, respectively, after they were desorbed by the AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin column. Particularly, flower-like and triangular/hexagonal gold nanoparticles with a yield more than 80 % were obtained. Possible shape-directed agents for the nucleation and growth were characterized by FTIR, it can be seen that ketones were bound on the surface of the spherical and flower-like GNPs, while both the ketones and carbonyls bound on the Au {111} plane this may have favored the formation of the twin defects, which are very essential for nanoplates' formation.

  10. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Akio, E-mail: watanabea@jfrl.or.jp [Japan Food Research Laboratories, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan); Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi [Japan Food Research Laboratories, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo [Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  11. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nateelak Kooltheat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8 which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6 which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  12. An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-02-18

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  13. In vitro screening and evaluation of antivenom phytochemicals from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhan, Bhavya; Shrikanth, Vineetha M; Mirajkar, Kiran K; More, Sunil S

    2014-04-01

    Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Although antivenom is the only treatment available, it is associated with several side effects. As an alternative, plants have been extensively studied in order to obtain an alternative treatment. In folk medicine, Azima tetracantha Lam. is usually used to treat snakebites. The present study aims to provide a scientific explanation for the use of this plant against snakebite. The extracts of shade dried leaves of A. tetracantha were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity on toxic venom enzymes like phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase etc. from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venoms. The ethylacetate extract rendered a significant inhibitory effect on the phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase A2 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes. The present study suggests that ethylacetate extract of A. tetracantha leaves possesses compounds that inhibit the activity of toxic enzymes from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venom. Further pharmacological and in vivo studies would provide evidence that this substance may lead to a potential treatment against these venoms.

  14. Chemopreventive and remediation effect of Hydrocotyl bonariensis Comm. Ex Lam (Apiaceae) leave extract in galactose-induced cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajani, E O; Salako, A A; Sharlie, P D; Akinleye, W A; Adeoye, A O; Salau, B A; Adebawo, O O

    2009-05-04

    Hydrocotyl bonariensis Comm. Ex Lam (Apiaceae) is being widely used in Western Nigeria in treating various symptoms of ophthalmic diseases; however scientific data in support of this medicinal use have not been reported. This study, investigated the efficacy of Hydrocotyl bonariensis leave extract in offering protection against experimental cataract and also examined its remediation effect when administered after cataract onset. Weanling albino rats fed with 30% galactose diet were used in the study. Mechanisms of action of the extract were investigated by measuring the degree of lens peroxidation, lens antioxidant status and lens protein concentration. Severity of cataract was determined by measuring the cataract index. The extract at 500 mg kg(-1) reduced cataract index significantly and also reduced cataract progression when administered after cataract onset. Administration of this dosage also significantly reduced the degree of lens peroxidation, increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the lens catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. The extract also prevents protein insolubilization. Administration of the extract at 1000 mg kg(-1) reduced cataract index and lens peroxidation but did not increase the antioxidant status significantly. Administration of the extract after cataract onset reduced cataract index, moderately increased percentage soluble protein above the value prior to the arrest of hypergalactosemia but did not increase the antioxidant status. Our study suggests that Hydrocotyl bonariensis protects against galactose-induced cataract, and that administration of the extract after cataract onset reduced cataract progression but did not reverse cataractogenesis.

  15. Investigation of active biomolecules involved in the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles by Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xinde; Sun Daohua, E-mail: sdaohua@xmu.edu.cn; Zhang Genlei; He Ning; Liu Hongyu; Huang Jiale; Odoom-Wubah, Tareque; Li Qingbiao, E-mail: kelqb@xmu.edu.cn [Xiamen University, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (China)

    2013-06-15

    The effects of different biomolecules in Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract on the morphology of obtained gold nanoparticles were investigated in this study. The results indicated that reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols consisting of about 79.8 % dry weight of the leaf extract were mainly involved in providing the dual function of reduction and the size/shape control during the biosynthesis. The gold nanoparticles present included 64 {+-} 10 nm nanospheres, 131 {+-} 18 nm nanoflowers, and 347 {+-} 136 nm (edge length) nanoplates and they were synthesized using the main content of reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols, respectively, after they were desorbed by the AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin column. Particularly, flower-like and triangular/hexagonal gold nanoparticles with a yield more than 80 % were obtained. Possible shape-directed agents for the nucleation and growth were characterized by FTIR, it can be seen that ketones were bound on the surface of the spherical and flower-like GNPs, while both the ketones and carbonyls bound on the Au {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane this may have favored the formation of the twin defects, which are very essential for nanoplates' formation.

  16. In vitro propagation, ex vitro rooting and leaf micromorphology of Bauhinia racemosa Lam.: a leguminous tree with medicinal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Udit; Kataria, Vinod; Shekhawat, N S

    2017-10-01

    A micropropagation system for Bauhinia racemosa Lam. was developed involving axillary shoot proliferation and ex vitro rooting using nodal explants obtained from mature tree. MS medium with 3.0 mg l-1 BA (6-benzyladenine) was optimum for shoot bud induction. For shoot multiplication, mother explants were transferred repeatedly on medium containing low concentration of BA (0.75 mg l-1). Number of shoots was increased up to two passages and decreased thereafter. Shoot multiplication was further enhanced on MS medium containing 0.25 mg l-1 each of BA and Kin (Kinetin) with 0.1 mg l-1 of NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid). Addition of 0.004 mg l-1 TDZ (thidiazuron) increased the rate of shoot multiplication and 21.81 ± 1.26 shoots per culture vessel were obtained. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted under ex vitro conditions treated with 400 mg l-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) for 7 min on sterile soilrite. After successful hardening in greenhouse, ex vitro rooted plants were transferred to the field conditions with ≈85% of survival rate. Micromorphological changes were observed on leaf surface i.e. development of vein density and trichomes and stomatal appearance, when plants were subjected to environmental conditions. This is the first report on in vitro regeneration of B. racemosa from mature tree.

  17. Ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves protect the pre-pubertal spermatogonial cells from cyclophosphamide-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Guruprasad; Honguntikar, Sachin D; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Mutalik, Srinivas; Setty, Manjunath M; Kalyankumar, Raksha; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-04-22

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is widely cultivated in Asian and African countries for its medicinal and dietary significance. The leaves are highly nutritious and are known to possess various biological activities. Pre-pubertal Swiss albino male mice were injected with single dose of cyclophosphamide (CP, 200mg/kg body weight) or ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOE, 100mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. In combination group, MOE was administered 24h prior to CP injection. CP induced a significant decrease in testicular weight (p<0.01) and depletion of germ cells (p<0.001) and higher level of DNA damage (p<0.001) compared to control. The expression of P53, Bax, Cytochrome C (Cyt C) was increased while there was a decrease in the expression of Bcl2, c-Kit and Oct4. Administration of MOE 24h prior to CP treatment ameliorated the depletion (p<0.001), DNA damage (p<0.001) and apoptosis (p<0.01) of germ cells induced by CP. The mitigating effect of MOE appears to be mediated by up-regulating the expression of c-Kit and Oct4 transcripts in P53-independent manner. MOE protects the spermatogonial cells from CP-induced damage by modulating the apoptotic response elicited by CP and therefore can be considered as an efficient method of male fertility preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypolipidemic Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam Leaf Powder and its Extract in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Shahinaz A; Morsy, Nashwa F S; Elaby, Shahenda M; Ghaly, Mohammed A A

    2017-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam possess some potential medicinal value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of M. oleifera leaf powder and its extract against hyperlipidemia in rats. Adult male albino rats were divided into six groups. The first group was fed on a basal diet that served as a negative control, whereas the others were fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) containing moringa leaf powder at 0.737% or 1.475% or administered daily with 200 or 400 mg dry moringa leaf extract/kg bw for 60 days. A positive control group was fed on the HFD. Serum indices related to lipid profile, oxidative status, and liver function were analyzed. Feeding rats on an HFD containing moringa leaf powder at 0.737% or an oral dose of its dry extract at 400 mg/kg bw alleviated the harmful elevation of cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum that were induced by the HFD. This is the first study demonstrating the hypocholesterolemic effect of M. oleifera leaf powder.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy, incremental yield and prognostic value of Determine TB-LAM for routine diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients requiring acute hospital admission in South Africa: a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Stephen D; Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Burton, Rosie; Schutz, Charlotte; Boulle, Andrew; Vogt, Monica; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Nicol, Mark P; Meintjes, Graeme

    2017-03-21

    We previously reported that one-third of HIV-positive adults requiring medical admission to a South African district hospital had laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) and that almost two-thirds of cases could be rapidly diagnosed using Xpert MTB/RIF-testing of concentrated urine samples obtained on the first day of admission. Implementation of urine-based, routine, point-of-care TB screening is an attractive intervention that might be facilitated by use of a simple, low-cost diagnostic tool, such as the Determine TB-LAM lateral-flow rapid test for HIV-associated TB. Sputum, urine and blood samples were systematically obtained from unselected HIV-positive adults within 24 hours of admission to a South African township hospital. Additional clinical samples were obtained during hospitalization as clinically indicated. TB was defined by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in any sample using Xpert MTB/RIF or liquid culture. The diagnostic yield, accuracy and prognostic value of urine-lipoarabinomannan (LAM) testing were determined, but urine-LAM results did not inform treatment decisions. Consecutive HIV-positive adult acute medical admissions not already receiving TB treatment (n = 427) were enrolled regardless of clinical presentation or symptoms. TB was diagnosed in 139 patients (TB prevalence 32.6%; median CD4 count 80 cells/μL). In the first 24 hours of admission, sputum (spot and/or induced) samples were obtained from 37.0% of patients and urine samples from 99.5% of patients (P LAM and 52.5% (n = 73/139) for sputum-Xpert/urine-LAM combined (P LAM was unrelated to respiratory symptoms, and LAM assay specificity (using a grade-2 cut-off) was 98.9% (274/277; 95% confidence interval [CI] 96.9-99.8). Among TB cases, positive urine-LAM status was strongly associated with mortality at 90 days (adjusted hazard ratio 4.20; 95% CI 1.50-11.75). Routine testing for TB in newly admitted HIV-positive adults using Determine TB-LAM to test urine

  20. VARIABILIDAD MORFOLOGICA DE LA COLECCIÓN COLOMBIANA DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam. Y ESPECIES ELACIONADAS DE LA SECCIÓN Lasiocarpa MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF THE COLOMBIAN COLLECTION OF LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam. AND RELATED LASIOCARPA SECTION SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lobo Arias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se categorizó la variabilidad morfológica de la colección colombiana de lulo Solanum quitoense Lam, especies relacionadas de la sección Lasiocarpa y entidades biológicas Solanaceae de otras secciones, como grupo externo. Se encontró amplia variabilidad morfológica cualitativa y cuantitativa en las dos variedades botánicas del lulo y las otras entidades biológicas de Lasiocarpa. Los 58 atributos morfológicos cualitativos fueron polimórficos en éste conjunto, con presencia de 73,9% del total de estados incluidos en los descriptores y 4,2 morfoalelos por variable. En el caso de S. quitoense, 52 de los 58 caracteres cualitativos exhibieron variabilidad, con 60% de las variantes totales de la lista de descriptores y 3,4 morfoalelos por característica. Igualmente, se encontró polimorfismo considerable en S. hirtum, S. pseudolulo y potencial de utilización, en dos materiales estudiados de S. vestissimum. A nivel cuantitativo se determinó diversidad en todas las variables estudiadas. El análisis de componentes principales de los caracteres cuantitativos reveló una alta contribución de las variables de fruto a la explicación de la variabilidad total de esta índole. Los fenogramas cualitativo, cuantitativo y cualitativo-cuantitativo, no detectaron materiales idénticos en los taxa estudiados. La mayor consistencia taxonómica fue exhibida por el fenograma obtenido con todas las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas.The morphologic variability of the Colombian collection of lulo, Solanum quitoense Lam, related species of section Lasiocarpa and Solanaceae taxa of other sections, as outgroup, was studied. Ample qualitative and quantitative morphologic variability was found in the two botanical varieties of lulo and the other studied Lasiocarpa species. The 58 qualitative morphologic attributes were polymorphic in this set of taxa, with 73,9% of the total qualitative states included in the descriptor list up today, with 4,2 morphoalleles

  1. Essential oil composition of fruit colour varieties of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. Composição dos óleos essenciais de variedades de coloração de frutos de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto H. Moreno

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. is a variable species concerning fruit colour, with three recognized varieties. However, the definition of varieties is not easy for Myrtaceae species and not widely accepted. Two fruit colour varieties (purple and yellow of E. brasiliensis had their essential oil composition analysed in order to give support to the existence of varieties for this species. Although, the major components in the leaf oil are the same monoterpenes for both varieties, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 1,8-cineol, the purple fruit variety accumulates more oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.9% than the one with yellow fruits (3.8%. The major differences occurred in purple fruits that present as major components caryophyllene oxide (22.2% and alpha-cadinol (10.4%, not found in the leaf oil, and the yellow fruit oil presented a similar composition as observed for the leaves. These fruit colour varieties of E. brasilensis can be considered as two distinct chemotypes, since the sesquiterpene pathway is more operant in the purple variety than in the yellow one, in which monoterpenes are mainly accumulated.A espécie Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. apresenta a coloração dos frutos variável, sendo reconhecidas três variedades. Entretanto, a definição de variedades não é fácil para espécies de Myrtaceae e também não é amplamente aceita. Duas variedades de Eugenia brasiliensis, baseado na cor dos frutos (roxos e amarelos, tiveram a composição de seus óleos essenciais analisadas com a finalidade de obter indícios de variedade botânica para esta espécie. Embora, os componentes principais nos óleos das folhas fossem os mesmos monoterpenos para ambas as variedades, alfa-pineno, beta-pineno e 1,8-cineol, a variedade com frutos roxos acumulou maior quantidade de sesquiterpenos oxigenados (33,9% do que aquela com frutos amarelos (3,8%. As diferenças principais ocorreram nos frutos roxos que apresentaram como componente principal o óxido de cariofileno

  2. Comportamento ingestivo e desempenho de ovinos em pastagem de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. com diferentes massas de forragem Ingestive behaviour and performance of sheep grazing Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture with different herbage masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Roman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo e o desempenho de ovinos em pastagem de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob pastejo contínuo e com diferentes massas de forragem: baixa: 1.000 a 1.200 kg/ha MS; intermediária: 1.400 a 1.600 kg/ha MS; alta = 1.800 a 2.000 kg/ha MS. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e duas repetições de área. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão polinomial em função das massas de forragem observadas nas unidades experimentais: 1.136,8; 1.190,9; 1.359,2; 1.375; 1.556 e 1.739,1 kg/ha MS. Os valores de massa de lâminas foliares e de pseudocolmo, de oferta de forragem e de lâminas foliares, de altura de dossel e de pseudocolmo, de profundidade de lâminas foliares e de ganho médio diário ajustaram-se ao modelo linear de regressão, relacionando-se positivamente com a massa de forragem. Os valores de taxa de lotação e de taxa de bocados diminuíram linearmente com o aumento da massa de forragem. O consumo de forragem, os tempos de pastejo, de ruminação e de ócio, o número diário de bocados, a massa de bocado, o ganho de escore de condição corporal, o ganho de peso vivo por área e a eficiência de conversão de forragem em peso vivo foram similares entre as massas de forragem avaliadas. As amplitudes de massas de forragem avaliadas não promovem diferenças no ganho de peso vivo por hectare, pois proporcionaram similar eficiência de transformação da forragem em produto animal. O principal fator determinante do desempenho individual dos animais é a profundidade da camada de lâminas foliares.The objective of this trial was to evaluate ingestive behaviour and performance of sheep grazing Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture with different herbage mass (HM: low HM: 1,000 - 1,200 kg/ha of DM (LHM; medium HM: 1,400-1,600 kg/ha DM (MHM; high HM 1,800-2,000 kg/ha DM (HHM. A completely randomized design with three treatments and

  3. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  4. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one.

  5. Caracterización morfológica de ocho procedencias de Moringa oleifera (Lam. en condiciones de vivero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Toral

    Full Text Available En la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey se realizó un estudio, con el objetivo de caracterizar morfológicamente ocho procedencias de Moringa oleifera (Lam. en condiciones de vivero. El diseño fue totalmente aleatorizado. Se evaluaron los indicadores: germinación, emergencia, supervivencia, altura de la planta, diámetro del tallo y número de hojas. Se usaron cinco réplicas por procedencia de 25 semillas cada una, para la prueba de germinación (21 días; y se sembraron 30 bolsas por cada procedencia. La procedencia Holguín-Mayarí tuvo el mejor comportamiento en cuanto a la altura (17,55 cm, la velocidad de crecimiento (0,43 cm/día, el número de hojas (siete y el diámetro del tallo (0,37 cm. Plain, Holguín-Mayarí y Paraguay fueron las de mejor emergencia y supervivencia (100 %. Los valores más bajos los presentó Guatemala (altura promedio: 14 cm, emergencia: 76 %, germinación: 49 %. Ninguna de las procedencias superó el 85 % de germinación. No hubo lesiones por ataque de insectos ni por enfermedades. Se concluye que estas procedencias poseen características morfológicas que las diferencian entre sí, y que la Holguín-Mayarí manifestó el mejor comportamiento en los indicadores evaluados. Se recomienda profundizar en los estudios morfoagronómicos de las diferentes procedencias de M. oleifera.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Diana; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Nasr-Esfahani, Salar

    2014-03-01

    Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4%) and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and normal saline (1 ml/kg) were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6) and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm) as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg) were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg) was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

  7. Improvement of the coagulation/flocculation process using a combination of Moringa oleifera lam with anionic polymer in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovani, Milene Carvalho; Camacho, Franciele Pereira; Nishi, Letícia; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Valverde, Karina Cardoso; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of anionic polymer as a flocculant aid on the coagulation/flocculation performance with a saline solution of Moringa oleifera as a coagulant to provide larger flocs and decrease the time sedimentation. For the tests, raw water was used from Pirapó River Basin (Maringá, Paraná, Brazil). Optimization of coagulation/flocculation tests was initially performed in a jar-test with a dosage of M. oleifera Lam (crude extract--MO, oil-extracted with ethanol--MO (et) and hexane--MO (hex) 1% m/v) as the coagulant that ranged from 10 to 60 mg L(-1) and of the anionic polymer 0.1% as a flocculant aid with a dosage that ranged from 0 to 0.4 mg L(-1). The parameters analysed were colour, turbidity and compounds with absorption in UV254nm. In view of the statistical analysis results, MO (hex) with a dosage of 30 mg L(-1) was chosen as a coagulant for the next tests of coagulation/flocculation. When anionic polymer was used alone (0.0 mg L(-1) of MO (hex)), parameters were not removed and there was no generation of heavy flocs as compared with the combination of MO (hex) with the anionic polymer. Statistical analysis showed that MO (hex) obtained the highest removals of the parameters analysed in lower dosages and no significant increase in parameters removal was observed when the polymer dosage was increased. The efficacy of the coagulant +/- anionic polymer was optimal when 30mg L(-1) of MO (hex) was used as a coagulant and 0.1 mg L(-1) of the anionic polymer was used as a flocculant aid, decreasing the time sedimentation from 1 h to 15 min.

  8. Digital gene expression analysis based on integrated de novo transcriptome assembly of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.] ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end (PE RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (≥ 100 bp, which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots

  9. H+-pyrophosphatase IbVP1 promotes efficient iron use in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Wang, Hongxia; Wu, Yinliang; Yang, Nan; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies limiting crop production globally, especially in arid regions because of decreased availability of iron in alkaline soils. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] grows well in arid regions and is tolerant to Fe deficiency. Here, we report that the transcription of type I H + -pyrophosphatase (H + -PPase) gene IbVP1 in sweet potato plants was strongly induced by Fe deficiency and auxin in hydroponics, improving Fe acquisition via increased rhizosphere acidification and auxin regulation. When overexpressed, transgenic plants show higher pyrophosphate hydrolysis and plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity compared with the wild type, leading to increased rhizosphere acidification. The IbVP1-overexpressing plants showed better growth, including enlarged root systems, under Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient conditions. Increased ferric precipitation and ferric chelate reductase activity in the roots of transgenic lines indicate improved iron uptake, which is also confirmed by increased Fe content and up-regulation of Fe uptake genes, e.g. FRO2, IRT1 and FIT. Carbohydrate metabolism is significantly affected in the transgenic lines, showing increased sugar and starch content associated with the increased expression of AGPase and SUT1 genes and the decrease in β-amylase gene expression. Improved antioxidant capacities were also detected in the transgenic plants, which showed reduced H 2 O 2 accumulation associated with up-regulated ROS-scavenging activity. Therefore, H + -PPase plays a key role in the response to Fe deficiency by sweet potato and effectively improves the Fe acquisition by overexpressing IbVP1 in crops cultivated in micronutrient-deficient soils. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Saharan heat low and moisture transport pathways in the central Sahara—Multiaircraft observations and Africa-LAM evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelstaedter, S.; Washington, R.; Flamant, C.; Parker, D. J.; Allen, C. J. T.; Todd, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present a characterization of the Saharan heat low (SHL) based on dropsonde observations made on 22 June 2011 by two simultaneously flying aircraft during the Fennec project. The observations are used to identify moisture transport pathways and to validate the UK Met Office limited area model for northern Africa (Africa-LAM). The observations capture the SHL, harmattan, and monsoon surge. The SHL has a northeast-southwest orientated elongated shape centered over northern Mauritania. The SHL core is associated with a 950 hPa temperature minimum (36.4°C) in the morning caused by the monsoon surge and a maximum (42.6°C) in the afternoon. The monsoon surge east of the SHL core splits into two transport pathways: (a) curving around the SHL core in the north, especially pronounced in a morning near-surface layer, and (b) northeastward transport within the ~2 km deep monsoon surge (afternoon observations only). In the morning the model forecasts the harmattan, monsoon surge, and the SHL geographic location and northeast-southwest orientation well but the model represents the SHL flatter and more spatially extended and overestimates the convective boundary layer (CBL) by up to ~0.3 km. The simulated afternoon SHL location appears shifted westward by up to ~1°. The model overestimates the shallow afternoon monsoon surge CBL depth of ~1.8 km by >2 km resulting in southwestward transport of vertically mixed moisture above ~2.5 km contrasting observed northeastward-only transport at lower levels. This moisture distribution model error is likely to have consequences for simulations of Saharan thermodynamics and dust emissions caused by convection-driven cold pools.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE and its chloroform fraction (MCF on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4% and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg and normal saline (1 ml/kg were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6 and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

  12. Cuscuta chinensis Lam.: A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnapee, Sineeporn; Li, Jin; Yang, Xi; Ge, Ai-hua; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2014-11-18

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. has found its use as a traditional medicine in China, Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Thailand. It is commonly used as an anti-aging agent, anti-inflammatory agent, pain reliever and aphrodisiac. To provide an overview of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and clinical applications of Cuscuta chinensis, as well as being an evidence base for further research works of the plant. The present review covers the literature available from 1985 to 2014. The information was collected from journals, books, theses and electronic search (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ESBCO, Springerlink and CNKI). Literature abstracts and full-text articles were analyzed and included in the review. Many phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date, including: at least 18 flavonoids; 13 phenolic acids; 2 steroids; 1 hydroquinone; 10 volatile oils; 22 lignans; 9 polysaccharides; 2 resin glycosides; 16 fatty acids. These phytochemicals and plant extracts exhibit a range of pharmacological activities that include hepatoprotective, renoprotective, antiosteoporotic, antioxidant, anti-aging, antimutagenic, antidepressant, improve sexual function, abortifacient effects, etc. This present review offers primary information for further studies of Cuscuta chinensis. The in vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a bioscientific explanation for its various ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities (most notably antioxidant effects) especially in the prevention of hepatic disease and renal failure. It is necessary and important to do more pharmacokinetic and toxicological research works on human subjects in order to inform the possible active compounds in the body and validate its safety in clinical uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A valued Indian medicinal plant – Begonia malabarica Lam. : Successful plant regeneration through various explants and field performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevanan Rajeshkumar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective and efficient protocol has been described in the present work for large-scale and rapid in vitro propagation of a valuable medicinal herb Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae by shoot auxillary-bud proliferation and organogenesis on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 0.0-8.8 mg/l and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.0-2.88 mg/l at different concentrations, either alone or in combinations. Initiation of callus formation from the base of the leaf lamina was observed on MS supplemented with BA, IAA and adenine sulphate. Root induction on shoots was achieved on full strength MS with IAA/ indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at different concentrations. MS medium with 4.4 mg/l BA and 1.4 mg/l IAA elicited the maximum number of shoots (10 multiple shoots from nodal explants. Leaf-based callus differentiated into more than 28 shoots on MS with 150 mg/l adenine sulphate. The regenerated shoots were rooted on MS with 1.2 mg/l IBA within ten days. Almost 95% of the rooted shoots survived hardening when transferred to the field. The regenerated plants did not show any morphological change and variation in levels of secondary metabolites when compared with the mother stock. Thus, a reproduction of B. malabarica was established through nodal and leaf explants. This protocol can be exploited for conservation and commercial propagation of this medical plant in the Indian subcontinent and might be useful for genetic improvement programs.

  14. Anti-apoptosis effect of polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam on cardiomyocytes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-Li; Guo, Li; Ren, Ya-Chao; Wang, Bing; Li, Rong-Hui; Qi, Yu-Shan; Yu, Hui; Chang, Nai-Dan; Li, Ming-Hui; Peng, Hai-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis in myocardial cells of aging rats induced by D-galactose and to study the effect of the Polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam (PCCL) on apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and its corresponding machinasim in aging rat model. Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Normal control group (NC). D-galactose (100 mg · kg(-1)d(-1) for 56 day) indued aging group (MC), D-galactose plus 100 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (ML), D-galactose plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MM), and D-galactose plus 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MH). Same volume of solution (water, or PCCL aqueous solution) was given by gavage for 56 days. Then the hearts were collected and apoptosis parameters were evaluated. Caspase-3 and Cyt c were determined by fluorescence spectrometer, the apoptosis rate was assessed by AnnexinV-FITC method by Flow-Cytometry, [Ca(2+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i overloaded by KCL were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM); Bcl-2 and Bax were examined by immunohistochemistry. The content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3, Bax expression level in D-galactose induced aging group were higher than NC (p aging group compared to NC. On the other hand, the content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3 and apoptosis rate, as well as Bax expression level in all three PCCL groups were decreased compared to galactose induced group (p aging group. PCCL could decrease the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by the mitochondria apoptosis pathway.

  15. Pharmacological profile of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpiniabonducella Flem. (local name: natalkanta, kutum kanta) isemployed tocure various disorders such as urinary disorders, diarrhoea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, piles, wounds, indolentulcers, skind iseases, leprosy, toothache. The present study was performed to investigate the scientific basis for the traditional uses of ...

  16. The Mandate of Heaven 天命 and Emperor Han Gaozu 高祖. A reading from Max Weber and Hok-lam Chan

    OpenAIRE

    Bucher, Greta

    2016-01-01

    The doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven 天命 was the basis of political legitimacy throughout the dynastic China. In order to study its conformation and the basis of the legitimacy of the emperors, I will begin this essay with an account of the origins of the doctrine. Then I will consider the problem of legitimacy during the dynastic China based on the legitimacy concept of sociologist Max Weber and of Hok-lam Chan, a recognized authority of this historical period. While Weber claimed that dynas...

  17. Variabilidad genética de la colección colombiana de lulo (solanum quitoense lam.) y especies relacionadas de la sección lasiocarpa.

    OpenAIRE

    Fory Sánchez, Paola Andrea; Sánchez Mosquera, Inés; Bohórquez Cháux, Adriana; Ramírez, Hernando; Medina Cano, Clara Inés; Lobo Arias, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de la variabilidad genética de la colección colombiana de lulo Solanum quitoense Lam y especies relacionadas de la sección Lasiocarpa, por medio de marcadores AFLP, con el fin de conocer el polimorfismo y las afinidades entre materiales y taxa. Para tal fin se emplearon marcadores moleculares AFLP, y se hicieron análisis de conglomerados, con los cuales se construyeron dendrogramas a través del algoritmo UPGMA. Los marcadores empleados mostraron valor sistemático ya que ...

  18. Aislamiento y caracterización molecular de un fragmento de gen que codifica una polifenol oxidasa en lulo (solanum quitoense lam.) accesión ILS-388

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido Jiménez, Mauricio Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el aislamiento y caracterización molecular de un fragmento de DNA genómico de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) junto con evidencias que permiten postularlo como candidato a gen de polifenol oxidasa (ppo). Se diseñaron dos parejas de oligonucleótidos específicos que permitieron amplificar mediante PCR dos fragmentos de 950 y 920 pb correspondientes a las regiones 5´y 3?del gen| los productos de PCR fueron secuenciados y ensamblados para obtener una secuencia final de 1430 pb que pres...

  19. Marcadores funcionales relacionados con la síntesis de pigmentos y su localización en un mapa de ligamiento en Ipomoea batatas L. Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Arizio, Carla Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas L. Lam, es una especie de importancia agrícola, que se cultiva en más de 100 países con una producción anual de 120 millones de toneladas. Esta especie presenta una raíz engrosada denominada batata que constituye un alimento básico en muchos países subdesarrollados. En la piel y en la pulpa de la raíz engrosada puede observarse una amplia variedad de colores. Estos colores se deben a la presencia de dos clases de pigmentos: las antocianinas (flavonoides) y los carotenoides. Es...

  20. Avaliação da mistura de cultivares de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb) com azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) sob pastejo

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani Macari; Marta Gomes da Rocha; João Restle; Alcides Pilau; Fabiana Kellermann de Freitas; Fabio Pereira Neves

    2006-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar a produção de novilhas de corte em duas cultivares de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb): "Comum" e "IAPAR 61" em mistura com azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Foram avaliadas a massa de forragem (MF), oferta de forragem (OF), taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (TA), carga animal (CA), ganho médio diário (GMD), ganho de peso vivo por hectare (GPA), proteína bruta (PB) e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO). As cultivares...

  1. Comparação da solução completa do sistema de Lamé com espectro de sismogramas

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrofanov, Georgy; Priimenko, Viatcheslav Ivanovich; Bueno, André Duarte

    2009-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram consideradas questões associadas à solução de problemas dinâmicos diretos e inversos para os modelos elásticos delgados no domínio espectral. A solução de problemas diretos obtém-se usando a transformação do sistema de Lamé completo no domínio espectral bidimensional utilizando a transformada de Laplace com respeito à variável temporal e a transformada de Fourier-Bessel com respeito às variáveis espaciais. Tais transformadas utilizam sismogramas multicomponentes para cálc...

  2. Influência dos processos de secagem sobre o teor de flavonoides e na atividade antioxidante dos extratos de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Borgo

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o teor de quercetina obtido dos extratos de partes aéreas de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae, submetidas a diferentes técnicas de secagem, bem como a avaliação de sua atividade antioxidante in vitro. Foi verificada maior concentração deste flavonoide nas amostras secas em estufa, porém não houve diferença significativa na atividade farmacológica das amostras analisadas.

  3. Evaluation sensorielle du couscous de farine de manioc (Manihot esculenta, Crantz substituée par celle de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas, Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou, NM.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer Acceptance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz flour's fufu substituted by Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam Flour. This study investigated the consumer acceptance of fufu made by substituting cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz flour with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam flour at the Food Technology and Post-harvest laboratory of IRAD in Bambui, Cameroon. Four samples of Fufu flour samples F0, F1, F2 and F3 obtained by substituting cassava flour with 0%, 20%, 40% and 50% potato flour respectively were compared. A panel of 30 persons (habitual consumers of Cassava fufu flour carried out a sensory evaluation of the four samples and gave their level of appreciation with regards to taste, aroma, colour, and texture. The study showed that, the substitution of cassava flour with sweet potato flour had no effect on the aroma of the fufu. The sample containing 20% of sweet potato flour (F1 showed no significant difference in texture and aroma compared (p>0.05 to the control (F0. It was also considered as having the best taste (p<0.05 and was the sample preferred by the panelists. In conclusion, an increase in the proportion of sweet potato flour in the cassava flour had a negative influence on the colour, texture, taste and on the acceptance of the fufu.

  4. La culture du safoutier (Dacryodes edulis [G.Don] H.J.Lam [Burseraceae] : enjeux et perspectives de valorisation au Gabon (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poligui, RN.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the African plum (Dacryodes edulis (G.Don H.J.Lam: challenges and prospects for valorization in Gabon. A review. In Gabon, the African plum (Dacryodes edulis [G.Don] H.J.Lam is an important fruit tree because of its nutritional value and its place within both the economy and the socio-cultural context. The fruits of this tree are widely appreciated and are sold regularly in all major urban markets. Local production is limited but is offset by significant imports from border countries. Culture of the African plum is widespread in anthropized areas, mainly in domestic gardens. The market and agronomic potential of this species has not yet been sufficiently studied in Gabon. There is no detailed study of the pests affecting D. edulis, or of their control. Numerous scientific studies carried out in neighboring countries have revealed excellent nutritional qualities of the safou pulp and interesting food properties of the oil extracted from both the safou pulp and the seed kernel. Within the context of sustainable development, the modernization of the culture of the African plum in Gabon, in particular by reducing pest-related losses and through the prudent use of all the products of the tree, may lead to important economic and industrial incomes.

  5. Performance of Late Sown Wheat in Response to Foliar Application of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extract Rendimiento de Trigo Sembrado Tarde en Respuesta a la Aplicación Foliar de Extracto de Hojas de Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Yasmeen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A rise in temperature during early spring inducing early maturity is a key yield-reducing factor in late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves are rich in zeatin, a cytokinin that plays a role in delaying leaf senescence, in addition to other growth-enhancing compounds such as ascorbates, phenolics, and minerals. The objective of this study was to optimize dose and optimum growth stage for foliar-applied moringa leaf extract (MLE and its role in delaying leaf senescence in late sown wheat. The wheat crop was shown on 16 December 2008; MLE (diluted 30 times was applied at different growth stages from tillering to heading and heading alone and distilled water was sprayed as a control. All the MLE treatment results were better than the control. However, an increase of 10.73%, 6.00%, 10.70%, and 4.00% was evident in 1000 grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index, respectively, with MLE spray at tillering + jointing + booting + heading. The MLE spray used only at heading gave 6.84%, 3.17%, 6.80%, and 3.51% more than the control 1000 grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index, respectively. The MLE extended seasonal leaf area duration (Seasonal LAD by 9.22 and 6.45 d over the control when applied at all growth stages and a single spray at heading, respectively. We conclude that it is possible that the presence of growth-promoting substances in MLE foliar spray can delay crop maturity and extend seasonal LAD and the grain-filling period, thereby leading to greater seed and biological yields in late sown wheat.Aumento en temperatura durante inicios de primavera induciendo madurez temprana es un factor clave en la reducción de rendimiento en siembra tardía de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.. Las hojas de Moringa oleifera Lam. son ricas en zeatina, una citoquinina que tiene rol en retraso de senescencia foliar, además de otros compuestos que mejoran crecimiento como ascorbatos, fenoles, y

  6. QUALIDADE PÓS-COLHEITA DA MORINGA (MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM UTILIZADA NA FORMA IN NATURA E SECA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes dos Passos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Moringa Oleifera Lam é uma planta ornamental e medicinal e possui a característica de adaptar-se a climas áridos e solos pobres em nutrientes. É um vegetal da família Moringaceae, originária do norte da Índia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a caracterização físico-química de partes constituintes da planta: folha, flor, semente e vagem utilizadas na forma in natura e seca. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Tecnologias Alternativas em São Cristóvão - SE. Posteriormente, as amostras de folhas, flores, sementes e vagens utilizadas neste trabalho foram coletadas e separadas em dois lotes, sendo um lote com as amostras que seriam analisadas in natura e o outro com amostras secas em secador solar. Foram realizadas as seguintes análises: atividade de água, acidez titulável, umidade, cinzas, lipídeos, proteínas, carboidratos, vitamina C, carotenoides,fibra total e alimentícia.Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA e teste de Tukey para comparação de médias ao nível de significância de 5%. Foi possível observar que para as análises de acidez, cinzas, lipídeos, proteínas e carboidratos, os resultados encontrados foram maiores nas partes secas quando comparado ao in natura. Entretanto, os valores para atividade de água, umidade, vitamina C e pH foram superiores nas análises in natura quando comparadas às amostras secas. Para os resultados de carotenoides, obtiveram-se variações em ambas as partes. Portanto, a Moringa apresenta-se como um vegetal de excelentes propriedades nutricionais e funcionais.

  7. A genome-wide BAC-end sequence survey provides first insights into sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genome composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zengzhi; Du, Bing; Huo, Jinxi; He, Shaozhen; Liu, Qingchang; Zhai, Hong

    2016-11-21

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is an important food crop widely grown in the world. However, little is known about the genome of this species because it is a highly heterozygous hexaploid. Gaining a more in-depth knowledge of sweetpotato genome is therefore necessary and imperative. In this study, the first bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of sweetpotato was constructed. Clones from the BAC library were end-sequenced and analyzed to provide genome-wide information about this species. The BAC library contained 240,384 clones with an average insert size of 101 kb and had a 7.93-10.82 × coverage of the genome, and the probability of isolating any single-copy DNA sequence from the library was more than 99%. Both ends of 8310 BAC clones randomly selected from the library were sequenced to generate 11,542 high-quality BAC-end sequences (BESs), with an accumulative length of 7,595,261 bp and an average length of 658 bp. Analysis of the BESs revealed that 12.17% of the sweetpotato genome were known repetitive DNA, including 7.37% long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, 1.15% Non-LTR retrotransposons and 1.42% Class II DNA transposons etc., 18.31% of the genome were identified as sweetpotato-unique repetitive DNA and 10.00% of the genome were predicted to be coding regions. In total, 3,846 simple sequences repeats (SSRs) were identified, with a density of one SSR per 1.93 kb, from which 288 SSRs primers were designed and tested for length polymorphism using 20 sweetpotato accessions, 173 (60.07%) of them produced polymorphic bands. Sweetpotato BESs had significant hits to the genome sequences of I. trifida and more matches to the whole-genome sequences of Solanum lycopersicum than those of Vitis vinifera, Theobroma cacao and Arabidopsis thaliana. The first BAC library for sweetpotato has been successfully constructed. The high quality BESs provide first insights into sweetpotato genome composition, and have significant hits to the genome

  8. INDUCCIÓN DE FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA EN FRUTOS DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam INFECTADOS CON Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Peralta Sixta Tulia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la dinámica de la actividad fenilalanina amonio liasa (PAL en corteza de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam con el fin de determinar su participación en respuestas bioquímicas hacia Colletotrichum acutatum. Se establecieron como mejores condiciones para la extracción de la enzima, amortiguador ácido bórico-borato de sodio 0.1M pH 8.8, 1% SDS, 3% PVPP y para medir la actividad, sustrato L-fenilalanina 5 mM, pH 8,0, 20°C, 30 μL de extracto y 45 min. Se realizó un ensayo in vivo usando frutos en tres estados de madurez, los cuales fueron inoculados con el patógeno o tratados con agua estéril. A cinco tiempos (hpi se determinó la actividad PAL y el contenido total de fenoles, encontrándose que hay una respuesta diferencial de la enzima por efecto del patógeno y por el estado de madurez. Para frutos en el estado pintón se obtuvo el mayor aumento de PAL, el que perduró hasta 48 hpi, al compararlo con los controles y con los otros dos estados de madurez. Este aumento mostró relación con un marcado incremento en el contenido total de fenoles y con el desarrollo más tardío de síntomas característicos de antracnosis, observado para los frutos pintones. Estos resultados permiten postular, una posible relación positiva entre inducción de PAL, aumento de fenólicos y respuesta de tolerancia a C. acutatum. Para lulos en estado verde y maduro se observó aumento de PAL a 12 y 24 hpi que coincidió también con incremento en el contenido de fenoles totales, aunque para estos dos últimos estados dicho contenido disminuyó significativamente a tiempos mayores.

  9. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MINYAK BUAH MERAH (Pandanus conoideus lam TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH DAN MALONDIALDEHID SERUM MENCIT YANG DIINDUKSI ALOKSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnil Kadri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan efek pemberian minyak buah merah (pandanus conoideus lam terhadap kadar glukosa darah dan malondialdehid (MDA serum mencit yang diinduksi dengan aloksan. Induksi aloksan ini menyebabkan hiperglikemia yang dapat mencetuskan stres oksidatif. Minyak buah merah yang mengandung banyak antioksidan dapat mengendalikan stres oksidatif yang akhirnya dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah dan MDA serum.Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan 15 ekor mencit jantan yang diseleksi secara random. Hewan coba dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok masing-masing terdiri 5 ekor mencit, yaitu; kelompok kontrol negatif yang hanya diberikan makan dan minum, kelompok kontrol positif yang diinduksi aloksan, dan kelompok perlakuan (diberi minyak buah merah oral yang diinduksi aloksan. Setelah perlakuan hari ke-14, darah mencit diambil untuk diperiksa kadar glukosa darah dan MDA serum.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rerata kadar glukosa darah kelompok kontrol negatif adalah 141,20 ± 13,10 mg/dl. Rerata kadar glukosa darah kelompok kontrol positif adalah 266,00 ± 111,10 mg/dl. Rerata kadar glukosa darah kelompok perlakuan adalah 194,80 ± 27,00 mg/dl. Rerata kadar MDA serum kelompok kontrol negatif adalah 0,91 ± 0,10 nmol/ml. Rerata kadar MDA serum kelompok kontrol positif adalah 1,49 ± 0,34 nmol/ml. Rerata kadar MDA kelompok perlakuan adalah 0,97 ± 0,14 nmol/ml. Perbedaan bermakna kadar glukosa darah hanya antara kelompok kontrol negatif dengan kelompok perlakuan (p<0.05. Analisis statistik kadar MDA serum menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara kelompok kontrol positif dengan kelompok perlakuan (p< 0,05.Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini ialah minyak buah merah tidak mampu menurunkan kadar glukosa darah pada kelompok perlakuan, tetapi minyak buah merah mampu menurunkan kadar MDA serum pada kelompok perlakuan.Kata kunci: minyak buah merah, glukosa darah, MDA serum, mencit, aloksanARTIKEL PENELITIAN80AbstractThe objective of

  10. Fast analysis of volatile components of Achillea tenuifolia Lam with microwave distillation followed by headspace single-drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds Achillea tenuifolia Lam with two methods, headspace single-drop microextraction and microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-SDME), for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by the simplex method.

  11. Cordia subcordata Lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Allen

    2002-01-01

    The genus Cordia contains about 250 species. They occur in tropical to warm temperate regions throughout the world, with the greatest diversity of species in the Neotropics (Wagner and others 1990). Cordia subcordata is apparently native to Malesia but has been spread throughout the Pacific and along Indian Ocean shores. The...

  12. Styrax americanus Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.F Connor

    2004-01-01

    American snowbell, also known as mock orange or storax, is a deciduous shrub or small tree with a widely branched crown. It reaches 3 to 5 m in height, and the stems can reach 7.5 cm in diameter. While the bark on the stems is smooth and dark grey to brown, branches range in color from green to grey to red-brown. Young stems are pubescent, becoming glabrous with age....

  13. Moringa oleifera Lam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-08-12

    Aug 12, 2015 ... poultry manure levels did not show any significant differences (p > 0.05) in the proximate/chemical properties and some vitamins ... saponins at levels that are relatively harmless to human health. Thus, moringa leaves are ... oxalate which are not harmful to the body if the leaves are consumed in moderate ...

  14. How Is LAM Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor may prescribe bronchodilators. These medicines relax the muscles around the airways. This helps the airways open up, making it easier for you to breathe. Oxygen Therapy . If the level of oxygen in your blood ...

  15. Otimização dos tempos de mistura e decantação no processo de coagulação/floculação da água bruta por meio da Moringa oleifera Lam = Otimizing mixture and decantation times in the process of coagulation/flocculation of raw water using Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cordeiro Cardoso

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversos coagulantes/floculantes estão sendo estudados ao que se refere à remoção de cor e turbidez da água bruta, entretanto, os coagulantes naturais têm demonstrado vantagens em relação aos químicos. A Moringa oleifera Lam é um polímero natural que vemganhando destaque no tratamento de água, pois atua como agente clarificante pela presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água em meio líquido. Estetrabalho propõe a otimização dos tempos de coagulação, floculação e decantação, utilizando como coagulante diferentes concentrações da solução extraída da polpa da semente de Moringa oleifera Lam, para verificar a eficiência de remoção da cor e turbidez da água. Os ensaios foram realizados em “Jar Test”, utilizando diferentes tempos de mistura e decantação, com várias concentrações do biopolímero. Verificou-se que o tempo para propiciar a mistura rápida elenta, assim como a concentração do coagulante influenciaram a remoção dos parâmetros durante a coagulação/floculação/sedimentação.Several natural coagulants/flocculants are being studied to remove color and turbidity from raw water; however, natural coagulants have demonstrated advantages over chemical ones. Moringa oleifera Lam is a natural polymer that has become an important alternative in watertreatment, acting as a clarifying agent due to the presence of a cationic protein that destabilizes the particles contained in water in liquid form. This work proposes the optimization of the coagulation, flocculation and decantation times, using differentconcentrations of the solution extracted from the pulp of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds as coagulant, in order to verify its efficiency in removing color and turbidity from water. Jar tests were carried out, using different mixture and decantation times, with varyingconcentrations of the biopolymer. It was verified that the time required to achieve a fast and slow

  16. Composição química e atividade alelopática do óleo volátil de Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam (araliaceae Chemical composition and allelophatic activity of essential oil from Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam (araliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane B. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile oil obtained from the leaves of Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam (Araliaceae was analyzed by GC, Chiral-GC and GC-MS. It was identified 14 compounds and the monoterpene (+-limonene (53.6% and sesquiterpene γ-muurolene (10.5% were the main components. The allelopathic effects of the oil were evaluated against two seeds, Lactuca sativa and Allium cepa. The results show that the oil exhibited inhibition effects in the germination and seedling growth of plants species relative to the control.

  17. UTILIZAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE MORINGA OLEÍFERA LAM COMO ALTERNATIVA PARA PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martins de Oliveira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A Moringa oleifera Lam é uma espécie vegetal originada do Nordeste da Índia, com diversas aplicações na alimentação animal e humana, bem como no tratamento de água. Pelo fato de se poder obter até 38% de óleo de alta qualidade a partir da semente da mesma, esta se torna uma fonte oleaginosa promissora para a produção de biodiesel, numa época em que é crescente a necessidade de novas alternativas ao diesel de origem fóssil. Neste trabalho, fornecemos um panorama geral do estado da arte em relação a este tema.

  18. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine.

  19. DYNAMICS OF A VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM LAM. LEAVES EXTRACT ACTION ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL STRUCTURAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL PARAMETERS IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Craciun

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of Vaccinium corymbosum Lam. (highbush blueberry leaves on plasma and cholesterol levels, on the structure of pancreas and on the ultrastructure of liver, in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Plasma glucose levels were found to drop by about 30% after 10 and 20 days of treatment with the leaf extract, while plasma cholesterol levels slightly decreased only after 20 days of treatment. There was no evident improvement in the streptozotocin-altered structure of the pancreas after 3 and 6 days of treatment with the extract. The extract was effective in improving the shape and structure of the nucleus of hepatocytes altered by streptozotocin.

  20. L'ylang-ylang [#Cananga odorata# (Lam.) Hook.f. &Thomson] : une plante à huile essentielle méconnue dans une filière en danger

    OpenAIRE

    Benini, C.; Danflous, JP.; Wathelet, JP; du Jardin, P.; Fauconnier, ML.

    2010-01-01

    Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson est un arbre tropical de la famille des Annonaceae, originaire d'Indonésie. Seule la forme genuina peut porter le nom d'ylang-ylang proprement dit. Actuellement, il est principalement cultivé dans les iles de l'Océan indien afin d'en extraire l'huile essentielle d'ylang-ylang, destinée à l'industrie cosmétique. L'ylang-ylang se développe sur de nombreux types de sols, sous des températures élevées et des précipitations moyennes de 1 500 mm par an. ...

  1. Avaliação da mistura de cultivares de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb com azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Macari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar a produção de novilhas de corte em duas cultivares de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb: "Comum" e "IAPAR 61" em mistura com azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Foram avaliadas a massa de forragem (MF, oferta de forragem (OF, taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (TA, carga animal (CA, ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso vivo por hectare (GPA, proteína bruta (PB e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. As cultivares avaliadas não diferiram (P>0,05 para TA, CA, GMD, GPA e PB. A DIVMO de IAPAR 61 manteve valores mais elevados durante um período mais prolongado da estação de crescimento da pastagem. A cultivar de aveia preta IAPAR 61 pode ser indicada para utilização sob pastejo no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.This work aimed at evaluating the production of beef heifers in two cultivars of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb: 'Comum' and 'IAPAR 61' mixed with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. The variables evaluated were: forage mass (FM, forage on offer (FO, daily accumulation of dry matter (FAD, stocking rate (SR, average daily gain (ADG, live weight gain (LWG, crude protein (CP and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD. No effects (P>0.05 were detected on FAD, SR, DAP, LWG and CP for the two cultivars. The IVOMD of 'IAPAR 61' presented highest values during a more extended period in growing season of pasture. The 'IAPAR 61' cultivar can be indicated for use under grazing in Rio Grande do Sul State.

  2. Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Stephen D

    2012-04-26

    Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in urine is attractive as a potential means of diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) regardless of the anatomical site of disease. The most promising candidate antigen is the cell wall lipopolysaccharide antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM), which has been used to develop commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Although highly variable diagnostic accuracy has been observed in different clinical populations, it is now clear that this assay has useful sensitivity for diagnosis of HIV-associated TB in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and low CD4 cell counts. Thus, this assay is particularly useful when selectively used among patients enrolling in antiretroviral treatment services or in HIV-infected patients requiring admission to hospital medical wards. These are the very patients who have the highest mortality risk and who stand to gain the most from rapid diagnosis, permitting immediate initiation of TB treatment. A recently developed low-cost, lateral-flow (urine 'dip-stick') format of the assay provides a result within 30 minutes and is potentially a major step forward as it can be used at the point-of-care, making the possibility of immediate diagnosis and treatment a reality. This paper discusses the likely utility of this point-of-care assay and how it might best be used in combination with other diagnostic assays for TB. The many further research studies that are needed on this assay are described. Consideration is particularly given to potential reasons for the variable specificity observed in existing field evaluations of LAM ELISAs. Whether this might be related to the assay itself or to the challenges associated with study design is discussed.

  3. Le savoir-faire local dans la valorisation alimentaire des fruits du safoutier (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noumi, GB.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Local Know-how in the Valorisation of (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam Fruits in Cameroon. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam (Burseraceae is an oleaginous plant highly appreciated in the forest zone of Cameroon. This tree yields fruits called african pear or safou, highly consumed by local populations and even abroad. African pear is at the centre of a great economic activity in the Central Africa subregion as its trade generates cash for local traders during the production period. However, the valorisation of african pear is hindered by its high perishable nature responsible for important post-harvest losses due to lack of proper post-harvest handling. Some studies addressed the problem, unfortunately, nothing was done on the local know-how which has still to be investigated. The present paper sheds light on african pear local harvesting, handling and marketing practices in Cameroon. Field surveys were carried out in different production zones in Cameroon savannah and humid forest lowlands: Adamawa, centre, east, littoral and west provinces. Results showed that african pear occupies an important place in the population daily life. This multipurpose tree specie appears to be a source of foodstuffs, cash income, drugs and wood. If, on one hand diverse strategies are developed by the population for a proper conservation of fruits, on the other hand there is not a real fruits transformation activity. Results of this study highlight the traditional know-how and bring out prospects for future works on african pear valorisation.

  4. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monera-Penduka, Tsitsi G; Maponga, Charles C; Wolfe, Alan R; Wiesner, Lubbe; Morse, Gene D; Nhachi, Charles F B

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam., an herb commonly consumed by HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy, inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4, 1A2 and 2D6 activity in vitro; and may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretroviral drugs metabolized via the same pathways. However, in vitro drug interaction activity may not translate to a clinically significant effect. Therefore, the effect of moringa leaf powder on the PK of nevirapine in HIV-infected people was investigated. Adult patients at steady-state dosing with nevirapine were admitted for 12-h intensive PK sampling following a 21-day herbal medicine washout. Blood sampling was repeated after 14 days of nevirapine and moringa (1.85 g leaf powder/day) co-administration. Nevirapine plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To assess the effect of moringa on nevirapine PK, the change in nevirapine area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was determined. The mean difference in pre- and post-moringa nevirapine, maximum concentration (Cmax) and concentration at 12 h (C12h) were also calculated. The PK parameters were compared by assessing the post/pre geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and associated 90% confidence intervals (CIs). Pharmacokinetics analyses were performed on the results from 11 participants for whom complete data were obtained. The post/pre GMRs and associated 90% CIs for nevirapine were 1.07 (1.00-1.14) for the AUC; 1.06 (0.98-1.16) for Cmax and 1.03 (0.92-1.16) for C12h. Co-administration of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder at the traditional dose did not significantly alter the steady-state PK of nevirapine. Trial registration number NCT01410058 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  5. Efeito do glutaraldeído na adsorção de extrato proteico da Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam na superficie de uma zeólita analcima Effect of the glutaraldeide on the adsorption of proteic extract of the Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam in analcime zeolite surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Gondim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A zeólita analcime (Na16Al16Si32O96.nH 2O foi submetida a ataque ácido com HCl 0,25 mol.L-1, seguido da funcionalização com glutaraldeído, foi imersa em extrato protéico obtido da polpa da batata-doce (Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam, que tem em sua composição a enzima polifenol oxidase (PFO. As amostras foram submetidas a procedimentos de caracterização por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e termogravimetria.The analcime zeolite (Na16Al16Si32O96.nH2O was treated with hydrochloric acid 0.25 mol.L-1, followed by the funcionalization with glutaraldehyde and immersed in the proteic extract obtained from gross extract of sweet potato pulp (Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam, which presents in its composition the polyphenol oxidase enzyme (PPO. Other samples were submitted to the same procedure with characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry.

  6. Effets de la double symbiose Rhizobium-Glomus spp. sur la croissance de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit en pépinière, et dix mois après transplantation au Zaïre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulakali, B.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and Glomus spp. on the growth of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit in the nursery, and ten months after outplanting in Zaire. This work underlines the utility to inoculate in the nursery Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, with efficient strains of Rhizobium and endomycorrhizal fungi, in order to ensure good initial plant growth after outplanting. In general, soil fumigation in the nursery allowed growth enhancement of control plants and the best effect of biofertilizers was obtained in the nursery and ten months after outplanting. Glomus vesiculiferum (Thaxter Gerdemann and Trappe associated or not with Rhizobium TAL 1145 likely produced the same effect by using natural soil in the nursery.

  7. Genetic Diversity Evaluation of Moringa Oleifera, Lam From East Flores Regency Using Marker Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Its Relationship to Chemical Composition and in Vitro Gas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kleden, Markus Miten; Soetanto, Hendrawan; Kusmartono, Kusmartono; Kuswanto, Kuswanto

    2017-01-01

    The research objective was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Moringa oleifera, Lam (MO) and its relationship to chemical composition and in vitro gas production (IVGP). Fresh MO leaves were kept frozen in ice gels pack until laboratory analysis. Four methods applied: RAPD marker for measuring DNA concentration and purification; Kjeldhal and HPLC for analysing proximate and amino acid (AA) composition; and IVGP. MO's four distinct morphology found: green, red, reddish green and aromatic gre...

  8. Evaluación de la Actividad Antifúngica In Vitro de Emulsiones de Marco (Ambrosia Arborescens Mill) y Matico (Aristeguietia Glutinosa Lam) sobre Hongos Patógenos causantes de la Dermatomicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dávila Molina, Clara Gisela; Pazos Gambarroti, Lourdes Angélica

    2015-01-01

    The pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries in Ecuador are interested in developing natural products, for that reason in this study was considered the evaluation of antifungal activity in vitro of natural ingredients as Marco (Ambrosia arborescens Mill) and Matico (Aristeguietia glutinosa Lam) in cosmetic formulations. Three types of cosmetic formulation were considered: cream, lotion, gel, via two experimental designs for analyzing the preliminary stability before of the evaluation of antifun...

  9. Coagulation diagram using the Moringa oleifera Lam and the aluminium sulphate, aiming the removal of color and turbidity of water - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.12268

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cardoso Valverde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the study of the coagulation diagram as a tool to verify the efficiency in removing color and turbidity of the water, using the Moringa oleifera Lam and the association of this biopolymer with the aluminium sulphate as coagulating agents. The assays were carried out in Jar Test, by varying the concentrations of coagulants and pH of coagulation. After the assays of coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, samples were collected for the evaluation of the process efficiency. Best results were obtained at dose of 50 ppm of Moringa oleifera Lam. When associating the coagulants, the addition of the aluminium sulphate provided an increase in the efficiency of coagulation/flocculation, whose parameters of control used were color and turbidity. It was verified that the study of the coagulation diagram is useful, since it enables developing the assays in the optimal range, as a function of the raw water characteristics. The use of the Moringa oleifera Lam can be considered as an alternative technique to the conventional treatment.  

  10. Evaluation of extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds obtained with NaCl and their effects on water treatment - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.9605

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiele Scaramal Madrona

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several natural coagulants have been studied for use in water treatment. The seed of Moringa oleifera Lam, for example, is a natural coagulant whose extract has been mentioned as effective not only for removing color, turbidity, and compounds with absorption at UV-254 nm, but also for significantly reducing the amount of sludge and bacteria in wastewaters. Therefore, the present study (1 evaluated the molecular weight of the extract of Moringa oleifera seed utilizing electrophoresis, and (2 compared the efficiency of different extracts obtained, using solutions of NaCl (0.01 M, 0.1 M and 1 M, distilled water, and Moringa oleifera Lam seed, acting as a natural coagulant in order to obtain drinking water. The tests were performed in Jar Test, and the effectiveness of the process was assessed regarding the removal of color, turbidity and UV-254 nm. It was observed that the molecular weight found in this study is consistent with literature data. Moreover, the highest removal efficiency of color, turbidity, and UV-254 nm occurred with 1M NaCl solution, with coagulant concentration between 100 and 300 mg L-1. The results obtained evidenced that the seed of Moringa oleifera Lam is a great alternative for use as a coagulant in drinking water treatment systems. 

  11. Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol Efecto benéfico de extractos de Berberis buxifolia Lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb y Prosopis alba sobre el estrés oxidativo inducido por cloramfenicol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Albrecht

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax; above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively; whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch.Se estudió el efecto antioxidante de tres extractos de frutas autóctonas, Berberis buxifolia lam (michay, Zizyphus mistol Griseb (mistol and Prosopis alba (algarrobo. Las células sanguíneas humanas sufrieron estrés oxidativo por acción de cloramfenicol (Ch, con un aumento inmediato de especies reactivas del oxígeno (ERO, que fue determinado por quimioluminiscencia con luminol. La respuesta fue

  12. Radiation-induced DNA Double Strand Breaks and Their Modulations by Treatments with Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extracts: A Cancer Cell Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boonsirichai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma radiation brings deleterious effects upon human cells by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damages. Antioxidants have been shown to confer protective effects on irradiated normal cells. Moringa oleifera Lam. is a widely used nutritional supplement with antioxidant activities. This report showed that antioxidant-containing supplements, in addition to protecting normal cells, could protect cancer cells against genotoxic effects of gamma radiation. -H2AX immunofluorescent foci were utilized as an indicator of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells were irradiated with 2-8 Gy gamma radiation. A linear relationship between the formation of -H2AX foci and radiation dose was observed with an average of 10 foci per cell per Gy. A 30-minute pretreatment of the cells with either the aqueous or the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves could partially protect the cells from radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. A pretreatment with 500 µg/mL aqueous extract reduced the number of foci formed by 15% when assayed at 30 minutes post-irradiation. The ethanolic extract was more effective; 500 µg/mL of its concentration reduced the number of foci among irradiated cells by 30%. The results indicated that irradiated cancer cells responded similarly to nutritional supplements containing antioxidants as irradiated normal cells. These natural antioxidants could confer protective effects upon cancer cells against gamma radiation

  13. Constituintes químicos voláteis e não-voláteis de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B. Barreto

    Full Text Available O estudo fitoquímico do extrato etanólico das folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, resultou no isolamento dos derivados benzilnitrilas niazirina, niazirinina e 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila, enquanto que das cascas dos frutos somente o octacosano foi obtido. Os óleos essenciais das folhas, flores e frutos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa. Os constituintes principais identificados foram: fitol (21,6% e timol (9,6% nas folhas, octadecano (27,4% e ácido hexadecanóico (18,4% nas flores e docosano (32,7% e tetracosano (24,0% nos frutos. As estruturas dos compostos isolados foram identificadas a partir de técnicas espectroscópicas (RMN, IV e EM. A 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila está sendo citada pela primeira vez para o gênero Moringa e os óleos essenciais das flores e frutos estão sendo citados pela primeira vez para a espécie M. oleifera.

  14. Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril.

  15. Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT. Portes

    Full Text Available The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC and principal component analysis (PCA. Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril.

  16. UTILIZAÇÃO DE ADITIVOS NATURAIS A PARTIR DA MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM PARA O MELHORAMENTO DA ESTABILIDADE OXIDATIVA DO BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O biodiesel é um combustível biodegradável, renovável e que apresenta características similares ao diesel, porém não apresenta uma boa estabilidade oxidativa. Diante dessa situação, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar os avanços tecnológicos na área de desenvolvimento de aditivos naturais utilizados no melhoramento da estabilidade oxidativa do biodiesel . Para a realização da busca de patentes utilizou-se a base da World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO e do European Patent Office (Espacenet. Avaliando o cenário mundial podemos caracterizar a prospecção quanto ao uso de aditivos de origem natural, já que no mercado a utilização de aditivos artificiais já se encontra muito utilizado. Principalmente na área de aditivos a partir da moringa oleifera lam, na qual segundo a busca realizada foi comprovada a quase inexistência de patentes sobre o assunto.Demonstrando assim uma área muito promissora e ótima para investir, já que a matéria-prima principal é uma planta encontrada com facilidade no Brasil.

  17. Inhibitory effect of n-butanol fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a guinea pig model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Banerjee, Aryamitra; Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F; Padh, Harish; Nivsarkar, Manish; Mehta, Anita A

    2009-01-01

    Moringaceae, which belongs to the Moringa oleifera Lam. family, is a well-known herb used in Asian medicine as an antiallergic drug. In the present study, the efficacy of the n-butanol extract of the seeds of the plant (MONB) is examined against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. The test drugs (MONB or dexamethasone) are administered orally prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% ovalbumin. During the experimental period, bronchoconstriction tests are performed, and lung function parameters are measured. The blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are collected to assess cellular content, and serum is used for cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6) assays. Histamine assays of lung tissue are performed using lung tissue homogenate. The results suggest that in ovalbumin-sensitized model control animals, tidal volume is decreased, respiration rate is increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased significantly compared with nonsensitized controls. MONB treatment shows improvement in all parameters except bronchoalveolar lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4. Moreover, MONB treatment demonstrates protection against acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. These results indicate that MONB has an inhibitory effect on airway inflammation. Thus, MONB possesses an antiasthmatic property through modulation of the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalances.

  18. Simultaneous determination of quercetin, rutin and kaempferol in the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Raphinus sativus Linn. by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Venkatapura C; Krishna, Burdipad G; Viswanatha, Gollapalle L

    2011-09-01

    To develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze quercetin (QU), rutin (RU) and kaempferol (KA) simultaneously in the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Raphinus sativus Linn. Samples were prepared by extracting the leaves of the M. oleifera and R. sativus by cold-maceration technique using 90% ethanol. Chromatographic separation was operated with a mixture of 0.2% formic acid in water and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column with a total run time of 5.01 min. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were 303.03 to 153.1 for QU, 611.1 to 303.1 for RU, 287.1 to 153.2 for KA and 180.1 to 110.1 for internal standard. The lower limit of quantitation achieved for QU, RU and KA was 5 ng/mL and the linearity was observed from 5 to 2 000 ng/mL. The correlation coefficients of linear regression analysis were 0.994 6, 0.995 1 and 0.996 9 for QU, RU and KA, respectively. The results indicate that the LC-MS/MS method is fast and sensitive and may provide excellent specificity for simultaneous determination of QU, RU and KA in leaf extracts of M.oleifera and R.sativus.

  19. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, Sunday E; Atawodi, Joy C; Idakwo, Gabriel A; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Wurtele, Gerd; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered.

  20. Respuesta Fisiológica del lulo (Solanun quitoense Lam. a la fertilización orgánica en Tinjacá, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almanza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se orientó hacia la evaluación de la respuesta fisiológicadel lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. var. septentrionale. Para esto se emplearon tres tratamientos con fertilización orgánica (bocashi, mezcla bocashi + biol y biol, y uno con síntesis química (18-18-18, mediante la descripción de variables físicas y fisiológicas, con el fin de establecer el desarrollo y crecimiento óptimo de la planta durante tres intervalos. Se realizaron tres muestreos en diferentes estadios fisiológicosde la planta seleccionando una por cada parcela. Las variables físicas analizadas fueron biomasa seca y área foliar, y las fisiológicas: índice de área foliar, tasa de crecimiento, tasa relativa de crecimiento y tasa de asimilación neta. Se utilizó, al azar, un diseño de bloques completos, con análisis de varianza y prueba de Duncan. Los resultados obtenidos en masa seca fueron altamente significativos; en las variables fisiológicas no se hallaron diferencias. En todos los tratamientos, las mejores respuestas fueron evidentes en la aplicación de abono de síntesis química, seguida por la mezcla de bocashi+ biol, la más eficiente económicamente.

  1. Inoculation of Mimosa latispinosa Lam with the Commercial Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198, and Bradyrhizobium spp. Under Nursery Production Conditions in South-East Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarasin, G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Qit Madagascar Minerals (QMM has planned several actions to reduce the environmental footprint of its mining project located near the city of Fort-Dauphin (Madagascar. One of these actions is the reclamation of a portion of its mined sites. Different symbiotic strains were tested as bio-enhancers for the ecological restoration using Mimosa latispinosa Lam, a native and pioneer shrub. The symbiotic strains tested in nursery were the commercial strain of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198, and two local strains of Bradyrhizobium spp., STM1415 and STM1447, inoculated alone or dually with the arbuscular mycorrhiza. Treatments did not significantly increase the plant height and dry mass. However, plants grown in tyndallized soil had better growth than those in unsterilized soil. Results obtained twenty weeks after inoculation suggest that soil tyndallization (heating at 100°C and at atmospheric pressure of 700 kPa during three hours is an effective method for nursery production of high quality seedlings of M. latispinosa.

  2. Livelihoods and Land Uses in Environmental Policy Approaches: The Case of PES and REDD+ in the Lam Dong Province of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Tore Trædal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores assumptions about the drivers of forest cover change in a Payments for Environmental Services (PES and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ context in the Lam Dong Province in Vietnam. In policy discourses, deforestation is often linked to ‘poor’ and ‘ethnic minority’ households and their unsustainable practices such as the expansion of coffee production (and other agricultural activities into forest areas. This paper applies a livelihood framework to discuss the links between livelihoods and land use amongst small-scale farmers in two communities. The findings of the livelihood survey demonstrate no clear linkages between poverty levels and unsustainable practices. In fact, the poorest segments were found to deforest the least. The ways in which current PES and REDD+ approaches are designed, do not provide appropriate solutions to address the underlying dimensions of issues at stake. The paper criticizes one-dimensional perspectives of the drivers behind deforestation and forest degradation often found in public policies and discourses. We suggest more comprehensive analyses of underlying factors encompassing the entire coffee production and land use system in this region. Addressing issues of land tenure and the scarcity of productive lands, and generating viable off-farm income alternatives seem to be crucial. Sustainable approaches for reducing deforestation and degradation could be possible through engaging with multiple stakeholders, including the business-oriented households in control of the coffee trade and of land transactions.

  3. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of essential oil from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. used against the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirkhah Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, is a major pest of stored grain products, particularly flour. There have been major concerns over the application of conventional insecticides in stored products, which have strongly demonstrated the need for applying such alternative safe compounds as essential oils. The aim of the present study is to investigate the chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. against the eggs, larvae, and adults of E. kuehniella. All toxicity tests were carried out under laboratory conditions set at 26±1°C and 70% relative humidity (RH. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis indicated that the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Z. clinopodioides, is rich in pulegone (49.4%, piperitenone (10.7%, menthone (8.9%, and 1,8-cineol (6.9%. Based on the bioassay results, the LC50 value of the tested oil was estimated to be 54.61 μl · l−1 air for larvae and 1.39 μl · l−1 air for adults. Also, it is shown that increasing the oil concentration resulted in a significant increase in oviposition deterrency as well as a considerable reduction in the egg hatching percentage. These results suggest that Z. clinopodioides oil could be a potential candidate as a fumigant for managing E. kuehniella in stored products.

  4. Activation of Cellular Immunity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Mice by the Oral Administration of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Masahiko; Wadhwani, Ashish; Kai, Hisahiro; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Sugita, Chihiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Matsuno, Koji; Hagiwara, Akinori

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is used as a nutritive vegetable and spice. Its ethanol extract has been previously shown to be significantly effective in alleviating herpetic skin lesions in mice. In this study, we evaluated the alleviation by the aqueous extract (AqMOL) and assessed the mode of its anti-herpetic action in a murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model. AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was administered orally to HSV-1-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 5 after infection. AqMOL significantly limited the development of herpetic skin lesions and reduced virus titers in the brain on day 4 without toxicity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen was significantly stronger in infected mice administered AqMOL and AqMOL augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice at 4 days post-infection. AqMOL administration was effective in elevating the ratio of CD11b(+) and CD49b(+) subpopulations of splenocytes in infected mice. As DTH is a major host defense mechanism for intradermal HSV infection, augmentation of the DTH response by AqMOL may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. These results provided an important insights into the mechanism by which AqMOL activates cellular immunity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's on growth, nutrients and content of secondary metabolites in Begonia malabarica Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel Selvaraj

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae is one of the important medicinal plants whose main secondary metabolites are luteolin, quercetin and β-sitosterol. The leaves are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea, blood cancer and skin diseases. A study was undertaken to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, and some plant growth promoting rhizomicro-organisms (PGPR's on the growth, biomass, nutrients, and content of secondary metabolites of B. malabarica plant under green house conditions. Various plant growth parameters (total plant biomass, mycorrhizal parameter, shoot and root phosphorus, mineral content (potassium, iron, zinc, and copper, and secondary metabolites (total phenols, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids were determined and found to vary with different treatments. Among all the treatments, plants inoculated with 'microbial consortium' consisting of Glomus mosseae + Bacillus coagulans + Trichoderma viride performed better than with other treatments or uninoculated control plants. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that inoculation of B. malabarica with G. mosseae along with PGPR's enhanced its growth, biomass yield, nutrients and secondary metabolites.

  6. L'ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata (Lam. Hook. f. & Thomson] : une plante à huile essentielle méconnue dans une filière en danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benini, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata (Lam. Hook. f. & Thomson]: a barely known essential oil plant in an industry at risk. Cananga odorata is a tropical tree from the Annonaceae family, native of Indonesia. Only the forma genuina can be called ylang-ylang. Nowadays, it is mainly cultivated in the Indian Ocean Islands in order to extract the ylang-ylang essential oil for the cosmetic industry. Ylang-ylang develops on many types of soils, under high temperatures and average precipitations of 1,500 mm per year. The pollarding, the maintenance, the elimination of water sprouts and the weeding must be performed to insure a high flower yield and facilitate harvesting. Flower harvest takes place all year long but flowers and essential oils yields are higher during the dry season. Mature and fresh flowers are then distillated and fractionated to obtain essential oil. Generated incomes are important for the economy of the three main producers: Union of Comoros, Madagascar and Mayotte. However, this plant is still poorly known despite its great economic value. This lack of information is a bottleneck for solving the ylang-ylang industry problems which endanger it. Moreover, there is no improvement program of this plant despite the high added value of its essential oil, probably due to the fact that its reproduction biology is far from being known. A thorough study of the plant and its essential oil could generate information necessary to solve the aforementioned problems, maintain and develop the ylang-ylang industry.

  7. Emergência de plântulas de Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. em função do tempo de armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uirá do Amaral

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam pertencente à família Solanaceae é originário de regiões Andinas geralmente produz aproximadamente 1.000 sementes por fruto, sendo a reprodução sexuada a principal forma de propagação desta espécie. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a influência do tempo de armazenamento na emergência de sementes de Lulo, oriundas de três épocas de colheita. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (3 meses, 6 meses e 12 meses de armazenamento e sete repetições. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas de poliestireno de 128 células em substrato comercial Bioflora®. Observou-se que a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de Lulo decresceu significativamente quando armazenadas em sacos de papel em temperatura ambiente por período superior a seis meses. No entanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos sobre a variável tempo médio de emergência. As variáveis analisadas apresentaram as maiores médias em sementes armazenadas por três meses, com destaque para emergência de aproximadamente 70%.

  8. OBTENÇÃO DO BIODIESEL ATRAVÉS DA TRANSESTERIFICAÇÃO DO ÓLEO DE Moringa Oleífera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silva Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Moringa Oleífera Lam é uma oleaginosa que tem um grande potencial para a produção de bicombustível no semi-árido nordestino, uma vez que se adapta a várias condições climáticas. A semente produz entre 35 % a 40 % de óleo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter o biodiesel através do processo de transesterificação e caracterizar as propriedades físico-químicas do óleo e biodiesel de acordo com as normas estabelecidas pela ANP. O biodiesel foi produzido pela rota metílica com o catalisador KOH. Os resultados mostraram que a semente de moringa produz óleo em boa quantidade com características físico-químicas adequadas para ser usado como matéria prima na transesterificação para obtenção de biodiesel. O teor de óleo médio encontrado para as sementes de moringa foi de 40 %, fornecendo rendimento de 83,68% em biodiesel e conversão dos ácidos graxos em ésteres metílicos de 99,9 %.

  9. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo de folhas de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Diniz Araújo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, espécies pertencentes à Solanum sect. Crinitum Child, com o objetivo de efetuar morfodiagnoses macroscópicas e microscópicas que possibilitem suas caracterizações. As três espécies são conhecidas popularmente como "jurubeba", fruta-de-lobo" e "lobeira" e usadas na medicina popular contra o diabetes e também para outros fins. Essas espécies compartilham vários caracteres morfológicos, dentre os quais se destacam o hábito arbustivo a arbóreo, o indumento velutino às vezes cerdoso, a corola é pentagonal-estrelada, roxa a púrpura, e o fruto globoso acima de 5 cm de diâmetro. Entretanto, apesar da grande semelhança morfológica entre as espécies estudadas, destacaram-se como parâmetros distintivos: a morfologia do pecíolo, a base do limbo, o indumento da face adaxial, a anatomia do mesofilo, os tipos de estômatos e a morfologia do bordo foliar.

  10. Cambios en las propiedades fisicoquímicas de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. cosechados en tres grados de madurez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Isabel González Loaiza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación se evaluaron los cambios en las propiedades fisicoquímicas de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. en tres grados de madurez. Se utilizaron 300 frutos por grado de madurez y se determinaron las características físicas (peso, volumen, densidad, diámetro equivalente, índice de esfericidad, rendimiento de pulpa y cáscara y químicas (pH, acidez, sólidos solubles, índice de madurez (IM y contenido de vitamina C. Los resultados mostraron que la madurez no afecta significativamente las variables físicas, pero sí las propiedades químicas de los frutos (P < 0.01, de la forma siguiente: el pH (2.89 - 2.94, los sólidos solubles (6.58 - 9.04 °brix, el IM (1.83 - 2.84 y el contenido de vitamina C (ascórbico (4.17 - 11.95 mg/100 g de pulpa fresca; por el contrario, la acidez (cítrico disminuyó de 3.78 para 3.21 g/100 g de pulpa fresca (P < 0.01.

  11. Comparative chemical and molecular variability of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson forma genuina (ylang-ylang) in the Western Indian Ocean Islands: implication for valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Céline; Mahy, Grégory; Bizoux, Jean-Philippe; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; du Jardin, Patrick; Brostaux, Yves; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2012-07-01

    Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson forma genuina (Annonaceae) is a tropical tree, grown for the production of ylang-ylang essential oil, which is extracted from its fresh and mature flowers. Despite its economic and social importance, very little information is available on its variability and the possible factors causing it. Therefore, the relationship between the genetic structure, revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and the essential oil chemical composition, determined by GC/MS analysis, of ylang-ylang grown in semi-managed systems in three Indian Ocean islands (Grande Comore, Mayotte, and Madagascar) was investigated. Our results revealed a low genetic variation within plantations and contrasted situations between islands. Variations of the chemical composition could be observed within plantations and between islands. The genetic differentiation pattern did not match the observed pattern of chemical variability. Hence, the chemical variation could not be attributed to a genetic control. As Grande Comore, Madagascar, and Mayotte present different environmental and agronomic conditions, it can be concluded that the influence of these conditions on the ylang-ylang essential oil composition is consistent with the patterns observed. Finally, several strategies were proposed to valorize the chemical composition variations. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Når TV-kokken ofrer lam. Maskulinitetsforhandlinger via lammekroppe i "autentiske" miljøer i Jamie's Italian Escape og Le chef en France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Leer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Siden årtusindeskiftet har man set en synliggørelse af slagtning i madprogrammer med mandlige værter. Denne artikel kaster et kønsperspektiv på denne fornyede interesse blandt mandlige kendiskokke for at deltage i og vise dyreslagtning. Dette bliver gjort gennem nærlæsninger af Jamie Oliver programmet Jamie’s Italian Escape (Channel 4, 2006 og det franske madprogram Le Chef en France (M6, 2012 med kokken Cyril Lignac. De to analyseeksempler har det til fælles, at det i begge tilfælde er lam, der slås ihjel og tilberedes. I artiklen analyseres, hvordan slagtningerne i disse madprogrammer bliver en del af en kompleks maskulinitetsforhandling omkring lammekroppen, hvori forskellige maskulinitetsdiskurser brydes via en række andre diskurser, ikke mindst en autenticitetsdiskurs, som er tydelig i begge eksempler. Analysen forsøger at komme med et nuanceret billede af, hvordan dyreslagtning – med tilhørende forestillinger om autenticitet – på fragmentariske og modsætningsfyldte måder integreres i aktuelle maskulinitetskonstruktioner.

  13. Avaliação da qualidade das sementes de Moringa oleifera lam. durante o armazenamento Evaluation of quality of the drumstick seeds during the storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Esmeraldo Bezerra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.; Moringaceae, espécie perene originária do noroeste indiano, que se adapta tanto às condições irrigadas quanto às de sequeiro, pouco exigente em solos e fertilizantes, encontra-se disseminada na região nordeste, particularmente no Ceará, graças à sua utilização na clarificação de águas turvas. A despeito do seu reconhecido valor medicinal e como hortaliça não-convencional rica em vitamina A, ainda carece de estudos que focalizem a viabilidade das sementes durante o armazenamento. Baseado nessa premissa, conduziu-se um ensaio com os tratamentos dispostos num arranjo fatorial 2x4, correspondendo à combinação de dois ambientes (natural e câmara fria e quatro tempos de armazenamento (0, 6, 12 e 24 meses, segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. As amostras de sementes correspondentes aos tratamentos investigados foram acondicionadas em garrafa plásticas tipo PET de 600 mL. As variáveis de observação foram: teor de água, germinação, comprimento da raiz, massa seca de plântula e condutividade elétrica. Pela análise dos resultados, evidenciou-se que, aos 12 meses de armazenamento em embalagem plástica sob ambiente natural, as sementes perdem a sua viabilidade, enquanto na câmara aos 24 meses, as sementes apresentam redução na qualidade fisiológica.Drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae is a perennial species originating from the indian northwest that adapts to both irrigated and rain fed crop conditions and it is not very demanding on soils and fertilizers. It is grown in the brazilian northeast, specially in Ceará State, due to its use in clarification of cloudy waters. In spite of its recognized medicinal value and as non conventional vegetable rich in vitamin A no studies focalizing the viability of the seeds during the storage have been done. So, an experiment was carried out treatments arranged in a fatorial 2x4 scheme, corresponding the

  14. Temperaturas cardeais e efeito da luz na germinação de sementes de mutamba Cardinal temperatures and effect of light on Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. de Araújo Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., conhecida como mutamba, é uma espécie arbórea característica dos estádios iniciais da sucessão secundária, com ampla ocorrência natural no Brasil. Possui grande potencial para recuperação ambiental de áreas degradadas. Neste trabalho, conduziram-se dois experimentos, nos quais as sementes foram extraídas e escarificadas antes da instalação dos testes de germinação. O primeiro experimento foi desenvolvido com sementes colhidas em outubro de 1995 e teve por objetivo definir as temperaturas cardeais para a germinação das sementes. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura mínima é próxima de 10 ºC, a máxima se situa entre 35 e 40 ºC e as temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC encontram-se dentro da faixa ótima. No segundo experimento, visou-se avaliar o requerimento fotoblástico de sementes recém-colhidas (colheita de outubro de 1996 e armazenadas em câmara seca por um ano (colheita de outubro de 1995. Os testes de germinação foram conduzidos a 30 ºC e as sementes recém-colhidas tiveram a germinação promovida pelas luzes branca e vermelha, mas inibida pela luz vermelha-extrema e ausência de luz. As sementes armazenadas, entretanto, revelaram-se insensíveis à luz.Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae is a typical tree species of the initial stages of secondary succession in Brazil, with potential for use in restoring degraded areas. Two experiments were carried out in this work, in which seeds were extracted and scarified before conducting the germination tests. The first experiment was conducted with seeds harvested in October 1995 and aimed to determine the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Constant temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 ºC were tested under an eight hour photoperiod. The results showed that the minimum temperature is around 10 ºC, the maximum between 35 and

  15. Qualidade de mudas de Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivadas em substratos com fibra de coco verde e compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Aparecida Rodrigues

    Full Text Available RESUMO A Moringa oleifera Lam. (moringa é uma espécie vegetal com grande potencial de uso nos setores alimentício, medicinal e forrageiro, no processo de clareamento e descontaminação de água, produção de biocombustível, dentre outros. Técnicas de produção de mudas com uso de resíduos regionais são apropriadas para a introdução desta espécie em comunidades carentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas nutricionais e de crescimento de mudas de moringa, cultivadas em substratos com diferentes concentrações de fibra da casca de coco verde (FCV, associadas a composto orgânico (CO. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados. Foram testados dois compostos orgânicos: o composto de lixo urbano (CLU e o vermicomposto (VC associados a FCV em várias proporções volumétricas (CO:FCV: 0:100; 25:75; 50:50; 75:25 a 100:0%. Após 51 dias de cultivo, foi observado que o aumento da concentração de FCV em relação ao composto orgânico reduziu a altura, a massa da matéria seca, o Índice de Qualidade de Dickson e os conteúdos de N, P, K, Ca e Mg das mudas. Não houve diferença, para essas características comparando-se o uso do composto de lixo urbano e o do vermicomposto. Substratos com 100% de FCV e sem adubação complementar ocasionaram sintomas de deficiência de N nas mudas de moringa.

  16. Effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on growth and N2 fixation of a legume subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam.) in temperate grassland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Wu, Dongxiu; Shi, Huiqiu; Zhang, Canjuan; Zhan, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Shuangxi

    2011-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO(2) and nitrogen (N) addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate, shoot biomass, root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity, and leaf N content. Symbiotic nitrogenase activity was determined by the C(2)H(2) reduction method. Elevated CO(2) enhanced photosynthesis and shoot biomass by 83% and 25%, respectively, and the enhancement of shoot biomass was significant only at a high N concentration. In addition, the photosynthetic capacity of C. microphylla did not show down-regulation under elevated CO(2). Elevated CO(2) had no significant effect on root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity and leaf N content. Under elevated CO(2), N addition stimulated photosynthesis and shoot biomass. By contrast, N addition strongly inhibited symbiotic nitrogenase activity and slightly increased leaf N content of C. microphylla under both CO(2) levels, and had no significant effect on root biomass. The effect of elevated CO(2) and N addition on C. microphylla did not show interannual variation, except for the effect of N addition on leaf N content. These results indicate that shoot growth of C. microphylla is more sensitive to elevated CO(2) than is root growth. The stimulation of shoot growth of C. microphylla under elevated CO(2) or N addition is not associated with changes in N(2)-fixation. Additionally, elevated CO(2) and N addition interacted to affect shoot growth of C. microphylla with a stimulatory effect occurring only under combination of these two factors.

  17. Effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on growth and N2 fixation of a legume subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam. in temperate grassland in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO(2 concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO(2 and nitrogen (N addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate, shoot biomass, root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity, and leaf N content. Symbiotic nitrogenase activity was determined by the C(2H(2 reduction method. Elevated CO(2 enhanced photosynthesis and shoot biomass by 83% and 25%, respectively, and the enhancement of shoot biomass was significant only at a high N concentration. In addition, the photosynthetic capacity of C. microphylla did not show down-regulation under elevated CO(2. Elevated CO(2 had no significant effect on root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity and leaf N content. Under elevated CO(2, N addition stimulated photosynthesis and shoot biomass. By contrast, N addition strongly inhibited symbiotic nitrogenase activity and slightly increased leaf N content of C. microphylla under both CO(2 levels, and had no significant effect on root biomass. The effect of elevated CO(2 and N addition on C. microphylla did not show interannual variation, except for the effect of N addition on leaf N content. These results indicate that shoot growth of C. microphylla is more sensitive to elevated CO(2 than is root growth. The stimulation of shoot growth of C. microphylla under elevated CO(2 or N addition is not associated with changes in N(2-fixation. Additionally, elevated CO(2 and N addition interacted to affect shoot growth of C. microphylla with a stimulatory effect occurring only under combination of these two factors.

  18. Toxicological study of the butanol fractionated root extract of Asparagus africanus Lam., on some blood parameter and histopathology of liver and kidney in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Sintayehu; Afework, Mekbeb; Debella, Asfaw; Ergete, Wondwossen; Makonnen, Eyasu

    2016-01-27

    The butanol fractionated root extract of Asparagus africanus Lam., a traditional herb widely used to treat various ailments were analyzed for the presence of potential toxicity after single (acute) and repeated (subchronic) dose oral administration in adult swiss albino mice using gavages. For the acute study, butanol fractionated extract of the plant was administered in single doses of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight. In the sub-chronic dose study, the extract was administered at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 42 days. Selected hematological and biochemical parameters of the blood followed by histopathological analysis were investigated after 42 days of daily administrations. The results were expressed as M ± SE, and differences at P parameters of the experimental groups. In the acute study, the extract did not caused dose-dependent general behavioral adverse effects, body weight change and mortality. The single dose toxicity studies therefore showed that the butanol fraction of the extract has high safety profile when given orally. After 42 days of daily dosing, in the sub-chronic study, no clinically significant changes were observed for hematological and biochemical parameters. Except an occasional small number of focal mononuclear lymphocytic cells infiltrations around the central and portal triad of the liver of a few mice, the histopathological parameters do not show significant change. It is concluded that, the butanol fractionated extract from A. africanus at the given dose does not show significant toxicity. The presence of focal inflammation on the liver of a few mice may be associated to the presence of flavonoid glycoside in the butanol fractionated extract.

  19. Do ecological niche model predictions reflect the adaptive landscape of species?: a test using Myristica malabarica Lam., an endemic tree in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Shivaprakash K; Gudasalamani, Ravikanth; Barve, Narayani; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Narayanagowda, Ganeshaiah Kotiganahalli; Ramanan, Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models (ENM) have become a popular tool to define and predict the "ecological niche" of a species. An implicit assumption of the ENMs is that the predicted ecological niche of a species actually reflects the adaptive landscape of the species. Thus in sites predicted to be highly suitable, species would have maximum fitness compared to in sites predicted to be poorly suitable. As yet there are very few attempts to address this assumption. Here we evaluate this assumption. We used Bioclim (DIVA GIS version 7.3) and Maxent (version 3.3.2) to predict the habitat suitability of Myristica malabarica Lam., an economically important tree occurring in the Western Ghats, India. We located populations of the trees naturally occurring in different habitat suitability regimes (from highly suitable to poorly suitable) and evaluated them for their regeneration ability and genetic diversity. We also evaluated them for two plant functional traits, fluctuating asymmetry--an index of genetic homeostasis, and specific leaf weight--an index of primary productivity, often assumed to be good surrogates of fitness. We show a significant positive correlation between the predicted habitat quality and plant functional traits, regeneration index and genetic diversity of populations. Populations at sites predicted to be highly suitable had a higher regeneration and gene diversity compared to populations in sites predicted to be poor or unsuitable. Further, individuals in the highly suitable sites exhibited significantly less fluctuating asymmetry and significantly higher specific leaf weight compared to individuals in the poorly suitable habitats. These results for the first time provide an explicit test of the ENM with respect to the plant functional traits, regeneration ability and genetic diversity of populations along a habitat suitability gradient. We discuss the implication of these results for designing viable species conservation and restoration programs.

  20. Systems to establish bioclimatic analogies to predict the area of adaptability of plant species to new environments: The case of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Santibañez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability of a species to new territories is generally assessed by costly trial and error in situ experiments distributed throughout different agroclimatic environments. Nowadays climatic data are available to allow the construction of climatic maps based on data provided through world or local networks of climatic weather stations. The objective of this work was to establish a bioclimatic protocol, based on current and available sources of climate information, to make rapid surveys of suitability for plant species in a given environment. Moringa oleifera Lam. species, native from India, was chosen considering its rusticity and the increasing interest on this species due to its multiple uses, nutritional value, and medicinal properties. The first phase of this work was a compilation of data from climatic downscaling (WorldClim, University of East Anglia database (CRU, FAO database, and an historic datasets from Chilean meteorological stations. This information was used to test two different models to compare bioclimatic profiles, considering relevant climatic variables for plant adaptation: maximum and minimum temperatures, accumulated degree days, frost regime, and air humidity. The first approach, based on climatic analogy, was to compare each of these variables between Chilean and foreign localities, and the second, based on bioclimatic suitability, focus on the degree of meeting the minimum bioclimatic requirements by the species in each locality. This paper provides some tools to make this kind of comparisons. Both approaches were tested using M. oleifera as target. Both approaches were complementary and prove to be useful for identifying potential areas where the species could be cultivated. The use of these approaches suggested the existence of some bioclimatic suitability for this species in the coastal areas with mild winters and frosts, from 27° to 37° S lat.

  1. In vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory potential of swertiamarin isolated from Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal that acts as an anti-inflammatory agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Pandikumar, P; Prakash Babu, N; Hairul Islam, V I; Thirugnanasambantham, K; Gabriel Paulraj, M; Balakrishna, K; Ignacimuthu, S

    2014-10-01

    Swertiamarin is a secoiridoid glycoside found in Enicostema axillare (Lam) A. Raynal, a medicinal plant used as a depurative in the Indian system of traditional medicine. The present study evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of isolated swertiamarin. In vivo immunomodulatory activity of swertiamarin (2, 5, and 10 mg/kg b.w.) was evaluated in a model of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) by assessing its effect on organ weight, hemagglutinating antibody titer (HA), plaque-forming cells (PFC), quantitative hemolysis of SRBC, and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH). In vitro immunomodulatory potential was studied on isolated splenocytes, neutrophils, and peritoneal macrophages. In silico immunomodulatory effects were evaluated by docking of swertiamarin on proinflammatory cytokines to confirm its potential. In in vivo studies, the animals treated with swertiamarin showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in antibody titer, plaque-forming cells, and also in weight of the thymus and spleen. A decreased response to DTH reaction was recorded with the treatment of swertiamarin. In in vitro studies, treatment with swertiamarin modulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-4 significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and also favored Th2-mediated response on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced splenocytes. The compound inhibited the release of free radicals significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced neutrophils and also ameliorated the mRNA and protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages. In in silico, the best docked pose of swertiamarin with the target proteins (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) was confirmed that swertiamarin acted as an anti-inflammatory mediator.

  2. AVALIAÇÃO DA OBTENÇÃO DE CONCENTRADO PROTEICO POR VIA FERMENTATIVA PARTIR DE MORINGA OLEÍFERA LAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Almeida Leite Costa Lima

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A Moringa oleífera Lam é uma planta nativa da Índia que é cultivada em vários países por apresentar características de fácil adaptação a climas áridos e solos pobres em nutrientes. Estudos estão sendo desenvolvidos com finalidade de enriquecer nutricionalmente alguns alimentos, como, por exemplo, massas e cereais, nos quais são adicionados extratos de plantas com alto teor nutricional. O interesse na pesquisa por novas fontes protéicas não convencionais com o objetivo de estudar suas propriedades funcionais para aplicação na indústria alimentícia é cada vez maior. Concentrados protéicos obtidos a partir de folhas são uma dessas fontes devido ao perfil favorável de aminoácidos e propriedades funcionais. Uma boa alternativa para o extrato é a utilização das folhas de Moringa oleífera que apresenta um excelente potencial nutritivo, sendo fonte de proteínas, vitaminas e minerais, e ainda, de fácil cultivo em regiões semi-áridas. Neste trabalho, objetiva a obtenção do concentrado protéico das folhas de Moringa, por métodos de extração que proporcionem poucas perdas nutricionais, para ser adicionado em produtos alimentícios.

  3. Metabolic adaptation to the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam.-supplemented diet is related to the modulation of gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Xie, Qiuhong; Liu, Ling; Kong, Ping; Sheng, Jun; Xiang, Hongyu

    2017-06-01

    The aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (LM-A) is reported to have many health beneficial bioactivities and no obvious toxicity, but have mild adverse effects. Little is known about the mechanism of these reported adverse effects. Notably, there has been no report about the influence of LM-A on intestinal microecology. In this study, animal experiments were performed to explore the relationships between metabolic adaptation to an LM-A-supplemented diet and gut microbiota changes. After 8-week feeding with normal chow diet, the body weight of mice entered a stable period, and one of the group received daily doses of 750-mg/kg body weight LM-A by gavage for 4 weeks (assigned as LM); the other group received the vehicle (assigned as NCD). The liver weight to body weight ratio was enhanced, and the ceca were enlarged in the LM group compared with the NCD group. LM-A-supplemented-diet mice elicited a uniform metabolic adaptation, including slightly influenced fasting glucose and blood lipid profiles, significantly reduced liver triglycerides content, enhanced serum lipopolysaccharide level, activated inflammatory responses in the intestine and liver, compromised gut barrier function, and broken intestinal homeostasis. Many metabolic changes in mice were significantly correlated with altered specific gut bacteria. Changes in Firmicutes, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila, segmented filamentous bacteria, Enterococcus spp., and Sutterella spp. may play an important role in the process of host metabolic adaptation to LM-A administration. Our research provides an explanation of the adverse effects of LM-A administration on normal adult individuals in the perspective of microecology.

  4. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Kahlil Khoury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  5. Crescimento e desenvolvimento inicial da cultura da moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. submetida à fertilização orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. A. Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam é uma árvore nativa da Índia e de elevada importância principalmente pelo seu valor nutricional, medicinal e de purificação da água. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de níveis de fertilização orgânica no crescimento e desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de moringa nas condições semiáridas do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de túnel plástico, localizado no Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar, da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Pombal, UFCG. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com os tratamentos compostos de sete níveis de fertilização orgânica (0,0; 108,0; 216,0; 432,0; 864,0; 1728,0 e 3456,0 g.vaso-1, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: i altura das plantas (cm, ii diâmetro do caule (mm, iii número de folhas, iv fitomassa fresca das folhas, v fiomassa seca da parte aérea (g, vi fitomassa seca da raiz (g, vii razão fitomassa seca da parte aérea/raiz (g e, viii comprimento da raiz principal (cm. A utilização dos níveis de fertilização orgânica influenciou significativamente o crescimento e desenvolvimento inicial das mudas de moringa. Com a elevação dos níveis de esterco adicionados ao substrato, observou-se o decréscimo das variáveis analisadas, tendo como melhor resultado o nível de 864,0 g.vaso-1 para a altura da planta e o nível de 432,0 g.vaso-1 para os demais parâmetros avaliados. O nível de 432,0 g.vaso-1 provocou os maiores acréscimos na massa seca da parte aérea e comprimento das raízes. Os níveis de esterco bovino de 108,0 g.vaso-1 e 432,0 g.vaso-1, promoveram um maior incremento para a razão entre a parte aérea/raiz e comprimento da raiz, respectivamente. Para produção de mudas de moringa de boa qualidade a aplicação de pequenas quantidades de esterco bovino é suficiente.Organic fertilization levels on the vegetative growth of

  6. Estudios orientados a la regeneración de plantas de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) a través de la embriogénesis somática

    OpenAIRE

    Criollo Escobar, Hernando Artemio

    2013-01-01

    El lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) es una espécie frutal de origen andino con amplias posibilidades en los mercados internacionales debido a su carácter exótico y a su gran valor nutracéutico. Los grandes problemas de origen fitosanitario, así como la desuniformidad en la productividad y calidad de fruta han provocado grandes pérdidas económicas a los productores y reducción de las áreas sembradas en Colombia. Por estas razones, es necesario robustecer la investigación en temas relacionados con...

  7. Ús de l'entorn virtual LAMS per a la creació de seqüències didàctiques col·laboratives i personalitzables

    OpenAIRE

    Cerro Martínez, Juan Pedro

    2012-01-01

    LAMS (Learning Activity Management System), com a projecte de programari lliure basat en tecnologies web, va ser alliberat a la comunitat d'usuaris i desenvolupadors el Febrer del 2005, des d'aquesta data fins avui s'han produït una sèrie d'avenços i innovacions que ha permès fer extensiu l'ús d'aquest entorn a persones amb pocs coneixements de programació i relacionades amb la pedagogia i el disseny instruccional. La investigació portada a terme ha permès a un grup d'investigadors de la Univ...

  8. Impact of Moringa oleifera lam. Leaf powder supplementation versus nutritional counseling on the body mass index and immune response of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: a single-blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshingani, Koy; Donnen, Philippe; Mukumbi, Henri; Duez, Pierre; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle

    2017-08-22

    To achieve effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes, adherence to an antiretroviral regimen and a good immunometabolic response are essential. Food insecurity can act as a real barrier to adherence to both of these factors. Many people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) treated with ART in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) are faced with nutritional challenges. A significant proportion are affected by under nutrition, which frequently leads to therapeutic failure. Some HIV care facilities recommend supplementation with Moringa oleifera (M.O.) Lam. leaf powder to combat marginal and major nutritional deficiencies. This study aims to assess the impact of M.O. Lam. leaf powder supplementation compared to nutritional counseling on the nutritional and immune status of PLHIV treated with ART. A single-blind randomized control trial was carried out from May to September 2013 at an outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kinshasa (DRC). Sixty adult patients who were at stable HIV/AIDS clinical staging 2, 3 or 4 according to the World Health Organization (WHO), and were undergoing ART were recruited. After random allocation, 30 patients in the Moringa intervention group (MG) received the M.O. Lam. leaf powder daily over 6 months, and 30 in the control group (CG) received nutritional counseling over the same period. Changes in the body mass index (BMI) were measured monthly and biological parameters were measured upon admission and at the end of the study for the patients in both groups. The two study groups were similar in terms of long-term nutritional exposure, sociodemographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and biological features. At 6 months follow-up, patients in the MG exhibited a significantly greater increase in BMI and albumin levels than those in the CG. The interaction between the sociodemographic, clinical, and biological characteristics of patients in the two groups was not significant, with the exception of professional

  9. Denizli ve çevresinde yayılış gösteren Eryngium cinsine ait (Eryngium campestre L., E. creticum Lam., E. thorifolium Boiss.) saf ekstraktlarının antimikrobiyal aktivitesi

    OpenAIRE

    Kürek, Nilüfer

    2007-01-01

    Çalışmada bitki materyali olarak E. campestre L., E. creticum Lam., E. thorifolium Boiss. bitki türleri kullanılmıştır. Bu bitkilerin etil-asetat ekstrelerinin antimikrobiyal aktiviteleri "Disk difüzyon" yöntemi ile belirlenmiştir. Antimikrobiyal aktiviteyi tespit etmek amacıyla Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 suşu, 1 adet Staphylococcus aureus hastane izolatı ve 8 farklı hastadan alınan MRSA hastane izolatları kullanılmıştır. Standart antibiyotik disk olarak, penisilin, oksasilin, sefalotin...

  10. Época e Densidade de Semeadura de Aveia Preta (Avena strigosa Schreb.) e Azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) no Alto Vale do Itajaí, Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Flaresso,Jefferson Araújo; Gross,Celomar Daison; Almeida,Edison Xavier de

    2001-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido na Epagri, Estação Experimental de Ituporanga, SC, com o objetivo de determinar a época e a densidade de semeadura de Avena strigosa Schreb. (aveia preta) e Lolium multiflorum Lam. (azevém). Os tratamentos foram avaliados por três anos, dispostos num delineamento de blocos casualizados, em parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. As épocas de semeadura para as duas espécies foram: Época 1 - meados de março; Época 2 - meados de abril; Época 3 - meados de maio; Épo...

  11. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo de folhas de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae The pharmacobotanical comparative study of leaves of Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal and Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Diniz Araújo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, espécies pertencentes à Solanum sect. Crinitum Child, com o objetivo de efetuar morfodiagnoses macroscópicas e microscópicas que possibilitem suas caracterizações. As três espécies são conhecidas popularmente como "jurubeba", fruta-de-lobo" e "lobeira" e usadas na medicina popular contra o diabetes e também para outros fins. Essas espécies compartilham vários caracteres morfológicos, dentre os quais se destacam o hábito arbustivo a arbóreo, o indumento velutino às vezes cerdoso, a corola é pentagonal-estrelada, roxa a púrpura, e o fruto globoso acima de 5 cm de diâmetro. Entretanto, apesar da grande semelhança morfológica entre as espécies estudadas, destacaram-se como parâmetros distintivos: a morfologia do pecíolo, a base do limbo, o indumento da face adaxial, a anatomia do mesofilo, os tipos de estômatos e a morfologia do bordo foliar.In this work, a pharmacobotanical study of Solanum crinitum Lam., S. gomphodes Dunal and S. lycocarpum A. St-Hil., all belonging to the Solanum sect. Crinitum Child. has been realized with the objective of providing a macroscopical and microscopical morphodiagnosis for their characterizations. The three species are commonly named "jurubeba", "fruta-de-lobo" and "lobeira", and they are used in the folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes and others diseases. The three species studied share various morphological characters, like shrub and tree forms, the velutinous abaxial indument, the presence of bristles, the flower with stellate-pentagonal corollas ranging from violet to purple, and the fruit reaching up to 5 cm in diameter. The principal parameters to distinct the three species studied were the morphology of petiole and base of the blade leaf, the indument of adaxial surface, the anatomy of mesophyll, the types of stomata and the leaf margin.

  12. Micro-analysis by U-Pb method using LAM-ICPMS and its applications for the evolution of sedimentary basins: the example from Brasilia Belt; Micro-analise pelo metodo U-Pb usando LAM-CIPMS e suas aplicacoes para a evolucao de bacias sedimentares: o exemplo da faixa Brasilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Matteini, Massimo; Junges, Sergio Luiz; Giustina, Maria Emilia Schutesky Della; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Buhn, Bernhard, E-mail: marcio@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Rodrigues, Joseneusa Brilhante [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The U-Pb geochronological method using LAM-MC-ICPMS represents an important tool to investigate the geological evolution of sedimentary basins, as well as its geochronology, through the determination of upper limits for the depositional ages of detrital sedimentary rocks. The method has been applied in the Geochronology Laboratory of the Universidade de Brasilia, and in this study, a brief review of the provenance data for the sediments of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt is presented and their significance for the evolution of the orogen is discussed. The results indicate that the Paranoa and Canastra Groups represent passive margin sequences formed along the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent. The Vazante Group presents similar provenance patterns, although Sm-Nd isotopic results suggest that its upper portions had contributions from younger (Neoproterozoic) sources, possibly from the Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc. On the other hand, metasediments of the Araxa and Ibia groups contain an important proportion of material derived from Neoproterozoic sources, demonstrating that they represent syn-orogenic basins. The provenance pattern of the Bambui Group is marked by an important Neoproterozoic component, showing that it constitutes a sedimentary sequence which is younger than 600 Ma, representing a foreland basin to the Brasilia Belt. (author)

  13. Avaliação do uso de pomada à base de sementes de jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam na terapêutica tópica de feridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N.L. Vitorino Filho

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades cicatrizantes da jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam são atribuídas a uma proteína encontrada na semente de sua fruta que, em casos de queimaduras de pele, proporciona a regeneração do tecido danificado em vez da substituição por tecido conjuntivo fibroso. Objetivando avaliar macro e microscopicamente o efeito da pomada formulada com o pó obtido a partir de sementes de jaca na cicatrização, por segunda intenção, de feridas cutâneas em camundongos, limpas e infectadas experimentalmente por Staphylococcus aureus, realizou-se o estudo em 96 camundongos nos quais foram feitas feridas experimentais na região dorso-lateral. Cada grupo, com 12 animais, recebeu um tipo de tratamento. O grupo GI serviu como controle para feridas limpas, o grupo GII foi o controle para feridas infectadas e os demais foram tratados topicamente com pomada à base de semente de jaca em diferentes esquemas de administração. Os animais foram avaliados diariamente e sacrificados cinco, 10 e 13 dias após a cirurgia, sendo removido o tecido cicatricial e circunjacente para avaliação histológica. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os tratamentos. Palavras-chave: camundongos; cicatrização; feridas; jaca; Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam; lectina.

  14. Chronic administration of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) may compromise glycaemic efficacy of Sitagliptin with no significant effect in retinopathy in a diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurishe, Comfort; Kwanashie, Helen; Zezi, Abdulkadiri; Danjuma, Nuhu; Mohammed, Bisalla

    2016-12-24

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) has gained awareness for its antidiabetic effect, and is used as alternative therapy or concurrently with orthodox medicines such as sitagliptin in diabetes mellitus. This is without ascertaining the possibility of drug-herb interactions, which could either lead to enhanced antidiabetic efficacy, increased toxicity, or compromised glycaemic control with negative consequence in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the effect, of sitagliptin (50mg/kg), Moringa oleifera (300mg/kg) leaf extract, and a combination of both on glycaemic control parameters, lenticular opacity and changes in retinal microvasculature in alloxan (150mg/kg i.p) induced diabetic rat model. Seven groups of eight rats per group were used, with groups I, II and VII as normal (NC), diabetic (DC) and post-prandial controls (PPC). Groups III to VI were diabetic rats on sitagliptin (III), M. oleifera (IV), sitagliptin and M. oleifera (SM) (V), for 42 days with 2 weeks delayed treatment in a post-prandial hyperglycaemic group (PPSM) (VI). Glycaemic control parameters, insulin levels, body weights, and effects of retinal microvasculature on lenticular opacity/morphology were investigated. A significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels was displayed in SM group from day 14(60%) (p<0.01) to day 28 (38%) (p<0.01) of treatment, compared to day 1. Thereafter, a steady increase of up to 57% on day 42 compared to day 28 was observed. A significant decrease in random blood glucose (RBG) levels, were demonstrated on day 42 (24%) (p<0.001), compared to day 1. No significant difference was seen in mean serum levels of insulin across groups. No significant changes in body weights. Evidence of mild lenticular opacity was observed, with no significant effect in pathologic lesions in the retina. The chronic co-administration of sitagliptin and M. oleifera showed a progressive decrease in anti-hyperglycaemic effect of sitagliptin, and although it delayed the onset of

  15. EXTRACCIÓN DE ENZIMAS PÉCTICAS DEL EPICARPIO DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam INVOLUCRADAS EN EL PROCESO DE ABLANDAMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEIMMY MARCELA RODRÍGUEZ NIETO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo de poscosecha el principal problema de deterioro del lulo ( Solanum quitoense Lam es el ablandamiento que es generado principalmente por actividad de enzimas pécticas que atacan la red estructural de la pared celular. Esta investigación se basó en la búsqueda de las mejores condiciones de extracción y medida de actividad de las enzimas pectinesterasa, poligalacturonasa y pectato liasa; herramientas necesarias para estudiar posteriormente el rol de estas enzimas en el deterioro por ablandamiento sufrido por el fruto debido a diversos cambios metabólicos. Se encontró que las dos primeras enzimas pueden ser extraídas simultáneamente con buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + NaCl 0,06 M y 60 min de extracción, relación 1:2 (material vegetal: buffer de extracción, a su vez, pectato liasa se extrajo con buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + cisteína 20 mM y 30 min de extracción, relación 1:3. Para la cuantificación de la actividad pectinesterasa es necesario incubar 15 min a 42 °C 2.500 μL de extracto enzimático crudo (EE en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + NaCl 0,15 M y 1,6% de pectina cítrica como sustrato, con valores de K m aparente de 3,78% de PC y V max 17,95 μmolH+/min*mg prot. Para la cuantificación de la actividad poligalacturonasa es necesario incubar 15 min a 37 °C 30 μL (EE en buffer acetatos 200 mM pH 4,5 + NaCl 0,25 M y 1,0% de APG como sustrato, con valores de K m aparente 0,141% de APG y V max 28,46 nKat/s*mg prot. Para la cuantificación de la actividad pectato liasa es necesario incubar 2 min a 17 °C 100 μL (EE en buffer TRIS:HCl 50 Mm pH 8,5 + CaCl 2 4 mM y 0,1% de APG como sustrato, con valores de K m aparente 0,0865% de APG y V max 82,75...

  16. Oral treatment with essential oil of Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Lamiaceae) reduces acute pain and inflammation in mice: Potential interactions with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Róli Rodrigues; Coelho, Igor Dos Santos; Junqueira, Stella Célio; Pigatto, Glauce Regina; Salvador, Marcos José; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; de Faria, Felipe Meira

    2017-03-22

    The genus Hyptis comprehends almost 400 species widespread in tropical and temperate regions of America. The use of Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Lamiaceae) is reported in traditional medicine due to its gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The rationale of this study was to investigate the potential use of the essential oil of H. spicigera (EOHs) as analgesic. The antinociceptive effect of EOHs was verified analyzing acute nocifensive behavior of mice induced by chemical noxious stimuli [i.e., formalin and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels agonists]. We also verified the effects of EOHs on locomotor activity and motor performance in mice. Finally, we investigate the involvement of central afferent C-fibers with EOHs analgesic effect. EOHs presented antinociceptive effect at 300 and 1000mg/kg on formalin-induced pain behavior model, presenting 50% and 72% of inhibition during the first phase (ED50 =292mg/kg), and 85% and 100% during de second phase (ED50 =205mg/kg), respectively. Temperature of the hind paw was reduced by EOHs treatment in a dose-dependent manner; oedema was diminished only by EOHs 1000mg/kg. EOHs does not impaired locomotor activity or motor performance. For mice injected with capsaicin, a TRPV1 activator, EOHs (1000mg/kg, ED50 =660mg/kg) showed decreased (63%) nociceptive behavior. When injected with cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1 activator), mice treated with EOHs showed 23%, 43% and 66% inhibition on nociceptive behavior (100, 300 and 1000mg/kg, respectively; ED50 402mg/kg). When mice were injected with menthol (TRPM8 activator), EOHs showed 29%, 59% and 98% inhibition of nociceptive behavior (100, 300 and 1000mg/kg, respectively; with ED50 =198mg/kg. Finally, when desensitized mice were injected with menthol, EOHs (300mg/kg) does not show antinociceptive effect. This study demonstrated the efficacy of EOHs on experimental models of nociception. We have found the involvement of TRP channels V1, A1 and M8 with EOHs activity

  17. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTIVES AND DENSITY ON NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOODS TO TERMITE Nasutitermes corniger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the natural resistance of wood to wood-destroying organisms is of fundamental importance in the choice of species to be used in buildings and furniture industry. Thus, the effects of extractives and wood density on biological resistance of Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Corymbia torelliana, Eucalyptus cloeziana, Tectona grandis and Caesalpinia echinata woods to the xylophagous termite Nasutitermes corniger was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Test samples, with dimensions of 2.00 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal in four positions in pith-bark direction (internal heart, intermediate heart, outer heart and sapwood were taken. The woods were exposed to termite action for 28 days in no-choice feeding test. The samples not selected for the termite test were turned into sawdust and the extractive contents were obtained using the shavings that passed through the sieve of 40 and were retained in the sieve of 60 mesh. The wood natural resistance, within the pith-bark positions, for the studied species, is not correlated with the density and extractive content. However, among the woods, those with higher density and extractive content are more resistant. The woods with greater biological resistance to the termite Nasutitermes corniger (smaller mass loss, waste and survival time of insects are Corymbia torelliana and Caesalpinia echinata and of less resistance is Casuarina equisetifolia.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content Propriedades termodinâmicas de sorção de água da jaca (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. em função do teor de umidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.A jaqueira é uma das árvores mais significativas nos quintais tropicais e, talvez, a árvore mais importante e útil do gênero Artocarpus. O fruto é suscetível a danos mecânicos e biológicos no estado maduro, e seu aroma é desagradável para algumas pessoas, quando em espaços fechados. O processo de desidratação pode ser uma alternativa para a exploração deste produto, e a relação entre a umidade e a atividade de água fornece informações úteis para seu processamento e armazenamento. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar as propriedades termodinâmicas de sorção da água em frutos de jaca (Artocarpus

  19. Influência da temperatura e da quantidade de água no substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urban (pau-de-balsa Influence of temperature and substrate moisture on seed germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urban (balsa wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Braule Pinto Ramos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes volumes de água no substrato e temperaturas na germinação de sementes de Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urban. Antes da instalação dos testes de germinação, as sementes foram tratadas com imersão em água quente a 80º C até o resfriamento, para superar a dormência. A semeadura foi realizada em rolos de papel germitest, umedecidos com volumes (mL de água equivalentes a 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 vezes o peso do substrato nas temperaturas de 25, 30 e 35º C. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4 x 3. Para cada tratamento, utilizaram-se quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Após o encerramento do experimento (aos 21 dias, foi avaliada a porcentagem, o índice de velocidade de germinação e os comprimentos da raiz primária e do hipocótilo. A porcentagem de germinação final não foi influenciada pelos fatores estudados. O índice de velocidade de germinação foi favorecido pelas maiores temperaturas, 30 e 35º C. A temperatura de 30º C e a quantidade de água de 1,5 vezes o peso do papel, e 35º C e a quantidade de 3,0 vezes, foram as mais indicadas para o desenvolvimento da raiz primária e do hipocótilo da espécie. Para a germinação das sementes de O. pyramidale recomenda-se a temperatura de 30º C com a quantidade de água de 1,5 vezes o peso do papel, e a temperatura de 35º C com a quantidade de água de 3,0 vezes.This work was carried out to evaluate the effects of different temperature levels and water contents in the substrate on the germination of Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam. Urban. Prior to the germination tests, all seeds were immersed in hot water (80º C to overcome the dormancy. Then, they were left on germitest paper, which were wetted using volume (mL of water equivalent to 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3 times the weight of the substrate, at temperature levels of 25, 30 and 35º C. The

  20. Dawsonite cement in the Triassic Lam Formation, Shabwa Basin, Yemen: A natural analogue for a potential mineral product of subsurface CO{sub 2} storage for greenhouse gas reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worden, Richard H. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GP (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The origin and permeability effects of carbonate cement, blamed for poor reservoir quality in the Upper Triassic turbidite sandstones of the Lam Formation in Yemen, have been investigated using petrography, X-ray diffraction, stable isotopes, fluid inclusions and thermodynamic modelling. In order of growth in the sandstone, the carbonate cements include ferroan calcite, dawsonite (NaAlCO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}), ferroan dolomite and siderite. Ferroan dolomite is the most abundant cement. There is an inverse correlation between permeability and total carbonate cement volume supporting the earlier assertion that carbonate cements are the main control on reservoir quality in these sandstones. Ferroan calcite replaced, and was sourced by, marine limestone rock fragments that are abundant in the turbidite sandstone. The later cements were probably also at least partly sourced from the marine limestone rock fragments. Stable isotope data from ferroan calcite, ferroan dolomite and siderite show that diagenesis occurred in formation water with oxygen isotopes typical of closed-system diagenesis and that only minor organic-derived carbon dioxide was involved in diagenesis. Dawsonite, while not common as a diagenetic mineral in sandstones, has recently been suspected of being a routine consequence of CO{sub 2} storage in the subsurface for greenhouse gas reduction. In the Lam Formation, dawsonite, found at concentrations of up to 8vol% of the rock, grew at the expense of detrital feldspar minerals under conditions of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Isotopic data show that dawsonite grew in the presence of carbon dioxide with a {delta}{sup 13}C value of about -4 to -2%%. This is distinctly different from the carbon isotope ratio of the gas phase carbon dioxide now present in the sandstone (-27%%), which had an organic source rock origin. The dawsonite {delta}{sup 13}C data probably represent a mixture between carbonate from detrital marine limestone rock fragments and