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Sample records for cadmium lead mercury

  1. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in ...

  2. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  3. Cadmium, Mercury and Lead in Hypericum perforatum L. collected in Western Serbia

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    Đurović D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild population of Hypericum perforatum growing in Western Serbia was analyzed for the content of important environmental pollutants cadmium, mercury and lead. Metal contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results showed that levels of mercury and lead were under while cadmium concentrations exceeded limits recommended for medicinal plants. High levels of cadmium in investigated plants can be the result of soil enriched with cadmium as well as the ability of Hypericum perforatum to accumulate cadmium.

  4. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Sebastian; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline-manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc-carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  5. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Margaret E.; Kerr, Kathleen J.; Bray, Riina I.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols. PMID:22505948

  6. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols.

  7. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  8. Critical loads of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury and their exceedances in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettelingh, J.P.; Schutze, G.; Vries, W. de; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Ilyin, I.; Reinds, G.J.; Slootweg, J.; Travnikov, O.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are known to be transported over relatively long distances from their sources. Deposited metals may accumulate over time in soils and catchments, and then follow varying pathways to endpoints in humans and the environment. Cadmium and lead, that are emitted p

  9. Calculation of critical loads for cadmium, lead and mercury; background document to a mapping manual on critical loads of cadmium, lead and mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Schütze, G.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Meili, M.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    This report on heavy metals provides up-to-date methodologies to derive critical loads for the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) for both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. It presents background information to a Manual on Critical Loads for those metals. Focus is given to the m

  10. Human exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium through consumption of canned mackerel, tuna, pilchard and sardine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, H; Voegborlo, R B; Agorku, S E

    2015-07-15

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were determined in canned fish on the Ghanaian market. Total mercury was determined using an automatic mercury analyzer while cadmium and lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metal contents in the samples, expressed in μg g(-1) (wet weight), varied from canned fish from the Ghanaian market have concentrations well below the permissible FAO/WHO for these toxic metals. Thus considering the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Hg, Pb and Cd the levels obtained in this study are unlikely to constitute a significant exposure to the public through consumption of moderate amounts.

  11. Mushroom contamination by mercury, cadmium and lead; Contaminazione di funghi commestibili con mercurio, cadmio e piombo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dojmi Di Delupis, G.; Dojmi Di Delupis, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Comparata ed Ecotossicologia

    1996-12-01

    Occurrence and bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium and lead were found in mushrooms by various researchers. Such mushrooms were often found in polluted areas. Pollution was mainly caused by industrial or mining plants, by some agricultural treatments and by road traffic. Considerations and recommendations concerning food consumption are made.

  12. Wild Boar Tissue Levels of Cadmium, Lead and Mercury in Seven Regions of Continental Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedak, Marija; Đokić, Maja; Šimić, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in the kidney and muscle of free-living wild boar (n = 169) from hunting grounds in seven counties of continental Croatia. Mean levels of metals (mg/kg) in muscle and kidney of boars ranged as follows: Cd: 0.005–0.016 and 0.866–4.58, Pb: 0.033–0.15 and 0.036–0.441, Hg: 0.004–0.012 and 0.04–0.152. In all seven regions, concentrations exceeded the permitted values (muscle and kidney mg/kg: cadmium 0.05/1; lead 0.1/0.5; mercury 0.03/0.1) in 13.6% and 71.6% of samples (muscle and kidney, respectively) for cadmium; 13.6% and 8.9% for lead; 19.5% and 2.4% for mercury. There were significant differences among the regions. Vukovar-Srijem and Virovitica-Podravina Counties were highly contaminated with cadmium, Sisak-Moslavina and Virovitica-Podravina Counties with lead and Brod-Posavina County had highest mercury concentrations. These results suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to accumulation of metals in boars. PMID:20405101

  13. Accumulation of cadmium, mercury and lead by vegetables following long-term land application of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

    1986-06-01

    Several vegetable species which are part of the daily diet of Tehran's population were examined for potential uptake of cadmium, mercury and lead from soil following longterm land application of wastewater. The three study sites located in the south of Tehran have been receiving untreated domestic wastewater by flood irrigation for many years. Elevated levels of cadmium, mercury and lead were found in the upper layers of soil. Examined vegetables accumulated some cadmium, mercury and lead from treated soils, but accumulation was relatively low. Due to the low concentration of these metals and their poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (excluding absorption of lead in children), it does not appear that the short-term consumption of these contaminated vegetables would produce acute toxicity. However, since absorption of dietary lead in children is relatively high and children are very sensitive to lead toxicity, short-term consumption of these vegetables plus other environmental sources of these metals in Tehran may produce chronic effects in children.

  14. Accumulation of cadmium, mercury and lead by vegetables following long-term land application of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariatpanahi, M.; Anderson, A.C.

    1986-06-01

    Several vegetable species which are part of the daily diet of Tehran's population were examined for potential uptake of cadmium, mercury and lead from soil following longterm land application of wastewater. The three study sites located in the south of Tehran have been receiving untreated domestic wastewater by flood irrigation for many years. Elevated levels of cadmium, mercury and lead were found in the upper layers of soil. Examined vegetables accumulated some cadmium, mercury and lead from treated soils, but accumulation was relatively low. Due to the low concentration of these metals and their poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (excluding absorption of lead in children), it does not appear that the short-term consumption of these contaminated vegetables would produce acute toxicity. However, since absorption of dietary lead in children is relatively high and children are very sensitive to lead toxicity, short-term consumption of these vegetables plus other environmental sources of these metals in Tehran may produce chronic effects in children.

  15. Detection of early kidney damages in workers exposed to lead, mercury, and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, K.H.; Gonzales, J.; Thuerauf, J.; Schiele, R.

    1980-09-01

    Our study was performed to evaluate potential adverse effects on the kidney caused by an occupational exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. We examined 81 individuals of a Zn-Cd-plant and of a Ni-Cd-battery factory, occupationally exposed to cadmium. In a chemical company, synthesizing mercury-compounds, we analyzed 23 exposed workers. The 21 persons with an exposure to lead were employed in a secondary lead smelting plant. To evaluate the degree of the occupational exposure we analysed the concentrations of the heavy metals in blood and urine samples. As indicators of an adverse effect on the kidney the renal elimination of specific proteins was determined. The analysis of proteins with a higher molecular weight, such as albumine and acid ..cap alpha../sub 1/-glycoproteine, was performed using a new developed laser nephelometric method. Patterns of renal eliminated proteins with a lower molecular weight were characterized applying radio immunological determination of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobuline. The results found in workers exposed to cadmium verified previous studies. The occurence of a characteristic ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulinuria takes place after a sufficient long period of exposure. In addition to this,. cadmium exposed workers had an increased elimination of total proteine. Persons with an exposure to mercury also showed a slightly increased elimination of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobuline and total proteine. An intensive long exposure to mercury and its (in-)organic compounds seems to induce an increased renal elimination of proteins. No increased renal elimination was found in persons occupationally exposed to lead.

  16. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury) in Emerging Market Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey M. Horton; Mortensen, Mary E.; Yulia Iossifova; Wald, Marlena M.; Paula Burgess

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countr...

  17. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring for cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (i) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (ii) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed because the ML in the latter group is usually lower. In seaweed/algae products a relatively large number of samples contained arsenic concentrations that exceeded the ML. Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programs, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  18. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in canned tuna fish marketed in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andayesh, Shirin; Hadiani, Mohammad Rasoul; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four canned tuna fish samples corresponding to 10 widely used different brands were purchased from local markets in Tehran, Iran during 2012-2013 and analysed on heavy metals. Mercury was determined by a direct mercury analyser without any sample preparation. For analysis of other elements samples were digested using a microwave apparatus. Lead and cadmium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and arsenic via hydride vapour generation. All samples had arsenic and mercury contamination. Arsenic levels showed a range of 0.25-1.42 mg kg(-1), which might be due to lack of national and international limits for arsenic in canned tuna fish. Lead and cadmium were measured in a small number of samples with a mean of 0.053 ± 0.058 mg kg(-1) and 0.013 ± 0.015 mg kg(-1), respectively. Results obtained for these heavy metals in all samples were lower than the corresponding limits, whereas arsenic and mercury contents might raise some attention.

  19. Cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure assessment among croatian consumers of free-living game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Prevendar Crnić, Andreja; Bilandžić, Nina; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven

    2014-09-29

    Free-living game can be an important source of dietary cadmium and lead; the question is whether exposure to these two elements is such that it might cause adverse health effects in the consumers. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to cadmium, lead, and mercury from free-living big game (fallow deer, roe deer, red deer, wild boar, and brown bear), and to mercury from small game (pheasant and hare), hunted in Croatia from 1990 to 2012. The exposure assessment was based on available literature data and our own measurements of metal levels in the tissues of the game, by taking into account different consumption frequencies (four times a year, once a month and once a week). Exposure was expressed as percentage of (provisional) tolerable weekly intake [(P)TWI] values set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Consumption of game meat (0.002-0.5 % PTWI) and liver (0.005-6 % PTWI) assumed for the general population (four times a year) does not pose a health risk to consumers from the general population, nor does monthly (0.02-6 % PTWI) and weekly (0.1-24 % PTWI) consumption of game meat. However, because of the high percentage of free-living game liver and kidney samples exceeding the legislative limits for cadmium (2-99 %) and lead (1-82 %), people should keep the consumption of certain game species' offal as low as possible. Children and pregnant and lactating women should avoid eating game offal altogether. Free-living game liver could be an important source of cadmium if consumed on a monthly basis (3-74 % TWI), and if consumed weekly (11-297 % TWI), it could even give rise to toxicological concern.

  20. DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in rhinoceros auklets from Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Fitzner, R.E.; Leschner, L.L.; Wilson, U.W.

    1999-01-01

    In July 1981, 5 adult rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) were captured on the ground near nesting areas on each of Protection and Destruction Islands, Washington. The birds were euthanized, and their livers and kidneys removed and analyzed. Levels (I?g / g wet weight) of DDE (0.11 to 0.95), polychlorinated biphenyls (no residue detected [ND] to 1.1), mercury (0.60 to 1.8), and lead (ND to 0.85) in livers and cadmium (9.1 to 21.9) in kidneys were similar in each colony. All concentrations were less than known effect levels.

  1. Effect of lead, mercury and cadmium on a sulphate-reducing bacterium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Sathe, V.; Chandramohan, D.

    Pollution 67 (1990) 361-374 Effect of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium on a Sulphate-Reducing Bacterium P. A. Loka Bharathi, V. Sathe & D. Chandramohan National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403004, India (Received 9 March 1990; revised version... oftoxicity to growth of these metal salts in a lactate-based medium at 50 J1g mr 1 concentrations was Cd> Pb> Hg and to respiration Pb> Cd> Hg. Inhibitory concentrations (viz. 100 J1g mr 1 ofHgCl z and200 J1g mr 1 ofPb(N0 3 )z) hada stimulatory effect when...

  2. Survey of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Nancy M; Mindak, William R; Gasper, John W; Thompson, Christopher B; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to assess amounts of inorganic element contamination in cosmetics, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration contracted a private laboratory to determine the total content of seven potentially toxic or allergenic elements in 150 cosmetic products of 12 types (eye shadows, blushes, lipsticks, three types of lotions, mascaras, foundations, body powders, compact powders, shaving creams, and face paints). Samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and nickel by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The methods used to determine the elements were tested for validity by using standard reference materials with matrices similar to the cosmetic types. The cosmetic products were found to contain median values of 0.21 mg/kg arsenic, 3.1 mg/kg chromium, 0.91 mg/kg cobalt, 0.85 mg/kg lead, and 2.7 mg/kg nickel. The median values for cadmium and mercury were below the limits of detection of the methods. The contract requirements, testing procedures, and findings from the survey are described.

  3. Lead, cadmium and mercury contents and bioaccumulation potential of wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širić, Ivan; Kasap, Ante; Bedeković, Dalibor; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-03-04

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) contents in ten species of edible mushrooms in Trakošćan, Croatia were determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis. The caps and stipes of the fruiting bodies were analysed separately. The analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The greatest mean lead concentrations of 1.91 and 1.60 mg kg (-1) were determined in caps and stipes of Macrolepiota procera. The greatest mean concentrations of cadmium (3.23 and 2.24 mg kg(-1)) were determined in caps and stipes of Agaricus campestris and of mercury (2.56 and 2.35 mg kg(-1)) in Boletus edulis. In terms of the anatomical parts of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably greater concentration of the analysed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bio-concentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bio-accumulators of Cd and Hg. On the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals, great similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation was obtained by cluster analysis.

  4. Cadmium, iron, lead and mercury bioaccumulation in abu mullet, Liza abu, different tissues from Karoun and Karkheh rivers, Khozestan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askary Sary, Abolfazl; Beheshti, Mahboubeh

    2012-02-01

    Lead, mercury, cadmium and iron concentration in following tissues: muscle, liver and gill of Liza abu in Karoun and Kharkheh were measured. Karoun and Kharkheh are important rivers in Iran. Significant variation in metal values were evaluated using Student's t test at p < 0.05. Result showed that maximum concentration of metals were recorded in gill tissues. Iron concentration was higher than lead, cadmium and mercury in different organs (p < 0.05). The level of metals Cd, Hg, Fe in different tissues of Karoun river was higher than Karkheh river (p < 0.05). Metals level in different tissue were upper than WHO standard.

  5. [Levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in the hair of inhabitants of the Nantes and Grenoble areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, H L; Stoklov, M; Remond, D; Buffet, H; Metayer, C; Vincent, F; Corneteau, H; Faure, J

    1983-11-01

    Lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in the air of 398 inhabitants of the Grenoble area and 341 inhabitants of the Nantes area. The hair was washed with hor solution of EDTA, dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentrations are 6,23 micrograms/g for lead, 0,40 microgram/g for cadmium and 1,06 microgram/g for mercury. There is no difference between found data of the two areas for lead and cadmium. Mercury levels are higher in the Nantes area. Lead content is higher in male hair than in female hair, but the difference is not significant. In the Grenoble area, mercury levels are higher in males than in females; the process is reversed in the Nantes area. We have found no relation between metal levels and age of persons, but lead content is high in the hair of people under ten. Artisans and mechanics have lead content higher than the general people, though exposed people to occupational risks is excluded. We have found to relation between metal in the hair and the size of the town. It seems that the use of tobacco is without influence. Mercury content is related to the eating of fish. It is not increased in the population because of dental amalgams.

  6. Evaluation and Determination of Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium in Human Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Atousa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury, Lead and Cadmium were determined in 100 samples of human breast milk samples from urban and rural mothers in Isfahan (IRAN. A questionnaire about area of residence, nutrition, smoking habits, and dental fillings was filled out by the lactating mothers. The combination of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and perchloric acid was found to be one of the most suitable acids in wet digestion of milk. Cold vapor atomic absorption was used to determine the mercury content in milk after wet digestion. The effect of concentration of nitric acid, influence of flow rate and tin(П chloride were investigated. The mean concentration of mercury in human breast milk samples was 0.96 ppb. Extraction of Pb and Cd were performed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC to methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK and were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The factors influencing, the complex formation, pH, time and buffer were optimized. The mean concentration of Pb and Cd in human breast milk was 0.0147 and 0.0121 ppm, respectively. The maximum concentrations were found in breast milk of rural mothers.

  7. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL, 4.4 (2.4 μg/L, 10.9 (9.2 μg/L, and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L, respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01. After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car, the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01. Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations.

  8. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth [Department of Nephrology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Boras Hospital (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital and Lund University (Sweden); Moelne, Johan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wallin, Maria [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Olausson, Michael [Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  9. Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium Determination in 17 Species of Fish Marketed in Khorramabad City, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals entrance to fish body tissues and transferring to human body systems after their consuming makes numerous undesirable effects and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine some heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury in fresh fishes marketed in Khorramabad City, west of Iran. In this descriptive study, five samples of 17 fish species with high consumption were purchased randomly in 2014. Measurement of mercury, lead and cadmium was performed using atomic absorption spectrometry. All measurements were performed three times for each sample. Lead mean levels in fish samples was in the range 0.736 -1.005 ppm, cadmium range was from 0.196 to 0.015 ppm and mean content of mercury was  0.431 - 0.107 ppm. At present mean concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in supplied fishes muscle is lower than maximum recommended levels according to WHO, EC and FDA guidelines. Based on the obtained results of this study and the importance of heavy metals in foods and their impacts on human health, continuous monitoring of heavy metals levels in foods is necessary.

  10. Effects of environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury on human renal function evaluated by structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Gardiner, Lesley; Parrish, Alan R

    2014-07-03

    A relationship between exposure to heavy metals, including lead and cadmium, and renal dysfunction has long been suggested. However, modeling of the potential additive, or synergistic, impact of metals on renal dysfunction has proven to be challenging. In these studies, we used structural equation modeling (SEM), to investigate the relationship between heavy metal burden (serum and urine levels of lead, cadmium and mercury) and renal function using data from the NHANES database. We were able to generate a model with goodness of fit indices consistent with a well-fitting model. This model demonstrated that lead and cadmium had a negative relationship with renal function, while mercury did not contribute to renal dysfunction. Interestingly, a linear relationship between lead and loss of renal function was observed, while the maximal impact of cadmium occurred at or above serum cadmium levels of 0.8 μg/L. The interaction of lead and cadmium in loss of renal function was also observed in the model. These data highlight the use of SEM to model interaction between environmental contaminants and pathophysiology, which has important implications in mechanistic and regulatory toxicology.

  11. Studies of cadmium, mercury and lead in man. The value of X-ray fluorescence measurements in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, J.

    1996-10-01

    Two XRF methods have been used for in vivo studies of mercury, cadmium and lead. Persons with a history of long-term occupational mercury exposure had elevated mercury concentrations in their kidneys (up to 65 {mu}g/g). The minimum detectable concentration varied between 12 and 45 {mu}g/g. Battery plant workers had elevated cadmium concentrations in their kidneys (up to 350 {mu}g/g) and liver (up to 80 {mu}g/g), with mean values about 3-5 times higher than the general population. The mean ratio between concentrations of cadmium in kidney and liver was 7. Levels in kidney and liver indicated that a simple integration of cadmium in work-place air is not sufficient to describe the body burden. Fingerbone lead in smelters was 6-8 times higher than in members of the general population. The half-time of bone lead in active workers was estimated to about 5 years during the accumulation phase. A model for description of a person`s lead exposure in terms of lead in fingerbone, lead in blood and time of exposure has been developed and can be used, e.g. for retrospective blood lead estimates if the period of exposure and the current fingerbone lead is known. This will be of value for the evaluation of toxic effects of long-term lead exposure when data on previous lead levels are lacking. In total, in vivo measurements of mercury, cadmium and lead give unique information, which has shown to be an important tool for understanding of metal kinetics and toxicity. If the precision and accuracy of the method can be further improved, the technique will also have a given place in the clinical practice. 168 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Occurrence of high levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal plants of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa T Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Plants can contain heavy metals from their presence in the soil, water or air. High levels of toxic metals can occur when the plants are grown in polluted areas, such as near roadways or metal mining and smelting operations. In addition, high levels can be found when agricultural expedients are used, including Cadmium containing fertilizers, organic mercury or lead based pesticides, and contaminated irrigation water. Quality has to be built into the whole process beginning from the selection of starting material to the final product reaching the consumer. In the present study were carried out, to evaluate the quality and safety of crude drug. The result shows that Indian herbal drug industry needs to ensure procurement of standardized authentic raw material free from toxic contaminants. Such approaches remain important in global promotion of medicinal plants & herbal medicinal products from India.

  13. Mercury, lead, and cadmium in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, from the Atlantic coast of Florida, USA: a multipredator approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Douglas H; Engel, Marc E

    2014-04-01

    Blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, from the Atlantic coast of Florida were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, lead, and cadmium. Paired samples of two tissue types were analyzed for each crab, (1) muscle tissue (cheliped and body muscles) and (2) whole-body tissue (all organs, muscle tissue and connective tissue), for evaluation of the concentration of metals available to human consumers as well as estuarine predators. There were clear patterns of tissue-specific partitioning for each metal. Total mercury was significantly greater in muscle tissue (mean=0.078 µg/g) than in whole-body tissue (mean=0.055 µg/g). Conversely, whole-body concentrations of lead and cadmium (means=0.131 and 0.079 µg/g, respectively) were significantly greater than concentrations in muscle (means=0.02 and 0.029 µg/g, respectively). There were no significant correlations between any metal contaminant and crab size. Cadmium levels were significantly greater in the muscle tissue of females, but, no other sex-related differences were seen for other metals or tissue types. Methylmercury composed 93-100% of the total mercury in tissues. Compared to previous blue crab studies from different regions of the United States, mean concentrations of mercury, lead, and cadmium were relatively low, although isolated groups or individual blue crabs accumulated high metal concentrations. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium among South Korean teenagers (KNHANES 2010-2013): Body burden and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    Limited information is available on the association of age and sex with blood concentrations of heavy metals in teenagers. In addition, factors such as a shared family environment may have an association. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2013) to determine whether blood levels of heavy metals differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in a representative sample of teenagers. This study used data obtained in the KNHANES 2010-2013, which had a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Our cross-sectional analysis was restricted to teenagers and their parents who completed the health examination survey, and for whom blood measurements of cadmium, lead, and mercury were available. The final analytical sample consisted of 1585 teenagers, and 376 fathers and 399 mothers who provided measurements of blood heavy metal concentrations. Male teenagers had greater blood levels of lead and mercury, but sex had no association with blood cadmium level. There were age-related increases in blood cadmium, but blood lead decreased with age, and age had little association with blood mercury. The concentrations of cadmium and mercury declined from 2010 to 2013. The blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury in teenagers were positively associated with the levels in their parents after adjustment for covariates. Our results show that blood heavy metal concentrations differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in teenagers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposure to heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) and its effect on the outcome of in-vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Coskun, Serdar; Mashhour, Abdullah; Shinwari, Neptune; El-Doush, Inaam; Billedo, Grisellhi; Jaroudi, Kamal; Al-Shahrani, Abdulaziz; Al-Kabra, Maya; El Din Mohamed, Gamal

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the effect of lead, cadmium and mercury exposure on pregnancy and fertilization rate outcome among 619 Saudi women (age 19-50 years) who sought in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment between 2002 and 2003. The concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in both blood and follicular fluids. At levels well below the current US occupational exposure limit guidelines (40microg/dL) and even less than the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention level of concern for preventing lead poisoning in children (10microg/dL), blood lead level was negatively associated with fertilization outcome in both adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models. We found that among various demographic, socioeconomic and environmental factors, fish consumption was positively associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that a raised blood lead level affects infertility and intervention to reduce the lead exposure might be needed for women of reproductive age. The present results also revealed unexpected finding - the positive relationship between follicular cadmium levels and fertilization outcome, which points to the necessity for further investigation. Though adverse effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome or fertilization rate was not evident in this study, mercury5.8microg/L (EPA safety limit) was found in the blood and follicular fluid of 18.7% and 8.3% of the women, respectively. Concerns about its possible adverse effects on the physiology of reproduction or fetal development cannot be ruled out. It should be noted that skin-lightening creams and dental amalgam were important contributors to mercury exposure. Such finding is alarming and priority for further studies are, urgently, needed.

  16. Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury and Selenium Concentrations in Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Zappalorti, Robert; Pittfield, Taryn; DeVito, Emile

    2017-05-01

    Top trophic level predators are at risk from bioaccumulation of heavy metals from their prey. Using nondestructively collected tissues as a method of assessing metal concentrations in snakes is useful for populations that are threatened or declining. This paper reports concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in tissues of Northern pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) from the New Jersey Pine Barrens, a relatively pristine, undisturbed habitat. We also determined if skin is an appropriate indicator of internal concentrations and identified the factors (tissue, year of collection, length, sex) that might explain variations in metal concentrations. Because they can grow to 2-m long and live for 25 years, we suggest that these snakes might accumulate heavy metals. Multiple regression models were significant, explaining 16% (lead) to 61% (mercury) of variation by tissue type. For mercury and chromium, size also was significant. The highest concentrations were in liver and kidney for all metals, except chromium and lead. Mercury concentrations in tissues were within the range reported for other snakes and were below effects concentrations in reptiles. The concentrations in skin were correlated with all internal tissues for mercury and for all internal tissues except heart for cadmium. These data show that shed skin can be used as an indicator of metals in pine snakes and that, at present, concentrations of heavy metals in this population are within the range of those found in other snake species from uncontaminated sites.

  17. The heavy metals cadmium, lead and mercury in raw materials of animal origin: evaluation of data from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, J; Knödler, M; Kühn, M; Lipinski, A; Steinhoff, B

    2015-01-01

    Raw materials from animal origin are widely used in homoeopathy. Due to the lack of dedicated limits, the quality requirements for herbal drugs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and/or the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (Homöopathisches Arzneibuch, HAB), including limits for heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and mercury, have been applied. A recent database evaluation shows that for some raw materials of animal origin the Ph. Eur. limits for herbal drugs cannot be met in practice. For this reason proposals for new limits for cadmium, lead and mercury are made based on recent experiences from the companies' daily practice. These specific limits are suggested to be included in the individual monographs of the Ph. Eur. or at least the German HAB, respectively, for Ambra grisea, Euspongia officinalis, Formica rufa and Sepia officinalis.

  18. Bioaccumulation of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and selenium in the benthic and pelagic food chain of Lake Baikal

    OpenAIRE

    Leeves, Sara Ann

    2011-01-01

    Increased anthropogenic release of potentially toxic trace elements such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se) into freshwater ecosystems over the past century has caused much concern. These elements are well known toxicants in aquatic ecosystems and may exert toxic effects even if present at relatively low concentrations in organisms. In this study, bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and Se in the pelagic and benthic food chain of Lake Baikal have been inves...

  19. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in umbilical cord serum and birth outcomes in Chinese fish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Xu, Chenye; Lin, Nan; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Yongli; Yu, Xinwei; Liu, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the islands of Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou bay and their exposure caused potential health risk for the residents. To assess the exposure levels of Pb, Hg, and Cd, the umbilical cord serum samples were collected from 103 mother-newborn pairs as the noninvasive specimens. The association of the concentration of Pb, Hg, and Cd with the birth outcomes was evaluated. Pb, Hg, and Cd had high exposure levels with the median concentrations at 76.20 μg L(-1) [interquartile range (IQR): 44.71, 115.80], 21.94 μg L(-1) (IQR: 15.10, 27.64), and 6.36 μg L(-1) (IQR: 3.63, 13.34), respectively. A unit increase in the Pb umbilical cord serum concentration (μg L(-1)) was significantly associated with a 0.29 cm (95% CI: -0.50, -0.09) decrease in birth height and a 0.22 cm (95%CI: -0.44, 0.00) decrease in head circumference. The middle tertile Pb and Hg exposure levels were found significantly negative effects on birth outcomes compared with low tertile exposure levels. Exposure to Cd showed no apparent effect on birth outcomes. Our results suggested that Pb and Hg exposure has potential adverse effects on birth outcomes in Chinese fish consumers from Yangtze River outlet and Hangzhou bay estuary regions.

  20. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in surface soils, Pueblo, Colorado: Implications for population health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diawara, D.M.; Litt, J.S.; Unis, D.; Alfonso, N.; Martinez, L.A.; Crock, J.G.; Smith, D.B.; Carsella, J.

    2006-01-01

    Decades of intensive industrial and agricultural practices as well as rapid urbanization have left communities like Pueblo, Colorado facing potential health threats from pollution of its soils, air, water and food supply. To address such concerns about environmental contamination, we conducted an urban geochemical study of the city of Pueblo to offer insights into the potential chemical hazards in soil and inform priorities for future health studies and population interventions aimed at reducing exposures to inorganic substances. The current study characterizes the environmental landscape of Pueblo in terms of heavy metals, and relates this to population distributions. Soil was sampled within the city along transects and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). We also profiled Pueblo's communities in terms of their socioeconomic status and demographics. ArcGIS 9.0 was used to perform exploratory spatial data analysis and generate community profiles and prediction maps. The topsoil in Pueblo contains more As, Cd, Hg and Pb than national soil averages, although average Hg content in Pueblo was within reported baseline ranges. The highest levels of As concentrations ranged between 56.6 and 66.5 ppm. Lead concentrations exceeded 300 ppm in several of Pueblo's residential communities. Elevated levels of lead are concentrated in low-income Hispanic and African-American communities. Areas of excessively high Cd concentration exist around Pueblo, including low income and minority communities, raising additional health and environmental justice concerns. Although the distribution patterns vary by element and may reflect both industrial and non-industrial sources, the study confirms that there is environmental contamination around Pueblo and underscores the need for a comprehensive public health approach to address environmental threats in urban communities. ?? Springer 2006.

  1. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stephani; Arora, Monica; Fernandez, Cristina; Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph; Chen, Aimin

    2013-10-01

    There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5-8, 9-12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07-5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Stephani [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Arora, Monica [Department of Psychiatry, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Fernandez, Cristina [Department of Pediatrics, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph [Metallomics Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: aimin.chen@uc.edu [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure.

  3. Pilot study for utilization of dried blood spots for screening of lead, mercury and cadmium in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sanwat N; Butala, Steven J M; Ball, R Wayne; Braniff, Christopher T

    2009-03-01

    The exposure of pregnant women and young children to environmental pollutants is an ongoing concern of state and local public health departments. Of primary concern is the exposure to lead in lead-based paints, methyl mercury in contaminated fish and cadmium present at mining sites. The feasibility, utility and methodology of using blood spot cards collected for new born health screening purposes was studied for use in conducting routine state-wide surveillance of blood lead, mercury and cadmium levels in infants. Homogeneity of different lots of blank filter paper was examined. Mass measurements (weights) of filter paper punches were taken across three different lots of filter paper. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using one-way ANOVA, which indicated no significant difference in the means of all three lots, but high variances were noted. The three metals were examined in three different lots of filter papers purchased from the manufacturer. The lots had measurable amounts of cadmium and lead, but not mercury. Lead spike values were observed for roughly about 7% of the blank samples, indicating heterogeneous distribution of this metal. Statistical analysis of the data was also performed using a two-way ANOVA calculation with Tukey's pairwise comparisons. The results found that total mean metal loadings across the three lots were different. The concentration of the metals can be different from each other and the concentration of any one metal can differ across lots. Stability at different concentrations of the heavy metals in blood spotted onto filter paper with time and storage conditions was examined. Results indicate acceptable performance for at least 8.5 months for lead (near CDC's concern level) and for mercury (near NRC's concern level). The filter paper and blood spots were analyzed for metals using an acid extraction, followed by analysis using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood spot cards were studied from four

  4. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb.

  5. Daily intake of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead by consumption of edible marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L

    2006-08-09

    The daily intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) through the consumption of 14 edible marine species by the general population of Catalonia, Spain, was estimated. Health risks derived from this intake were also assessed. In March-April 2005, samples of sardine, tuna, anchovy, mackerel, swordfish, salmon, hake, red mullet, sole, cuttlefish, squid, clam, mussel, and shrimp were randomly acquired in six cities of Catalonia. Concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined by ICP-MS. On the basis of recent fish and seafood consumption data, the daily intake of these elements was calculated for eight age/sex groups of the population. The highest As concentrations were found in red mullet, 16.6 microg/g of fresh weight, whereas clam and mussel (0.14 and 0.13 microg/g of fresh weight, respectively) were the species with the highest Cd levels. In turn, swordfish (1.93 microg/g of fresh weight) and mussel and salmon (0.15 and 0.10 microg/g of fresh weight) showed the highest concentrations of Hg and Pb, respectively. The highest metal intake through fish and seafood consumption corresponded to As (217.7 microg/day), Cd (1.34 microg/day), and Pb (2.48 microg/day) for male seniors, whereas that of Hg was observed in male adults (9.89 microg/day). The daily intake through fish and seafood consumption of these elements was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWI). The intakes of As, Cd, Pb, and total Hg by the population of Catalonia were below the respective PTWI values. However, the estimated intake of methylmercury for boys, 1.96 microg/kg/week, was over the PTWI.

  6. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, P; Pla, A; Hernández, A F; Barbier, F; Ayouni, L; Gil, F

    2013-09-01

    Although fish intake has potential health benefits, the presence of metal contamination in seafood has raised public health concerns. In this study, levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic have been determined in fresh, canned and frozen fish and shellfish products and compared with the maximum levels currently in force. In a further step, potential human health risks for the consumers were assessed. A total of 485 samples of the 43 most frequently consumed fish and shellfish species in Andalusia (Southern Spain) were analyzed for their toxic elements content. High mercury concentrations were found in some predatory species (blue shark, cat shark, swordfish and tuna), although they were below the regulatory maximum levels. In the case of cadmium, bivalve mollusks such as canned clams and mussels presented higher concentrations than fish, but almost none of the samples analyzed exceeded the maximum levels. Lead concentrations were almost negligible with the exception of frozen common sole, which showed median levels above the legal limit. Tin levels in canned products were far below the maximum regulatory limit, indicating that no significant tin was transferred from the can. Arsenic concentrations were higher in crustaceans such as fresh and frozen shrimps. The risk assessment performed indicated that fish and shellfish products were safe for the average consumer, although a potential risk cannot be dismissed for regular or excessive consumers of particular fish species, such as tuna, swordfish, blue shark and cat shark (for mercury) and common sole (for lead).

  7. Lead, cadmium and mercury in the blood of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) from the coast of Sinaloa, Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Miriam; Castillo-Guerrero, José Alfredo; Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Fernández, Guillermo

    2016-09-15

    We used blood samples of the Blue-footed Booby, considering sex (female and male) and age-class (adult and chick) of individuals at different breeding stages during two breeding seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012) in Isla El Rancho, Sinaloa, to determine lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations. Lead and cadmium concentrations were below our detection limit (0.05 and 0.36ppm, respectively). A higher concentration of mercury was found in early stages of breeding, likely related to changes in mercury environmental availability. Mercury concentrations in adults did not relate with their breeding output. Males and adults had higher mercury concentration than females and chicks. We provide information of temporal, sex and age-related variations in the concentrations of mercury in blood of the Blue-footed Booby. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States); Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Newhouse, Michael [NJ Meadowlands Commission, One DeKorte Park Plaza, Lyndhurst, NJ 07071 (United States); Jeitner, Christian [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Mizrahi, David [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Road, Bernardsville, NJ 07924 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  9. Contents of cadmium, mercury and lead in fish from the Atlantic sea (Morocco) determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahid, Adil; Hilali, Mustapha; Benlhachimi, Abdeljalil; Bouzid, Taoufiq

    2014-03-15

    As a part of a specific monitoring program, lead (Pb) cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in important species of fish from various fishing ports of the southern Kingdom of Morocco (Sardina pilchardus, Scomber scombrus, Plectorhinchus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus, Octopus vulgaris, Boops boops, Sarda sarda, Trisopterus capelanus, and Conger conger) were investigated by the Moroccan Reference Laboratory (NRL) for trace elements in foodstuffs of animal origin. The samples were analysed for lead and cadmium by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS); and for mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). The results were expressed as μg/g of wet weight (w/w). The levels of Cd, Pb and Hg in muscles of fish were 0.009-0.036, 0.013-0.114 and 0.049-0.194 μg/g, respectively. The present study showed that different metals were present in the sample at different levels but within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the EU for the fish and shellfish from these areas, in general, should cause no health problems for consumers.

  10. What Do We Know of Childhood Exposures to Metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Emerging Market Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M. Horton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  11. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  12. Survey of Manual Methods of Measurements of Asbestos, Beryllium, Lead, Cadmium, Selenium, and Mercury in Stationary Source Emissions. Environmental Monitoring Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Dale M.; And Others

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate existing manual methods for analyzing asbestos, beryllium, lead, cadmium, selenium, and mercury, and from this evaluation to provide the best and most practical set of analytical methods for measuring emissions of these elements from stationary sources. The work in this study was divided into two phases.…

  13. Mercury, lead, and cadmium in tissues of the Caspian Pond Turtle (Mauremys caspica) from the southern basin of Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Saravi, Hasan Nasrollahzadeh; Dadar, Maryam; Niyazi, Leila; Ley-Quinonez, Cesar P

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured in different tissues (liver, muscle, and shell) of 60 Caspian Pond Turtles collected from Tajan and Shiroud Rivers, southern basin of the Caspian Sea. Based on the results, different tissues showed different capacities for accumulating trace elements. The general trend of metals accumulation was: liver > shell > muscle. Results also showed that accumulation of these elements was not significantly different between sex and river in turtles (p > 0.05). Based on the results, Hg and Pb concentrations recorded in the present study were higher than some of the maximum concentration permissible. To our knowledge, this is the first report into heavy metal accumulation in tissues and organs of Caspian Pond Turtle from the southern basin of Caspian Sea. Further studies are needed to measure different heavy metals and trace metals in this valuable species.

  14. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (pmushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety.

  15. Estimation of seasonal risk caused by the intake of lead, mercury and cadmium through freshwater fish consumption from urban water reservoirs in arid areas of northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevárez, Myrna; Leal, Luz O; Moreno, Myriam

    2015-02-04

    Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico) water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg), mercury (0.744 mg/kg) and lead (4.298 mg/kg) exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week) was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week). This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  16. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Nevárez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg, mercury (0.744 mg/kg and lead (4.298 mg/kg exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week. This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  17. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akçay, Nilay, E-mail: nilay.akcay@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Physics, Rize (Turkey); Batan, Nevzat, E-mail: nbatan@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Maçka Vocational School, Trabzon (Turkey); Çinar, Yunus, E-mail: yunus.cinar@erdogan.edu.tr [Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Vocational School of Technical Studies, Rize (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  18. Investigate of atmospheric arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in moss species found around Zilkale, by EDXRF Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Nilay; Batan, Nevzat; Ćinar, Yunus

    2016-04-01

    Zilkale is a castle located in Fırtına Valley and it is one of the most important historical structures in Çamlihemşin district of Rize Province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The castle surrounded by very high mountains that poke up into the clouds, and it rains here all year round. Tourism businesses or industrial plants are not so much there yet. In recent years, Zilkale region has begun the attract tourist, people on treaking holidays in the Kaçkar. But many domestic and foreign tourists come to this region by own car or tour buses. The aim of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury levels in five different moss species collected around Zilkale by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in moss samples ranged from 0.79-4.63 ppm for arsenic, 54.47-143.39 ppm for chromium, 39.97-81.03 ppm for lead. The values of cadmium and mercury were found below the detection limit. This study has shown that Hypnum cupressiforme, Abietinella abietina, Rhytidium rugosum, Plagiomnium undulate, and Thuidium tamariscinum samples collected around Zilkale were used to assess the potential contamination of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg contamination in the region and made important contributions toward the understanding of atmospheric As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg baseline data can be used for identification of changes in the levels of these heavy metals in the studied area.

  19. Bioaccumulation potential of dietary arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in organs and tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) as a function of fish growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardullo, Silvia; Aureli, Federica; Coni, Ettore; Guandalini, Emilio; Iosi, Francesca; Raggi, Andrea; Rufo, Giovanna; Cubadda, Francesco

    2008-04-09

    The distribution and potential bioaccumulation of dietary arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in organs and tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss Walbaum, 1792), a major aquaculture species, was studied in relation to fish growth over a period of >3 years. Fish were reared under normal farming conditions, that is, fed a standard fish food and exposed to negligible levels of waterborne trace elements. The age-related variations in the content of each trace element in gills, kidney, liver, muscle, and skin were studied through nonparametric regression analysis. A buildup of all elements in all tissues and organs was observed, but due to dilution with growth, the concentrations did not increase, except in a few cases such as cadmium and mercury in liver and kidney. In muscle tissue, the concentrations of mercury, lead, and selenium did not alter significantly with growth, whereas cadmium increased but remained at exceedingly low levels. The concentration of arsenic in muscle tissue peaked at 14 months and then decreased in adult specimens. Arsenic speciation by high-performance liquid chromatography--inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed that arsenic in muscle was almost exclusively present in the form of nontoxic arsenobetaine. Application of a mercury mass balance model gave predicted concentrations in agreement with measured ones and showed that in farmed rainbow trout the ratio of mercury concentrations in feed and in fish is about 1:1. Therefore, rainbow trout does not approach the limits established for human consumption even when reared with feed at the maximum permitted levels. These findings highlight the low bioaccumulation potential of toxic trace elements such as cadmium, lead, and mercury in rainbow trout following dietary exposure. On the other hand, selenium concentrations in muscle (about 0.2 microg g (-1) of fresh weight) show that rainbow trout may be a good source of this essential element.

  20. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.

  1. Critical trace elements in brewing technology. Pt. 2. Occurrence of arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury and selenium in beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donhauser, S.; Wagner, D.; Jacob, F.

    1987-01-01

    A study of 100 beer samples gave a representative cross-section of the amount of critical trace elements in beers. The following average values were obtained. Arsenic 6,4 ..mu..g/l, chromium 7,5 ..mu..g/l, lead 1,6 ..mu..g/l, mercury < 0,5 ..mu..g/l, cadmium 0,2 ..mu..g/l, selenium 1,2 ..mu..g/l. The drinking water limit value was just exceeded with two beers and by more than two-fold with one beer. The concentration of elements in the other beers were mostly well below the legal norm of the drinking water regulations. Separation of the samples according to beer container showed no significant difference with respect to trace element content between glass bottles and cans. Only 3 piece tinplate cans with a soldered body seam, which must have been damaged, contained beer with higher lead values. The trace element content of individual beer types did not differ from one another. An evaluation of the weakly intake of thee critical elements in beer, using these measured values, shows no cause for concern about health. (orig.)

  2. Concentrations of Mercury, Lead, Chromium, Cadmium, Arsenic and Aluminum in Irrigation Water Wells and Wastewaters Used for Agriculture in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadeghi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water by toxic chemicals has become commonly recognized as an environmental concern. Based on our clinical observation in Mashhad, northeastern Iran, many people might be at risk of exposure to high concentrations of toxic heavy metals in water. Because wastewater effluents as well as water wells have been commonly used for irrigation over the past decades, there has been some concern on the toxic metal exposure of crops and vegetables irrigated with the contaminated water.Objective: To measure the concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium in irrigation water wells and wastewaters used for agriculture in Mashhad, northeastern Iran.Methods: 36 samples were taken from irrigation water wells and a wastewater refinery in North of Mashhad at four times—May 2008, March 2009, and June and July 2010. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of toxic metals. Graphite furnace was used for the measurement of lead, chromium, cadmium and aluminum. Mercury and arsenic concentrations were measured by mercury/hydride system.Results: Chromium, cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations in the samples were within the standard range. The mean±SD concentration of mercury in irrigation wells (1.02±0.40 μg/L exceeded the FAO maximum permissible levels. The aluminum concentration in irrigation water varied significantly from month to month (p=0.03. All wastewater samples contained high mercury concentrations (6.64±2.53 μg/L.Conclusion: For high mercury and aluminum concentrations, the water sources studied should not be used for agricultural use. Regular monitoring of the level of heavy metals in water and employing the necessary environmental interventions in this area are strongly recommended.

  3. Concentration of lead, cadmium, and mercury in tissues of European beaver (Castor fiber from the north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giżejewska Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and mercury (Hg in the liver, kidneys, and muscles of European beavers (Castor fiber and thus to evaluate the degree of heavy metals contamination in Warmia and Mazury region in Poland. The study was conducted on free-living beavers captured in region of Warmia and Mazury during autumn 2011. Concentrations of the elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The presence of the metals was detected in all individual tissue samples. Mean Pb and Hg concentrations were relatively low. However, the high mean Cd level, especially in the kidneys (7.933 mg/kg and liver (0.880 mg/kg was demonstrated. Despite the fact that region of Warmia and Mazury is considered to be “ecologically clean”, the conducted studies indicate that systematic monitoring for the presence of heavy metals is necessary not only in industrialised but also in agricultural regions, as well as in natural ecosystems.

  4. Mercury, lead and cadmium levels in the urine of 170 Spanish adults: a pilot human biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E; Cañas, Ana; Esteban, Marta; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez-García, Ana C; Arribas, Misericordia; Díaz, Gema; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2012-02-01

    Human biomonitoring is a well-recognized tool for estimating the exposure of human populations to environmental pollutants. However, information regarding biomarker concentrations of many environmental chemicals in the general population is limited for many countries. The Spanish Environment Ministry has recently funded a human biomonitoring study on the Spanish general population. This study aims to determine reference levels for several biomarkers, especially heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and cotinine, in urine, whole blood, serum and hair, and will involve 2000 volunteers throughout Spain. Samples were taken during 2009-2010 and analyses are currently underway. The results presented herein were obtained in a pilot study carried out in the Madrid region. The study group comprised 170 volunteers, of which 79% were female and 21% male (age: 23-66 years). All participants were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding diet and living habits and provides a morning urine sample. The geometric means for total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were 1.23, 1.11 and 0.25 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Levels of Pb and Hg were higher than those reported for the general population in the USA and Germany, whereas Cd was in the same range (CDC, 2009; Becker et al., 2003). The values reported here are similar to those reported in other Spanish studies.

  5. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the central nervous system of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, by mercury, cadmium, and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, M.; Fingerman, M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The toxicological, physiological and biochemical responses of aquatic crustaceans to heavy metals have been reported by several investigators. Levels of glucose, lactic acid, sodium, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the blood of the crab Scylla serrata increased, while glycogen levels in hepatopancreas and muscle decreased after a four-week exposure to mercuric chloride. In fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, enzyme activity was observed to decrease in the hepatopancreas but increased in abdominal muscle after 48 hr cadmium exposure. In the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, exposed for 96 hr to cadmium, glutahione (GSH) level and GSH S-transferase activity deceased in the midgut. In crayfish Astacus astacus exposed to sublethal concentrations of lead and cadmium, oxidative enzyme (succine dehydrogenase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase) activities in gills and hepatopancrease decreased. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by organophosphates and organocarbamates in various crustaceans has bee reported. In vivo cadmium exposure caused increases in esterase activities, but mercury exposure decreases these activities in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp Callianassa tyrrhena. The freshwater crab, Barytelphusa guerini, exposed to 0.6 ppm cadmium showed reduced oxygen consumption throughout the experiment whereas AChE activity increased after 4 days but decreased after 15 days. The authors wanted to determine the effects of cadmium, lead and mercury on AChE activity in central nervous tissue of Procambarus clarkii. This enzyme has the potential for serving both as a biochemical indicator of toxic stress and a sensitive parameter for testing water for the presence of toxicants. These three biologically silent metals have, according to Schweinsberg and Karsa great toxicological significance to humans because their use is widespread. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  7. Systematic review and meta-analysis links autism and toxic metals and highlights the impact of country development status: Higher blood and erythrocyte levels for mercury and lead, and higher hair antimony, cadmium, lead, and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-10-03

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals. Therefore the objective of this study was to investigate the difference in heavy metal measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. We included observational studies that measured levels of toxic metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium) in different specimens (whole blood, plasma, serum, red cells, hair and urine) for patients with ASD and for controls. The main electronic medical database (PubMed and Scopus) were searched from inception through October 2016. 52 studies were eligible to be included in the present systematic review, of which 48 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The hair concentrations of antimony (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.45) and lead (SMD=0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17 to 1.03) in ASD patients were significantly higher than those of control subjects. ASD patients had higher erythrocyte levels of lead (SMD=1.55, CI: 0.2 to 2.89) and mercury (SMD=1.56, CI: 0.42 to 2.70). There were significantly higher blood lead levels in ASD patients (SMD=0.43, CI: 0.02 to 0.85). Sensitivity analyses showed that ASD patients in developed but not in developing countries have lower hair concentrations of cadmium (SMD=-0.29, CI: -0.46 to -0.12). Also, such analyses indicated that ASD patients in developing but not in developed lands have higher hair concentrations of lead (SMD=1.58, CI: 0.80 to 2.36) and mercury (SMD=0

  8. Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain); Sex- and age-dependent variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Chardi, Alejandro [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.sanchez.chardi@ub.edu; Lopez-Fuster, Maria Jose [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Nadal, Jacint [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    We quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) collected at the Ebro Delta, a polluted area, and the Medas Islands, a control site. Lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. Globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of Pb and Hg. Increment of Pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals and was interpreted in relation to human activities, namely hunting. Unlike males, females from the Ebro Delta maintained low Hg levels, which were associated with gestation and lactation. Cadmium levels did not differ between sites, sexes, or ages. This study provides the first data on heavy metals in mammals from this wetland and suggests that C. russula is a good bioindicator of metal pollution. We concluded that sex and age may represent an important source of variation in the bioaccumulation of these metals in wild populations. - Bioaccumulation patterns of Pb and Hg reveal sex and age-related differences in the large bones of the greater white-toothed shrew from a polluted Mediterranean wetland.

  9. Cadmium, mercury and lead in the blood of urban women in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, China, Ecuador and Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pawlas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to make an international comparison of blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd, lead (BPb and mercury (B-Hg of women in seven European, and three non-European cities, and to identify determinants. Materials and Methods: About 50 women (age: 46–62 from each city were recruited (totally 480 in 2006–2009. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. Blood samples were analysed in one laboratory to avoid interlaboratory variation. Results: Between the European cities, the B-Pb and B-Cd results vary little (range of geometric means: 13.5–27.0 μg/l and 0.25–0.65 μg/l, respectively; the variation of B-Hg was larger (0.40–1.38 μg/l. Between the non-European cities the results for B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg were 19.2–68.0, 0.39–0.99 and 1.01–2.73 μg/l, respectively. Smoking was a statistically signifi cant determinant for B-Cd, while fi sh and shellfi sh intakes contributed to B-Hg and B-Pb, amalgam fi llings also contributed to B-Hg. Conclusions: The present results confi rm the previous results from children; the exposure to lead and cadmium varies only little between different European cities suggesting that other factors than the living area are more important. The study also confi rms the previous fi ndings of higher cadmium and lead levels in some non-European cities. The geographical variation for mercury is signifi cant.

  10. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  11. Levels of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium in clays for oral use on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, N M; Klerx, W N M; Kooijman, M; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women in Africa, Asia and Suriname, and some immigrants in Western societies, traditionally consume clay products known by a variety of names such as mabele, calabash chalk, sikor and pimba. Furthermore, clay is used for health purposes in Western societies. Because certain clays can contain high levels of metals and metalloids, the aim of this study was to determine lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium in clay products for oral use available on the Dutch market. Traditional clays originating from Africa (n = 10) and Suriname (n = 26), and health clays (n = 27) were sampled from 2004 up to and including 2012. Total metal and metalloid contents were measured by ICP-MS and showed maximum levels of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium of 99.7, 45.1, 2.2 and 0.75 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. In the absence of maximum limits for these type of clays, the potential exposure was estimated from the determined concentration, the estimated daily use level of the clays, and the estimated bioaccessibility of the different metals and arsenic. The intake estimates were compared with existing health-based guidance values. For lead, the use of 34 of the 36 traditional clays and two of the 27 health clays would result in intake levels exceeding the toxicological limit by up to 20-fold. Use of 15 of the 35 traditional clays and 11 of the 27 health clays would result in intake levels exceeding the toxicological limit for inorganic arsenic by up to 19-fold. Although limited bioaccessibility from the clay may limit the exposure and exceedance of the health-based guidance values, it was concluded that lead and arsenic intakes from some clay products could be of concern also because of their use by pregnant women and the potential developmental toxicity. As a result the use of these products, especially by pregnant women, should be discouraged.

  12. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares) and fresh little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghait, S K; Garbaj, A M

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety. Hg, Pb and Cd contaminants were monitored in a total of 60 specimens of fresh little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) and popular brands of skipjack and yellowfin (Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares) canned tuna commercially available in Tripoli, Libya. Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA-80) was implemented for determination of total Hg level and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was employed for determination of Cd and Pb concentrations. The results indicated that Hg had the highest concentration level and Cd had the lowest concentration level either in tested canned tuna or fresh little tunny samples. The average concentration of Hg in fresh little tunny samples was 1.185 ± 0.968 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and often exceeded the standard permissible limit. In addition, canned yellowfin tuna had the lowest levels of Cd (0.027 ± 0.026 mg kg(-1) ww), Pb (0.075 ± 0.071) and Hg (0.163 ± 0.122 mg kg(-1) ww). Results of the current surveillance indicated that canned skipjack and yellowfin tuna sold in Tripoli markets show contaminant levels well under the European thresholds adopted for Cd, Pb and Hg. However, consumption of large quantities of Mediterranean little tunny products significantly increases human exposure to the risk of Hg toxicity.

  13. DNA methylation changes in whole blood is associated with exposure to the environmental contaminants, mercury, lead, cadmium and bisphenol A, in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Courtney W; Bloom, Michael S; Robinson, Wendy P; Kim, Dongsul; Parsons, Patrick J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Taylor, Julia A; Steuerwald, Amy J; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2012-05-01

    Changes in DNA methylation may play an important role in the deleterious reproductive effects reported in association with exposure to environmental pollutants. In this pilot study, we identify candidate methylation changes associated with exposure to pollutants in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Blood and urine were collected from women on the day of oocyte retrieval. Whole blood was analyzed for mercury and lead, and urine for cadmium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Unconjugated bisphenol A (BPA) was analyzed in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with Coularray detection. Participants were dichotomized as higher or lower exposure groups by median concentrations. Using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel I, DNA methylation in whole blood from 43 women was assessed at 1505 CpG sites for association with exposure levels of each pollutant. Candidate CpG sites were identified using a Diff Score >|13| (P10% which were confirmed using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Methylation of the GSTM1/5 promoter was increased for women with higher mercury exposure (P= 0.04); however, no correlation was observed (r= 0.17, P= 0.27). Reduced methylation was detected in the COL1A2 promoter in women with higher exposure to lead (P= 0.004), and an inverse correlation was observed (r = - 0.45, P= 0.03). Lower methylation of a promoter CpG site at the TSP50 gene was detected in women with higher BPA exposure (P= 0.005), and again an inverse correlation was identified (r = - 0.51, P= 0.001). Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). Further studies accommodating variations in these factors will be needed to confirm these associations and identify their

  14. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury and other elements in seeds of Lupinus mutabilis and of other legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Auslitz, J; Schramel, P; Payer, H D

    1987-01-01

    Several species of legumes and varieties of lupins were examined for their heavy metal content in the seeds. Atomic absorption spectrometry was the main analytical tool. Validity and reproducibility of the results was checked by analyzing the same materials at two different laboratories performing the same technique. Additionally, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy was applied. In grains of Lupinus mutabilis which constitute a traditional food in Andean populations, the following contents of heavy metals were determined: 0.10-0.25 microgram/g Cd; 0.5-1.6 microgram/g Pb; 0.10-0.15 microgram/g Hg. Seeds of other legumes contained 0.05-0.35 microgram/g Cd; 0.1-0.2 microgram/g Pb; 0.01-0.04 microgram/g Hg. The high lead content of lupins is easily reduced to one tenth by traditional extraction with boiling water. The mercury content, too, is decreased by this technique. The high manganese content of 1 300-1,400 micrograms/g of Lupinus albus compared to other legumes (25-37 micrograms/g) seems to be characteristic for this species and may be of nutritional significance. The comparison of the heavy metal contents of legume seeds of different origin and variety indicates a complex pattern of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the specific metal contents of individual harvests. On the level of varieties the environmental factors (climate, soil, geology, agricultural techniques) seem to exhibit more important influences on the specific accumulation of heavy metals than genetic factors. In contrast, on the level of species or genera, the accumulation of heavy metals seems to be dominated by genetic factors rather than by environmental influences.

  15. Evaluation of the Content of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Tin, Copper and Zinc during the Production Process Flow of Tomato Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Andrei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are among the largest contaminants of food products. Once metals are present in vegetables, their concentrations are rarely modified by industrial processing techniques, although in some cases washing may decrease the metal content. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of industrial processing on the content of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, tin, copper and zinc in tomatoes and products resulting on flow technology of tomato broth. For the determination of essential elements and/or potentially toxic was use atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical results for quantitative evaluation the concentrations of the investigated elements on the samples of tomatoes taken from the technological process of the production of tomato broth indicated the presence of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn but with a level of concentration that significantly decreased in the finished product and the absence of metals Hg and As in all investigated samples. Effect of industrial processing on the content of tin in tomato samples analyzed was characterized by fluctuations in the residual content that led to a significant increase in concentration of 0.100 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomatoes - unprocessed to 0.200 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomato broth.

  16. Influence of Arsenic (III, Cadmium (II, Chromium (VI, Mercury (II, and Lead (II Ions on Human Triple Negative Breast Cancer (HCC1806 Cell Cytotoxicity and Cell Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsdale F. Mehari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hazardous consequences of heavy metal ions (HMIs on human health necessitate the immediate need to probe fundamentally the interactions and cytotoxic effects of HMIs on humans. This study investigated the influence of five toxic HMIs (arsenic (As (III, cadmium (Cd (II, chromium (Cr (VI, mercury (Hg (II, and lead (Pb (II on human TNBC (HCC 1806 cell viability using optical microscopy, trypan blue dye-exclusion assays, and flow cytometry. The TNBC cells were exposed to varying concentrations of HMIs for 24 and 48 hours. We evaluated the influence of the concentrations and duration of HMIs exposure on TNBC cell viability. Light microscopy, cell viability assays, revealed that after 48-hour treatment of TNBC cells with 1 x 10-5 M of As (III, Cd (II, Hg (II, Cr (IV, and Pb (II resulted in cell viabilities of 23%, 34%, 35%, 56%, 91% respectively, suggesting that As (III has the greatest cytotoxicity (77% cell death while Pb (II showed the least (9% cell death. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that while Pb (II, As (III and Cr (IV had significant increases in cell death, Hg (II caused a G1 arrest. Together, this study revealed that HMIs cause a differential cytotoxic effect on TNBC cells and suggest that they may have very different genotoxic targets and implications in their mutagenic potential.

  17. Bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of a large commercially valuable catfish species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio P. Arantes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amounts of heavy metals entering aquatic environments can result in high accumulation levels of these contaminants in fish and their consumers, which pose a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. We investigated the concentrations of mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans specimens collected from two sites on the Paraopeba River, Brazil. The level of heavy metals concentrations in the tissues was often higher in viscera (i.e. liver and spleen than in muscle, and thus, the viscera should not be considered for human consumption. Correlations between metal concentrations and fish size were not significant. Although the levels of muscle bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Pb, generally do not exceed the safe levels for human consumption, the constant presence of heavy metals in concentrations near those limits considered safe for human consumption, is a reason for concern, and populations who constantly consume fish from polluted rivers should be warned. Our findings also indicate that in a river network where certain areas are connected to other areas with high rates of environmental pollutants, people should be cautious about the regular consumption of fish, even when the fish consumed are caught in stretches of the basin where contamination levels are considered low, since many of the freshwater fish with high commercial value, such as the catfish surubim, are migratory.

  18. Comparative analysis of concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk, as well as persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in maternal milk samples from Germany and Iran; Vergleichende Untersuchungen ueber die Blei-, Cadmium- und Quecksilberkonzentrationen im Nabelschnurblut, im muetterlichen Blut und in der Frauenmilch sowie ueber einige persistente Organochlorverbindungen in der Milch deutscher und iranischer Muetter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javanmardi, F.

    2001-07-01

    The concentration of the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood and breast milk has been studied. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury was determined using the flow-injection hydride technique. According to the concentrations of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons we ascertained for the region of Rendsburg, the toxic risk for infants relative to the consumption of contaminated maternal milk can be viewed as very slight. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die aktuelle Schwermetallbelastung des Nabelschnurblutes, des muetterlichen Blutes und der Muttermilch zu untersuchen. Die Bestimmung von Blei und Cadmium erfolgte mit Hilfe der Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie. Quecksilber wurde mittels der Fliessinjektions-Hydridtechnik bestimmt. Nach den von uns ermittelten Schwermetall- bzw. Chlorkohlenwasserstoffkonzentrationen fuer die Region Rendsburg kann das mit dem Verzehr kontaminierter Muttermilch verbundene toxische Risiko fuer den Saeugling als sehr gering eingeschaetzt werden. (orig.)

  19. Lead and other heavy metals (cadmium and mercury accumulation in bivalve mollusks (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ruditapes spp. and Crassostrea gigas sampled in Sardinia in 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Piras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sardinian shellfish farming, like the national, is mainly focused on mussels and carpet-shell clams, still less on cupped oyster farming. After Olbia’s Gulf, various lagoon areas along the coastal perimeter have been interested to shellfish farming. They are transitional waters, whose state of pollution must be evaluated both as ecosystem’s health and as directly/indirectly human risk. This also applies to heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury, arising both from anthropogenic that geological-natural activity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the variability of the concentrations of these metals in different mollusks to make a comparative assessment, detect trends (over the five-years or cyclicrecurring and identify hot spots. In 2008- 2012, 984 samples have been analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. Of them, 599 in pre-marketing (for classification of production areas or their monitoring and the remaining during marketing. The difference between the average levels of the three metals in the different mollusks species was statistically significant, with Pb>Cd>Hg, and there was evidence of a gradual downward trend, albeit moderate, in the contamination levels, with a significant seasonality in concentrations levels, of lead in particular. Also comparisons between the bio-monitored coastal areas were statistically different. Since the samples were representative of the entire production of bivalve mollusks in Sardinia and the contamination allowable limits have never been exceeded in the products marketed, it can be concluded that these products are safe, pointing out that maintenance of monitoring/surveillance plans provides useful information species-dependent, site-specific and temporal trends.

  20. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  1. Dislocation Etching Solutions for Mercury Cadmium Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer...dislocation—thus enabling EPD measurement of Hg1-xCdxSe. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mercury cadmium selenide, etch pits, dislocations, preferential etching...by the US Army Research Laboratory and was accomplished under Cooperative Agreement # W911NF-12-2-0019. vi

  2. Method for assessing lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in high-density polyethylene packaging and study of the migration into yoghurt and simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyataka, Paulo Henrique M; Dantas, Sílvia T; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to assess the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packaging intended for contact with yoghurt and the migration of these elements using the food itself and 3% acetic acid as a food simulant in accordance to ANVISA, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. In order to perform this study, it was necessary to develop and validate a method by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis. For method validation, the parameters linearity, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), accuracy and precision were determined. Fifteen commercial samples of yoghurt, marketed in Campinas - São Paulo (Brazil), were used for the analysis. The packaging and yoghurt were digested in high-pressure ashing equipment (HPA) and the migration of the elements into simulant were determined directly in the solution. The validated method proved adequate and the results obtained showed that all the packaging had levels of Hg and Cd below the LOQ, corresponding to 1.0 and 1.5 μg l(-1), respectively. The highest levels of As and Pb were 0.87 and 462.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. The migration of these elements to the yoghurt after 45 days of contact at 4ºC was below the LOQ for all the samples assessed. The results of specific migration into 3% acetic acid simulant showed the concentrations of Cd, Hg and As below 5, 5 and 10 µg kg(-1), respectively, which are the maximum limits set by ANVISA. However, for three samples the packaging lid showed migration of Pb into simulant ranging from 30.6 to 40.2 μg kg(-1), exceeding the limit set by ANVISA of 10 μg kg(-1).

  3. Dynamic modelling of the long term behaviour of cadmium, lead and mercury in Swiss forest soils using CHUM-AM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stephan R; Tipping, Edward; Zimmermann, Stefan; Graf-Pannatier, Elisabeth; Waldner, Peter; Meili, Markus; Frey, Beat

    2014-01-15

    The applicability of the dynamic soil model CHUM-AM was tested to simulate concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in five Swiss forest soils. Soil cores of up to 50 cm depth were sampled and separated into two defined soil layers. Soil leachates were collected below the litter by zero-tension lysimeters and at 15 and 50 cm soil depths by tension lysimeters over two years. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in the solid phase and soil solution were measured by ICP-MS (Cd, Pb) or CV-AFS (Hg). Measured metal concentrations were compared with modelled concentrations using CHUM-AM. Additionally we ran the model with three different deposition scenarios (current deposition; maximum acceptable deposition according to the Swiss ordinance on Air Pollution Control; critical loads according to CLRTAP) to predict metal concentrations in the soils for the next 1000 years. Assuming current loads concentrations of Cd and Pb showed varying trends (increasing/decreasing) between the soils. Soils rich in organic carbon or with a high pH value showed increasing trends in Cd and Pb concentrations whereas the concentrations in the other soils decreased. In contrast Hg concentrations are predicted to further increase in all soils. Critical limits for Pb and Hg will partly be exceeded by current loads or by the critical loads proposed by the CLRTAP but the critical limits for Cd will rarely be reached within the next 1000 years. In contrast, maximal acceptable deposition will partly lead to concentrations above the critical limits for Pb in soils within the next 400 years, whereas the acceptable deposition of Cd will not lead to concentrations above the proposed critical limits. In conclusion the CHUM-AM model is able to accurately simulate heavy metal (Cd, Pb and Hg) concentrations in Swiss forest soils of various soil properties.

  4. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Metals Using Bis(2,4,4-trimethyl-pentylmonothiophosphinic Acid as Chelating Agent for Subsequent ICP-MS Analyses of Mercury, Cadmium and Lead in Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Roa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and validated the optimum conditions for a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE method using bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl-monothiophosphinic acid as a chelating ligand, for subsequent ICP-MS analyses of mercury, cadmium and lead in sediment. Several combinations of pressure, temperature and modifier (P-T-M conditions for SFE were tested and an appropriate collection solvent was also determined using a sediment certified reference material (CRM as sample, to determine the optimum set of conditions. Validation results of the optimized method indicated high percent recoveries which are better compared to standard methods.

  5. Bioavailability of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in subtropical coastal lagoons from the southeast Gulf of California using mangrove oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea palmula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Osuna, Federico; Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were assessed in the edible tissues of Crassrotrea corteziensis oysters collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 27 sites from 8 coastal lagoons of the southeast Gulf of California. In addition, C. palmula oysters were sampled at 9 sites from the same mangrove roots where C. corteziensis oysters were collected. Metal analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Cd, Cu, and Zn), graphite furnace (Pb), and cold vapor detection (Hg). The obtained mean levels were (µg g(-1) dry weight) as follows: Cd 6.05 ± 2.77, Cu 60.0 ± 33.4, Hg 0.38 ± 0.17, Pb 1.11 ± 0.63, and Zn 777 ± 528 µg g(-1). For all metals except Hg, the concentrations were greater during dry season than during rainy seasons. The high levels, particularly that for Cd, were related to upwelling along the eastern Gulf of California. High Hg levels in the rainy season were associated with the transport of materials from the watershed to the lagoon. Shrimp farming, agriculture, and other sources were considered as potential sources to explain the differences in metal bioavailability in the 8 lagoons. The mean concentrations of Cd (Santa María-La Reforma lagoon), Cu [San Ignacio-Navachiste-El Macapule (SINM), Urías (URI), and Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoons], and zinc (Zn) (URI, Santa María-Ohuira-Topolobampo, El Colorado, and SINM lagoons) during the dry season were greater than the maximum permissible limits. C. palmula collected in 8 sites where they were present simultaneously with C. corteziensis had consistently greater metal levels than C. corteziensis, but correlation analyses showed a high and significant (P < 0.05) correlation between metal concentrations in both species. The correlation equations obtained are useful where the same species is not distributed and is necessary to compare results from distinct regions.

  6. [Evaluation of human health risk for a population from Cali, Colombia, by exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury, 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and diuron associated with water and food consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, Ghisliane; Zapata, Andrés Mauricio; Páez, Martha Isabel; Méndez, Fabián; Peña, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to pollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals has been linked to health problems. Several studies have revealed the presence of these contaminants in Cali; however, there is no information available about the main routes of exposure and risk of these contaminants. To estimate the risk associated with the intake of cadmium, lead and mercury, and pesticides 2,4-D and diuron through the consumption of water and food in a population in Cali. Population and environmental data were obtained, and a risk assessment was performed using United States Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The concentrations of the evaluated pollutants were below permissible levels as established by the Colombian Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (3 µg/L -1 of cadmium; 10 µg/L -1 of lead; 1 µg/L -1 of mercury; 1 µg/L -1 of 2,4 D; 1 µg/L -1 of diuron). Salema butterfish ( Peprilus snyderi ) samples contained levels of cadmium between 20 and 80 µg/kg -1 , which are below the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (100 µg/kg -1 ). The results of the risk assessment indicated that the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic attributable risk to population health from the intake of food contaminants was below the maximum level permitted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It is believed that the findings in previous studies on pollutants may have been due to specific contamination events; therefore, monitoring and early warning about water intake is recommended. Furthermore, the report of cadmium being found in fish consumed as food suggests the need for quality control by regulators.

  7. 宁夏回族自治区食品中铅、镉、汞、铜、铝污染状况分析%Analysis of food contamination by lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and aluminum in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秋宁; 晋博烜; 丁亚磊; 陈涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the situation of food contamination by lead,cadmium,mercury,copper and aluminum in Ningxia Region.Methods Ten categories of food samples up to 712 copies including dairy,edible mushrooms,eggs,preserved egg,meat,organs,aquatic products,vegetables,grains and pasta from supermarkets of five administrative cities of Ningxia Autonomous Region were selected in 2010.The contents of lead,cadmium and mercury in food were detected in 646 samples of 9 categories of food,and copper content of the 30 meat samples were detected.Aluminum content in 66 samples of flour food was tested.According to the methods of national food safety standards (GB 5009.12-2010) and national food hygiene standards (GB/T 5009.13-2003,GB/ T 5009.15-2003 and GB/T 5009.17-2003),lead,copper,cadmium and mercury in various foods were tested.Aluminum was determined using the method for determination of spectrophotometry.Results The detection rates of lead,cadmium,mercury in the nine categories of food were 52.8% (341/646),62.1% (401/646),51.7% (334/646);the detection rates of copper in the meat was 90.0% (27/30);the aluminum in flour food was 84.8% (56/66),respectively.Compared with the national standards,the eligible rates of lead,cadmium,mercury,copper and aluminum were 97.1% (627/646),98.2% (539/549),100.0% (646/646),100.0% (30/30) and 75.8% (50/66),respectively.Food contaminated by lead and cadmium were mainly distributed in preserved egg [lead detection rate 9.5% (2/21)],organs [lead detection rate 6.7% (2/30),cadmium detection rate 30.0% (9/30)],vegetables [lead detection rate 9.9% (8/90)] and a small amount of food products [lead detection rate 4.7% (7/150)].The levels of lead in fried flour food and fine dried noodles were higher [40.9% (9/22),36.4% (4/11)].Conclusions Food contamination by lead,cadmium,mercury and copper is not serious in Ningxia.The monitoring results of lead,cadmium,mercury and copper in food are satisfying in Ningxia

  8. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kudr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II, Cu(II and Pb(II ion quantification, while Zn(II did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933.

  9. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  10. Discrimination of mercury, cadmium and lead polluted rice leaves based on near infrared spectroscopy technology%基于近红外光谱的重金属汞、镉和铅污染水稻叶片鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 潘家荣; 朱诚

    2013-01-01

    There are hundreds of sources of heavy metal pollution,including the industries of coal,natural gas,paper,and mining.Toxic heavy metals,such as mercury,cadmium and lead,in air,soil,and water are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity.Rice is an important food crop in world,the rice polluted with heavy metal is seriously harmful to people's health.There are many methods to detect the heavy metal,such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS),inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES),inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES),atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS),X ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF),atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and so on.Although there are many advantages in the above technologies respectively,they are time-consuming,high-cost and sometimes require considerable analytic skill.Nowadays,as near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) responds to molecular energy transitions associated with hydrogen bonds of organic,while inorganic salts are not expected to directly influence NIR spectra.To our interest,several studies have described useful NIR calibrations for minerals analysis.NIR spectra with supposed NIR-transparent minerals may be due to the association of cations with organic or hydrated inorganic molecules.Thus,in order to develop the fast detective technology on heavy metal polluted rice leaves,NIR was combined with pattern recognition to discriminate the mercury,cadmium and lead in polluted rice leaves. The rice was grown in paddy field polluted by mercury,cadmium and lead,the concentration of which was 1.5,1 and 500 mg/kg respectively.After 50 days growth,the absorbance of near infrared spectroscopy of back of flag leaf was detected with Nicolet Nexus 870 (Thermo Corporation USA) and the data was collected with the software of Omnic 7.0.The acquired spectra of leaves with different heavy metal treatments were firstly pretreated with wavelet transform and then input in

  11. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R. H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report.

  12. Vacancy defects in cadmium mercury telluride investigated with slow positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.; Rice-Evans, P.; Smith, D.L. (Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Shaw, N. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern (United Kingdom))

    1993-03-01

    The II-VI semiconductor cadmium mercury telluride has been studied with a low-energy positron beam. Differences in the variation of the Doppler line-shape parameter as a function of positron implantation energy have been observed for annealed and as-grown samples. A diffusion model analysis of the results indicates large changes in the defect concentration in the bulk due to the annealing. This change is attributed to the difference in mercury vacancy concentration in the samples. (author).

  13. Estado de conocimiento de las concentraciones de cadmio, mercurio y plomo en organismos acuáticos de Venezuela - Current state of knowledge of the concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead from aquatic organisms of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Lugo, Raquel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn Venezuela, la contaminación por metales pesados está relacionadacon el desarrollo de la industria siderúrgica y petrolera, así como a la explotación indiscriminada de otros metales como el oro. Está bastante documentada la contaminación del lago de Maracaibo dado al desarrollo en sus cercanías de actividades urbanas, industriales, mineras y agropecuarias; del lago de Valencia, del río Tuy, Orinoco y Manzanares, entre otros En este trabajo se revisa el estado de conocimiento, en los últimos 10 años, de la concentración de plomo, cadmio y mercurio en especies acuáticas de diferentes áreas del País.SummaryContamination due to trace metals in Venezuela is related withindiscriminate exploitation of metals like gold, transport of river runoff, oil and siderurgica industries and urban zones. The Tuy, Orinoco, Tigre, Manzanares rivers and others basins as Valencia and Maracaibo lakes has been reported as polluted for many years. In this work, we reviewed the state of knowledge, in the last 10 years, of metals concentrations specially lead, cadmium and mercury, in aquatic species from diverse areas of country.

  14. Lead and cadmium in breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternowsky, H.J.; Wessolowski, R.

    1985-04-01

    Breast milk from 10 women each from the city of Hamburg and from a rural area was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry for contamination with lead and cadmium. Samples were examined at regular intervals for 3 months after birth. On day 5 a diurnal profile was analyzed; on the other days milk was taken before and after the morning feed. For breast milk as the main source of nutrition in infants, this study shows values of 9.1 +- 2.5 (SD) ..mu..g/l for lead in the rural population, with a tendency to decrease towards the end of lactation. Urban mothers had 13.3 +- 5.5 (SD) ..mu..g/l, with a tendency to increase. Mean cadmium content in rural mothers was 17.3 +- 4.9 ..mu..g/l, with much higher values in the colostrum and a decrease after 15 days. Urban mothers had 24.6 +- 7.3 ..mu..g/l, again with high colostrum values and a subsequent decrease. Calculated daily intake according to these values is presented, based on 840 ml breast milk for a 5.5 kg infant per day. Rural infants ingested 0.9-1.3 ..mu..g/kg/day of lead, and in the city 1.5-2.3 ..mu..g/kg/day. Cadmium intake in rural infants amounted from 1.2-1.8 ..mu..g/kg/day; in Hamburg it was 1.6-2.2 ..mu..g/kg/day. Thus the daily ingestion of lead was just below the DPI, cadmium ingestion was higher than the DPI for adults. The rural population had lower values in breast milk for both heavy metals than the urban population, although not statistically significant. Compared to earlier reports there was a slight increase in lead concentration and a more significant increase for cadmium.

  15. Thyrotoxicity of the Chlorides of Cadmium and Mercury in Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NINAGHOSH; SHELLEYBHATTACHARYA

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury is of immediate environmental concern.The present study was aimed at establishing a direct relationship between heavy metal poisoning and thyroid dysfunction.Cadmium and mercury treatment at LD50 levels resulted in severe thyrotoxicosis in the rabbit.Within 24h of intramuscular administration of cadmium chloride 15 mg·kg-1 body weight(bw)and mercury chloride20mg·kg-1 bw,thyroid peroxidase activity increased significantly over the control with a concomitant rise in the triiodothyronie(T3)titre.On the other hand,there was a remarkable fall in the thyroxine(T4)level,and the T3,T4 ratio was high as compared with the control.Evidence indicates that acute heavy metal lethality will induce immediate hyperthyroidism.It is suggested that T3-toxicosis may be produced by a preferential synthesis of T3 and/or preferential deiodination of T4 to T3.Measurement of T3 and T4 levels may thus e utilized as a reliable indicator of heavy metal lethality.

  16. 安徽省市售大米铅、镉、汞污染状况及健康风险评价%Pollution and Risk Evaluation of Lead, Cadmium and Mercury in Rice in the markets of Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑶

    2011-01-01

    测定安徽省市售大米中的重金属元素铅、镉、汞,评估其污染状况,并进行健康风险评价,为保障人们饮食安全提供科学依据。采用ICP—MS法,共检测了101份样品。其中铅检出率为40%,超标率为0;镉检出率为100%,超标率为0;汞检出率为69%,超标率为0。健康风险评价结果表明,安徽省市售大米中的铅、镉、汞对人体健康风险影响较小,镉对人体健康影响存在一定的风险。%To determine heavy metals of lead, cadmium and mercury in rice in the market of Anhui Province, assess the pollution condition, do health risk evaluation and provide the scientific basis for safeguarding people's diet security. The determination is conducted by means of ICP-MS. 101 samples are tested. The detection rate of lead is 40%, and the overcontent rate is zero. The detection rate of cadmium is 100%, and the overcontent rate is zero. The detection rate of mercury is 69%, and the overcontent rate is zero. Health risk evaluation results show that the content of lead, cadmium and mercury in rice in the markets of Anhui Province have little influence on people's health. But the content of cadmium has some risk to people's health.

  17. Distribution and age-related bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European catfish (Sylurus glanis) from the Buško Blato reservoir (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Vuković, Rosemary; Galović, Dalida; Bogut, Ante; Horvatić, Janja

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the bioaccumulation of Pb, Hg, Cd, and As in tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Silurus glanis) from Buško Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Arsenic concentrations were below the Maximal Admissible Concentration (MAC) for Croatia and other countries. Mercury concentrations were below 1 mg kg(-1), but in most muscle samples of both species and all catfish liver samples, the values were higher than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (higher than the MAC for many countries including Croatia). Lead concentrations were higher than 1 mg kg(-1) (the MAC for Croatia) in most muscle samples; all kidney and most catfish liver samples also exceeded 1 mg kg(-1). Cadmium concentrations in all tissues, other than the gonads, were higher than 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MAC for Croatia), with the highest concentrations found in the kidneys. The only gender difference was found in carp, where a 68.4% higher concentration of As was found in the fry compared to the milt (P<0.05). Concentrations of all of the elements were higher in catfish compared to carp for most tissues. Significant correlations were found between all of the elements in the muscles and the liver of carp. In catfish, the muscles were the only tissue in which multiple correlations were found. Linear positive correlations with age and body mass were demonstrated for the concentrations of all heavy metals for all tissues except the gonads in both fish species. We concluded that significant heavy metal accumulation in carp and a catfish tissues correlates with age and body mass; bioaccumulation is species- and tissue-specific and is different for each element.

  18. Translocation of mercury and cadmium into the fruiting bodies of six higher fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnert, H.; Zadrazil, F.

    1983-01-01

    The species- and metal-specific translocation of cadmium and mercury from the substrate to the fruiting bodies of 6 higher fungi has been investigated. The 6 species differed greatly in their ability to translocate cadmium and mercury. The highest translocation rates displayed Pleurotus flabellatus: 75.0% of the applied cadmium and 38.5% of the mercury could be recovered from the fruiting bodies. High translocation rates also found with Pleurotus ostreatus (19.3 and 38.5% for cadmium and mercury, respectively). This compares with only 1.27% of cadmium and 8.42% of mercury in Agaricus bisporus or 3.71% of cadmium and 3.63% of mercury in Pleurotus sajor caju. For Agaricus bisporus it was shown that there was proportionality of translocation over a 1:10 concentration range. In 4 out of 6 species there was a tendency towards higher heavy metal contents in later crops, when calculated on the basis of ..mu..g/g of dry fruiting body. In 4 out of 6 more mercury than cadmium was translocated into the fruiting bodies, the Cd/Hg ratios being 6.6, 2.0, 5.6, and 3.2, respectively. In Pleurotus sajor caju the ratio was about 1. Only in Pleurotus flabellatus more cadmium than mercury was found in the fruiting bodies (Cd/Hg ratio 0.65).

  19. Current transport mechanisms in mercury cadmium telluride diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [Institute of Defence Scientists and Technologists, CFEES Complex, Brig. S. K. Majumdar Marg, Delhi 110054 (India); Li, Qing; He, Jiale; Hu, Weida, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [National Lab for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); He, Kai; Lin, Chun [Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2016-08-28

    This paper reports the results of modelling of the current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of a planar mid-wave Mercury Cadmium Telluride photodiode in a gate controlled diode experiment. It is reported that the diode exhibits nearly ideal I-V characteristics under the optimum surface potential leading to the minimal surface leakage current. Deviations from the optimum surface potential lead to non ideal I–V characteristics, indicating a strong relationship between the ideality factor of the diode with its surface leakage current. Diode's I–V characteristics have been modelled over a range of gate voltages from −9 V to −2 V. This range of gate voltages includes accumulation, flat band, and depletion and inversion conditions below the gate structure of the diode. It is shown that the I–V characteristics of the diode can be very well described by (i) thermal diffusion current, (ii) ohmic shunt current, (iii) photo-current due to background illumination, and (iv) excess current that grows by the process of avalanche multiplication in the gate voltage range from −3 V to −5 V that corresponds to the optimum surface potential. Outside the optimum gate voltage range, the origin of the excess current of the diode is associated with its high surface leakage currents. It is reported that the ohmic shunt current model applies to small surface leakage currents. The higher surface leakage currents exhibit a nonlinear shunt behaviour. It is also shown that the observed zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode over the entire gate voltage range is the sum of ohmic shunt resistance and estimated zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode from its thermal saturation current.

  20. Current transport mechanisms in mercury cadmium telluride diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Vishnu; Li, Qing; He, Jiale; He, Kai; Lin, Chun; Hu, Weida

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the results of modelling of the current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of a planar mid-wave Mercury Cadmium Telluride photodiode in a gate controlled diode experiment. It is reported that the diode exhibits nearly ideal I-V characteristics under the optimum surface potential leading to the minimal surface leakage current. Deviations from the optimum surface potential lead to non ideal I-V characteristics, indicating a strong relationship between the ideality factor of the diode with its surface leakage current. Diode's I-V characteristics have been modelled over a range of gate voltages from -9 V to -2 V. This range of gate voltages includes accumulation, flat band, and depletion and inversion conditions below the gate structure of the diode. It is shown that the I-V characteristics of the diode can be very well described by (i) thermal diffusion current, (ii) ohmic shunt current, (iii) photo-current due to background illumination, and (iv) excess current that grows by the process of avalanche multiplication in the gate voltage range from -3 V to -5 V that corresponds to the optimum surface potential. Outside the optimum gate voltage range, the origin of the excess current of the diode is associated with its high surface leakage currents. It is reported that the ohmic shunt current model applies to small surface leakage currents. The higher surface leakage currents exhibit a nonlinear shunt behaviour. It is also shown that the observed zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode over the entire gate voltage range is the sum of ohmic shunt resistance and estimated zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode from its thermal saturation current.

  1. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    Key words: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Abstract—Flame ... accumulate some metals within food chains ... levels of toxic heavy metals (particularly cadmium ... In order to have impact on aquatic organisms,.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R H

    1980-01-01

    Investigations were continued to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, as well as their interactions with biological processes and other metal ions. All experimental details that are either published, submitted for publication or in press during this report period are included in the Appendix. Primary attention for this report has been given to the intestinal absorption of lead and its interaction with other biological moieties.

  3. Application of Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with high-frequency modulation polarization for the direct determination of aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, and thallium in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Natalya B; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Anatoly A; Ganeev, Alexander A

    2012-10-01

    Determination of aluminum (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) concentrations in human blood using high-frequency modulation polarization Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was performed. No sample digestion was used in the current study. Blood samples were diluted with deionized water or 0.1 % (m/v) Triton X-100 solution for Tl. Dilution factors ranged from 1/5 per volume for Be and Tl to 1/20 per volume for Cd and Pb. For Tl, Cd, and Hg, noble metals (gold, platinum, rhodium, etc.) were applied as surface modifiers. To mitigate chloride interference, 2 % (m/v) solution of NH(4)NO(3) was used as matrix modifier for Tl and Ni assessment. The use of Pd(NO(3))(2) as oxidative modifier was necessary for blood Hg and Tl measurement. Validation of the methods was performed by analyzing two-level reference material Seronorm. The precision of the designed methods as relative SD was between 4 and 12 % (middle of a dynamic range) depending on the element. For additional validation, spiked blood samples were analyzed. Limits of detection (LoDs, 3σ, n = 10) for undiluted blood samples were 2.0 μg L(-1) for Al, 0.08 μg L(-1) for Be, 0.10 μg L(-1) for Cd, 2.2 μg L(-1) for Cr, 7 μg L(-1) for Hg, 0.4 μg L(-1) for Mn, 2.3 μg L(-1) for Ni, 3.4 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 0.5 μg L(-1) for Tl. The LoDs achieved allowed determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb at both toxic and background levels. Be, Hg, and Tl could be reliably measured at toxic levels only. The methods developed are used for clinical diagnostics and biological monitoring of work-related exposure.

  4. Cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium in ringed seals (Phoca hispida from Greenland and Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Dietz

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle, liver, and kidney tissue from 456 ringed seals (Phoca hispida from eight areas in Greenland were analysed for cadmium, mercury, zinc and selenium. In general, cadmium concentrations were high in liver and kidney tissue, with geometric means of 7.79 and 33.5 μg/g (all data on wet weight basis, respectively. Muscle levels were considerably lower, at 0.067 μg/g. The concentration of mercury was relatively high in liver tissue with a geometric mean of 2.59 μg/g. Muscle and kidney mercury levels were somewhat lower, with geometric means of 0.210 and 0.956 μg/g, respectively. Cadmium and mercury levels were strongly dependent upon age and sampling area, as well as the interaction combinations, indicating that the accumulation of cadmium and mercury varies with age and area. Mercury accumulated in all three tissues throughout life, whereas cadmium in liver and kidneys peaked in the age group 5-10 years old where after it dropped significantly. Cadmium levels showed a tendency towards higher concentrations in the northern municipalities, which may be due to the higher cadmium levels in certain prey items in the northern areas. Mercury levels were higher in seals from East Greenland compared to West Greenland. Variations in feeding habits probably explain some of the differences in levels of cadmium and mercury in ringed seals from different geographical areas. Cadmium concentrations were correlated (both pairwise and partial in the three organs. This was true for mercury as well, whereas only half of the combinations were significant for zinc and selenium. Cadmium was strongly correlated to mercury in all three tissues and zinc only in liver and kidneys. Mercury was only correlated to selenium in liver and not to zinc. High concentrations of cadmium were found in the bile from 58 ringed seals, and were about 10-fold higher than in muscle. The concentration of mercury in bile was relatively low, being only one third of the

  5. Megapixel mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays for infrared imaging out to 12 microns Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the fabrication of large format, long wave infrared (LWIR) mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe or MCT) detector arrays where the cutoff wavelength is...

  6. Mercury Cadmium Telluride Photoconductive Long Wave Infrared Linear Array Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risal Singh

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1-x, CdxTe (MCT photoconductive long wave infrared linear arrays are still in demand due to several advantages. The linear array technology is well established, easier, economical and is quite relevant to thermal imaging even today. The scan thermal imaging systems based on this technology offer wider field of view coverage and capacity for higher resolution in the scan direction relative to staring systems that use expensive and yet to mature focal plane array detector technology. A critical review on photoconductive n-Hg1-x CdxTe linear array detector technology for the long wave infrared range has been presented. The emphasis lies on detector design and processing technology. The critical issues of diffusion and drift effects, Hi-Lo and heterostructure blocking contacts, surface passivation, and other related aspects have been considered from the detector design angle. The device processing technology aspects are of vital importance

  7. Cadmium, lead and bromine in beached microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massos, Angelo; Turner, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6.9% and 7.5% of all microplastics, respectively, with concentrations of either metal that exceeded 10(3) μg g(-1) usually encountered in red and yellow pellets or fragments. Respective correlations of Cd and Pb with Se and Cr were attributed to the presence of the coloured, inorganic pigments, cadmium sulphoselenide and lead chromate. Bromine, detected in 10.4% of microplastics and up to concentrations of about 13,000 μg g(-1), was mainly encountered in neutrally-coloured pellets. Its strong correlation with Sb, whose oxides are effective fire suppressant synergists, suggests the presence of a variety of brominated flame retardants arising from the recycling of plastics originally used in casings for heat-generating electrical equipment. The maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Cd and Pb, evaluated using a physiological extraction based on the chemical characteristics of the proventriculus-gizzard of the northern fulmar, were about 50 μg g(-1) and 8 μg g(-1), respectively. These concentrations exceed those estimated for the diet of local seabirds by factors of about 50 and 4, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Boila, Gail [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Stern, Gary [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Roach, Patrick [Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Suite 300, 300 Main Street, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 2B5 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1}. All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon.

  9. The role of lead and cadmium in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orish Ebere Orisakwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are associated with long-term disability and huge social and economic costs. The possible influence of heavy metals exposure on public health remains a matter of concern. A recurring research question that persisted among researchers in neuropsychiatry has been "are psychiatric patients more likely to have a high body burden of lead or other heavy metals?" This is an update account on the role of lead and cadmium in psychiatry. This review, which has employed search words like "lead and cadmium in psychiatry" , "lead and cadmium in schizophrenia", "lead and cadmium in psychosis" in citation indices such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scirus, and Scopus. A total of 415 articles were found; 60 fulfiled the inclusion criteria. Evidence-based information suggests that lead and cadmium may be involved in psychiatry. Should environmental lead and cadmium be implicated in the etiogenesis of psychiatry given the characteristic high environmental pollution in Sub Sahara Africa, it is worthwhile for toxicologists and scientists in Sub-Sahara Africa to investigate if lead and cadmium can become additional biomarkers in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders.

  10. Arsenic and mercury tolerance and cadmium sensitivity in Arabidopsis plants expressing bacterial gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Carreira, Laura; Balish, Rebecca S; Meagher, Richard B

    2005-06-01

    Cysteine sulfhydryl-rich peptide thiols are believed to play important roles in the detoxification of many heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic, mercury, and cadmium in plants. The gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) catalyzes the synthesis of the dipeptidethiol gamma-glu-cys (gamma-EC), the first step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs). Arabidopsis thaliana, engineered to express the bacterial gamma-ECS gene under control of a strong constitutive actin regulatory sequence (A2), expressed gamma-ECS at levels approaching 0.1% of total protein. In response to arsenic, mercury, and cadmium stresses, the levels of gamma-EC and its derivatives, glutathione (GSH) and PCs, were increased in the A2::ECS transgenic plants to three- to 20-fold higher concentrations than the increases that occurred in wild-type (WT). Compared to cadmium and mercury treatments, arsenic treatment most significantly increased levels of gamma-EC and PCs in both the A2::ECS transgenic and WT plants. The A2::ECS transgenic plants were highly resistant to arsenic and weakly resistant to mercury. Although exposure to cadmium produced three- to fivefold increases in levels of gamma-EC-related peptides in the A2::ECS lines, these plants were significantly more sensitive to Cd(II) than WT and trace levels of Cd(II) blocked resistance to arsenic and mercury. A few possible mechanisms for gamma-ECS-enhanced arsenic and mercury resistance and cadmium hypersensitivity are discussed.

  11. Mercury, cadmium and arsenic contents of calcium dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meehye

    2004-08-01

    The cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) contents of calcium (Ca) supplements available on the Korean market were determined by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer using Zeeman background correction and peak area mode after microwave digestion. The mercury (Hg) content of the supplements was measured using an Hg analyser. Recoveries ranged from 92 to 98% for Hg, Cd and As analyses. Fifty-five brands of Ca supplements were classified into seven categories based on the major composite: bone, milk, oyster/clam shell, egg shell, algae, shark cartilage and chelated. The means of Hg, Cd and As in Ca supplements were 0.01, 0.02, and 0.48 mg kg(-1), respectively. Ca supplements made of shark cartilage had the highest means of Hg (0.06 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.13 mg kg(-1)). The mean daily intakes of Hg and Cd from the supplement were estimated as about 0.1-0.2 microg, with both contributing less than 0.4% of provisional tolerable daily intakes set by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Food Additive and Contaminants Committee.

  12. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarnicki, Günter J K

    2005-07-01

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM(10), and PM(2.5) were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM(2.5), both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality.

  13. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarnicki, Guenter J.K. [Department of Ecotoxicology, Center of Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 10, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: guenter.komarnicki@meduniwien.ac.at

    2005-07-15

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM{sub 10}, and PM{sub 2.5} were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM{sub 2.5}, both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals.

  14. Directional Solidification of Mercury Cadmium Telluride in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechoczhy, Sandor L.; Gillies, Donald C.; Szofran, Frank R.; Watring, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) has been directionally solidified for ten days in the Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) on the second United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-2). A second growth experiment is planned for the USMP-4 mission in November 1997. Results from USMP-2 demonstrated significant changes between microgravity and ground-based experiments, particularly in the compositional homogeneity. Changes were also observed during the microgravity mission which were dependent on the attitude of the space shuttle and the relative magnitudes of axial and transverse residual accelerations with respect to the growth axis of the crystal. Issues of shuttle operation, especially those concerned with safety and navigation, and the science needs of other payloads dictated the need for changes in attitude. One consequence for solidification of MCT in the USMP4 mission is the desire for a shorter growth time to complete the experiment without subjecting the sample to shuttle maneuvers. By using a seeded technique and a pre-processed boule of MCT with an established diffusion layer quenched into the solid, equilibrium steady state growth can be established within 24 hours, rather than the three days needed in USMP-2. The growth of MCT in AADSF during the USMP-4 mission has been planned to take less than 72 hours with 48 hours of actual growth time. A review of the USMP-2 results will be presented, and the rationale for the USMP-4 explained. Pre-mission ground based tests for the USN4P-4 mission will be presented, as will any available preliminary flight results from the mission.

  15. 2010年-2011年闽北地区农产品重金属铅镉汞污染状况分析%Analysis of heavy metals pollution of lead,cadmium and mercury in agricultural products in northern Fujian from 2010 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 张曦; 陈大红

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To know the levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in agricultural products in northern Fujian, analyze the reasons of pollution, and then evaluate the food safety. Methods: According to the monitoring task of food contaminant issued by Fujian province, samples of agricultural products were collected from large supermarkets and farmer markets in ten counties and cities of northern Fujian, 462 samples of 12 species were detected to check the proportions of heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury ). Results: From 2010 to 2011 , the overall pass rates of lead, cadmium and mercury in 12 kinds of agricultural products were 97.4 % , 95. 6 % and 97. 7 % respectively. In terms of meat, lead -free preserved eggs, fish, dairy products and tea, the passing rates were all 100% ; The lowest pass rate was 33. 3% found in crustaceans. Conclusion: From 2010 to 2011, heavy metal pollution in agricultural products of Nanping region was not serious in general. However, dry edible fungi and crustaceans in the circulation market with serious heavy metal pollution should be improved by appropriate measures, such as reducing coastal water pollution, enhancing aquaculture, plant supervision and management of the industry to ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products.%目的:了解闽北地区农产品中重金属铅、镉、汞的含量水平,分析污染原因,评价其食用安全性.方法:结合省下达的食品污染物监测任务,采集闽北地区十个县市大型超级市场和农贸市场所出售的农产品,共检测12个种类462份样品,测定重金属铅、镉、汞的含量.结果:2010年-2011年我区12种农产品中铅、镉、汞的总体合格率分别达到97.4%、95.6%和97.7%.肉类、无铅皮蛋、鱼类、奶制品和茶叶的总合格率均为100%;甲壳类产品的合格率最低为33.3%.结论:2010年-2011年我区农产品重金属污染状况总体不严重,但流通市场中的干食用菌、甲壳类产品重金属超标

  16. Inhibition of aortic vessel adenosine diphosphate degradation by cadmium and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G; Dolci, N; Caprino, L

    1984-01-01

    The effects of cadmium and mercury on ADP breakdown by vessel walls were investigated. These metals reduce the ADP clearance promoted by arterial tissue. This effect could be attributed to the inhibition of vessel wall ADP-ase enzyme, which plays an important role in the genesis of thrombotic phenomena.

  17. Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    caleb

    implied that heavy metals have toxic effects and plasma electrolyte is a useful tool for early detection and diagnosis of ... essential metals, such as arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and ... underlying electrolyte imbalances can prevent.

  18. Accumulation of mercury and cadmium in rice from paddy soil near a mercury mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Ouyang, Y; Ye, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Paddy soil and rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Wanshan mining area in Guizhou Province, China, have been contaminated by toxic trace metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The present study examined correlations between the types and physicochemical parameters of the soil and the contents of trace metals and the different forms of Hg in rice. The health risks of consuming contaminated rice from the Wanshan mining area were also assessed. Sequential extraction procedures were used to investigate the chemical behavior of Hg in the soil. The results showed that Hg and Cd were the most abundant trace metals in the Wanshan mining area. The toxic methylmercury (MeHg) content was substantial in brown rice, and the total amounts of total Hg (THg), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-Hg, and water-soluble Hg varied in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. An antagonistic interaction between Mn in brown rice, straw, and husk and MeHg in brown rice was also shown. An analysis of calculated dietary intake, target hazard quotients, and hazard indexes showed a potential risk of transferring Hg, MeHg, and Cd to humans when rice from the Wanshan mining area is consumed. Therefore, it must be concluded that consuming contaminated rice near the Wanshan mining area is a potential threat to human health.

  19. The effect of copper, zinc, mercury and cadmium on some sperm enzyme activities in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarosiek, Beata; Pietrusewicz, Marta; Radziwoniuk, Julita; Glogowski, Jan

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of copper, zinc, cadmium and mercury ions (100, 10 and 1 mg/l) on the activity of some enzymes of carp spermatozoa. Acid phosphatase activity was proved to be relatively insensitive to zinc ions, while copper, mercury and cadmium ions effectively inhibited the activity of this enzyme. Beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity was sensitive only to mercury ions. Lactic dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by heavy metals. Our results showed that, among the examined metals, mercury had the strongest inhibitory effect on enzymatic activities.

  20. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  1. Lead, Cadmium and Nickel Contents of Some Medicinal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Khan, S. A.; Abu Shawish, K.Y.I.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty nine brands of pharmaceutical dosage forms (28 tablets, 4 syrups, 6 suspensions and one chewing gum) that are available in United Arab Emirates pharmaceutical markets were investigated for the presence of three heavy metals; lead, cadmium and nickel. Amongst the samples, 13 products were manufactured locally in United Arab Emirates and 26 products were imported from around the world. The samples were prepared by acid digestion procedure and the resultant solutions were analyzed for heavy metals by using a validated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric method. Calibration curves were achieved using different concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 μg/ml. The mean recoveries of metals from the samples were 86.4 to 97%. The %relative standard deviation for the intraassay and interday precision for the metals were <5%. Amongst the 39 samples of pharmaceutical dosage form all exhibited a positive response for lead, cadmium and nickel except three products whose Ni levels were below quantification level. The products contained variable amounts of heavy metals as of 0.0017 to 11.88 μg lead; 0.0011 to 0.5559 μg cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.6428 μg nickel, respectively. Based on maximum recommended daily dose (g) of these products, maximum daily ingested mass of lead was 0.0034 to 11.88 μg/d, 0.0013 to 0.56 μg/d for cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.64 μg/d for nickel, respectively. The results were compared with those of oral permitted daily exposure levels of United State Pharmacopeial National Formulary 2013. All the products were safe to consume and contained lower level of lead, cadmium and nickel than Oral Permitted Daily Exposure levels, except three products which showed higher level of lead than oral permitted daily exposure levels. Hence the raw materials used in manufacturing of these medicinal agents might be responsible for the presence of higher level of lead. PMID:27168689

  2. Potentiometric stripping analysis of lead and cadmium leaching from dental prosthetic materials and teeth

    OpenAIRE

    GORAN M. NIKOLIC; BILJANA M. KALICANIN; RUZICA S. NIKOLIC

    2004-01-01

    Potentiometric stipping analysis (PSA) was applied for the determination of lead and cadmium leaching from dental prosthetic materials and teeth. The soluble lead content in finished dental implants was found to be much lower than that of the individual components used for their preparation. Cadmium was not detected in dental implants and materials under the defined conditions. The soluble lead and cadmium content of teeth was slightly lower than the lead and cadmium content in whole teeth (w...

  3. Optical property of amorphous semiconductor mercury cadmium telluride from first-principles study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of amorphous semiconductor mercury cadmium telluride (a-MCT) are obtained by the first principles calculations. The total pair distribution functions and the density of states show that the a-MCT has the semiconductor characteristic. The calculated results of dielectric function show that E2 peak of the imaginary of dielectric function for the crystal mercury cadmium telluride abruptly disappears in the amorphous case due to the long-range disorders. And the imaginary of dielectric function of a-MCT shows a large broad peak, which is in agreement with the available results of other amorphous semiconductors. From the linear extrapolation of the curve ωε 2(ω)1/2 versus ω, it can be obtained that the optical energy gap of amorphous semiconductor Hg0.5Cd0.5Te is 0.51±0.05 eV.

  4. Remediation of lead and cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed K; Osman, Khaled A; Gouda, Neama Abdel-Razeek

    2016-01-01

    The research was designated to study the ability of plants to bio-accumulate, translocate and remove the heavy metals, lead and cadmium from contaminated soil. The herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum was investigated as a bio-accumulator plant for these metals. The translocation of these heavy metals in the herbal plant was compared considering root to shoot transport and redistribution of metals in the root and shoot system. The trace metal contents from root and shoot parts were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the percent of lead and cadmium transferred to ryegrass plant were averaged as 51.39, and 74.57%, respectively, while those remained in the soil were averaged as 48.61 and 25.43% following 60 days of treatment. The soil-plant transfer index in root and shoot system of ryegrass was found to be 0.32 and 0.20 for lead, and 0.50 and 0.25 for cadmium. These findings indicated that the herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum is a good accumulator for cadmium than lead. The soil-plant transfer factor (the conc. of heavy metal in plant to the conc. in soil) indicated that the mechanism of soil remedy using the investigated plant is phytoextraction where the amounts of heavy metals transferred by plant roots into the above ground portions were higher than that remained in the soil. The method offers green technology solution for the contamination problem since it is effective technology with minimal impact on the environment and can be easily used for soil remedy.

  5. Environmental renal disease: Lead, cadmium and Balkan endemic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedeen, R.P. (VA Medical Center, East Orange, NJ (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The similarity of lead and cadmium nephropathy to Balkan endemic nephropathy warrants careful reevaluation of the possibility that these nephrotoxic metals contribute to the production of the endemic renal disease. Low-level environmental exposure may result in a relationship between the concentration of the metals in tissue storage sites and biological fluids that differs from that encountered after occupational exposure. Urine and blood concentrations may therefore be inadequate measures of exposure. Lead is accumulated in the skeleton and cadmium in the liver and kidneys with biological half lives approximating a decade. Non-invasive in vivo x-ray fluorescence or neutron activation analysis can therefore be used to measure cumulative tissue stores. Multiple regression analysis of epidemiologic data could reveal the relative contribution of causal factors, including lead and cadmium, and help to distinguish Balkan endemic nephropathy from other renal diseases using rigorous diagnostic criteria. As long as Balkan endemic nephropathy remains a diagnosis of exclusion, the accuracy of the diagnosis of other renal disease determines the reliability of identification of the endemic disease.31 references.

  6. ICP-MS法测定减肥茶中铅、汞、镉、砷、铜重金属元素△%Determination of Lead,Mercury,Cadmium,Arsenic,Copper heavy metals in weight-reducing tea by ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴一兵; 苏建

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,microwave digestion approach to weight-reducing tea samples,with the weight-reducing tea by ICP-MS determination of lead,mercury,cadmium,arsenic,copper heavy metal content.By optimizing the conditions for ICP-MS instrument measured using an internal standard to overcome the instrument drift and sample matrix effects,the establishment of the ICP-MS method for simultaneous determination of many elements in weight-reducing tea.Furthermore, the contamination of heavy metals in severa1 commercial available weight-reducing teas were evaluated which can provide valuable references for the healthy.%  本文采用微波消解方法处理减肥茶样品后,用ICP-MS法测定样品中铅、汞、镉、砷、铜重金属元素的含量,通过优化ICP-MS仪器测定条件,用内标克服仪器信号漂移及样品基体效应等的影响,建立了ICP-MS法同时测定减肥茶中多种元素的方法,同时对市场上不同厂家及不同批次的7例样品重金属的污染状况进行了评估,为健康安全使用减肥茶提供有益参考。

  7. Exposure of rainbow trout milt to mercury and cadmium alters sperm motility parameters and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Grzegorz J., E-mail: dietrich@pan.olsztyn.pl [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dietrich, Mariola; Kowalski, R.K. [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dobosz, Stefan [Department of Salmonid Research, Inland Fisheries Institute, Rutki 83-330 Zukowo (Poland); Karol, Halina; Demianowicz, Wieslaw; Glogowski, Jan [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-05-10

    In the current work, seminal plasma was used for the first time as an incubation medium for monitoring short-time exposure effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury and cadmium ions on rainbow trout sperm. Sperm motility parameters (CASA) and hatching rates were used as gamete quality markers. Additionally live/dead sperm viability test and comet assay of DNA fragmentation were performed. We demonstrated that computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) may serve as a predictor of reproductive success, when milt contaminated with heavy metals is used. Results presented in this study demonstrate that mercury ions altered sperm motility characteristics at 1-10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l and hatching rates at 10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l after 4 h of exposure. Although mercury ions affected sperm motility parameters immediately after dilution with milt as well as at 4 h of exposure, no differences in sperm motility parameters were found between intact and mercury-treated milt after 24 h of exposure. Our results suggest that rainbow trout seminal plasma has a protective role against the toxic effects of mercury ions of rainbow trout sperm motility.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979. [Ca; Pb; cockerels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R H

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of lead transport is presented, and especially the particular similarities or dissimilarities between lead and calcium in this process. The absorption of these metals was determined cockerels, raised on a commercial diet or on a specified diet, using in vivo ligated loop procedure. The dose administered into the loop contained 0.5 ..mu..Ci /sup 203/Pb (and/or 0.1 ..mu..Ci /sup 47/Ca), and 0.01 mM lead acetate (and/or mM CaCl/sub 2/) in 0.5 ml 0.15 M NaCl,pH 6.5. It was shown that lead is rapidly taken up by the mucosal tissue, and slowly transferred into the body, whereas less calcium is retained by the tissue and the transfer of calcium is many times as effective as that for lead. They appear to respond in a similar manner to a low calcium intake and vitamin D treatment. Increasing luminal stable lead concentration significantly reduced the percentage of radiolead significantly reduced the percentage of radiolead absorbed, but did not affect the absorption of calcium. Also, vitamin D enhanced the transfer of plasma /sup 47/Ca into the lumen but did not affect the transfer of plasma /sup 203/Pb. Intravenous administration of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/CC to rachitic chicks enhanced calcium and lead absorption, but the maximal absorption of these metals occurred at slightly different times after administering this metabolite, indicating that two different transport systems may be involved. It was concluded that lead is transported across the epithelial wall by a passive diffusion and this process is affected by vitamin D in a similar manner as this vitamin affects the diffusional component of calcium transport.

  9. Comparative Genotoxicity of Cadmium and Lead in Earthworm Coelomocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptumporn Muangphra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine genotoxicity to coelomocytes, Pheretima peguana earthworms were exposed in filter paper studies to cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb for 48 h, at concentrations less than the LC10—Cd: 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, and 1.50 μg cm−2; Pb: 1.65, 3.29, 6.58, 13.16, and 26.32 μg cm−2. For Cd at 0.75 μg cm−2, in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations, significant increases (<.05 in micronuclei and binucleate cells were observed, and in the comet assay (detects DNA single-strand breaks, tail DNA% was significantly increased. Lead was less toxic with minimal effects on DNA, but the binucleates were significantly increased by Pb at 3.29 μg cm−2. This study shows that Cd is more acutely toxic and sublethally genotoxic than Pb to P. peguana. Cadmium caused chromosomal aberrations and DNA single-strand breaks at 45% of the LC10 concentration. Lead, in contrast, did not induce DNA damage but caused cytokinesis defects.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979. [3-week-old cockerels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R H

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to elucidate the mechanism of lead transport, and especially the particular similarities or dissimilarities between lead and calcium in this process. The absorption of these metals was determined in 3-week old White Leghorn cockerels, raised on a commercial diet or on a specified diet, using in vivo ligated loop procedure. The dose administered into the loop contained 0.5 ..mu..Ci /sup 203/Pb (and/or 0.1 ..mu..Ci /sup 47/Ca), and 0.01 mM lead acetate (and/or 1 mM CaCl/sub 2/) in 0.5 ml 0.15 M NaCl,pH 6.5. It was shown that lead is rapidly taken up by the mucosal tissue, and slowly transferred into the body, whereas less calcium is retained by the tissue and the transfer of calcium is many times as effective as that for lead. They appear to respond in a similar manner to a low calcium intake and vitamin D treatment. Certain differences were, however, observed in the absorption process. Increasing luminal stable lead concentration from 0.01 to 1.00 mM Pb, significantly reduced the percentage of radiolead absorbed, but did not affect the absorption of calcium. Also, vitamin D enhanced the transfer of plasma /sup 47/Ca into the lumen but did not affect the transfer of plasma /sup 203/Pb. Intravenous administration of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/CC to rachitic chicks enhanced calcium and lead absorption, but the maximal absorption of these metals occurred at slightly different times after administering this metabolite, and the effect on calcium outlasted that on lead, indicating that two different transport systems may be involved. It was concluded that lead is transported across the epithelial wall by a passive diffusion and this process is affected by vitamin D in a similar manner as this vitamin affects the diffusional component of calcium transport.

  11. Kinetic modelling of cadmium and lead removal by aquatic mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. E. Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Because biosorption is a low cost and effective method for treating metal-bearing wastewaters, understanding the process kinetics is relevant for design purposes. In the present study, the performance of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica for removing cadmium and lead from simulated wastewaters has been evaluated. Five kinetic models (first-order, pseudo-first-order, Elovich, modified Ritchie second-order and pseudo-second-order were fitted to the experimental data and compared. Previously, the effect of parameters such as the initial solution pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration on biosorption was investigated. The initial pH of the solution was found to have an optimum value in the range of 4.0-6.0. The equilibrium sorption capacity of cadmium and lead by Fontinalis antipyretica increased with the initial metal concentration. For an initial metal concentration of 10 mg L-1, the uptake capacity of the moss, at equilibrium, is the same for both metals (4.8 mg g-1. Nevertheless, when the initial concentration increases up to 100 mg L-1, the uptake of Pb(II was higher than 78%. The pseudo-second order biosorption kinetics provided the better correlation with the experimental data (R² ≥ 0.999.

  12. Levels of lead, cadmium and zinc in vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G.; Haegglund, J.; Jorhem, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc have been determined in 455 samples of fresh fruit, vegetables and mushrooms by dry ashing and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The lead content in all samples was in the range < 0.001-0.288 mg/kg, the mean being 0.02 mg/kg. Leaf vegetables (lettuce and spinach) showed higher values, mean 0.04 mg/kg. The mean values of the cadmium content in fruit, green vegetables, potatoes and root vegetables were 0.003, 0.013, 0.016 and 0.038 mg/kg respectively. The zinc contents were in the ppm range. The ratio Zn/Cd was also determined in some samples. All values concern edible parts and are calculated on wet weight basis. The fruit and vegetables were estimated to constitute about 2 percent and 8 percent respectively of the provisional tolerable weekly intake of these metals recommended by an FAO/WHO Expert Committee.

  13. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Gareth J., E-mail: g.norton@abdn.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Deacon, Claire M. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mestrot, Adrien [Soil Science Group, Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Feldmann, Joerg [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina [Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Institute for Global Food Security, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes.

  14. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, N.; Der, R.; Ross, G.; Fahim, M.

    1978-05-01

    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg lead acetate and 0.5 mg cadmium chloride. The lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  15. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, N; Der, R; Ross, G; Fahim, M

    1978-05-01

    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg. lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg. cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg. lead acetate and 0.5 mg. cadmium chloride. Results indicated that lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  16. Comparison of the inhibitory effects of mercury and cadmium on the creatine kinase from Electrophorus electricus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, G M; Silva, C B; Hasson-Voloch, A

    1996-04-01

    We have determined the effects of mercury and cadmium on the creatine kinase activity of the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus (L.) which catalyses the transphosphorylation reaction between phosphocreatine and magnesium adenosine-5'-di-phosphate and has essential sulfhydryl groups. The kinetic effects of these heavy metals, which have high affinity for sulfhydryl groups, on the creatine kinase activity were analysed with the three reaction components: phosphocreatine, adenosine-5'-di-phosphate and magnesium. The kinetic data were analysed with a non-linear regression program (Sigmaplot for Windows). Both metals inhibit creatine kinase activity in the micromolar range, mercury being a more potent inhibitor than cadmium. With phosphocreatine as substrate, mercury behaved as a mixed partial hyperbolic inhibitor, non-competitive inhibitor with adenosine-5'-di-phosphate, and with magnesium mercury behaved as a competitive inhibitor. Cadmium inhibition was shown to be of a classical competitive nature with respect to both substrates, phosphocreatine or adenosine-5'-di-phosphate, and non-competitive when magnesium was the variable in the reaction mixture. The results suggest that the binding site of mercury is at or near the phosphocreatine site, but it is not the same as adenosine-5'-di-phosphate, whereas cadmium competes with these substrates to bind at the same sulphydryl site.

  17. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of a Complex Nonlinear Optical Material: Cadmium Mercury Thiocyanate Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Duo-Rong; XU Dong; ZHANG Guang-Hui; LIU Ming-Guo; GUO Shi-Yi; MENG Fan-Qing; LU Meng-Kai; FANG Qi; JIANG Min-Hua

    2000-01-01

    Institute of Crystal Materials and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Ji'nan 250100 (Received 18 March 2000) The data of the thermal expansion and specific heat of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystal have been obtained. The specific heat is 0.7588J/g℃ at room temperature. The thermal expansion occurs in the direction parallel to the c-axis, and the thermal contraction occurs in the direction parallel to the a-axis. The thermal expansion is the same as the thermal contraction at 353 K. The relationship between thermal properties and crystal structure is discussed.

  18. Advanced methods for preparation and characterization of infrared detector materials. [mercury cadmium telluride alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1981-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis data were obtained on mercury cadmium telluride alloys in order to establish the liquidus temperatures for the various alloy compositions. Preliminary theoretical analyses was performed to establish the ternary phase equilibrium parameters for the metal rich region of the phase diagram. Liquid-solid equilibrium parameters were determined for the pseudobinary alloy system. Phase equilibrium was calculated and Hg(l-x) Cd(x) Te alloys were directionally solidified from pseudobinary melts. Electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements were obtained.

  19. Estimation of dietary intake of cadmium and lead through food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, C; Slencu, B G; Cuciureanu, Rodica

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium and lead are toxic metals occurring in the environment naturally and from anthropogenic activities and can lead to chemical contamination of products entering in the human food chain. The consumption of polluted food is the main source of lead and cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. Lead is a heavy metal that can affect different organs and systems in humans including the peripheral and central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract, muscles, kidneys, and the hemopoetic system. Neurological symptoms can range from fatigue, headache, and lethargy to peripheral neuropathy, severe convulsions, encephalopathy, and even coma. The direct neurotoxic actions of lead include apoptosis, excitotoxicity. Lead has been associated with impaired neurobehavioral functioning in children, decrements in intelligence quotient (IQ) while the critical effect of long-term exposure to cadmium is renal tubular dysfunction, which is irreversible; chronic renal failure is the final and severe endpoint. Cadmium is able to induce bone damage (Itai-ltai). The body burden of cadmium and lead depends mostly on the dietary intake of these elements. This paper aims to present a brief overview of cadmium and lead contents present in foodstuffs from different countries and the estimated dietary intake of cadmium and lead through food consumption. It has been shown that in some countries the concentrations of cadmium and lead contained in foodstuffs are higher than normal therefore the health of the people consuming them is in danger.

  20. Differences in cadmium transfer from tobacco to cigarette smoke, compared to arsenic or lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Piadé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium and lead levels in tobacco filler and cigarette smoke were determined in a 568-sample worldwide survey. Median tobacco levels for arsenic, cadmium and lead were 237, 769 and 397 ng/g respectively, comparable to those previously reported albeit somewhat lower for lead and cadmium. Median mainstream smoke yields for arsenic, cadmium and lead were <3.75, 18.2, and <12.8 ng/cig. under ISO, and <8.71, 75.1 and <45.7 ng/cig. under Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking regime respectively. In the case of cigarettes with activated carbon, a selective retention of cadmium but not lead or arsenic was observed. This effect was more pronounced under ISO than under HCI smoking regimes. Cadmium selective retention by activated carbon was confirmed by testing specially designed prototype cigarettes and the causes for this selective filtration were investigated. The differences between cadmium, arsenic and lead in terms of their speciation in tobaccos and in cigarette smoke could be related to their distribution in the ash, butt, mainstream (in gas-phase and particulate-phase and sidestream smoke of a smoked cigarette. The possible formation of organometallic cadmium derivatives in the smoke gas-phase is discussed, the presence of which could adequately explain the observed cadmium selective filtration.

  1. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  2. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid......In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... or tetrathiomolybdate may be more suitable alternatives today. In copper-toxicity, a free radical scavenger might be recommended as adjuvant to the chelator therapy...

  3. CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY CONTENTS IN FISHES – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stanovič

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish meat is a perfect foodstuff which is up to standard of rational nourishment. It is source of healthy and good digestible material rich on proteins, minerals and vitamins. Fish muscles especially back and lateral muscles are the most important parts of fish organism consumed for escellent chemical composition. Proteins in fish meat are rich on high aminoacids content. The content of fish fat is usually low with the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Also minerals and B, A and D vitamins are very important components of this foodstuff. According to rational nourishment the fish meat should be consumed minimal 2 times weekly. Our research was focused on analysis of bottomn sediments in water reservoir Kolinany from the aspect of Cd, Hg and Pb contents, the determination of observed heavy metal contents in different parts of carp body and the evaluation of hygienic status and suitability of fish meat for the human consumption. Our results have confirmed the hygienic wholesomeness of bottom sediments in water reservoir Kolinany. The Cd, Pb and Hg contents in sediments represent no risk of their input into the fish organisms. The Cd content in fish meat was lower than maximal available amount given by legislative norms, but in selected parts of fish organism such as skin, gills and fins the Cd hygienic limit is 2.9 – 6.6 times exceeded. The Pb content in fish meat was under the hygienic limit, however in skin, gills and fins the content of this heavy metal was 1.31- 2.64 higher than maximal legislative given value. Fish skin, gills and fins belong to the non cosumed parts of fish body by people. The Hg content in fish meat was also lower than hygienc limit. The highest Hg content was observed in fish muscles (0.0544 mg.kg-1 and the lowest one in fish gonads (0.0058 mg.kg-1. The results of Cd, Pb and Hg content determination in carp body confirmed that fish muscles belong to suitable foodstuffs for the human consumption.

  4. Toxic effects of mercury, lead and gadolinium on vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Vassallo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals have been used in a wide variety of human activities that have significantly increased both professional and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, disasters have highlighted the toxic effects of metals on different organs and systems. Over the last 50 years, the adverse effects of chronic lead, mercury and gadolinium exposure have been underscored. Mercury and lead induce hypertension in humans and animals, affecting endothelial function in addition to their other effects. Increased cardiovascular risk after exposure to metals has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms, mainly for short periods of time and at low concentrations, have not been well explored. The presence of other metals such as gadolinium has raised concerns about contrast-induced nephropathy and, interestingly, despite this negative action, gadolinium has not been defined as a toxic agent. The main actions of these metals, demonstrated in animal and human studies, are an increase of free radical production and oxidative stress and stimulation of angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity, among others. Increased vascular reactivity, highlighted in the present review, resulting from these actions might be an important mechanism underlying increased cardiovascular risk. Finally, the results described in this review suggest that mercury, lead and gadolinium, even at low doses or concentrations, affect vascular reactivity. Acting via the endothelium, by continuous exposure followed by their absorption, they can increase the production of free radicals and of angiotensin II, representing a hazard for cardiovascular function. In addition, the actual reference values, considered to pose no risk, need to be reduced.

  5. Toxic effects of mercury, lead and gadolinium on vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Vassallo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals have been used in a wide variety of human activities that have significantly increased both professional and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, disasters have highlighted the toxic effects of metals on different organs and systems. Over the last 50 years, the adverse effects of chronic lead, mercury and gadolinium exposure have been underscored. Mercury and lead induce hypertension in humans and animals, affecting endothelial function in addition to their other effects. Increased cardiovascular risk after exposure to metals has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms, mainly for short periods of time and at low concentrations, have not been well explored. The presence of other metals such as gadolinium has raised concerns about contrast-induced nephropathy and, interestingly, despite this negative action, gadolinium has not been defined as a toxic agent. The main actions of these metals, demonstrated in animal and human studies, are an increase of free radical production and oxidative stress and stimulation of angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity, among others. Increased vascular reactivity, highlighted in the present review, resulting from these actions might be an important mechanism underlying increased cardiovascular risk. Finally, the results described in this review suggest that mercury, lead and gadolinium, even at low doses or concentrations, affect vascular reactivity. Acting via the endothelium, by continuous exposure followed by their absorption, they can increase the production of free radicals and of angiotensin II, representing a hazard for cardiovascular function. In addition, the actual reference values, considered to pose no risk, need to be reduced.

  6. Toxic effects of mercury, lead and gadolinium on vascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, D V; Simões, M R; Furieri, L B; Fioresi, M; Fiorim, J; Almeida, E A S; Angeli, J K; Wiggers, G A; Peçanha, F M; Salaices, M

    2011-09-01

    Heavy metals have been used in a wide variety of human activities that have significantly increased both professional and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, disasters have highlighted the toxic effects of metals on different organs and systems. Over the last 50 years, the adverse effects of chronic lead, mercury and gadolinium exposure have been underscored. Mercury and lead induce hypertension in humans and animals, affecting endothelial function in addition to their other effects. Increased cardiovascular risk after exposure to metals has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms, mainly for short periods of time and at low concentrations, have not been well explored. The presence of other metals such as gadolinium has raised concerns about contrast-induced nephropathy and, interestingly, despite this negative action, gadolinium has not been defined as a toxic agent. The main actions of these metals, demonstrated in animal and human studies, are an increase of free radical production and oxidative stress and stimulation of angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity, among others. Increased vascular reactivity, highlighted in the present review, resulting from these actions might be an important mechanism underlying increased cardiovascular risk. Finally, the results described in this review suggest that mercury, lead and gadolinium, even at low doses or concentrations, affect vascular reactivity. Acting via the endothelium, by continuous exposure followed by their absorption, they can increase the production of free radicals and of angiotensin II, representing a hazard for cardiovascular function. In addition, the actual reference values, considered to pose no risk, need to be reduced.

  7. Potentiometric stripping analysis of lead and cadmium leaching from dental prosthetic materials and teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORAN M. NIKOLIC

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Potentiometric stipping analysis (PSA was applied for the determination of lead and cadmium leaching from dental prosthetic materials and teeth. The soluble lead content in finished dental implants was found to be much lower than that of the individual components used for their preparation. Cadmium was not detected in dental implants and materials under the defined conditions. The soluble lead and cadmium content of teeth was slightly lower than the lead and cadmium content in whole teeth (w/w reported by other researchers, except in the case of a tooth with removed amalgam filling. The results of this work suggest that PSA may be a good method for lead and cadmium leaching studies for investigation of the biocompatibility of dental prosthetic materials.

  8. Stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated soils using hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Liao, Xiaoyong; Wei, Binggan; Ye, Bixiong; Zhang, Fengying; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Combination of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium chloride (KCl) was used to stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated mining soils. Pot experiments of chilli (Capsicum annuum) and rape (Brassica rapachinensis) were used to evaluate the stabilization efficiency. The results were the following: (1) the optimal combination decreased the leachable lead by 83.3 and 97.27 %, and decreased leachable cadmium by 57.82 and 35.96% for soil HF1 and soil HF2, respectively; (2) the total lead and cadmium concentrations in both plants decreased 69 and 44 %, respectively; (3) The total lead and cadmium concentrations in the edible parts of both vegetables also decreased significantly. This study reflected that potassium chloride can improve the stabilization efficiency of hydroxyapatite, and the combination of hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride can be effectively used to remediate lead and cadmium contaminated mining soil.

  9. Pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction combined with anodic stripping voltammetry for determination of lead and cadmium in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Hoseini, Hasan Ali; Mohammadi-Nokhandani, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Javad

    2014-11-01

    A new procedure is presented for the determination of low concentrations of lead and cadmium in water samples. Ligand assisted pseudo-stir bar hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction using sol-gel sorbent reinforced with carbon nanotubes was combined with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead in tap water, and Darongar river water samples. In the present work, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) using a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) was used in order to determine the ultra trace level of lead and cadmium ions in real samples. This method is based on accumulation of lead and cadmium ions on the electrode using different ligands; Quinolin-8-ol, 5,7-diiodo quinoline-8-ol, 4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2(3H)-one and 2-{[2-(2-Hydroxy-ethylamino)-ethylamino]-methyl}-phenol as the complexing agent. The optimized conditions were obtained. The relationship between the peak current versus concentration was linear over the range of 0.05-500 ng mL(-1) for Cd (II) and Pb (II). The limits of detection for lead and cadmium were 0.015 ng mL(-1) and 0.012 ng mL(-1), respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the pre-concentration factors are 2440 and 3710 for Cd (II) and Pb (II) in 5 mL of water sample, respectively.

  10. Compatibility of structural materials with liquid bismuth, lead, and mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, J.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of bismuth, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies, the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.

  11. Contents of lead and cadmium in selected fish species consumed in Finland in 1993-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvonen, R; Kumpulainen, J

    1996-01-01

    The lead and cadmium contents of the main fish species consumed in Finland were determined by ETAAS after wet digestion with HNO3. Analytical quality was controlled with blanks, reference materials and blind replicates. Mean and median lead contents of domestic fish species were fish and imported canned or salted fish ranged from fish species were fish contained canned or salted fish 9-42 micrograms Cd per kg. Higher fish consumption would not increase lead or cadmium intake significantly in Finland. At present fish contributes about 4% of the average lead intake and 3% of cadmium intake.

  12. Metabolism and toxicity of cadmium and lead during pregnancy and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Four projects relating to the metabolism and toxicity of cadmium and lead during pregnancy and lactation are summarized. Increased GI absorption and accumulation of cadmium is increased in the tissues of the mother during pregnancy and lactation in the mouse, but very little cadmium is transferred to pups. Greater than 90% of the cadmium that is transferred to pups during lactation comes from the diet not from previous body stores. Female mice exposed to a deficient Itai-Itai household diet and 50 ppM Cd show cadmium-induced decreases in reproductive parameters. Multiparous mice exposed to 50 ppM Cd develop changes in bone mineral content possibly related to similar changes seen in Itai-Itai disease. Lead absorption by the mouse dam increases only slightly during lactation, but lead is readily transferred to pups.

  13. Lead and cadmium exposure in children living around a coal-mining area in Yataan, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulcin Yapici; Gunay Can; Ali Riza Kiziler (and others) [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Public Health

    2006-09-15

    The study was designed to determine asymptomatic lead poisoning prevalence and cadmium exposure of preschool children living in a coal-mining area in Yataan, Mugla, Turkey. The research was conducted between May and June 2002. The study included 236 healthy children (53.4% female and 46.6% male) between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Assessments of the levels of blood lead and cadmium were performed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Themean blood lead level of the males was higher than the females.There was a negative correlation between blood lead level and age in both sex groups. The blood lead level was found to be > 10 {mu}g/dL in 95.7% and > 20 {mu}g/dL in 87.6% of all children. The mean blood cadmium level of all children was 1.31{+-}0.72 mg/dL. The blood cadmium level was found to be > 0.5 {mu}g/dL, which is considered to be toxic, in 85% of all children. The difference in blood cadmium levels between sexes was not significant. A negative correlation was found between blood cadmium level and age of all children. Although it is not possible to understand from this study what proportion of the biological lead and cadmium burden results from mining waste and what proportion comes from other sources, these results indicate that asymptomatic lead poisoning and cadmium exposure are significant problems in children living in the Yataan area. Environmental lead measurements must be performed, the results must be compared with the normal limits, and precautions must be taken if necessary in the Yataan area. Public health research efforts should focus on reducing the excessive levels of lead and cadmium in the environment.

  14. The Place of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in the Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2003-08-01

    Following an earlier article on the positions of lanthanium and lutetium in the periodic table (J. Chem. Educ. 1982, 59, 634-636), the author notes that introductory textbooks, inorganic textbooks, and advanced monographs on coordination and organometallic chemistry are increasingly treating zinc, cadmium, and mercury as transition or d-block elements, rather than as main-block elements. The author reviews the historical evolution of the concepts of transition elements and d-block elements, evaluates the chemical and spectrosopic evidence for each placement, and concludes that these elements are unambiguously main-block elements and that there is a fundamental bifurcation of group 2 at magnesium into a Ca Ra branch and a Zn Hg branch. The author also reviews various ways of representing this bifurcation using spatial position in the periodic table and various labeling schemes.

  15. Cadmium and mercury cause an oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew B; Baynes, John W

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the ability of cadmium and mercury ions to cause endothelial dysfunction in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers. Exposure of monolayers for 48 h to metal concentrations greater than 3-5 microM produced profound cytotoxicity (increased lactate dehydrogenase leakage), a permeability barrier failure, depletion of glutathione and ATP and almost complete inhibition of the activity of key thiol enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In contrast, metal concentrations less than 1-2 microM induced increases in glutathione and thiol-enzyme activities with minimal changes in LDH leakage, barrier function and ATP content. At shorter incubation times (24 h or less), high concentrations of cadmium caused glutathione induction rather than depletion. Thus, oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by lower concentrations of the metal ions stimulate compensatory responses, including increased synthesis of glutathione, which presumably preserved the activity of key thiol enzymes, however these responses were not sustainable at higher metal ion concentrations. We conclude, while high concentrations of heavy metals are cytotoxic, lower concentration induce a compensatory protective response, which may explain threshold effects in metal-ion toxicity.

  16. Imprinted Genes and the Environment: Links to the Toxic Metals Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Smeester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes defy rules of Mendelian genetics with their expression tied to the parent from whom each allele was inherited. They are known to play a role in various diseases/disorders including fetal growth disruption, lower birth weight, obesity, and cancer. There is increasing interest in understanding their influence on environmentally-induced disease. The environment can be thought of broadly as including chemicals present in air, water and soil, as well as food. According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR, some of the highest ranking environmental chemicals of concern include metals/metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. The complex relationships between toxic metal exposure, imprinted gene regulation/expression and health outcomes are understudied. Herein we examine trends in imprinted gene biology, including an assessment of the imprinted genes and their known functional roles in the cell, particularly as they relate to toxic metals exposure and disease. The data highlight that many of the imprinted genes have known associations to developmental diseases and are enriched for their role in the TP53 and AhR pathways. Assessment of the promoter regions of the imprinted genes resulted in the identification of an enrichment of binding sites for two transcription factor families, namely the zinc finger family II and PLAG transcription factors. Taken together these data contribute insight into the complex relationships between toxic metals in the environment and imprinted gene biology.

  17. Influence of lead and cadmium on the susceptibility of rats to bacterial challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.A.; Hoffmann, E.O.; Di Luzio, N.R.

    1975-12-01

    Intravenous administration of an acute dose of lead acetate or cadmium acetate enhanced the susceptibility of rats to intravenous challenge with E. coli by approximately 1000-fold. Since equivalent vulnerability of lead- or cadmium-treated rats to killed E. coli was observed, toxicity is probably due to the endotoxin content of the bacteria. This postulate is further supported by the observation that equal doses of the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococci epidermidis, failed to elicit lethality in the acute lead-intoxicated rats. The synthetic glucocorticoid, methylprednisolone, prevented lethality induced by the Gram-negative bacteria in lead-treated rats. It did not, however, afford significant protection in cadmium-treated rats in the presence of E. coli. Marked alterations in hepatic morphology were apparent in both lead- and cadmium-treated rats challenged with E. coli.

  18. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirard, Catherine, E-mail: c.pirard@chu.ulg.ac.be [CHU of Liege, Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, CHU (B35), 4000 Liege (Belgium); Koppen, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.koppen@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Cremer, Koen, E-mail: Koen.DeCremer@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Van Overmeire, Ilse, E-mail: ilse.vanovermeire@wiv-isp.be [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Govarts, Eva, E-mail: eva.govarts@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research, Environmental Risk and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Dewolf, Marie-Christine, E-mail: marie_christine.dewolf@hainaut.be [Provincial Institute Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire — Hainaut Hygiène Publique en (HVS-HPH), Boulevard Sainctelette, 55, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Van De Mieroop, Els, E-mail: Els.VanDeMieroop@pih.provant.be [Provincial Institute for Hygiene (PIH), Boomgaardstraat 22 bus 1, 2600 Antwerpen (Belgium); Aerts, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.aerts@milieu.belgie.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Biot, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.biot@environnement.belgique.be [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Place Victor Horta 40/10, 1060 Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine, E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Center for Human Genetics, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike, E-mail: marike.kolossa@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Schwedler, Gerda, E-mail: Gerda.Schwedler@uba.de [Federal Environment Agency, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtain European-wide comparison values on these chemicals. The Belgian participant population consisted in 129 school children (6–11 years) and their mothers (≤ 45 years) living in urban or rural areas of Belgium. The geometric mean levels for mercury in hair were 0.383 μg/g and 0.204 μg/g for respectively mothers and children. Cadmium in mother's and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean concentration of respectively 0.21 and 0.04 μg/l. For both biomarkers, levels measured in the mothers and their child were correlated. While the urinary cadmium levels increased with age, no trend was found for hair mercury content, except the fact that mothers hold higher levels than children. The hair mercury content increased significantly with the number of dental amalgam fillings, explaining partially the higher levels in the mothers by their higher presence rate of these amalgams compared to children. Fish or seafood consumption was the other main parameter determining the mercury levels in hair. No relationship was found between smoking status and cadmium or mercury levels, but the studied population included very few smokers. Urinary cadmium levels were higher in both mothers and children living in urban areas, while for mercury this difference was only significant for children. Our small population showed urinary cadmium and hair mercury levels lower than the health based guidelines suggested by the WHO or the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Only 1% had cadmium level slightly higher than the German HBM-I value (1 μg/l for adults), and 9% exceeded the 1 μg mercury/g hair suggested by the US EPA. - Highlights: • Hair mercury and

  19. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered.

  20. Contamination by mercury and cadmium in the cetacean products from Japanese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, T; Haraguchi, K; Cipriano, F; Simmonds, M P; Hotta, Y; Sakata, M

    2004-03-01

    Cetaceans hunted coastally in Japan include several species of odontocete (dolphins, porpoises and beaked whales), and fresh and frozen red meat and blubber, as well as boiled internal organs, such as liver, lung, kidney and small intestine, are still sold for human consumption. Furthermore, red meat and blubber products originating from mysticete minke whales caught in the Antarctic and Northern Pacific are also sold for human consumption. We surveyed mercury and cadmium contamination levels in boiled liver, lung, kidney and red meat products being marketed in Japanese retail outlets. We also analyzed the DNA of these products to obtain information concerning gender and species. Total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (M-Hg) contamination levels in all the cetacean products were markedly higher in odontocete species than in mysticete species, and slightly higher in females than in males. T-Hg contamination in the organs was seen in the following order: boiled liver>boiled kidney=boiled lung>red meat. In particular, T-Hg concentrations in the boiled liver were high enough to cause acute intoxication even from a single ingestion: the mean +/-SD (range) of T-Hg was 388+/-543 (0.12-1980) microg/wetg. In contrast, although M-Hg contamination in the liver was not markedly higher than that in other organs, M-Hg contamination was in the following order: boiled liver>odontocete red meat>boiled kidney>boiled lung. The contamination levels of T-Hg and M-Hg in odontocete red meat, the most popular whale product, were 8.94+/-13.3 and 5.44+/-5.72 microg/wetg, respectively. These averages exceeded the provisional permitted levels of T-Hg (0.4 microg/wetg) and M-Hg (0.3 microg/wetg) in marine foods set by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare by 22 and 18 times, respectively, suggesting the possibility of chronic intoxication by T-Hg and M-Hg with frequent consumption of odontocete red meat. Cadmium contamination levels in boiled liver, kidney and lung were 8

  1. Biosurfactant technology for remediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Nair, Anupa; Dubey, Kirti V; Singh, S K; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-08-01

    This research focuses on column experiments conducted to evaluate the potential of environmentally compatible rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2 to remove heavy metals (Cd and Pb) from artificially contaminated soil. Results have shown that di-rhamnolipid removes not only the leachable or available fraction of Cd and Pb but also the bound metals as compared to tap water which removed the mobile fraction only. Washing of contaminated soil with tap water revealed that approximately 2.7% of Cd and 9.8% of Pb in contaminated soil was in freely available or weakly bound forms whereas washing with rhamnolipid removed 92% of Cd and 88% of Pb after 36 h of leaching. This indicated that di-rhamnolipid selectively favours mobilization of metals in the order of Cd>Pb. Biosurfactant specificity observed towards specific metal will help in preferential elution of specific contaminant using di-rhamnolipid. It was further observed that pH of the leachates collected from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with di-rhamnolipid solution was low (6.60-6.78) as compared to that of leachates from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with tap water (pH 6.90-7.25), which showed high dissolution of metal species from the contaminated soil and effective leaching of metals with treatment with biosurfactant. The microbial population of the contaminated soil was increased after removal of metals by biosurfactant indicating the decrease of toxicity of metals to soil microflora. This study shows that biosurfactant technology can be an effective and nondestructive method for bioremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soil.

  2. [Assessment of cadmium and lead released from cigarette smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suna, S; Asakawa, F; Jitsunari, F; Manabe, Y; Gotou, A; Fukunaga, I; Nakajima, T

    1991-12-01

    Cigarette smoke, which contains many harmful compounds, affects not only the smoker's health but also indoor air quality. To evaluate indoor air contamination by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), we measured Cd and Pb contained in the mainstream and sidestream smoke exhaled by experimental smoking of Japanese cigarettes and also determined urinary and blood Cd and Pb levels in smokers and non-smokers and air Cd and Pb levels in smoky environments. 1. One cigarette of each of 7 Japanese brands contained about 1 microgram each of Cd and Pb, of which about 50 ng each was released to the mainstream and 250 ng of Cd and 50 ng of Pb to the sidestream by smoking. 2. The blood Cd level in the smokers was significantly higher than that in the non-smokers. The urinary Cd level in the smokers was slightly higher than that in the non-smokers. The blood Cd level was related to the number of cigarettes smoked daily. Blood and urinary Pb levels did not differ between the smokers and non-smokers, but the blood Pb level was also related to the number of cigarettes smoked daily. 3. The air Cd levels in smoky places such as the smoking car of the special express train, an office, and a pachinko parlor were markedly higher than that in outdoor air. The air Cd concentration was well correlated with the environmental tobacco smoke concentration. On the other hand, the air Pb level was slightly higher in the above smoky places than outdoors. The mean air Pb concentration was not correlated with the environmental tobacco smoke concentration but was higher at higher environmental tobacco smoke concentration in each place.

  3. Lead, cadmium, endotoxin interaction: effect on mortality and hepatic function. [Salmonella enteriditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.A.; Marconi, E.A.; Di Luzio, N.R.

    1974-05-01

    I/v administration of some heavy metals increases the sensitivity of animals to bacterial endotoxins. Methylprednisolone prevents death following lead-endotoxin reaction. Liver function of rats was impaired and they were more sensitive to endotoxin when lead acetate or cadmium acetate was given i/v with the toxin. Cadmium acetate alone caused liver dysfunction, but lead acetate alone had no effect. Also, cadmium acetate had a greater effect than lead acetate in enhancing the effect of endotoxin. Methylprednisolone did not alleviate the detrimental effect of combining cadmium with endotoxin, and these conflicting results leave the cause of the sensitizing action of heavy metals on endotoxin shrouded in mystery. 36 references, 7 tables.

  4. Phytoextraction potential of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. with specific reference to lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Pratas, João; Paul, M S

    2011-07-01

    Root and shoot samples of Prosopis juliflora were assessed for their heavy metal content to evaluate the species as a green solution to decontaminate soils contaminated with lead and cadmium. The highest uptake of both the metals was observed in plants from industrial sites. Sites with more anthropogenic disturbance exhibited reduced chlorophyll levels, stunted growth, delayed and shortened reproductive phase. The ratios of lead and cadmium in leaves to lead and cadmium in soil were in the range of 0.62-1.46 and 0.55-1.71, respectively. Strong correlation between the degree of contamination and concentrations of lead and cadmium in plant samples identifies P. juliflora as an effective heavy metal remediator coupled with environmental stress.

  5. Arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) in Tarkwa a mining community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Obiri, S; Yaney, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) have gained increased importance in the diets of majority of people in developing countries such as Ghana. The concentration levels of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in Cocoyam (X. sagititolium) and Watercocoyam (C. esculenta) in Tarkwa and its surrounding villages a mining community in Ghana were measured in this study. From the results of the study, the levels of arsenic, cadmium and mercury in X. sagititolium and C. esculenta were higher than the WHO recommended levels. These root tubers absorb or uptake toxic chemicals from the soil as a result of the mining operations. This means that, the consumption of X. sagititolium and C. esculenta by humans from such environments may pose a serious health risk. There is therefore the need for a concerted effort by all to minimize the negative impact of gold mining in the study area.

  6. Interlaboratory Comparison of Lead and Cadmium in Blood, Urine, and Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulev, P. E.; Solgaard, Per Bent; Tjell, Jens Christian

    1978-01-01

    Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest t...... that laboratories should voluntarily participate in quality control programs. Users of routine laboratories are advised to use their own quality control program...

  7. Update of mercury emissions from China's primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q. R.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Song, J. X.; Yang, H.; Meng, Y.

    2012-07-01

    China is the largest anthropogenic mercury emitter in the world, where primary nonferrous metal smelting process is regarded as one of the most significant emission sources. In this study, atmospheric mercury emissions from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters in China during 2000-2010 were estimated using a technology-based methodology with comprehensive consideration of mercury concentration in concentrates, smelting process, mercury removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs) and installation rate of a certain type of APCD combination. Our study indicated that atmospheric mercury emission from nonferrous metal smelters in 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2010 was 67.6, 100.1 86.7 80.6 and 72.5 t, respectively. In 2010, the mercury in metal concentrates consumed by primary zinc, lead and copper smelters were 543 t. The mercury emitted into atmosphere, fly ash, other solids, waste water and acid was 72.5, 61.5, 2.0, 3774 and 27.2 t, respectively. Mercury retrieved directly from flue gas as byproduct of nonferrous metal smelting was about 2.4 t. The amounts of mercury emitted into atmosphere were 39.4, 30.6 and 2.5 t from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, respectively. The largest amount of mercury was emitted from Gansu province, followed by Henan, Yunnan, Hunan, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi provinces. The average mercury removal efficiency was 90.5%, 71.2% and 91.8% in zinc, lead, and copper smelters, respectively.

  8. Effect of thermal processing and canning on cadmium and lead levels in California market squid: the role of metallothioneins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitsopoulou, A; Georgantelis, D; Kontominas, M G

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two common seafood preparation practices (roasting and industrial canning) on the heavy metal content--cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)--of various tissues of California market squid were studied. Emphasis was placed on the role of metallothioneins (MT) in Cd and Pb behaviour during processing. Cd and Pb analysis was conducted by a Zeeman GTA-AAS atomic absorption spectrometry system; MT analysis was performed by a mercury saturation assay. Results showed that Cd levels in the mantle and whole squid were considerably affected by both processing practices, reaching a 240% increase in mantle and a 40% increase in whole squid. Interestingly, Cd behaviour was associated with MT changes during squid processing. On the other hand, Pb content was not affected from either processing or associated with MT content in the raw or processed squid. Therefore, processing operations may affect Cd and Pb content differently due to the specific metal bioaccumulation and chemical features of each heavy metal type.

  9. High levels of Mercury and Lead detected by hair analysis in two Venezuelan environments

    OpenAIRE

    Marcano,Eunice; Labady,Mary; Gomes,Clara; Aguiar,Guillermina; Laine,Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Mercury and Lead concentrations obtained by ICP-OAS analysis of human hair from riverside communities along the Orinoco river in the Amazon state (Venezuela) were compared with those from Caracas, Venezuela. Taking into account the characteristics of these two environments and the values of the average concentrations of Mercury and Lead, baselines were established suggesting that gold mining activity near the Orinoco river is responsible for the high levels of Mercury in hair from the Amazon ...

  10. Gastrointestinal and in vitro release of copper, cadmium, indium, mercury and zinc from conventional and copper-rich amalgams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D. (NIOM, Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials, Oslo, Norway); Gjerdet, N. (Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Bergen, Norway); Paulsen, G. (Denatal Faculty, University of Oslo, Norway)

    1983-01-01

    Particles of a conventional lathe-cut, a spherical non-gamma 2 and a copper amalgam have been gastrointestinally administered to rats for the purpose of evaluation of the dissolution resistance. The animals were sacrificed after 20 hrs. The contents of copper, cadmium, indium, mercury and zinc in kidney, liver, lung or blood were measured using nuclear tracer techniques. From a copper amalgam an extreme release of copper was demonstrated. This study simulates the clinical conditions of elemental release from swallowed amalgam particles after amalgam insertion or after removal of old amalgam fillings. Specimens of the same types of amalgams were also exposed to artificial saliva for a period of 10 days. The amounts of copper and mercury released were measured with flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry respectively. The levels of copper and mercury released from the copper amalgam were approximately 50 times those of the two other amalgam types studied.

  11. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  12. Lead and cadmium in meat and meat products consumed by the population in Tenerife Island, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Weller, D; Karlsson, L; Caballero, A; Hernández, F; Gutiérrez, A; González-Iglesias, T; Marino, M; Hardisson, A

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lead and cadmium in chicken, pork, beef, lamb and turkey samples (both meat and meat products), collected in the island of Tenerife (Spain). Lead and cadmium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were 6.94 and 1.68 microg kg(-1) in chicken meat, 5.00 and 5.49 microg kg(-1) in pork meat, 1.91 and 1.90 microg kg(-1) in beef meat and 1.35 and 1.22 microg kg(-1) in lamb meat samples, respectively. Lead was below the detection limit in turkey samples and mean cadmium concentration was 5.49 microg kg(-1). Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium in chicken meat product samples were 3.16 and 4.15 microg kg(-1), 4.89 and 6.50 microg kg(-1) in pork meat product, 6.72 and 4.76 microg kg(-1) in beef meat product and 9.12 and 5.98 microg kg(-1) in turkey meat product samples, respectively. The percentage contribution of the two considered metals to provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was calculated for meat and meat products. Statistically significant differences were found for lead content in meats between the chicken and pork groups and the turkey and beef groups, whereas for cadmium concentrations in meats, significant differences were observed between the turkey and chicken, beef and lamb groups. In meat products, no clear differences were observed for lead and cadmium between the various groups.

  13. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Lemière, Sébastien [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Demuynck, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Bodart, Jean-François [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • First embryonic steps were studied. • Fertilization success was impacted by cadmium exposures. • Oocytes were most affected instead of spermatozoa by cadmium exposures. • First embryonic cleavages were slown down or stopped by cadmium exposures. • Lead exposures did not affected fertilization and segmentation. - Abstract: Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  14. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  15. Relationships of cadmium, mercury, and selenium with nutrient reserves of female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during winter and spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    Trace elements may have important effects on body condition of ducks during spring migration, because individuals are experiencing energetically costly events (e.g., migration, nutrient reserve accumulation, pair formation, feather molt, and ovarian follicle development). We examined relationships among hepatic cadmium, mercury, and selenium concentrations (??g/g dry wt) and nutrient reserves (lipid, protein, and mineral) of female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during winter and spring migration at four locations within the Mississippi Flyway (LA, IL, and MN, USA, and MB, Canada). Selenium concentrations (range, 3.73-52.29 (??g/g dry wt) were positively correlated with lipid reserves (F1,73 = 22.69, p lipid reserves (F1,73 = 6.92, p = 0.010, type III partial r2 = 0.09). The observed relationship between cadmium and lipid reserves may be cause for concern, because lipid reserves of females declined by 55 g (47%), on average, within the range of observed cadmium concentrations (0.23-7.24 ??g/g dry wt), despite the relatively low cadmium concentrations detected. Mean cadmium concentrations were higher in Minnesota (1.23 ??g/g dry wt) and Manitoba (1.11 ??g/g dry wt) than in Louisiana (0.80 ??g/g dry wt) and Illinois (0.69 ??g/g dry wt). However, mean cadmium concentrations predict lipid reserves of females to be only 11 g lower, on average, in Minnesota than in Illinois. Previous research documented that lipid reserves were 100 g lower in Minnesota than in Illinois; consequently, cadmium is unlikely to be the sole cause for decreases in lipid reserves of females during late-spring migration. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  16. Mercury and cadmium trigger expression of the copper importer Ctr1B, which enables Drosophila to thrive on heavy metal-loaded food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Kuppusamy; Hua, Haiqing; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2009-02-01

    Organisms from insects to mammals respond to heavy metal load (copper, zinc, cadmium, and mercury) by activating the metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1). MTF-1 binds to short DNA sequence motifs, termed metal response elements, and boosts transcription of a number of genes, notably those for metallothioneins. In Drosophila, MTF-1 somewhat counter-intuitively also activates transcription of a copper importer gene (Ctr1B) in response to copper starvation. Here, we report that mutant flies lacking Ctr1B are extremely sensitive to cadmium and mercury treatment, but can be rescued by excess copper in the food. We thus propose that copper, by competing for binding sites on cellular proteins, alleviates the toxic effects of mercury and cadmium. Such a scenario also explains a seemingly fortuitous metal response, namely, that cadmium and mercury strongly induce the expression of a Ctr1B reporter gene. Thus, the transcription enhancer/promoter region of the Ctr1B copper importer gene is subject to three modes of regulation. All of them depend on MTF-1 and all make biological sense, namely, (i) induction by copper starvation, (ii) repression by copper abundance, and (iii), as shown here, induction by cadmium or mercury at normal copper supply.

  17. Effects of cadmium and mercury on the upper part of skeletal muscle glycolysis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Ramírez-Bajo

    Full Text Available The effects of pre-incubation with mercury (Hg(2+ and cadmium (Cd(2+ on the activities of individual glycolytic enzymes, on the flux and on internal metabolite concentrations of the upper part of glycolysis were investigated in mouse muscle extracts. In the range of metal concentrations analysed we found that only hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, the enzymes that shared the control of the flux, were inhibited by Hg(2+ and Cd(2+. The concentrations of the internal metabolites glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate did not change significantly when Hg(2+ and Cd(2+ were added. A mathematical model was constructed to explore the mechanisms of inhibition of Hg(2+ and Cd(2+ on hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. Equations derived from detailed mechanistic models for each inhibition were fitted to the experimental data. In a concentration-dependent manner these equations describe the observed inhibition of enzyme activity. Under the conditions analysed, the integral model showed that the simultaneous inhibition of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase explains the observation that the concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate did not change as the heavy metals decreased the glycolytic flux.

  18. Directional Solidification of Mercury Cadmium Telluride During the Second United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, D. C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.; Watring, D. A.; Alexander, H. A.; Jerman, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    As a solid solution semiconductor having, a large separation between liquidus and solidus, mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) presents a formidable challenge to crystal growers desiring an alloy of high compositional uniformity. To avoid constitutional supercooling during Bridgman crystal growth it is necessary to solidify slowly in a high temperature gradient region. The necessary translation rate of less than 1 mm/hr results in a situation where fluid flow induced by gravity on earth is a significant factor in material transport. The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is equipped to provide the stable thermal environment with a high gradient, and the required slow translation rate needed. Ground based experiments in AADSF show clearly the dominance of flow driven transport. The first flight of AADSF in low gravity on USMP-2 provided an opportunity to test theories of fluid flow in MCT and showed several solidification regimes which are very different from those observed on earth. Residual acceleration vectors in the orbiter during the mission were measured by the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and correlated well with observed compositional differences in the samples.

  19. Macro-loading Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasma Etched Mercury Cadmium Telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Palash; Rybnicek, Kimon; Stoltz, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the effect of macro-loading on mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1- x Cd x Te) and Photoresist (PR) etched in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). A significant macro-loading effect is observed, which affects the etch rates of both PR and Hg1- x Cd x Te. It is observed that the exposed silicon area has a significant effect on the PR etch rate, but not on the Hg1- x Cd x Te etch rate. It is also observed that the exposed Hg1- x Cd x Te area has a significant effect on the etch rate of the PR, but the exposed PR area does not seem to have an effect on the Hg1- x Cd x Te etch rate. Further, the exposed Hg1- x Cd x Te area is shown to affect the etch rate of the Hg1- x Cd x Te, but there does not seem to be a similar effect for the exposed PR area on the etch rate of the PR. Since the macro-loading affects the selectivity significantly, this effect can cause significant problems in the etching of deep trenches. A few techniques to reduce the effect of macro-loading on the etch rates of the PR and Hg1- x Cd x Te are listed, herein.

  20. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tanya M., E-mail: tanya.brown@mun.ca [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X9 (Canada); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute of Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Ferguson, Steven H. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Young, Brent G. [University of Manitoba, 500 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Reimer, Ken J. [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. - Highlights: • Diet and location influenced THg and Cd in ringed seals across the Canadian Arctic. • Biomagnification processes contribute to elevated THg levels in the western Arctic. • Consuming low-trophic position prey explains high Cd levels in the eastern Arctic.

  1. Two-color detector: Mercury-cadmium-telluride as a terahertz and infrared detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizov, F.; Zabudsky, V.; Petryakov, V.; Golenkov, A.; Andreyeva, K.; Tsybrii, Z. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine); Dvoretskii, S. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics of SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, issues associated with the development of infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) radiation detectors based on HgCdTe are discussed. Two-color un-cooled and cooled to 78 K narrow-gap mercury-cadmium-telluride semiconductor thin layers with antennas were considered both as sub-THz (sub-THz) direct detection bolometers and 3–10 μm IR photoconductors. The noise equivalent power (NEP) for one of the detectors studied at ν ≈ 140 GHz reaches NEP{sub 300 K} ≈ 4.5 × 10{sup −10} W/Hz{sup 1/2} and NEP{sub 78 K} ≈ 5 × 10{sup −9} W/Hz{sup 1/2}. The same detector used as an IR photoconductor showed the responsivity at temperatures T = 78 K and 300 K with signal-to-noise ratio S/N ≈ 750 and 50, respectively, under illumination by using IR monochromator and globar as a thermal source.

  2. Optical behaviour of cadmium and mercury free eco-friendly lamp nanophosphor for display devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnesh Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the synthesis of cadmium and mercury free lamp (Y, GdBO3: Eu3+ phosphor which is in nano range useful for display device application. The phosphor doped with Eu3+ was synthesized by the solid state reaction method which is suitable for large scale production and eco-friendly. The prepared phosphor was characterized by the X-ray diffraction technique (XRD, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The optical behaviour of the prepared phosphor was determined by photoluminescence (PL spectra recorded in room temperature. The PL excitation spectra were found at 470 nm and the emission spectra cover all visible regions (419–625 nm which indicate that the prepared phosphor can act as a single host for white light emitting diode (WLED application and verified by Internationale de I’Eclairage (CIE techniques. The thermoluminescence (TL glow curve was recorded for Eu3+ doped (Y, GdBO3 phosphor. The TL glow curve was recorded for UV, beta and gamma irradiations and also the kinetic parameters were calculated. In addition to this trap parameters of prepared phosphor were studied using computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD.

  3. Electrochemical determination of cadmium and lead on pristine single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Li, Cheng Ai; Han, Kwi Nam; Pham, Xuan-Hung; Seong, Gi Hun

    2012-01-01

    A flexible, transparent, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film electrode was prepared by vacuum filtering methods, followed by photolithographic patterning of a photoresist polymer on the SWCNT surface. The morphology of the SWCNT film electrode surface was characterized using a field-emission scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer. The electrodes were successfully used as a mercury-free electrochemical sensor for individual and simultaneous detection of cadmium (Cd(2+)) and lead (Pb(2+)) in 0.02 M HCl by square-wave stripping voltammetry. Some important operational parameters, including deposition time, deposition potential, square-wave amplitude, and square wave-frequency were optimized for the detection of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). The newly developed sensor showed good linear behavior in the examined concentration. For individual Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ion detection, the linear range was found from 0.033 to 0.228 ppm with detection limits of 0.7 ppb (R(2) = 0.985) for Cd(2+) and 0.8 ppb (R(2) = 0.999) for Pb(2+). For simultaneous detection, the linear range was found from 0.033 to 0.280 ppm with a limit of detection of 2.2 ppb (R(2) = 0.976) and 0.6 ppb (R(2) = 0.996) for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively. SWCNT film electrodes offered favorable reproducibility of ± 5.4% and 4.3% for Cd(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively. The experiments demonstrated the applicability of carbon nanotubes, specifically in the preparation of SWCNT films. The results suggest that the proposed flexible SWCNT film electrodes can be applied as simple, efficient, cost-effective, and/or disposable electrodes for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions.

  4. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimala, R., E-mail: vimararagu@yahoo.co.in [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Das, Nilanjana [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q{sub max} 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q{sub max} 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  5. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, R; Das, Nilanjana

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q(max) 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q(max) 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  6. Environmental cadmium and lead exposure and anti-Müllerian hormone in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P S; Bonde, J P; Bungum, L

    2016-01-01

    -AMH. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The associations between serum-AMH and whole blood cadmium or lead were investigated by general linear models in a population-based sample of 117 pregnant women. RESULTS: The mean concentrations of blood cadmium and lead were 0.71μg/L and 17.4μg/L, respectively. The mean serum......BACKGROUND: Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) has been suggested as a marker for ovarian function. Cadmium and lead have been suggested to reduce female fecundity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether environmental exposure to cadmium and lead was associated with alterations in serum......-AMH was 17.3pmol/L. No association between lead and AMH was detected. In the cadmium analysis the adjusted mean AMH level (95% CI) in the highest exposure tertile was 12.4 (6.4;23.8) compared to 5.6 (2.7;11.4) in the lowest exposure tertile (p=0.06). CONCLUSION: The study provides suggestive evidence...

  7. THE EVALUATION OF NICKEL, CHROMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY CONTENT IN SWEET CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Miriama Kopernická; Tomáš Tóth; Ľuboš Harangozo; Beáta Volnová; Petra Kavalcová; Ádám Elek

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of monitoring, we have focused on the analysis of the levels of nickel, chromium, lead and mercury in 9 samples of sweet corn (frozen and canned) from the commercial network of the Slovak Republic. Homogenised samples of sweet corn were mineralized using microwave digestion unit MARS X-press and next analysed by atomic absorption spectrometer VARIAN 240 FS for tested metal concentration, excluding mercury which was was determined by automatic mercury analyser AMA 254.Nickel c...

  8. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  9. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and treatments are needed. ELEMENTAL MERCURY Inhaled elemental mercury poisoning may be difficult to treat. The person may ... metals from the body INORGANIC MERCURY For inorganic mercury poisoning, treatment often begins with supportive care. The person ...

  10. Woodlouse Porcellio scaber as a biological indicator of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkin, S.P.; Hardisty, G.N.; Martin, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper were determined in the hepatopancreas and whole body of the woodlouse. Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) and soil and leaf litter collected from 89 sites in the counties of Avon and Somerset, south-west England. Maps were drawn to compare the regional distribution of concentrations of metals in the samples. The main source of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper pollution was centered on Avonmouth to the north-west of Bristol, the site of a primary zinc, lead, and cadmium smelting works. Concentrations of all four metals in the hepatopancreas, whole woodlice, soil and leaf litter were above background levels over a large area on all maps which, in the case of cadmium in the hepatopancreas, extended for 25 km to the east of the smelting works. The correlation coefficients between the concentrations of each metal in woodlice and soil, and between woodlice and leaf litter, were positive and statistically significant in all cases. At individual sites, however, particularly those associated with disused mining areas, rubbish tips or busy roads, the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper in woodlice could not have been predicted accurately from the levels of metals in leaf litter or soil due to the large scatter of data points along the lines of best fit.

  11. Model ecosystem studies of lead and cadmium and of urban sewage sludge containing these elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.Y.; Metcalf, R.L.; Furman, R.; Vogel, R.; Hassett, J.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental fate and effects of cadmium and lead were studied in a laboratory model ecosystem with a terrestrial/aquatic interface, using silica sand, Bloomfield soil (sandy loam) and Drummer soil (silty clay loam) as substrates. Applications were made directly to the substrates as lead and cadmium chloride and as sewage sludge as a source of heavy metals. The mobilization and incorporation of cadmium and lead into food chain organisms were proportional to sorption capacity of the substrate and were highest in silica sand and lowest in Drummer soil. Following the application of sewage sludge there was clear cut mobilization and transfer of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc into food chains, alga (Oedogonium cardiacum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), mosquito larva (Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus), snail (Physa), and fish (Gambusia affinis). Cadmium exerted a particularly adverse affect on the various organisms in the model ecosystem and its presence in relatively high levels in sewage sludge could become a limiting factor in its use on soils and for crop production.

  12. Lead and cadmium levels in coastal benthic algae (seaweeds) of Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Gonzalo; Hardisson, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Lafuente, María Anunciación

    2003-01-01

    Lead and cadmium levels of some species of brown-algae (Phaeophyta) from the mesolittoral (intertidal area) of the Island of Tenerife (central-eastern Atlantic) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The quality control was carried out using a standard "CRM 279 Ulva lactuca". The mean, minimum and maximum concentrations were 11.21, 2.090 and 81.795 microg/g/dw; and 1.13, 0.190 and 5.130 microg/g/dw for lead and cadmium, respectively. The fact that samples registering the highest cadmium concentrations were the same as those which showed the highest lead level corresponding to a sampling station nearby an urban water outlet could be relevant.

  13. Temporal trending of lead and cadmium contamination in the Vigo estuary intertidal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pérez López

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present work, limpet (Patella vulgata L. and seaweed (Ulva lactuca specimens have been monthly sampled at the same point from the Vigo estuary, during a year. Heavy metal (cadmium and lead content has been determined by means of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry in both limpet and seaweed tissues, as well as in seawater. The obtained results have shown the main heavy metal content in limpet soft tissues with respect to shell, with maximum concentrations of 3 ppm (limpet shell for lead, whereas the highest content for cadmium was identified in seaweed samples (1.1 ppm. The statistical study revealed the existence of a clear correlation between cadmium and lead concentrations in seaweed samples.

  14. Impact of synbiotic diets including inulin, Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillus plantarum on intestinal microbiota of rat exposed to cadmium and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornoush Jafarpour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of two probiotics and a prebiotic (inulin on intestinal microbiota of rats exposed to cadmium and mercury. Fifty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups. All groups except control group were fed standard rat chow with 5% inulin and treated as follows: i control (standard diet, ii Lactobacillus plantarum- treated group (1×109 CFU/day, iii Bacillus coagulans-treated group (1×109 spores/day, iv cadmium-treated group (200 μg/rat/day, v L. plantarum and cadmium-treated group, vi B. coagulans and cadmium-treated group, vii mercury-treated group (10 μg/rat/day, viii L. plantarum and mercurytreated group, ix B. coagulans and mercurytreated group. Cadmium, mercury and probiotics were daily gavaged to individual rats for 42 days. Treatment effects on intestinal microbiota composition of rats were determined. Data showed that cadmium and mercury accumulation in rat intestine affected the gastrointestinal tract and had a reduction effect on all microbial counts (total aerobic bacteria, total anaerobic bacteria, total Lactic acid bacteria, L. plantarum and B. coagulans counts compared to the control group. It was also observed that application of synbiotics in synbiotic and heavy metals-treated groups had a significant effect and increased the number of fecal bacteria compared to the heavy metals groups. Based on our study, it can be concluded that L. plantarum and B. coagulans along with prebiotic inulin play a role in protection against cadmium and mercury inhibitory effect and have the potential to be a beneficial supplement in rats’ diets.

  15. Determination of cadmium and lead in human biological samples by spectrometric techniques: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo; de Carvalho, Anaildes Lago

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of human biological samples, such as blood, urine, nails, and hair, is generally used for the verification of human exposure to toxic metals. In this review, various spectrometric methods for the determination of cadmium and lead in biological samples are discussed and compared. Several spectrometric techniques are presented and discussed with respect to various characteristics such as sensitivity, selectivity, and cost. Special attention is drawn to the procedures for digestion prior to the determination of cadmium and lead in hair, nails, blood, and urine.

  16. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nourmoradi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics.

  17. Isotherms and kinetics of lead and cadmium uptake from the waste leachate by natural and modified clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Faraji

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The modified zeolite with surfactant can be used as an appropriate adsorbent for the separation of heavy metals from waste Leachate. Lead and cadmium were absorbed in a single layer on the surface of the modified zeolite with surfactant, comparing different isoterm models, indicated that the capacity of the modified zeolite for lead adsorption was more than cadmium adsorption, but cadmium was absorbed with higher energy.

  18. Crystal structure, DNA interaction and thermal analysis data of two new antimicrobial active binuclear cadmium and mercury complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavi, S. A.; Montazerozohori, M.; Masoudiasl, A.; Naghiha, R.; Joohari, S.; Assoud, A.

    2017-10-01

    Two new binuclear Schiff base complexes with the general formula [CdLBr(μ-Br)]2 (1) and [Hg2L(μ-I)2I2] (2) were prepared by the reaction of 2,2-dimethyl-N,N'- bis-(3-phenyl-allylidene)-propane-1,3-diamine (L), CdBr2 and HgI2. The crystal structure of two complexes was determined by X-ray crystallography. The common structures for four-coordinated compounds are square planar or the tetrahedral geometries, which is evaluated by the Houser angular index (τ4). In [CdLBr(μ-Br)]2 (1), each cadmium center is five-coordinated by two iminic nitrogen atoms from Schiff base ligand, two μ2-bridging bromide anions and one terminal coordinating bromide anion. The metal center in this centrosymmetric dimer has a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. [Hg2L(μ-I)2I2] (2) consists of two four-coordinated mercury centers with different coordination spheres (HgN2I2 for Hg1 and HgI4 for Hg2). The TG/DTG diagrams showed that both complexes were completely decomposed under a nitrogen atmosphere. Furthermore, antibacterial activities of compounds have been screened against various bacteria and fungi by Disk diffusion method. Mercury complex inhibited the growth of the microorganisms more efficient than cadmium complex. DNA cleavage potential of compounds was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis method. Finally, nano-structure cadmium complex was sono-chemically synthesized and applied as precursor for preparation of cadmium oxide nanoparticles.

  19. Comparison of pollutant emission control strategies for cadmium and mercury in urban water systems using substance flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revitt, D. M.; Lundy, L.; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    for the evaluation of ECS using substance flow analysis (SFA). The results indicate that the full implementation of existing EU legislation is capable of reducing the total emissions of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) by between 11% and 20%. The ability to apply voluntary reduction practices is shown...... increases in stormwater sediment loadings (2.6–14.9 kg/year or 0.6–2.4 kg/year for Hg) or wastewater sludge loadings (45.8–57.2 kg/year or 42.0–57.4 kg/year for Cd)....

  20. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Sylvain; Lemière, Sébastien; Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette; Demuynck, Sylvain; Bodart, Jean-François; Leprêtre, Alain; Marin, Matthieu

    2016-08-01

    Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  1. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeppler, M. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie); Piscator, M. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Hygiene) (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain the 18 papers presented at the workshop. They are dealing with the following themes: Toxicity, carcinogenesis and metabolism of cadmium, epidemiology; environmental occurrence; quantitative analysis and quality assessment. (MG) With 57 figs., 79 tabs.

  2. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  3. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75 percent or higher at 0.44 microns and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5 percent or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65 percent and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5 percent and 8 percent, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD(1-x)Zn(1-x)Te, and Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400 C using TEGa and AsH3 as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te, and Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized.

  4. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  5. Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L. (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

  6. Effect of arsenic, cadmium and lead on the induction of apoptosis of normal human mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE LA FUENTE, H; PORTALES-PÉREZ, D; BARANDA, L; DÍAZ-BARRIGA, F; SAAVEDRA-ALANÍS, V; LAYSECA, E; GONZÁLEZ-AMARO, R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the apoptosis of human immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were incubated with increasing concentrations of these metals and then cellular apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and by DNA electrophoresis. We found that arsenic induced a significant level of apoptosis at 15 μm after 48h of incubation. Cadmium had a similar effect, but at higher concentrations (65 μm). In addition, cadmium exerted a cytotoxic effect on MNC that seemed to be independent of the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, concentrations of lead as high as 500 μm were nontoxic and did not induce a significant degree of apoptosis. Additional experiments showed that arsenic at concentrations as low as 1·0 μm had a significant pro-apoptotic effect when cells were cultured in the presence of this pollutant for more than 72. Non-T cells were more susceptible than T lymphocytes to the effect of arsenic and cadmium. Interestingly, MNC from children chronically exposed to arsenic showed a high basal rate of apoptosis and a diminished in vitro sensibility to this metalloid. Our results indicate that both arsenic and cadmium are able to induce apoptosis of lymphoid cells, and suggest that this phenomenon may contribute to their immunotoxic effect in vivo. PMID:12100024

  7. Uptake of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic by Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Camenzuli, L.; van der Lee, M. K.; Oonincx, D. G. A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Insects have potential as a novel source of protein in feed and food production in Europe, provided they can be used safely. To date, limited information is available on the safety of insects, and toxic elements are one of the potential hazards of concern. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of cadmium, lead and arsenic in larvae of two insect species, Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) and Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly), which seem to hold potential as a source of food or feed. An experiment was designed with 14 treatments, each in triplicate, per insect species. Twelve treatments used feed that was spiked with cadmium, lead or arsenic at 0.5, 1 and 2 times the respective maximum allowable levels (ML) in complete feed, as established by the European Commission (EC). Two of the 14 treatments consisted of controls, using non-spiked feed. All insects per container (replicate) were harvested when the first larva in that container had completed its larval stage. Development time, survival rates and fresh weights were similar over all treatments, except for development time and total live weight of the half of the maximum limit treatment for cadmium of the black soldier fly. Bioaccumulation (bioaccumulation factor > 1) was seen in all treatments (including two controls) for lead and cadmium in black soldier fly larvae, and for the three arsenic treatments in the yellow mealworm larvae. In the three cadmium treatments, concentrations of cadmium in black soldier fly larvae are higher than the current EC maximum limit for feed materials. The same was seen for the 1.0 and 2.0 ML treatments of arsenic in the yellow mealworm larvae. From this study, it can be concluded that if insects are used as feed materials, the maximum limits of these elements in complete feed should be revised per insect species. PMID:27846238

  8. Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from selected regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium and lead are classified as toxic metals. Toxicity is attributed to the adverse effect on the human body, and therefore the content of these elements is analyzed in the environment and in food products. Studies conducted by many researchers indicate that more of cadmium and lead accumulate in products of plant origin, however, food products of animal origin are also not free from these compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the content of cadmium and lead in drinking milk originating from four selected milk producers from two different regions. Methods. A total of 28 milk samples were tested. The tested material was mineralized dry. To determine the content of the analyzed elements the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method was used. There were no significant differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples of milk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these elements. Conclusions. Cadmium and lead content in tested drinking milk does not pose a threat to human health

  9. Method of analysis for the determination of lead and cadmium in fresh meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.

    1980-01-01

    This report comprises the result of the RIKILT of an intercomparison on the determination of lead and cadmium in bovine liver and bovine kidney. The aim of this round robbin was to check a wet ashing procedure followed by a flame AAS determination as described too in EEC doc. 2266/VI/77. Special att

  10. Determination of cadmium and lead in urine of some Nigerian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, A O; Famuyiwa, S O; Adenuga, A A; Fatoki, O S

    2002-09-01

    Forty-one urine samples of smokers and non-smokers from Ile-Ife, Nigeria were analyzed for normal cadmium and lead levels after acid digestion. Results of the preliminary study show that concentrations of cadmium obtained were generally low compared with lead. The mean urinary levels from non-smokers ranged from 0.05 - 0.02 to 0.16 - 0.01 wg ml-1 and from 0.02 - 0.03 to 0.88 - 0.04 wg ml-1 for cadmium and lead respectively, whilst, for smokers, urinary levels varied between 0.07 - 0.01 and 0.23 - 0.02 wg ml-1 and between 0.28 - 0.03 and 1.02 - 0.02 wg ml-1 were obtained for cadmium and lead, respectively. Cd levels in urine of smokers and non-smokers are higher than the recommended normal level of 0.0085 wg ml-1, while levels of Pb are above the 0.08-0.15 wg ml-1 exposure range. Results of spiking experiments with urine gave high percentage recoveries for both elements (Cd, 87.9 - 0.40%) and (Pb, 90.40 - 0.12%). Blank determination was done for background correction.

  11. Preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination in environmental samples using polyurethane foam/Me-BTANC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira Gama, Ednilton [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Nucleo de Quimica Analitica da Bahia (NQA), Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica (LQA), Campus de Jequie 45200-000, Jequie-BA (Brazil); Silva Lima, Adriana da [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Nucleo de Quimica Analitica da Bahia (NQA), Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica (LQA), Campus de Jequie 45200-000, Jequie-BA (Brazil); Azevedo Lemos, Valfredo [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Nucleo de Quimica Analitica da Bahia (NQA), Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica (LQA), Campus de Jequie 45200-000, Jequie-BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: vlemos@uesb.br

    2006-08-25

    In this work, polyurethane foam (PUF) loaded with 2-(6'-methyl-2'-benzothiazolylazo)chromotropic acid (Me-BTANC) was packed in a minicolumn and it was used in an on-line preconcentration system for cadmium and lead determination. Optimum hydrodynamic and chemical conditions for metal sorption were investigated. The effects of several foreign substances on the adsorption of cadmium and lead were also reported. The enrichment factor obtained was 37 (Cd and Pb) for 180 s preconcentration time. The proposed procedures allowed the determination of metals with detection limits (3{sigma}) of 0.80 and 3.75 {mu}g L{sup -1} (0.10 and 0.47 {mu}g g{sup -1} of solid sample) for cadmium and lead, respectively. The precision of the procedures was also calculated: 3.1 (Cd 10 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and 4.4% (Pb 100 {mu}g L{sup -1}). The accuracy of the procedure was checked by analysis of the certified reference materials Spinach Leaves and Fish Tissue. Cadmium and lead contents in environmental samples (black tea, spinach leaves, natural and tap water) were determined by applying the proposed procedure.

  12. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  13. Cadmium and lead residue control in a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan-Rodríguez, Doritza; O'Keefe, Margaret; Deyrup, Cindy; Zervos, Penny; Walker, Harry; Thaler, Alice

    2007-02-21

    In 2003-2004, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) conducted an exploratory assessment to determine the occurrence and levels of cadmium and lead in randomly collected samples of kidney, liver, and muscle tissues of mature chickens, boars/stags, dairy cows, and heifers. The data generated in the study were qualitatively compared to data that FSIS gathered in a 1985-1986 study in order to identify trends in the levels of cadmium and lead in meat and poultry products. The exploratory assessment was necessary to verify that Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point plans and efforts to control exposure to these heavy metals are effective and result in products that meet U.S. export requirements. A comparison of data from the two FSIS studies suggests that the incidence and levels of cadmium and lead in different slaughter classes have remained stable since the first study was conducted in 1985-1986. This study was conducted to fulfill FSIS mandate to ensure that meat, poultry, and egg products entering commerce in the United States are free of adulterants, including elevated levels of environmental contaminants such as cadmium and lead.

  14. Screening Technique for Lead and Cadmium in Toys and Other Materials Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Henry

    2005-01-01

    A simple procedure to quickly screen different consumer products for the presence of lead, cadmium, and other metals is described. This screening technique avoids expending a lot of preparation time on samples known to contain low levels of hazardous metals where only samples testing positive for the desired elements need to be analyzed…

  15. Increased Lead and Cadmium Burdens among Mentally Retarded Children and Children with Borderline Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between subtoxic metal levels and mild mental retardation and borderline intelligence was investigated through comparison of hair metal concentrations in 135 secondary students with mild retardation or borderline intelligence. Children in the retarded/borderline group had significantly higher lead and cadmium concentrations.…

  16. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Nejdet; Karadeniz, Ali; Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N; Unal, Bünyami

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina+lead (Sp+Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina+cadmium (Sp+Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  17. Spirulina platensis feeding inhibited the anemia- and leucopenia-induced lead and cadmium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simsek, Nejdet [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Karadeniz, Ali, E-mail: karadenizali@gmail.com [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Physiology, 25700 Erzurum (Turkey); Kalkan, Yildiray; Keles, Osman N.; Unal, Buenyami [University of Atatuerk, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-30

    In the present investigation, the effect of Spirulina platensis (Sp) was undertaken on rats fed with lead and cadmium including diet by using physiological, enzymehistochemical and stereological methods. For this aim, 50 rats were equally divided into five groups as control (C), lead (Pb), Spirulina + lead (Sp + Pb), cadmium (Cd), and Spirulina + cadmium (Sp + Cd). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and haemoglobine (Hb) concentrations were determined by haemocytometric methods in blood samples collected on 30th day. Population of T lymphocyte was counted by the {alpha}-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining method, and reticulocytes were counted by stereological method. The counts of RBC, WBC, and ANAE positive T lymphocyte, and the values of Hb, PCV, and MCHC were decreased in the Pb and Cd groups compared to control group. Also, the number of reticulocytes (polychromatofilic erythrocyte) increased in the Pb groups, whereas it decreased in the Cd group. On the other hand, these values were ceased by S. platensis in the treated groups. These results suggest that S. platensis supplementation may be useful in adjuvant treatment of leukemia and anemia caused by lead and cadmium toxication.

  18. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of lead and mercury from polluted waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1975-04-11

    Removal of lead and mercury by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb. was investigated. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.176 mg of lead and 0.150 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material from distilled water and river water in a 24-hour period. One acre of water hyacinths is potentially capable of removing 105.6 grams of lead and 90.0 grams of mercury per day. Alligator weeds removed 0.101 mg of lead per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. This same plant also demonstrated the ability to remove a minimum of 0.153 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material in a six hour period. (STAR)

  19. SERUM PROTEIN CHANGES IN RABBITS AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo HRISTEV

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of lead (5mg/kg b.w and cadmium (2mg/kg b.w after chronic treatment of the rabbits on serum protein is investigated. Signifi cantly raised content of the cholesterol, ASAT and ALAT; hypo-albuminemia and hyperbetaglobulinemia of the background of one hypoproteinemia and low A/G coeffi cient are established. On basis of obtained result can to show degree of liver parenchyma damage and as trial for used the hyperbeta-globulinemia (at chronic treatment with cadmium is stronger markedly as indicator for delimitation of enteral from parenteral toxication, at that is noted hypergamma-globulinemia.

  20. Investigation of Released Cadmium and Lead from Different Colors of Over Glaze Designs to Food Stuff in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi-Moghaddam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, leaching of lead and cadmium was investigated from porcelain over glaze designs between different colors.  Also the effect of microwave heating was considered on leaching of lead and cadmium.  Dishes were selected with a decor with the dominant color of gray, red, yellow, blue, and dark blue. Amounts of cadmium and lead which leached from the container by acetic acid and orange juice were measured according to the standard ASTM C738.  The results showed that especially in the red and dark blue colors cadmium and lead could be released easily by either acetic acid or orange juice, and these amounts were much higher than the permissible standard amount. Also microwave heating could enhance releasing of lead and cadmium from decorated dinnerware. 

  1. Development of a novel kinetic model for the analysis of PAH biodegradation in the presence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deary, Michael E., E-mail: michael.deary@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Geography,Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Ekumankama, Chinedu C. [Department of Geography,Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Cummings, Stephen P. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • 40 week study of the biodegradation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs in a soil with high organic matter. • Effects of cadmium, lead and mercury co-contaminants studied. • Novel kinetic approach developed. • Biodegradation of lower molecular weight PAHs relatively unaffected by Cd or Pb. • Soil organic matter plays a key role in the PAH removal mechanism. - Abstract: We report on the results of a 40 week study in which the biodegradation of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was followed in microcosms containing soil of high organic carbon content (11%) in the presence and absence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants. The total spiked PAH concentration was 2166 mg/kg. Mercury amendment was also made to give an abiotic control. A novel kinetic model has been developed to explain the observed biphasic nature of PAH degradation. The model assumes that PAHs are distributed across soil phases of varying degrees of bioaccessibility. The results of the analysis suggest that overall percentage PAH loss is dependent on the respective rates at which the PAHs (a) are biodegraded by soil microorganisms in pore water and bioaccessible soil phases and (b) migrate from bioaccessible to non-bioaccessible soil phases. In addition, migration of PAHs to non-bioaccessible and non-Soxhlet-extractable soil phases associated with the humin pores gives rise to an apparent removal process. The presence of metal co-contaminants shows a concentration dependent inhibition of the biological degradation processes that results in a reduction in overall degradation. Lead appears to have a marginally greater inhibitory effect than cadmium.

  2. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen, to form inorganic mercury compounds or "salts," which are usually white powders or ... Mercury also combines with carbon to make organic mercury compounds. The most common one, methylmercury, is produced mainly ...

  3. Contamination of Soil, Water, Plant and Dust by Zinc, Lead and Cadmium in Southwest Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Esmaeilpourfard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to mining, considerable amounts of heavy metal bearing mineralsare scattered in the atmosphere in the form of dust and make the surrounding air, water and soils polluted.Runoff water movingfrom the mountainstowardsplains may also transport heavy metals from mines to the soils.One type ofpollutions is contamination withheavy metals.The purpose of the present research has been to investigate the effect of heavy metals of mine on soil, water, plant and dust pollution. Materials and Methods: Gushfil mine is located 3 kilometers southwest of Sepahanshahr, Isfahan. Soil profiles were dug 500 meters apart along three parallel transects, between east of Sepahanshahr and Gushfil mine. The profiles were described and samples were collected from their horizons. Ore, wells, plant and dust were sampled as well. Total concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium were measured in the samples. To find the origin of polluted dust and soil, lead isotopes contents in the samples were measured and regressional relationships between the ratios of these contents were investigated. Results and Discussion Sepahanshahr soils are not contaminated by zinc, lead and cadmium, but within a distance of one to two kilometers from the Gushfil mine, the soils are polluted by zinc and lead. Cadmium contamination was not observed in the studied soils. In all of the soils, the heavy metals content varies downwards irregularly. The reason for this variation trend is that the studied soils are alluvial. In different periods of time, alluvium parent materials have been transported by runoff water from the lead and zinc mines towards the alluvial piedmont plain. The studied heavy metals have been distributed irregularly in different horizons of the soils that have been formed in these parent materials. Lead and cadmium concentrations of drinking water in the studied area are much higher than the maximum amount allowed by the World Health Organization. Cadmium content in

  4. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  5. Lead, cadmium and zinc in hair samples: relationship with dietary habits and urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Martín-González, C; Galindo-Martín, L; Aleman-Valls, M R; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Pérez-Hernández, O; Luis, R Hernández

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed in order to analyze the relationships between hair zinc, lead, and cadmium with the kind of diet consumed (by recall of the diet consumed the previous 14 days), living area (urban or rural), tobacco smoking, and body mass index (BMI) among 419 individuals of the Canary Archipelago. Median values and interquartile range were 43 μg/g (18.50-132.50) for zinc, 4.09 μg/g (2.19-8.38) for lead, and 0.128 μg/g (0.05-0.30) for cadmium. We observed that hair zinc was markedly elevated among those consuming fish more frequently and, to a lesser amount, among those who consumed meat frequently, among those living in urban areas, and among those with BMI over 25 kg/m(2), keeping a significant relationship with BMI. Hair lead was also higher among fish consumers, showed a trend to higher values among inhabitants of urban areas, and was lower among obese individuals. Hair cadmium was higher among those who consumed less vegetables and fruits. By multivariate analysis, introducing the variables meat, fish, and vegetable consumption, urban/rural; sex; age; and BMI values, we observed that fish consumption (beta = 0.15) was the only variable independently associated to higher zinc levels; fish consumption (beta = 0.15) and meat consumption (beta = 0.17) were related to high cadmium levels, whereas meat consumption was significantly associated to higher hair lead levels (beta = 0.15). Therefore, we conclude that hair zinc, cadmium, and lead seem to depend more heavily on dietary habits than on tobacco consumption or living in rural or urban areas.

  6. Mercury and Lead Levels in Common Soaps from Local Markets in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Alizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potential toxicity of human exposure was investigated to heavy metals from diverse sources but few or none was on Iranian soaps. Hence, we aimed to determine the presence of lead and mercury in selected soaps commonly used in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. Methods: Different common brands of cosmetic, hygiene and contraband soaps were purchased from retail market of Mashhad in 2016. Levels of these metals were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy technique. Results: All samples had the mercury and lead levels but did not exceed the maximum acceptable level (1 µg/g for mercury and 20 µg/g for lead recommended by FDA. The mean levels of mercury were 0.02, 0.08 and 0.23 µg/g, respectively in cosmetic, hygiene and contraband soaps. These levels for lead were 0.10, 0.19 and 0.13 µg/g. The highest mercury and lead levels were detected in Halazoon contraband and P hygiene brands, respectively. Conclusion: The content of mercury and lead in common soaps is currently not a concern in this city. However, as human body may be exposed to several toxic metals from different care products simultaneously, cumulative toxic effects of these metals must be considered important.

  7. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinzhong; Meng, Die; Long, Tao; Ying, Rongrong; Ye, Mao; Zhang, Shengtian; Li, Qun; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Yusuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximum desorption ratios for lindane, cadmium and lead were 85.4%, 76.4% and 28.1%, respectively, for the mixed agents containing 1% rhamnolipidsand 0.1 mol/L citric acid. The results also suggest that the removal efficiencies of lead and cadmium were strongly related to their speciations in soils, and metals in the exchangeable and carbonate forms were easier to be removed. Our study suggests that the combining use of rhamnolipids and citric acid is a promising alternative to simultaneously remove organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from soils.

  8. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive MPC

  9. Hair mercury and urinary cadmium levels in Belgian children and their mothers within the framework of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirard, Catherine; Koppen, Gudrun; De Cremer, Koen

    2014-01-01

    A harmonized human biomonitoring pilot study was set up within the frame of the European projects DEMOCOPHES and COPHES. In 17 European countries, biomarkers of some environmental pollutants, including urinary cadmium and hair mercury, were measured in children and their mothers in order to obtai...

  10. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive

  11. Screening of Blood Levels of Mercury, Cadmium, and Copper in Pregnant Women in Dakahlia, Egypt: New Attention to an Old Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawei, Shimaa M; Gouda, Hossam E

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals toxicity is a prevalent health problem particularly in developing countries. Mercury and cadmium are toxic elements that have no physiologic functions in human body. They should not be present in the human body by any concentration. Copper, on the other hand, is one of the elements that are essential for normal cell functions and a deficiency as well as an excess of which can cause adverse health effects. To test blood levels of mercury, cadmium, and copper in pregnant women in Dakahlia, Egypt. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, blood levels of cadmium, mercury, and copper were measured in 150 pregnant women attending to the antenatal care in Mansoura University Hospital in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. The mean ± SD of blood mercury, cadmium, and copper levels were found to be far from their levels in the population surveys carried in developed countries like United States of America (USA) and Canada. Heavy metal intoxication and accumulation is a major health hazard. Developing countries, including Egypt, still lack many of the regulatory policies and legislations to control sources of pollution exposure. This should be dealt with in order to solve this problem and limit its health consequences.

  12. Effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the oviposition, hatching and embryonic survival of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansaldo, Martin [Instituto Antartico Argentino, Direccion Nacional del Antartico, Cerrito 1248, (1010) Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: tincho@qb.fcen.uba.ar; Nahabedian, Daniel E. [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Di Fonzo, Carla [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wider, Eva A. [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina)

    2009-03-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata is a widespread freshwater gastropod mollusc. The easy aquaculture of these organisms allow its use as an accessible tool for contamination bioassays. B. glabrata showed marked metabolic responses when exposed to cadmium, lead and arsenic. Those responses could also affect the reproduction of the snails. Taking into account this hypothesis, B. glabrata were exposed for 96 h (acute laboratory bioassays) to different concentrations of cadmium (0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L), lead (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L) and arsenic (0.5, 0.1, 0.05 and 0 mg/L). Snails were removed from the aquaria while eggs were left in the same contaminant concentrations. The effect of the assayed toxicants on snail reproduction was registered as the alterations of the total number of laid eggs (TNLE), hatching time and embryonic survival. At 0.10 mg/L cadmium significantly decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) and no embryos survived. The lowest assayed level (0.05 mg/L) of cadmium, delayed the hatching time twice when it was compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Lead decreased the TNLE at 0.5 mg/L level (p < 0.01). The other assayed doses (0.05 and 0.10 mg/L) also decreased embryonic survival significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively) and extended twice the time to hatching (p < 0.01). The 0.50 mg/L level killed all embryos. Arsenic at all studied concentrations decreased the TNLE (p < 0.05) while the hatching time was increased by 50%. Embryo survival only decreased at the highest level (0.5 mg/L) of arsenic assayed. In summary, the acute exposure (96 h) to cadmium lead and arsenic, altered the reproduction of B. glabrata, modifying the TNLE, hatching time and embryonic survival.

  13. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  14. Lead and cadmium concentrations in seawater and algae of the Tunisian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati-Hellal, M; Hedhili, A; Hellal, F; Boujlel, K; Dachraoui, M; Bousnina, M; Ghorbel, H; Ndhif, M

    2005-01-01

    Both lead and cadmium are toxic trace metals, even in very weak concentrations. The aim of this study was to estimate lead and cadmium pollution in various sites of the Tunisian coast and to verify the possibility of modification of the algae bioconcentration power according to water physico-chemical conditions. Our study concerned 99 samples of algae and 99 samples of seawater, taken in different sites of the Tunisian littoral. The analysis was realized by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (oven graphite). In algae, Sfax site presented the highest concentrations of lead when Sousse site showed the lowest ones. In seawater, the most amounts of lead were observed in Bizerte, Mahdia and Sfax sites, and those of cadmium in Bizerte and Medenine coasts. Bizerte's coast seems to be the most exposed zone to pollution. Indeed, the intensification of sea traffic may take place on this pollution because hydrocarbons derived from petroleum contain some tetraethylic lead characterised by its great toxicity. Sousse's region is the least polluted zone; it might be due to the development of tourism and a strict regulation of pollution in this district.

  15. Unique pattern of molt leads to low intraindividual variation in feather mercury concentrations in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Drummond, Bridgette E; Borrett, Stuart R; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Rey, Andrea Raya

    2013-10-01

    The authors hypothesized that the catastrophic annual molt of penguins (Sphenisciformes) would lead to reduced intraindividual variation of mercury concentrations in body feathers. While mean mercury concentrations varied significantly among 8 penguin species, intraindividual variability did not differ among species and was 3 times lower than values observed in other seabirds. The findings of the present study suggest that a single body feather collected at random per individual can be adequate to estimate mercury exposure at the population level in penguins. © 2013 SETAC.

  16. Synthesis and crystal structures of mercury(II) and cadmium(II) coordination compounds using 4‧-(4-pyridyl)-2,2‧:6‧,2‧-terpyridine ligand and their thermolysis to nanometal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrani, Azadeh; Morsali, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Two new complexes with the ligand 4‧-(4-pyridyl)-2,2‧:6‧,2‧-terpyridine (pyterpy), [Hg(pyterpy)2](ClO4)2 and [Cd(pyterpy)2](ClO4)2ṡH2O, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and structurally analyzed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The single crystal X-ray analysis shows that the coordination number in these complexes is six and the “pyterpy” ligand acts as a tridentate donor. The thermolysis studies show that the calcination of [Cd(pyterpy)2](ClO4)2ṡH2O leads to formation of cadmium oxide nano-particles while the calcination of mercury(II) complex does not form HgO as mercury evaporated before getting oxide.

  17. Lead, mercury, and organochlorine compound levels in cord blood in Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhainds, M; Levallois, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    1999-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate blood levels of lead, mercury, and organochlorine compounds in newborns in the Province of Quebec. During 1993 to 1995, we carried out a survey in 10 hospitals located in southern Quebec. During that time, umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 1109 newborns, and we analyzed each for lead, mercury, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and 11 chlorinated pesticides. We used the geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the results. Mean concentrations of lead and mercury in cord blood were 0.076 micromol/l (95% CI = 0.074, 0.079) and 4.82 nmol/l (95% CI = 4.56, 5.08), respectively. The mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1260) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene were 0.514 microg/I (95% CI = .493, 0.536) and 0.412 microg/l (95% CI = 0.390, 0.435), respectively. We observed a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and cord blood concentrations of (a) lead, (b) mercury, (c) polychlorinated biphenyls, and (d) dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with cord blood lead levels. The cord blood concentrations of lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene we measured in our study were the lowest levels recently reported in industrialized countries. The results of this study underline the role of public health authorities in the evaluation of biological levels of environmental contaminants among children for the assessment of risk of adverse health effects.

  18. Correlation between soil characteristics and lead and cadmium content in the aboveground biomass of Virginia tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprjanova, Penka; Dospatliev, Lilko; Angelova, Violina; Ivanov, Krasimir

    2010-04-01

    The study was conducted on alluvial-meadow, maroon-forest soils and vertisols with Virginia tobacco. The total content of lead and cadmium is measured through decomposition by HF, HClO(4), and HNO(3) acids. A solution of 0.005 M diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid + 0.1 M triethanolamine, pH 7.3 was used for extraction of the elements' mobile forms from soils. The preparation of plant samples was made by means of dry ashing and dissolution in 3 M HCl. An atomic absorption spectrometer "Spektra AA 220" of the Australian company Varian was used for determination of Pb and Cd content in the soil and plant samples. Certified reference materials (three soils and tobacco leaves) were also analyzed for the verification of the accuracy of Pb and Cd determination. A correlation/regression analysis was conducted between pH, humus content, total and mobile forms of lead and cadmium in the soil, and the concentration of these elements in the aboveground biomass of Virginia tobacco. It was established that there are no statistically significant dependencies determined between soil pH and lead concentration in the plant organs of Virginia tobacco. Regressional dependencies of great significance were determined between the humus content, total and mobile lead and cadmium in the soil, and the element concentration in the leaves of the three harvesting zones.

  19. Determination of cadmium and lead in edible oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after reverse dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Ignacio; Vicente-Martínez, Yesica; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of edible oils with a low volume of an acidic solution in the presence of isopropyl alcohol allows cadmium and lead to be completely separated into the aqueous phase. After centrifugation, the metals are determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry using a palladium salt for chemical modification in the heating cycle. Using a 10 g oil sample, the enrichment factor is 140, which permits detection limits of 0.6 and 10 ng kg(-1) for cadmium and lead, respectively. The results agree with those obtained after sample mineralization. Data for the cadmium and lead levels for 15 samples of different characteristics are given.

  20. Lead, mercury, selenium, and other trace elements in tissues of golden eagles from southwestern Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmata, Alan R; Restani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Lead-based rifle bullets, used in game hunting and recreational shooting, fragment when striking bone and soft tissues. Lead fragments may be ingested by birds scavenging offal piles or nonretrieved carcasses and therefore pose a poisoning risk. We captured and sampled 74 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in southwestern Montana, USA, from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate levels of lead, mercury, selenium, and 13 other trace elements in blood and feathers. Lead was detected in blood of most (97%, n=70) eagles; mean blood level was 0.26 parts per million (ppm). Most eagles (65%) had background levels (1.0 ppm) in blood. Lead in blood decreased from winter to spring. Resident eagles had higher lead levels than eagles of unknown residency. Mercury was detected in few eagles, whereas selenium was detected in all, but at a low level (0.36 ppm). Other chemical elements in blood were at low or biologically appropriate levels. Lead in feathers (n=29) was correlated with blood lead (P=0.010), as was mercury in blood and feathers (n=48; P=0.003). Concentrations of lead and mercury in feathers were higher in adults than in juveniles and immatures (Pelements tended to increase with age. Selenium in feathers (n=48) appeared stable across plumage classes. Although detection rates of lead in blood of eagles captured in spring increased from 1985-1993 to 2008-2010, mean levels decreased (P0.2 ppm; P<0.02).

  1. Biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with calcium alginate xerogels and immobilized Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Y N; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2009-04-30

    This paper determines the effect of immobilized brown alga Fucus vesiculosus in the biosorption of heavy metals with alginate xerogels. Immobilization increased the kinetic uptakes and intraparticle diffusion rates of the three metals. The Langmuir maximum biosorption capacity increased twofold for cadmium, 10 times for lead, and decreased by half for copper. According to this model, the affinity of the metals for the biomass was as follows: Cu>Pb>Cd without alga and Pb>Cu>Cd with alga. FITR confirmed that carboxyl groups were the main groups involved in the metal uptake. Calcium in the gels was displaced by heavy metals from solution according to the "egg-box" model. The restructured gel matrix became more uniform and organized as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. F. vesiculosus immobilized in alginate xerogels constitutes an excellent biosorbent for cadmium, lead and copper, sometimes surpassing the biosorption performance of alginate alone and even the free alga.

  2. Biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with calcium alginate xerogels and immobilized Fucus vesiculosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Y.N. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blazquez, M.L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mlblazquez@quim.ucm.es; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    This paper determines the effect of immobilized brown alga Fucus vesiculosus in the biosorption of heavy metals with alginate xerogels. Immobilization increased the kinetic uptakes and intraparticle diffusion rates of the three metals. The Langmuir maximum biosorption capacity increased twofold for cadmium, 10 times for lead, and decreased by half for copper. According to this model, the affinity of the metals for the biomass was as follows: Cu > Pb > Cd without alga and Pb > Cu > Cd with alga. FITR confirmed that carboxyl groups were the main groups involved in the metal uptake. Calcium in the gels was displaced by heavy metals from solution according to the 'egg-box' model. The restructured gel matrix became more uniform and organized as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. F. vesiculosus immobilized in alginate xerogels constitutes an excellent biosorbent for cadmium, lead and copper, sometimes surpassing the biosorption performance of alginate alone and even the free alga.

  3. Factors affecting lead and cadmium levels in house dust in industrial areas of eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-08-30

    The indoor exposure of 381 women (52-59 years old) to lead and cadmium was assessed by measuring the levels of the contaminants in sedimented house dust. The study was conducted in the areas surrounding the towns of Hettstedt, a region of mining and smelting of non-ferrous ores, of Bitterfeld, a centre of chemical production and coal mining, and of Zerbst, a primarily agricultural area. Factors that were significantly associated with lead and cadmium surface loading rates included the city area of residence, urban environment of dwelling, ventilation behaviour, type of heating, year of construction of building and crowding in the sampling room. In metal-contaminated areas, the transport of heavy metals into the home from external sources and their subsequent resuspension into the air due to normal household activities are significant factors in the exposure to heavy metals, whereas in unpolluted areas indoor sources play the major role.

  4. Detection of phytochelatins in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii exposed to cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongchun; Gao, Xiang; Qiu, Baosheng

    2008-02-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are known to play an essential role in the heavy metal detoxification of some higher plants and fungi by chelating heavy metals. However, three recent papers reported that no PCs could be detected in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance upon cadmium, lead or zinc treatment, respectively. In this paper, PC synthesis was assayed again in the mine population of S. alfredii with the help of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC-mass spectrometry, and HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Our data showed that PC formation could be induced in the leaf, stem and root tissues of S. alfredii upon exposure to 400 microM cadmium, and only in the stem and root when exposed to 700 microM lead. However, no PCs were found in any part of S. alfredii when it was subjected to exposure to 1600 microM zinc.

  5. Determination of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc in Vegetables in Jaipur (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Verma, P S

    2014-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectroscopic method was used for the determination of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in vegetables grown in and around Jaipur food stuffs irrigated with industrial waste water. Vegetable samples were collected after maturity, and analyzed, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea), ladyfinger (Abelmoschus esulentus), pepper mint (Menthe pipereta), brinjal (Solanum melongena), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), onion (Allium cepa), radish (Raphanus sativus), pointedgourd (Trichosanthes dioica), bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria), chilies (Capsicum annum), ribbedgourd (Luffa acutangula) and pumpkin (Curcurbites pepo). The concentration of Lead ranged between 1.40-71.06 ppm, Cadmium 0.61-34.48 ppm and Zinc 0.39-187.26 ppm in vegetable samples. The results reveal that urban consumers are at greater risk of purchasing fresh vegetables with high levels of heavy metal, beyond the permissible limits, as defined by the Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and WHO.

  6. Direct Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper Metal in Tap Water of Delhi (India by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salts of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead and Copper are taken incidentally or accidently and has become of great toxicological importance having toxic effect. In the present study direct determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu metal was carried out from tap water of Delhi (India using differential pulse anodic stripping Voltammeter (DPASV at Hanging mercury dropping electrode (HMDE.Determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu was done using Ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.6 with a sweep rate (scan rate of 59.5 mV/s and pulse amplitude 50mV by HMDE by standard addition method. The solution was stirred during pre-electrolysis at -1150mV (vs. Ag/AgCl for 90 seconds and the potential was scanned from -1150V to +100V (vs..Ag/AgCl. As a result the minimum level of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu was Zero and the concentration observed in the tap water sample of Delhi (India was determined as 0.174 mg/L-1, 0.001 mg/L-1, 0.002 mg/L-1, 0.011 mg/L-1 respectively.

  7. Simultaneous determination of ultra trace amounts of lead and cadmium in food samples by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Shahryar; Khodarahmiyan, Kobra; Abbasi, Freshteh

    2011-09-01

    A selective and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium by adsorptive differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry is presented. The method is based on adsorptive accumulation of the complexes of Pb (II) and Cd (II) ions with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole onto hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE), followed by the reduction of the adsorbed species by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry. Optimal conditions were obtained at pH 8.0, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole concentration of 1.0×10(-4)M, the accumulation potential of -0.4V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the accumulation time of 160s, and the scan rate of 100mV/s. Under optimised conditions, linear calibration curves were established for the concentration of Pb (II) and Cd (II) in the range of 0.5-70 and 0.2-30ng/ml, respectively, with detection limit of 0.017ng/ml for Pb (II) and 0.01ng/ml for Cd (II). The procedure was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of both ions in food samples (rice, soya and sugar). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar [Department of Biotechnology, Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur, Rayagada 765 022, Odisha (India); Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das, E-mail: pkdmvu@gmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • Adsorption of cadmium and lead using hot spring microbial consortium. • Development of empirical models for % adsorption using ANOVA and response surface methodology. • Fitting of the kinetics of adsorption to Freundlich and Langmuir model. • Optimization of the operating parameters to maximize the % of adsorption. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3 g/l; contact time 72 h; microbial concentration, 3 ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis.

  9. Lead and Cadmium Toxicity in Tile Manufacturing Workers in Assiut, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa M Abd Elmaaboud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational lead and cadmium exposure are important health issues in developing countries. This study aimed to detect toxic metal contents in raw materials used to make tiles and to assess exposure health impacts on workers. The study sample consisted of 74 tile workers, having a mean age of 35.2 years, in the Industrial City of Arab El Awamer, Assiut (Egypt. Elemental analysis of the raw materials was performed by using scanning electron microscopy. The data collection questionnaire was divided into two parts; the first included demographic data, symptoms attributed to toxic elements and possible sources of exposure to metals. The second part was designated to assess heavy metal exposure health impacts through clinical examination and biological  investigations. Many toxic elements were identified in the raw materials used to make tiles, and the most abundant were lead and cadmium. Analysis of the clinical data revealed that 66% of the workers suffered from headache, constipation (8%, abdominal colic (33.8% and 30% suffered from a variety of respiratory problems such as dyspnea (60%, cough (13% and chest tightness (27%. Fifty percent of the workers complained of weak grip, 33.8% of foot drop, and 54% had tremors. Burton’s line in gums was present in 28% of workers and 28.2% were diagnosed with constrictive lung diseases. Of the 74 workers, 90.5 % showed toxic lead levels and 80% had toxic cadmium levels. 10.8% had abnormal alpha glutathione levels with a positive strong linear correlation between lead and cadmium levels and years of work. It is mandatory to develop and implement measures to prevent these hazardous exposure effects among tile industry workers.

  10. Removal of Cadmium and Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution by Nanocrystalline Magnetite Through Mechanochemical Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Hosseinzadeh; Seyyed Ali Seyyed Ebrahimi; Shahram Raygan; Seyed Morteza Masoudpanah

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the removal of cadmium and lead ions from aqueous solution by nanocrystalline magnetite was investigated. The nanocrystalline magnetite was synthesized by mechanochemical activation of hematite in a high energy planetary mill in argon atmosphere for 45 hours. The ability of the synthesized nanocrystalline magnetite for removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was studied in a batch reactor under different experimental conditions with different pHs, contact times, ini...

  11. Biologic indicators of exposure to cadmium and lead palmerton, Pennsylvania. Part 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarasua, S.M.; McGeehin, M.A.; Stallings, F.L.; Terracciano, G.L.; Amler, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    In Part 2 of this study, no difference was reported in the results of medical tests of the blood, liver, kidney, and immune systems of participants living in the two study areas. No relationships was found between exposure to cadmium and lead and the immune, liver, and blood system tests. No community wide medical action is needed in Palmerton based on the results of this study. No further site-specific health studies are recommended.

  12. Aromatic N-oxides in construction of different carboxylate coordination polymers of zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rupam; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

    2011-09-01

    The coordination polymers [Zn(C 6H 5COO) 2(PNO)] n ( 1), [Zn 2(C 6H 5COO) 4(4,4'-BPNO)] n ( 2), [Zn 4(C 6H 4C 2O 4) 4(4,4'-BPNO) 2(H 2O) 5] n· nH 2O ( 3), [Cd(C 6H 5COO) 2(PNO)] n ( 4), [Cd 3(C 6H 5COO) 6(4,4'-BPNO) 2] n·2 nH 2O ( 5), [Cd(C 6H 4C 2O 4)(4,4'-BPNO)(H 2O)] n ( 6) and [Hg(C 6H 5COO) 2(4,4'-BPNO) 2] n ( 7), (where PNO = pyridine N-oxide, 4,4'-BPNO = 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide) are synthesized and structurally characterized. The structures of these coordination polymers exhibit mononuclear to trinuclear nodes built by ligation of carboxylate to metal ions connected by N-oxide ligands. Pyridine N-oxide interconnects metal nodes by acting as μ 2-bridging ligand in complexes 1, and 4. In the linear coordination polymer 2, the paddle wheel structure of zinc(II) benzoate units are interconnected by 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide which acts as a bidentate spacer ligand adopting a trans μ 2-η 1 : η 1 coordination mode. The polymeric structure of 3 formed by terephthalate and 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide with zinc(II) contains self-assembled dinuclear Zn 2O 2 type of carboxylate cores, with 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide coordinating through cis μ 2-η 1 : η 1 coordination mode. The cadmium coordination polymer 5, comprising of 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide and benzoate, has trinuclear cadmium benzoate cores wherein the terminal cadmium ions are interconnected by monodentate 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide bridges. The coordination polymer 6 comprises of mononuclear cadmium nodes independently bridged by terephthalate and 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide thereby leading to a 3-fold interpenetrated three dimensional network. Double helical polymeric structure is observed in the coordination polymer 7 derived from mononuclear mercury(II) benzoate nodes bridged by 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide with cis μ 2-η 1 : η 1 coordination mode.

  13. Tracing source pollution in soils using cadmium and lead isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloquet, C; Carignan, J; Libourel, G; Sterckeman, T; Perdrix, E

    2006-04-15

    Tracing the source of heavy metals in the environment is of key importance for our understanding of their pollution and natural cycles in the surface Earth reservoirs. Up to now, most exclusively Pb isotopes were used to effectively trace metal pollution sources in the environment. Here we report systematic variations of Cd isotope ratios measured in polluted topsoils surrounding a Pb-Zn refinery plant in northern France. Fractionated Cd was measured in soil samples surrounding the refinery, and this fractionation can be attributed to the refining processes. Despite the Cd isotopic ratios being precisely measured, the obtained uncertainties are still large compared to the total isotopic variation. Nevertheless, for the first time, Cd isotopically fractionated by industrial processes may be traced in the environment. On the same samples, Pb isotope systematics suggested that materials actually used by the refinery were not the major source of Pb in soils, probably because refined ore origins changed over the 100 years of operation. On the other hand, Cd isotopes and concentrations measured in topsoils allowed identification of three main origins (industrial dust and slag and agriculture), assuming that all Cd ores are not fractionated, as suggested by terrestrial rocks so far analyzed, and calculation of their relative contributions for each sampling point. Understanding that this refinery context was an ideal situation for such a study, our results lead to the possibility of tracing sources of anthropogenic Cd and better constrain mixing processes, fluxes, transport, and phasing out of industrial input in nature.

  14. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Raquel Verola Mataveli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled, consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  15. Determining the content of lead and cadmium in infant food from the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kiczorowska, Bożena

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyse the toxic metals in the baby fruit and vegetable desserts, juices and dinners available on the Polish market, and find that these products a less are safe for infants. The average daily intake of cadmium and lead found in one jar of dessert, one bottle of juice and one jar of baby dinner is, respectively, 0.20 μg (2% of PTDI) and 0.82 μg (2.2% of PTDI), 0.15 μg (2% of PTDI) and 4.86 μg (13.6% of PTDI), and 0.98 μg (10% of PTDI) and 2.36 μg (6.7% of PTDI). It was confirmed that all the examined baby food met the requirements regarding lead and cadmium contamination, and the obtained results were lower than the maximum acceptable level of the contamination with these metals. It may be assumed that fruit and vegetable products available on the Polish market are safe for infants. However, in some products, the levels of cadmium and lead were high.

  16. Cadmium, chromium and lead contamination of Athene noctua, the little owl, of Bologna and Parma, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaroni, A; Amorena, M; Naso, B; Castellani, G; Lucisano, A; Stracciari, G L

    2003-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine cadmium, chromium and lead concentrations in liver and brain of 52 little owls (Athene noctua) from two provinces of Emilia Romagna region, with the aim of furnishing indirect information concerning contamination of their habitat, also considering possible environmental dispersion of the metals. Metal analysis was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with graphite furnace. Variance analysis with sampling area, gender and age shows that no statistical difference was found for gender, while a significant difference (P<0.05) was found for cadmium and lead, but not for chromium, when sampling areas and age were of concern. For all metals highest mean concentrations were found in liver (170 ppb for cadmium, 297 ppb for chromium and 312 ppb for lead). These levels can be considered as indicative of chronic exposure to low and "background" amounts of pollutants and they are of no toxicological concern, as they are always well below the toxic thresholds defined for each metal. The present study can be considered as a starting point for further analyses, aimed to the definition of any possible subtle effect (e.g. effects on enzymes activity) and of any possible correlation between levels of pollutants and appearance of possible adverse effects. It also furnished useful data for diagnostic cases and potentially for monitoring local contamination.

  17. Biosorption of lead, cadmium, and zinc by Citrobacter strain MCM B-181: Characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puranik, P.R.; Paknikar, K.M. [Agharkar Research Inst., Pune (India). Div. of Microbial Sciences

    1999-03-01

    The biosorption process for removal of lead, cadmium, and zinc by Citrobacter strain MCM B-181, a laboratory isolate, was characterized. Effects of environmental factors and growth conditions on metal uptake capacity were studied. Pretreatment of biomass with chemical agents increased cadmium sorption efficiency; however, there was no significant enhancement in lead and zinc sorption capacity. Metal sorption by Citrobacter strain MCM B-181 was found to be influenced by the pH of the solution, initial metal concentration, biomass concentration, and type of growth medium. The metal sorption process was not affected by the age of the culture or change in temperature. Equilibrium metal sorption was found to fit the Langmuir adsorption model. Kinetic studies showed that metal uptake by Citrobacter strain MCm B-181 was a fast process, requiring < 20 min to achieve > 90% adsorption efficiency. The presence of cations reduced lead, zinc, and cadmium sorption to the extent of 11.8%, 84.3%, and 33.4%, respectively. When biomass was exposed to multimetal solutions, metals were adsorbed in the order Co{sup 2+} < Ni{sup 2+} < Cd{sup 2+} < Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} < Pb{sup 2+}. A new mathematical model used for batch kinetic studies was found to be highly useful in prediction of experimentally obtained metal concentration profiles as a function of time.

  18. Content of Cadmium and Lead in Vegetables and Fruits Grown in the Campania Region of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; Picazio, Giuseppe; Serpe, Paola; Lambiase, Sara; Cerino, Pellegrino

    2015-09-01

    Illegal practices of waste combustion and their burial in some land devoted to agricultural crops caused a severe economic crisis of the agriculture and food sector in the Campania region of Italy. To assess the levels of contamination by lead and cadmium, the only metals subject to European Union legislation, a system of monitoring of plant foods in the whole territory of the region has been promoted, with the goal of certifying productions and consumer protection. In fact, products that comply with European Union standards are assigned a Quick Response Code, which guarantees the traceability of the product (manufacturer and location). The code also ensures the safety of the product, as it allows the consumer to see the results of the analysis performed on the specific chain of production. The content of lead and cadmium was determined in 750 vegetable samples by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave mineralization. These levels were below the maximum limits in all but three samples; two samples of tomatoes exceeded the maximum level of cadmium, and one sample of valerian contained an excess of lead.

  19. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  20. Transcriptome profiling reveals similarities and differences in plant responses to cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Igor; Titov, Victor; Hohn, Barbara; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2005-03-01

    We analyzed the influence of salts of two heavy metals--lead and cadmium (Pb2+ and Cd2+) on plants, including plant and root size, plant genome stability as well as global genome expression. Measurement of the metal uptake showed that there was a significantly higher incorporation of Cd than of Pb, 0.6 and 0.15 uM per gram of dry weight, respectively. The analysis of the root length and plant size showed a dose dependent decrease in plants exposed to cadmium. In contrast there was little difference in the size of plants exposed to lead, although there was nearly four-fold increase of the root length. Analysis of the genome stability revealed that cadmium led to a dose dependent increase of homologous recombination whereas lead had no effect. Analysis of the global genome expression of plants chronically exposed to 50 uM of Cd and Pb revealed 65 and 338 up- and down-regulated genes by Cd and 19 and 76 by Pb, respectively. Interestingly, half of the genes that changed their expression in Pb-treated plants also changed their expression in Cd-treated ones. The greater number of genes regulated by Cd reflects generally higher genome instability of plants as well as higher uptake as compared to Pb.

  1. Transcriptome profiling reveals similarities and differences in plant responses to cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, Igor [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alta., T1K 3M4 (Canada); Titov, Victor [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alta., T1K 3M4 (Canada); Hohn, Barbara [Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH4058 Basel (Switzerland); Kovalchuk, Olga [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alta., T1K 3M4 (Canada)]. E-mail: olga.kovalchuk@uleth.ca

    2005-03-01

    We analyzed the influence of salts of two heavy metals--lead and cadmium (Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}) on plants, including plant and root size, plant genome stability as well as global genome expression. Measurement of the metal uptake showed that there was a significantly higher incorporation of Cd than of Pb, 0.6 and 0.15 uM per gram of dry weight, respectively. The analysis of the root length and plant size showed a dose dependent decrease in plants exposed to cadmium. In contrast there was little difference in the size of plants exposed to lead, although there was nearly four-fold increase of the root length. Analysis of the genome stability revealed that cadmium led to a dose dependent increase of homologous recombination whereas lead had no effect. Analysis of the global genome expression of plants chronically exposed to 50 uM of Cd and Pb revealed 65 and 338 up- and down-regulated genes by Cd and 19 and 76 by Pb, respectively. Interestingly, half of the genes that changed their expression in Pb-treated plants also changed their expression in Cd-treated ones. The greater number of genes regulated by Cd reflects generally higher genome instability of plants as well as higher uptake as compared to Pb.

  2. Cadmium and lead in selected tissues of two commercially important fish species from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspić, Z Kljaković; Zvonarić, T; Vrgoc, N; Odzak, N; Barić, A

    2002-12-01

    Baseline levels of cadmium and lead were determined in muscle tissue and liver of hake (Merluccius merluccius) and red mullet (Mullus barbatus), two commercially important fish species from the eastern Adriatic. Concentrations of trace metals in liver (Cd: 6-183 microg kg(-1) w. wt. ; Pb: 39-970 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were within the range of recently published data for the Mediterranean. In the muscle tissue, cadmium concentrations (4.1-29 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were among the lowest reported values for the Mediterranean, whereas lead levels (49-158 microg kg(-1) w. wt.) were within the range of values reported for various coastal areas of the Mediterranean. Presented data on cadmium and lead content in the studied fish species provide no proof of the general pollution of the Adriatic. Obtained data were tested in relation to fish length. Metal concentrations in liver decreased with the increase in fish size, whereas no significant correlation was found between trace metal levels in the muscle tissue and the length of both species. Relationships between metal concentrations and sex were also tested, but they gave no significant results. A comparison of contaminant concentrations in the edible tissue of hake and red mullet with the Croatian legislation shows that the consumption of their meat is not harmful for humans, not even for the most endangered population from the coastal region.

  3. Determination of forbidden and restricted elements lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, antimony, chromium, nickel, barium and strontium in cosmetic products by ICP-AES%ICP-AES法测定化妆品中铅、镉、砷、汞、锑、铬、镍、钡、锶等禁限用元素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴骐; 林晓娜; 吴艳燕; 楼士铭; 陈俊晓

    2012-01-01

    建立了化妆品中铅(Pb)、镉(Cd)、砷(As)、汞(Hg)、锑(Sb)、铬(Cr)、镍(Ni)、钡(Ba)、锶(Sr)含量的电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法(ICP-AES)同步检测技术.采用微波消解,在较难消化的化妆品中加HF进行消化,铑(Rh)为内标元素消除基体干扰,以配备耐HF进样系统的ICP-AES进行测定.在0~1.0 mg/L 范围内呈现良好的线性关系(相关系数≥0.9999),Pb、Cd、As、Hg、Sb、Cr、Ni、Ba、Sr 检出限分别为0.0016,0.0007,0.0021,0.0013,0.0003,0.0009,0.0008,0.0009,0.0021 mg/L,方法回收率80.2%~111%,精密度1.7%~8.2%.结果表明,该方法适用于检测基体复杂的化妆品中Pb、Cd、As、Hg、Sb、Cr、Ni、Ba、Sr.%A method for the determination of the forbidden and restricted elements lead(Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercur(Hg), antimony (Sb), Chroium(Cr), Nickel (Ni) , barium (Ba)and strontiume (Sr) in cosmetic products by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-AES) was developed. The sample was microwave digested with HNO3 H2O2 and HF, then detected by ICP-AES. This method achieves practical quantitation limits for the 9 elements of 0.0016,0.0007,0.0021,0.0013,0.0003,0. 0009,0.0008,0.0009, 0. 0021 mg/L, respectively. The correlation coefficients of calibration curves in the range of 0 to 1.0 mg/L were more than 0. 9999. The recoveries and precision of the method were 80. 2% -111% and 1. 7% ~ 8. 2%. This level of measurement allows for the accurate assessment of 9 forbidden and restricted elements in cosmetic food.

  4. Study of Sage (Salvia officinalis L. Cultivation in Condition of Using Irrigated Water Polluted By Cadmium and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Amirmoradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accumulation of heavy metals in agronomic soils continuously by contaminated waste waters not only causes to contamination of soils but also it affects food quality and security. Cadmium and lead are one of the most important heavy metals due to long permanence and persistence in soil can cause problems to human and animal health. Some medicinal plants are able to accumulate of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Heavy metals are not able to enter in the essential oil of some aromatic plants. Study of these plants helps human to select them for cultivating the resistant medicinal plants in contaminated soils. Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out in the research greenhouse of agriculture faculty of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2011. Seeds were cultivated in planting aprons into peat moss medium. Then the uniform plantlets were transferred into soil in the plastic boxes (30×50×35 cm at two leaf stage. In each box 6 plantlets were sown with distance of 15 cm on the planting rows and 20 cm between rows. Experiment was set up as factorial on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was cadmium concentrations consisted of 0,10,20,40 mg per kilogram and the second factor was lead concentrations consisted of 0,100,300 and 600 mg/kg. Plants were irrigated during of15 weeks with cadmium and lead nitrogen nitrate solutions and then irrigated with distilled water. The differences of nitrogen amounts in treatments were compensated with ammonium nitrate on the basis of differences between level of the highest treatment and the treatment which obtained lower amount of nitrogen. Plants were harvested after 180 days at the beginning of flowering. All shoots and roots were weighted separately as fresh weight and then were dried under shading and then were weighted. The essential oil sage was determined by using of 30 grams of dried sage leaves with distillation method with

  5. Evaluation of estimated daily intake (EDI) of cadmium and lead for rice (Oryza sativa L.) in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamannejadian, Ali; Sayyad, Gholamabbas; Moezzi, Abdolamir; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2013-04-08

    The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva) of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8 μg/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium); and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead). The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59 μg/day kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1 μg/day kg bw). Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71%) exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47 μg/day kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6 μg/day kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region.

  6. Evaluation of Estimated Daily Intake (EDI of Cadmium and Lead for Rice (Oryza sativa L. in Calcareous Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Chamannejadian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amounts of cadmium and lead in food chain can cause health problems for humans and ecosystem. Rice is an important food in human diet. Therefore this study was conducted in order to investigate cadmium and Lead concentrations in seed rice (Oryza saliva of paddy fields in southwest of Iran. A total of 70 rice seed samples were collected from paddy fields in five regions of Khuzestan province, Southwest Iran, during harvesting time. In the samples cadmium and Lead concentrations were measured. To assess the daily intake of Cadmium and Lead by rice, daily consumption of rice was calculated. The results showed that average concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in rice seeds were 273.6 and 121.8 μg/kg, respectively. Less than 72% of rice seed samples had Cadmium concentrations above 200 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for cadmium; and less than 3% had Lead concentrations above 150 μg/kg (i.e. Guide value for Lead. The estimated daily intakes of cadmium by the local population was calculated to 0.59 μg/day kg bw, which corresponds to 59% of the tolerable daily intakes (i.e. 1 μg/day kg bw. Eleven out of 70 samples (15.71% exceed the tolerable daily intakes. The dietary intakes for Lead in the local population ranged from 0.22 to 0.47 μg/day kg bw. Tolerable daily intakes for Lead is 3.6 μg/day kg bw. As a whole, long term consumption of the local rice may bear high risk of heavy metal exposure to the consumer in the study region.

  7. The phytochelatin transporters AtABCC1 and AtABCC2 mediate tolerance to cadmium and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Song, Won-Yong; Ko, Donghwi; Eom, Yujin; Hansen, Thomas H; Schiller, Michaela; Lee, Tai Gyu; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) are toxic pollutants that are detrimental to living organisms. Plants employ a two-step mechanism to detoxify toxic ions. First, phytochelatins bind to the toxic ion, and then the metal-phytochelatin complex is sequestered in the vacuole. Two ABCC-type transporters, AtABCC1 and AtABCC2, that play a key role in arsenic detoxification, have recently been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is unclear whether these transporters are also implicated in phytochelatin-dependent detoxification of other heavy metals such as Cd(II) and Hg(II). Here, we show that atabcc1 single or atabcc1 atabcc2 double knockout mutants exhibit a hypersensitive phenotype in the presence of Cd(II) and Hg(II). Microscopic analysis using a Cd-sensitive probe revealed that Cd is mostly located in the cytosol of protoplasts of the double mutant, whereas it occurs mainly in the vacuole of wild-type cells. This suggests that the two ABCC transporters are important for vacuolar sequestration of Cd. Heterologous expression of the transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed their role in heavy metal tolerance. Over-expression of AtABCC1 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced Cd(II) tolerance and accumulation. Together, these results demonstrate that AtABCC1 and AtABCC2 are important vacuolar transporters that confer tolerance to cadmium and mercury, in addition to their role in arsenic detoxification. These transporters provide useful tools for genetic engineering of plants with enhanced metal tolerance and accumulation, which are desirable characteristics for phytoremediation.

  8. Catalase Activity in Brown Mussels (Perna perna) under Acute Cadmium, Lead, and Copper Exposure and Depuration Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boudjema, Kamel; Kourdali, Sidali; Bounakous, Nabila; Meknachi, Abdellah; Badis, Abdelmalek

    2014-01-01

      Brown mussels (Perna perna) were exposed to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations under acute exposure and exposure-depuration tests for the estimation of biochemical biomarker catalase...

  9. Toxicity of cadmium and lead on tropical midge larvae, Chironomus kiiensis Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus Kieffer (Diptera:Chironomidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Warrin Ebau; Che Salmah Md Rawi; Zubir Din; Salman Abdo Al-Shami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the acute toxicity of cadmium and lead on larvae of two tropical Chironomid species, Chironomus kiiensis (C. kiiensis) Tokunaga and Chironomus javanus (C. javanus) Kieffer. Methods: Different larval instars (first-fourth) were exposed using a static non-replacement testing procedures to various concentrations of cadmium and lead. Results:In general, younger larvae (first and second instars) of both species were more sensitive to both metals than older larvae (third and forth instars). The toxic effects of the metals on C. kiiensis and C. javanus were influenced by the age of the larvae (first to fourth instars), types of metals (cadmium or lead) and duration of larval exposure (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) to the metals. Conclusions: Cadmium was more toxic to the chironomids than lead and C. javanus was significantly more sensitive to both metals than C. kiiensis (P<0.05).

  10. Applications of Crown Ether Cross-Linked Chitosan for the Analysis of Lead and Cadmium in Environmental Water Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new type of crown ether cross-linked chitosan was synthesized by the reaction of chitosan with 4,4'-dibromodibenzo-18-crown-6 (Br-DBC). Its token structure was analyzed with FT-IR and NMR and the adsorption behaviors for lead and cadmium in environmental water samples by FAAS were studied. In addition the best analysis conditions were discussed and the adsorption mechanism was explained. As the enrichment factor is above 100, both recoveries are 94%-106%, the detection limits of lead and cadmium are 0.5μg*L-1and 0.04 μg*L-1 and the relatively standard deviations of lead and cadmium are 3.1% and 2.8% respectively, this new method was successfully applied to the determination of environmental water samples. This method is fast and simple and it greatly enhances the determination ability of FAAS for lead and cadmium.

  11. Bioassessment of mercury, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in the upper Mississippi River with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W. Gregory; Bartsch, Michelle; Rada, Ronald G.; Balogh, Steven J.; Rupprecht, John E.; Young, R. David; Johnson, D. Kent

    1999-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were sampled from artificial substrates deployed from May 30 to October 19, 1995, at 19 locks and dams from Minneapolis, MN, to Muscatine, IA. Analyses of composite tissue samples of zebra mussels (10-20-mm length) revealed accumulation of mercury(Hg), cadmium (Cd), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during a 143-d exposure period. Concentrations of total Hg ranged from 2.6 to 6.1 ng/g wet weight and methylmercury (CH3Hg) from 1.0 to 3.3 ng/g wet weight. About 50% (range 30-70%) of the mean total Hg in zebra mussels was CH3Hg. Cadmium ranged from 76 to 213 ng/g wet weight. Concentrations of total PCBs (Aroclor 1254) in zebra mussels varied longitudinally (range 1000-7330 ng/g lipid weight), but the composition of PCB congeners (total of 21 measured) was similar throughout the river. Chlordane and dieldrin were the only two pesticides detected of the 15 analyzed. Zebra mussels are sentinels of contaminant bioavailability in the Upper Mississippi River and may be an important link in the trophic transfer of contaminants in the river because of their increasing importance in the diets of certain fish and waterfowl.

  12. Lead and Cadmium Concentration in Agricultural Crops (Lettuce, Cabbage, Beetroot, and Onion of Isfahan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohajer

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that although most of the sampling plants were contaminated with lead and cadmium, the estimated daily intake of each metal (EDI showed that except lead in lettuce, other crops have EDI below the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI recommended by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. In order to better management, preventing pollution and also finding the origin of elements, analyzing heavy metals content in soil, water, and dust of this region is recommended.

  13. THE EVALUATION OF NICKEL, CHROMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY CONTENT IN SWEET CORN

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    Miriama Kopernická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of monitoring, we have focused on the analysis of the levels of nickel, chromium, lead and mercury in 9 samples of sweet corn (frozen and canned from the commercial network of the Slovak Republic. Homogenised samples of sweet corn were mineralized using microwave digestion unit MARS X-press and next analysed by atomic absorption spectrometer VARIAN 240 FS for tested metal concentration, excluding mercury which was was determined by automatic mercury analyser AMA 254.Nickel content in all samples was in the range of 0.376 – 0.556 mg.kg-1, chromium content was 0.088 – 0.546 mg.kg-1, lead content was 0.054 – 0.146 mg.kg-1 and mercury content was 0.000013 – 0.011458 mg.kg-1. The measured values have been compared with the limit values set out legislation for the maximum quantity of hazardous elements according to the Food Code of the Slovak Republic. From the point of view of the sanitary evaluation, the content of nickel, chromium, lead and mercury were not exceeded in either sample.

  14. Exposure of cultured human proximal tubular cells to cadmium, mercury, zinc and bismuth: toxicity and metallothionein induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, V; Miles, A T; Jenner, W; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-08-14

    The kidney, in particular the proximal convoluted tubule, is a major target site for the toxic effects of various metals. However, little is known about the early effects of these metals after acute exposure in man. In the present study we have evaluated the toxicity of several inorganic metal compounds (CdCl2, HgCl2, ZnCl2, and Bi(NO3)3) and the induction of metallothionein by these compounds in cultured human proximal tubular (HPT) cells for up to 4 days. The results showed that bismuth was not toxic even at the highest dose (100 microM) used, while zinc, cadmium and mercury exhibited varying degrees of toxicity, zinc being the least toxic and mercury the most potent. A significant degree of interindividual variation between the different isolates used in these experiments was also observed. All metals used in the present study induced MT, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. All metals showed maximal induction between 1 and 3 days after treatment. Although a certain amount of constitutive MT was present in the cultures, the intensity of the staining varied with time in culture and between the different isolates studied. No correlation could be made between the intensity of the staining in control cultures (indicating total amount of constitutive MT) and the susceptibility of a given isolate to metal toxicity. Furthermore, no correlation could be made between metal-induced MT and the susceptibility of a given isolate to that particular metal.

  15. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence and associations with air concentrations of lead, mercury, and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Aisha S; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Bakian, Amanda V; Bilder, Deborah A; Harrington, Rebecca A; Pettygrove, Sydney; Kirby, Russell S; Durkin, Maureen S; Han, Inkyu; Moyé, Lemuel A; Pearson, Deborah A; Wingate, Martha Slay; Zahorodny, Walter M

    2016-07-01

    Lead, mercury, and arsenic are neurotoxicants with known effects on neurodevelopment. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder apparent by early childhood. Using data on 4486 children with ASD residing in 2489 census tracts in five sites of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, we used multi-level negative binomial models to investigate if ambient lead, mercury, and arsenic concentrations, as measured by the US Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (EPA-NATA), were associated with ASD prevalence. In unadjusted analyses, ambient metal concentrations were negatively associated with ASD prevalence. After adjusting for confounding factors, tracts with air concentrations of lead in the highest quartile had significantly higher ASD prevalence than tracts with lead concentrations in the lowest quartile (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.36; 95 '% CI: 1.18, 1.57). In addition, tracts with mercury concentrations above the 75th percentile (>1.7 ng/m(3)) and arsenic concentrations below the 75th percentile (≤0.13 ng/m(3)) had a significantly higher ASD prevalence (adjusted RR = 1.20; 95 % CI: 1.03, 1.40) compared to tracts with arsenic, lead, and mercury concentrations below the 75th percentile. Our results suggest a possible association between ambient lead concentrations and ASD prevalence and demonstrate that exposure to multiple metals may have synergistic effects on ASD prevalence.

  16. Towards prenatal biomonitoring in Nanjing, China: lead and cadmium levels in the duration of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kang-sheng; MAO Xiao-dong; HAO Jia-hu; SHI Juan; DAI Chun-fang; CHEN Wen-jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal lead and cadmium exposure will not only influence the mother's organ systems,but also will provide an environment that may influence the fetus and neonate in a harmful way.In the present study,we detected the blood lead levels (BLLS) and cadmium levels for the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery and to analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.Methods A cohort study survey was carried out.We recruited 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnancy or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes as the gravida group,and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group.Results The lead concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and in the postpartum period were:(5.98±2.43),(5.54±2.01),(5.59±1.97),and (6.76±1.74) μg/dl; and (6.75±2.13) μg/dl in the control group.The cadmium concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum period were 1.61±0.45,1.63±0.46,1.64±0.49,and 1.67±0.57.We found that the BLLs in the gravida group were lower than in the control group during all three trimesters.Occupations,supplement nutritional elements (dietary supplements and nutritional (food) elements),and the time of house painting could affect BLLs in pregnant women.Lead-related occupations,using cosmetics,and living in a house painted more recently than one year previously are risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women,while calcium,iron,zinc,and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusions These findings may help people,especially pregnant women,to reduce lead exposure via supplements of calcium,iron,zinc,and milk or avoiding contacting risk factors.

  17. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to detemine the body burden of lead and cadmium in women aged 50 to 59 years from a mining and smelter area (Hettstedt) and two control areas (Bitterfeld, Zerbst) in eastern Germany. In the years 1992-93 1405 women aged 50 to 59 participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate: 41.6%). 1188 women provided blood and urine samples and in 411 of these samples blood lead levels and cadmium levels in urine (standardised by creatinine) were determined. The geometric mean of blood lead levels among the 50 to 59 year-old woman was 41.5 {mu}g/l with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 39.6-43.6. The geometric mean of cadmium in urine was 0.417 {mu}g/g Cr (95% C.I. 0.390-0.447). Thus the body burden of lead and cadmium differed only slightly, if at all, from the body burden of the general population. The measured body burden did not pose a risk to the evaluated population. Compared to women from the control regions Bitterfeld and Zerbst, women from Hettstedt did not have elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels, which reflect mostly the current exposure to lead, were positively influenced by individual behaviours such as smoking and by the distance of the residential area of Hettstedt from the former smelters. Besides this, elevated lead concentrations in tap water and the release of lead from bone after menopause resulted in increased blood lead levels. Compared to women from the control regions women from Hettstedt had significantly increased cadmium excretion in urine. Cadmium levels in urine reflect mainly the cumulative, lifetime exposure to cadmium. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung hatte zum Ziel, die innere Belastung von Frauen mit Blei und Cadmium in den Regionen Hettstedt (Huettenstandort), Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu untersuchen. 1992/93 nahmen 1405 50- bis 59-jaehrige Frauen an einer Querschnittsuntersuchung teil (Teilnahmerate: 41,6%). In 411 Blut- bzw. Urin-Proben wurden die Bleikonzentration im Blut und die

  18. Lead and cadmium contents in a medicinal plant/spice grown in an urban city of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olateju Dolapo Adeyolanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to heavy metals is a growing concern across Nigerian urban settings due to potential danger from consuming plants grown on contaminated soils. This study assessed the contents of lead and cadmium in soil and basil (Ocimum basilicum Lamiaceae grown by vegetable farmers in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Using grid method, 36 points were located to collect soil samples at 0–15 and 15–30 cm depths, while plant samples were also collected simultaneously. The contents of lead and cadmium in soil and plants were determined and results were subjected to descriptive statistics while the transfer factor (TF was calculated. Lead ranged from 1.85 mg kg−1 at the topsoil to 2.54 mg kg−1 at subsoil. Cadmium varied from 0.99 mg kg−1 at the topsoil to 1.41 mg kg−1 at subsoil. Average TF were 0.21 for Pb and 0.35 for cadmium. Distribution of lead and cadmium increased in order leaf < stem < root indicating that the root of basil may be useful in bioremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Although, the levels of lead and cadmium contents in the basil leaf are lower than other parts, there could be accumulation of these metals through long-term consumption of the leaf.

  19. Development of a novel kinetic model for the analysis of PAH biodegradation in the presence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Michael E; Ekumankama, Chinedu C; Cummings, Stephen P

    2016-04-15

    We report on the results of a 40 week study in which the biodegradation of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was followed in microcosms containing soil of high organic carbon content (11%) in the presence and absence of lead and cadmium co-contaminants. The total spiked PAH concentration was 2166mg/kg. Mercury amendment was also made to give an abiotic control. A novel kinetic model has been developed to explain the observed biphasic nature of PAH degradation. The model assumes that PAHs are distributed across soil phases of varying degrees of bioaccessibility. The results of the analysis suggest that overall percentage PAH loss is dependent on the respective rates at which the PAHs (a) are biodegraded by soil microorganisms in pore water and bioaccessible soil phases and (b) migrate from bioaccessible to non-bioaccessible soil phases. In addition, migration of PAHs to non-bioaccessible and non-Soxhlet-extractable soil phases associated with the humin pores gives rise to an apparent removal process. The presence of metal co-contaminants shows a concentration dependent inhibition of the biological degradation processes that results in a reduction in overall degradation. Lead appears to have a marginally greater inhibitory effect than cadmium.

  20. Charge Carrier Processes in Photovoltaic Materials and Devices: Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots and Cadmium Telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Paul

    Charge separation, transport, and recombination represent fundamental processes for electrons and holes in semiconductor photovoltaic devices. Here, two distinct materials systems, based on lead sulfide quantum dots and on polycrystalline cadmium telluride, are investigated to advance the understanding of their fundamental nature for insights into the material science necessary to improve the technologies. Lead sulfide quantum dots QDs have been of growing interest in photovoltaics, having recently produced devices exceeding 10% conversion efficiency. Carrier transport via hopping through the quantum dot thin films is not only a function of inter-QD distance, but of the QD size and dielectric media of the surrounding materials. By conducting temperature dependent transmission, photoluminescence, and time resolved photoluminescence measurements, we gain insight into photoluminescence quenching and size-dependent carrier transport through QD ensembles. Turning to commercially relevant cadmium telluride (CdTe), we explore the high concentrations of self-compensating defects (donors and acceptors) in polycrystalline thin films via photoluminescence from recombination at defect sites. Low temperature (25 K) photoluminescence measurements of CdTe reveal numerous radiative transitions due to exciton, trap assisted, and donor-acceptor pair recombination events linked with various defect states. Here we explore the difference between films deposited via close space sublimation (CSS) and radio frequency magnetron sputtering, both as-grown and following a cadmium chloride treatment. The as-grown CSS films exhibited a strong donor-acceptor pair transition associated with deep defect states. Constructing photoluminescence spectra as a function of time from time-resolved photoluminescence data, we report on the temporal evolution of this donor-acceptor transition. Having gained insight into the cadmium telluride film quality from low temperature photoluminescence measurements

  1. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  2. Effects of lead and mercury on the blood proteome of children

    OpenAIRE

    Birdsall, Robert E.; Kiley, Michael P.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Christopher D. Palmer; Madera, Milan; Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Parsons,Patrick J.; Mechref, Yehia; Novotny, Milos V.; Bendinskas, Kestutis G.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal exposure in children has been associated with a variety of physiological and neurological problems. The goal of this study was to utilize proteomics to enhance the understanding of biochemical interactions responsible for the health problems related to lead and mercury exposure at concentrations well below CDC guidelines. Blood plasma and serum samples from 34 children were ...

  3. Mutagenesis of AS52 cells by low concentrations of lead(II) and mercury(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, M E; Williams, M V

    1996-01-01

    Little is known at the molecular level concerning the genotoxic effects following the acute exposure of eukaryotic cells to low concentrations of lead (II) or mercury (II). There have been conflicting reports concerning the mutagenic potential of these heavy metals, and there have not been any studies performed to determine the molecular mechanism(s) by which these metals are mutagenic. The Chinese hamster ovary cell line, AS52, contains a stably integrated single functional copy of the Escherichia coli xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene. Mutations in the gpt gene confer resistance to 6-thioguanine (TG). There was little effect on viability, as measured by relative cloning efficiency, of AS52 cells exposed to lead (II) or mercury (II) up to concentrations of 0.5 microM and 0.3 microM, respectively. However, higher concentrations of the metals caused a significant increase in cell death. There was also a dose-dependent increase in the isolation of mutants resistant to TG in treated cells when compared to non-treated controls. Concentrations of the metals as low as 0.1 microM caused a significant increase in the number of mutants resistant to TG when compared to the number of spontaneous mutants obtained in nontreated controls. While the molecular mechanism(s) by which lead and mercury (II) are genotoxic is unknown, the results of this study demonstrate that low concentrations of lead (II) and mercury (II) are mutagenic in eukaryotic cells.

  4. The influence of zinc on the uptake and loss of cadmium and lead in the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, B

    2000-09-01

    Uptake of cadmium, lead, and zinc was studied in juvenile Porcellio scaber in feeding experiments over 5 months. The metals were offered separately and in different combinations and concentrations in the food. The ability of P. scaber to eliminate the accumulated metals was studied subsequently for 3 months on uncontaminated food. Characteristic patterns of accumulation are described for the three metals. The combination of lead and zinc resulted in only minor differences in these patterns. On the other hand, the combination of zinc and cadmium at high concentrations completely changed the accumulation patterns for both metals. Not only cadmium but also zinc was excreted by P. scaber exclusively when the animals had been contaminated with both metals. In contrast both metals were stored permanently when offered separately. Possible reasons for the interactions of cadmium and zinc are discussed.

  5. Heavy Metals (Lead and Cadmium in some Medicinal Herbal Products in Iranian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mousavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of herbal or medicinal plants in various forms has been popular for thousands of years. It is estimated that about 70–80% of the world’s population relies on alternative medicine, mainly of herbal origin. However, due to the nature and sources of these plants, they are sometimes contaminated with toxic heavy metals, which pose serious health risks to consumers. Herbal formulations, especially those used in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and weight loss may require long-term usage and the patient might be at risk of heavy metal poisoning. In this study, the levels of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cd were evaluated in 11 Iranian common herbal drugs for their health implications. Methods: In this investigation, concentrations of lead and cadmium were quantitatively determined in Iranian herbal drugs sampled from pharmacies in Tehran, Iran, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (wet digestion. Results: The results indicated that lead and cadmium were present in all investigated herbal drugs. The concentrations of metals in drugs ranged from 0.19 to 1.75 µg/g for Cd and 9.61 to 52.74 µg/g for Pb. Conclusion: The concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher than the maximum permissible daily levels in the majority of these herbal drugs, whereas the quantities of Pb and Cd were well below provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI. Daily total intake of these metals is considered in accord with the recommended daily intake of their corresponding formulations.

  6. Protective effect of boric acid on lead- and cadmium-induced genotoxicity in V79 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustündağ, Aylin; Behm, Claudia; Föllmann, Wolfram; Duydu, Yalçin; Degen, Gisela H

    2014-06-01

    The toxic heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are important environmental pollutants which can cause serious damage to human health. As the metal ions (Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) accumulate in the organism, there is special concern regarding chronic toxicity and damage to the genetic material. Metal-induced genotoxicity has been attributed to indirect mechanisms, such as induction of oxidative stress and interference with DNA repair. Boron is a naturally occurring element and considered to be an essential micronutrient, although the cellular activities of boron compounds remain largely unexplored. The present study has been conducted to evaluate potential protective effects of boric acid (BA) against genotoxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and lead chloride (PbCl2) in V79 cell cultures. Cytotoxicity assays (neutral red uptake and cell titer blue assay) served to determine suitable concentrations for subsequent genotoxicity assays. Chromosomal damage and DNA strand breaks were assessed by micronucleus tests and comet assays. Both PbCl2 and CdCl2 (at 3, 5 and 10 µM) were shown to induce concentration-dependent increases in micronucleus frequencies and DNA strand breaks in V79 cells. BA itself was not cytotoxic (up to 300 µM) and showed no genotoxic effects. Pretreatment of cells with low levels of BA (2.5 and 10 µM) was found to strongly reduce the genotoxic effects of the tested metals. Based on the findings of this in vitro study, it can be suggested that boron provides an efficient protection against the induction of DNA strand breaks and micronuclei by lead and cadmium. Further studies on the underlying mechanisms for the protective effect of boron are needed.

  7. Analysis of Lead and Zinc by Mercury-Free Potentiometric Stripping Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for trace-element analysis of lead and zinc by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) where both the glassy-carbon working electrode and the electrolyte are free of mercury. Analysis of zinc requires an activation procedure of the glassy-carbon electrode. The activation...... is performed by pre-concentrating zinc on glassy carbon at -1400 mV(SCE) in a mercury-free electrolyte containing 0.1 M HCl and 2 ppm Zn2+, followed by stripping at approx. -1050 mV. A linear relationship between stripping peak areas, recorded in the derivative mode, and concentration was found...

  8. The relationship between bone health and plasma zinc, copper lead and cadmium concentration in osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Behfar, Abdolazim; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Saadatmand, Sahereh

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a multi factorial disease with dimension of genetic and nutritional considerations. The aim of this study was to present data from the association of plasma zinc, copper and toxic elements of lead and cadmium levels with bone mineral density in Iranian women. 135 women gave their information and enrolled. Fasting plasma was used for measurement of trace elements and heavy metals by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Control group (n = 51) were normal in both lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck density (T-score ≥ -1), but just femoral neck T-score was considered as criterion in selection of patient group (n = 49, Tscore T-score > -1.7), 1.463 ± 0.174, 1.327 ± 0.147 μg/ml in Severe patient group (T-score < -1.7); respectively. Mean ± SD plasma level of lead and cadmium was 168.42 ± 9.61 ng/l, 2.91 ± 0.18 ng/ml in control group, 176.13 ± 8.64 ng/l, 2.97 ± 0.21 ng/ml in TP, 176.43 ± 13.2 ng/l, 2.99 ± 0.1 ng/ml in mild patients, 221.44 ± 20 ng/l and 3.80 ± 0.70 ng/ml in severe patient group, respectively. In this study plasma zinc, copper, lead & cadmium concentrations were higher in the patients than in the control, though differences were not significant. However, differences were higher between the controls and patients with severe disease (T-score < -1.7). In addition adjusted T-score of femur with age and BMI showed negative significant correlation with plasma levels of zinc and lead in total participants (p < 0.05, r = -0.201, p = 0.044, r = -0.201). It seems that more extensive study with larger ample size might supply definite results about this association for copper and cadmium.

  9. Cadmium and lead levels consumed by patients with oral hospital diets prescriptions.

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Júlia Sommerlatte Manzoli de; Fernandes, Isabela da Costa; Moreira, Daniele Caroline Faria; Milani, Raquela F.; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Quintaes, Késia Diego

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in foods should be monitored as a function of health risks. Objective: To evaluate Cd and Pb levels in oral hospital diets and in an oral food complement (OFC) according to their respective consumption by patients, and to estimate the patient’s exposition risk. Methods: The levels of Cd and Pb were determined by ICP-OES in samples of regular, blend, soft and renal diets and OFC, collected on 6 weekdays. About 14.3% of the diets and OFC se...

  10. Relationship between lead, cadmium, zinc, manganese and iron in hair of environmentally exposed subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Mehra; Amit Singh Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Trace level analysis of two toxic metals lead and cadmium and three essential metals zinc, manganese and iron was examined in hair of 25 workers of metals finishing units and metal recycling units of State of Rajasthan, India, as Exposed Group (EG). Twenty-five subjects as controls were selected from the office staff of the same units Control Group A (CGA) and 25 subjects selected from the population of State of Rajasthan, India, who were not exposed to metal pollution at their work place wer...

  11. Determination of cadmium, chromium, lead and vanadium in six fish species from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, A; Ciaralli, L; Ciprotti, M; Giordano, R; Funari, E; Costantini, S

    2003-06-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead and vanadium were determined in samples of six fish species collected along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The concentrations of the elements studied were generally low, often below the detection limits of the analytical methods. The highest values (microg x kg(-1) fresh weight) were observed, mainly in the central area of the Adriatic Sea, for anchovy (Cd 20.2, Cr 82.9, Pb 45.9, V 89.9), red mullet (Cd 3.1, Cr 31.0, Pb 36.0, V 79.1) and mackerel (Cd 7.7, Cr 28.0, Pb 11.4, V 43.5). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in all the species examined were below the maximum levels indicated by the European Community for these two elements in seafood, and also would lead to exposure levels lower than the provisional tolerable daily intakes suggested by the FAO/WHO for Cd (420 microg x week(-1) for a 60-kg person) and Pb (1500 microg x week(-1) for a 60-kg person). The concentration of chromium was lower than the recommended daily amount (50-200 microg x day(-1) for a 60-kg person) indicated by the US National Research Council. An 11-34% contribution to the daily vanadium ingestion with fish was calculated for the population of the Adriatic coast.

  12. Biosorption of mercury by Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida: Influence of zinc, cadmium and nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josefina Plaza; Marisa Viera; Edgardo Donati; Eric Guibal

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the adsorption of Hg(Ⅱ) on Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida in monometallic system in the presence of Zn(Ⅱ),Cd(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ).The two biosorbents reached the same maximum sorption capacity (qm =0.8 mmol/g) for mercury.U.pinnatifida showed a greater affinity (given by the coefficient b of the Langmuir equation) for mercury compared to M.pyrifera (4.4 versus 2.7 L/mmol).Mercury uptake was significantly reduced (by more than 50%) in the presence of competitor heavy metals such as Zn(Ⅱ),Cd(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ).Samples analysis using an environmental scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed that mercury was heterogeneously adsorbed on the surface of both biomaterials,while the other heavy metals were homogeneous distributed.The analysis of biosorbents by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry indicated that Hg(Ⅱ)binding occurred on S=O (sulfonate) and N-H (amine) functional groups.

  13. Removal of Cadmium(II and Lead(II ions from aqueous phase on sodic bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Stella Gaona Galindo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the adsorption of Cd2+and Pb2+ions using sodic bentonite clay type Fluidgel modified. The Fluidgelbefore and after chemical modification and thermal activation was characterized by different techniques including X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared, surface area, helium pycnometry, cation exchange capacity and scanning electron microscopy. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intra-particle diffusion models were used to analyze the kinetic curves. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The thermodynamic study indicated that lead adsorption process is endothermic and interactions between clays and solutions of lead occurred spontaneously, while cadmium adsorption revealed an exothermic and spontaneous nature. The maximum removal efficiencies were 97.62% for Cd(II using Fluidgelmodified chemically and 91.08% for lead by Fluidgel modified chemical and thermally.

  14. Lead and Cadmium: Priorities for action from UNEP’s perspective for addressing risks posed by these two heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP has been focusing on actions with regard to lead and cadmium since 2001 when the work of the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV was initiated. The development and finalization of the reviews of scientific information on lead and cadmium facilitated discussions among Governments in relation to the need for global action with regard to these heavy metals. UNEP continues to address priority areas for focusing to reduce risks posed by lead and cadmium. The Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint (GAELP is a clear example for addressing those risks; however more work is expected to be done in relation to these key issues.

  15. Accumulation of Cadmium and Lead in Soils and Vegetables of Lenjanat Region in Isfahan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi M. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various heavy metals have been reported as dangerous agents to the human health and wildlife when they occur in the environment at high concentrations. Cadmium and lead compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. Vegetables grown at environmentally contaminated sites could take up and accumulate metals at concentrations that are probably toxic to human health. In this study, concentrations of cadmium and lead in some of vegetables and soil samples were investigated in different areas of a developed industrial city in Isfahan province, Central Iran. One hundred and thirty topsoil samples and fifty samples of vegetables were collected from agricultural lands and analyzed for heavy metals. The concentration of Pb and Cd was more than 5 and 0.5 mg kg−1, respectively. The total of Cd concentration in most of the soil samples exceeded the suggested Swiss thresholds (0.8 mg kg−1. The results showed that 48% and 75% of the vegetables samples had concentrations of Cd and Pb exceeded the FAO-WHO limits, respectively. Results from the present study demonstrate that the most of the plants grown on the soils of this region, contaminated with heavy metals, and pose a major health concern.

  16. Evaluation of the cadmium and lead phytoextraction by castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Z. X.; Sun, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoextraction has been considered as an innovative method to remove toxic metals from soil; higher biomass plants such as castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) have already been considered as a hyperaccumulating candidate. In the present study, castor bean was used to accumulate the cadmium and lead in hydroponic culture, and the root exudates and biomass changes were analyzed. Results demonstrated that ratios of aerial biomass/ root biomass (AW/RW) in treatments declined with concentrations of Cd or Pb. Optical density (OD) at 190 nm and 280 nm of root exudates observed in Cd and Pb treatments were lower than the control. In single Cd or Pb treatments, bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Cd or Pb increased with time and decreased with concentrations, the highest BCFs appeared in Cd5 (14.36) and Pb50 (6.48), respectively. Cd-BCF or Pb-BCF showed positive correlations with AW/RW ratios and OD values, and they were negative correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. Results in this study may supply useful information for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium and lead in situ.

  17. Monitoring the sensitivity of selected crops to lead, cadmium and arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piršelová B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are highly toxic environmental pollutants. In plants, these compounds cause numerous slighter or stronger toxic effects. They inhibit root and shoot growth and yield production, affect nutrient uptake and homeostasis, and are frequently accumulated by agriculturally important crops. Effects of heavy metals on five selected species of agricultural crops were monitored. We focused our attention to general and commonly used stress indicators such as seed germination, weight and length of roots and shoots. Each of these characteristics was dependent on the tested plant species and tested heavy metals. Dosage of lead (500 mg/l had little effect on seed germination, cadmium (300 mg/l significantly affected seed germination of pea and barley, arsenic (100 mg/l caused total inhibition of seed germination in all tested plant species. Plants grow in soil contaminated with heavy metals showed several symptoms of metal toxicity (chlorosis, necrosis of leaf tips, blackening of roots. In general, the highest tolerance to tested metal ions was observed in both varieties of bean, and the lowest sensitivity was observed in soybean plants. The highest degree of toxicity was shown to have tested doses of cadmium and arsenic, the lowest the doses of lead. In general, the lowest tolerance indexes were determined based on the decrease in fresh weight of roots.

  18. Through metal binding, curcumin protects against lead- and cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and against lead-induced tissue damage in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Sheril; Limson, Janice L; Dairam, Amichand; Watkins, Gareth M; Daya, Santy

    2004-02-01

    Curcumin, the major constituent of turmeric is a known, naturally occurring antioxidant. The present study examined the ability of this compound to protect against lead-induced damage to hippocampal cells of male Wistar rats, as well as lipid peroxidation induced by lead and cadmium in rat brain homogenate. The thiobarbituric assay (TBA) was used to measure the extent of lipid peroxidation induced by lead and cadmium in rat brain homogenate. The results show that curcumin significantly protects against lipid peroxidation induced by both these toxic metals. Coronal brain sections of rats injected intraperitoneally with lead acetate (20 mg/kg) in the presence and absence of curcumin (30 mg/kg) were compared microscopically to determine the extent of lead-induced damage to the cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, and to establish the capacity of curcumin to prevent such damage. Lead-induced damage to the neurons was significantly curtailed in the rats injected with curcumin. Possible chelation of lead and cadmium by curcumin as its mechanism of neuroprotection against such heavy metal insult to the brain was investigated using electrochemical, ultraviolet spectrophotometric and infrared spectroscopic analyses. The results of the study show that there is an interaction between curcumin and both cadmium and lead, with the possible formation of a complex between the metal and this ligand. These results imply that curcumin could be used therapeutically to chelate these toxic metals, thus potentially reducing their neurotoxicity and tissue damage.

  19. Mercury- and cadmium-assisted [2 + 2] cyclodimerization of tert-butylselenium diimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, Aino J; Rautiainen, J Mikko; Oilunkaniemi, Raija; Chivers, Tristram; Laitinen, Risto S

    2015-10-01

    The complexes [MCl2{N,N'-(t)BuNSe(μ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu}] [M = Cd (1), Hg (2)] were obtained in high yields by the reaction of tert-butylselenium diimide Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2 with CdCl2 or HgCl2 in tetrahydrofuran. Recrystallization of 1 and 2 from acetonitrile (MeCN) afforded yellow crystals of 1·MeCN and 2·MeCN, respectively. Isomorphic 1·MeCN and 2·MeCN contain an unprecedented dimeric selenium diimide ligand, which is N,N'-chelated to the metal through exocyclic imido groups. In addition to the complexes 1 and 2, the (77)Se NMR spectra of acetonitrile solutions of 1·MeCN and 2·MeCN indicated the presence of the dimeric (t)BuNSe(μ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu, monomeric Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2, and cyclic selenium imides. Density functional theory calculations at the PBE0/def2-TZVPP level of theory were used to assign the (77)Se resonances of the dimer. A comparison of Gibbs energies of formation of some metal dichloride complexes [MCl2{N,N'-Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2}] and [MCl2{N,N'-(t)BuNSe(μ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu}] (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) indicated that the formation of complexes containing a dimeric selenium diimide ligand is favored over those containing a monomeric ligand for the group 12 metals. In the case of the group 10 metal halogenides (M = Ni, Pd, Pt), the Gibbs energies of the complexes with monomeric Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2 ligands are close to those containing dimeric (t)BuNSe(μ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu ligands. A plausible reaction pathway with a low activation energy involves the initial formation of [MCl2{N,N'-Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2}] (M = Zn, Cd, Hg), which then reacts with another molecule of Se(N(t)Bu)2, leading to the final [MCl2{N,N'-(t)BuNSe(μ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu}] complex. Without the presence of group 12 metal halogenides, the [2 + 2] cyclodimerization of Se(IV)(N(t)Bu)2 is virtually thermoneutral, but the activation energy is relatively high, which accounts for the kinetic stability of (t)BuNSe(μ-N(t)Bu)2SeN(t)Bu in solution. A minor byproduct, [Cd7Cl14{N,N'-Se(II)(NH(t)Bu)2}6]·4CH2Cl2, was

  20. Effect of co-exposure to lead and cadmium on antioxidant status in rat ovarian granulose cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P. [Indian Institute of Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Bangalore (India); Agarwal, Avnika; Gupta, Sarita [M.S. University of Baroda, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Vadodara, Gujarat (India)

    2007-03-15

    The effects of combined exposure to lead and cadmium on granulose cells were studied. Adult female rats were treated i.p. with either lead acetate (LA) or cadmium acetate (CA) both, alone, or in combination at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg body weight on a daily basis for 15 days. Both metals were accumulated in the ovary after metal exposure. Metal exposure caused a decrease in reduced glutathione content along with elevated lipid peroxidation in all groups. Granulose cells of both cadmium as well as combination group demonstrated a maximum increase in lipid peroxides and catalase activity, along with decreased glutathione status and superoxide dismutase activities. Combined treated animals exhibited an intermediate effect in antioxidant status. However, ''in vitro'' exposure showed no significant change in antioxidant enzymes in all metal exposed cells. Data from the present study indicates that lead and cadmium in isolation and in combination cause oxidative stress. Lead and cadmium in combination do not show additive or synergistic effect indicating the competition between them due to similarity in electronic affinities. Present study highlights the effects of toxic metals that disturb membrane integrity of cells via ROS and thereby classifying mechanism for altered receptor binding, steroidogenesis, and hormone production. (orig.)

  1. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  2. Interaction of selenium with cadmium and mercury in semen and reproductive tissues: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabi, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the metabolism of selenium (Se), and the influences of Se on the metabolism of cadmium (Cd) and inorganic mercury (Hg) in rats, and in ram semen in vitro. Se-deficient (-Se) or Se-adequate (+Se) rats were injected intraperitoneally with either /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ or /sup 203/HgNO/sub 3/. Semen ejaculates from yearling Suffolk rams were used for the in vitro studies. Whole-body retention of Cd and Hg in rats was significantly increased by Se. However, regardless of the Se status, the predominant route of Cd and Hg excretion was feces. Data on whole tissue Cd retention for both -Se and +Se rats gave the following order of decreasing tissue Cd levels: liver > kidney > testis > epididymis > seminal vesicles > prostate > brain. Cd and Hg concentrations ranging from 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -2/ M were shown to be injurious to ram sperm in vitro as indicated by the depressed motility and reduced oxygen uptake.

  3. Cadmium and mercury accumulation in European hare (Lepus europaeus): age-dependent relationships in renal and hepatic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran; Teodorović, Vlado; Djurić, Spomenka; Milićević, Dragan; Vranić, Danijela; Lukić, Mirjana

    2014-12-01

    A total of 63 European hares have been collected from five Serbian agricultural regions. The hares assayed were divided into four age groups (3-6 months, 12 months, 12-24 months, and 24-36 months) and investigated upon presence at cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in the kidney and liver. The positive significant correlation (Ps-Pearson's coefficient) between Cd concentrations in the kidney and liver within age group the 3-6 months was found (Ps = 0.81, p 0.05). Statistically significant differences were registered between Hg content in the liver of the hares aged 24-36 and 12 months (p 0.05). The strong statistically significant associations were registered between Cd and Hg content in the liver (Cd L/Hg L) in the age group 3-6 and 12-24 months (Cd L/Hg L, Ps = 0.94; p < 0.001 and Ps = 0.91; p < 0.001, respectively). The polynomial regression model used for graphing the observed data seems to be a method for modeling the relationship between measured Cd and Hg concentrations in the liver and kidney as first approximation for bioaccumulation in hares.

  4. Wood anatomical changes due to uptake of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeynab Shahpoori; Vilma Bayramzadeh; Vahid Reza Safdari; Manoochehr Khan Zarinkafsh; Pedram Attarod; Roghayeh Jirroodnejad

    2012-01-01

    We investigated wood anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum Boiss seedlings.Two-year old seedlings were exposed for 180 days to soil concentrations with varying cadmium and lead concentrations.We measured three wood anatomical traits,average vessel area (μm2),vessel number per square millimetre,and vessel lumen area percentage (%).For assessing the cadmium and lead accumulation,we measured the concentrations in the soil,leaf,stem,and root.Average vessel area and vessel lumen area percentage were similar (p>0.05) in control and treated seedlings.Vessel number per square millimetre showed a decreasing trend from pith to bark in control and treated seedlings,and the trend was more pronounced in treated seedlings.We conclude that vessel number per square millimetre in A.velutinum is influenced by soil contamination.A.velutinum Boiss is not a suitable species for remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium and lead but it can be used as an indicator of the soil lead contamination,because lead concentrations in seedlings increased with increasing amount of lead in the soil.

  5. Recovery of Mercury and Lead from Wastewater by Sulfide Precipitation-Flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Liu, Ting; Deng, Peng

    The wastewater containing Hg2+ and Pb2+ does great harm to the environment and human bodies. Traditional wastewater treatment cannot fundamentally put a stop to heavy metals pollution for producing secondary pollution. In this paper, Hg2+ and Pb2+ in wastewater were removed and recovered by sulfide precipitation-flotation. Sodium sulfide was used as precipitant and butyl ammonium aero float was used as collector. Results indicated that Hg2+ and Pb2+ could be reduce to less than 0.03mg/L and 0.16mg/L respectively by both coprecipitation-floatation and fractional precipitation-floatation. In these two methods, fractional precipitation flotation could not only remove Hg2+ and Pb2+ from wastewater, but also could recover mercury and lead effectively. The infrared spectrograms showed that the adsorption between butyl ammonium aerofloat and mercury precipitate or lead precipitate is chemisorption.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  7. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice...

  8. Zinc, cadmium and lead accumulation and characteristics of rhizosphere microbial population associated with hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin-Xian; Zhang, Yu-Gang; Jun, Dai; Zhou, Qixing

    2009-04-01

    A field survey was conducted to study the characteristics of zinc, cadmium, and lead accumulation and rhizosphere microbial population associated with hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance growing natively on an old lead/zinc mining site. We found significant hyperaccumulation of zinc and cadmium in field samples of S. alfredii, with maximal shoot concentrations of 9.10-19.61 g kg(-1) zinc and 0.12-1.23 g kg(-1) cadmium, shoot/root ratios ranging from 1.75 to 3.19 (average 2.54) for zinc, 3.36 to 4.43 (average 3.85) for cadmium, shoot bioaccumulation factors of zinc and cadmium being 1.46-4.84 and 7.35-17.41, respectively. While most of lead was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for lead. Compared to the non-rhizosphere soil, organic matter and total nitrogen and phosphorus content, CEC and water extractable zinc, cadmium, and lead concentration were significantly higher, but pH was smaller in rhizosphere soil. The rhizosphere soil of S. alfredii harbored a wide variety of microorganism. In general, significantly higher numbers of culturable bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi were found in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soil, confirming the stimulatory effect of the S. alfredii rhizosphere on microbial growth and proliferation. Analyses of BIOLOG data also showed that the growth of S. alfredii resulted in observable changes in BIOLOG metabolic profiles, utilization ability of different carbon substrates of microbial communities in the rhizosphere soil were also higher than the non-rhizosphere, confirming a functional effect of the rhizosphere of S. alfredii on bacterial population.

  9. Long-Term Survey of Cadmium and Lead Contamination in Japanese Black Bears Captured in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidney samples of 242 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) captured from 1999 to 2014 from two local populations in Japan. The median concentration of cadmium was 0.54 (mean: 0.80) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and 7.7 (mean: 11.8) mg/kg-w.w. in kidney. The median concentration of lead was 0.24 (mean: 0.40) and 0.21 (mean: 0.32) mg/kg-w.w. in liver and kidney, respectively. Bears in the Kita-ou local population had higher concentrations of cadmium and lead than those in the Kitakami Highlands local population. No chronological change was observed in cadmium levels in tissues, but the percentage of bears whose lead levels exceeded 0.5 mg/kg-w.w. has been decreasing in recent years. Countermeasures against lead poisoning in wildlife, which were instituted in 2002, may have contributed to the decrease in lead contamination of the Japanese black bear.

  10. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  11. Use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Assessment of Biomonitor Plants for Lead, Cadmium and Copper Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokce Kaya; Mehmet Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep,Turkey.Lead,cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.Lead,Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304~602,0.4~0.44 and 31~37 mg · kg-1,respectively.Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg · kg-1 was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L.plant.The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima >Morus sp.> Juglans regia L.> Ficus carica L.>Cydonia oblonga Miller> Prunus x domestica L.The plants,Populus nigra L.,Eleagnus angustifolia L.and Salix sp.were found useful for Cd,and the plant,Eleagnus angustifolia L.for Pb,to be considered as potential biomonitor.Especially,leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations.Therefore,people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  12. Investigation of mercury-free potentiometric stripping analysis and the influence of mercury in the analysis of trace-elements lead and zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Andersen, Laust

    1997-01-01

    Application of Potentiometric Stripping Analysis (PSA), without any mercury, to determination of trace-elements lead and zinc, results in linear responses between stripping-peak areas and concentrations within the range 0-2000 ng/g. The best response, as determined by the size of stripping areas...... in an electrolyte containing 0.1 M HCl and 2 mg/g Zn2+ and electrolysis at -1400 mV(SCE). It is suggested that the concentration range of linear response occur where the electrode is not fully covered by metal clusters during the electrolysis step. The influence of mercury is investigated and a model is proposed...... which explains the co-deposition of mercury and test metals in the electrolysis step in terms of a charge-distribution parameter. The model explains that the decrease of stripping peak area, as a function of concentration, is entirely due to mercury ions being simultaneously reduced together...

  13. CADMIUM AND LEAD STATUS IN CORN HYBRIDS GROWN ON ACID SOIL OF EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kovačević

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty corn (Zea mays L. hybrids were grown under field conditions in the west part of Brodsko-posavska county in Eastern Croatia during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The field trial was conducted in four replicates. The ear-leaf at beginning of silking stage (the second decade of July was taken for chemical analysis from each plot. Mean soil sample was taken by auger to 30 cm of depth. The total amounts of Cd and Pb in corn leaves were measured by ICP-AES technique after their microwave digestion using concentrated HNO3+H2O2. Mobile fraction of these elements in soil was extracted by ammonium acetate-EDTA solution. The experimental field is acid hydromorphic soil (locality Malino with moderate levels of mobile fractions of calcium, magnesium and aluminum. Also, mobile fraction of cadmium and lead are tolerable for growing of health food. Weather conditions during the study differed from the long-term mean. Low rainfall quantities during 5-months period and the higher air-temperatures characterized the 2000 growing season. Excess of rainfall in June and September, their shortage in July and August, as well as high temperatures in August, are main characteristics of weather during the corn growing seasons in 2001. Mean concentrations of cadmium and lead in corn leaves in our investigations were 0.14 ppm Cd and 0.420 ppm Pb. These amounts are low and not dangerous for plants, because critical concentrations of Cd and Pb in plants ranged from 5 to 10 ppm Cd and 10-20 ppm Pb. Considerable differences of cadmium and lead status in the ear-leaf were found among tested corn hybrids. For example, genetically induced differences from 0.07 to 0.21 ppm Cd were found, while these values for Pb were from 0.241 to 0.569 ppm Pb. Especially low Cd concentrations were found in six corn hybrids (OsSK373, E9917/99, Bc278, OsSK2-191, OsSK382 and Clarica: mean 0.092 ppm Cd, while in three hybrids it was considerably higher, but acceptable from the aspect of plant

  14. Deciphering lead and cadmium stripping peaks for porous antimony deposited electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Aqeel Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and lead are generally taken as model heavy metal ions in water to scale the detection limit of various electrode sensors, using electrochemical sensing techniques. These ions interact with the electrochemically deposited antimony electrodes depending on the diffusion limitations. The phenomenon acts differently for the in-situ and ex-situ deposition as well as for porous and non-porous electrodes. A method has been adopted in this study to discourage the stripping and deposition of the working ions (antimony to understand the principle of heavy metal ion detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was used to establish the interaction between the working and dissolved ions. In addition to the distinct peaks for each analyte, researchers also observed a shoulder peak. A possible reason for the presence of this peak was provided. Different electrochemical tests were performed to ascertain the theory on the basis of the experimental observations.

  15. Assessment of Resistance and Bioremediation Ability of Lactobacillus Strains to Lead and Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Kirillova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are heavy metals, important environmental pollutants, and potent toxicants to organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have been reported to remove Cd and Pb from solutions and therefore represent a useful tool for decontamination of food and beverages from heavy metals. Heavy metal ion binding by LAB was reported as metabolism-independent surface process. In this work ten Lactobacillus strains were investigated with respect to hydrophobicity, Lewis acid-base, and electrostatic properties of their outer cell surface in order to characterize their Cd and Pb removal capacity. Seven L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains were shown to remove Cd from culture medium. The metabolism-dependent accumulation mechanism of Cd removal was proposed based on extended character of Cd binding and lack of correlation between any of the surface characteristics and Cd removal. The results of this study should be considered when selecting probiotic strains for people at risk of Cd exposure.

  16. Target hazard quotient evaluation of cadmium and lead in fish from Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basim, Yalda; Khoshnood, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metals are being increasingly released into the natural waters from geological and anthropogenic sources. The distributions of several heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were investigated in muscle and liver of three different fish species seasonally collected from Caspian Sea (autumn 2011-summer 2012). The concentrations of all metals were lower in flesh than those recorded in liver due to their physiological roles. The target hazard quotient (THQ) index for fish was calculated. Estimation of THQ calculations for the contaminated fish consumption was calculated to evaluate the effect of pollution on health. Total metal THQ values of Pb and Cd for adults were 0.05 and 0.04 in Anzali and Noshahr, respectively, and for children were 0.08 and 0.05 in Anzali and Noshahr, respectively.

  17. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Y.N. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Blazquez, M.L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)], E-mail: mlblazquez@quim.ucm.es; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2008-10-30

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu > Cd {approx} Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb > Cu > Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups.

  18. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Y N; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2008-10-30

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu>Cd approximately Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb>Cu>Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups.

  19. Speciation and distribution of cadmium and lead in salinized horizons of antrosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgariu, D.; Bulgariu, L.; Astefanei, D.

    2009-04-01

    The utilization of intensive technologies for the vegetable cultivation in glass houses by the administration of high doses of organic fertilizes, the supra-dimensional irrigation and the maintaining of soil at high humidity state, in special in case of vicious drainage have as result the rapid degradation of morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils, concretized by: (i) decrease of structural aggregates stability; (ii) more dense packing of soil; (iii) accumulation of easy soluble salts (in special at superior horizons level); (iv) limitation of organic compounds and micro-elements biodisponibility. All these determined a significant reduction of productivity and of exploitation duration of soils from glass houses. These phenomena modified continuously the dynamic of speciation processes and inter-phases distribution, of heavy metals in soils from glass houses, and can determined a non-controlled accumulation of heavy metals, in special as mobile forms with high biodisponibility. Ours studied have been performed using soil profiles drawing from Copou-glass house, Iasi (Romania). Has been followed the modification of distribution for speciation forms of cadmium and lead (two heavy metals with high toxicity degree), between hortic antrosol horizons, and between chemical-mineralogical components of this, with the progressive salinization of superior horizons, in 2007-2008 period. The separation, differentiation and determination of cadmium and lead speciation forms was done by combined solid-liquid sequential extraction (SPE) and extraction in aqueous polymer-inorganic salt two-phase systems (ABS) procedure, presented in some of ours previous studies. After extraction, the total contents of the two heavy metals and fractions from these differential bonded by mineral and organic components of hortic antrosol have been determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The specific interaction mechanisms of Cd and Pb with organic-mineral components of

  20. Assessment of Resistance and Bioremediation Ability of Lactobacillus Strains to Lead and Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Anna V.; Danilushkina, Anna A.; Irisov, Denis S.; Bruslik, Nataliya L.; Fakhrullin, Rawil F.; Zakharov, Yuri A.; Bukhmin, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are heavy metals, important environmental pollutants, and potent toxicants to organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to remove Cd and Pb from solutions and therefore represent a useful tool for decontamination of food and beverages from heavy metals. Heavy metal ion binding by LAB was reported as metabolism-independent surface process. In this work ten Lactobacillus strains were investigated with respect to hydrophobicity, Lewis acid-base, and electrostatic properties of their outer cell surface in order to characterize their Cd and Pb removal capacity. Seven L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains were shown to remove Cd from culture medium. The metabolism-dependent accumulation mechanism of Cd removal was proposed based on extended character of Cd binding and lack of correlation between any of the surface characteristics and Cd removal. The results of this study should be considered when selecting probiotic strains for people at risk of Cd exposure. PMID:28133483

  1. Analysis of cadmium, nickel, and lead in commercial moist and dry snuff used in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Naeemullah; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Mughal, Moina Akhtar

    2013-06-01

    The extent to which smokeless tobacco endangers human health is an ongoing subject of debate. In this study, concentrations of toxic metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni), were measured in different snuff products (dry brown and black and moist green and brown), available and consumed in Pakistan. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Ni were determined in 23 samples of various brands of snuff by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The reliability of methodology was assured by analyzing certified reference material. The resulted data of toxic metals in different snuff products are comparable to the existing information with limited exceptions. It was estimated that 10 g intake of different types of snuff could contribute 14-68, 17-47, and 20-73 % of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for Cd, Ni, and Pb, respectively.

  2. Cadmium and lead occurrence in soil and grape from Murfatlar Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the pollution with heavy metals of grapes and soil. The grapes nourish from the respective soil, with all existing substances: either nutrients or toxic materials. This link, between grapes and soil, made mandatory to focus on observing the level of toxic materials in both samples grapes and land. The aim of this research is to analyze the level of Cd and Pb in Vitis vinifera L. grape fruits and soil, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method. The grapes and the soil used in this work were sampled from the Murfatlar City, a nonindustrial area, placed far from the car traffic pollution. Cd and Pb were quantified, after the chemical mineralization of the samples using nitric acid. It can be noticed that the values of cadmium and lead concentrations in grapes were lower than the recommendable maximum limit.

  3. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of holmium oxide doped cadmium lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, A. A.; Sedghi, H.; Mirmohseni, A. R.; Golsanamlu, V.

    Holmium doped cadmium lead borate glasses were prepared from melting in appropriate proportions of a mixture of CdO, PbO2, H3BO3 and (1-2 mol %) Ho2O3 in the temperature range of 800-850 °C. The density of glass samples was measured using Archimedes Principle. The infrared spectra of the glasses in the range of 400-4000 cm-1 showed their structure systematically. No boroxol ring formation was observed in the structure of these glasses, but the conversion of 3-fold to 4-fold coordination of boron atoms in the structure of glasses was observed. The glass transition studies were done through differential scanning calorimetry. The optical analysis is done by using the Judd-Ofelt theory.

  5. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (Phomeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (Phomeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a particularly vulnerable population group.

  6. Monitoring of mercury, arsenic, and lead in traditional Asian herbal preparations on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Wielen, van der J.C.A.; Rietjens, I.; Klerx, W.N.M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and other Asian traditional medicine systems may contain significant amounts of mercury, arsenic or lead. Though deliberately incorporated in Asian traditional herbal preparations for therap

  7. Monitoring of mercury, arsenic, and lead in traditional Asian herbal preparations on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Wielen, van der J.C.A.; Rietjens, I.; Klerx, W.N.M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and other Asian traditional medicine systems may contain significant amounts of mercury, arsenic or lead. Though deliberately incorporated in Asian traditional herbal preparations for

  8. Cadmium complexes bearing (Me2)N^E^O(-) (E = S, Se) organochalcogenoalkoxides and their zinc and mercury analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Alexandra; Bellini, Clément; Şuteu, Răzvan; Dorcet, Vincent; Roisnel, Thierry; Carpentier, Jean-François; Silvestru, Anca; Sarazin, Yann

    2017-03-07

    Heteroleptic zinc and cadmium complexes of the type [{(Me2)N^E^O(R2)}M-Nu]n (M = Zn, Cd; E = S, Se; R = CH3, CF3; Nu = N(SiMe3)2, I, Cl; n = 1-2) were prepared by reacting the alcohol proteo-ligands {(Me2)N^E^O(R2)}H with [M(N(SiMe3)2)2] (M = Zn, Cd) or [XMN(SiMe3)2] (M = Zn, X = Cl; M = Cd, X = I) in an equimolar ratio. These group 12 metal complexes were characterised in solution by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and their solid-state structures were determined by X-ray diffractometry. The ligands {(Me2)N^E^O((CH3)2)}(-) bearing CH3 groups in α position to the alkoxide behave as κ(2)-O,E-bidentate moieties (E = S, Se) and form centro-symmetric dinuclear O-bridged heteroleptic alkoxo-amido complexes both with zinc and cadmium, with four-coordinate metal centres resting in tetrahedral environments. By contrast, complexes supported by the CF3-substituted {(Me2)N^E^O((CF3)2)}(-) crystallise as tetrahedral mononuclear species, with tridentate κ(3)-N,O,E-coordinated ligands. These structural differences resulting from changes in the ligand skeleton and in the electron-donating properties of the alkoxide were also observed in solution. Attempts to prepare congeneric heteroleptic mercury complexes from [Hg(N(SiMe3)2)2] unexpectedly only afforded homoleptic bis(alkoxide)s such as [{(Me2)N^S^O((CF3)2)}2Hg]. Owing to the strong Hg-C bond, treatment of [PhHgN(SiMe3)2] with {(Me2)N^S^O((CF3)2)}H afforded the heteroleptic, T-shaped [{(Me2)N^S^O((CF3)2)}HgPh] mercuric alkoxide upon elimination of hexamethyldisilazane. [{(Me2)N^S^O((CF3)2)}2Hg] and [{(Me2)N^S^O((CF3)2)}HgPh] constitute very rare examples of structurally characterised mercuric alkoxides.

  9. Heavy metal tolerant halophilic bacteria from Vembanad Lake as possible source for bioremediation of lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, M; Rejula, M P; Rejith, P G; Mohan, Mahesh; Karuppiah, Makesh; Hatha, A A Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    Microorganisms which can resist high concentration of toxic heavy metals are often considered as effective tools of bioremediation from such pollutants. In the present study, sediment samples from Vembanad Lake were screened for the presence of halophilic bacteria that are tolerant to heavy metals. A total of 35 bacterial strains belonging to different genera such as Alcaligenes, Vibrio, Kurthia, Staphylococcus and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 21 sediment samples during February to April, 2008. The salt tolerance and optimum salt concentrations of the isolates revealed that most of them were moderate halophiles followed by halotolerant and extremely halotolerant groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against cadmium and lead for each isolate revealed that the isolates showed higher MIC against lead than cadmium. Based on the resistance limit concentration, most of them were more tolerant to lead than cadmium at all the three salt concentrations tested. Heavy metal removal efficiency of selected isolates showed a maximum reduction of 37 and 99% against cadmium and lead respectively. The study reveals the future prospects of halophilic microorganisms in the field of bioremediation.

  10. Determination of cadmium and lead in urine by derivative flame atomic absorption spectrometry using the atom trapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-wen, Sun; De-qiang, Zhang; Li-li, Yang; Jian-min, Sun

    1997-06-01

    A method is described for the determinations of cadmium and lead in urine by derivative flame atomic absorption spectrometry with a modified water-cooled stainless steel atom trapping tube. The effects of the trap position, the flame conditions, the coolant flow rates, and the collection time were studied. With a 1 min collection time, the characteristic concentrations (derivative absorbance of 0.0044) for cadmium and lead were 0.028 and 1.4 μg L -1, the detection limits (3σ) were 0.02 and 0.27 μg L -1, respectively. The detection limits and sensitivities of the proposed method were 2 and 3 orders of magnitude higher for 1-3 min collection time than those of conventional flame atomic absorption spectrometry for cadmium and lead, respectively. Urine samples from a small population of normal individuals have been analyzed for cadmium and lead by the proposed method. Satisfactory recoveries of 91-110% and 91-106%, for Cd and Pb were obtained with these urine samples.

  11. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  12. Organic and inorganic amendments affect soil concentration and accumulation of cadmium and lead in wheat in calcareous alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation with untreated effluent in periurban agriculture could result in accumulation and bioconcentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different amendments were used to investigate their effect on availability, concentration, and uptake of metals by wheat in texturally different soils. Crop w...

  13. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    ...) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050...

  14. Thermodynamic, Kinetic, and Equilibrium Parameters for the Removal of Lead and Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions with Calcium Alginate Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb by calcium alginate beads (CAB from aqueous solutions in batch systems was investigated. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, as well as the sorption capacities of CAB in each system at different temperatures, were evaluated. The rate of sorption for both metals was rapid in the first 10 minutes and reached a maximum in 50 minutes. Sorption kinetic data were fitted to Lagergren, pseudo-second-order and Elovich models and it was found that the second-order kinetic model describes these data for the two metals; comparing kinetic parameters for Cd and Pb sorption a higher kinetic rate (K2 for Pb was observed, indicating that the interaction between lead cations and alginate beads was faster than for cadmium. Similarly, isotherm data were fitted to different models reported in literature and it was found that the Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R models describe the isotherms in all cases. CAB sorption capacity for cadmium was 27.4 mg/g and 150.4 mg/g for lead, at 25°C. Sorption capacities of Cd and Pb increase as temperature rises. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the cadmium and lead adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. It was also found that pH has an important effect on the adsorption of these metals by CAB, as more were removed at pH values between 6 and 7.

  15. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  16. Assessment of the Potential of Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Biomonitoring of Air Pollution by Cadmium, Lead and Vanadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Kraker, de J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore whether honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) could be used as a reliable alternative to the standard mechanical devices for monitoring of air quality, in particular with respect to the concentration of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and vanadium (V). We therefo

  17. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  18. Effect of air pollution on trees. VIII. Heavy metals in leaves of street trees: lead nickel, chrome, and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeno, M.

    1971-01-01

    The nickel, lead, chromium, and cadmium contents of leaves of plants grown in Tokyo were measured. The nickel content ranged from 7-15 ppm, the lead content from 14-34 ppm, chromium from 4-16 ppm, and cadmium from 0.7-1.3 ppm. Fluctuations in metal contents were most pronounced for paulownia. High contents of nickel, lead, and chromium were found in highly polluted industrial areas. The differences in lead content in industrial areas compared to that in residential and commercial areas was less significant. This was attributed to the contribution of lead in exhaust gases. Correlation coefficients between metal content and insoluble materials adhering to leaves were calculated for individual plants.

  19. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  20. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  1. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  2. Comparison of pollutant emission control strategies for cadmium and mercury in urban water systems using substance flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitt, D M; Lundy, L; Eriksson, E; Viavattene, C

    2013-02-15

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires Member States to protect inland surface and groundwater bodies but does not directly stipulate how the associated environmental quality standards should be achieved. This paper develops and assesses the performance of a series of urban emission control strategies (ECS) with an emphasis on the scientific and technological benefits which can be achieved. Data from the literature, in combination with expert judgement, have been used to develop two different semi-hypothetical case cities (SHCC), which represent virtual platforms for the evaluation of ECS using substance flow analysis (SFA). The results indicate that the full implementation of existing EU legislation is capable of reducing the total emissions of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) by between 11% and 20%. The ability to apply voluntary reduction practices is shown to be particularly effective for Cd with the potential to further lower the overall emissions by between 16% and 27%. The most efficient protection of the receiving surface water environment is strongly influenced by the city characteristics with the introduction of stormwater treatment practices being particularly effective for one city (59% reduction of Hg; 39% reduction of Cd) and the other city being most influenced by the presence of efficient advanced wastewater treatment processes (63% reduction of Hg; 43% reduction of Cd). These reductions in receiving water loads are necessarily accompanied by either increases in stormwater sediment loadings (2.6-14.9 kg/year or 0.6-2.4 kg/year for Hg) or wastewater sludge loadings (45.8-57.2 kg/year or 42.0-57.4 kg/year for Cd).

  3. Factors Influencing Blood Cadmium and Mercury Concentrations in Residents of Agro-Industries along Nam Phong River, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannanapa Srathonghon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytical study aimed to determine the blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd and mercury (B-Hg and identify the factors influencing heavy metal accumulation in residents of Agro-Industries along the Nam Phong River. Quantitative data were collected, and systematic random sampling was used to obtain 420 samples for questionnaire interview and serum heavy metal testing for B-Cd and B-Hg. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in the population and report mean differences, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. The results indicated that B-Cd levels were within the recommended safety limits for human health (5 µg/dL. However, 4.29% of respondents had Hg levels higher than the recommended safety limits for human health (10 µg/dL. Factors influencing Cd levels included sex (mean difference=0.13 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24, p-value=0.02 and smoking (mean difference=0.14 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.09-0.19, p-value<0.001. Factors influencing Hg levels included smoking (mean difference=1.06 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, p-value<0.001, fish consumption (mean difference=1.11 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.22-2.01, p-value=0.01 and river snail consumption (mean difference=0.56 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.19, p-value=0.03.

  4. The cadmium-tolerant pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt is more sensitive to mercury: assessing plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Malkov, Nikita V; Davies, William J; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals have multiple effects on plant growth and physiology, including perturbation of plant water status. These effects were assessed by exposing the unique Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECd(t) and its wild-type (WT) line SGE to either cadmium (1, 4 μM CdCl2) or mercury (0.5, 1, 2 μM HgCl2) in hydroponic culture for 12 days. When exposed to Cd, SGECd(t) accumulated more Cd in roots, xylem sap, and shoot, and had considerably more biomass than WT plants. WT plants lost circa 0.2 MPa turgor when grown in 4 μM CdCl2, despite massive decreases in whole-plant transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. In contrast, root Hg accumulation was similar in both genotypes, but WT plants accumulated more Hg in leaves and had a higher stomatal conductance, and root and shoot biomass compared with SGECd(t). Shoot excision resulted in greater root-pressure induced xylem exudation of SGECd(t) in the absence of Cd or Hg and following Cd exposure, whereas the opposite response or no genotypic differences occurred following Hg exposure. Exposing plants that had not been treated with metal to 50 μM CdCl2 for 1h increased root xylem exudation of WT, whereas 50 μM HgCl2 inhibited and eliminated genotypic differences in root xylem exudation, suggesting differences between WT and SGECd(t) plants in aquaporin function. Thus, root water transport might be involved in mechanisms of increased tolerance and accumulation of Cd in the SGECd(t) mutant. However, the lack of cross-tolerance to Cd and Hg stress in the mutant indicates metal-specific mechanisms related to plant adaptation.

  5. The morphology of the artery of heart and aorta after combined irradiation and cadmium and lead salts treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrovskaya S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to study the morphology of the heart and aorta in combined action of irradiation with cadmium and lead. 60 Vistar line male rats divided into 6 groups were used. Rats of the 1,2, and 3 groups were treated by a total single gamma-irradiation in the dose 0,5 Gr. 3 months after irradiation they were treated with 1/10 LD50 in 1 ml 0,9% NaC1 chloride cadmium (1,4 groups and lead acetate (2,5 groups intraperitoneally during 10 with following 15-day regeneration period. Rats of the 3 and 6 groups irradiated and non-irradiated (the last group was a control one were treated 1 ml 0,9% of NaC1. In 10 and 15 days the heart and portion of the aorta at the level of valves were dissected for histologic examination. Combined action of irradiation, salts of cadmium and lead causes the increase of vessel index in heart arteries, thickening of aorta walls in rats that suggest that sclerosis of arteries develops. In cadmium intoxication this process accelerates predominantly in the vessels of a small caliber, while in lead intoxication – in large vessels. In both cases this process has reversible character. Combined action of irradiation and lead, irradiation and cadmium induces progressed development of sclerosis of arteries. We conclude that accelerated development of sclerosis of arteries and the aorta is one of the manifestation of potentiating effect of a combined influence of irradiation and heavy metals.

  6. Effect of Kiwi Shell and Incubation Time on Mobility of Lead and Cadmium in Contaminated Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Lorestani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effectiveness of kiwi shell was investigated to reduce the mobility of Lead and Cadmium in clay soil in different intervals. For this purpose a clay soil sample was contaminated with Lead and Cadmium in distinct dishes with 10 and 600 ppm concentrations respectively and mixed with 5% kiwi shell. Samples were placed in incubator, and then sampling of soil in incubator was performed in intervals 3 hours, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Heavy metals concentrations were determined in different fractions of soil including exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter, and residual with sequential extraction procedure and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that during incubation, Lead concentration in treatments with kiwi shell rather than control soil increased in carbonate from 19.48 to 26.18 and in organic matter from 9.06 to 18.66 percent. Exchangeable, Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions decreased from 11.48 to 6.69, 45.72 to 39.83 and 14.21 to 7.90 percent respectively. In samples with absorbent compared with control soil, Cadmium concentration in carbonate and organic matter increased from 28.20 to 38.40 and 18.76 to 24.72, while in exchangeable, Fe-Mn oxides and residual decreased from 16.66 to 13.69, 37.25 to 19.65 and 6.24 to 3.61 percent respectively. This study revealed that kiwi shell function in decreasing Cadmium and Lead mobility in studied clay soil were increased with increasing incubation time, but Cadmium compared with Lead required additional time to transfer and mobility to constant and stable soil fractions such as, organic matter and Fe-Mn oxides.

  7. Adsorption of cadmium and lead onto oxidized nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes in aqueous solution: equilibrium and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Aguilar, Nancy Veronica [Environmental Sciences Department, Institute for Scientific and Technological Research of San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio [Advanced Materials Department, Institute for Scientific and Technological Research of San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Diaz-Flores, Paola Elizabeth; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene, E-mail: rene@ipicyt.edu.m [Environmental Sciences Department, Institute for Scientific and Technological Research of San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    Nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNx) were chemically oxidized and tested to adsorb cadmium and lead from aqueous solution. Physicochemical characterization of carbon nanotubes included morphological analysis, textural properties, and chemical composition. In addition, the cadmium adsorption capacity of oxidized-CNx was compared with commercially available activated carbon and single wall carbon nanotubes. Carboxylic and nitro groups on the surface of oxidized CNx shifted the point of zero charge from 6.6 to 3.1, enhancing their adsorption capacity for cadmium and lead to 0.083 and 0.139 mmol/g, respectively, at pH 5 and 25 {sup o}C. Moreover, oxidized-CNx had higher selectivity for lead when both metal ions were in solution. Kinetic experiments for adsorption of cadmium showed that the equilibrium was reached at about 4 min. Finally, the small size, geometry, and surface chemical composition of oxidized-CNx are the key factors for their higher adsorption capacity than activated carbon.

  8. Occupational exposure to manganese, copper, lead, iron, mercury and zinc and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorell, J M; Johnson, C C; Rybicki, B A; Peterson, E L; Kortsha, G X; Brown, G G; Richardson, R J

    1999-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) in metropolitan Detroit to assess occupational exposures to manganese, copper, lead, iron, mercury and zinc as risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). Non-demented men and women 50 years of age who were receiving primary medical care at HFHS were recruited, and concurrently enrolled cases (n = 144) and controls (n = 464) were frequency-matched for sex, race and age (+/- 5 years). A risk factor questionnaire, administered by trained interviewers, inquired about every job held by each subject for 6 months from age 18 onward, including a detailed assessment of actual job tasks, tools and environment. An experienced industrial hygienist, blinded to subjects' case-control status, used these data to rate every job as exposed or not exposed to one or more of the metals of interest. Adjusting for sex, race, age and smoking status, 20 years of occupational exposure to any metal was not associated with PD. However, more than 20 years exposure to manganese (Odds Ratio [OR] = 10.61, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.06, 105.83) or copper (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.06,5.89) was associated with PD. Occupational exposure for > 20 years to combinations of lead-copper (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 1.59, 17.21), lead-iron (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.07,7.50), and iron-copper (OR = 3.69, 95% CI = 1.40,9.71) was also associated with the disease. No association of occupational exposure to iron, mercury or zinc with PD was found. A lack of statistical power precluded analyses of metal combinations for those with a low prevalence of exposure (i.e., manganese, mercury and zinc). Our findings suggest that chronic occupational exposure to manganese or copper, individually, or to dual combinations of lead, iron and copper, is associated with PD.

  9. Association of Blood Pressure with Exposure to Lead and Cadmium: Analysis of Data from the 2008-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Ahn, Jaeouk; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Chan Boo; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of blood pressure with blood levels of cadmium, lead, and their combination in a representative sample of adults from South Korea (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2013). This cross-sectional study enrolled subjects who were at least 19 years-old, completed a health examination survey, and had blood measurements of lead and cadmium. We estimated the adjusted mean differences in diastolic and systolic blood pressure associated with doubling of blood lead and cadmium by regression of blood pressure against log2-transformed blood metals and their tertiles after covariate adjustment. Adjusted odds ratios for hypertension and prehypertension were calculated for log2-transformed blood levels of lead and cadmium and their tertiles. In the general population of Korea, blood lead level was associated with increased BP and risk of hypertension. Blood cadmium levels had a stronger association with elevated blood pressure and risk of hypertension than blood lead levels, and these associations remained significant after statistical adjustment for blood lead. The combination of blood lead and cadmium was more strongly associated with elevated blood pressure than exposure to each individual metal. In females, there was a stronger relationship between blood pressure and blood levels of these metals by analyzing interaction model. After adjustment for confounding factors, there were significant associations of blood pressure with the level of blood lead, cadmium, and their combination in adults from South Korea.

  10. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vaz Ribeiro, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Vaz Ribeiro, Amanda Santos; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; do Prado Oliveira, Sérgio Soares; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer’ seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were

  11. Lead and cadmium in public health in Nigeria: physicians neglect and pitfall in patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2014-02-01

    Low-level heavy metals exposure may contribute much more toward the causation of chronic disease and impaired functioning than previously thought. Among the suggested preventive and intervention measures for the control of renal diseases are the reduction in the exposure to heavy metals. Although these indicate knowledge and awareness of possible role of some heavy metals in the etiogenesis of some chronic diseases by Nigerian Physicians, heavy metal assay as diagnostic guide in patient management is often omitted in most healthcare settings. This is a synoptic capture of the increased incidence and prevalence of some metabolic disorders where heavy metals may be implicated. A search of the terms heavy metal exposure, source, toxicity, metabolic disorders, poisoning in Nigeria, in bibliographical databases (in English language) such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Africa Journal Online (AJOL) digital library was conducted. Leaded gasoline, refuse dumping, absence of poison information centers, and poor record keeping characterize environmental health in Nigeria. Lead and cadmium are of most significant public health importance in Nigeria. The recognition and inclusion of heavy metals assays in the diagnosis of metabolic disorders may ensure early diagnosis and improve management.

  12. Lead and cadmium in public health in Nigeria: physicians neglect and pitfall in patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orish Ebere Orisakwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level heavy metals exposure may contribute much more toward the causation of chronic disease and impaired functioning than previously thought. Among the suggested preventive and intervention measures for the control of renal diseases are the reduction in the exposure to heavy metals. Although these indicate knowledge and awareness of possible role of some heavy metals in the etiogenesis of some chronic diseases by Nigerian Physicians, heavy metal assay as diagnostic guide in patient management is often omitted in most healthcare settings. This is a synoptic capture of the increased incidence and prevalence of some metabolic disorders where heavy metals may be implicated. A search of the terms heavy metal exposure, source, toxicity, metabolic disorders, poisoning in Nigeria, in bibliographical databases (in English language such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Africa Journal Online (AJOL digital library was conducted. Leaded gasoline, refuse dumping, absence of poison information centers, and poor record keeping characterize environmental health in Nigeria. Lead and cadmium are of most significant public health importance in Nigeria. The recognition and inclusion of heavy metals assays in the diagnosis of metabolic disorders may ensure early diagnosis and improve management.

  13. Influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cadmium and lead bioaccumulations and toxicities to Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Sillanpää, Markus; Schultz, Eija

    2017-06-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have attracted considerable concerns due to the increasing production and widespread applications, while their influences on other co-existing pollutants in real environment are not well studied. In this paper, the colloidal stability of TiO2 NPs in the exposure medium was first evaluated, and then, the medium was modified so that TiO2 NP suspension remained stable over the exposure period. Finally, using the optimized exposure medium, the effects of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on Daphnia magna both in the absence and presence of TiO2 NPs were investigated. Results showed that 2 mg L-1 of TiO2 NPs was well dispersed in 1:20 diluted Elendt M7 medium without EDTA, and no immobility was observed. The presence of the nanoparticles increased the bioaccumulation and toxicity of Cd to the daphnias. On the contrary, while Pb bioaccumulation was enhanced by three to four times, toxicity of Pb was reduced in the presence of TiO2 NPs. The decreased toxicity of Pb was more likely attributed to the decreased bioavailability of free Pb ion due to adsorption and speciation change of Pb in the presence of TiO2 NPs. Additionally, surface-attached TiO2 NPs combined with adsorbed heavy metals caused adverse effects on daphnia swimming and molting behavior, which is supposed to lead to chronic toxicity.

  14. The role of glutathione in mercury tolerance resembles its function under cadmium stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Javier; Escobar, Carolina; Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Hernández, Luis E

    2014-02-01

    Recent research efforts have highlighted the importance of glutathione (GSH) as a key antioxidant metabolite for metal tolerance in plants. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in stress due to mercury (Hg), one of the most hazardous metals to the environment and human health. To understand the implication of GSH metabolism for Hg tolerance, we used two γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γECS) Arabidopsis thaliana allele mutants (rax1-1 and cad2-1) and a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) mutant (cad1-3). The leaves of these mutants and of wild type (Col-0) were infiltrated with a solution containing Cd or Hg (0, 3 and 30 μM) and incubated for 24 and 48 h. The formation of phytochelatins (PCs) in the leaf extracts was followed by two different HPLC-based methods and occurred in Col-0, cad2-1 and rax1-1 plants exposed to Cd, whereas in the Hg treatments, PCs accumulated mainly in Col-0 and rax1-1, where Hg-PC complexes were also detected. ASA and GSH/GSSG levels increased under moderate metal stress conditions, accompanied by increased GSH reductase (GR) activity and expression. However, higher metal doses led to a decrease in the analysed parameters, and stronger toxic effects appeared with 30 μM Hg. The GSH concentration was significantly higher in rax1-1 (70% of Col-0) than in cad2-1 (40% of Col-0). The leaves of rax1-1 were less sensitive than cad2-1, in accordance with the greater expression of γECS in rax1-1. Our results underline the existence of a minimal GSH concentration threshold needed to minimise the toxic effects exerted by Hg.

  15. Cadmium and lead availability for rapeseed grown on an artificial ISO soil; Transferts de metaux dans les vegetaux et phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baryla, A.; Sahut, C. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DCC/DESD/SEP), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-07-01

    Accumulations of heavy metals in soils have become a major concern for food crop production. Of these metals, cadmium and lead are recognized as the most widespread elements, that are non-essential for plant growth. While the toxicity of these metals is often investigated on plants grown in nutrient solution, soil is a complex medium. Metals may be dissolved in the soil solution or chelated to carbonates, to oxides of iron or manganese, or to organic matter. This chemical state of the metal is important because it determines the availability of the metal for the crop. Yet its study is complicated by numerous factors (soil pH, temperature, humidity..) which modify this chemical equilibrium. To standardize the experiments, an artificially reconstituted soil was prepared from clay, sand and peat according to standards ISO 11268-1 (May 1994). Metals (lead and cadmium) were added as nitrate salts. Plants used were rapeseeds. Seeds were sown on 20 cm diameter pots and placed in a controlled growth chamber. At harvest, roots, leaves and stems were separated, dried, and mineralized with concentrated nitric acid. Sequential analysis of the soil was carried out to assess the chemical behavior of the cadmium. The chemical speciation of cadmium is shown. The metal is essentially soluble in the soil and poorly complexed to the organic matter. This indicates that contamination is recent and derives from metal salts; cadmium complexation to organic matter appears only after years of soil evolution. The metal is then essentially available for plants but equilibrium is established between the different forms. Plant growth is shown. Cadmium has a strong effect on biomass production at 50 {mu}g / g in the soil. No toxic effect of lead was observed from 0 to 2000 {mu}g / g in the soil, probably because lead is strongly complexed to the soil and less toxic for plants. Metal concentrations in plants after two months of growth are shown in Figures 4 and 5. Plant cadmium content reached

  16. Cadmium and lead interaction with diatom surfaces: A combined thermodynamic and kinetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélabert, A.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Schott, J.; Boudou, A.; Feurtet-Mazel, A.

    2007-08-01

    This work is devoted to the physico-chemical study of cadmium and lead interaction with diatom-water interfaces for two marine planktonic ( Thalassiosira weissflogii, TW; Skeletonema costatum, SC) and two freshwater periphytic species ( Achnanthidium minutissimum, AMIN; Navicula minima, NMIN) by combining adsorption measurements with surface complexation modeling. Adsorption kinetics was studied as a function of pH and initial metal concentration in sodium nitrate solution and in culture media. Kinetic data were consistent with a two-step mechanism in which the loss of a water molecule from the inner coordination sphere of the metal is rate limiting. Reversible adsorption experiments, with 3 h of exposure to metal, were performed as a function of pH (2-9), metal concentration in solution (10 -9-10 -3 M), and ionic strength (10 -3-1.0 M). While the shape of pH-dependent adsorption edge is similar among all four diatom species, the constant-pH adsorption isotherm and maximal binding capacities differ. Measurements of electrophoretic mobilities ( μ) revealed negative surface potential for AMIN diatom, however, the absolute value of μ decreases with increase of [Pb 2+] aq suggesting the metal adsorption on negative surface sites. These observations allowed us to construct a surface complexation model (SCM) for cadmium and lead binding by diatom surfaces that postulates the Constant Capacitance of the electric double layer and considers Cd and Pb complexation with mainly carboxylic and, partially, silanol groups. In the full range of investigated Cd concentration, the SCM is able to describe the concentration of adsorbed metal as a function of [Cd 2+] aq without implying the presence of high affinity, low abundance sites, that are typically used to model the metal interactions with natural multi-component organic substances. At the same time, Cd fast initial reaction requires the presence of "highly reactive sites" those concentration represents only 2.5-3% of the

  17. CONTENT OF MERCURY AND LEAD IN LEAVES OF SPINACH (SPINACIA OLERACEA, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is one the most nutritious leafy vegetable. Only 22 calories per 100 grams, a high amount of protein, carbohydrate and fat make it very suitable ingredient in reduction diets. For a wealth of minerals and vitamins in addition it has an extraordinary nutritional value. 100 g contains two-thirds of its daily requirement of vitamin A, virtually the entire daily need for folic acid, half the dose of vitamin C, almost a quarter of the daily needs of more than a quarter of the needs of iron and magnesium. According to some studies, it is a good remedy for cancer prevention. In spinach are found in high concentrations of carotenoids, which protect cells from destruction, and so help to antiaging. Lutein-carotenoided pigment, an adequate supply may delay the emergence of degenerative diseases of the retina of the eye. In the framework of monitoring, we have focused on the analysis of the levels of lead and mercury in 7 samples of spinach from the commercial network of the Slovak republic. The lead content in all samples was 0.00 mg.kg-1, mercury content was in the range of 0.0019 – 0.0054 mg.kg-1. From the point of view of the sanitary evaluation of the HPQ for the content of lead and Hg was not exceeded in either sample.

  18. Removal of lead, mercury and nickel using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherlys Infante J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In this study the biomass of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to remove lead, mercury and nickel in the form of ions dissolved in water. Materials and methods. Synthetic solutions were prepared containing the three heavy metals, which were put in contact with viable microorganisms at different conditions of pH, temperature, aeration and agitation. Results. Both individual variables and the interaction effects influenced the biosorption process. Throughout the experimental framework it was observed that the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae removed a higher percentage of lead (86.4% as compared to mercury and nickel (69.7 and 47.8% respectively. When the pH was set at a value of 5 the effect was positive for all three metals. Conclusions. pH was the variable that had a greater influence on the biosorption of lead on the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The affinity of the heavy metals for the biomass followed the order Pb>Hg>Ni.

  19. Lead, mercury, and arsenic poisoning due to topical use of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Ling; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lin, Kon-Ping; Tsai, Wei-Jen

    2013-05-01

    Metal poisonings through a mucocutaneous route are reported rarely in the literature. We report 2 cases of heavy metal intoxication from inappropriate use of Chinese mineral medicines confirmed by toxicologic investigations. A 51-year-old man developed perianal gangrene and a high fever after a 2-week anal use of hong-dan herbal mixtures for anal fistula. He presented gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms, followed by skin rash, anemia, hair loss, peripheral neuropathy, and muscle atrophy. Elevated urine arsenic and mercury confirmed the heavy metal poisonings. The hong-dan mixture contained lead tetraoxide, arsenic, and mercury. He was treated with 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid, with partial improvement, but peripheral neuropathy persists 4 years later. A 75-year-old man developed anorexia, weight loss, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, weakness, and anemia after a 3-month use of an herbal patch for chronic leg ulcer. His blood lead concentration was 226 μg/dL, and the lead content of the herbal patch was 517 mg/g. Chelation with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and dimercaptosuccinic acid was followed by clinical recovery. These cases documented serious systemic poisoning after the short-term use of traditional Chinese medicines containing heavy metals in damaged or infected tissue. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Accumulation of Zinc, Cadmium, and Lead in Four Populations of Sedum alfredii Growing on Lead/Zinc Mine Spoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Mei Deng; Jin-Chuan Deng; Jin-Tian Li; Jun Zhang; Min Hu; Zhou Lin; Bin Liao

    2008-01-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance is a newly reported zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator native to China. In this study,four populations of S. alfredii were collected from Yejiwei (YJW), Jinchuantang (JCT) and Qiaokou (QK) lead (Pb)/Zn mines located in Hunan Province as well as Quzhou (QZ) Pb/Zn mine located in Zhejiang Province for exploring the intraspecies difference of this plant in metal accumulation. Although they grew in the Pb/Zn spoils with relatively similar levels of Zn,Cd and Pb, remarkable differences among the four populations in tissue heavy metal concentrations were observed. The shoot Zn concentration of QZ population (11 116 mg/kg) was highest and nearly five times higher than that of the JCT population (1930 mg/kg). Furthermore, the shoot Cd concentration observed in the QZ population (1 090 mg/kg) was also highest and 144 times higher than that found in the JCT population (7.5 mg/kg). As for Pb concentrations In the shoot of different populations, a fourfold difference between the highest and the lowest was also found. Such difference on metal accumulation was opulation-specific and may be significantly explained by differences in the soil properties such as pH, organic matter (OM), and electrical conductivity (EC). Taking biomass and metal concentration in plants into consideration, the QZ, YJW and QK populations may have high potential for Zn phytoremediation, the QZ population may have the highest potential in Cd phytoremediation, and the QK population may be the most useful in Pb phytoremediation.

  1. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: petersj@bu.edu; Patricia Fabian, M., E-mail: pfabian@bu.edu; Levy, Jonathan I., E-mail: jonlevy@bu.edu

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  2. Assessment of exposure to soils contaminated with lead, cadmium, and arsenic near a zinc smelter, Cassiopée Study, France, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Cécile; Sauthier, Nicolas; Schwoebel, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    After 150 years of industrial activity, significant pollution of surface soils in private gardens and locally produced vegetables with lead, cadmium, and arsenic has recently been observed in Viviez (Southern France). A public health intervention was conducted in 2008 to identify individual health risks of Viviez inhabitants and to analyze their environmental exposure to these pollutants. Children and pregnant women in Viviez were screened for lead poisoning. Urinary cadmium testing was proposed to all inhabitants. Those with urinary cadmium levels over 1 μg/g creatinine were then tested for kidney damage. Urinary cadmium and arsenic levels were compared between participants with non-occupational exposure from Viviez and Montbazens, a nearby town not exposed to these two pollutants, in order to identify environmental factors contributing to impregnation. No case of lead poisoning was detected in Viviez, but 23 % of adults had urinary cadmium over 1 μg/g creatinine, 14 % of whom having markers of kidney damage. Viviez adults had higher levels of urinary cadmium, and to a lesser extent, higher levels of urinary arsenic than those from Montbazens. Consumption of local produce (vegetables and animals) and length of residence in Viviez were associated with higher urinary cadmium levels, independently of known confounding factors, suggesting persisting environmental exposure to contaminated soil. To conclude, health risks related to cadmium exposure were identified in the Viviez population living on contaminated soils. Lead and arsenic exposure did not pose health concerns. Interventions were proposed to reduce exposure and limit health consequences.

  3. Genotoxicity of lead, cadmium and arsenic in cultured mammalian cells (A{sub L})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, M.; Waldren, C.; Gustafson, D. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Heavy metal(s) cause tympanic and neurologic damage in humans. Although implicated in cancer and birth defects, metals have been weakly mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian cell assays. We have, therefore, studied genotoxic effects of arsenic [NaASO{sub 2}], cadmium [CdCl{sub 2}], and lead [Pb(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2})] in the human X hamster hybrid A{sub L} cells which were constructed so as to detect low level mutagenicity. A{sub L} cells contain one human chromosome, no. 11, in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) background. Mutations affecting MIC1 gene are detected via a complement-mediated toxicity assay in which cells expressing the S1 antigen encoded by MIC1 are killed: S1{sup -} mutants survive. The MIC1 gene is not hostage to neighbor genes so that mutations of any size in chromosome 11 are detectable. We found that suppression of glutathione (GSH) by BSO (buthione-S,R-sulfoximine) made Pb and Cd more lethal to A{sub L} cells. The LD{sub 50}s for Pb were 25 and 4 {mu}g/ml without and with BSO, respectively. For Cd these values were 0.3 and 0.08 {mu}g/ml respectively. The LD{sub 50} of As was 0.8 {mu}g/ml; BSO`s effect was not determined. In mutation studies at the S1{sup -} locus, lead`s slight activity was increased 10 fold by BSO (from 4 to 40 mutants/10{sup 6} clonable cells/{mu}g). Arsenic without BSO was mutagenic (140 mutants/LD{sub 50}); Cd was not. These mutagenic activities are 1/10 to 1/100 less than {sup 137}Cs-{gamma} rays. These results further demonstrate the value of the A{sub L} assay in evaluating weak mutagens.

  4. Effects of cadmium, chromium and lead on growth, metal uptake and antioxidative capacity in Typha angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Alieu Mohamed; Dai, Huaxin; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Hongyan; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2011-07-01

    This study investigates the modulation of antioxidant defence system of Typha angustifolia after 30 days exposure of 1 mM chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), or lead (Pb). T. angustifolia showed high tolerance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom when exposed to metal stress, and Cd/Pb addition also increased plant height and biomass especially in Pb treatment. Along with increased Cr, Cd, and Pb uptake in metal treatments, there was enhanced uptake of plant nutrients including Ca and Fe, and Zn in Pb treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were recorded in plants subjected to Cr, Cd, or Pb stress. Furthermore, Pb stress also improved catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities; whereas Cr stress depressed APX and GPX. The results indicate that enzymatic antioxidants and Ca/Fe uptake were important for heavy metal detoxification in T. angustifolia, stimulated antioxidative enzymes, and Ca, Fe, and Zn uptake could partially explain its hyper-Pb tolerance.

  5. KINETIC AND EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES OF LEAD AND CADMIUM BIOSORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SARGASSUM SPP. BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nabizadeh, K. Naddafi, R. Saeedi, A. H. Mahvi, F. Vaezi, K. Yaghmaeian and S. Nazmara

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the aqueous environment by heavy metals is a worldwide environmental problem. Biosorption of lead (II and cadmium (II from aqueous solutions by brown algae Sargassum spp.biomass was studied in a batch system. The heavy metals uptake was found to be rapid and reached to 88-96% of equilibrium capacity of biosorption in 15min. The pseudo second-order and saturation rate equations were found in the best fitness with the kinetic data (R2 > 0.99. The data obtained from experiments of single-component biosorption isotherm were analyzed using the Freundlich, Langmuir, Freundlich-Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. The Redlich-Peterson equation described the biosorption isotherm of Pb2+ and Cd2+ with high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.99 and better than the other equations. The effect of Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ on the biosorption of Pb2+ was not significant, but the metal ions affected the biosorption of Cd2+ considerably. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum uptake capacities (qm of Sargassum spp. for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were obtained as 1.70 and 1.02mmol/g, respectively. Although the Sargassum spp. used in this study can be classified as an efficient biosorbent.

  6. [Migration tests of cadmium and lead from paint film of baby toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Mutsuga, Motoh; Yamauchi, Tomoko; Ueda, Shinji; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2009-04-01

    The migration tests of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from paint film on baby toys set out in the Japanese Food Sanitation Law (official standard) and International Standard 8124-3 (ISO) were compared. Vinyl chloride resin enamel and acrylic resin enamel containing 1,000 mg/kg Cd and Pb on a dried basis were painted on glass plates and then dried. According to the official standard, the paint films on the glass plates were soaked in water at 40 degrees C for 30 min and the solutions were analyzed by ICP-AES. Cd and Pb were below the limit of determinotion (glass plates and the powder was soaked in 0.07 mol/L HCl at 37 degrees C for 1 hr either with shaking and without shaking. The migration of Cd and Pb reached 310 to 910 mg/kg, i.e., 3.5-12 times more than the migration limits. Cd migrated more extensively than Pb, and they both migrated more readily from the acrylic resin enamel than from the vinyl chloride enamel. In conclusion, the migration test of Cd and Pb from paint films on toys based on the ISO standards is stricter than that based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Low.

  7. Effects of Cadmium,Lead ,and Zinc on Size of Microbial Biomass in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S.KHAN; XIEZHENGMIAO; 等

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to study the influence of cadmium(Cd),lead (Pb) and zinc( Zn) on the size of the microbial biomass in red soil.All the three metals were applied,separately,at five different levels that were:Cd at 5,15,30,60, and 100μgg-1;Pb at 100,200,300,450 and 600μg g-1 and Zn at 50,100,150,200 and 250μg g-1 soil,In Comparison to uncaontaminated soil ,the microbial biomass carbon and biomass nitrogen decreased sharply in soils contaminated with Cd,Pb and Zn,A more considerable increase in the microbial biomass C:N ratio was observed in the metal contaminated soils than the non-treated control.Among the tested metals ,Cd displayed the greatest biocidal effect followed by Zn and Pb,showin their relative toxicity in the order of Cd>Zn>Pb.

  8. Lead, cadmium and zinc in mineral structure of deposits of the gallbladder in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kwapuliński

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The former studies have shown the presence of As and Sb in deposits of the gallbladder. The aim of studies: The aim of the studies was to define the level of accumulation of Pb, Cd, Zn in deposits of the gallbladder as supplementary biological test for exposure assessment in a long run. Materials and methods: Pb, Cd and Zn content was investigated with inductive coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometry were deposits of the gallbladder in men and women living in the Silesia Region. Results: The change of these elements content was analyzed in connection with behavioral factors ( diet, alcohol, coffee, obesity and tobacco addiction of the gender. Attention was drawn to the probability of interaction of Pb, Cd, Zn with other elements during their accumulation in deposits of the gallbladder. It appeared that deposits of the gall bladder can be used as an additional biological test in individual exposure assessment to Pb, Cd and Zn. It was noted that the level of content of Pb, Zn and Cd in deposits of the gallbladder is impacted by behavioral factors (diet, alcohol, coffee, obesity tobacco addiction. A characteristic impact of the tobacco addiction on the rise in the content of lead, cadmium and zinc was demonstrated as well as significant role of the presence of these elements in the total environmental pollution in relevant living areas.

  9. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  10. Lead and Cadmium Contamination of Different Roadside Soils and Plants in Peshawar City, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.KHAN; M.A.KHAN; S.REHMAN

    2011-01-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from roadside sites (along with primary, secondary and tertiary roads) and reference site to investigate the contamination of soils and old common plant species with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in Peshawar City, Pakistan. All the data were analyzed using ANOVA analysis that showed a significant (P ≤ 0.01) variation in Pb and Cd concentrations in the roadside soils and plants ss compared to the reference site. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 53.9 and 6.0 mg kg-1 in soils and 49.1 and 10.9 mg kg-1 in plants, respectively. Significant variation (P ≤ 0.01) in concentrations of Pb and Cd in soil and plant samples along with primary, secondary and tertiary roads might be due to different traffic densities. The highest value (9.4) of metal accumulation index (MAI) was observed for Eucalyptus camaldulensis. In selected plant species, the Pb and Cd accumulation was found in the order of E. camaldulensis > Ficus elastica > Dalbergia sissoo > Alstonia scholaris. The roadside soils and plants were highly contaminated with Pb and Cd as compared to the reference site.

  11. Relationship between lead, cadmium, zinc, manganese and iron in hair of environmentally exposed subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Mehra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Trace level analysis of two toxic metals lead and cadmium and three essential metals zinc, manganese and iron was examined in hair of 25 workers of metals finishing units and metal recycling units of State of Rajasthan, India, as Exposed Group (EG. Twenty-five subjects as controls were selected from the office staff of the same units Control Group A (CGA and 25 subjects selected from the population of State of Rajasthan, India, who were not exposed to metal pollution at their work place were selected as another control group Control Group B (CGB. Head hair samples were collected, decontaminated and digested followed by analysis for trace levels of Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn and Fe by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, ECIL Model-AAS4141 using air acetylene flame. The significant levels of metals in between EG, CGA and CGB have been computed by Student’s ‘t’ test. The Pearson rank correlation of the data of five metals revealed significant positive correlation between Mn/Cd, Mn/Pb, Mn/Fe, Cd/Pb, Cd/Fe and Pb/Fe in hair of Exposed Group (EG, Mn/Zn, Mn/Cd, Mn/Pb, Zn/Cd, Zn/Pb, Cd/Pb and Cd/Fe in hair of Control Group A (CGA and Mn/Cd in hair of Control Group B (CGB. Significant negative correlation was observed between Pb/Fe in hair of CGB.

  12. Removal of Cadmium and Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution by Nanocrystalline Magnetite Through Mechanochemical Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hosseinzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the removal of cadmium and lead ions from aqueous solution by nanocrystalline magnetite was investigated. The nanocrystalline magnetite was synthesized by mechanochemical activation of hematite in a high energy planetary mill in argon atmosphere for 45 hours. The ability of the synthesized nanocrystalline magnetite for removal of Cd(II and Pb(II from aqueous solutions was studied in a batch reactor under different experimental conditions with different pHs, contact times, initial metal ion concentrations and temperatures. The solution’s pH was found to be a key factor in the adsorption of heavy metal ions on Fe3O4. The optimum pH of the solution for adsorption of Cd(II and Pb(II from aqueous solutions was found to be 6.5 and 5.5, respectively. The best models to describe the kinetics and isotherms of single adsorption were both the pseudo first and second-order kinetic models and Langmuir models, respectively, indicating the monolayer chemisorption of Cd(II and Pb(II on Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters (i.e., ∆H°, ∆S°, ∆G° were evaluated which indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic. The results suggested that the synthesized material (magnetite nanocrystalline particles may be used as effective and economic absorbent for removal of Cd(II and Pb(II from aqueous solutions.

  13. Contribution of AM inoculation and cattle manure to lead and cadmium phytoremediation by tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fa Yuan; Shi, Zhao Yong; Xu, Xiao Feng; Wang, Xu Gang; Li, You Jun

    2013-04-01

    Lead and cadmium are both highly toxic pollutants and pose potential risks to the environment and human health. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation and organic amendments may make a potential contribution to phytoremediation of these toxic metals, but their effects remain unclear. We conducted a pot culture experiment to study the contribution of AM inoculation and/or cattle manure to phytoremediation of two soils artificially polluted with 0, 350, 500 and 1000 mg Pb per kg soil or 0, 1, 10, 100 mg Cd per kg soil using tobacco plants. Results showed that AM colonization was greatly reduced when exposed to more heavy metals especially Cd, whereas organic amendment alleviated metal stress and showed protective effects. In general, AM inoculation and cattle manure, singly or in combination, all significantly increased tobacco growth and Pb and Cd accumulation in shoots and roots, while decreased DTPA-extractable Pb and Cd concentrations in soil, and combination treatments (MN) produced the most pronounced positive effects. Improved plant P nutrition, higher soil pH and lower available metal concentrations contributed by AM inoculation and/or organic amendment may be the main strategies to alleviate metal toxicity and enhance phytoremediation efficiency. Our results indicate that AM fungi and organic manure play a synergistic positive role both in phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Cd and Pb.

  14. Influence of co-contaminant exposure on the absorption of arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Cameron J; Smith, Euan; Herde, Paul; Juhasz, Albert L

    2017-02-01

    Incidental ingestion of contaminated soil and dust is a major pathway for human exposure to many inorganic contaminants. To date, exposure research has focused on arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), however, these studies have typically assessed metal(loid) bioavailability individually, even when multiple elements are present in the same matrix. As a consequence, it is unclear whether interactions between these elements occur within the gastro-intestinal tract, which may impact absorption and accumulation. In this study, the influence of contaminant co-exposure was assessed using a mouse bioassay and soluble forms of As, Cd and Pb supplied in mouse chow as individual, binary and tertiary elemental combinations. Arsenic urinary excretion and Pb-liver accumulation were unaffected by As-Pb co-exposure (1-10 mg As kg(-1) and 3-30 mg Pb kg(-1)) while Cd-kidney accumulation was unaffected by the presence of As and/or Pb. However, Cd co-exposure decreased As urinary excretion and increased Pb-liver accumulation. It was hypothesized that Cd influenced arsenate absorption as a consequence of the impairment of phosphate transporters. Although the reason for increasing Pb-liver accumulation following Cd co-exposure is unclear, enhanced Pb accumulation may occur as a result of transport protein overexpression or changes in divalent metal compartmentalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. {ital E}3 transition probabilities in the platinum, mercury, and lead isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egido, J.L.; Martin, V.; Robledo, L.M.; Sun, Y. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)]|[Analisis Numerico, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28660 Madrid (Spain)]|[Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)]|[Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Spectroscopical properties of the platinum, mercury, and lead isotopes are studied within the Hartree-Fock plus BCS framework with the finite range density-dependent Gogny force. These properties are also studied beyond mean-field theory by combining the use of generator-coordinate-method-like wave functions with the angular momentum projection technique as to generate many-body correlated wave functions that are at the same time eigenstates of the angular momentum operator. We apply this formalism to the calculation of reduced transition probabilities {ital B}({ital E}3) from the lowest-lying octupole collective state to the ground state of several isotopes of the platinum, mercury, and lead nuclei whose experimental {ital B}({ital E}3) values present a peculiar behavior. The projected calculations show a large improvement over the unprojected ones when compared with the experimental data. The unprojected calculations are unable to predict any structure in the {ital B}({ital E}3). {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. The analysis of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and nickel content in human bones from the upper Silesian industrial district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, I; Czernicki, K; Aleksandrowicz, R

    1995-01-10

    The concentration of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and nickel in autopsy samples of bones from adults living in the Upper Silesian industrial district (Poland)--an ecological disaster region--was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (flame and flameless GF AAS). Lead concentrations ranged from 20 micrograms/g to 200 micrograms/g bone wet weight, cadmium from 0.4 microgram/g to 1.5 micrograms/g bone wet weight. About one-fourth of the bones examined from Silesia, contained lead in the range from 100 micrograms/g to 200 micrograms/g. The were no significant differences in zinc, copper and nickel concentration between the control groups. The samples were mineralized in a microwave digestion system. To avoid anomalous results caused by the influence of the matrix Ca3 (PO4)2--the procedure of lead determination was carried out at a temperature of 2000 degrees C, the cadmium determination at a temperature of about 1200 degrees C.

  17. Uptake and loss of mercury, cadmium and lead in marine organisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kureishy, T.W.; DeSilva, C.

    . Pb was found to be the least toxic. Hg was found to accumulate in greater amounts as compared to Cd and Pb. Preferential accumulation and subsequent retention was observed for each metal to particular tissue, thus Hg showed affinity towards muscles...

  18. Mercury, cadmium and lead in different tissues of fishes and in zooplankton from the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kureishy, T.W.; Sanzgiri, S.; George, M.D.; Braganca, A.

    Several fishes, representing different trophic levels, and some zooplankton samples were analysed for Hg, Cd and Pb There is a wide variation in the concentrations of these elements Hg is quite low in practically all the tissues Cd and Pb show...

  19. Development of a thermodynamic model for zinc, lead and cadmium in saline solutions; Entwicklung eines thermodynamischen Modells fuer Zink, Blei und Cadmium in salinaren Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Sven

    2012-07-15

    Waters on aboveground and underground landfills often contain high concentrations of pollutants like zinc, lead and cadmium. Interactions between wastes and aqueous solutions could lead to a mobilisation of these elements. If their maximum solubilities are to be predicted by geochemical modelling a thermodynamic data base is needed. Due to the lack of experimental data such a data base could not be developed yet. In order to fill the gaps isopiestic as well as solubility measurements were made at 25 C. Furthermore the complex formation of zinc and cadmium was investigated and quantified by means of Raman spectrometry and evolving factor analysis. It could be proven that only complexes with two and four chlorine atoms achieve significant concentrations. On basis of these results and a critical evaluation of literature data a consistent thermodynamic data base for was developed for the calculation of activity coefficients and solubilities in the system Na, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd, Cl, SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O at 298,15 K.

  20. Size and temperature dependence of the photoluminescence properties of NIR emitting ternary alloyed mercury cadmium telluride quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Amardeep M.; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arup; Babu Pendyala, Naresh; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Exciton-phonon coupling and nonradiative relaxation processes have been investigated in near-infrared (NIR) emitting ternary alloyed mercury cadmium telluride (CdHgTe) quantum dots. Organically capped CdHgTe nanocrystals of sizes varying from 2.5-4.2 nm have been synthesized where emission is in the NIR region of 650-855 nm. Temperature-dependent (15-300 K) photoluminescence (PL) and the decay dynamics of PL at 300 K have been studied to understand the photophysical properties. The PL decay kinetics shows the transition from triexponential to biexponential on increasing the size of the quantom dots (QDs), informing the change in the distribution of the emitting states. The energy gap is found to be following the Varshni relation with a temperature coefficient of 2.1-2.8  ×  10-4 eV K-1. The strength of the electron-phonon coupling, which is reflected in the Huang and Rhys factor S, is found in the range of 1.17-1.68 for QDs with a size of 2.5-4.2 nm. The integrated PL intensity is nearly constant until 50 K, and slowly decreases up to 140 K, beyond which it decreases at a faster rate. The mechanism for PL quenching with temperature is attributed to the presence of nonradiative relaxation channels, where the excited carriers are thermally stimulated to the surface defect/trap states. At temperatures of different region (<140 K and 140-300 K), traps of low (13-25 meV) and high (65-140 meV) activation energies seem to be controlling the quenching of the PL emission. The broadening of emission linewidth is found to due to exciton-acoustic phonon scattering and exciton-longitudinal optical (LO) phonon coupling. The exciton-acoustic phonon scattering coefficient is found to be enhanced up to 55 μeV K-1 due to a stronger confinement effect. These findings give insight into understanding the photophysical properties of CdHgTe QDs and pave the way for their possible applications in the fields of NIR photodetectors and other optoelectronic devices.

  1. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000-2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. & Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption.

  2. Synthesis of cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads as immunosensing probes for the detection of AFP, CEA and PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zifeng; Liu, Na; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-08-15

    A double-water-in-oil-emulsion procedure was designed to synthesize cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads less than 200n m diameter under mild conditions. The cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads can be activated to immobilize biomacromolecules and can directly produce distinctive electrochemical signals. Using the novel alginate nanobeads labeled with antibodies as electrochemical probes, a sandwich-type immunosensor was constructed using AFP, CEA and PSA as model analytes. This proposed immunosensor shows wide linear range with detection limits of 0.01, 0.0086 and 0.0075 ng mL(-1) for AFP, CEA and PSA, respectively. Analysis of clinical serum samples using this immunosensor was well consistent with the data determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It suggested that the alginate nanobeads electrochemical probes could be generally extended to other multiple analytes detection.

  3. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  4. An electroanalytical approach for evaluation of biochar adsorption characteristics and its application for lead and cadmium determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguihiro, Talita Mayumi; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; de Rezende, Edivaltrys Inayve Pissinati; Mangrich, Antonio Sálvio; Marcolino, Luiz Humberto; Bergamini, Márcio F

    2013-09-01

    This work describes for first time the use of electroanalytical techniques for evaluation of adsorptive proprieties of biochar using it as electrode modifier and its application for preconcentration and determination of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) under differential pulse adsorptive voltammetric conditions (DPAdSV). Samples of biochars were obtained from castor oil cake using a predefined set of experimental conditions varying the heating rate (V), final temperature (T) and warm-up period (P) and subsequently used for carbon paste modified electrode (CPME) preparation. The proposed method was applied for Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) determination in spiked simulated industrial effluents and the limit of detection obtained for both metals were adequated for determination of these evaluated ions taking into account the limits established by Brazilian legislation. For all samples analyzed, recoveries ranged from 95% to 104% were obtained and no significative interferences were observed for common cations in water samples.

  5. Optimization of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium in natural waters and simulated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Claudio; Soto-Salazar, César; Toral, M Inés

    2006-12-01

    Chemical, electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine the effectiveness of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium. The electrochemical process, which uses electrodes of commercial laminate steel, was applied to simulated wastewater containing 12 mg dm(-3) of copper, 4 mg dm(-3) of lead and 4 mg dm(-3) of cadmium. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as pH=7, flow rate=6.3 cm(3) min(-1) and a current density between 31 and 54 A m(-2). When the electrode geometric area and time of electrolysis reached critical values, the copper removal reached a maximum value of 80%. A linear relationship was identified between the current density and the mass of generated sludge. In addition, a linear relationship was found between specific energy consumption and current density. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of an industrial-scale electrolytic reactor.

  6. Sanitary Risks Connected to the Consumption of Infusion from Senna rotundifolia L. Contaminated with Lead and Cadmium in Cotonou (Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Montcho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out an assessment of sanitary risks connected to the consumption of Senna rotundifolia Linn. contaminated with lead and cadmium. This plant was collected and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results revealed a contamination of plants from markets of Dantokpa, Vossa, and Godomey with heavy metals. Senna from Vossa was higher in cadmium and lead levels (Pb: 2.733 mg/kg ± 0.356 mg/kg; Cd: 0.58 mg/kg ± 0.044 mg/kg compared to the two other places (Pb: 1.825 mg/kg ± 0.133 mg/kg, Cd: 0.062 mg/kg ± 0.015 mg/kg and Pb: 1.902 mg/kg ± 0.265 mg/kg, Cd: 0.328 mg/kg ± 0.024 mg/kg, respectively, for Dantokpa and Godomey. In terms of risk assessment through the consumption of Senna, the values recorded for lead were nine times higher with children and six times higher with adults than the daily permissive intake (Pb: 3.376 × 10−2 mg/kg/day for children and 2.105 × 10−2 mg/kg/day for adults versus 3.6 × 10−3 mg/kg/day for DPI. With respect to cadmium, there was no significant difference between the recorded values and the DPI (Cd: 1 × 14 10−3 mg/ kg/day for children and Cd: 0.71 × 10−3 mg/ kg/day for adults versus Cd: 1 × 10−3 mg/kg/day for adults. This exposure of the population to lead and cadmium through the consumption of antimalarial healing plants could pose public health problems.

  7. Evaluation of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc status in biological samples of smokers and nonsmokers hypertensive patients

    OpenAIRE

    H. I. Afridi; Kazi, T G; Kazi, N G; Jamali, M K; Arain, M B; Sirajuddin,; Baig, J. A.; Kandhro, G A; Wadhwa, S K; Shah, A Q

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between trace and toxic elements zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of smoker and nonsmoker hypertensive patients (n=457), residents of Hyderabad, Pakistan. For the purpose of comparison, the biological samples of age-matched healthy controls were selected as referents. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotomete...

  8. Do cadmium, lead, and aluminum in drinking water increase the risk of hip fractures? A NOREPOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between cadmium, lead, and aluminum in municipality drinking water and the incidence of hip fractures in the Norwegian population. A trace metals survey in 566 waterworks was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country (1994-2000). In all those supplied from these waterworks, 5,438 men and 13,629 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture. Poisson regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, region of residence, urbanization, and type of water source as well as other possibly bone-related water quality factors. Effect modification by background variables and interactions between water quality factors were examined (correcting for false discovery rate). Men exposed to a relatively high concentration of cadmium (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.01, 1.20) had an increased risk of fracture. The association between relatively high lead and hip fracture risk was significant in the oldest age group (66-85 years) for both men (IRR = 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21) and women (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.16). Effect modification by degree of urbanization on hip fracture risk in men was also found for all three metals: cadmium, lead, and aluminum. In summary, a relatively high concentration of cadmium, lead, and aluminum measured in drinking water increased the risk of hip fractures, but the associations depended on gender, age, and urbanization degree. This study could help in elucidating the complex effects on bone health by risk factors found in the environment.

  9. Temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved copper,lead,zinc and cadmium in the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Changyou; WANG Xiulin; WANG Baodong; ZHANG Chuansong; SHI Xiaoyong; ZHU Chenjian

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were measured in the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters.Results from a systematic survey in April 2002 to March 2003 indicate that the ranges of the concentrations of dissolved copper,lead,zinc and cadmium in the study waters are 1.01~6.86,0.10~0.39,3.17~9.12 and 0.011~0.049 μg/dm3,respectively.Similar to zinc,the behavior of dissolved copper Was essentially conservative,but high seatter has been observed for high salinity samples,which can be attribu-ted to the decomposition or mineralization of organic matter by bacteria.Dissolved lead may have active behavior with an addition at high salinity.Overall concentrations of dissolved cadmium increase with salinity.The mean values of these dissolved metals cal-culated for the surface waters were highcr than those for the middle and bottom ones.External inputs of dissolved heavy metals to the surface waters were the likely explanation for these higher values.The maximum seasonal average values of dissolved copper and zinc were flound in summer,reflecting higher amounts of riverine input in this season.In contrast,the maximum seasonal av-erage values of dissolved lead and copper were found in winter and the lowest ones in summer,respectively,which might be asso-ciated with a combination of low concentration with heterogeneous scavenging.Concentrations of these dissolved metals found for the Changjiang Estuary fall in the range observed for the other estuaries but are noticeably higher than those from uncontaminated rivers,except for cadmium.Compared with observations for the Changjiang Estuary in the last two deeades.it is clear that the Changjiang estuarine waters has been contaminated with copper,lead,zinc and cadmium during China's industuialization,but concentrations of them have decreased in the last few years.

  10. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  11. The marine macroalga Cystoseira baccata as biosorbent for cadmium(II) and lead(II) removal: Kinetic and equilibrium studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodeiro, P. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Enxeneria Quimica I, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota 1, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Barriada, J.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Enxeneria Quimica I, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota 1, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Herrero, R. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Enxeneria Quimica I, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota 1, 15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: erob@udc.es; Sastre de Vicente, M.E. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Enxeneria Quimica I, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota 1, 15071 A Coruna (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    This work reports kinetic and equilibrium studies of cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorption by the brown seaweed Cystoseira baccata. Kinetic experiments demonstrated rapid metal uptake. Kinetic data were satisfactorily described by a pseudo-second order chemical sorption process. Temperature change from 15 to 45 {sup o}C showed small variation on kinetic parameters. Langmuir-Freundlich equation was selected to describe the metal isotherms and the proton binding in acid-base titrations. The maximum metal uptake values were around 0.9 mmol g{sup -1} (101 and 186 mg g{sup -1} for cadmium(II) and lead(II), respectively) at pH 4.5 (raw biomass), while the number of weak acid groups were 2.2 mmol g{sup -1} and their proton binding constant, K {sub H}, 10{sup 3.67} (protonated biomass). FTIR analysis confirmed the participation of carboxyl groups in metal uptake. The metal sorption was found to increase with the solution pH reaching a plateau above pH 4. Calcium and sodium nitrate salts in solution were found to affect considerably the metal biosorption. - Marine macroalgae show promise for biosorption of lead and cadmium.

  12. In vitro susceptibility of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum to metallic compounds containing cadmium, lead, copper, manganese or zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana Corrêa; Weiblen, Carla; Botton, Sônia de Avila; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer; de Jesus, Francielli Pantella Kunz; Verdi, Camila Marina; Gressler, Leticia Trevisan; Sangioni, Luís Antonio; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2017-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that causes pythiosis, an important and severe disease of difficult treatment that affects humans, domestic and wild animals. This infection is often described in horses in Brazil and humans in Thailand. In clinical practice, we have observed many cases that do not respond to available therapies, indicating the need to explore alternative therapeutic approaches. In this sense, studies using metal compounds in conjunction with available antimicrobial agents have been demonstrated greater antimicrobial activity. Thus, in this research, we tested in vitro activities of metallic compounds containing cadmium, lead, copper, manganese, or zinc against 23 isolates of P. insidiosum. The assays were performed by broth microdilution based on CLSI M38-A2 document. The minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations were established for all isolates. Copper acetate and cadmium acetate showed the highest inhibitory effects, with minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 4-64 μg/ml and 16-256 μg/ml, respectively. The mean geometric for minimal fungicidal concentrations were, respectively, 26 μg/ml and 111.43 μg/ml for copper acetate and cadmium acetate. These results suggest that copper and cadmium can inhibit P. insidiosum growth, highlighting the greater inhibitory activity of copper acetate. In addition, our results propose that copper and/or cadmium compounds can be used in upcoming researches to formulate effective new complexed drugs against P. insidiosum in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cadmium hyperaccumulation leads to an increase of glutathione rather than phytochelatins in the cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qin; Ye, Zhi Hong; Wang, Xiao Rong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2007-11-01

    Sedum alfredii has been reported to be a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator. Phytochelatins (PCs) and other thiol (SH)-containing compounds have been proposed to play an important role in the detoxification and tolerance of some heavy metals, but it is not clear whether PCs are responsible for Cd hyperaccumulation and tolerance in S. alfredii. In this study, two geographically isolated populations of S. alfredii were studied: one population grew on an old Pb/Zn mine site, while the other on a non-mine site. The mine population of this species exhibited a stronger heavy metal tolerance than in the other population. Root-to-shoot transport of Cd was higher in population located at the mine site than at the non-mine site. Considerable amounts of Cd were accumulated in leaves and stems of mine plants, while most Cd was distributed in roots of non-mine plants. Non-protein SH in plant tissues of two populations were further investigated by a HPLC pre-column derivatization system. Upon exposure to Cd, no PCs were detected in all tissues of mine population, while an appreciable amount of glutathione (GSH) was observed in the descending order of stem>root>leaf. The concentrations of GSH consistently increased with the increase of exogenous Cd concentrations and time. On the contrary, Cd exposure strongly induced the production of PCs (mainly PC(2) and PC(3)) and GSH in plant tissues of non-mine population, and the concentrations of GSH showed an initial drop over the duration of 7-d exposure. The present results provided strong evidence that PCs are not involved in Cd transport, hyperaccumulation and tolerance in mine population of S. alfredii.

  14. The determination of cadmium, lead and vanadium by high resolution ICP-MS in Antarctic snow samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, F. [Joh. Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Trincherini, P. [European Union Joint Research Centre, Ispra, VA (Italy). Inst. of Environment

    2000-02-01

    Double focusing ICP-MS was successfully used in this research for the direct determination of the cadmium, lead and vanadium content of a set of Antarctic samples collected during the 11. Italian Expedition to Antarctica. For cadmium and lead measurements the low resolution mode was chosen since it ensured the highest ion sensitivity and it allowed the highest detection limits to be attained; in the case of vanadium the high resolution mode was used to solve the isobaric interference. As far as vanadium and cadmium are concerned by GFAAS coupled with different preconcentration procedures. The vanadium, cadmium and lead content measured in a riverine water reference material (SRLS-3) was found in agreement with the certified values. [Italian] Si e' utilizzato uno spettrometro ICP-MS a doppia focalizzazione per la determinazione diretta di cadmio, piombo e vanadio in una serie di campioni di neve antartica superficiale raccolta durante l'undicesima spedizione italiana in Antartide. Per le determinazioni di cadmio e piombo si e' scelta la procedura a bassa risoluzione, che ha garantito la piu' elevata sensibilita' ed ha permesso di ottenere limiti di determinazione migliori; nel caso del vanadio si e' utilizzata la procedura ad alta risoluzione che ha permesso di risolvere problemi di interferenza isobarica. Per quanto riguarda cadmio e vanadio, i risultati delle determinazioni mediante ICP-MS sono risultati in buon accordo con quelli ottenuti mediante GFAAS accoppiata a diverse procedure di preconcentrazione. Il contenuto di cadmio, piombo e vanadio misurato con le procedure sviluppate in un campione certificato di acqua di fiume (SRLS-3) e' risultato in accordo con i valori certificati.

  15. Electrochemical generation of volatile lead species using a cadmium cathode: Comparison with graphite, glassy carbon and platinum cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz, Maria; Fernandez, Lenys, E-mail: lfernandez@usb.ve; Dominguez, Jose; Alvarado, Jose

    2012-05-15

    Working electrodes made out of pyrolytic graphite, glassy carbon, platinum and cadmium were compared for the electrochemical generation of volatile lead species. The same electrolytic cell, using each of the different working electrodes was coupled to an atomic absorption spectrometer and the experimental conditions were optimized in each case, using a univariate approach, to produce the maximum possible amount of volatile lead species. The experiments were focused on the variation of cathode hydrogen overvoltage by the application of a constant current during analysis. Under optimum conditions the performance of the electrochemical hydride generator cell should depend on the cathode material selected due to the different hydrogen overpotential of each material. The lead absorbance signal was taken as a measure of the efficiency of volatile lead species production. Best results were obtained using the Cd cathode, due to its relatively highest hydrogen overpotential, a carrier gas (Ar) flow rate of 55 mL min{sup -1} an electrolytic current of 0.8 A and a catholyte (HCl) concentration 0.05 mol L{sup -1}. The analytical figures of merit of the method using the Cd electrode were evaluated and the susceptibility of the method to interferences was assessed by its application to the determination of trace amounts of lead in the presence of the most significant interferents. The calibration curve was linear between 0.5 and 15 {mu}g L{sup -1} Pb. Detection limits and characteristic mass values were 0.21 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}g L{sup -1} respectively. A bovine liver standard reference material and a spiked urine sample were analyzed to check accuracy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium cathode for the electrochemical generation (ECHG) of lead volatile species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium cathode for the ECHG of lead hydrides improve merit figures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ECHG of the volatile species depends on the hydrogen

  16. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram AMIRMORADI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are particularly noteworthy metals that can pollute the air, soil and water contributing to serious environmental problems. Tests were done on concentrations of Pb and Cd; treatments tested in the experiment were as follows; Cd concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ppm and concentrations of Pb (100, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 ppm and control. Tests were done on Mentha piperita L. in a greenhouse, arranged as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Rhizomes with uniform weight were planted in pots 305035 cm. Plants were irrigated with Cd and Pb chloride after germination of all rhizomes. Results demonstrated that with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb there was a decrease in fresh and dry weights, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number, number of nodes per main stem and essential oil of peppermint compared to the control. Fresh weights were decreased at 100 ppm of Cd and 1500 ppm of Pb, 18.16% and 24.55%, respectively compared to the control at the first harvest. At the second harvest, these decreases were 15.24% and 32.72%, respectively. At the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb, dry weight of peppermint was dropped 22.92% and 39.01% at the first harvest. For the second harvest, decreased dry weights were 25.88% and 26.77% respectively. It seems that peppermint can tolerate waste water or soil polluted with medium range of Cd and Pb concentrations and the essential oil percentage was not affected by these concentrations.

  17. Effects of Exposure to Lead and Cadmium on the Oxidative Damage of Livers in Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Dawei; Pu; Junhua; Tang; Xiujun; Lu; Junxian; Liu; Yinyin; Jia; Xiaoxu; Ge; Qinglian; Gao; Yushi

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] To detect the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium on the oxidative damage of livers in laying hens. [Methods] One hundred and twenty 40-week-old Hyline brown hens were randomly divided into four groups. 100 mg / L Pb and / or 50 mg / L Cd was added into the drinking water for eight weeks. [Results] Compared with control group,AST and ALT activities in Pb group enhanced; but there were no significant differences. AST and ALT activities in Cd group and( Pb + Cd) group significantly or extremely significantly increased( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01). SOD activity,GSH- Px activity and GSH content in( Pb + Cd) group,Cd group and Pb group were significantly or extremely significantly lower than those in control group( P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). Among them,( Pb + Cd) group showed the greatest reduction( P <0. 01). MDA contents in the three groups were significantly higher than that of control group; and( Pb +Cd) group was significantly higher than Pb group and Cd group. Cu,Fe and Zn contents in three groups were higher than those in control group in different degrees( P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). Se contents in Cd group and( Pb + Cd) group were significantly lower than that in control group( P <0. 01). Residue contents in livers in Pb group and Cd group were significantly greater than that in control group; while residue content in( Pb + Cd) group was significantly higher than those in Pb group and Cd group. Ultrastructure showed that there were symptoms of mitochondrial swelling and fractured cristae in liver cells of laying hens after the exposure to Cd and Pb. In( Pb + Cd) group,these symptoms were even greater. [Conclusion] Oxidative damage and disturbance of trace element metabolism were one of the mechanisms for hepatotocity in laying hens induced by Pb and Cd,and synergistic effect lied in the coadministration.

  18. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Germán, E-mail: santosg@unican.es; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values – those to be compared with the limit/target values – fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. - Highlights: • EU encourages modelling techniques over measurements for air quality assessment. • A methodology for minor pollutants assessment by statistical modelling is presented.

  19. Investigation of lead and cadmium in counterfeit cigarettes seized in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; von Lampe, Klaus; Wood, Laura; Kurti, Marin

    2015-07-01

    Information of toxic elements such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in counterfeit cigarettes offers insight on the potential public health impact of consuming counterfeit cigarettes and the technology used by counterfeiters in the illicit cigarette trade. In this study, the concentration of Pb and Cd in twenty-three packs of counterfeit cigarettes seized in the US by various law enforcement agencies were evaluated and compared with their genuine equivalents using microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Both Pb and Cd concentration in counterfeit cigarettes were markedly higher than those in their genuine equivalents, and exhibited greater sample to sample variability. The average Pb and Cd mass fraction values in counterfeit cigarettes were (5.13 ± 2.50) mg/kg (n = 23) and (5.13 ± 1.95) mg/kg (n = 23) respectively, compared with (0.59 ± 0.08) mg/kg (n = 9) and (1.08 ± 0.08) mg/kg (n = 9) respectively in the genuine equivalents. Results suggest that counterfeit cigarettes may impose higher risks to public health. Studying these toxic elements could provide important information regarding the illicit trade, including the level of organization among counterfeiters, who broker between availability of supplies and consumer demand for a cheaper product that is assumed to be genuine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of lead and cadmium co-exposure on hemoglobin in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Hao; Li, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhu, Guoying; Jin, Taiyi

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) show adverse effects on hemoglobin. But most studies are focussed on one single agent. In this study, we observed the main and interactive effects of Cd and Pb on the hemoglobin level in a Chinese population. A total of 308 persons (202 women and 106 men), living in controlled and polluted areas, were included in this study. Blood and urine were collected to determine the levels of hemoglobin (Hb), Cd, Pb, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG). The Cd and Pb level of subjects living in the polluted area were significantly higher compared to those living in the control area (p<0.05). The level of hemoglobin was declined with the increasing BPb (p<0.05) and BCd in women. The Hb of women and men with the highest level of BCd and BPb were decreased by 8.3g/L and 10.7 g/L compared to those with the lowest level of BCd and BPb, respectively. The Hb level of those women and men with the highest level of UNAG decreased by 4.2g/L and 17.2g/L compared with those with low level of UNAG, respectively. Hb was negatively associated with BPb, BCd, and UNAG. This study evidenced that Cd and Pb can influence Hb level. In addition, our study shows that Cd and Pb may have interactive effects on Hb and Hb level was correlated with tubular dysfunction caused by Cd and Pb exposure.

  1. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoohiyan Sakine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods. In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As were determined in 105 black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions. The amount of heavy metals in black tea infusions were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP - AES. The mean ± SD level of Pb in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.802 ± 0.633, 0.993 ± 0.667 and 1.367 ± 1.06 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of Cd in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.135 ± 0.274, 0.244 ± 0.46 and 0.343 ± 0.473 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of As in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.277 ± 0.272, 0.426 ± 0.402 and 0.563 ± 0.454 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. Also, the results showed that the locations and the infusion times influenced upon the amount of these metals (P 

  2. Phytoremediation potential of charophytes: Bioaccumulation and toxicity studies of cadmium, lead and zinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Najjapak Sooksawat; Metha Meetam; Maleeya Kruatrachue; Prayad Pokethitiyook; Koravisd Nathalang

    2013-01-01

    The ability for usage of common freshwater charophytes,Chara aculeolata and Nitella opaca in removal of cadmium (Cd),lead (Pb)and zinc (Zn) from wastewater was examined.C aculeolata and N.opaca were exposed to various concentrations of Cd (0.25 and 0.5 mg/L),Pb (5 and 10 mg/L) and Zn (5 and 10 mg/L) solutions under hydroponic conditions for 6 days.C.aculeolata was more tolerant of Cd and Pb than N.opaca.The relative growth rate of N.opaca was drastically reduced at high concentrations of Cd and Pb although both were tolerant of Zn.Both macroalgae showed a reduction in chloroplast,chlorophyll and carotenoid content after Cd and Pb exposure,while Zn exposure had little effects.The bioaccumulation of both Cd and Pb was higher in N.opaca (1544.3 μg/g at 0.5 mg/L Cd,21657.0 μg/g at 10 mg/L Pb) whereas higher Zn accumulation was observed in C.aculeolata (6703.5 μg/g at 10 mg/L Zn).In addition,high bioconcentration factor values (> 1000) for Cd and Pb were observed in both species.C.aculeolata showed higher percentage of Cd and Pb removal (> 95%) than N.opaca and seemed to be a better choice for Cd and Pb removal from wastewater due to its tolerance to these metals.

  3. Cadmium and lead levels consumed by patients with oral hospital diets prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia S. Manzoli de Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The levels of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in foods should be monitored as a function of health risks. Objective: To evaluate Cd and Pb levels in oral hospital diets and in an oral food complement (OFC according to their respective consumption by patients, and to estimate the patient's exposition risk. Methods: The levels of Cd and Pb were determined by ICP-OES in samples of regular, blend, soft and renal diets and OFC, collected on 6 weekdays. About 14.3% of the diets and OFC served were analyzed. Results and discussion: 163 patients participated, with mean weights and ages of 62.7 kg and 56.5 years, respectively, the majority being men (59.5%. The mean Cd content consumed was greater for men fed the regular and blend diets and similar amongst the sexes for the soft diet. The consumption of Cd (max. 21.02 µg/day was below the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI. The mean Pb ingested (max. 199.49 µg/day was similar amongst the sexes. The soft diet showed the highest Pb content in September/2010, whereas the other showed no variation according to season. In September/2010 and January/2011, the soft and regular diets associated with the OFC offered 207.50 and 210.50 µg/day of Pb, respectively. Conclusions: The combination of the diet with the OFC increased the risk of an excessive ingestion of Pb, and the vulnerability of the patients to an excessive exposition to Pb could be greater due to water and medications. It was concluded that whereas the calculated ingestion of Cd conformed to the PTMI, the Pb level and ingestion represented a risk to the health of the patients.

  4. Effect of Cadmium and Lead on Quantitative and Essential Oil Traits of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram AMIRMORADI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb are particularly noteworthy metals that can pollute the air, soil and water contributing to serious environmental problems. Tests were done on concentrations of Pb and Cd; treatments tested in the experiment were as follows; Cd concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ppm and concentrations of Pb (100, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 ppm and control. Tests were done on Mentha piperita L. in a greenhouse, arranged as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Rhizomes with uniform weight were planted in pots 30�50�35 cm. Plants were irrigated with Cd and Pb chloride after germination of all rhizomes. Results demonstrated that with increasing concentrations of Cd and Pb there was a decrease in fresh and dry weights, main stem height, leaf area per plant, leaf number, number of nodes per main stem and essential oil of peppermint compared to the control. Fresh weights were decreased at 100 ppm of Cd and 1500 ppm of Pb, 18.16% and 24.55%, respectively compared to the control at the first harvest. At the second harvest, these decreases were 15.24% and 32.72%, respectively. At the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb, dry weight of peppermint was dropped 22.92% and 39.01% at the first harvest. For the second harvest, decreased dry weights were 25.88% and 26.77% respectively. It seems that peppermint can tolerate waste water or soil polluted with medium range of Cd and Pb concentrations and the essential oil percentage was not affected by these concentrations.

  5. Overexpression of phytochelatin synthase in Arabidopsis leads to enhanced arsenic tolerance and cadmium hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Carreira, Laura; Lee, David; Chen, Alice; Schroeder, Julian I; Balish, Rebecca S; Meagher, Richard B

    2004-12-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins, which are a family of cysteine-rich thiol-reactive peptides believed to play important roles in processing many thiol-reactive toxicants. A modified Arabidopsis thaliana PCS sequence (AtPCS1) was active in Escherichia coli. When AtPCS1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis from a strong constitutive Arabidopsis actin regulatory sequence (A2), the A2::AtPCS1 plants were highly resistant to arsenic, accumulating 20-100 times more biomass on 250 and 300 microM arsenate than wild type (WT); however, they were hypersensitive to Cd(II). After exposure to cadmium and arsenic, the overall accumulation of thiol-peptides increased to 10-fold higher levels in the A2::AtPCS1 plants compared with WT, as determined by fluorescent HPLC. Whereas cadmium induced greater increases in traditional PCs (PC2, PC3, PC4), arsenic exposure resulted in the expression of many unknown thiol products. Unexpectedly, after arsenate or cadmium exposure, levels of the dipeptide substrate for PC synthesis, gamma-glutamyl cysteine (gamma-EC), were also dramatically increased. Despite these high thiol-peptide concentrations, there were no significant increases in concentrations of arsenic and cadmium in above-ground tissues in the AtPCS1 plants relative to WT plants. The potential for AtPCS1 overexpression to be useful in strategies for phytoremediating arsenic and to compound the negative effects of cadmium are discussed.

  6. Estimation of lead, cadmium and nickel content by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in dry fruit bodies of some macromycetes growing in Poland. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of lead, cadmium, and nickel in dry fruit bodies of 34 species of macromyoetes collected in Poland from 72 natural babitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS was estimated.

  7. Quantitative estimatation of lead, cadmium. and nickel contents by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in fruitbodies of some macromycetes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The contents of lead, cadmium and nickel in dry fruitbodies of 13 species of macromycetes collected in Poland from 33 natural habitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS were estimated.

  8. Convective forcing of mercury and ozone in the Arctic boundary layer induced by leads in sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher W; Obrist, Daniel; Steffen, Alexandra; Staebler, Ralf M; Douglas, Thomas A; Richter, Andreas; Nghiem, Son V

    2014-02-06

    The ongoing regime shift of Arctic sea ice from perennial to seasonal ice is associated with more dynamic patterns of opening and closing sea-ice leads (large transient channels of open water in the ice), which may affect atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles in the Arctic. Mercury and ozone are rapidly removed from the atmospheric boundary layer during depletion events in the Arctic, caused by destruction of ozone along with oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to oxidized mercury (Hg(II)) in the atmosphere and its subsequent deposition to snow and ice. Ozone depletion events can change the oxidative capacity of the air by affecting atmospheric hydroxyl radical chemistry, whereas atmospheric mercury depletion events can increase the deposition of mercury to the Arctic, some of which can enter ecosystems during snowmelt. Here we present near-surface measurements of atmospheric mercury and ozone from two Arctic field campaigns near Barrow, Alaska. We find that coastal depletion events are directly linked to sea-ice dynamics. A consolidated ice cover facilitates the depletion of Hg(0) and ozone, but these immediately recover to near-background concentrations in the upwind presence of open sea-ice leads. We attribute the rapid recoveries of Hg(0) and ozone to lead-initiated shallow convection in the stable Arctic boundary layer, which mixes Hg(0) and ozone from undepleted air masses aloft. This convective forcing provides additional Hg(0) to the surface layer at a time of active depletion chemistry, where it is subject to renewed oxidation. Future work will need to establish the degree to which large-scale changes in sea-ice dynamics across the Arctic alter ozone chemistry and mercury deposition in fragile Arctic ecosystems.

  9. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh, E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  10. Short-term metallothionein inductions in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule after cadmium or mercury exposure: Discrepancy between mRNA and protein responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pont, Ika, E-mail: i.paulpont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Gonzalez, Patrice, E-mail: p.gonzalez@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Baudrimont, Magalie, E-mail: m.baudrimont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Nili, Hanane, E-mail: h.nili@etu.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Montaudouin, Xavier de, E-mail: x.de-montaudouin@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France)

    2010-05-05

    Metallothioneins (MT) are essential metal binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. Numerous studies have focused on MT response to metal exposure and showed an important variability according to species, metal, concentration and time of exposure. In this study, the expression of one isoform of MT gene (Cemt1) and associated MT protein synthesis were determined after 1, 3, 9, 24, 72 and 168 h of cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) exposures in gills of the cockle Cerastoderma edule. This experiment, carried out in laboratory conditions, revealed that in Cd-exposed cockles, induction of Cemt1 is time-dependent following a 'pulse-scheme' with significant upregulation at 24 h and 168 h intersected by time point (72 h) with significant downregulation. MT protein concentration increases with time in gills of exposed cockles in relation with the progressive accumulation of Cd in soluble fraction. On contrary, Hg exposure does not lead to any induction of Cemt1 mRNA expression or MT protein synthesis compared to control, despite a higher accumulation of this metal in gills of cockles compared to Cd. The localization of Hg (85-90%) is in insoluble fraction, whereas MT was located in the cytoplasm of cells. This gives us a first clue to understand the inability of Hg to activate MT synthesis. However, other biochemical processes probably occur in gills of C. edule since the remaining soluble fraction of Hg exceeds MT sequestration ability. Finally, since one of the first main targets of metal toxicity in cells was the mitochondria, some genes involved in mitochondria metabolism were also analyzed in order to assess potential differences in cellular damages between two metal exposures. Indeed, until T{sub 168}, no impact on mitochondrial genes was shown following Hg exposure, despite the complete lack of MT response. This result indicated the presence of other effective cellular ligands which sequester the cytosolic fraction of

  11. Evaluation and Determination of Toxic Metals, Lead and Cadmium, in Incoming Raw Milk from Traditional and Industrial Farms to Milk Production Factories in Arak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is regarded as a unique source of food for all ages. When milk is exposed to various contaminants, including lead and cadmium, it is considered a risk to humans. The presence of some metal pollutants, especially Cd and Pb, facilitates their entry into the food chain and thus increases the possibility of their toxic effects on humans and animals. Therefore, we decided to check lead and cadmium levels in incoming raw milk in milk production factories in Arak city, Iran. Methods: In this study, 48 samples of milk were obtained from 28 industrial and 20 traditional farms. After the digestion process, at first, the metals were extracted with complexing agents, APDC, and MIBK solvent. Then atomic absorption method with graphite furnace was applied. Results: The results were analyzed by analytical tests such as Npar, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and t-test using SPSS software and it was specified that the means of lead and cadmium were equal to 16.0456 and 20.09 ppb in raw milk. P-values equal to 0.009 and 0.002 ppb were considered significant for lead and cadmium, respectively. The standard levels for lead and cadmium in milk were 1000 and 100 ppb, respectively. In all milk samples, lead and cadmium pollution were less than the standard limit. Conclusion: The amounts of toxic metals (lead and cadmium in raw milk produced in traditional and industrial farms in all seasons were lower than the standard limits. Also, the mean amounts of lead and cadmium in all milk samples were less than the standard limits for milk.

  12. Assessment of exposure to soils contaminated with lead, cadmium, and arsenic near a zinc smelter, Cassiopée Study, France, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Cécile; Sauthier, Nicolas; Schwoebel, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    After 150 years of industrial activity, significant pollution of surface soils in private gardens and locally produced vegetables with lead, cadmium, and arsenic has recently been observed in Viviez (Southern France). A public health intervention was conducted in 2008 to identify individual health risks of Viviez inhabitants and to analyze their environmental exposure to these pollutants. Children and pregnant women in Viviez were screened for lead poisoning. Urinary cadmium testing was propo...

  13. Global pollution shown by lead and cadmium contents in precipitation of polar regions and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the major ions, lead and cadmium has been performed for snow-pit samples collected from the Arctic, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the Antarctic Ice Sheet. These snow pits were excavated respectively from the snowpack in Canadian Northwest Territory (NWT) and the central Arctic, three glaciers on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surface snow along the route of the International Trans-Antarctic Expedition (ITAE). The source regions for the lead pollution of central Arctic have been identified by analyzing of stable lead isotopic ratios, meteorological and atmospheric chemistry studies. It shows that the central Arctic is still under intensive lead input, despite the fact that lead content in Greenland Ice Sheet displays a rapid decreasing since the 1970s due to US and some European countries' campaigns to reduce lead-containing gasoline-additives. This is because there are multiple lead sources for the central Arctic, including the countries that have not performed gasoline-additives reducing. The backgrounds of atmospheric aerosol compositions, as well as the concentrations of lead and cadmium in precipitation of the early 1990s, are contrasted among the Arctic, Antarctica and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The measured lead content in the snowfall at the typical sites of the three regions is divided into natural (background) and anthropogenic components. It is found that natural lead concentration (mainly crustal and/or sea-salt lead) is roughly equal among the three regions (50% in Antarctic precipitation, >97% in the Arctic and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau ) is mainly responsible for the lead input to both polar regions and to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Lead pollution may have spread into the whole troposphere and the most remote regions on earth.

  14. Cadmium and lead levels along the estuarine ecosystem of Tigre River-San Andres Lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sauceda, María de la Luz; Pérez-Castañeda, Roberto; Sánchez-Martínez, Jesús Genaro; Aguirre-Guzmán, Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium and lead levels were evaluated in water and sediment along the estuarine ecosystem of Tigre River-San Andres Lagoon (Gulf of Mexico) during September to December 2009. Significant highest metal concentration in water (0.45 mg L(-1) Cd and 3.94 mg L(-1) Pb) and sediment (2.83 mg kg(-1) Cd and 6.61 mg kg(-1) Pb) were found at the mouth of the Tigre River, where the fishing town of El Moron is located. Cadmium levels in sediment were above limits associated with adverse biological effects on aquatic fauna, so negative impacts on natural populations of aquatic organisms would be expected to occur. This in turn could affect the fishery resources inhabiting this ecosystem.

  15. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Heiko W; Domenech, Robert; Slabe, Vincent A; Sullivan, Sean P

    2015-07-01

    Lead exposure from ingestion of bullet fragments is a serious environmental hazard to eagles. We determined blood lead levels (BLL) in 178 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured during fall migration along a major North American flyway. These eagles spent the breeding season distributed over a large range and are the best currently available representation of free flying golden eagles on the continent. We found 58 % of these eagles containing increased BLL > 0.1 mg/L; 10 % were clinically lead poisoned with BLL > 0.6 mg/L; and 4 % were lethally exposed with BLL > 1.2 mg/L. No statistical difference in BLL existed between golden and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Golden eagles captured on carrion had higher BLL than those captured using live bait suggesting differences in feeding habits among individuals. Median BLL increased with age class. We propose a conceptual model for the long-term increase in BLL after ingestion of lead particles. The mean blood mercury level in golden eagles was 0.023 mg/L. We evaluate a field test for BLL that is based on anodic stripping voltammetry. This cost-effective and immediate method correlated well with results from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, although results needed to be corrected for each calibration of the test kit.

  16. Differential fitness of allelic isozymes in the marine gastropods Littorina punctata and Littorina neritoides, exposed to the environmental stress of the combined effects of cadmium and mercury pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Batia; Nevo, Eviatar

    1987-07-01

    The present study tested the separate and the interactive pollution effects of cadmium and mercury on the electrophoretically detected allelic isozyme frequencies of the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase for two species of littoral marine gastropods — Littorina punctata and L. neritoides — and the enzyme amino peptidase for L. neritoides. Our results indicate differential survivorship of allelic isozyme genotypes specific for each type of pollutant and for their interaction, as well as trends common to all pollutants. Theoretically the results reflect the adaptive nature of at least some allozymic genotypes in these marine gastropods and seem inconsistent with the neutral theory of allozyme polymorphisms. Practically, the results reinforce earlier conclusions that changes in the frequency of allelic isozymes may be used as a genetic monitor of pollution.

  17. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Erin W. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schaumberg, Debra A. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Sung Kyun, E-mail: sungkyun@umich.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  18. Preventing Soil Mercury and Cadmium into Vegetables by Additives%几种化学物质抑制土壤汞、镉进入蔬菜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晶晶; 杨志敏; 王莉玮; 陈宏

    2014-01-01

    采用盆栽试验,研究了高污染背景条件下,添加石灰、腐殖酸、硫化钠、亚硒酸钠抑制紫色土汞、镉进入蔬菜的效果.结果表明,这几种化学物质都能够降低紫色土重金属活性,但考虑产量时宜选用腐殖酸,它既能增产8.29%,又能分别降低蔬菜汞、镉含量的32.35%,18.65%.汞、镉在莴笋各器官的分配与且仅与重金属元素有关,而与化学物质及其添加量无关,汞主要积累于根部,镉则积累于可食茎叶部分.%The pot experiments have been conducted to study the effects of preventing purple soil mercury and cadmium into vegetables by adding lime,humic acid,sodium sulfide and sodium selenite on the back-ground of the serious soil pollution.The results show that,although these additives can decrease the avail-ability of purple soil mercury and cadmium,the humic acid should be applied selectively,because it could not only increase the vegetables’yield by 8.29%,but also decrease the content of mercury and cadmium in vegetables by 32.35% and 18.65% respectively,compared with the controls.The vegetables’mercury and cadmium are mainly accumulated in the root and cadmium in the edible such as stem and leaf.

  19. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-01

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1-4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m(2)) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m(2)) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m(2)) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children.

  20. Effects of Cadmium, Lead, Manganese, and Zinc at WHO Safe Limits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT: In the present study, The in vitro availability of chloramphenicol was ... (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) at 0.01, 0.003, 0.5 and 3 ... It is used in treatment of human ..... World Health Organisation (WHO), (1993).

  1. Influence of Cadmium and Mercury on Activities of Ligninolytic Enzymes and Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Pleurotus ostreatus in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrian, Petr; in der Wiesche, Carsten; Gabriel, Jiří; Nerud, František; Zadražil, František

    2000-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was able to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[ghi]perylene in nonsterile soil both in the presence and in the absence of cadmium and mercury. During 15 weeks of incubation, recovery of individual compounds was 16 to 69% in soil without additional metal. While soil microflora contributed mostly to degradation of pyrene (82%) and benzo[a]anthracene (41%), the fungus enhanced the disappearance of less-soluble polycyclic aromatic compounds containing five or six aromatic rings. Although the heavy metals in the soil affected the activity of ligninolytic enzymes produced by the fungus (laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase), no decrease in PAH degradation was found in soil containing Cd or Hg at 10 to 100 ppm. In the presence of cadmium at 500 ppm in soil, degradation of PAHs by soil microflora was not affected whereas the contribution of fungus was negligible, probably due to the absence of Mn-dependent peroxidase activity. In the presence of Hg at 50 to 100 ppm or Cd at 100 to 500 ppm, the extent of soil colonization by the fungus was limited. PMID:10831426

  2. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of fly ash precipitates into zeolites 3: The removal of mercury and lead ions from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon Somerset; Leslie Petrik; Emmanuel Iwuoha [University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa). Sensor Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, the utilisation of zeolites synthesised from fly ash (FA) and related co-disposal filtrates as low-cost adsorbent material were investigated. When raw FA and co-disposal filtrates were subjected to alkaline hydrothermal zeolite synthesis, the zeolites faujasite, sodalite and zeolite A were formed. The synthesised zeolites were explored to establish its ability to remove lead and mercury ions from aqueous solution in batch experiments, to which various dosages of the synthesised zeolites were added. The test results indicated that when increasing synthesised zeolite dosages of 5-20 g/L were added to the acid mine drainage (AMD) wastewater, the concentrations of lead and mercury in the wastewater were reduced accordingly. The lead concentrations were reduced from 3.23 to 0.38 and 0.17 {mu}g/kg, respectively, at an average pH of 4.5, after the addition of raw FA zeolite and co-disposal filtrate zeolite to the AMD wastewater. On the other hand, the mercury concentration was reduced from 0.47 to 0.17 {mu}g/kg at pH=4.5 when increasing amounts of co-disposal filtrate zeolite were added to the wastewater. The experimental results had shown that the zeolites synthesised from the co-disposal filtrates were effective in reducing the lead and mercury concentrations in the AMD wastewater by 95% and 30%, respectively.

  3. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of fly ash precipitates into zeolites 3: the removal of mercury and lead ions from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerset, Vernon; Petrik, Leslie; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, the utilisation of zeolites synthesised from fly ash (FA) and related co-disposal filtrates as low-cost adsorbent material were investigated. When raw FA and co-disposal filtrates were subjected to alkaline hydrothermal zeolite synthesis, the zeolites faujasite, sodalite and zeolite A were formed. The synthesised zeolites were explored to establish its ability to remove lead and mercury ions from aqueous solution in batch experiments, to which various dosages of the synthesised zeolites were added. The test results indicated that when increasing synthesised zeolite dosages of 5-20 g/L were added to the acid mine drainage (AMD) wastewater, the concentrations of lead and mercury in the wastewater were reduced accordingly. The lead concentrations were reduced from 3.23 to 0.38 and 0.17 microg/kg, respectively, at an average pH of 4.5, after the addition of raw FA zeolite and co-disposal filtrate zeolite to the AMD wastewater. On the other hand, the mercury concentration was reduced from 0.47 to 0.17 microg/kg at pH=4.5 when increasing amounts of co-disposal filtrate zeolite were added to the wastewater. The experimental results had shown that the zeolites synthesised from the co-disposal filtrates were effective in reducing the lead and mercury concentrations in the AMD wastewater by 95% and 30%, respectively.

  4. Impact of cadmium and lead on Catharanthus roseus--a phytoremediation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S; Gupta, K; Mukherjee, A K

    2007-07-01

    The Madagascar Periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (a valued medicinal plant) was exposed to different concentrations ofheavymetals like, CdCl, and PbCl, with a view to observe their bioaccumulation efficiency. Germination was inhibited by both the heavy metals in the seeds previously imbibed in GA, and KNO, for 24 hr. EC50 (the effective concentration which inhibits root length by 50%) was recorded as 180 microM for CdCl2, and 50 microM for PbCl2. Both alpha-amylase and protease activity were reduced substantially on treatment of seeds with increasing concentrations of CdCl2, and PbCl2. Malondialdehyde (MDA) a product of lipoxigenase (LOX) activity also increased due to the treatment of both CdCl, and PbCl2. When two-months-old plants grown in normal soil were transferred to soils containing increasing amounts of these two heavy metals, senescence of lower leaves and extensive chlorosis were noticed after four days of transfer However, plants gradually acclimatized and after 20 days the chlorophyll content was almost comparable to normal. Plants receiving CdCl2 treatment (250 microg g(-1) and less) became acclimatized after two weeks and started normal growth. But PbCl2 of 432 microg g(-1) and less could not affect the plant growth throughout, after a preliminary shock was erased. In case of CdCl2 treatment, a stunted growth with reduced leaf area, reduced biomass and sterility were recorded after six months, while plants show normal growth and flowering in case of PbCl2 treatment. Total alkaloid was also found to be decreased in the roots of CdCl2 treated plants. No change was observed in case of PbCl2. GA3 treatments to the CdCl2 treated plants show internode elongation and increase in leaf area with relatively elongated leaves and thinning of stem diameter AAS analyses of leaves of treated plants exhibited 5-10% accumulation of cadmium, but there was no accumulation of lead at all.

  5. Cadmium and lead determination by ICPMS: Method optimization and application in carabao milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza A. Magbitang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method utilizing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS as the element-selective detector with microwave-assisted nitric acid digestion as the sample pre-treatment technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in milk samples. The estimated detection limits were 0.09ìg kg-1 and 0.33ìg kg-1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range 0.01 to 500ìg kg-1with correlation coefficients of 0.999 for both analytes.The method was validated using certified reference material BCR 150 and the determined values for Cd and Pb were 18.24 ± 0.18 ìg kg-1 and 807.57 ± 7.07ìg kg-1, respectively. Further validation using another certified reference material, NIST 1643e, resulted in determined concentrations of 6.48 ± 0.10 ìg L-1 for Cd and 21.96 ± 0.87 ìg L-1 for Pb. These determined values agree well with the certified values in the reference materials.The method was applied to processed and raw carabao milk samples collected in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.The Cd levels determined in the samples were in the range 0.11 ± 0.07 to 5.17 ± 0.13 ìg kg-1 for the processed milk samples, and 0.11 ± 0.07 to 0.45 ± 0.09 ìg kg-1 for the raw milk samples. The concentrations of Pb were in the range 0.49 ± 0.21 to 5.82 ± 0.17 ìg kg-1 for the processed milk samples, and 0.72 ± 0.18 to 6.79 ± 0.20 ìg kg-1 for the raw milk samples.

  6. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  7. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruen, Emel, E-mail: emelorun@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, S. Songuel, E-mail: siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey); Yurdakoek, Kadriye [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Ramazan [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 {mu}g/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 {mu}g/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 {mu}g/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 {mu}g/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 {mu}g/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: {yields} Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. {yields

  8. Radioactive zinc ( sup 65 Zn), zinc, cadmium and mercury in the Pacific Hake Merluccius productus (AYRES), off the West Coast of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1974-08-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of several hundred Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus, for zinc (Zn), zinc-65 ({sup 65}Zn), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg). The fish were collected off the coast of the western United States in 1969--1972. In addition, some data from mercury analyses of fresh and seawater samples collected in 1970--1973 are presented. The contents of this report were used in the author's doctoral thesis. A majority (80%) of the hake samples were collected during July and August 1969, from 32{degrees}N to 48{degrees}N along the western coast of the United States. Most of the samples of Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus, were collected by Russian scientists on board PROFESSOR DERYUGIN, in collaboration with the US Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (now, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) in July and August 1969. Additional samples were collected by NMFS vessels, JOHN N. COBB, BARON AND COMMANDO, and by the Oregon State University of Oceanography CAYUSE and YAQUINA in 1969--1972. Location of sampling stations and a summary of data collected are presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Effects of lead exposure on the concentration of cadmium, selenium and values of morphology in the blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heavy metals, including cadmium and lead are both environmental and industrial toxins which cause metabolic disorders. Effects of these elements are long lasting and usually take a long time to show themselves. Also of importance is the active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, which is also a source of heavy metals. Heavy metals exhibit nephrotoxic activity, hepatotoxic and neurotoxic, and mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. This study aimed to determine the relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and the level of selenium (Se, and values of morphology of employees of zinc and lead smelter. Material and methods. 334 occupationally exposed males (tested group and 60 males not exposed (control group were involved in the study. The men were between 19 and 62 years of age. The study population lived and/or worked in the industrial region of Upper Silesia. Blood cadmium concentration (Cd-B, blood lead concentration (Pb-B and serum concentrations of Se (Se-S were studied. The level of elements was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. The average concentration of each metal in the exposed group was 2.42±2.20 µg/l (Cd-B, 33±9.6 µg/dl (Pb-B and 73.99±20.44 µg/l (Se-S. In the entire study population (exposed and control, a statistically significant negative linear relationship was found between Pb-B and Se-S (r=–0.16, p<0.05. There was no correlation between Cd-B and Se-S, whereas a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between Pb-B and Cd-B (r=0.48, p<0.05. Spearman Rank Correlation analysis showed that in the study population there was observed statistically significant (p<0.05 negative correlation between Se-S in smokers group. Conclusions. Higher concentrations of Cd and Pb were observed in the exposed group compared to the control group. Occupational exposure to cadmium and lead may be a factor lowering the blood Se in the tested group. The most

  10. Simultaneous flow injection preconcentration of lead and cadmium using cloud point extraction and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edson Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303, CP 96, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: edsonqmc@hotmail.com; Santos Roldan, Paulo dos [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303, CP 96, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    A flow injection (FI) micelle-mediated separation/preconcentration procedure for the determination of lead and cadmium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) has been proposed. The analytes reacted with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN) to form hydrophobic chelates, which were extracted into the micelles of 0.05% (w/v) Triton X-114 in a solution buffered at pH 8.4. In the preconcentration stage, the micellar solution was continuously injected into a flow system with four mini-columns packed with cotton, glass wool, or TNT compresses for phase separation. The analytes-containing micelles were eluted from the mini-columns by a stream of 3 mol L{sup -1} HCl solution and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables affecting the preconcentration of the analytes were studied. For 15 mL of preconcentrated solution, the enhancement factors varied between 15.1 and 20.3, the limits of detection were approximately 4.5 and 0.75 {mu}g L{sup -1} for lead and cadmium, respectively. For a solution containing 100 and 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} of lead and cadmium, respectively, the R.S.D. values varied from 1.6 to 3.2% (n = 7). The accuracy of the preconcentration system was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked water samples. The method was susceptible to matrix effects, but these interferences were minimized by adding barium ions as masking agent in the sample solutions, and recoveries from spiked sample varied in the range of 95.1-107.3%.

  11. Chronic Cadmium Exposure Lead to Inhibition of Serum and Hepatic Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Samuel; Andrade-García, Alejandra; Herrera Camacho, Irma; León-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia; Flores, Gonzalo; Brambila, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the serum and liver from rats administered with cadmium (Cd) in drinking water was studied. After metal administration, Cd showed a time-dependent accumulation in the liver, meanwhile metallothionein had a maximum increase at 1 month, remaining in this level until the end of the study. On the other hand, serum and liver ALP activity was decreased after 3 months exposure. To determine if Cd produced an inhibition on enzyme, apo-ALP prepared from both nonexposed and exposed rats was reactivated with Zn, showing 60% more activity as compared with the enzyme isolated from nonexposed rats. In vitro assays showed that Cd-ALP was partially reactivated with Zn; however, in the presence of cadmium, Zn-ALP was completely inhibited. Kinetic studies indicate a noncompetitive inhibition by Cd; these results suggest that Cd can substitute Zn, and/or Cd can interact with nucleophilic ligands essential for the enzymatic activity.

  12. A binderless, covalently bulk modified electrochemical sensor: Application to simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium at trace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunigollahalli Kempegowda, Raghu [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore 560001 (India); Malingappa, Pandurangappa, E-mail: mprangachem@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore 560001 (India)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed sensor is a new type of binderless covalent bulk modified electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface can be easily renewed by simple mechanical polishing using emery sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free from modifier leaching during electrochemical measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides long term storage stability with good reproducibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanomolar level detection limit achieved with selectivity. - Abstract: A new type of covalent binderless bulk modified electrode has been fabricated and used in the simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium ions at nanomolar level. The modification of graphitic carbon with 4-amino salicylic acid was carried out under microwave irradiation through the amide bond formation. The electrochemical behavior of the fabricated electrode has been carried out to decipher the interacting ability of the functional moieties present on the modifier molecules toward the simultaneous determination of Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions using cyclic and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The possible mode of interaction of functional groups with metal ions is proposed based on the pKa values of the modifier functionalities present on the surface of graphitic carbon particles. The analytical utility of the proposed sensor has been validated by measuring the lead and cadmium content from pretreated waste water samples of lead acid batteries.

  13. Standard test method for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead and cadmium extracted from ceramic foodware

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) to quantitatively determine lead and cadmium extracted by acetic acid at room temperature from the food-contact surface of foodware. The method is applicable to food-contact surfaces composed of silicate-based materials (earthenware, glazed ceramicware, decorated ceramicware, decorated glass, and lead crystal glass) and is capable of determining lead concentrations greater than 0.005 to 0.020 g/mL and cadmium concentrations greater than 0.0005 to 0.002 g/mL, depending on instrument design. 1.2 This test method also describes quality control procedures to check for contamination and matrix interference during GFAAS analyses and a specific sequence of analytical measurements that demonstrates proper instrument operation during the time period in which sample solutions are analyzed. 1.3 Cleaning and other contamination control procedures are described in this test method. Users may modify contamination cont...

  14. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Flemming [Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Siersma, Volkert D. [The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skaanild, Mette T. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Denmark); Frederiksen, Hanne [Department of Growth and Reproduction, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Biot, Pierre [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum (Germany); Esteban, Marta [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  15. Breast Milk Lead and Cadmium Levels in Suburban Areas of Nanjing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Yu-qing Xu; Xiao-qi Gu; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Fei Xu; Rong Shen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk in the second post-partum month,to investigate the relationship between Pb/Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemo-graphic parameters,and to explore whether these levels affect the infants' physical status or the mothers' psychological status (postpartum depression). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2009 and December 2010. Al-together 170 healthy mothers were enrolled from Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. The inclusion criteria were: voluntary to participate in this study,healthy,with no chronic disease,breastfeeding in the second postpartum month,living in a suburban but not non-industrial area of Nanjing,and not occupa-tionally exposed to toxic metals. All the mothers completed a questionnaire and were evaluated based on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) to identify the risk of postpartum depression. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The infants of these mothers were examined for their z scores of weight for age,length for age,head circumference for age,and body mass index for age. Results The median breast milk levels of Pb and Cd were 40.6 μg/L and 0.67 μg/L,respectively. In 164 (96.5%) of the 170 samples,Pb levels were higher than the limit reported by the World Health Or-ganization (> 5 μg/L). Breast milk Cd level was > 1 μg/L in 54 (31.8%) mothers. The mothers with a his-tory of anemia had a higher breast milk Pb level than those without a history of anemia (41.1 μg/L vs. 37.9 μg/L,P = 0.050). The median breast milk Cd level in those who were active and passive smokers dur-ing pregnancy was significantly higher than that in non-smokers (0.88 μg/L vs. 0.00 μg/L,P = 0.025). The breast milk Cd level in the mothers not taking iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum was higher than in those taking the supplements (iron supplement: 0.74

  16. Effects of pollution on lead and cadmium concentration and correlation with biochemical parameters in blood of human population nearby Kosovo thermo power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zeneli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an investigation of lead and cadmium pollution of Kosovo environment as a result of outflow from the coal processing industry. In a comparative study of lead and cadmium concentration in blood of human population of two different environments in Kosovo, one nearby Kosovo Thermo Power Plants, (Obiliq a highly polluted environment and the other that is considered as relatively clean rural environment (Dragash. Analysis has shown that emission of particulate in fly ash from Thermo Power Plants during 2005 has exceeded EU standards by 400-500% and that lead concentration was 18mg kg-1 and cadmium concentration was -1 of ash. A series of determinations of lead and cadmium concentrations in blood of population that lives in this environment, have shown direct effects in biochemical parameters CRE (Creatinin, DB (Direct Bilirubine, TB (Total Bilirubine, AST (Aspartat Aminotransferaza, CK (Creatin Kinaza and CHE (Cholenisteraza in human organism. The results that were achieved in this study showed a significant difference in average lead and cadmium concentration in the blood of the investigated group of peoples that lives in the area near by the Power Plants, from a control group that lives in a rural unpolluted environment. Lead and cadmium has been analyzed in 50 samples taken from persons from industrial zone and 25 samples in controlled group. The level of lead concentration was 23.0-112.1 µg L-1in geometric average 46.05 µg L-1, cadmium concentration was 0.44-6.02 µg L-1 in geometric average of 1.56µg L-1. Controlled group from the rural relatively clean environment showed lead concentration of 6.7-33.8 µg L-1 in geometric avarage 17.76 µg L-1 and cadmium concentration of 0.21-1.8 µg L-1 or in geometric average of 0.73 µg L-1. In conclusion in exposed subjects, pollution from coal burning in Power Plant is very important factor for level of lead and cadmium concentration in blood of tested population.

  17. Advanced technology for environmentally friendly dry battery. Chikyu ni yasashii kandenchi no kaihatsu (kandenchi no musuigin, mu cadmium ka gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, O.; Miyasaka, K.; Maeda, M. (Toshiba battery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-04-01

    A dry battery was developed that does not contain mercury and cadmium having been used in carbon-zinc batteries and alkaline batteries. This paper describes its summary. Mercury in carbon-zinc batteries is used as a corrosion inhibitor for zinc, and cadmium is used to retain mechanical strength of zinc cans. Surfactants and metal oxides were used as a corrosion inhibitor in place of mercury, added into separators. Magnesium was adopted to substitute cadmiun, and the required mechanical strength was obtained. Mercury in alkaline batteries prevents corrosion in zinc particles (which generated hydrogen gas) and gas generation from impurities (iron and others), and plays roles of improving contacts among zinc particles and suppressing electric resistance low. Discussions were given on zinc alloy composition and corrosion inhibitors to replace the mercury having these roles. For zinc alloy, an alloy using lead with less gas generation and excellent discharge characteristics and bismuth as an added element was adopted. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS.

  19. Determination of lead, cadmium and thallium in water samples at ppb and ppt-levels by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettenbach, J.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-10-01

    An analytical procedure by isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium and thallium traces in water samples down to the ppt-level is described. As a definitive method this type of analysis is especially advantageous to calibrate other analytical methods. A cathodic electrodeposition is used for the separation of the analysed heavy metals. A spike solution containing SWPb, WCd and STTl is applied for the isotope dilution technique. Positive thermal ions of the elements are successively measured by increasing the temperature of the filament in a single-filament ion source. The blank contribution of chemicals of different degree of purity for the analytical procedure was investigated. Different spring water samples dependent on the type of soil were analysed. Drinking water samples showed a significant difference in the heavy metal concentration dependent on the frequency in which the water-pipe was used. In this case, thallium is an especially sensitive indicator. It has been found for lead and cadmium that in contrast to thallium a high portion of both elements is fixed at small particles which can be included in the drinking water or is adsorbed at the surface of a quartz vessel. (orig.).

  20. Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-07-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m2 day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0. 024, and 0.023 microg/m2 day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home, and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

  1. Concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel in boar semen and relation to the spermatozoa quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massányi, Peter; Trandzík, Jozef; Nad, Pavol; Koréneková, Beáta; Skalická, Magdaléna; Toman, Robert; Lukác, Norbert; Strapák, Peter; Halo, Marko; Turcan, Ján

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel as well as its relation to spermatozoa quality was investigated. The semen samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentration of copper in boar semen was 1.64 +/- 0.28 mg kg(-1) and of iron 16.14 +/- 10.35 mg kg(-1). The concentration of zinc in boar semen reached an average value of 171.74 +/- 64.72 mg kg(-1) and the level of cadmium reached 0.01-0.16 mg kg(-1) with the average value of 0.05 mg kg(-1). The analysis of lead showed that the concentration of this element in boar semen was 0.02 +/- 0.03 mg kg(-1) and the average level of nickel was 0.06 +/- 0.08 mg kg(-1). The total percentage of pathological spermatozoa was 9.82 +/- 1.47%. Detail analysis determined 3.18% of separated flagellum, 2.26% knob twisted flagellum, 0.88% flagellum torso, 0.85% flagellum ball, 0.42% broken flagellum, 0.23% retention of the cytoplasmic drop, 0.14% small heads, 0.03% large heads, and 1.83% forms other of pathological changes. Correlation analysis showed significant (p spermatozoa (r = 0.73) was determined.

  2. Environmental exposure to lead and mercury in Mexican children: a real health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Moreno, Ma Elena; Rodríguez-Kessler, Theresia; Luna, Ana; Arias-Salvatierra, Daniela; Gómez, Rocío; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) remains a world public health problem, particularly for young children in developing countries. In Mexico, the main sources of exposure to Pb and Hg are wastes from human activities that increase the natural sources of these metals. Pb and Hg are highly toxic during development and maturation periods of the central nervous system (CNS); these effects are associated with the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Mexico has numerous exposure sources to Pb and Hg; nevertheless, information on exposure in children is limited, particularly for Hg. Therefore, we conducted a review of the studies performed in children exposed to Pb and Hg. Data presented support that an important proportion of Mexican children have Pb levels above values associated with dangerous effects. On the other hand, studies on Hg-exposure are scarce, so we need more studies to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to determine exposure levels in Mexican children. Available data support the urgent need for coordinated actions among researchers, and health and environmental government authorities to implement education and nutritional campaigns, as well as to decrease exposure and effects of Pb and Hg. In addition, there must be a priority for the implementation of educational campaigns directed to the general population, but with emphasis in parents, education staff and health care providers to decrease both the risk of exposure of children to Pb and Hg and the effects of the exposure to these metals.

  3. Surface plasmon resonance sensing detection of mercury and lead ions based on conducting polymer composite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz M Abdi

    Full Text Available A new sensing area for a sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR was fabricated to detect trace amounts of mercury and lead ions. The gold surface used for SPR measurements were modified with polypyrrole-chitosan (PPy-CHI conducting polymer composite. The polymer layer was deposited on the gold surface by electrodeposition. This optical sensor was used for monitoring toxic metal ions with and without sensitivity enhancement by chitosan in water samples. The higher amounts of resonance angle unit (ΔRU were obtained for PPy-CHI film due to a specific binding of chitosan with Pb(2+ and Hg(2+ ions. The Pb(2+ ion bind to the polymer films most strongly, and the sensor was more sensitive to Pb(2+ compared to Hg(2+. The concentrations of ions in the parts per million range produced the changes in the SPR angle minimum in the region of 0.03 to 0.07. Data analysis was done by Matlab software using Fresnel formula for multilayer system.

  4. Environmental arsenic, cadmium and lead dust emissions from metal mine operations: Implications for environmental management, monitoring and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au; Mould, Simon Anthony; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Rouillon, Marek

    2014-11-15

    Although blood lead values in children are predominantly falling globally, there are locations where lead exposure remains a persistent problem. One such location is Broken Hill, Australia, where the percentage of blood lead values >10 μg/dL in children aged 1–4 years has risen from 12.6% (2010), to 13% (2011) to 21% (2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of metal contamination in places accessible to children. This study examines contemporary exposure risks from arsenic, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc in surface soil and dust, and in pre- and post-play hand wipes at six playgrounds across Broken Hill over a 5-day period in September 2013. Soil lead (mean 2,450 mg/kg) and zinc (mean 3,710 mg/kg) were the most elevated metals in playgrounds. Surface dust lead concentrations were consistently elevated (mean 27,500 μg/m{sup 2}) with the highest lead in surface dust (59,900 μg/m{sup 2}) and post-play hand wipes (60,900 μg/m{sup 2}) recorded close to existing mining operations. Surface and post-play hand wipe dust values exceeded national guidelines for lead and international benchmarks for arsenic, cadmium and lead. Lead isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of surface dust wipes from the playgrounds revealed the source of lead contamination to be indistinct from the local Broken Hill ore body. The data suggest frequent, cumulative and ongoing mine-derived dust metal contamination poses a serious risk of harm to children. - Highlights: 1.Playground soils and surface dust in a mining town have high metal concentrations. 2.Elevated levels of As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust are found on playground users′ hands. 3.Pb isotope analysis shows that the source of playground dust is ore body Pb. 4.Surface mine operations must be contained to reduce childhood lead exposure risks. 5.Mine environmental licences need to set trigger values for As, Cd, Pb and Zn dust.

  5. Biochemical and molecular effects of gestational and lactational coexposure to lead and cadmium on ovarian steroidogenesis are associated with oxidative stress in F1 generation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Prakash; Pandya, Chirayu; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Sarita

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have characterized the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in ovarian steroidogenesis disruption by heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium coexposure, on F1 generation offspring. In this study, adult pregnant female rats were treated subcutaneously (0.05 mg/kg of body weight per day) with sodium acetate (control), lead acetate, and cadmium acetate separately and in combination throughout gestational and lactational period, and all animals from each of the experimental groups were sacrificed by decapitation on postnatal day 56 for various assays. The activities of key steroidogenic enzymes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) decreased in all the metal-treated groups. But the most significant decrease in the activities was observed in the cadmium-treated group, whereas the combined exposure group showed an intermediate effect. Serum estradiol and progesterone levels were also significantly altered in all the metal-treated groups, with the cadmium-exposed group showing maximum reductions as compared with the control group. The inhibitory effects of lead and cadmium on ovarian steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA levels along with CYP11 mRNA levels were also observed. Ovarian cholesterol content measured also showed significant depletion in all the metal-treated groups, with the cadmium-exposed group showing the maximum depletion. The activities of ovarian enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were all significantly diminished along with significant depletion in nonenzymatic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was elevated significantly in all the metal-treated groups. In conclusion, lead and cadmium inhibit ovarian steroidogenesis by downregulating StAR gene expression along with inhibiting activities of steroidogenic enzymes and antioxidant system.

  6. 700 years reconstruction of mercury and lead atmospheric deposition in the Pyrenees (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, J. P.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Wang, F.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Cuevas, C. A.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical analyses in varved lake sediment cores (Lake Montcortès, Pre-Pyrenees) allowed reconstruction of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) atmospheric deposition over the past seven centuries in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Accumulation Rates (AR) from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Period ranged from 2500 to 26130 μg m2.y-1 and 15-152 μg m2.y-1 for Pb and Hg respectively. Significant metal pollution started ca CE 1550 during a period of increased exploitation of ore resources in Spain. Colder and humid conditions in the Pyrenees during the Little Ice Age may have also favoured Hg and Pb atmospheric deposition in the lake. Therefore, the interplay between increased rainfall (wet deposition) and mining activities in the Iberian Peninsula has driven Hg and Pb AR during the Pre-industrial Period. More recently, the use of leaded gasoline in Europe in the mid-20th century may explain the highest Pb AR between CE 1953 and 1971. The highest Hg AR occurred in CE 1940 synchronous with the highest Hg production peak in Almadén mining district (southern Spain) and the Second World War. The record of Hg enrichment in Lake Montcortès shows a decrease during the last decades in Western Europe similar to other regional records and global emission models. This study highlights the exceptional quality of varved sequences to tease apart pollutants depositional mechanisms, identify historical periods of increased atmospheric pollution and provide a historical context for pollutant baseline values to make correct assessments of recent (atmospheric) pollution in lake ecosystems.

  7. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Szarek, Józef; Strzyżewska, Emilia; Felsmann, Mariusz

    2013-04-15

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n=60) and Coot (n=50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006-2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n=5) and high concentrations (Mallards n=18 and Coots n=17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions.

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum for their protective effect against cadmium and lead toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojekunle, O; Banwo, K; Sanni, A I

    2017-05-01

    Thirty-two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were obtained from fermenting cassava mash and wara (African soft cheese) and screened for their resistance to cadmium and lead toxicities at 550-1050 mg l(-1) and probiotic potentials. Four LAB strains that tolerated the heavy metals at 1050 mg l(-1) were selected for antioxidative capacities, tolerance to acid, bile salts and simulated gastric and intestinal tract and safety status. The results revealed that Weissella cibaria WD2 and Lactobacillus plantarum CaD1 exhibited comparatively higher antioxidative capacities, survived in simulated gastric and intestinal transit, tolerated acid and bile salt and possessed safety status. The two strains were employed for the in vivo studies, which was monitored in male albino Wistar rats using skim milk as a carrier for the cultures over a period of 28 days. The rats given the cultures of W. cibaria WD2 and L. plantarum CaD1 in addition with the administration of heavy metals had improved renal and hepatic impairment, while damage was observed in rats fed with cadmium and lead only. Weissella cibaria WD2 and L. plantarum CaD1 demonstrated probiotic potentials and safety status. These strains can be used to effectively amend hepatic and renal histopathological alterations in rats caused by ingestion of cadmium and lead. This present study highlights the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditional fermented foods that were cadmium and lead resistant and possessed probiotic potentials. Weissella cibaria WD2 and Lactobacillus plantarum CaD1 selected for the in vivo studies ameliorated the build-up of cadmium and lead in the organs of the animals. This indicated that good cadmium and lead binding and probiotic lactic acid bacteria can be used to prevent exposure to these heavy metals. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Influence of “Chelavite” Mineral Supplement Use on Cadmium and Lead Content in Blood, Wool and Milk of Heavy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna ANDREEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the influence of this supplement use on the concentration of cadmium and lead in blood serum, wool and milk of heavy cows. The cows of milking herd of black-and-white breed, of 3-5 years old were the object of research. Their yearly milk production was 6 thousand litters (control and experimental group, each having 15 heads. The cows have been fed according to the balanced ration for heavy cows. The mineral supplement dose was determined according to the instruction for application for cows of experimental group with feed. The curative dose was 0.6 ml for 10 kg of body mass 1 time a day during 30 days. The samples were taken before giving the mineral supplement “Chelavite” and after the course had finished. The device Unicam AAS-939 was used to determine the cadmium and lead content in blood, wool and milk by way of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that the cadmium level reduced by 2.35 times, the lead level reduced by 1,5 times in cows blood, the cadmium level reduced by 1.33 times, the lead level reduced by 4.34 times in cows wool, the cadmium level reduced by 2.2 times, the lead level reduced by 3.7 times in cows milk after giving them mineral supplement “Chelavite”. Thus, the application of chelate compounds in form of “Chelavite” for cows reduces concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. Then this is one of the ways to improve the milk quality.

  10. Monitoring the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium in working and living environment through standard biochemical blood parameters and liver endonucleases activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ružica S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals as pollutants in the working and living environment are a serious health and environmental problem because they are toxic, non-biodegradable, accumulate in living systems and have a long half-life in soil. Sources of lead contamination are combustion products in the chemical industry and metallurgy, industrial waste water, landfills, traffic etc. Lead enters into the body via the food chain and drinking water. In the body lead is deposited in the liver, kidneys, brain and mineral tissues. Excretion of lead causes damage to the epithelial cells of certain organs. High level exposure to cadmium is usually the result of environmental pollution by human activities. Exposure to cadmium can lead to acute and chronic tissue damage of various organs, including liver and kidneys in humans and in animals. In this paper we analyzed the effects of lead and cadmium exposure, in working and living environment, on the model system of experimental animals, particularly the activity of certain liver enzymes, acid and alkaline DNase, and standard biochemical blood parameters. The study showed that lead and cadmium significantly affect the protein content, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and the activity of liver enzymes. This harmful effect of this toxic metal can be reduced by the supplements.

  11. Exposure to lead and mercury through breastfeeding during the first month of life: A CHECK cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yelim; Lee, Aram; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Cho, Geum Joon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Young Don; Kim, Jinho; Park, Jeongim

    2017-09-05

    Mercury and lead are naturally occurring toxicants and are responsible for various health issues including neurobehavioral and developmental disorders. Because of crucial synchronized developmental processes occurring at the early stage of life, infancy and childhood are considered as among the most susceptible windows to the exposure to these metals. Breastmilk is often the only source of nutrition during the first months of life. As breastmilk can be contaminated with these metals, breastfeeding may serve as a significant route of heavy metal exposure among infants. In order to understand current levels of exposure to mercury and lead through breastfeeding, and their associated risks, a total of 157 lactating mothers were recruited from Children's Health and Environmental Chemicals of Korea (CHECK) cohort, and breastmilk samples were collected at 15 and 30days after delivery (n=207). Mercury was detected from 100% of breastmilk with a median concentration of 0.59μg/L, and lead was detected in 77% of the samples with a median at 4.71μg/L. Higher concentrations of lead were found in the 30- day breastmilk than in the 15-day. Up to 45% of the breastmilk samples exceeded the normal range of the breastmilk lead suggested by WHO. Based on Monte Carlo simulation, about 71% of 15days old infants and 56% of 30days old infants were estimated at risk due to lead exposure through breastfeeding. Considering vulnerability of infants and well-known neurological toxicity of these metals, further studies to identify major exposure sources that contribute the lead concentration in breastmilk and health implication of early life stage exposure to lead among the breastfed infants are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children with asthma-relation between lead and cadmium, and cotinine concentrations in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Stefan; Gerhardsson, Lars; Lundh, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to heavy metals from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was investigated in 23 children with asthma (8.4+/-3.7 yr). ETS exposure was assessed by an inquiry data-based exposure index, the urinary concentration of cotinine (U-cotinine; a major nicotine metabolite) and the house dust (fine and coarse fractions) concentrations of nicotine at home. The corresponding concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium and lead in dust and urine (U-Cd; U-Pb) were determined in the same samples. There were strong associations between the ETS exposure index and U-cotinine (r(s)=0.62; Plead and cadmium concentrations in both fine (r(s)=0.86; Plead concentrations in fine dust (r(s)=0.52; P=0.06), no other significant associations were found between house dust metals and nicotine concentrations. U-Cd correlated well with U-cotinine (r(s)=0.50; P=0.02). Further, U-Pb were associated with U-cotinine, however not statistically significant (r(s)=0.41; P=0.06). A probable explanation is a direct inhalation of side-stream smoke containing heavy metals and/ or an increased pulmonary uptake, due to a small airways disease in children with asthma.

  13. Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure assessment of cadmium and lead in market vegetables in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Li, Yingwen; Zou, Bi; Su, Feng; Zhang, Chaosheng; Mo, Hui; Li, Zhian

    2016-12-01

    A systematic investigation into cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations and their oral bioaccessibility in market vegetables in the Pearl River Delta region were carried out to assess their potential health risks to local residents. The average concentrations of Cd and Pb in six species of fresh vegetables varied within 0.09-37.7 and 2.3-43.4 μg kg(-1), respectively. Cadmium and Pb bioaccessibility were 35-66 % and 20-51 % in the raw vegetables, respectively, and found to be significantly higher than the cooked vegetables with 34-64 % for Cd and 11-48 % for Pb. The results indicated that Cd bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric phase and Pb bioaccessibility was higher in the small intestinal phase (except for fruit vegetables). Cooking slightly reduced the total concentrations and bioaccessibility of Cd and Pb in all vegetables. The bioaccessible estimated daily intakes of Cd and Pb from vegetables were far below the tolerable limits.

  14. Contamination levels of mercury and cadmium in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) from a mass stranding on the Japanese coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)], E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22-1 Tamagawa-Cho, Minami-Ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Baker, C. Scott [Marine Mammal Institute and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Newport, Oregon 97365 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Total mercury (T-Hg), methyl mercury (M-Hg), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the organs of melon-headed whales from a mass stranding on the Japanese coast were analyzed. The mean concentration of T-Hg in the liver (126 {+-} 97 {mu}g/wet g, n = 13) was markedly higher than those in kidney (6.34 {+-} 2.36 {mu}g/wet g, n = 12) and muscle (4.90 {+-} 2.33 {mu}g/wet g, n = 15). In contrast, the mean concentration of M-Hg in the liver (9.08 {+-} 2.24 {mu}g/wet g) was similar to those in the kidney (3.47 {+-} 0.91 {mu}g/wet g) and muscle (3.78 {+-} 1.53 {mu}g/wet g). The mean percentage of M-Hg in the T-Hg found in the liver (13.1 {+-} 10.3) was significantly lower than those in the kidney (58.3 {+-} 15.0) and muscle (78.9 {+-} 8.4). The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver was effectively 1.0, but those in the kidney and muscle were markedly lower. Conversely, the mean concentration of Cd was markedly higher in the kidney (24.4 {+-} 7.4 {mu}g/wet g) than in the liver (7.24 {+-} 2.08 {mu}g/wet g) and muscle (less than 0.05 {mu}g/wet g). These results suggest that the formation of Hg-Se compounds mainly occurs in the liver after the demethylation of M-Hg, and Cd preferentially accumulates in the kidney of melon-headed whales.

  15. Comparison between stability constants of cadmium and lead complexes with humic substances of different molecular weight isolated from Baltic Sea water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Grzybowski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexation of cadmium and lead with humic substances was studied using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry and a standard addition technique. The titration was done for humic substances of different molecular weight that had been isolated from seawater and subsequently redissolved in organic-free seawater. The different molecular weight fractions were obtained by ultrafiltration using 1000 D (Dalton, 5000 D and 10 000 D pore size filters. Comparison of the calculated stability constants suggests that the strengths of lead complexes in the analysed fractions are similar and that cadmium is complexed by the fraction smaller than 1000 D.

  16. Determination of cadmium and lead species and phytochelatins in pea (Pisum sativum) by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Kózka, Małgorzata; Piechalak, Aneta; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Sobczak, Paweł

    2009-07-15

    An analytical approach based on hyphenated techniques was used for studying the speciation of cadmium and lead in Pisum sativum. Proper preservation conditions were employed to avoid the oxidation of -SH groups and corresponding decomposition of metal-binding complexes. SEC column was washed with 5 mM beta-mercaptoethanol and then samples were analysed using ICP-MS as a detector. Results showed that cadmium is the inhibitor of lead uptake. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) assays revealed fragmentation pathways of phytochelatins.

  17. Accumulation of cadmium, lead, and nickel by fungal and wood biosorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holan, Z.R.; Volesky, B. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    Native fungal biomass of fungi Absidia orchids, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus nugricans, and modified spruce sawdust (Picea engelmanii) sequestered metals in the following decreasing preference: Pb>Cd>Ni. The highest metal uptake was q{sub max}=351 mg Pb/g for A. orchidis biomass. P. chrysogenum biomass could accumulate cadmium best at 56 mg Cd/G. The sorption of nickel was the weakest always at >5 mg Ni/g. The spruce sawdust was modified by crosslinking, oxidation to acidic oxoforms, and by substitution. The highest metal uptake was observed in phosorylated sawdust reaching q{sub max}=224 mg Pb/g, 56 mg Cd/g, and 26 mg Ni/g. The latter value is comparable to the value of nickel sorption by wet commercial resin Duolite GT-73. Some improvement in metal uptake was also observed after reinforcement of fungal biomass. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Useful and Fast Method for Blood Lead and Cadmium Determination Using ICP-MS and GF-AAS; Validation Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Brodzka, Renata; Janasik, Beata

    2016-03-01

    In case of clinical analysis, especially in blood lead (Pb-B) and cadmium (Cd-B) determination, the accuracy and precision of the method are crucial. The objective of this article is to present a simple and useful method for Pb-B and Cd-B determination using ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) as well as GF-AAS (graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry). The principle of the method is based on the deproteinization of blood samples by addition of 5% nitric acid that eliminates the presence of the protein in the samples, thereby excluding the influence of the organic matrix on the result determinations. A comparison of the two techniques ICP-MS and GF-AAS was established for Pb and Cd determinations in the same 40 blood samples collected from lead workers. The results showed that validation parameters for ICP-MS and GF-AAS were similar, however better for ICP-MS for Pb-B determinations. The detection limit (3×SD) for Pb-B determinations for ICP-MS and GF-AAS was, respectively, 0.16 and 1.0 μg/l, and for Cd-B it was, respectively, 0.08 and 0.02 μg/l. Correlation coefficients (rs) for comparable Pb-B and Cd-B determinations, using these two techniques, showed very good statistically significant correlations and were r = 0.9988, P < 0.0001 for Pb-B and r = 0.9949, P < 0.0001 for Cd-B. The