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Sample records for cadmium detoxification strategies

  1. Cadmium detoxification strategies in two phytoplankton species: Metal binding by newly synthesized thiolated peptides and metal sequestration in granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, Michel; Le Faucheur, Severine; Fortin, Claude; Campbell, Peter G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether intracellular detoxification mechanisms could explain, at least partially, the different sensitivity to Cd of two freshwater green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Subcellular Cd distribution and the synthesis of metal-binding thiolated peptides were thus examined in both algae exposed to a range of free [Cd 2+ ] from 0.7 to 253 nM. Cadmium partitioning among five subcellular fractions (cellular debris, granules, organelles, heat-denaturable proteins - HDP, and heat-stable proteins - HSP) was determined after differential centrifugation of algal homogenates. Thiolated-peptides, phytochelatins (PC n ) and precursors, were analyzed by HPLC with pre-column monobromobimane derivatization. Cadmium accumulation per cell was 2-4 times greater for C. reinhardtii than for P. subcapitata, yet C. reinhardtii was more resistant to Cd with an EC 50 of 273 nM Cd 2+ [244-333 nM Cd 2+ CI 95% ]) compared to 127 nM Cd 2+ [111-143 nM Cd 2+ CI 95% ] for P. subcapitata. Although [Cd] generally increased in the organelle fractions when free [Cd 2+ ] increased in the experimental media, their relative contributions to the total Cd cellular content decreased, suggesting that partial protection of some metal sensitive sites was achieved by the initiation of cellular detoxification mechanisms. An increase in the proportion of Cd in the granules fraction was observed for C. reinhardtii between 6 and 15 nM Cd 2+ (i.e., at [Cd 2+ ] n , but with longer oligomers for C. reinhardtii. Unknown thiolated compounds (X n ), which were not canonical or hydroxymethyl PC n , were also found in both algae but at much higher concentrations for C. reinhardtii than for P. subcapitata. This difference in thiol synthesis could also be involved in the higher Cd resistance of C. reinhardtii with respect to P. subcapitata. This study demonstrates the importance of metal detoxification strategies in explaining the Cd sensitivity of

  2. Cadmium transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system: phytoremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng

    2015-11-01

    Phytoremediation has been proven to be an environmentally sound alternative for the recovery of contaminated soils, and the economic profit that comes along with the process might stimulate its field use. This study investigated cadmium (Cd) transfer and detoxification mechanisms in a soil-mulberry-silkworm system to estimate the suitability of the mulberry and silkworm as an alternative method for the remediation of Cd-polluted soil; it also explored the underlying mechanisms regulating the trophic transfer of Cd. The results show that both the mulberry and silkworm have high Cd tolerance. The transfer factor suggests that the mulberry has high potential for Cd extraction from polluted soil. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in mulberry leaves show that cell wall deposition and vacuolar compartmentalization play important role in Cd tolerance. In the presence of increasing Cd concentrations in silkworm food, detoxification mechanisms (excretion and homeostasis) were activated so that excess Cd was excreted in fecal balls, and metallothionein levels in the mid-gut, the posterior of the silk gland, and the fat body of silkworms were enhanced. And, the Cd concentrations in silk are at a low level, ranging from 0.02 to 0.21 mg kg(-1). Therefore, these mechanisms of detoxification can regulate Cd trophic transfer, and mulberry planting and silkworm breeding has high phytoremediation potential for Cd-contaminated soil.

  3. First and second line mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia impressa (Chlorophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanita di Toppi, L.; Pawlik-Skowronska, B.; Vurro, E.; Vattuone, Z.; Kalinowska, R.; Restivo, F.M.; Musetti, R.; Skowronski, T.

    2008-01-01

    'First line' defence mechanisms, such as phytochelatin biosynthesis, and 'second line' mechanisms, such as stress protein induction, were investigated in cadmium-exposed cells of Trebouxia impressa Ahmadjian, a green microalgal species that is a common photobiont of the lichen Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier. When T. impressa cells were exposed to 0, 9 and 18 μM Cd for 6, 18 and 48 h, glutathione and phytochelatins efficiently protected the cells against Cd damage. By contrast, the highest Cd concentration (36 μM) at the longest exposure-time (48 h) caused marked drops in glutathione and phytochelatin content, several types of ultrastructural damage, and decreases in cell density and total chlorophyll concentration. In this case, induction of stress proteins was observed, but only long after the induction of phytochelatins. Thus, stress proteins could represent a 'second line' mechanism to counteract Cd stress, activated when there is a decline in the 'first line' mechanism of Cd detoxification given by phytochelatins. - Trebouxia impressa photobionts protect themselves against cadmium stress by means of phytochelatins and stress proteins

  4. First and second line mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia impressa (Chlorophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanita di Toppi, L. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy)], E-mail: luigi.sanitaditoppi@unipr.it; Pawlik-Skowronska, B. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Vurro, E. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Vattuone, Z. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Kalinowska, R. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Restivo, F.M. [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia dei Microrganismi, Antropologia, Evoluzione, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Musetti, R. [Dipartimento di Biologia Applicata alla Difesa delle Piante, via delle Scienze 208, Universita di Udine, 33100 Udine (Italy); Skowronski, T. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland)

    2008-01-15

    'First line' defence mechanisms, such as phytochelatin biosynthesis, and 'second line' mechanisms, such as stress protein induction, were investigated in cadmium-exposed cells of Trebouxia impressa Ahmadjian, a green microalgal species that is a common photobiont of the lichen Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier. When T. impressa cells were exposed to 0, 9 and 18 {mu}M Cd for 6, 18 and 48 h, glutathione and phytochelatins efficiently protected the cells against Cd damage. By contrast, the highest Cd concentration (36 {mu}M) at the longest exposure-time (48 h) caused marked drops in glutathione and phytochelatin content, several types of ultrastructural damage, and decreases in cell density and total chlorophyll concentration. In this case, induction of stress proteins was observed, but only long after the induction of phytochelatins. Thus, stress proteins could represent a 'second line' mechanism to counteract Cd stress, activated when there is a decline in the 'first line' mechanism of Cd detoxification given by phytochelatins. - Trebouxia impressa photobionts protect themselves against cadmium stress by means of phytochelatins and stress proteins.

  5. miR395 is involved in detoxification of cadmium in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liu Wei; Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Involvement of miR395 in sulfate uptake and assimilation in B. napus. ► miR395 regulation of Cd accumulation and distribution in B. napus. ► Depression of Cd-induced oxidative stress by miR395. -- Abstract: The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) constitutes one of the major inorganic contaminants in environments. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs. miR395 is conserved and regulates sulfate assimilation and distribution in higher plants, but whether it is involved in detoxification of Cd in plants has not been described. In this study, transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) over-expressing miR395 was identified under Cd stress. miR395-over-expressing plants showed a lower degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress than wild type. By contrast, chlorophyll, glutathione and non-protein thiols contents were higher in the transformants than wild type. Determination of growth response showed that 35S::MIR395 plants accumulated higher levels of biomass and sulfur than wild type under Cd exposure. miR395 transgenic plants had higher levels of Cd in plants, particularly at the high supply of Cd in the medium, but they tended to repress Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Simultaneously, expression of metal-tolerance genes such as BnPCS1, BnHO1 and Sultr1;1 was up-regulated under Cd stress, and the expression of the genes was more pronounced in 35S::MIR395 plants than in wild type. These results suggest that miR395 would be involved in detoxification of Cd in B. napus

  6. miR395 is involved in detoxification of cadmium in Brassica napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liu Wei; Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Zhang, Yun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Yang, Zhi Min, E-mail: zmyang@njau.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Involvement of miR395 in sulfate uptake and assimilation in B. napus. ► miR395 regulation of Cd accumulation and distribution in B. napus. ► Depression of Cd-induced oxidative stress by miR395. -- Abstract: The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) constitutes one of the major inorganic contaminants in environments. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs. miR395 is conserved and regulates sulfate assimilation and distribution in higher plants, but whether it is involved in detoxification of Cd in plants has not been described. In this study, transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) over-expressing miR395 was identified under Cd stress. miR395-over-expressing plants showed a lower degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress than wild type. By contrast, chlorophyll, glutathione and non-protein thiols contents were higher in the transformants than wild type. Determination of growth response showed that 35S::MIR395 plants accumulated higher levels of biomass and sulfur than wild type under Cd exposure. miR395 transgenic plants had higher levels of Cd in plants, particularly at the high supply of Cd in the medium, but they tended to repress Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Simultaneously, expression of metal-tolerance genes such as BnPCS1, BnHO1 and Sultr1;1 was up-regulated under Cd stress, and the expression of the genes was more pronounced in 35S::MIR395 plants than in wild type. These results suggest that miR395 would be involved in detoxification of Cd in B. napus.

  7. Influence of protein deficiency on cadmium toxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, P C; Jain, V K; Ashquin, M; Tandon, S K

    1986-07-01

    The effects of a low protein diet on the body uptake and retention of cadmium, levels of essential trace elements, and cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in liver and kidneys of the rat were investigated. Low dietary protein disturbs cadmium induced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, essential trace elements metabolism and offsets the hepatic and renal process of cadmium detoxification. Protein malnutrition enhances the susceptibility to cadmium intoxication.

  8. Cadmium-handling strategies in two chronically exposed indigenous freshwater organisms-the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and the floater mollusc (Pyganodon grandis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Peter G.C.; Giguere, Anik; Bonneris, Emmanuelle; Hare, Landis

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on a variety of aquatic organisms suggest that metallothionein-like proteins (MT) play an important role in the regulation of essential metals, and in the sequestration and detoxification of non-essential metals (e.g., Cd). However, the importance of metallothionein production relative to alternative strategies of metal detoxification, and its effectiveness in metal detoxification, remain largely unexplored in field situations. In the present study we explored metal-handling strategies in an adult benthic bivalve (Pyganodon grandis) and in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens), exposed to Cd in their natural habitat. The two biomonitor species were collected from lakes located along a Cd concentration gradient. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations were determined by in situ dialysis as a measure of metal exposure. Sub-cellular Cd partitioning was determined in target tissues (bivalve gills and digestive gland; perch liver) by differential centrifugation, and metallothionein was measured independently by a mercury-saturation assay in the bivalve tissues. Malondialdehyde concentrations were measured as a potential indicator of oxidative stress. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.57 nM in the nine lakes from which bivalves were collected, and from max /[Cd] min ratios for the various tissues decreased in the order: bivalve gill Cd (28) > bivalve digestive gland Cd (18) > perch hepatic Cd (14). In the two lakes that were common to both the bivalve and perch studies, i.e. lakes Opasatica and Vaudray, accumulated Cd concentrations were consistently higher in the bivalve than in the perch. Cadmium-handling strategies were similar in the bivalve digestive gland and perch liver, in that Cd was mainly associated with the heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction. Furthermore, in these organs the contributions from the 'mitochondria' and 'lysosomes + microsomes' fractions were consistently higher than in the gill tissue. In the bivalve

  9. Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi, have been found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, causing enormous economic losses in livestock production and severe human health problems. Compared to traditional physical adsorption and chemical reactions, interest in biological detoxification methods that are environmentally sound, safe and highly efficient has seen a significant increase in recent years. However, researchers in this field have been facing tremendous unexpected challenges and are eager to find solutions. This review summarizes and assesses the research strategies and methodologies in each phase of the development of microbiological solutions for mycotoxin mitigation. These include screening of functional microbial consortia from natural samples, isolation and identification of single colonies with biotransformation activity, investigation of the physiological characteristics of isolated strains, identification and assessment of the toxicities of biotransformation products, purification of functional enzymes and the application of mycotoxin decontamination to feed/food production. A full understanding and appropriate application of this tool box should be helpful towards the development of novel microbiological solutions on mycotoxin detoxification.

  10. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    tolerate toxic compounds, such as heavy metals. Here, we characterized a novel determinant that was recently identified on a larger mobile genetic island through whole-genome sequencing. This gene ( cadA4 ) was found to be responsible for cadmium detoxification and to be a divergent member of the Cad family of cadmium efflux pumps. Virulence assessments in a Galleria mellonella model suggested that cadA4 may suppress virulence. Additionally, cadA4 may be involved in the ability of Listeria to form biofilms. Beyond the role in cadmium detoxification, the involvement of cadA4 in other cellular functions potentially explains its retention and wide distribution in L. monocytogenes . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SF, Gonçalves [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); SK, Davies [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bennett, M. [Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Raab, A.; Feldmann, J. [TESLA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kille, P. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3US (United Kingdom); Loureiro, S. [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); DJ, Spurgeon [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); JG, Bundy, E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium. - Highlights: • Little is known about the role of phytochelatins in metal detoxification in animals. • We detected phytochelatins (PC{sub 2} and PC{sub 3}) in a mollusc species, Lymnaea stagnalis. • Phytochelatins increased in Lymnaea stagnalis when exposed to cadmium. • Future research on phytochelatin responses in molluscs would be valuable.

  12. Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong tolerance mechanisms to Cadmium: Subcellular distribution, chemical forms and thiol pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Bosen; Xie Xiangyu; Weiss, Dominik J.; Liu Jingchun; Lu Haoliang; Yan Chongling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cadmium tolerance mechanisms of Kandelia obovata was investigated systematacially. ► Thiol pool can play roles in cadmium detoxification mechanisms. ► Increasing cadmium treatment strength caused proportional increase of cadmium uptake. ► More than half of cadmium was localized in cell walls, and lowest in membranes. ► Sodium chloride and acetic acid extractable fractions were dominant. - Abstract: In order to explore the detoxification mechanisms adopted by mangrove under cadmium (Cd) stress, we investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd, in addition to the change of the thiol pools in Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong, which were cultivated in sandy culture medium treated with sequential Cd solution. We found that Cd addition caused a proportional increase of Cd in the organs of K. obovata. The investigation of subcellular distribution verified that most of the Cd was localized in the cell wall, and the lowest was in the membrane. Results showed sodium chloride and acetic acid extractable Cd fractions were dominant. The contents of non-protein thiol compounds, Glutathione and phytochelatins in K. obovata were enhanced by the increasing strength of Cd treatment. Therefore, K. obovata can be defined as Cd tolerant plant, which base on cell wall compartmentalization, as well as protein and organic acids combination.

  13. Single and double metallothionein knockout in the nematode C. elegans reveals cadmium dependent and independent toxic effects on life history traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Sam [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Division, King' s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R. [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom) and School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Division, King' s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: stephen.sturzenbaum@kcl.ac.uk

    2007-01-15

    The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains two metallothionein genes, both involved in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification. Single metallothionein knockout mutants have been created and now, for the first time, a double mutant has been isolated. Life history studies in the presence or absence of cadmium showed that all metallothionein mutants are viable. Although cadmium did not influence longevity, a dose dependent reduction in total brood size and volumetric growth was observed in wild type animals, which was magnified in single knockouts and further exacerbated in the double knockout. However, the metallothionein deletion caused two effects that are independent of cadmium exposure, namely all knockout strains displayed a reduced total brood size and the deletion of both metallothionein loci caused a significant reduction in volumetric growth. In summary, metallothionein is undoubtedly an important player in cadmium detoxification, but evidently also an important factor in cadmium independent pathways. - Metallothionein is a modifier of life-history parameters.

  14. Single and double metallothionein knockout in the nematode C. elegans reveals cadmium dependent and independent toxic effects on life history traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Sam; Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains two metallothionein genes, both involved in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification. Single metallothionein knockout mutants have been created and now, for the first time, a double mutant has been isolated. Life history studies in the presence or absence of cadmium showed that all metallothionein mutants are viable. Although cadmium did not influence longevity, a dose dependent reduction in total brood size and volumetric growth was observed in wild type animals, which was magnified in single knockouts and further exacerbated in the double knockout. However, the metallothionein deletion caused two effects that are independent of cadmium exposure, namely all knockout strains displayed a reduced total brood size and the deletion of both metallothionein loci caused a significant reduction in volumetric growth. In summary, metallothionein is undoubtedly an important player in cadmium detoxification, but evidently also an important factor in cadmium independent pathways. - Metallothionein is a modifier of life-history parameters

  15. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K.; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Éva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda, E-mail: pal.magda@agrar.mta.hu

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cd induces the salicylic acid metabolism in wheat. • Salicylic acid is synthesized via benzoic acid and/or ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. • Cd tolerance can be explained by the highly induced glutathione metabolism. • Salicylic acid signalling is correlated with glutathione-related mechanisms. - Abstract: Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  16. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K.; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Éva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd induces the salicylic acid metabolism in wheat. • Salicylic acid is synthesized via benzoic acid and/or ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. • Cd tolerance can be explained by the highly induced glutathione metabolism. • Salicylic acid signalling is correlated with glutathione-related mechanisms. - Abstract: Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress

  17. Model for cadmium transport and distribution in CHO cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, T.L.; Turner, J.E.; Williams, M.W.; Cook, J.S.; Hsie, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    A compartmental model is developed to study the transport and distribution of cadmium in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Of central importance to the model is the role played by sequestering components which bind free Cd/sup 2 +/ ions. The most important of these is a low-molecular-weight protein, metallothionein, which is produced by the cells in response to an increase in the cellular concentration of Cd/sup 2 +/. Monte Carlo techniques are used to generate a stochastic model based on existing experimental data describing the intracellular transport of cadmium between different compartments. This approach provides an alternative to the usual numerical solution of differential-delay equations that arise in deterministic models. Our model suggests subcellular structures which may be responsible for the accumulation of cadmium and, hence, could account for cadmium detoxification. 4 figures, 1 table.

  18. Is oxidative stress related to cadmium accumulation in the Mollusc Crassostrea angulata?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macías-Mayorga, Dayanara, E-mail: dayanara.macias@uleam.edu.ec [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Río San Pedro, S/N, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Departamento Central De Investigación (DCI), Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí, Vía San Mateo, Manta (Ecuador); Laiz, Irene [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro, S/N, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Río San Pedro, S/N, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The cadmium accumulation in C. angulata tended toward a stationary state. • Metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) is clearly induced by Cd accumulation. • The MTLP detoxification mechanism is affected at high Cd concentrations. • Cadmium toxicity causes GSH levels to decrease and inhibits antioxidant enzymes. - Abstract: The kinetics of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Crassotrea angulata at three concentrations of cadmium (0.088 μM, 0.44 μM and 2.22 μM) was monitored for 28 days. The relationship between accumulation and toxicity was studied using metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentration and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) as biochemical endpoints. The activity of enzymes which form part of the antioxidant defense system, in particular glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as enzymatic endpoints, was also assessed. A first order kinetic model demonstrated that the accumulation process does not take place linearly, as the Cd concentration in gills and digestive gland tended toward a stationary state. Metallothionein-like protein is clearly induced by Cd accumulation; however, at high Cd concentrations the detoxification mechanism of this protein is affected. High Cd concentrations (2.22 μM) lead to a decrease in GSH levels, and also inhibit antioxidant enzyme activities, demonstrating the adverse effect of this metal on the antioxidant balance system.

  19. Is oxidative stress related to cadmium accumulation in the Mollusc Crassostrea angulata?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías-Mayorga, Dayanara; Laiz, Irene; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cadmium accumulation in C. angulata tended toward a stationary state. • Metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) is clearly induced by Cd accumulation. • The MTLP detoxification mechanism is affected at high Cd concentrations. • Cadmium toxicity causes GSH levels to decrease and inhibits antioxidant enzymes. - Abstract: The kinetics of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Crassotrea angulata at three concentrations of cadmium (0.088 μM, 0.44 μM and 2.22 μM) was monitored for 28 days. The relationship between accumulation and toxicity was studied using metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentration and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) as biochemical endpoints. The activity of enzymes which form part of the antioxidant defense system, in particular glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as enzymatic endpoints, was also assessed. A first order kinetic model demonstrated that the accumulation process does not take place linearly, as the Cd concentration in gills and digestive gland tended toward a stationary state. Metallothionein-like protein is clearly induced by Cd accumulation; however, at high Cd concentrations the detoxification mechanism of this protein is affected. High Cd concentrations (2.22 μM) lead to a decrease in GSH levels, and also inhibit antioxidant enzyme activities, demonstrating the adverse effect of this metal on the antioxidant balance system

  20. Strategies for enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass: effect of enzyme dosage and detoxification chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Mithra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two strategies leading to enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass (LCSB was investigated which included reducing enzyme dosage by varying their levels in enzyme cocktails and enhancing the fermentable sugar yield in enzyme-reduced systems using detoxification chemicals. Time course release of reducing sugars (RS during 24–120 h was significantly higher when an enzyme cocktail containing full dose of cellulase (16 FPU/g cellulose along with half dose each of xylanase (1.5 mg protein/g hemicelluloses and Stargen (12.5 μl/g biomass was used to saccharify conventional dilute sulphuric acid (DSA pretreated biomass compared to a parallel system where only one-fourth the dose of the latter two enzymes was used. The reduction in RS content in the 120 h saccharified mash to the extent of 3–4 g/L compared to the system saccharified with full complement of the three enzymes could be overcome considerably by supplementing the system (half dose of two enzymes with detoxification chemical mix incorporating Tween 20, PEG 4000 and sodium borohydride. Microwave (MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass on saccharification with enzyme cocktail having full dose of cellulase and half dose of Stargen along with detoxification chemicals gave significantly higher RS yield than DSA pretreated system saccharified using three enzymes. The study showed that xylanase could be eliminated during saccharification of MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass without affecting RS yield when detoxification chemicals were also supplemented. The Saccharification Efficiency and Overall Conversion Efficiency were also high for the MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass. Since whole slurry saccharifcation of pretreated biomass is essential to conserve fermentable sugars in LCSB saccharification, detoxification of soluble inhibitors is equally important as channelling out of insoluble lignin remaining in the residue. As one of the major factors contributing

  1. Cadmium induces a novel metallothionein and phytochelatin 2 in an aquatic fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckel, Petra; Krauss, Gudrun; Menge, Sieglinde; Schierhorn, Angelika; Ruecknagel, Peter; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium stress response was measured at the thiol peptide level in an aquatic hyphomycete (Heliscus lugdunensis). In liquid culture, 0.1mM cadmium increased the glutathione (GSH) content and induced the synthesis of additional thiol peptides. HPLC, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and Edman degradation confirmed that a novel small metallothionein as well as phytochelatin (PC2) were synthesized. The metallothionein has a high homology to family 8 metallothioneins (http://www.expasy.ch/cgi-bin/lists?metallo.txt). The bonding of at least two cadmium ions to the metallothionein was demonstrated by mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). This is the first time that simultaneous induction of metallothionein and phytochelatin accompanied by an increase in GSH level has been shown in a fungus under cadmium stress, indicating a potential function of these complexing agents for in vivo heavy metal detoxification. The method presented here should be applicable as biomarker tool. ol

  2. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins mediate cellular transport of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong; Guo, Dong; Obianom, Obinna N.; Su, Tong; Polli, James E.; Shu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally prevalent toxicant posing increasing risk to human health worldwide. As compared to the extensive research in Cd tissue accumulation, little was known about the elimination of Cd, particularly its toxic form, Cd ion (Cd 2+ ). In this study, we aimed to examine whether Cd 2+ is a substrate of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) that are important in renal xenobiotic elimination. HEK-293 cells overexpressing the human MATE1 (HEK-hMATE1), human MATE2-K (HEK-hMATE2-K) and mouse Mate1 (HEK-mMate1) were used to study the cellular transport and toxicity of Cd 2+ . The cells overexpressing MATEs showed a 2–4 fold increase of Cd 2+ uptake that could be blocked by the MATE inhibitor cimetidine. A saturable transport profile was observed with the Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) of 130 ± 15.8 μM for HEK-hMATE1; 139 ± 21.3 μM for HEK-hMATE2-K; and 88.7 ± 13.5 μM for HEK-mMate1, respectively. Cd 2+ could inhibit the uptake of metformin, a substrate of MATE transporters, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 97.5 ± 6.0 μM, 20.2 ± 2.6 μM, and 49.9 ± 6.9 μM in HEK-hMATE1, HEK-hMATE2-K, and HEK-mMate1 cells, respectively. In addition, hMATE1 could transport preloaded Cd 2+ out of the HEK-hMATE1 cells, thus resulting in a significant decrease of Cd 2+ -induced cytotoxicity. The present study has provided the first evidence supporting that MATEs transport Cd 2+ and may function as cellular elimination machinery in Cd intoxication. - Highlights: • Cadmium is an environmentally prevalent toxicant. • Little was known regarding the elimination and detoxification of cadmium. • Cadmium ion is here demonstrated as a substrate of MATE transporters. • MATEs may function as cellular elimination machinery in cadmium detoxification.

  3. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure

  4. Accumulation of cadmium by halophytic and non-halophytic Juncus species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, Tomáš; Moťková, Kateřina; Podlipná, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2016), s. 415-423 ISSN 2197-0025 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10028; GA MPO FR-TI3/778 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : plant-responses * salt-tolerance * heavy-metals * salinity tolerance * abiotic stress * rice seedlings * amino-acids * proline * phytoremediation * detoxification * Halophyte * Cadmium accumulation * Proline * Juncus gerardii * Juncus inflexus Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.045, year: 2016

  5. The assembly of metals chelation by thiols and vacuolar compartmentalization conferred increased tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium and arsenic in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jiangbo; Xu, Wenzhong; Ma, Mi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous transformation of AsPCS1 and ScYCF1 into Arabidopsis thaliana which is sensitive to heavy metals, leads to transgenic plants tolerant to Arsenic and cadmium. ► Dual-gene transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher accumulation of Arsenic and cadmium than single and non-transgenic plants. ► Our results proved that improved thiol peptides synthesis and vacuolar compartmentation in plant dramatically boosted the survival rates of plants when exposed to heavy metals. ► A new strategy for efficient phytoremediation of heavy metals by stacking genes transformation in plants was developed in this article. - Abstract: Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to increase tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids by simultaneous overexpression of AsPCS1 and YCF1 (derived from garlic and baker's yeast) based on the fact that chelation of metals and vacuolar compartmentalization are the main strategies for heavy metals/metalloids detoxification and tolerance in plants. Dual-gene transgenic lines had the longest roots and the highest accumulation of Cd and As than single-gene transgenic lines and wildtype. When grown on cadmium or arsenic (arsenite/arsenate), Dual-gene transgenic lines accumulated over 2–10 folds cadmium/arsenite and 2–3 folds arsenate than wild type or plants expressing AsPCS1 or YCF1 alone. Such stacking modified genes involved in chelation of toxic metals and vacuolar compartmentalization represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts.

  6. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins mediate cellular transport of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hong; Guo, Dong; Obianom, Obinna N. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Su, Tong [Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Hunan 410007 (China); Polli, James E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States); Shu, Yan, E-mail: yshu@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland at Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally prevalent toxicant posing increasing risk to human health worldwide. As compared to the extensive research in Cd tissue accumulation, little was known about the elimination of Cd, particularly its toxic form, Cd ion (Cd{sup 2+}). In this study, we aimed to examine whether Cd{sup 2+} is a substrate of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) that are important in renal xenobiotic elimination. HEK-293 cells overexpressing the human MATE1 (HEK-hMATE1), human MATE2-K (HEK-hMATE2-K) and mouse Mate1 (HEK-mMate1) were used to study the cellular transport and toxicity of Cd{sup 2+}. The cells overexpressing MATEs showed a 2–4 fold increase of Cd{sup 2+} uptake that could be blocked by the MATE inhibitor cimetidine. A saturable transport profile was observed with the Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) of 130 ± 15.8 μM for HEK-hMATE1; 139 ± 21.3 μM for HEK-hMATE2-K; and 88.7 ± 13.5 μM for HEK-mMate1, respectively. Cd{sup 2+} could inhibit the uptake of metformin, a substrate of MATE transporters, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) of 97.5 ± 6.0 μM, 20.2 ± 2.6 μM, and 49.9 ± 6.9 μM in HEK-hMATE1, HEK-hMATE2-K, and HEK-mMate1 cells, respectively. In addition, hMATE1 could transport preloaded Cd{sup 2+} out of the HEK-hMATE1 cells, thus resulting in a significant decrease of Cd{sup 2+}-induced cytotoxicity. The present study has provided the first evidence supporting that MATEs transport Cd{sup 2+} and may function as cellular elimination machinery in Cd intoxication. - Highlights: • Cadmium is an environmentally prevalent toxicant. • Little was known regarding the elimination and detoxification of cadmium. • Cadmium ion is here demonstrated as a substrate of MATE transporters. • MATEs may function as cellular elimination machinery in cadmium detoxification.

  7. The assembly of metals chelation by thiols and vacuolar compartmentalization conferred increased tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium and arsenic in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiangbo [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Biomass-Energy Conversion, The Institute of Bioengineering and Technology, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 040100 (China); Xu, Wenzhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Ma, Mi, E-mail: mami@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous transformation of AsPCS1 and ScYCF1 into Arabidopsis thaliana which is sensitive to heavy metals, leads to transgenic plants tolerant to Arsenic and cadmium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dual-gene transgenic Arabidopsis showed higher accumulation of Arsenic and cadmium than single and non-transgenic plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results proved that improved thiol peptides synthesis and vacuolar compartmentation in plant dramatically boosted the survival rates of plants when exposed to heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new strategy for efficient phytoremediation of heavy metals by stacking genes transformation in plants was developed in this article. - Abstract: Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana were developed to increase tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids by simultaneous overexpression of AsPCS1 and YCF1 (derived from garlic and baker's yeast) based on the fact that chelation of metals and vacuolar compartmentalization are the main strategies for heavy metals/metalloids detoxification and tolerance in plants. Dual-gene transgenic lines had the longest roots and the highest accumulation of Cd and As than single-gene transgenic lines and wildtype. When grown on cadmium or arsenic (arsenite/arsenate), Dual-gene transgenic lines accumulated over 2-10 folds cadmium/arsenite and 2-3 folds arsenate than wild type or plants expressing AsPCS1 or YCF1 alone. Such stacking modified genes involved in chelation of toxic metals and vacuolar compartmentalization represents a highly promising new tool for use in phytoremediation efforts.

  8. Identification and characterization of parasitism genes from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reveals a multilayered detoxification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, Margarida; Silva, Ana Cláudia; Eves van den Akker, Sebastian; Cock, Peter J A; Mota, Manuel; Jones, John T

    2016-02-01

    The migratory endoparasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, has phytophagous and mycetophagous phases during its life cycle. This highly unusual feature distinguishes it from other plant-parasitic nematodes and requires profound changes in biology between modes. During the phytophagous stage, the nematode migrates within pine trees, feeding on the contents of parenchymal cells. Like other plant pathogens, B. xylophilus secretes effectors from pharyngeal gland cells into the host during infection. We provide the first description of changes in the morphology of these gland cells between juvenile and adult life stages. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach and an effector identification pipeline, we identify numerous novel parasitism genes which may be important for the mediation of interactions of B. xylophilus with its host. In-depth characterization of all parasitism genes using in situ hybridization reveals two major categories of detoxification proteins, those specifically expressed in either the pharyngeal gland cells or the digestive system. These data suggest that B. xylophilus incorporates effectors in a multilayer detoxification strategy in order to protect itself from host defence responses during phytophagy. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. Multi-generation cadmium acclimation and tolerance in Daphnia magna Straus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyssen, Brita T.A.; Janssen, Colin R.

    2004-01-01

    The cladoceran Daphnia magna was acclimated for seven generations to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 250 μg/l Cd (corresponding to a free ion activity of 4.60 nM Cd 2+ ). Acute and chronic cadmium tolerance as well as cadmium accumulation were monitored as a function of acclimation time. After two to three generations of acclimation to concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 1.11 nM Cd 2+ increases in acute tolerance were maximal (factor 7.2) and significant. Acclimation for seven generations to the same acclimation concentrations did result in an increased chronic cadmium tolerance (21 days EC 50 values increased). Organisms acclimated to 1.93 nM Cd 2+ were equally or more sensitive than non-acclimated daphnids in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Cadmium contents in D. magna increased significantly as a function of the acclimation concentration. Maximum body burdens of 236±30 μg Cd/g dry weight were measured in organisms exposed to 4.60 nM Cd 2+ , but detoxification mechanisms were only successful up to 82±20 μg Cd/g dry weight as this concentration did not cause major decreases in survival and reproduction in chronic toxicity tests. As the potential positive effect of acclimation on cadmium tolerance disappeared with successive acclimation generations and increasing acclimation concentrations, it is concluded that multi-generation acclimation studies are important for the evaluation of the long-term effects of environmental toxicants. - Multi-generation acclimation studies are important for evaluating long-term effects of aquatic pollutants

  10. Metallothionein mRNA induction is correlated with the decrease of DNA strand breaks in cadmium exposed zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Châtel, Amélie; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine

    2014-05-15

    We have previously shown that cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced early DNA damages in zebra mussels, and that the level of DNA strand breaks (SB) returned to a basal level after 3 days of exposure to Cd. The aim of the present study was to go further in the mechanisms of Cd and BaP detoxification. For that purpose, expression of genes encoding for metallothionein (MT), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), P-gp, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) proteins have been measured using RT-qPCR. Data reported here show that Cd is a strong inducer of MT and HSP70 genes, and that BaP is a strong inducer of P-gp and AHR genes. Exposure to Cd and BaP resulted in moderate changes in antioxidant enzymes mRNA. Since the increase of MT mRNA occurred when the DNA SB level returned to its basal level, we can suggest that MT is implicated in cadmium detoxification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Newer approaches to opioid detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid use disorders present with distressing withdrawal symptoms at the time of detoxification. The pharmacological agents and methods currently in use for detoxification mainly include buprenorphine, methadone, and clonidine. Many other pharmacological agents have been tried for opioid detoxification. This review takes a look at the newer pharmacological options, both opioid agonists and non-agonist medications that have been utilized for detoxification. Peer reviewed articles were identified using PubMed and PsychInfo databases. The keywords included for the search were a combination of ′opioid′ and ′detoxification′ and their synonyms. All the articles published in the last 10 years were screened for. Relevant data was extracted from identified studies. Many newer pharmacological agents have been tried in detoxification of opioids. However, the quest for a safe, efficacious, cost-effective pharmacological option which requires minimal monitoring still continues. The role of non-pharmacological measures and alternative medicine needs further evaluation.

  12. Contrasting silver nanoparticle toxicity and detoxification strategies in Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella vulgaris: New insights from proteomic and physiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Zhu, Kun; Lu, Haiping; Lavoie, Michel; Chen, Si; Zhou, Zhongjing; Deng, Zhiping; Chen, Jun; Fu, Zhengwei

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have shown that AgNPs can be toxic to phytoplankton, but the underlying cellular mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Here we studied the toxicity and detoxification of AgNPs (and ionic silver released by the AgNPs) in a prokaryotic (Microcystis aeruginosa) and a eukaryotic (Chlorella vulgaris) freshwater phytoplankton species using a combination of proteomic, gene transcription, and physiological analyses. We show that AgNPs were more toxic to the growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant systems, and carbohydrate metabolism of M. aeruginosa than of C. vulgaris. C. vulgaris could detoxify efficiently AgNPs-induced ROS species via induction of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase or SOD, peroxidase or POD, catalase or CAT, and glutamine synthetase), allowing photosynthesis to continue unabated at growth-inhibitory AgNPs concentration. By contrast, the transcription and expression of SOD and POD in M. aeruginosa was inhibited by the same AgNPs exposure. The present study shed new lights on the AgNPs toxicity mechanisms and detoxification strategies in two freshwater algae of contrasting AgNPs sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pb detoxification in Equisetum diffusum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research highlights the use of aquatic macrophyte Equisetum diffusum (Himalayan horsetail for lead detoxification. This plant species can grow in waste cathode ray tube (CRT powder and absorbs its Pb. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF analysis of plant ash shows that 68 mg/kg lead concentration in the untreated plant was improved to 7600 mg/kg in CRT powder after 90 days. The role of monosilicic and/or monoplumbic acid as reaction intermediates for Pb detoxification and associated bioaccumulation is proposed. Pb detoxification in E. diffusum is mainly rendering around the iso-electronic nature of Pb and Si and forms similar phytochelatin (PC complexes with available family of peptide ligands. The study focuses on the underlying functions of silicon containing plants in metal detoxification.

  14. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis ABC transporter MRP7 modifies cadmium root-to-shoot transport and accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojas, Sylwia; Hennig, Jacek; Plaza, Sonia; Geisler, Markus; Siemianowski, Oskar; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Ruszczynska, Anna; Bulska, Ewa; Antosiewicz, Danuta M.

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis MRPs/ABCCs have been shown to remove various organic and inorganic substrates from the cytosol to other subcellular compartments. Here we first demonstrate that heterologous expression of AtMRP7 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi) modifies cadmium accumulation, distribution and tolerance. Arabidopsis MRP7 was localized both in the tonoplast and in the plasma membrane when expressed in tobacco. Its overexpression increased tobacco Cd-tolerance and resulted in enhanced cadmium concentration in leaf vacuoles, indicating more efficient detoxification by means of vacuolar storage. Heterologous AtMRP7 expression also led to more efficient retention of Cd in roots, suggesting a contribution to the control of cadmium root-to-shoot translocation. The results underscore the use of AtMRP7 in plant genetic engineering to modify the heavy-metal accumulation pattern for a broad range of applications. - AtMRP7 expression in tobacco enhances Cd-tolerance and increases Cd storage in vacuoles

  15. The phytochelatin transporters AtABCC1 and AtABCC2 mediate tolerance to cadmium and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Song, Won-Yong; Ko, Donghwi; Eom, Yujin; Hansen, Thomas H; Schiller, Michaela; Lee, Tai Gyu; Martinoia, Enrico; Lee, Youngsook

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) are toxic pollutants that are detrimental to living organisms. Plants employ a two-step mechanism to detoxify toxic ions. First, phytochelatins bind to the toxic ion, and then the metal-phytochelatin complex is sequestered in the vacuole. Two ABCC-type transporters, AtABCC1 and AtABCC2, that play a key role in arsenic detoxification, have recently been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is unclear whether these transporters are also implicated in phytochelatin-dependent detoxification of other heavy metals such as Cd(II) and Hg(II). Here, we show that atabcc1 single or atabcc1 atabcc2 double knockout mutants exhibit a hypersensitive phenotype in the presence of Cd(II) and Hg(II). Microscopic analysis using a Cd-sensitive probe revealed that Cd is mostly located in the cytosol of protoplasts of the double mutant, whereas it occurs mainly in the vacuole of wild-type cells. This suggests that the two ABCC transporters are important for vacuolar sequestration of Cd. Heterologous expression of the transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed their role in heavy metal tolerance. Over-expression of AtABCC1 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced Cd(II) tolerance and accumulation. Together, these results demonstrate that AtABCC1 and AtABCC2 are important vacuolar transporters that confer tolerance to cadmium and mercury, in addition to their role in arsenic detoxification. These transporters provide useful tools for genetic engineering of plants with enhanced metal tolerance and accumulation, which are desirable characteristics for phytoremediation. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M.; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-01-01

    organisms, which suggests that H. australis has some tolerance to cadmium. The metallothionein like protein fraction played an important role in the sequestration and detoxification of cadmium and the amount sequestered in this fraction increased with increased cadmium exposure. The highest percentage of biologically active cadmium was associated with the lysosome + microsome and mitochondrial fractions. Cadmium concentrations in these two fractions of cadmium exposed organisms were significantly higher with respect to controls. Total antioxidant capacity decreased with increased cadmium exposure and tissue dose. Lipid peroxidation increased and lysosomal membrane stability decreased significantly with increased cadmium exposure and tissue dose. Based on exposure–dose–response analysis in this study, H. australis would be a suitable organism for assessing cadmium sediment exposure and toxicity

  17. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhu [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Longhua, E-mail: lhwu@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Pengjie [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai 264003 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola.

  18. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola

  19. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrup, Martin, E-mail: martin.holmstrup@dmu.d [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Sorensen, Jesper G. [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bindesbol, Anne-Mette [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V.; Maraldo, Kristine [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Waagner, Dorthe [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Labouriau, Rodrigo [Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-01-15

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  20. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sorensen, Jesper G.; Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark; Bindesbol, Anne-Mette; Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V.; Maraldo, Kristine; Waagner, Dorthe; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Asmund, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  1. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell.

  2. Cadmium in the biofuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabyhammar, T.; Fahlin, M.; Holmroos, S.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of biofuel depletes the soil of important nutrients. Investigations are being made of possibilities to return most of these nutrients by spreading the ashes remaining after combustion in the forest or on field. Return of ashes implies that both beneficial and harmful substances are returned. This study has been conducted to illustrate that the return of cadmium implies the greatest risk for negative influences. The occurrence, utilization, emissions and effects of cadmium are discussed. The behaviour of cadmium in soil is discussed in detail. Flows and quantities of cadmium in Swedish society are reviewed. Flows and quantities of both total and plant available cadmium in the entire forest and arable areas of Sweden are given. A scenario for a bioenergy system of max 100 TWh is discussed. The cadmium flow in different biofuels and forest raw products, and anticipated amounts of ashes and cadmium concentrations, are calculated. Power production from biofuels is surveyed. Possibilities to clean ashes have been examined in laboratory experiments. Ashes and trace elements occurring as a result of the gasification of biofuels are reviewed. Strategies for handling ashes are discussed. Proposals on continued inputs in both the biological and technical sciences are made. 146 refs, 23 figs, 38 tabs

  3. Identification and characterization of Cd-induced peptides in Egeria densa (water weed): Putative role in Cd detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec, Przemyslaw; Maleva, Maria G.; Prasad, M.N.V.; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2009-01-01

    Egeria densa has ability to grow in heavy metal contaminated and polluted bodies of water. Shoots exposed to Cd at concentrations up to 300 μM for 7 days showed a pronounced decrease in chlorophyll a and in total protein concentration. Thiol-containing compounds and low-molecular-weight polypeptides were detected in Cd-treated plant extracts by gel filtration chromatography. Two Cd-binding fractions, a thiol-enriched fraction and a non-thiol fraction with a lower molecular weight were identified in extracts by gel filtration. The main fraction of thiol-containing polypeptide, purified by gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography had a molecular weight of ∼10 kDa. This peptide was characterized by a broad absorption band specific to mercaptide bonds and Cd-sensitive fluorescence emission of aromatic amino acid residues. Our results indicate that cadmium exposure of plants resulted in both a formation of thiol-enriched cadmium complexing peptides and a synthesis of low-molecular-weight metal chelators. The putative role of these compounds in Cd detoxification is discussed.

  4. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  5. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus cereus IST105 from electroplating effluent for detoxification of hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Umesh Chandra; Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2011-08-01

    Electroplating industries are the main sources of heavy metals, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc, cadmium and copper. The highest concentrations of chromium (VI) in the effluent cause a direct hazards to human and animals. Therefore, there is a need of an effective and affordable biotechnological solution for removal of chromium from electroplating effluent. Bacterial strains were isolated from electroplating effluent to find out higher tolerant isolate against chromate. The isolate was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Absorbed chromium level of bacterium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Removal of metals by bacterium from the electroplating effluent eventually led to the detoxification of effluent confirmed by MTT assay. Conformational changes of functional groups of bacterial cell surface were studied through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The chromate tolerant isolate was identified as Bacillus cereus. Bacterium has potency to remove more than 75% of chromium as measured by ICP-AES and AAS. The study indicated the accumulation of chromium (VI) on bacterial cell surface which was confirmed by the SEM-EDX and TEM analysis. The biosorption of metals from the electroplating effluent eventually led to the detoxification of effluent. The increased survivability of Huh7 cells cultured with treated effluent also confirmed the detoxification as examined by MTT assay. Isolated strain B. cereus was able to remove and detoxify chromium (VI). It would be an efficient tool of the biotechnological approach in mitigating the heavy metal pollutants.

  6. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little...... strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1...... not present in terrestrial plants at that level. Sulfide is not necessarily toxic but used as sulfur nutrition, presupposing healthy seagrass ecosystems that can support detoxification mechanisms. Presence or absence of those mechanisms determines susceptibility of seagrass ecosystems to sediment sulfide...

  7. Opportunities for the UK in solar detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P A; Walker, G M

    1997-12-31

    The most investigated approach to the solar detoxification of water involves the use of titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, as the photocatalyst. The involvement of engineers in photocatalytic water detoxification research has been far too low, the research effort in photochemical reactor design has not been sufficient, with the result that a well-defined application for solar, or UV lamp, -driven TiO{sub 2}-based water detoxification technology has not been identified. The most effective and carefully investigated reactor design remains that in which TiO{sub 2} is added as a slurry to the contaminated water, however, the cost implications of the subsequent separation of the slurry from the treated water have not been addressed in any sensible fashion. The poor quantum efficiencies, rate constants and overlap between the solar emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of TiO{sub 2} has resulted in very low solar detoxification efficiencies. This, in turn, means that very large areas of land will be necessary to accommodate a solar detoxification reactor, however UK industry, and the water companies in particular, have no interest in investing in water and/or wastewater treatment methods which demand increased land usage. In addition both industry and the water companies have little or no knowledge of, or interest in, novel detoxification technologies. From the above, the only conclusion can be that the application of the solar-driven photocatalytic detoxification of high-volume and most low-volume water in the UK is not a commercial option, and so is unlikely to be in the near future. (author)

  8. Opportunities for the UK in solar detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P.A.; Walker, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    The most investigated approach to the solar detoxification of water involves the use of titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, as the photocatalyst. The involvement of engineers in photocatalytic water detoxification research has been far too low, the research effort in photochemical reactor design has not been sufficient, with the result that a well-defined application for solar, or UV lamp, -driven TiO{sub 2}-based water detoxification technology has not been identified. The most effective and carefully investigated reactor design remains that in which TiO{sub 2} is added as a slurry to the contaminated water, however, the cost implications of the subsequent separation of the slurry from the treated water have not been addressed in any sensible fashion. The poor quantum efficiencies, rate constants and overlap between the solar emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of TiO{sub 2} has resulted in very low solar detoxification efficiencies. This, in turn, means that very large areas of land will be necessary to accommodate a solar detoxification reactor, however UK industry, and the water companies in particular, have no interest in investing in water and/or wastewater treatment methods which demand increased land usage. In addition both industry and the water companies have little or no knowledge of, or interest in, novel detoxification technologies. From the above, the only conclusion can be that the application of the solar-driven photocatalytic detoxification of high-volume and most low-volume water in the UK is not a commercial option, and so is unlikely to be in the near future. (author)

  9. Cadmium induced changes in subcellular glutathione contents within glandular trichomes of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Dagmar; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used an immunohistochemical approach combined with computer-supported transmission electron microscopy in order to measure changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during Cd-stress in mesophyll cells and cells of different glandular trichomes (long and short stalked) of Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: . Even though no ultrastructural alterations were observed in leaf and glandular trichome cells after the treatment of plants with 50 microM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 48 h, all cells showed a large decrease in glutathione contents. The strongest decrease was found in nuclei and the cytosol (up to 76%) in glandular trichomes which are considered as a major side of Cd accumulation in leaves. The ratio of glutathione between the cytosol and nuclei and the other cell compartments was strongly decreased only in glandular trichomes (more than 50%) indicating that glutathione in these two cell compartments is especially important for the detoxification of Cd in glandular trichomes. Additionally, these data indicate that large amounts of Cd are withdrawn from nuclei during Cd exposure. The present study gives a detailed insight into the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during Cd exposure in mesophyll cells and glandular trichomes of C. pepo L. plants.

  10. Detoxification and sensing mechanisms are of similar importance for Cd resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Winter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to measure the internal cadmium concentrations (Cdint in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine Cd uptake from a Cd-containing environment as well as Cd release under Cd-free conditions. To analyze the functional role of several ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters (e.g., HMT-1 and MRP-1 and phytochelatin synthase (PCS, we compared wild-type (WT and different mutant strains of C. elegans. As a pre-test on selected mutant strains, several time-resolved experiments were performed to determine the survival rate and avoidance behavior of C. elegans under Cd stress, which confirmed the already known Cd sensitivity of the deletion mutants mrp-1Δ, pcs-1Δ, and hmt-1Δ. In addition, these experiments revealed flight reactions under Cd stress to be almost completely absent in mrp-1Δ mutants. The ICP-MS studies showed Cd uptake to be significantly higher in mrp-1Δ and WT than in hmt-1Δ. As Cd is ingested with food, food refusal due to very early Cd stress and its perception was likely the reason for the reduced Cd uptake of hmt-1Δ. Cd release (detoxification was found to be maximal in mrp-1Δ, minimal in hmt-1Δ, and intermediate in WT. High mortality under Cd stress, food refusal, and minimal Cd release in the case of hmt-1Δ suggest a vital importance of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system for the survival of C. elegans under Cd stress. High mortality under Cd stress, absence of an avoidance behavior, missing food refusal, and maximal Cd release in the case of mrp-1Δ indicate that MRP-1 is less important for Cd detoxification under severe stress, but is probably important for Cd perception. Accordingly, our results suggest that the survival of WT under Cd stress (or possibly other forms of metal stress primarily depends on the function of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system and the presence of a sensing mechanism to control the uptake of Cd (or other metals, which keeps internal Cd (or metal

  11. Detoxification and sensing mechanisms are of similar importance for Cd resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sarah A; Dölling, Ramona; Knopf, Burkhard; Mendelski, Martha N; Schäfers, Christoph; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2016-10-01

    The present study employed mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure the internal cadmium concentrations (Cd int ) in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine Cd uptake from a Cd-containing environment as well as Cd release under Cd-free conditions. To analyze the functional role of several ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (e.g., HMT-1 and MRP-1) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS), we compared wild-type (WT) and different mutant strains of C. elegans . As a pre-test on selected mutant strains, several time-resolved experiments were performed to determine the survival rate and avoidance behavior of C. elegans under Cd stress, which confirmed the already known Cd sensitivity of the deletion mutants mrp-1 Δ, pcs-1 Δ, and hmt-1 Δ. In addition, these experiments revealed flight reactions under Cd stress to be almost completely absent in mrp-1 Δ mutants. The ICP-MS studies showed Cd uptake to be significantly higher in mrp-1 Δ and WT than in hmt-1 Δ. As Cd is ingested with food, food refusal due to very early Cd stress and its perception was likely the reason for the reduced Cd uptake of hmt-1 Δ. Cd release (detoxification) was found to be maximal in mrp-1 Δ, minimal in hmt-1 Δ, and intermediate in WT. High mortality under Cd stress, food refusal, and minimal Cd release in the case of hmt-1 Δ suggest a vital importance of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system for the survival of C. elegans under Cd stress. High mortality under Cd stress, absence of an avoidance behavior, missing food refusal, and maximal Cd release in the case of mrp-1 Δ indicate that MRP-1 is less important for Cd detoxification under severe stress, but is probably important for Cd perception. Accordingly, our results suggest that the survival of WT under Cd stress (or possibly other forms of metal stress) primarily depends on the function of the HMT-1/PCS-1 detoxification system and the presence of a sensing mechanism to control the uptake of Cd (or other metals), which keeps internal Cd (or

  12. Detoxification in Abdominal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Potapov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To comparatively analyze the efficiency of methods for extracorporeal detoxification (ED of the body in abdominal sepsis (AS and to choose the optimum detoxifying methods in relation to the level of endotoxicosis.Material and methods. 56 patients (41 males and 15 females; mean age 39.4±12.2 years with surgical abdominal infection of various genesis, complicated by the development of sepsis whose treatment included ED methods, were examined. The level of intoxication and the efficiency of detoxification were evaluated by general clinical and biochemical blood parameters, the leukocytic intoxication index, the levels of low and medium molecular-weight substances in the body’s media. Hemosorption, plasmapheresis, hemodialysis, hemodiafiltration, and hemofiltration were used for detoxification.Results. Surgical abdominal infection is accompanied by endotoxemia that has no clear nosological specificity, but it depends on the pattern of a clinical course of the disease and is most pronounced in the septic syndrome. In AS, 80.4% of the patients are observed to have an irreversible decompensation phase and a terminal degree of endotoxicosis, which require detoxification. The use of different ED methods according to the level of intoxication may reduce the level of endotoxicosis and yield a persistent beneficial effect in 85.2% of cases of its application. Conclusion. Filtration and dialysis techniques (hemodialysis, hemofiltration, and hemodiafiltration are the methods of choice in AS. Hemosorption and plasmapheresis may be recommended for use at the early stages of endotoxicosis development and in preserved renal excretory function.

  13. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols.

  14. Do heavy metals and metalloids influence the detoxification of organic xenobiotics in plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Peter; Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Huber, Christian

    2009-11-01

    Mixed pollution with trace elements and organic industrial compounds is characteristic for many spill areas and dumping sites. The danger for the environment and human health from such sites is large, and sustainable remediation strategies are urgently needed. Phytoremediation seems to be a cheap and environmentally sound option for the removal of unwanted compounds, and the hyperaccumulation of trace elements and toxic metals is seemingly independent from the metabolism of organic xenobiotics. However, stress reactions, ROS formation and depletion of antioxidants will also cause alterations in xenobiotic detoxification. Here, we investigate the capability of plants to detoxify chlorophenols via glutathione conjugation in a mixed pollution situation. Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis plants for the present study were grown under greenhouse conditions in experimental ponds. A Picea abies L. suspension culture was grown in a growth chamber. Cadmium sulphate, sodium arsenate and lead chloride in concentrations from 10 to 500 microM were administered to plants. Enzymes of interest for the present study were: glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase. Measurements were performed according to published methods. GST spectrophotometric assays included the model substrates CDNB, DCNB, NBC, NBoC and the herbicide Fluorodifen. Heavy metals lead to visible stress symptoms in higher plants. Besides one long-term experiment of 72 days duration, the present study shows time and concentration-dependent plant alterations already after 24 and 72 h Cd incubation. P. abies spruce cell cultures react to CdSO(4) and Na(2)HAsO(4) with an oxidative burst, similar to that observed after pathogen attack or elicitor treatment. Cd application resulted in a reduction in GSH and GSSG contents. When a heavy metal mixture containing Na(2)HAsO(4), CdSO(4) and PbCl(2) was applied to cultures, both GSH and GSSG levels declined. Incubation with

  15. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; De Jong, Cor A J; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  16. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  17. Transport and detoxification of cadmium, copper and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Leitenmaier, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    SummaryIn this thesis, various aspects on heavy metal accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens have been investigated. T. caerulescens belongs to the family of Brassicaceae and hyperaccumulates zinc. Its ecotype Ganges, originating from Southern France, additionally takes up cadmium actively. It is known from previous studies that hyperaccumulators have highly overexpressed metal transporters and that most of them store the metal in the vacuole of large epidermal cells....

  18. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  19. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  20. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  1. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  2. Detoxification of zearalenone from corn oil by adsorption of functionalized GO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaojuan; Sun, Changpo; Xu, Jing; Liu, Di; Han, Yangying; Wu, Songling; Luo, Xiaohong

    2018-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and its functionalized systems have very unique structural advantages as excellent adsorbent or substrate material in the removal of organic contaminants. Herein, we reported a strategy to establish functionalized GO system (FGO) using amphiphilic molecules didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) as a modifier for the detoxification of zearalenone (ZEN) from corn oil. The adsorption property for the removal of ZEN from edible corn oils under different experimental conditions such as pH, amphiphilic molecules, time and temperature was investigated in detail. The morphology structure, adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics and the recyclability of FGO systems have also been researched, systematically. The FGO systems exhibit a higher adsorption efficiency, recyclability and thermostability in comparison with the traditional adsorbent materials. It provides an insight into the detoxification of mycotoxin from edible oils by graphene-based new materials.

  3. Arsenic Hyperaccumulation Strategies: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Souri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As pollution, which is on the increase around the world, poses a growing threat to the environment. Phytoremediation, an important green technology, uses different strategies, including As uptake, transport, translocation, and detoxification, to remediate this metalloid. Arsenic hyperaccumulator plants have developed various strategies to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of As. In these plants, the formation of AsIII complexes with GSH and phytochelatins and their transport into root and shoot vacuoles constitute important mechanisms for coping with As stress. The oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS production is one of the principal toxic effects of As; moreover, the strong antioxidative defenses in hyperaccumulator plants could constitute an important As detoxification strategy. On the other hand, nitric oxide activates antioxidant enzyme and phytochelatins biosynthesis which enhances As stress tolerance in plants. Although several studies have focused on transcription, metabolomics, and proteomic changes in plants induced by As, the mechanisms involved in As transport, translocation, and detoxification in hyperaccumulator plants need to be studied in greater depth. This review updates recent progress made in the study of As uptake, translocation, chelation, and detoxification in As hyperaccumulator plants.

  4. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments....

  5. Stress response to cadmium and manganese in Paracentrotus lividus developing embryos is mediated by nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Romano, Giovanna; Palumbo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • NO is produced in sea urchin embryos in response to cadmium and manganese. • Cadmium and manganese affect the expression of specific genes. • NO levels regulate directly or indirectly the expression of some metal-induced genes. • NO is proposed as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin embryos. - Abstract: Increasing concentrations of contaminants, often resulting from anthropogenic activities, have been reported to occur in the marine environment and affect marine organisms. Among these, the metal ions cadmium and manganese have been shown to induce developmental delay and abnormalities, mainly reflecting skeleton elongation perturbation, in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, an established model for toxicological studies. Here, we provide evidence that the physiological messenger nitric oxide (NO), formed by L-arginine oxidation by NO synthase (NOS), mediates the stress response induced by cadmium and manganese in sea urchins. When NO levels were lowered by inhibiting NOS, the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. Quantitative expression of a panel of 19 genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification and multidrug efflux processes was followed at different developmental stages and under different conditions: metals alone, metals in the presence of NOS inhibitor, NO donor and NOS inhibitor alone. These data allowed the identification of different classes of genes whose metal-induced transcriptional expression was directly or indirectly mediated by NO. These results open new perspectives on the role of NO as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin developing embryos

  6. Stress response to cadmium and manganese in Paracentrotus lividus developing embryos is mediated by nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata [Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Romano, Giovanna [Laboratory of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy); Palumbo, Anna, E-mail: anna.palumbo@szn.it [Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • NO is produced in sea urchin embryos in response to cadmium and manganese. • Cadmium and manganese affect the expression of specific genes. • NO levels regulate directly or indirectly the expression of some metal-induced genes. • NO is proposed as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin embryos. - Abstract: Increasing concentrations of contaminants, often resulting from anthropogenic activities, have been reported to occur in the marine environment and affect marine organisms. Among these, the metal ions cadmium and manganese have been shown to induce developmental delay and abnormalities, mainly reflecting skeleton elongation perturbation, in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, an established model for toxicological studies. Here, we provide evidence that the physiological messenger nitric oxide (NO), formed by L-arginine oxidation by NO synthase (NOS), mediates the stress response induced by cadmium and manganese in sea urchins. When NO levels were lowered by inhibiting NOS, the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. Quantitative expression of a panel of 19 genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification and multidrug efflux processes was followed at different developmental stages and under different conditions: metals alone, metals in the presence of NOS inhibitor, NO donor and NOS inhibitor alone. These data allowed the identification of different classes of genes whose metal-induced transcriptional expression was directly or indirectly mediated by NO. These results open new perspectives on the role of NO as a sensor of different stress agents in sea urchin developing embryos.

  7. Is oxidative stress related to cadmium accumulation in the Mollusc Crassostrea angulata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Mayorga, Dayanara; Laiz, Irene; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2015-04-01

    The kinetics of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Crassotrea angulata at three concentrations of cadmium (0.088 μM, 0.44 μM and 2.22 μM) was monitored for 28 days. The relationship between accumulation and toxicity was studied using metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentration and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) as biochemical endpoints. The activity of enzymes which form part of the antioxidant defense system, in particular glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as enzymatic endpoints, was also assessed. A first order kinetic model demonstrated that the accumulation process does not take place linearly, as the Cd concentration in gills and digestive gland tended toward a stationary state. Metallothionein-like protein is clearly induced by Cd accumulation; however, at high Cd concentrations the detoxification mechanism of this protein is affected. High Cd concentrations (2.22 μM) lead to a decrease in GSH levels, and also inhibit antioxidant enzyme activities, demonstrating the adverse effect of this metal on the antioxidant balance system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lignocellulosic ethanol production by starch-base industrial yeast under PEG detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiumei; Xu, Wenjuan; Mao, Liaoyuan; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Peifang; Xu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass offers a sustainable solution for transition from fossil based fuels to renewable alternatives. However, a few long-standing technical challenges remain to be addressed in the development of an economically viable fermentation process from lignocellulose. Such challenges include the needs to improve yeast tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds and to achieve high fermentation efficiency with minimum detoxification steps after a simple biomass pretreatment. Here we report an in-situ detoxification strategy by PEG exo-protection of an industrial dry yeast (starch-base). The exo-protected yeast cells displayed remarkably boosted vitality with high tolerance to toxic inhibitory compounds, and with largely improved ethanol productivity from crude hydrolysate derived from a pretreated lignocellulose. The PEG chemical exo-protection makes the industrial S. cerevisiae yeast directly applicable for the production of cellulosic ethanol with substantially improved productivity and yield, without of the need to use genetically modified microorganisms.

  9. Current Strategies for the Detoxification of Jatropha curcas Seed Cake: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Taisa G; Hadi, Sámed I I A; Costa Alves, Gabriel S; Mendonça, Simone; De Siqueira, Felix G; Miller, Robert N G

    2018-03-21

    Jatropha curcas is an important oilseed plant, with considerable potential in the development of biodiesel. Although Jatropha seed cake, the byproduct of oil extraction, is a residue rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and carbon, with high protein content suitable for application in animal feed, the presence of toxic phorbol esters limits its application in feed supplements and fertilizers. This review summarizes the current methods available for detoxification of this residue, based upon chemical, physical, biological, or combined processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each process are discussed, and future directions involving genomic and proteomic approaches for advancing our understanding of biodegradation processes involving microorganisms are highlighted.

  10. Performance contracting to engage detoxification-only patients into continued rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Sean J; Dugosh, Karen Leggett; Lynch, Kevin G

    2011-03-01

    In 2006, only 18.7% of Delaware's detoxification patients were admitted to continuing recovery-oriented treatment within 30 days after discharge. In response, Delaware established financial contingencies to (1) maintain 90% detoxification occupancy, (2) make receipt of 10% of the facility's monthly reimbursement contingent on 25% of patients entering treatment, and (3) provide a $500 bonus for every patient with three or more prior detoxification visits who was retained in treatment. Under the performance contract, the detoxification provider (1) maintained the 90% occupancy requirement, (2) achieved the 25% treatment entry target for 7 of 12 months, and (3) observed only 8% (27/337) of detoxification completions that met the targeted length of stay. Continuation to and retention in treatment was even more constrained for patients with three or more prior detoxifications. Contrary to the policy intent, the number of patients with three or more detoxifications in fiscal year (FY) 2008 is nearly triple that of FY 2006. The modest gain in the transition rate was achieved without changes in patient access; the FY 2008 patient population reported significantly higher rates of homelessness and a younger age of first use than before the performance contract in FY 2006. Performance contracting may offer promise for improving transition to treatment rates. However, the unique needs of detoxification patients, the treatment capacity of each level of care to meet patient needs, and the structure of the performance contract must be carefully considered. Performance contracting efforts may be strengthened when service contracts across the system are tightly synchronized. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed

  12. Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H

    2004-11-01

    The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium accumulated by 12 emergent-rooted wetland plant species including different populations of Leersia hexandra, Juncus effusus and Equisetum ramosisti were investigated in field conditions of China. The results showed that metal accumulation by wetland plants differed among species, populations and tissues. Populations grown in substrata with elevated metals contained significantly higher metals in plants. Metals accumulated by wetland plants were mostly distributed in root tissues, suggesting that an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance widely exists in them. That some species/populations could accumulate relatively high metal concentrations (far above the toxic concentration to plants) in their shoots indicates that internal detoxification metal tolerance mechanism(s) are also included. The factors affecting metal accumulation by wetland plants include metal concentrations, pH, and nutrient status in substrata. Mostly concentrations of Pb and Cu in both aboveground and underground tissues of the plants were significantly positively related to their total and/or DTPA-extractable fractions in substrata while negatively to soil N and P, respectively. The potential use of these wetland plants in phytoremediation is also discussed.

  13. Assessing the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium toxicity on susceptibility risk for rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a risk-based integrated-scale toxicological model to examine the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium (Cd) toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) susceptibility appraised with recent published data. A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. The dose-response models were constructed based on two endpoints of % Cd in metabolically active pool (MAP) and susceptibility time that causes 50% effect (ST50). We further constructed an elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to enhance the model predictive ability. We found a 95% probability of % Cd in gill and liver MAP exceeding 47-49% and it was likely (70% probability) to have exceeded 52-55%, but it was unlikely (30% probability) to have exceeded 56-60%. In contrast to gill and liver, gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk (15-17% Cd in MAP) with a longer ST50. We suggested that the proposed probabilistic risk assessment framework can incorporate the elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to help government based biomonitoring and bioassessment programs to prevent potential aquatic ecosystems and human health consequences. - Research Highlights: → An integrated-scale toxicological model was used to examine the impact of Cd on rainbow trout. → A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. → An elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme was constructed to enhance the model predictive ability. → Gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk than that in gill and liver.

  14. Assessing the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium toxicity on susceptibility risk for rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Bo-Ching [Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, Mingdao University, Changhua, 52345, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a risk-based integrated-scale toxicological model to examine the impact of waterborne and dietborne cadmium (Cd) toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) susceptibility appraised with recent published data. A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. The dose-response models were constructed based on two endpoints of % Cd in metabolically active pool (MAP) and susceptibility time that causes 50% effect (ST50). We further constructed an elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to enhance the model predictive ability. We found a 95% probability of % Cd in gill and liver MAP exceeding 47-49% and it was likely (70% probability) to have exceeded 52-55%, but it was unlikely (30% probability) to have exceeded 56-60%. In contrast to gill and liver, gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk (15-17% Cd in MAP) with a longer ST50. We suggested that the proposed probabilistic risk assessment framework can incorporate the elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme to help government based biomonitoring and bioassessment programs to prevent potential aquatic ecosystems and human health consequences. - Research Highlights: {yields} An integrated-scale toxicological model was used to examine the impact of Cd on rainbow trout. {yields} A probabilistic assessment model was performed to estimate Cd susceptibility risk. {yields} An elimination-detoxification-recovery scheme was constructed to enhance the model predictive ability. {yields} Gut had a relative lower Cd susceptibility risk than that in gill and liver.

  15. Growth-inhibitory and metal-binding proteins in Chlorella vulgaris exposed to cadmium or zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhiyong; Li Lianping; Huang Gaoling; Yan Qingpi; Shi Bing; Xu Xiaoqin

    2009-01-01

    Phytochelatins, with the general structure of (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n = 2-11), are usually recognized as being strongly induced by metals in microalgae and play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals in environment. However, there have been few studies on metallothionein (MT) synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) exposed to heavy metals. The present study describes the growth inhibition of C. vulgaris exposed to different concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and the induction of metal-binding MT-like proteins in the cells. The amounts of metal-binding proteins, induced in the alga exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Zn, were analyzed with a size-exclusion HPLC coupled to ICP-MS. After being purified with a gel filtration column (Sephadex G-75, 3.5 cm x 80 cm) and a desalting column (G-25, 1.5 cm x 30 cm), the isoforms and sub-isoforms of Zn-binding protein were characterized by a reverse phase-HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In addition, the ultraviolet spectra of purified Zn-binding proteins were analyzed in media with different pH values. The results showed that the significant inhibitory effects (at p -1 of Cd, and 60 and 80 μmol l -1 of Zn were added. The Cd/Zn-binding proteins induced in C. vulgaris exposed to Cd and Zn were referred to as Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins in which the mean molecular mass of the apo-MT-like was 6152 Da. The induced Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins might be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and zinc, by the alga

  16. Growth-inhibitory and metal-binding proteins in Chlorella vulgaris exposed to cadmium or zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhiyong [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China)], E-mail: zhyhuang@jmu.edu.cn; Li Lianping; Huang Gaoling [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Yan Qingpi [College of fisheries, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Shi Bing; Xu Xiaoqin [Xiamen Products Quality Inspection Institute, Xiamen, 361004 (China)

    2009-01-18

    Phytochelatins, with the general structure of ({gamma}-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n = 2-11), are usually recognized as being strongly induced by metals in microalgae and play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals in environment. However, there have been few studies on metallothionein (MT) synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) exposed to heavy metals. The present study describes the growth inhibition of C. vulgaris exposed to different concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and the induction of metal-binding MT-like proteins in the cells. The amounts of metal-binding proteins, induced in the alga exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Zn, were analyzed with a size-exclusion HPLC coupled to ICP-MS. After being purified with a gel filtration column (Sephadex G-75, 3.5 cm x 80 cm) and a desalting column (G-25, 1.5 cm x 30 cm), the isoforms and sub-isoforms of Zn-binding protein were characterized by a reverse phase-HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In addition, the ultraviolet spectra of purified Zn-binding proteins were analyzed in media with different pH values. The results showed that the significant inhibitory effects (at p < 0.05) on the cell growth were observed when excessive metals such as 80 {mu}mol l{sup -1} of Cd, and 60 and 80 {mu}mol l{sup -1} of Zn were added. The Cd/Zn-binding proteins induced in C. vulgaris exposed to Cd and Zn were referred to as Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins in which the mean molecular mass of the apo-MT-like was 6152 Da. The induced Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins might be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and zinc, by the alga.

  17. Protective/detoxicative function of metallothionein in the rat brain and blood induced by controlled cadmium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Shiyntum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmiumclassified as a major carcinogen is considered a poisonous and unwanted heavy metal to a lot of tissues in many organisms. Of many publications already available, the general consensus is that the cadmium attenuating element is metallothionein (MT through its interchangeable mechanism with Zn triggered by the presence of Cd, providing binding sites for Cd ions. MT was first discovered in the kidney cortex of the horse; it represents a low molecular weight protein, rich in cysteine residues which effectively bind with metals. Its functions consist in detoxification of heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, cadmium, homeostasis of essential metals including copper and zinc, anti-oxidation against reactive oxygen species, protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress, cell survival, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and increase of proliferation. In this work, we sought to highlight the protective function of MT in the brain and serum of rats by means of detoxification under induced effects of controlled Cd doses. We have done this by exposing Wistar rats to Cd at different doses in drinking water at different time intervals. In two independent experiments, 58 rats were subjected to 0.1 or 1.0 µg Cd2+/kg of body weight for 15 or 36 days under different conditions. The obtained data indicates the different functioning systems for the brain and the blood for MT metabolism under Cd effect. Our results indicate significant loss of metallothionein level in the brain and important increases in the amount of MT in serum proving that even minimal ingestion of toxic Cd is enough to trigger the release of MT protein in blood.

  18. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: seawater and food exposure pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Houlbrèque, Fanny; Boisson, Florence; Mulsow, Sandor; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhaënsli, François; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838+/-0.175 ng g(-1) (mean+/-asymptotic standard error, p food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 1School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, ... Cadmium is a non-essential ... (1994) reported that cadmium might interact ... uptake of cadmium, lead and mercury (Svecova et al.,.

  20. Current knowledge of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Diao, Qingyun

    2017-01-01

    The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in detoxification of xenobiotics/pesticides in honey bees, from primal enzyme assays or toxicity bioassays to characterization of transcript gene expression and protein expression in response to xenobiotics/insecticides by using a global transcriptomic or proteomic approach, and even to functional characterizations. The global transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to learn that detoxification mechanisms in honey bees involve multiple genes and pathways along with changes in energy metabolism and cellular stress response. P450 genes, is highly implicated in the direct detoxification of xenobiotics/insecticides in honey bees and their expression can be regulated by honey/pollen constitutes, resulting in the tolerance of honey bees to other xenobiotics or insecticides. P450s is also a key detoxification enzyme that mediate synergism interaction between acaricides/insecticides and fungicides through inhibition P450 activity by fungicides or competition for detoxification enzymes between acaricides. With the wide use of insecticides in agriculture, understanding the detoxification mechanism of insecticides in honey bees and how honeybees fight with the xenobiotis or insecticides to survive in the changing environment will finally benefit honeybees' management.

  1. Amelioration of cadmium-induced changes in biochemical parameters of the muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio by Vitamin C and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administering antioxidants, including vitamin C and chitosan on oxidative stress markers in muscle as edible tissues of Cyprinus carpio exposed to cadmium chloride. In this experiment, by exposing to 0.2 mg/L cadmium chloride for 21 days, fish were fed a normal diet, diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as biochemical parameters, including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE were measured. Fish exposure to cadmium chloride significantly increased AST, LDH, CPK, catalase, and MDA activity, while it significantly decreased AST and AChE activity, and levels of total antioxidant in muscle cells. Administration of chitosan or vitamin C alone or in combination with each other to fish exposed to cadmium chloride was effective in regulating ALT, CPK, and catalase activity. Although administration of vitamin C and chitosan caused a significant decrease in MDA, AST and LDH, these enzymes were still significantly higher than those in the control group. Administration of vitamin C and chitosan had no significant effects on the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant. Although, chitosan alone could not prevent oxidative stress damages in muscle tissues of cadmium-treated fish, administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan may increase the efficiency of antioxidant defense system and improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish exposed to cadmium chloride.

  2. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  3. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  4. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  5. Aerobic transformation of cadmium through metal sulfide biosynthesis in photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Chad D; Beatty, Joseph C; Loiselle, Jacqueline B R; Vlassov, Katya A; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2013-07-15

    Cadmium is a non-essential metal that is toxic because of its interference with essential metals such as iron, calcium and zinc causing numerous detrimental metabolic and cellular effects. The amount of this metal in the environment has increased dramatically since the advent of the industrial age as a result of mining activities, the use of fertilizers and sewage sludge in farming, and discharges from manufacturing activities. The metal bioremediation utility of phototrophic microbes has been demonstrated through their ability to detoxify Hg(II) into HgS under aerobic conditions. Metal sulfides are generally very insoluble and therefore, biologically unavailable. When Cd(II) was exposed to cells it was bioconverted into CdS by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, and the cyanobacterium, Synechoccocus leopoliensis. Supplementation of the two eukaryotic algae with extra sulfate, but not sulfite or cysteine, increased their cadmium tolerances as well as their abilities to produce CdS, indicating an involvement of sulfate assimilation in the detoxification process. However, the combined activities of extracted serine acetyl-transferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) used to monitor sulfate assimilation, was not significantly elevated during cell treatments that favored sulfide biosynthesis. It is possible that the prolonged incubation of the experiments occurring over two days could have compensated for the low rates of sulfate assimilation. This was also the case for S. leopoliensis where sulfite and cysteine as well as sulfate supplementation enhanced CdS synthesis. In general, conditions that increased cadmium sulfide production also resulted in elevated cysteine desulfhydrase activities, strongly suggesting that cysteine is the direct source of sulfur for CdS synthesis. Cadmium(II) tolerance and CdS formation were significantly enhanced by sulfate supplementation, thus indicating that algae and cyanobacteria

  6. Breaking the 'detox-loop' for alcoholics with social detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, A; Neumann, B

    1984-01-01

    A significant number of alcoholics do not respond to detoxification as a step on the way to rehabilitation. Instead, they periodically 'dry out' and subsequently return to alcohol abuse. They do not accept the responsibilities inherent in the sick role (cooperation in order to improve status of health by entering and continuing treatment), although they do accept the privileges (care, shelter and asylum). Repeated detoxifications (within medical and non-medical settings) of persons who do not commit themselves to entering rehabilitation, are of minimum benefit to the patient and absorb resources which could be better used by those more amendable to treatment. An appropriate level of care--social detoxification--should be provided for ' detox - loopers '. Such a model can focus on the alcoholic's social welfare needs. Social detoxification provides both respite and basic care. The door to ongoing rehabilitation through professional services, as well as self-help groups, can remain open, without being the main objective of the centre.

  7. Bacterial bioremediation of aquatic cadmium 11 of area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Malik, S. A.; Javed, M.; Qamar, I.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium Cd/sup +2/ pollution arises mainly from contamination of minerals used in agriculture and from industrial process. The usual situation is of large volume of soil and H/sub 2/O that are contaminated with low but significant concentration of Cd/sup +2/. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metal both to human health and aquatic ecosystem. Microorganisms have developed different strategies to regulate uptake and to detoxify heavy metals viz; by different mechanisms i.e. by adsorption to cell surface, by intercellular accumulation, precipitation, biosynthesis of metallothioneins to volatile compounds. Microcosm experiments in chemostat incubated at 20 deg. C showed that Cadmium Contamination does not greatly affect bacterial communities in cultures contaminated with up to 1mg CdI/sup -1/. acterial productivity remains unchanged and Cadmium- resistant strains arise quickly and in great number. The cadmium accumulation by bacteria depend on the bacterial productivity. The free bacteria can accumulate up to 1200 ppm Cadmium Where as the adhering bacteria concentrate up to 6100 ppm. At a steady state, 11-29% Cadmium is removed from the water phase of cultures. This paper includes Cd (II) removal by Bacteria from waste water of Wah Cantonment Pakistan. (author)

  8. Patterns of gene expression in carp liver after exposure to a mixture of waterborne and dietary cadmium using a custom-made microarray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynders, Hans; Ven, Karlijn van der; Moens, Lotte N.; Remortel, Piet van; De Coen, Wim M.; Blust, Ronny

    2006-01-01

    Gene expression changes in carp liver tissue were studied after acute (3 and 24 h) and subchronic (7 and 28 days) exposure to a mixture of waterborne (9, 105 and 480 μg/l) and dietary (9.5, 122 and 144 μg/g) cadmium, using a custom-made microarray. Suppression subtractive hybridization-PCR (SSH-PCR) was applied to isolate a set of 643 liver genes, involved in multiple biological pathways, such as energy metabolism (e.g. glucokinase), immune response (e.g. complement C3) and stress and detoxification (e.g. cytochrome P450 2F2, glutathione-S-transferase pi). These genes were subsequently spotted on glass-slides for the construction of a custom-made microarray. Resulting microarray hybridizations indicated a highly dynamic response to cadmium exposure. At low exposure concentrations (9 μg/l through water and 9.5 μg/g dry weight through food) mostly energy-related genes (e.g. glucokinase, elastase) were influenced, while a general stress response was obvious through induction of several stress-related genes, including hemopexin and cytochrome P450 2F2, at high cadmium concentrations. In addition, fish exposed to the highest cadmium concentrations showed liver damage after 7 days of exposure, as measured by elevated alanine transaminase activity in plasma and increased liver water content (wet-to-dry weight ratio). Moreover, decreased hematocrit and growth were found at the end of the experiment. Altogether this study clearly demonstrated the importance of varying exposure conditions for the characterization of the molecular impact of cadmium and showed that microarray results can provide important information, required to unravel the molecular events and responses related to cadmium exposure

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF PASSIVE DETOXIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR GOLD HEAP LEACH STOCKPILED WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Belykh; A.Yu. Chikin; S.V. Petrov; N.L. Belkova

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The processes of biopassive detoxication are of special interest for the solution of environmental issues of detoxification of gold heap leach cyanide-bearing wastes whose detoxification period is unlimited. These processes are based on spontaneous degradation of cyanides under the influence of natural factors including the action of autochthonous bacterial community. The purpose of the work is to develop a biopassive detoxification technology of heap leach stockpiled wastes. Methods...

  10. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggeman, Saskia; de Boeck, Gudrun; De Cock, Hilde; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day

  11. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggeman, Saskia, E-mail: saskiaroggeman@gmail.com [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); de Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Cock, Hilde [General Medical Laboratory (Medvet/AML), Department of Pathology, Emiel Vloorsstraat 9, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day.

  12. Investigation of the detoxification mechanism of formaldehyde-treated tetanus toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Jørgensen, Sys Borcher; Wilhelmsen, Ellen Sloth

    2007-01-01

    and properties of the vaccine component, occurs through partly unknown chemical modifications of the toxin. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the detoxification mechanism in the generation of the tetanus vaccine. Two approaches were chosen: (i) the effect of changes in the concentrations of lysine...... The tetanus vaccine is based on the extremely potent tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), which is converted by treatment with formaldehyde and lysine into the non-toxic, but still immunogenic tetanus toxoid (TTd). This formaldehyde-induced detoxification, which to a large extend determines the quality...... and formaldehyde in the detoxification process and (ii) characterisation of the chemically detoxified TTd. (i) We examined a number of TTd components that was produced by varying the concentrations of formaldehyde and lysine during the inactivation. Toxicity tests showed that the detoxification failed when...

  13. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  14. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  15. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  16. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  17. Plant mediated detoxification of mercury and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of efficient green chemistry methods for detoxification of metal poisoning has become a major focus of researchers. They have investigated in order to find an eco-friendly and recyclable technique for the removal of heavy metal (Pb2+, Hg2+ contamination from the natural resources. One of the most considered methods is the removal of Pb2+, Hg2+ metal using green plants and their wastes. Among these plant wastes seem to be the best candidates and they are suitable for detoxification of heavy metals. Biosorption by plants involve complex mechanisms, mainly ion exchange, chelation, adsorption by physical forces and ion entrapment in inter and intra fibrillar capillaries and spaces of the structural polysaccharide cell wall network. The advantages of using green plants and their wastes for detoxification of heavy metal have interested researchers to investigate mechanisms of metal ion uptake, and to understand the possible utilization. In this review, we discuss the role of plants and their wastes for minimizing mercury and lead pollution with their toxic effect on both human beings and plants.

  18. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in feral Carcinus maenas exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; Ergen, Şeyda Fikirdeşici; Rodrigues, Aurélie Pinto; Oliva-Teles, M. Teresa; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Guimarães, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of Cd on NAGase activity of crabs from low impacted and polluted sites. • Inhibition of epidermal NAGase by Cd in crabs from both sites. • Inhibition of NAGase in digestive gland only in crabs from low impacted site. • Glutathione role in enhanced tolerance to Cd of crabs from polluted site. - Abstract: Cadmium is a priority hazardous substance, persistent in the aquatic environment, with the capacity to interfere with crustacean moulting. Moulting is a vital process dictating crustacean growth, reproduction and metamorphosis. However, for many organisms, moult disruption is difficult to evaluate in the short term, what limits its inclusion in monitoring programmes. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) is an enzyme acting in the final steps of the endocrine-regulated moulting cascade, allowing for the cast off of the old exoskeleton, with potential interest as a biomarker of moult disruption. This study investigated responses to waterborne cadmium of NAGase activity of Carcinus maenas originating from estuaries with different histories of anthropogenic contamination: a low impacted and a moderately polluted one. Crabs from both sites were individually exposed for seven days to cadmium concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 2000 μg/L. At the end of the assays, NAGase activity was assessed in the epidermis and digestive gland. Detoxification, antioxidant, energy production, and oxidative stress biomarkers implicated in cadmium metabolism and tolerance were also assessed to better understand differential NAGase responses: activity of glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) glutathione reductase (GR), levels of total glutathiones (TG), lipid peroxidation (LPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). Animals from the moderately polluted estuary had lower NAGase activity both in the epidermis and digestive gland than in the low impacted site. NAGase activity in the epidermis

  19. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in feral Carcinus maenas exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Sofia Raquel, E-mail: smesquita@ciimar.up.pt [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS – Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Ergen, Şeyda Fikirdeşici [Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Department of Biology, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Rodrigues, Aurélie Pinto [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS – Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Oliva-Teles, M. Teresa; Delerue-Matos, Cristina [REQUIMTE, School of Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Guimarães, Laura, E-mail: lguimaraes@ciimar.up.pt [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effects of Cd on NAGase activity of crabs from low impacted and polluted sites. • Inhibition of epidermal NAGase by Cd in crabs from both sites. • Inhibition of NAGase in digestive gland only in crabs from low impacted site. • Glutathione role in enhanced tolerance to Cd of crabs from polluted site. - Abstract: Cadmium is a priority hazardous substance, persistent in the aquatic environment, with the capacity to interfere with crustacean moulting. Moulting is a vital process dictating crustacean growth, reproduction and metamorphosis. However, for many organisms, moult disruption is difficult to evaluate in the short term, what limits its inclusion in monitoring programmes. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) is an enzyme acting in the final steps of the endocrine-regulated moulting cascade, allowing for the cast off of the old exoskeleton, with potential interest as a biomarker of moult disruption. This study investigated responses to waterborne cadmium of NAGase activity of Carcinus maenas originating from estuaries with different histories of anthropogenic contamination: a low impacted and a moderately polluted one. Crabs from both sites were individually exposed for seven days to cadmium concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 2000 μg/L. At the end of the assays, NAGase activity was assessed in the epidermis and digestive gland. Detoxification, antioxidant, energy production, and oxidative stress biomarkers implicated in cadmium metabolism and tolerance were also assessed to better understand differential NAGase responses: activity of glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) glutathione reductase (GR), levels of total glutathiones (TG), lipid peroxidation (LPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). Animals from the moderately polluted estuary had lower NAGase activity both in the epidermis and digestive gland than in the low impacted site. NAGase activity in the

  20. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  1. Single and combined effects of cadmium and arsenate in Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda): Understanding the links between physiological and behavioural responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellinger, Céline, E-mail: celine.vellinger@gmail.com [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Gismondi, Eric, E-mail: gismondi.eric@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie animale et d’Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Chimie, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 15, B-4000 Sart-Tilman, Liège (Belgium); Felten, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.felten@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Rousselle, Philippe, E-mail: rousselle@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Mehennaoui, Kahina, E-mail: meh_kahina@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Parant, Marc, E-mail: parant@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe, E-mail: usseglio-polatera@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Linking physiological to behavioural responses of G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd. •AsV and/or Cd exposure exhibited similar biomarkers responses. •Contamination increases the mobilization of detoxification systems in gammarids. •Both changes in energy reserve use and allocation are involved in gammarid response. •Increased lipid peroxidation could be the cause of increasing gammarid mortality. -- Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the individual and interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) in Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) through the use of several biomarkers. Individuals were exposed for 240 h to two concentrations of AsV or Cd alone, and all the possible binary mixtures of these concentrations of AsV and Cd in a complete factorial design. The pattern of the biomarkers’ responses to Cd and AsV alone or in mixture was similar in Gammarus pulex, even if the response intensity varied depending on the tested conditions. G. pulex responded to contamination with increased mobilization of the detoxification systems [i.e. γ-glutamyl-cystein ligase activity (GCL), reduced glutathione content (GSH) and metallothionein concentrations (MT)]. This response seems to imply changes in energy reserve utilization (total lipids and proteins are used prior to glycogen reserves), but also a possible energy reallocation from locomotion to detoxification processes. The observed increase in lipid peroxidation could be relied to the increasing gammarid mortality, despite the higher mobilization of detoxification systems. Even if the outcome of the complex interactions between AsV and Cd remains difficult to unravel, such studies are critically important for better assessing the effects of stressors on organisms, populations and communities in a multi-contamination context of ecosystems.

  2. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  3. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  4. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  5. Enzymatic Mercury Detoxification: The Regulatory Protein MerR

    CERN Multimedia

    Ctortecka, B; Walsh, C T; Comess, K M

    2002-01-01

    Mercury ions and organomercurial reagents are extremely toxic due to their affinity for thiol groups. Many bacteria contain an elaborate detoxification system for a metabolic conversion of toxic Hg$^{2+}$ or organomercurials to less toxic elemental Hg$^0$. The main components of the enzymatic mercury detoxification (see Fig. 1) are the regulatory protein MerR (mercury responsive genetic switch), the organomercurial lyase MerB (cleavage of carbon mercury bonds), and the mercuric ion reductase MerA (reduction of mercuric ions). In these proteins Hg$^{2+}$ is usually coordinated by the thiol groups of cysteines. We utilize the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg detected by time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to identify the Hg metal site geometries in these proteins in order to elucidate the molecular origin of the ultrasensitivity, selectivity and reaction mechanism of this detoxification system. The short lived TDPAC probe ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg ($\\tau_{1/2} =$ 43 min) is su...

  6. Flux of Cadmium through Euphausiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, G.; Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux of the heavy metal cadmium through the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica was examined. Radiotracer experiments showed that cadmium can be accumulated either directly from water or through the food chain. When comparing equilibrium cadmium concentration factors based on stable element measurements with those obtained from radiotracer experiments, it is evident that exchange between cadmium in the water and that in euphausiid tissue is a relatively slow process, indicating that, in the long term, ingestion of cadmium will probably be the more important route for the accumulation of this metal. Approximately 10% of cadmium ingested by euphausiids was incorporated into internal tissues when the food source was radioactive Artemia. After 1 month cadmium, accumulated directly from water, was found to be most concentrated in the viscera with lesser amounts in eyes, exoskeleton and muscle, respectively. Use of a simple model, based on the assumption that cadmium taken in by the organism must equal cadmium released plus that accumulated in tissue, allowed assessment of the relative importance of various metabolic parameters in controlling the cadmium flux through euphausiids. Fecal pellets, due to their relatively high rate of production and high cadmium content, accounted for 84% of the total cadmium flux through M. norvegica. Comparisons of stable cadmium concentrations in natural euphausiid food and the organism's resultant fecal pellets indicate that the cadmium concentration in ingested material was increased nearly 5-fold during its passage through the euphausiid. From comparisons of all routes by which cadmium can be released from M. norvegica to the water column, it is concluded that fecal pellet deposition represents the principal mechanism effecting the downward vertical transport of cadmium by this species. (author)

  7. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed at characterizing mechanisms controlling cadmium accumulation in lettuce, which is a food crop showing one of the highest capacities to accumulate this toxic compound. In this study, plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for eight days on media supplemented or not with cadmium (15 μM CdCl2) and ...

  8. High utilization of inpatient detoxification: predictors among US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Grace; Raffi, Edwin; Tang, Michael; Fernando, Gerard I; Zucker, Jarred; Schein, Abigail Z

    2016-05-01

    Readmissions are among the most problematic and expensive problems in the treatment of substance use disorders. To evaluate the characteristics associated with four or more inpatient medically managed detoxification admissions in FY 2012, when all had post-discharge appointments within 7 days. A retrospective case control study. A total of 38 (6.0%) of 623 unique veterans had four or more detoxification admissions (high utilizers). A random sample of 42 was selected from the remaining 585 people (comparison group). In all, 264 detoxification and 70 hospital admissions for other reasons were reviewed. The high utilizers had more alcohol use disorder (AUD, 82% versus 59%, p = 0.03) of significantly longer duration (mean 28.9 years [SD = 17] vs. 19.6 [SD = 13.4], p = 0.01). AUD increased the odds of being a high utilizer three-fold [OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.1, 8.4], and every additional year of AUD, increased the number of admissions 1.3%, p = 0.0006. The high utilizers did not differ from the comparison group with regards to either number of hospitalizations for other reasons (mean 1.2 [SD = 1.9] vs. 0.57 [SD = 0.8], p = 0.06) or rate of 7 day post discharge appointments kept (46.9% vs. 49.3%, p = 0.82). High utilizers were a small percentage of patients (6.0%) who accounted for a disproportionate number (23%) of 977 detoxification admissions. They had greater disease severity as manifest by more years of AUD. They were not more likely to have hospitalizations for other reasons or less likely to keep post discharge appointments. These patients may warrant different services tailored to prevent hospital readmissions for detoxification.

  9. Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb resistant and susceptible malarial vectors ( Anopheles gambiae ) breeding in Bichi agricultural and residential sites, Kano state, Nigeria.

  10. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Cor A J; Laheij, Robert J F; Krabbe, Paul F M

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  11. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  12. Effects of cadmium electrode properties on nickel-cadmium cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Tests have been conducted on a number of nickel-cadmium cells that have exhibited a variety of performance problems, ranging from high voltages and pressures during overcharge to low capacity. The performance problems that have been specifically linked to the cadmium electrode are primarily related to two areas, poor sinter and the buildup of excessive pressure during overcharge. A number of specific nickel-cadmium cell and cadmium electrode characterists have been studied in this work to determine what the effects of poor sinter are, and to determine what factors are important in causing excessive pressures during overcharge in cells that otherwise appear normal. Several of the tests appear suitable for screening cells and electrodes for such problems

  13. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Aim  Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  14. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  15. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  16. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  17. Detoxification with titration and tapering in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependent patients: The Dutch GHB monitor project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Kamal, Rama; van Noorden, Martijn S; de Haan, Hein; Loonen, Anton J M; De Jong, Cor A J

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) detoxification procedures have been insufficiently studied for effectiveness and safety. Based on case reports, benzodiazepines are generally regarded as first-choice agents in GHB detoxification. Detoxification by titration and tapering (DeTiTap) with pharmaceutical GHB in an open-label consecutive case series of 23 GHB-dependent patients showed to be feasible, effective and safe. This study further explored the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of this detoxification procedure in a large group of patients. A large observational multicenter study was carried out in six addiction treatment centers in the Netherlands. GHB-dependent inpatients (229 unique patients, 274 admissions) were titrated on and tapered off with pharmaceutical GHB. Successful detoxification was achieved in 85% of cases. Detoxification was carried out in 12.5days in most patients. The DeTiTap procedure proved to be feasible and significantly reduced the experienced withdrawal symptoms and craving (p≤0.001). Several symptoms were found to influence the course of subjective withdrawal symptoms. During detoxification, psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and stress decreased (p≤0.05). The main complications were hypertension and anxiety. Six patients were sent to the general hospital for observation, but all six were able to continue detoxification in the addiction treatment centers. Most patients (69%) relapsed within three months after detoxification. The DeTiTap procedure using pharmaceutical GHB seems a safe alternative to benzodiazepines as a GHB detoxification procedure. However, the high relapse rates warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H; Iverfeldt, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H; Lithner, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  19. Determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kharif, Ya.L.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical method of determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry is developed. The method nature consists in the fact, that under definite conditions dissolved cadmium is extracted from crystals to a vapor phase and then is determined in it using the photocolorimetric method. Cadmium solubility in CdSe crystal is calculated from known CdSe mass and amount of separated cadmium. The lower boundary of determined contents constitutes 1x10 -5 % mol at sample of cadmium selenide 10 g

  20. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro; Houlbreque, Fanny; Boisson, Florence; Mulsow, Sandor; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross

    2010-01-01

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109 Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109 Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109 Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 ± 0.175 ng g -1 (mean ± asymptotic standard error, p 109 Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109 Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  1. Relation between dietary cadmium intake and biomarkers of cadmium exposure in premenopausal women accounting for body iron stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant with adverse effects on kidneys and bone, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of end-stage renal diseases, fractures and cancer. Urinary cadmium is considered a valid biomarker of lifetime kidney accumulation from overall cadmium exposure and thus used in the assessment of cadmium-induced health effects. We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary cadmium intake assessed by analyses of duplicate food portions and cadmium concentrations in urine and blood, taking the toxicokinetics of cadmium into consideration. Methods In a sample of 57 non-smoking Swedish women aged 20-50 years, we assessed Pearson's correlation coefficients between: 1 Dietary intake of cadmium assessed by analyses of cadmium in duplicate food portions collected during four consecutive days and cadmium concentrations in urine, 2 Partial correlations between the duplicate food portions and urinary and blood cadmium concentrations, respectively, and 3 Model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration predicted from the dietary intake using a one-compartment toxicokinetic model (with individual data on age, weight and gastrointestinal cadmium absorption and urinary cadmium concentration. Results The mean concentration of cadmium in urine was 0.18 (+/- s.d.0.12 μg/g creatinine and the model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration was 0.19 (+/- s.d.0.15 μg/g creatinine. The partial Pearson correlations between analyzed dietary cadmium intake and urinary cadmium or blood concentrations were r = 0.43 and 0.42, respectively. The correlation between diet and urinary cadmium increased to r = 0.54 when using a one-compartment model with individual gastrointestinal cadmium absorption coefficients based on the women's iron status. Conclusions Our results indicate that measured dietary cadmium intake can reasonably well predict biomarkers of both long-term kidney accumulation

  2. Contributions of ludic care in nursing to chemical detoxification due to the use of crack cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Aparecida Pavanatto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the contributions of ludic care in nursing by stimulating the acceptance of chemical detoxification from crack on the perception of people in the detoxification process. METHODS: an exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative approach, performed with five people hospitalized for chemical detoxification from crack, from March to July 2013 in a chemical detox unit of a midsize hospital in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview and was subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Two categories emerged: Ludic care in nursing as a stimulus to the acceptance of chemical detoxification; Ludic care in nursing in the promotion for healthy living after chemical detoxification. CONCLUSION: ludic care in nursing proved to enhance the acceptance of chemical detoxification from crack in the reality investigated.

  3. [Investigation of urinary cadmium characteristics of the general population in three non-cadmium-polluted rural areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Hu, Ji; Sun, Hong; Jing, Qiqing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of urinary cadmium of the non-occupational-cadmium-exposed population in non-cadmium contaminated rural area in China. Randomly selected non-occupational cadmium exposed population 2548 people (male 1290, female 1258) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P95) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Urinary cadmium increased with age and showed an upward trend. The urinary cadmium of the population of ≥ 30 years old was significantly higher than that of populations (China (GB Z17-2002). The urinary cadmium reference value of non-occupational-cadmium-exposed populations is China, but for smoking women over 30 year-old it needs more research to explore.

  4. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H.; Jovan, Sarah E.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Monleon, Vicente J.

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m"3, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m"3, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two stained

  5. Detoxification with titration and tapering in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependent patients : The Dutch GHB monitor project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Kamal, Rama; van Noorden, Martijn S; de Haan, Hein; Loonen, Anton J.M.; De Jong, Cor A J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) detoxification procedures have been insufficiently studied for effectiveness and safety. Based on case reports, benzodiazepines are generally regarded as first-choice agents in GHB detoxification. Detoxification by titration and tapering (DeTiTap)

  6. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  7. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  8. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  9. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  10. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Antioxidants as a Potential Preventive and Therapeutic Strategy for Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Borowska, Sylwia; Tomczyk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide a growing number of evidences that chronic exposure to relatively low levels of cadmium (Cd), nowadays taking place in industrialized countries, may cause health hazard. Thus, growing interest has been focused on effective ways of protection from adverse effects of exposure to this heavy metal. Because numerous effects to Cd's toxic action result from its prooxidative properties, it seems reasonable that special attention should be directed to agents that can prevent or reduce this metal-induced oxidative stress and its consequences in tissues, organs and systems at risk of toxicity, including liver, kidneys, testes, ears, eyes, cardiovascular system and nervous system as well as bone tissue. This review discusses a wide range of natural (plant and animal origin) and synthetic antioxidants together with many plant extracts (e.g. black and green tea, Aronia melanocarpa, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Ocimum sanctum, Phoenix dactylifera, Physalis peruviana, Zingiber officinale) that have been shown to prevent from Cd toxicity. Moreover, some attention has been focused on the fact that substances not possessing antioxidative potential may also prevent Cd-induced oxidative stress and its consequences. So far, most of the data on the protective effects of the natural and synthetic antioxidants and plant extracts come from studies in animals' models; however, numerous of them seem to be promising preventive/therapeutic strategies for Cd toxicity in humans. Further investigation of prophylactic and therapeutic use of antioxidants in populations exposed to Cd environmentally and occupationally is warranted, given that therapeutically effective chelation therapy for this toxic metal is currently lacking.

  12. Bio-prospectus of cadmium bioadsorption by lactic acid bacteria to mitigate health and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kumari, Vandna; Ram, Chand; Thakur, Kiran; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Foodstuffs and water are the key sources of cadmium biomagnifiaction. The available strategies to mitigate this problem are unproductive and expensive for practical large-scale use. Biological decontamination of metals through environmental microbes has been known since long time, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not been extensively studied for this purpose. The LAB are known for maintaining homeostasis and suppression of pathogens in humans and animals. They also play a vital role in bioremediation of certain heavy metals. Recently in-vivo research findings strongly complement the in-vitro results in relation to decreased total body cadmium burden in animal model. This review summarizes the currently available information on impact of toxic metal (Cd) on human and animal health as well as cadmium sequestration through microbes placed broadly, whereas preeminent attention grabbed on LAB-cadmium interaction to explore their possible role in bioremediation of cadmium from foods and environment to safeguard human as well as environment health.

  13. Effects of cadmium and mycorrhizal fungi on growth, fitness, and cadmium accumulation in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Laura M S; Ernst, Charlotte L; Charneskie, Rebecca; Ruane, Lauren G

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural soils have become contaminated with a variety of heavy metals, including cadmium. The degree to which soil contaminants affect plants may depend on symbiotic relationships between plant roots and soil microorganisms. We examined (1) whether mycorrhizal fungi counteract the potentially negative effects of cadmium on the growth and fitness of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and (2) whether mycorrhizal fungi affect the accumulation of cadmium within plant parts. Two flax cultivars (Linott and Omega) were grown in three soil cadmium environments (0, 5, and 15 ppm). Within each cadmium environment, plants were grown in either the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. Upon senescence, we measured growth and fitness and quantified the concentration of cadmium within plants. Soil cadmium significantly decreased plant fitness, but did not affect plant growth. Mycorrhizal fungi, which were able to colonize roots of plants growing in all cadmium levels, significantly increased plant growth and fitness. Although mycorrhizal fungi counteracted the negative effects of cadmium on fruit and seed production, they also enhanced the concentration of cadmium within roots, fruits, and seeds. The degree to which soil cadmium affects plant fitness and the accumulation of cadmium within plants depended on the ability of plants to form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. The use of mycorrhizal fungi in contaminated agricultural soils may offset the negative effects of metals on the quantity of seeds produced, but exacerbate the accumulation of these metals in our food supply.

  14. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M. Azizur; Hassler, Christel

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As V , which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As III , which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As V , biotransform it to As III , then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As III is more toxic than As V , As III is much more easily excreted from the cells than As V . Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As V to As III as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA V , dimethylarsonate; DMA V , and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO V ) and trimethylarsine (TMAO III ). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA III ) and dimethylarsenite (DMA III ), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data

  15. Indirect effects of climate changes on cadmium bioavailability and biological effects in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Alessandro; Mincarelli, Luana Fiorella; Benedetti, Maura; Fattorini, Daniele; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Regoli, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Despite the great interest in the consequences of climate change on the physiological functioning of marine organisms, indirect and interactive effects of rising temperature and pCO 2 on bioaccumulation and responsiveness to environmental pollutants are still poorly explored, particularly in terms of cellular mechanisms. According to future projections of temperature and pH/pCO 2 , this study investigated the main cellular pathways involved in metal detoxification and oxidative homeostasis in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed for 4 weeks to various combinations of two levels of pH/pCO 2 (8.2/∼400 μatm and 7.4/∼3000 μatm), temperature (20 and 25 °C), and cadmium addition (0 and 20 μg/L). Bioaccumulation was increased in metal exposed organisms but it was not further modulated by different temperature and pH/pCO 2 combinations. However, interactions between temperature, pH and cadmium had significant effects on induction of metallothioneins, responses of the antioxidant system and the onset of oxidative damages, which was tissue dependent. Multiple stressors increased metallothioneins concentrations in the digestive gland revealing different oxidative effects: while temperature and cadmium enhanced glutathione-dependent antioxidant protection and capability to neutralize peroxyl radicals, the metal increased the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products under acidified conditions. Gills did not reveal specific effects for different combinations of factors, but a general stress condition was observed in this tissue after various treatments. Significant variations of immune system were mainly caused by increased temperature and low pH, while co-exposure to acidification and cadmium enhanced metal genotoxicity and the onset of permanent DNA damage in haemocytes. Elaboration of the whole biomarker data in a cellular hazard index, corroborated the synergistic effects of temperature and acidification which increased the toxicological

  16. Genetic variation in bioaccumulation and partitioning of cadmium in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Caleb; Lennon, Adrian M; Eudoxie, Gaius; Umaharan, Pathmanathan

    2018-06-02

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is toxic to both plants and animals and chocolates have been identified as a contributor to the human dietary Cd intake. One hundred accessions representing the various genetic groups and hybrid populations in Theobroma cacao L. held at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad were evaluated for leaf and bean cadmium levels with three tree replications. Representative samples of soil from the drip zone around each tree were evaluated for bioavailable cadmium. Although there were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among genetic groups for leaf and bean Cd much of the variation was between accessions. There was a 13-fold variation in bean Cd and a 7-fold variation in leaf Cd between accessions despite the bioavailable Cd in the soil being uniform. There were differences in the level of partitioning into beans evident by significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) in bean Cd as a percentage of the cumulative leaf and bean Cd concentration (15-52%) between accessions. Although in general there was a higher concentration of cadmium in the testa than the cotyledon of the cocoa bean there was considerable genetic variation. These results point to the potential of using a genetic strategy to mitigate cadmium within cocoa beans either through breeding or through the use of low cadmium uptake rootstocks in grafting. The results will fuel further work into the understanding of mechanisms and genetics of cadmium uptake and partitioning in cocoa. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cadmium stress antioxidant responses and root-to-shoot communication in grafted tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratão, Priscila Lupino; Monteiro, Carolina Cristina; Tezotto, Tiago; Carvalho, Rogério Falleiros; Alves, Letícia Rodrigues; Peters, Leila Priscila; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-10-01

    Many aspects related to ROS modulation of signaling networks and biological processes that control stress responses still remain unanswered. For this purpose, the grafting technique may be a powerful tool to investigate stress signaling and specific responses between plant organs during stress. In order to gain new insights on the modulation of antioxidant stress responses mechanisms, gas-exchange measurements, lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) were analyzed in Micro-Tom grafted plants submitted to cadmium (Cd). The results observed revealed that higher amounts of Cd accumulated mainly in the roots and rootstocks when compared to leaves and scions. Macronutrients uptake (Ca, S, P and Mg) decreased in non-grafted plants, but differed among plant parts in all grafted plants. The results showed that the accumulation of proline observed in scions of grafted plants could be associated to the lower MDA contents in the scions of grafted plants. In the presence of Cd, non-grafted plants displayed increased CAT, GR, GPOX and APX activities for both tissues, whilst grafted plants revealed distinct trends that clearly indicate signaling responses from the rootstocks, allowing sufficient time to activate defense mechanisms in shoot. The information available concerning plants subjected to grafting can provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of Cd detoxification involving root-to-shoot signaling, opening new possibilities on strategies which can be used to manipulate heavy metal tolerance, since antioxidant systems are directly involved in such mechanism.

  18. Metal transformation as a strategy for bacterial detoxification of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ashraf M M; Al Abboud, Mohamed A; Khatib, Sayeed I

    2018-01-01

    Microorganisms can modify the chemical and physical characters of metals leading to an alteration in their speciation, mobility, and toxicity. Aqueous heavy metals solutions (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, and Zn) were treated with the volatile metabolic products (VMPs) of Escherichia coli Z3 for 24 h using aerobic bioreactor. The effect of the metals treated with VMPs in comparison to the untreated metals on the growth of E. coli S1 and Staphylococcus aureus S2 (local isolates) was examined. Moreover, the toxic properties of the treated and untreated metals were monitored using minimum inhibitory concentration assay. A marked reduction of the treated metals toxicity was recorded in comparison to the untreated metals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the formation of metal particles in the treated metal solutions. In addition to heavy metals at variable ratios, these particles consisted of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen elements. The inhibition of metal toxicity was attributed to the existence of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide in the VMPs of E. coli Z3 culture that might responsible for the transformation of soluble metal ions into metal complexes. This study clarified the capability of E. coli Z3 for indirect detoxification of heavy metals via the immobilization of metal ions into biologically unavailable species. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gdonovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E., E-mail: sjovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Gatziolis, Demetrios, E-mail: dgatziolis@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Burstyn, Igor, E-mail: igor.burstyn@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Michael, Yvonne L., E-mail: ylm23@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Amacher, Michael C., E-mail: mcamacher1@outlook.com [USDA Forest Service, Logan Forest Sciences Laboratory, 860 North 1200 East, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Monleon, Vicente J., E-mail: vjmonleon@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m{sup 3}, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two

  20. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    carcinogenic, leachable Trivalent and non- chrome passivates generally struggle with conductivity Major Differences in Trivalent vs. Hexavalent Passivates...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  1. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  2. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Houlbreque, Fanny, E-mail: F.Houlbreque@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Boisson, Florence [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Mulsow, Sandor [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from {sup 109}Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with {sup 109}Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of {sup 109}Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 {+-} 0.175 ng g{sup -1} (mean {+-} asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78 {+-} 9 days. The depuration rate for {sup 109}Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total {sup 109}Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  3. Cadmium-induced ultramorphological and physiological changes in leaves of two transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.K.; Variath, M.T.; Ali, Shafaqat; Najeeb, U.; Jamil, Muhammad; Hayat, Y.; Dawood, M.; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Zaffar, M.; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Tong, X.H.; Zhu Shuijin

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes cadmium-induced alterations in the leaves as well as at the whole plant level in two transgenic cotton cultivars (BR001 and GK30) and their wild relative (Coker 312) using both ultramorphological and physiological indices. With elevated levels of Cd (i.e. 10, 100, 1000 μM), the mean lengths of root, stem and leaf and leaf width as well as their fresh and dry biomasses linearly decreased over their respective controls. Moreover, root, stem and leaf water absorption capacities progressively stimulated, which were high in leaves followed by roots and stems. BR001 accumulated more cadmium followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Root and shoot cadmium uptakes were significantly and directly correlated with each other as well as with leaf, stem and root water absorption capacities. The ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll cells were triggered with increase in Cd stress regime. They were more obvious in BR001 followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Changes in morphology of chloroplast, increase in number and size of starch grains as well as increase in number of plastoglobuli were the noticed qualitative effects of Cd on photosynthetic organ. Cd in the form of electron dense granules could be seen inside the vacuoles and attached to the cell walls in all these cultivars. From the present experiment, it can be well established that both apoplastic and symplastic bindings are involved in Cd detoxification in these cultivars. Absence of tonoplast invagination reveals that Cd toxic levels did not cause water stress in any cultivars. Additionally, these cultivars possess differential capabilities towards Cd accumulation and its sequestration.

  4. Detoxification of furfural residues hydrolysate for butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jin-Jun; Han, Rui-Zhi; Xu, Guo-Chao; Gong, Lei; Xing, Wan-Ru; Ni, Ye

    2018-07-01

    The toxicity of furfural residues (FRs) hydrolysate is a major obstacle in its application. This work focused on the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol fermentation. Combination of activated carbon and resin 717 was appropriate for the detoxification of hydrolysate. Mixed sterilization of FRs hydrolysate and corn steep liquor (CSL) was better than the separate ones, since proteins in CSL could adsorb and remove toxic components during sterilization. The results further confirmed that simultaneous sterilization of activated carbon + resin and fermentation medium was more efficient for detoxification and butanol production, in which 76.4% of phenolic compounds and 99.3% of Maillard reaction products were removed, 8.48 g/L butanol and 12.61 g/L total solvent were obtained. This study provides feasible and economic approaches for the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Okorie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2 as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0, 21.0 (C21, 40.7 (C41, 83.5 (C83, 162 (C162, 1,387 (C1,387 and 2,743 (C2,743 mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed efficiency (FE of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05. Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet.

  6. Coordinated responses of phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein genes in black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, exposed to cadmium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Mendoza, Daniel [Departamento de Recursos del Mar, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Moreno, Adriana Quiroz [Unidad de biotecnologia, CICY, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Zapata-Perez, Omar [Departamento de Recursos del Mar, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)]. E-mail: ozapata@mda.cinvestav.mx

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the role of phytochelatins and metallothioneins in heavy metal tolerance of black mangrove Avicennia germinans, 3-month-old seedlings were exposed to cadmium or copper for 30 h, under hydroponic conditions. Degenerate Mt2 and PCS primers were synthesized based on amino acid and nucleotide alignment sequences reported for Mt2 and PCS in other plant species found in GenBank. Total RNA was isolated from A. germinans leaves and two partial fragments of metallothionein and phytochelatin synthase genes were isolated. Gene expression was evaluated with reverse transcripatase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification technique. Temporal analysis showed that low Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} concentrations caused a slight (but not significant) increase in AvMt2 expression after a 16 h exposure time, while AvPCS expression showed a significant increase under the same conditions but only after 4 h. Results strongly suggest that the rapid increase in AvPCS expression may contribute to Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} detoxification. Moreover, we found that A. germinans has the capacity to over-express both genes (AvMt2 and AvPCS), which may constitute a coordinated detoxification response mechanism targeting non-essential metals. Nonetheless, our results confirm that AvPCS was the most active gene involved in the regulation of essential metals (e.g., Cu{sup 2+}) in A. germinans leaves.

  7. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  8. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Transcription patterns of 4 metallothionein isoforms in Daphnia pulex. •Under cadmium and copper stress these patterns are time-dependent. •Under cadmium and copper stress these patterns are homolog-dependent. •The results stress the complex regulation of metallothioneins. -- Abstract: Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species

  9. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog-dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asselman, Jana, E-mail: jana.asselman@ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P. [The School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Colbourne, John K. [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); De Schamphelaere, Karel A.C. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Transcription patterns of 4 metallothionein isoforms in Daphnia pulex. •Under cadmium and copper stress these patterns are time-dependent. •Under cadmium and copper stress these patterns are homolog-dependent. •The results stress the complex regulation of metallothioneins. -- Abstract: Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species.

  10. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. Azizur, E-mail: Mohammad.Rahman@uts.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Hassler, Christel [Marine and Lake Biogeochemistry, Institute F. A. Forel, University of Geneva, 10 rte de Suisse, Versoix, 1290 Switzerland (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As{sup V}, which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As{sup III}, which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As{sup V}, biotransform it to As{sup III}, then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As{sup III} is more toxic than As{sup V}, As{sup III} is much more easily excreted from the cells than As{sup V}. Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As{sup V} to As{sup III} as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA{sup V}, dimethylarsonate; DMA{sup V}, and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO{sup V}) and trimethylarsine (TMAO{sup III}). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsenite (DMA{sup III}), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data.

  11. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  12. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  13. Complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine on admission chest radiographs of substance abuse detoxification patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, L.B.; Alterman, D.D.; Israel, G.M.; Haramati, N.; Mallavurapu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine (anterior wedging and fish vertebrae) of patients admitted for substance abuse detoxification. Design and patients. We retrospectively identified 150 sequential patients admitted to our drug and alcohol detoxification ward in whom posteroanterior and lateral admission chest radiographs and clinical charts were available for review. There were 116 men and 34 women with a mean age of 37 years (range 19-67 years). Thirty-eight patients were admitted for drug detoxification, 37 for alcohol detoxification, and 75 for drug and alcohol detoxification. These patients were compared with 66 age- and sex-matched controls from our hospital's employee health service. Two radiologists reviewed all chest radiographs for the presence of anterior wedging and fish vertebrae in the thoracic spine and other nonspinal fractures. Serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels were recorded for the substance abuse detoxification patients. Results. Forty-nine percent (n=73) of detoxification patients had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine including: anterior wedging (n=47), fish vertebrae (n=21), or both (n=5). Twenty-four percent (n=36) of patients had an elevated serum inorganic phosphorus level and one patient had an elevated serum calcium level. Patients with anterior wedging or fish vertebrae included: 45% (n=45) of patients below age 40 years, 35% (n=12) of women, 41% (n=15) of drug detoxification patients, 58% (n=22) of alcohol detoxification patients, 48% (n=36) of drug and alcohol detoxification patients, and 47% (n=17) of patients with elevated serum inorganic phosphorus (P=NS). Six percent (n=9) of our study population had nonspinal fractures on their chest radiographs. Twenty-one percent (n=14) of controls had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine (all anterior wedging). This prevalence differed significantly (P<0.05, chi-squared) from the study population

  14. Long-term field phytoextraction of zinc/cadmium contaminated soil by Sedum plumbizincicola under different agronomic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin; Li, Zhu; Wang, Jie; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Na; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In two long-term field experiments the zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola (S. plumbizincicola) was examined to optimize the phytoextraction of metal contaminated soil by two agronomic strategies of intercropping with maize (Zea mays) and plant densities. Soil total Zn and Cd concentrations decreased markedly after long-term phytoextraction. But shoot biomass and Cd and Zn concentrations showed no significant difference with increasing remediation time. In the intercropping experiment the phytoremediation efficiency in the treatment "S. plumbizincicola intercropped with maize" was higher than in S. plumbizincicola monocropping, and Cd concentrations of corn were below the maximum national limit. In the plant density experiment the phytoremediation efficiency increased with increasing plant density and 440,000 plants ha(-1) gave the maximum rate. These results indicated that S. plumbizincicola at an appropriate planting density and intercropped with maize can achieve high remediation efficiency to contaminated soil without affecting the cereal crop productivity. This cropping system combines adequate agricultural production with soil heavy metal phytoextraction.

  15. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  16. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  17. Direct examination of cadmium bonding in rat tissues dosed with mine wastes and cadmium-containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diacomanolis, V.; Ng, J. C.; Sadler, R.; Harris, H. H.; Nomura, M.; Noller, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Direct examination by XANES and EXAFS of metal bonding in tissue can be demonstrated by examining cadmium uptake and bonding in animal tissue maintained at cryogenic temperatures. XANES at the K-edge of cadmium were collected at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR), NW10A beam line at KEK-Tsukuba-Japan. Rats fed with 1g mine waste containing 8-400 mg/kg cadmium per 200g body weight (b.w.) or dosed by oral gavage with either cadmium chloride solution alone (at 6 mg/kg b.w.) or in combination with other salts (As, Cu or Zn), 5 days/week for 6 weeks, had 0.1-7.5 and 8-86 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney, respectively. Rats given intraperitoneally (ip) or intravenously (iv) 1-4 times with 1 mg/kg b.w. cadmium solution had 30-120 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney. Tissues from rats were kept and transferred at cryogenic temperature and XANES were recorded at 20 K. The spectra for rat liver samples suggested conjugation of cadmium with glutathione or association with the sulfide bond (Cd-S) of proteins and peptides. EXAFS of rat liver fed by Cd and Zn solutions showed that Cd was clearly bound to S ligands with an inter-atomic distance of 2.54 A ring for Cd-S that was similar to cadmium sulfide with an inter-atomic distance of 2.52 A ring for Cd-S. Liver or kidney of rats fed with mine wastes did not give an edge in the XANES spectra indicating little uptake of cadmium by the animals. Longer and higher dosing regimen may be required in order to observe the same Cd-S bond in the rat tissue from mine wastes, including confirmation by EXAFS.

  18. Perceived Relapse Risk and Desire for Medication Assisted Treatment among Persons Seeking Inpatient Opiate Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Genie L; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with opioid addiction do not receive medication at the time of discharge from brief inpatient detoxification programs despite the high risk of relapse and the availability of three FDA-approved medications. We surveyed 164 inpatient opioid detoxification patients to assess desire for pharmacotherapy following detoxification program discharge. Participants were predominantly male (71.3%) and 80% had detoxed in the past. Reporting on their most recent previous inpatient detoxification, 27% had relapsed the day they were discharged, 65% within a month of discharge, and 90% within a year of discharge. 63% reported they wanted medication-assisted treatment (MAT) after discharge from the current admission. The odds of desiring a treatment medication increased by a factor of 1.02 for every 1% increase in perceived relapse risk (p detox abstinence. PMID:23786852

  19. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L * a * b * tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined. (orig.)

  20. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  1. Cadmium - a case of mistaken identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D

    1984-05-01

    New evidence is presented which describes the impact of cadmium in the environment. Cadmium is a persistent material, although its compounds may undergo a range of chemical changes in the environment. In soluble form cadmium and its compounds are toxic at relatively low concentrations to aquatic animals although their bioconcentrations in such animals is in general low, and there is no evidence of biomagnification. In insoluble form cadmium and its compounds are relatively non-toxic to aquatic animals and are unlikely to be bioconcentrated. As such, cadmium is similar to most other heavy metals. Recent studies indicate that cadmium is not implicated in Itai-Itai disease and does not appear to cause hypertension or cancer. In addition, the accepted critical level in the kidney may have been underestimated. Thus, the hazard to man appears to be considerably less than the original estimates. In view of these data, there seems little justification in treating cadmium in any way differently from the other metals and hence no reason for retaining it on the Black List of the international conventions. 19 references.

  2. Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wenwen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113 undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

  3. Health hazards of environmental cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, G F

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium, a metal widely used in industrial processes, has been recognized to be a highly toxic and dangerous environmental pollutant. In this study the author describes the sources and occurrence of cadmium, and the intake by human beings. He states that present standards for daily intake do not allow sufficient safety margins. The fate and known effects of cadmium in human beings are summarized; some effects associated with cadmium are renal (kidney) damage, anemia, hypertension, and liver damage. Cadmium was identified as the main cause of the Itai-Itai disease in Japan, and epidemiological studies from various areas of Japan are presented. 64 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Disentangling detoxification: gene expression analysis of feeding mountain pine beetle illuminates molecular-level host chemical defense detoxification mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A Robert

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle.

  5. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  6. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p Conclusion: Elevated blood cadmium concentration is associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects.

  7. A Low Temperature Detoxification Method for Treatment of Chrysotile-Containing Waste Roofing Slate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanju Jo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated a two-step process for detoxification of waste roofing slate, involving cement hydrate removal and low temperature detoxification using oxalic acid. These treatments were conducted on raw material and intermediate product, respectively. Cement hydrate removal effectively eliminated most Ca-containing cement hydrate components from the raw material under the following conditions: HCl to solid ratio: 0.456 g/g, reaction time: 2 h, and solid to liquid ratio: 0.124 g/mL. Following low temperature (~100 °C detoxification of intermediate product obtained after cement hydrate removal, chrysotile in waste roofing slate was effectively transformed to Mg-oxalate under conditions of oxalic acid to solid ratio of >0.67 g/g.

  8. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lu, Yong-Hui; Pi, Hui-Feng; Gao, Peng; Li, Min; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Li-Ping; Mei, Xiang; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Qi; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p dyslipidemia increased dose-dependently with elevations in blood cadmium concentrations (p for trend dyslipidemia across the increasing blood cadmium quartiles were 1.21(1.16-1.55), 1.56(1.11-1.87), 1.79(1.26-2.25) respectively (referencing to 1.00; p for trend dyslipidemia remained unchanged (all p for trend dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects. © 2016 The

  9. Differents remediation methodos for lead, chromium and cadmium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trelles, G; Pochintesta, L; Ehrlich, S.

    2008-01-01

    The usage of phosphates in the remediation of plots contaminated with heavy metals appears to be a good strategy to lessen the danger of these metals. This study analyses the effect of the mobilization of: Lead, chromium and cadmium by utilizing diverse forms of phosphates in contaminated soils of three different origins with ph modification and without it

  10. Heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for medication-assisted treatment after inpatient detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Bailey, Genie L; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification. Participants (N=397) were interviewed at the start of brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of background characteristics, depressed mood, and perceived heroin refusal self-efficacy with preference for MAT. Controlling for other covariates, depressed mood and lower perceived refusal self-efficacy were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of expressing preference for MAT (versus no MAT). Perceived ability to refuse heroin after leaving detox is inversely associated with a heroin user's desire for MAT. An effective continuum of care model may benefit from greater attention to patient's perceived refusal self-efficacy during detoxification which may impact preference for MAT and long-term recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Early subcellular partitioning of cadmium in gill and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following low-to-near-lethal waterborne cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamunde, Collins [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: ckamunde@upei.ca

    2009-03-09

    Non-essential metals such as cadmium (Cd) accumulated in animal cells are envisaged to partition into potentially metal-sensitive compartments when detoxification capacity is exceeded. An understanding of intracellular metal partitioning is therefore important in delineation of the toxicologically relevant metal fraction for accurate tissue residue-based assessment of toxicity. In the present study, the early intracellular Cd accumulation was studied to test the prediction that it conforms to the spillover model of metal toxicity. Juvenile rainbow trout (10-15 g) were exposed for 96 h to three doses of cadmium (5, 25 and 50 {mu}g/l) and a control (nominal 0 {mu}g/l Cd) in hard water followed by measurement of the changes in intracellular Cd concentrations in the gill and liver, and carcass calcium (Ca) levels. There were dose-dependent increases in Cd concentration in both organs but the accumulation pattern over time was linear in the liver and biphasic in the gill. The Cd accumulation was associated with carcass Ca loss after 48 h. Comparatively, the gill accumulated 2-4x more Cd than the liver and generally the subcellular compartments reflected the organ-level patterns of accumulation. For the gill the rank of Cd accumulation in subcellular fractions was: heat-stable proteins (HSP) > heat-labile proteins (HLP) > nuclei > microsomes-lysosomes (ML) {>=} mitochondria > resistant fraction while for the liver it was HSP > HLP > ML > mitochondria > nuclei > resistant fraction. Contrary to the spillover hypothesis there was no exposure concentration or internal accumulation at which Cd was not found in potentially metal-sensitive compartments. The proportion of Cd bound to the metabolically active pool (MAP) increased while that bound to the metabolically detoxified pool (MDP) decreased in gills of Cd-exposed fish but remained unchanged in the liver. Because the Cd concentration increased in all subcellular compartments while their contribution to the total increased

  12. Early subcellular partitioning of cadmium in gill and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following low-to-near-lethal waterborne cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamunde, Collins

    2009-01-01

    Non-essential metals such as cadmium (Cd) accumulated in animal cells are envisaged to partition into potentially metal-sensitive compartments when detoxification capacity is exceeded. An understanding of intracellular metal partitioning is therefore important in delineation of the toxicologically relevant metal fraction for accurate tissue residue-based assessment of toxicity. In the present study, the early intracellular Cd accumulation was studied to test the prediction that it conforms to the spillover model of metal toxicity. Juvenile rainbow trout (10-15 g) were exposed for 96 h to three doses of cadmium (5, 25 and 50 μg/l) and a control (nominal 0 μg/l Cd) in hard water followed by measurement of the changes in intracellular Cd concentrations in the gill and liver, and carcass calcium (Ca) levels. There were dose-dependent increases in Cd concentration in both organs but the accumulation pattern over time was linear in the liver and biphasic in the gill. The Cd accumulation was associated with carcass Ca loss after 48 h. Comparatively, the gill accumulated 2-4x more Cd than the liver and generally the subcellular compartments reflected the organ-level patterns of accumulation. For the gill the rank of Cd accumulation in subcellular fractions was: heat-stable proteins (HSP) > heat-labile proteins (HLP) > nuclei > microsomes-lysosomes (ML) ≥ mitochondria > resistant fraction while for the liver it was HSP > HLP > ML > mitochondria > nuclei > resistant fraction. Contrary to the spillover hypothesis there was no exposure concentration or internal accumulation at which Cd was not found in potentially metal-sensitive compartments. The proportion of Cd bound to the metabolically active pool (MAP) increased while that bound to the metabolically detoxified pool (MDP) decreased in gills of Cd-exposed fish but remained unchanged in the liver. Because the Cd concentration increased in all subcellular compartments while their contribution to the total increased

  13. Modulation of central sensitisation by detoxification in MOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    detoxification. For baseline comparison, we tested 40 healthy controls. We measured cephalic and extra-cephalic pressure-pain thresholds and supra-threshold pressure-pain scores and extra-cephalic pain thresholds, supra-threshold pain scores and temporal summation for electrical stimulation.ResultsOf the 35...

  14. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  15. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  16. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl 2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109 Cd-labeled CdCl 2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl 2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  17. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Use of cadmium in solution in the EL 4 reactor moderator irreversible fixing of cadmium on the metallic surfaces; Utilisation du cadmium en solution dans le moderateur du reacteur EL 4 - fixation irreversible du cadmium sur les surfaces metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croix, O; Paoli, O; Lecomte, J; Dolle, L; Gallic, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research into the poisoning of the EL-4 reactor by cadmium sulphate, measurements have been made by two different methods of the residual amounts of cadmium liable to be fixed irreversibly on the surfaces in contact with the heavy water. A marked influence of the pH has been noticed. The mechanism of the irreversible fixing is compatible with the hypothesis of an ion-exchange in the surface oxide layer. In a sufficiently wide range of pH the cadmium thus fixed causes very little residual poisoning. The stability of the cadmium sulphate solutions is however rather low in the conditions of poisoning. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes sur l'empoisonnement du reacteur EL-4 par le sulfate de cadmium, les quantites residuelles de cadmium susceptibles de se fixer irreversiblement sur les parois que mouillerait l'eau lourde, ont ete mesurees experimentalement par deux methodes differentes. On observe une influence nette du pH. Le mecanisme de la fixation irreversible est compatible avec l'hypothese d'un echange d'ions dans la pellicule d'oxyde superficielle. Dans des limites suffisamment larges de pH, la cadmium ainsi fixe n'occasionne pas d'empoisonnement residuel important. La stabilite des solutions de sulfate de cadmium dans les conditions de l'empoisonnement est cependant mediocre. (auteurs)

  19. Cadmium incorporation by the marine copepod Pseudodiaptomus coronatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, L.V.; Baptist, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Pseudodiaptomus coronatus, after exposure to phytoplankton and cadmium in concentrations like those in temperate, coastal environments, incorporated 109 Cd at higher rates from ambient water than from phytoplankton food. When ambient stable cadmium concentrations were increased from 0.03 to 1.00 μg.liter -1 , cadmium concentration by phytoplankton cells increased and the rate of cell ingestion by P. coronatus decreased. This inverse relation between the accumulation of cadmium in phytoplankton cells and the animal's ingestion rate resulted in relatively small net increases in the cadmium accumulated from phytoplankton by copepods. Rates of stable cadmium ingestion for P. coronatus ranged from 0.18 to 0.38 ng.mg animal dry wt -1 .h -1 , depending on the initial algal cell density and the ambient cadmium concentration. For cadmium concentrations of 0.03 to 1.00 μg.liter -1 , percentage assimilation efficiencies ranged from 13.20 to 68.40. Both rates of cadmium ingestion and assimilation efficiencies were higher than published values for carnivorous zooplankton

  20. Enhanced bioremediation of 4-nonylphenol and cadmium co-contaminated sediment by composting with Phanerochaete chrysosporium inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Piao; Lai, Cui; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Chen, Ming; Song, Biao; Peng, Xin; Wan, Jia; Hu, Liang; Duan, Abing; Tang, Wangwang

    2018-02-01

    Composting is identified as an effective approach for solid waste disposal. The bioremediation of 4-nonylphenol (4NP) and cadmium (Cd) co-contaminated sediment was investigated by composting with Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) inocula. P. chrysosporium inocula and proper C/N ratios (25.51) accelerated the composting process accompanied with faster total organic carbon loss, 4NP degradation and Cd passivation. Microbiological analysis demonstrated that elevated activities of lignocellulolytic enzymes and sediment enzymes was conducive to organic chemical transformation. Bacterial community diversity results illustrated that Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were predominant species during the whole composting process. Aerobic cellulolytic bacteria and organic degrading species played significant roles. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extraction and germination indices results indicated the efficient detoxification of 4NP and Cd co-contaminated sediment after 120 days of composting. Overall, results demonstrated that P. chrysosporium enhanced composting was available for the bioremediation of 4NP and Cd co-contaminated sediment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project: An open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCTN07752728

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheard Laura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heroin is a synthetic opioid with an extensive illicit market leading to large numbers of people becoming addicted. Heroin users often present to community treatment services requesting detoxification and in the UK various agents are used to control symptoms of withdrawal. Dissatisfaction with methadone detoxification 8 has lead to the use of clonidine, lofexidine, buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine; however, there remains limited evaluative research. In Leeds, a city of 700,000 people in the North of England, dihydrocodeine is the detoxification agent of choice. Sublingual buprenorphine, however, is being introduced. The comparative value of these two drugs for helping people successfully and comfortably withdraw from heroin has never been compared in a randomised trial. Additionally, there is a paucity of research evaluating interventions among drug users in the primary care setting. This study seeks to address this by randomising drug users presenting in primary care to receive either dihydrocodeine or buprenorphine. Methods/design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project is a pragmatic randomised trial which will compare the open use of buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for illicit opiate detoxification, in the UK primary care setting. The LEEDS project will involve consenting adults and will be run in specialist general practice surgeries throughout Leeds. The primary outcome will be the results of a urine opiate screening at the end of the detoxification regimen. Adverse effects and limited data to three and six months will be acquired.

  2. MicroRNAs are involved in cadmium tolerance in Daphnia pulex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuai [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Nichols, Krista M. [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Conservation Biology Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States); Poynton, Helen C. [School for the Environment, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States); Sepúlveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Cd tolerance in D. pulex was related with differential expression of 10 miRNAs and MT3 and MT4. • Cd tolerance-related miRNAs might switch cellular energy allocation to detoxification processes by suppressing cellular growth and proliferation. • Loss of Cd tolerance was linked to down-regulation of MT1 and MT3 expression when animals were moved to a Cd-free environment. • This is the first study linking aquatic invertebrate miRNAs with induced tolerance to environmental stressors. - Abstract: Daphnia can develop tolerance to cadmium (Cd) after multi-generational exposures. Until now, Cd tolerance in this crustacean was thought to be mainly due to its sequestration via induction of metallothioneins (MTs). Our research supports other studies showing microRNAs (miRNAs) also play a role in this enhanced tolerance. We induced Cd tolerance in Daphnia pulex after exposing them for 25 generations and examined the maintenance of enhanced Cd tolerance under a Cd-free environment for an additional three generations. Acute Cd tolerance as well as long-term effects on population dynamics were measured in selected generations via 48 h LC{sub 50} tests and 21 d reproductive tests, respectively. Cd tolerance was associated with differential expression of 10 miRNAs (miR-2, miR-33, miR-92, miR-96, miR-153, miR-252, miR-279, miR-283, miR-305 and miR-615). Pathway analysis revealed these miRNAs might increase Cd tolerance by suppressing cellular growth and proliferation by GTPase and cuticle protein pathways, which switch cellular energy allocation to detoxification processes. Moreover, we found increased Cd tolerance is related with induction of MT3 and MT4 and a subsequent downregulation of MT1 and MT3 expression when animals are moved to a Cd-free environment. This is the first study linking aquatic invertebrate miRNAs with induced tolerance to environmental stressors.

  3. Lactococcus lactis is an Efficient Expression System for Mammalian Membrane Proteins Involved in Liver Detoxification, CYP3A4, and MGST1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Sana; Lembrouk, Mehdi; Sourd, Laura; Ousalem, Fares; André, François; Orlowski, Stéphane; Delaforge, Marcel; Frelet-Barrand, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Despite the great importance of human membrane proteins involved in detoxification mechanisms, their wide use for biochemical approaches is still hampered by several technical difficulties considering eukaryotic protein expression in order to obtain the large amounts of protein required for functional and/or structural studies. Lactococcus lactis has emerged recently as an alternative heterologous expression system to Escherichia coli for proteins that are difficult to express. The aim of this work was to check its ability to express mammalian membrane proteins involved in liver detoxification, i.e., CYP3A4 and two isoforms of MGST1 (rat and human). Genes were cloned using two different strategies, i.e., classical or Gateway-compatible cloning, and we checked the possible influence of two affinity tags (6×-His-tag and Strep-tag II). Interestingly, all proteins could be successfully expressed in L. lactis at higher yields than those previously obtained for these proteins with classical expression systems (E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or those of other eukaryotic membrane proteins expressed in L. lactis. In addition, rMGST1 was fairly active after expression in L. lactis. This study highlights L. lactis as an attractive system for efficient expression of mammalian detoxification membrane proteins at levels compatible with further functional and structural studies.

  4. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-01-01

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: → Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. → We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. → The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  5. Pretreatment with low-dose gamma irradiation enhances tolerance to the stress of cadmium and lead in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wencai; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Lin; Xu, Hangbo; Jin, Qingsheng; Jiao, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants with negative impact on plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological and molecular mechanisms of heavy metal stress mitigated by low-dose gamma irradiation, the dry seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to a Cobalt-60 gamma source at doses ranging from 25 to 150Gy before being subjected to 75µM CdCl2 or 500µM Pb(NO3)2. Then, the growth parameters, and physiological and molecular changes were determined in response to gamma irradiation. Our results showed that 50-Gy gamma irradiation gave maximal beneficial effects on the germination index and root length in response to cadmium/lead stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in seedlings irradiated with 50-Gy gamma rays under stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The antioxidant enzyme activities and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were significantly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, a transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of heavy metal detoxification were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under cadmium/lead stress. Our results suggest that low-dose gamma irradiation alleviates heavy metal stress, probably by modulating the physiological responses and gene expression levels related to heavy metal resistance in Arabidopsis seedlings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyrochars from bioenergy residue as novel bio-adsorbents for lignocellulosic hydrolysate detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monlau, F; Sambusiti, C; Antoniou, N; Zabaniotou, A; Solhy, A; Barakat, A

    2015-01-01

    The robust supramolecular structure of biomass often requires severe pretreatments conditions to produce soluble sugars. Nonetheless, these processes generate some inhibitory compounds (i.e. furans compounds and aliphatic acids) deriving mainly from sugars degradation. To avoid the inhibition of the biological process and to obtain satisfactory sugars conversion level into biofuels, a detoxification step is required. This study investigates the use of two pyrochars derived from solid anaerobic digestates for the detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. At a pyrochar concentration of 40gL(-1), more than 94% of 5-HMF and 99% of furfural were removed in the synthetic medium after 24h of contact time, whereas sugars concentration remained unchanged. Furfural was adsorbed faster than 5-HMF by both pyrochars and totally removed after 3h of contact. Finally, the two pyrochars were found efficient in the detoxification of corn stalks and Douglas fir wood chips hydrolysates without affecting the soluble sugars concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensing and detoxification devices in public building spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg-Borup, Steen; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Afshari, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes commonly used ventilation principles and where sensig and detoxification devices could be integrated in public buidings in an effort to warn and protect citizens against surprise attacks by toxic agents. The release of toxic agents may be outdoors, in a single indoor spot...

  8. Cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles and their detoxification in a freshwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Joyce Nirmala, M.; Chaudhri, Apoorvi; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mandal, A.B.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •TiO 2 NPs cytotoxicity at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL) to freshwater algae. •ROS generation, NP adsorption and internalization contributors to toxicity. •Observational evidence of genotoxicity by nanoparticles in an algal cell. •Reduced bioavailability thus detoxification of NPs by microalgae. •Possible role of EPS in detoxification. -- Abstract: In the current study, two aspects concerning (i) the cytotoxicity potential of TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) toward freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus and (ii) the potential detoxification of NPs by the microalgae were assessed under light (UV-illumination) and dark conditions at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL), using sterile freshwater as the test medium. The statistically significant reduction in cell viability, increase in reactive oxygen species production and membrane permeability (light vs. dark) suggested photo-induced toxicity of TiO 2 NPs. The electron micrographs demonstrated adsorption of the NPs onto the cell surface and substantiated their internalization/uptake. The fluorescence micrographs and the confocal laser scanning (CLSM) images suggested the absence of a definite/intact nucleus in the light treated cells pointing toward the probable genotoxic effects of NPs. In a separate three cycle experiment, a continuous decrease in the cytotoxicity was observed, whereas, at the end of each cycle only fresh algae were added to the supernatant containing NPs from the previous cycle. The decreasing concentrations of the NPs in the subsequent cycles owing to agglomeration–sedimentation processes exacerbated by the algal interactions played a crucial role in the detoxification. In addition, the exo-polymeric substances produced by the cells could have rendered the available NPs less reactive, thereby, enhancing the detoxification effects

  9. Cadmium induced changes in cell organelles: An ultrastructural study using cadmium sensitive and resistant muntjac fibroblast cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ord, M.J.; Chibber, R.; Bouffler, S.D.

    1988-09-01

    A detailed electron microscopy study of cadmium sensitive and resistant muntjac fibroblast cell lines has identified a wide range of intracellular damage following exposure to cadmium. Damaged organelles included cell membrane, mitochondria, Golgi cisternae and tubular network, chromatin, nucleoli, microfilaments and ribosomes. Although cell membrane damage was generally the earliest indication of adverse cadmium action, particularly with continuous cadmium exposures, cells could tolerate extensive membrane loss. Mitochondrial distortion and some damage to Golgi was also tolerated. The turning point at which cadmium became lethal was generally marked by a cascade of events which included damage to both nuclear and cytoplasmic components. These results for fibroblasts are discussed and compared with damage reported in other types of cells.

  10. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisberg, Michael; Joseph, Pius; Hale, Beverley; Beyersmann, Detmar

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd 2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  11. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  12. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  13. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of 109 CdCl 2 into the amygdala of rats, 109 Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K + , suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 μM CdCl 2 . The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  14. Predicting client attendance at further treatment following drug and alcohol detoxification: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Leung, Joanne; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey C B

    2016-11-01

    Despite clinical recommendations that further treatment is critical for successful recovery following drug and alcohol detoxification, a large proportion of clients fail to attend treatment after detoxification. In this study, individual factors and constructs based on motivational and volitional models of health behaviour were examined as predictors of post-detoxification treatment attendance. The sample consisted of 220 substance-dependent individuals participating in short-term detoxification programs provided by The Australian Salvation Army. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions were used to predict attendance at subsequent treatment. Follow-up data were collected for 177 participants (81%), with 104 (80%) of those participants reporting that they had either attended further formal treatment (e.g. residential rehabilitation programs, outpatient counselling) or mutual support groups in the 2 weeks after leaving the detoxification program. Logistic regression examined the predictors of further treatment attendance. The full model accounted for 21% of the variance in treatment attendance, with attitude and Implementation Intentions contributing significantly to the prediction. Findings from the present study would suggest that assisting clients to develop a specific treatment plan, as well as helping clients to build positive perceptions about subsequent treatment, will promote greater attendance at further treatment following detoxification. [Kelly PJ, Leung J, Deane FP, Lyons GCB. Predicting client attendance at further treatment following drug and alcohol detoxification: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:678-685]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Distribution of cadmium between calcium carbonate and solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Yasushi; Kanamori, Nobuko; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko

    1978-01-01

    The distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has been measured in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions, which forms complexes with cadmium ions. It has been confirmed experimentally that cadmium carbonate is present as a solid solution between calcitic calcium carbonate and cadmium carbonate in the carbonate precipitate formed in the solution system. However, the constant value of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has not been obtained experimentally in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions. It may have been caused by the very specific behavior of cadmium ions, but the exact reason remains unsolved and must be studied. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  17. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2010-01-01

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4±2.3 μg/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0±2.2 μg/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  18. Modelling of cadmium fluxes on energy crop land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, V.

    1992-04-01

    The flux of cadmium on energy crop land is investigated. Three mechanisms are accounted for; Uptake by plant, transport with water, and sorption to soil. Sorption is described with Freundlich isotherms. The system is simulated mathematically in order to estimate the sensitivity and importance of different parameters on the cadmium flow and sorption. The water flux through the soil and the uptake by plants are simulated with a hydrological model, SOIL. The simulated time period is two years. The parameters describing root distribution and evaporation due to crop are taken from measurements on energy crop (Salix). The resulting water flux, water content in the soil profile and the water uptake into roots, for each day and soil compartment, are used in the cadmium sorption simulation. In the cadmium sorption simulation the flux and equilibrium chemistry of cadmium is calculated. It is shown that the amount of cadmium that accumulates in the plant, and the depth to which the applied cadmium reaches depends strongly on the constants in the sorption isotherm. With an application of 10 mg Cd/m 2 in the given range of Freundlich equations, the simulations gave a plant uptake of between 0 and 30 % of the applied cadmium in two years. At higher concentrations, where cadmium sorption can be described by nonlinear isotherms, more cadmium is present in soil water and is generally more bioavailable. 25 refs

  19. Evaluation of cadmium, lead and metallothionein contents in the tissues of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Campania coast (Italy): levels and seasonal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiero, Rosaria; Cretì, Patrizia; Trinchella, Francesca; Grazia Esposito, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The biological effect of seasonality on cadmium, lead and metallothionein contents was assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from natural banks located along the coastline of the Gulf of Naples (Campania, Italy). Heavy metals and metallothionein concentrations were measured in digestive and reproductive glands. The results showed a clear correlation between metallothionein content and the reproductive gland status determined during the seasons; on the contrary, no correlation was found between metallothionein and metal contents. Data allow us to hypothesize that metallothionein functions go beyond metal detoxification, thus opening new scenarios for these proteins in invertebrates. The effect of seasons on metals concentration in mussel tissues showed similar seasonal patterns between the sites, regardless of their anthropogenic impacts. Cadmium content was not strictly related to seasonal periods, whereas lead content was significantly lower in summer. The results also indicate that the metal contents in mussels from the Gulf of Naples do not represent a risk to human health, even in the period of their maximum accumulation, and that the relaying of mussels before marketing could improve the animal stress conditions, but having a slight effect on metal excretion. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Common ground, not a battle ground. Violence prevention at a detoxification facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Mary A; Vincent, Audrey A; Cundiff, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    This article evaluates the results of a workplace violence prevention program implemented in a Colorado detoxification facility. The program interventions are modeled after federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines and use theories from both nursing and criminology for philosophy and direction. Serving as its own control, the detoxification facility shares data measured over a 4-year period, demonstrating a sharp decline in assault rates after program implementation. The importance of administrative controls, environmental adjustments, recordkeeping and evaluation, and education and training are emphasized as key components of success. Copyright (c) 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  2. Transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus for three detoxification gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liangzhen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of three major mosquito vectors of human diseases, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, have been previously sequenced. C. p. quinquefasciatus has the largest number of predicted protein-coding genes, which partially results from the expansion of three detoxification gene families: cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450, glutathione S-transferases (GST, and carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCE. However, unlike An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, which have large amounts of gene expression data, C. p. quinquefasciatus has limited transcriptomic resources. Knowledge of complete gene expression information is very important for the exploration of the functions of genes involved in specific biological processes. In the present study, the three detoxification gene families of C. p. quinquefasciatus were analyzed for phylogenetic classification and compared with those of three other dipteran insects. Gene expression during various developmental stages and the differential expression responsible for parathion resistance were profiled using the digital gene expression (DGE technique. Results A total of 302 detoxification genes were found in C. p. quinquefasciatus, including 71 CCE, 196 P450, and 35 cytosolic GST genes. Compared with three other dipteran species, gene expansion in Culex mainly occurred in the CCE and P450 families, where the genes of α-esterases, juvenile hormone esterases, and CYP325 of the CYP4 subfamily showed the most pronounced expansion on the genome. For the five DGE libraries, 3.5-3.8 million raw tags were generated and mapped to 13314 reference genes. Among 302 detoxification genes, 225 (75% were detected for expression in at least one DGE library. One fourth of the CCE and P450 genes were detected uniquely in one stage, indicating potential developmentally regulated expression. A total of 1511 genes showed different expression levels between a parathion-resistant and a

  3. Large silver-cadmium technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlip, S.; Lerner, S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of varying cell design on operation factors on the electrochemical performance of sealed, silver-cadmium cells were determined. A factorial experiment was conducted for all test cells constructed with organic separators. Three operating factors were evaluated: temperature, depth of discharge, and charge rate. The six construction factors considered were separator, absorber, electrolyte quantity, cadmium electrode type, cadmium-to-silver ratio, and auxiliary electrode. Test cells of 4 ampere-hour capacity were fabricated and cycled. The best performing cells, on a 94 minute orbit, at 40% depth of discharge, were those containing silver-treated fibrous sausage casings as the separator, and Teflon-ated, pressed cadmium electrodes. Cycling data of cells with inorganic separators (Astroset) are given. Best performance was shown by cells with nonwoven nylon absorbers. Rigid inorganic separators provided the best barrier to silver migration.

  4. Ethanol from lignocellulose - Fermentation inhibitors, detoxification and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Simona

    2000-07-01

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulose by first hydrolysing the material to sugars, and then fermenting the hydrolysate with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis using dilute sulphuric acid has advantages over other methods, however, compounds which inhibit fermentation are generated during this kind of hydrolysis. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds was investigated. The generation of inhibitors during hydrolysis was studied using Norway spruce as raw material. It was concluded that the decrease in the fermentability coincided with increasing harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. The decrease in fermentability was not correlated solely to the content of aliphatic acids or furan derivatives. To increase the fermentability, detoxification is often employed. Twelve detoxification methods were compared with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrolysate and the fermentability after treatment. The most efficient detoxification methods were anion-exchange at pH 10.0, overliming and enzymatic detoxification with the phenol-oxidase laccase. Detailed analyses of ion exchange revealed that anion exchange and unspecific hydrophobic interactions greatly contributed to the detoxification effect, while cation exchange did not. The comparison of detoxification methods also showed that phenolic compounds are very important fermentation inhibitors, as their selective removal with laccase had a major positive effect on the fermentability. Selected compounds; aliphatic acids, furans and phenolic compounds, were characterised with respect to their inhibitory effect on ethanolic fermentation by S. cerevisiae. When aliphatic acids or furans were compared, the inhibitory effects were found to be in the same range, but the phenolic compounds displayed widely different inhibitory effects. The possibility of genetically engineering S. cerevisiae to achieve increased inhibitor resistance was explored by heterologous expression of

  5. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Detoxification mechanisms of honey bees (Apis mellifera) resulting in tolerance of dietary nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rand, Esther E; Smit, Salome; Beukes, Mervyn; Apostolides, Zeno; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W

    2015-07-02

    Insecticides are thought to be among the major factors contributing to current declines in bee populations. However, detoxification mechanisms in healthy, unstressed honey bees are poorly characterised. Alkaloids are naturally encountered in pollen and nectar, and we used nicotine as a model compound to identify the mechanisms involved in detoxification processes in honey bees. Nicotine and neonicotinoids have similar modes of action in insects. Our metabolomic and proteomic analyses show active detoxification of nicotine in bees, associated with increased energetic investment and also antioxidant and heat shock responses. The increased energetic investment is significant in view of the interactions of pesticides with diseases such as Nosema spp which cause energetic stress and possible malnutrition. Understanding how healthy honey bees process dietary toxins under unstressed conditions will help clarify how pesticides, alone or in synergy with other stress factors, lead to declines in bee vitality.

  7. New insights into parental effects and toxicity: Mate availability and diet in the parental environment affect offspring responses to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plautz, Stephanie C.; Funkhouser, Meghan A.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects manifest as alterations in offspring phenotype resulting from the parental phenotype and/or parental environment. We evaluated the effects of parental diet quality and mating strategy on the toxicant tolerance of offspring in Biomphalaria glabrata snails. We raised snails either individually (self-fertilizing) or in groups of three (outcrossing) on a diet of uncooked lettuce, fish food, cooked lettuce, or cooked lettuce plus fish food. We then exposed their offspring to cadmium and malathion challenges. Cadmium tolerance varied with parental diet and was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails than self-fertilizing snails. Malathion tolerance was not affected by parental diet but was greater in the offspring of outcrossing snails. These results indicate that offspring responses to stressors are heavily influenced by parental experience, but may depend on the specific stressor and the mechanism of action and/or detoxification. -- Highlights: •We reared parental snails either alone or in groups and fed them one of four diets. •We exposed their juvenile offspring to cadmium and malathion survival challenges. •Outcrossing increased toxicant tolerance of juveniles compared to self-fertilizing. •Parental diet affected juvenile offspring tolerance to cadmium but not malathion. •Toxicant characteristics likely influenced parental effects on toxicant tolerance. -- Both parental diet composition and mating strategy can significantly alter the toxicant tolerance of offspring, and toxicant characteristics likely influence the probability of parental effects

  8. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  9. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Dero, B.

    1990-01-01

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  10. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  11. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more. (author)

  12. Methadone detoxification of tramadol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, R J; Narendran, R; DeGuiseppe, B

    2000-10-01

    Tramadol hydrochloride is a centrally acting analgesic with a partial affinity for the opiate receptor (mu), having an analgesic potency estimated to be one tenth that of morphine. While preclinical investigations suggested that abuse liability associated with tramadol use is low, there are increasing numbers of cases reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration of abuse, dependence, and withdrawal associated with tramadol use. A case of a patient with tramadol dependence requiring detoxification with methadone is presented. Acute management of significant tramadol dependence has not yet been reported in the literature. Long-term treatment issues are also discussed.

  13. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Fuzhong [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Yang Wanqin, E-mail: scyangwq@163.com [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China)

    2010-05-15

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 {+-} 19.22 and 576.75 {+-} 40.55 {mu}g cadmium per plant with 110.77 {+-} 12.68 and 202.54 {+-} 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  14. Opioid detoxification : from controlled clinical trial to clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Wensing, Michel; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results

  15. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  16. Morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated the potential of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Jihong; Li, Yinxin; Li, Shizhong

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a worldwide environmental problem, and remediation of Cd pollution is of great significance for food production as well as human health. Here, the responses of sweet sorghum cv. 'M-81E' to cadmium stress were studied for its potential as an energy plant in restoring soils contaminated by cadmium. In hydroponic experiments, the biomass of 'M-81E' showed no obvious change under 10 μM cadmium treatment. Cadmium concentration was the highest in roots of seedlings as well as mature plants, but in agricultural practice, the valuable and harvested parts of sweet sorghum are shoots, so promoting the translocation of cadmium to shoots is of great importance in order to improve its phytoremediation capacity. Further histochemical assays with dithizone staining revealed that cadmium was mainly concentrated in the stele of roots and scattered in intercellular space of caulicles. Moreover, the correlation analysis showed that Cd had a negative relationship with iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) in caulicles and leaves and a positive relationship with Fe in roots. These results implied that cadmium might compete with Fe, Zn, and Mn for the transport binding sites and further prevent their translocation to shoots. In addition, transmission electron microscopic observations showed that under 100 μM cadmium treatment, the structure of chloroplast was impaired and the cell wall of vascular bundle cells in leaves and xylem and phloem cells in roots turned thicker compared to control. In summary, morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated sweet sorghum can absorb cadmium and the growth is not negatively affected by mild level cadmium stress; thus, it is a promising material for the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils considering its economic benefit. This study also points out potential strategies to improve the phytoremediation capacity of sweet sorghum through genetic modification of transporters and cell wall

  17. Cadmium-related mortality and long-term secular trends in the cadmium body burden of an environmentally exposed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Tim S; Van Hecke, Etienne; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Jin, Yu; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Roels, Harry A; Staessen, Jan A

    2008-12-01

    Few population studies have reported on the long-term changes in the internal cadmium dose and simultaneously occurring mortality. We monitored blood cadmium (BCd), 24-hr urinary cadmium (UCd), and mortality in an environmentally exposed population. Starting from 1985, we followed BCd (until 2003), UCd (until 1996), and mortality (until 2007) among 476 and 480 subjects, randomly recruited from low- exposure areas (LEA) and high-exposure areas (HEA). The last cadmium-producing plant in the HEA closed in 2002. From 1985-1989 to 1991-1996, BCd decreased by 40.3% and 18.9% in the LEA and HEA, respectively (p fashion without threshold.

  18. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data...

  19. Outcomes of adult heroin users v. abstinent users four years after presenting for heroin detoxification treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zureida Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no studies in South Africa (SA on the outcomes following detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation of heroin-dependent patients. Objective. To compare the demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data of active heroin users v. users who were abstinent at the time of interview 4 years after attending the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape Province, SA.  Method. Participants included patients above the age of 16 years who had been admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital for heroin detoxification between July 2006 and June 2007. Participants were individually interviewed (either in person or tele­phonically using a structured self-report questionnaire to collect demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data 4 years following heroin detoxification treatment at this unit.  Results. Of the participants, 60% were abstinent and a large portion (34% attributed this to social support. Furthermore, there was a significant (p=0.04 difference in the longest period of abstinence between the past user group and active users, with more participants in the past user group being abstinent for 18 months or longer (n=24, 57% than in the active users group (n=8, 29%. Active users (n=18, 64% had significantly (p=0.03 more legal problems than abstinent users (n=14, 33%. Most participants (n=38, 54% relapsed within 3 months after index detoxification and rehabilitation.  Conclusion. Active users had more legal problems than abstinent users, with social support structures playing a pivotal role in abstinence. Future research should assess the impact of interventions such as post-discharge social support programmes on criminality and heroin use in those that relapse following treatment.

  20. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Goswami, Chandrima; Chatterjee, Sumon; Majumder, Arunabha; Mishra, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occupational exposure to cadmium as follows: (1) Reassess the employee's work practices and personal hygiene... employee's work practices and personal hygiene; the employee's respirator use, if any; the employee's...; assuring that all employees exposed to air cadmium levels above the PEL wear appropriate personal...

  2. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A & B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan BK

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The present study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed at cadmium plating. Methods 50 subjects using cadmium during cadmium plating formed the study group. An equal number of age-sex matched subjects working in administrative section formed the control group. Urinary cadmium levels were determined by using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B were determined by using spectrophotmetric method. Results A significant increase of urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were noted in study as compared to controls. The levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were positively and significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of urinary cadmium or life style confounding factors (age, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption on urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B. The analysis showed that the study subjects who had urine cadmium levels greater than 5 μg/g of creatinine, work duration >15 years, smoking and body mass index variables were significantly associated with urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase but not on isoenzymes A&B. Conclusion The results presented in this study shows that the increased levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase observed in cadmium-exposed workers could be used as biomarkers for suggesting preventive measure.

  3. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K + and Na + ) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  4. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  5. Epidemiological approach to cadmium pollution in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, I.

    1984-04-01

    The study of health problems due to cadmium pollution in Japan originated from an endemic episode of Itai-itai disease in a rural area in north-central Japan after World War II. The disease was defined as osteomalacia with tubular changes in the kidney and considered to be associated with excess intake of cadmium. This episode motivated the Japanese Government to conduct health examinations on the general population in cadmium-polluted and non-polluted areas throughout the country since 1969. Although Itai-itai disease-like bone changes were rarely found, these studies revealed a higher prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction among elderly people in the cadmium-polluted areas. No significant difference was noted in cancer mortality, but mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes tended to be lower in cadmium-polluted areas. Clinical and pathological studies in man as well as experiments on primates have recently been made to elucidate the pathogenesis of Itai-itai disease and the health effects of cadmium. The lack of knowledge on the ecological and biological complex of cadmium resulted in the impediment of studies on this problem. The lesson from this experience is that basic research is essential for promoting the study of pollutants such as heavy metals, though pollution problems usually require urgent solutions.

  6. Cadmium-induced immune abnormality is a key pathogenic event in human and rat models of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yinping; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Yanjun; Yan, Yan; Wang, Fan; Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Xu, Zhangye; Chen, Yongtao; Cheng, Xue; Li, Yong; Jiao, Jinyu; Ye, Duyun

    2016-11-01

    With increased industrial development, cadmium is an increasingly important environmental pollutant. Studies have identified various adverse effects of cadmium on human beings. However, the relationships between cadmium pollution and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remain elusive. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of cadmium on immune system among preeclamptic patients and rats. The results showed that the cadmium levels in the peripheral blood of preeclamptic patients were significantly higher than those observed in normal pregnancy. Based on it, a novel rat model of preeclampsia was established by the intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (0.125 mg of Cd/kg body weight) on gestational days 9-14. Key features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, placental abnormalities and small foetal size, appeared in pregnant rats after the administration of low-dose of CdCl2. Cadmium increased immunoglobulin production, mainly angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AA), by increasing the expression of activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) in B cells. AID is critical for the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. In addition, angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibody, which emerged recently as a potential pathogenic contributor to PE, was responsible for the deposition of complement component 5 (C5) in kidneys of pregnant rats via angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. C5a is a fragment of C5 that is released during C5 activation. Selectively interfering with C5a signalling by a complement C5a receptor-specific antagonist significantly attenuated hypertension and proteinuria in Cd-injected pregnant rats. Our results suggest that cadmium induces immune abnormalities that may be a key pathogenic contributor to preeclampsia and provide new insights into treatment strategies of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Tang, Yuanyuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Lee, Po-Heng [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Liu, Chengshuai, E-mail: csliu@soil.gd.cn [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550009 (China); Shih, Kaimin, E-mail: kshih@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4} spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4}. Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the

  8. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Tang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Po-Heng; Liu, Chengshuai; Shih, Kaimin; Li, Fangbai

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr 1.32 Fe 0.19 Al 0.49 O 4 spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr 1.32 Fe 0.19 Al 0.49 O 4 . Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr 2 O 3 and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the immobilization of Cr. The overall results suggest that

  9. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  10. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  11. Separation of cadmium from solutions containing high concentration of zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.D.; Bhutani, A.K.; Parvathisem, P.

    1984-01-01

    In hydrometallurgical process of extracting cadmium as a byproduct, zinc dust is added for separation of cadmium as cadimum sponge. High amounts of zinc are quite often noticed in the cadmium electrolyte subjected for electrowinning of the metal. This leads to poor quality of cadmium deposit and lower current efficiencies. Study of cadmium sponge cementation process revealed that zinc dust may be added to an acidic cadmium solution for precipitation of cadmium sponge without neutralization of the free acidity present in the system. This fact is utilized for obtaining a high cadmium sponge with 75-80 per cent cadmium and 5-10 per cent zinc with 98 per cent recovery of cadmium from the solution as sponge. The suggested process is confirmed in a cadmium production plant producing 11.0 MT of cadmium per month. (author)

  12. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  13. Detoxification and stress response genes expressed in a western North American bumble bee, Bombus huntii (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junhuan; Strange, James P; Welker, Dennis L; James, Rosalind R

    2013-12-12

    The Hunt bumble bee (Bombus huntii Greene, Hymenoptera: Apidae) is a holometabolous, social insect important as a pollinator in natural and agricultural ecosystems in western North America. Bumble bees spend a significant amount of time foraging on a wide variety of flowering plants, and this activity exposes them to both plant toxins and pesticides, posing a threat to individual and colony survival. Little is known about what detoxification pathways are active in bumble bees, how the expression of detoxification genes changes across life stages, or how the number of detoxification genes expressed in B. huntii compares to other insects. We found B. huntii expressed at least 584 genes associated with detoxification and stress responses. The expression levels of some of these genes, such as those encoding the cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and glycosidases, vary among different life stages to a greater extent than do other genes. We also found that the number of P450s, GSTs and esterase genes expressed by B. huntii is similar to the number of these genes found in the genomes of other bees, namely Bombus terrestris, Bombus impatiens, Apis mellifera and Megachile rotundata, but many fewer than are found in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Bombus huntii has transcripts for a large number of detoxification and stress related proteins, including oxidation and reduction enzymes, conjugation enzymes, hydrolytic enzymes, ABC transporters, cadherins, and heat shock proteins. The diversity of genes expressed within some detoxification pathways varies among the life stages and castes, and we typically identified more genes in the adult females than in larvae, pupae, or adult males, for most pathways. Meanwhile, we found the numbers of detoxification and stress genes expressed by B. huntii to be more similar to other bees than to the fruit fly. The low number of detoxification genes, first noted in the honey bee, appears to be a common phenomenon among bees

  14. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fuzhong; Yang Wanqin; Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 ± 19.22 and 576.75 ± 40.55 μg cadmium per plant with 110.77 ± 12.68 and 202.54 ± 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  15. Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilly E. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into human biotransformation and elimination systems continues to evolve. Various clinical and in vivo studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of foods and food-derived components on the activity of detoxification pathways, including phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes, phase II conjugation enzymes, Nrf2 signaling, and metallothionein. This review summarizes the research in this area to date, highlighting the potential for foods and nutrients to support and/or modulate detoxification functions. Clinical applications to alter detoxification pathway activity and improve patient outcomes are considered, drawing on the growing understanding of the relationship between detoxification functions and different disease states, genetic polymorphisms, and drug-nutrient interactions. Some caution is recommended, however, due to the limitations of current research as well as indications that many nutrients exert biphasic, dose-dependent effects and that genetic polymorphisms may alter outcomes. A whole-foods approach may, therefore, be prudent.

  16. Identifying genes and gene networks involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in Crambe abyssinica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfiqar, Asma; Paulose, Bibin; Chhikara, Sudesh; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2011-01-01

    Chromium pollution is a serious environmental problem with few cost-effective remediation strategies available. Crambe abyssinica (a member of Brassicaseae), a non-food, fast growing high biomass crop, is an ideal candidate for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. The present study used a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization approach in C. abyssinica to isolate differentially expressed genes in response to Cr exposure. A total of 72 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. The subtracted cDNAs suggest that Cr stress significantly affects pathways related to stress/defense, ion transporters, sulfur assimilation, cell signaling, protein degradation, photosynthesis and cell metabolism. The regulation of these genes in response to Cr exposure was further confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Characterization of these differentially expressed genes may enable the engineering of non-food, high-biomass plants, including C. abyssinica, for phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soils and sediments. - Highlights: → Molecular mechanism of Cr uptake and detoxification in plants is not well known. → We identified differentially regulated genes upon Cr exposure in Crambe abyssinica. → 72 Cr-induced subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. → Pathways linked to stress, ion transport, and sulfur assimilation were affected. → This is the first Cr transcriptome study in a crop with phytoremediation potential. - This study describes the identification and isolation of differentially expressed genes involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in a non-food industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

  17. Identifying genes and gene networks involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in Crambe abyssinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulfiqar, Asma, E-mail: asmazulfiqar08@yahoo.com [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Paulose, Bibin, E-mail: bpaulose@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chhikara, Sudesh, E-mail: sudesh@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dhankher, Om Parkash, E-mail: parkash@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Chromium pollution is a serious environmental problem with few cost-effective remediation strategies available. Crambe abyssinica (a member of Brassicaseae), a non-food, fast growing high biomass crop, is an ideal candidate for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. The present study used a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization approach in C. abyssinica to isolate differentially expressed genes in response to Cr exposure. A total of 72 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. The subtracted cDNAs suggest that Cr stress significantly affects pathways related to stress/defense, ion transporters, sulfur assimilation, cell signaling, protein degradation, photosynthesis and cell metabolism. The regulation of these genes in response to Cr exposure was further confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Characterization of these differentially expressed genes may enable the engineering of non-food, high-biomass plants, including C. abyssinica, for phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soils and sediments. - Highlights: > Molecular mechanism of Cr uptake and detoxification in plants is not well known. > We identified differentially regulated genes upon Cr exposure in Crambe abyssinica. > 72 Cr-induced subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. > Pathways linked to stress, ion transport, and sulfur assimilation were affected. > This is the first Cr transcriptome study in a crop with phytoremediation potential. - This study describes the identification and isolation of differentially expressed genes involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in a non-food industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

  18. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

  19. Cadmium verification measurements of HFIR shroud assembly 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses radiation-based nondestructive examination methods which have been used to successfully verify the presence of cadmium in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) spent-fuel shroud assembly number 22 (SA22). These measurements show, in part, that SA22 is certified to meet the criticality safety specifications for a proposed reconfiguration of the HFIR spent-fuel storage array. Measurement of the unique 558.6-keV gamma-ray from neutron radiative capture on cadmium provided conclusive evidence for the presence of cadmium in the outer shroud of the assembly. Cadmium verification in the center post and outer shroud was performed by measuring the degree of neutron transmission in SA22 relative to two calibration shroud assemblies. Each measurement was performed at a single location on the center post and outer shroud. These measurements do not provide information on the spatial distribution or uniformity of cadmium within an assembly. Separate measurements using analog and digital radiography were performed to (a) globally map the continuity of cadmium internal mass, and (b) locally determine the thickness of cadmium. Radiography results will be reported elsewhere. The measurements reported here should not be used to infer the thickness of cadmium in either the center post or outer shroud of an assembly

  20. Differences in depression severity and frequency of relapses in opiate addicts treated with methadone or opiate blocker after detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Tatjana; Lazarević Dušan; Nikolić Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. Relapse of opiate dependence is a common occurrence after detoxification and introduction of opiate addicts in abstinence from opiates. Clinical evaluation showed that over 90% of opiate addicts exhibit depressive manifestations during detoxification, or develop post-detoxification depression. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the frequency of relapses, severity and course of depression during a of 6-month period, and previous patterns of use of opioi...

  1. [Blood detoxification using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (magnetic hemodialysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Al D; Untu, Alina; Iacob, Gh

    2010-01-01

    The authors present an experimental study realized in order to simulate blood detoxification with the help of supermagnetic nanoparticles. The particles used are red oxide nanoparticles which are considered to be equivalent from a magnetic susceptibility and dynamic diameter point of view to the complex structures of magnetite nanoparticles. Two types of custom HGMS matrices have been used--a threaded one and a micro-spheres one. For testing red oxide particles have been purposefully created to have a lower magnetic susceptibility than magnetite or iron-carbon particles used in other experimental studies. Different concentrations of iron oxide, glycerine and water have been prepared, creating a 3.5 cP viscosity (equivalent to the one of the blood); the concentrations of the prepared solutions varied between 0.16 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL, with the background magnetic field value ranging from 0.25 T to 0.9 T, in order to observer the effectiveness of filtering at different intensities. The efficiency of HGMS filtering in experimental conditions was almost completely successful (99.99%) in all experimental conditions, both with the threaded and micro-spheres matrices. The high gradient magnetic separation system of nanoparticles has maximum efficiency and has the potential of being implemented in a medical blood detoxification device.

  2. Detoxification of acidic catalyzed hydrolysate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, holds great promise for use in biofuel production due to its high carbohydrate content. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation inhibitors to the K. alvarezii hydrolysate on cell growth and ethanol fermentation. In addition, detoxification of fermentation inhibitors was performed to decrease the fermentation inhibitory effect. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, which are liberated from acidic hydrolysis, was also observed in the hydrolysate of K. alvarezii. These compounds inhibited ethanol fermentation. In order to remove these inhibitors, activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide were introduced. The efficiency of activated charcoals was examined and over-liming was used to remove the inhibitors. Activated charcoal was found to be more effective than calcium hydroxide to remove the inhibitors. Detoxification by activated charcoal strongly improved the fermentability of dilute acid hydrolysate in the production of bioethanol from K. alvarezii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal detoxifying conditions were found to be below an activated charcoal concentration of 5%.

  3. Furfural tolerance and detoxification mechanism in Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Cheng, Gang; Joshua, Chijioke; He, Zijun; Sun, Xinxiao; Li, Ruimin; Liu, Lexuan; Yuan, Qipeng

    2016-01-01

    Current biomass pretreatment by hydrothermal treatment (including acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, and high-temperature steaming) and ionic liquids generally generate inhibitors to the following fermentation process. Furfural is one of the typical inhibitors generated in hydrothermal treatment of biomass. Furfural could inhibit cell growth rate and decrease biofuel productivity of microbes. Candida tropicalis is a promising microbe for the production of biofuels and value-added chemicals using hemicellulose hydrolysate as carbon source. In this study, C. tropicalis showed a comparable ability of furfural tolerance during fermentation. We investigated the mechanism of C. tropicalis 's robust tolerance to furfural and relevant metabolic responses to obtain more information for metabolic engineering of microbes for efficient lignocellulose fermentation. Candida tropicalis showed comparable intrinsic tolerance to furfural and a fast rate of furfural detoxification. C. tropicalis 's half maximal inhibitory concentration for furfural with xylose as the sole carbon source was 3.69 g/L, which was higher than that of most wild-type microbes reported in the literature to our knowledge. Even though furfural prolonged the lag phase of C. tropicalis , the final biomass in the groups treated with 1 g/L furfural was slightly greater than that in the control groups. By real-time PCR analysis, we found that the expression of ADH1 in C. tropicalis ( ctADH1 ) was induced by furfural and repressed by ethanol after furfural depletion. The expression of ctADH1 could be regulated by both furfural and ethanol. After the disruption of gene ctADH1 , we found that C. tropicalis 's furfural tolerance was weakened. To further confirm the function of ctADH1 and enhance Escherichia coli 's furfural tolerance, ctADH1 was overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The rate of furfural degradation in E. coli BL21 (DE3) with pET-ADH1 (high-copy plasmid) and pCS-ADH1 (medium-copy plasmid) was increased

  4. Liquid scintillation counting analysis of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.K.; Barfuss, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently the authors have used radiolabled cadmium-109 to measure the transport of inorganic cadmium in renal proximal tubules. An anomaly discovered in the liquid scintillation counting analysis of Cd-109 which is not attributable to normal decay; it consists of a significant decrease in the measured count rate of small amounts of sample. The objective is to determine whether the buffer solution used in the membrane transport studies is causing precipitation of the cadmium or whether cadmium is being adsorbed by the glass. It was important to determine whether the procedure could be modified to correct this problem. The problem does not appear to be related to the use of the buffer or to adsorption of Cd onto glass. Correction based on using triated L-glucose in all of these experiments and calculating a correction factor for the concentration of cadmium

  5. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) efficiently alleviates the acute toxicity of injected cadmium chloride, but enhances the acute toxicity of orally administered cadmium chloride. Further, DDC induces extensive changes in organ distribution of cadmium, and mobilizes aged cadmium depots. The present study...... investigates effects of DDC on the toxicokinetics of cadmium at lower doses of cadmium than those used in previous studies. During single exposure to subtoxic oral doses of cadmium chloride DDC enhanced intestinal cadmium absorption, both after intraperitoneal and oral administration of DDC. In such acute...... exposure experiments orally administered DDC only slightly changed the relative organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, while intraperitoneal administration of DDC induced extensive changes in organ preference of absorbed cadmium. The relative hepatic and testicular deposition was reduced, while...

  6. Spatial mapping of cadmium zinc telluride materials properties and electrical response to improve device yield and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Van Scyoc, J M; Yoon, H; Gilbert, T S; Hilton, N R; Lund, J C; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride has experienced tremendous growth in its application to various radiation sensing problems over the last five years. However, there are still issues with yield, particularly of the large volume devices needed for imaging and sensitivity-critical applications. Inhomogeneities of various types and on various length scales currently prevent the fabrication of large devices of high spectral performance. This paper discusses the development of a set of characterization tools for quantifying these inhomogeneities, in order to develop improvement strategies to achieve the desired cadmium zinc telluride crystals for detector fabrication.

  7. Differential spontaneous recovery across cognitive abilities during detoxification period in alcohol-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    Full Text Available There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD, and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons. Our study further focused on the 2-3 week phase of alcohol detoxification that is already known to positively affect many biological, emotional, motivational, as well as neural variables, followed by longer-term therapies for which good cognitive functioning is needed.41 AD inpatients undergoing a detoxification program, and 41 matched controls, were evaluated twice in terms of five cognitive functions (i.e., short-term memory, working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency within a three-week interval [on the first day (T1 and the 18th day (T2 of abstinence for AD patients]. Emotional (positive and negative affectivity and depression and motivational (craving variables were also measured at both evaluation times.Although verbal fluency, short-term memory, and cognitive flexibility did not appear to be affected, the patients exhibited impaired inhibition and working memory at T1. While no recovery of inhibition was found to occur, the average working memory performance of the patients was comparable to that of the controls at T2. Improvements in emotional and motivational dimensions were also observed, although they did not correlate with the ones in working memory. Individual analysis showed that not all participants were impaired or recover the same functions.While inhibition deficits appear to persist after 18 days of detoxification, deficits in working memory, which is a central component of

  8. Inhibition of cadmium ion uptake in rice (Oryza sativa) cells by a wall-bound form of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Ma, Jie; He, Congwu; Li, Xiuli; Zhang, Wenjun; Xu, Fangsen; Lin, Yongjun; Wang, Lijun

    2013-11-01

    The stresses acting on plants that are alleviated by silicon (Si) range from biotic to abiotic stresses, such as heavy metal toxicity. However, the mechanism of stress alleviation by Si at the single-cell level is poorly understood. We cultivated suspended rice (Oryza sativa) cells and protoplasts and investigated them using a combination of plant nutritional and physical techniques including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that most Si accumulated in the cell walls in a wall-bound organosilicon compound. Total cadmium (Cd) concentrations in protoplasts from Si-accumulating (+Si) cells were significantly reduced at moderate concentrations of Cd in the culture medium compared with those from Si-limiting (-Si) cells. In situ measurement of cellular fluxes of the cadmium ion (Cd(2+) ) in suspension cells and root cells of rice exposed to Cd(2+) and/or Si treatments showed that +Si cells significantly inhibited the net Cd(2+) influx, compared with that in -Si cells. Furthermore, a net negative charge (charge density) within the +Si cell walls could be neutralized by an increase in the Cd(2+) concentration in the measuring solution. A mechanism of co-deposition of Si and Cd in the cell walls via a [Si-wall matrix]Cd co-complexation may explain the inhibition of Cd ion uptake, and may offer a plausible explanation for the in vivo detoxification of Cd in rice. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Migliaccio

    Full Text Available Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6 and 3.6 x 10(-5 M, respectively on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

  10. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 μg l -1 for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure

  11. Cytotoxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and their detoxification in a freshwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Joyce Nirmala, M.; Chaudhri, Apoorvi; Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mandal, A.B. [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amitav@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •TiO{sub 2} NPs cytotoxicity at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL) to freshwater algae. •ROS generation, NP adsorption and internalization contributors to toxicity. •Observational evidence of genotoxicity by nanoparticles in an algal cell. •Reduced bioavailability thus detoxification of NPs by microalgae. •Possible role of EPS in detoxification. -- Abstract: In the current study, two aspects concerning (i) the cytotoxicity potential of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) toward freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus and (ii) the potential detoxification of NPs by the microalgae were assessed under light (UV-illumination) and dark conditions at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL), using sterile freshwater as the test medium. The statistically significant reduction in cell viability, increase in reactive oxygen species production and membrane permeability (light vs. dark) suggested photo-induced toxicity of TiO{sub 2} NPs. The electron micrographs demonstrated adsorption of the NPs onto the cell surface and substantiated their internalization/uptake. The fluorescence micrographs and the confocal laser scanning (CLSM) images suggested the absence of a definite/intact nucleus in the light treated cells pointing toward the probable genotoxic effects of NPs. In a separate three cycle experiment, a continuous decrease in the cytotoxicity was observed, whereas, at the end of each cycle only fresh algae were added to the supernatant containing NPs from the previous cycle. The decreasing concentrations of the NPs in the subsequent cycles owing to agglomeration–sedimentation processes exacerbated by the algal interactions played a crucial role in the detoxification. In addition, the exo-polymeric substances produced by the cells could have rendered the available NPs less reactive, thereby, enhancing the detoxification effects.

  12. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  13. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  14. Transcriptional and biochemical effects of cadmium and manganese on the defense system of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Aldo; Salamone, Monica; Mazzola, Salvatore; Cuttitta, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities the relative concentrations of cadmium and manganese have increased in the marine environment. Cephalopods are able to accumulate such metals and, as inhabitant of coastal waters, Octopus vulgaris is continuously exposed to anthropogenic activities. Since no study is available on the effects of heavy metals at molecular level in developing octopuses, herein we exposed 1-day-old paralarvae for 24 h to 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L of CdCl2 or MnCl2. Cd exerted a concentration-dependent inhibition of survival and a reduction in growth rate was shown while Mn exposure did not affect the survival rate even at the highest concentrations. Gene expression profiles of hsp70, sod, cat, and gst genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and defined patterns of transcription were observed. Moreover posttranscriptional analyses were also performed suggesting the impairment of metabolic functions, under strong oxidative conditions (as occurred in paralarvae exposed to Cd) or the complete detoxification events (as occurred in paralarvae exposed to Mn).

  15. Cadmium in milk and mammary gland in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson Grawe, K.; Oskarsson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the uptake of cadmium in mammary tissue, effects on milk secretion and composition, and lactational transport of cadmium to the sucklings. Cadmium exposure during lactation resulted in retention of cadmium in the mammary tissue in mice and rats. The uptake of cadmium in the mammary tissue was rapid, as shown in lactating mice by whole-body autoradiography 4 h after an intravenous injection of a tracer dose of 109 CdCl 2 . Retention of cadmium in kidneys of suckling pups was observed in the autoradiograms at 7 days after exposure of the dams. Lactating rats were intravenously infused with 109 CdCl 2 in 0.9% saline via osmotic minipumps from day 3 to day 16 after parturition. The cadmium dose given was 0, 8.8, 62 and 300 μg Cd/kg body wt. per day. Plasma and milk were collected at day 10 and 16 after parturition. Plasma cadmium levels in dams increased from day 10 to day 16. Cadmium levels were higher in milk than in plasma, with milk/plasma ratios varying from 2 to 6. Zinc levels in milk were positively correlated to cadmium levels in milk (r 2 =0.26; P=0.03). In milk, 109 Cd was distributed in fat (46-52%), casein fraction (40-46%), and whey fraction (6-8%). There was a high correlation between cadmium concentrations in pups' kidney and cadmium concentrations in dam's milk (r 2 =0.98; P 109 Cd was bound to metallothionein in mammary tissue. The fraction of radiolabelled cadmium bound to metallothionein increased in a dose-dependent manner in both the liver (88-98%) and mammary tissue (57-80%). The present results indicate a low transfer of cadmium to the suckling pup, which might be due to binding of cadmium to metallothionein in the mammary tissue. However, during the susceptible developmental period even a low cadmium exposure may be of concern. (orig.)

  16. Microbial detoxification of waste rubber material by wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredberg, Katarina; Andersson, B Erik; Landfors, Eva; Holst, Olle

    2002-07-01

    The extensive use of rubber products, mainly tires, and the difficulties to recycle those products, has resulted in world wide environmental problems. Microbial devulcanisation is a promising way to increase the recycling of rubber materials. One obstacle is that several microorganisms tested for devulcanisation are sensitive to rubber additives. A way to overcome this might be to detoxify the rubber material with fungi prior to the devulcanisation. In this study, 15 species of white-rot and brown-rot fungi have been screened with regard to their capacity to degrade an aromatic model compound in the presence of ground waste tire rubber. The most effective fungus, Resinicium bicolor, was used for detoxification of rubber material. Increase in growth of the desulfurising bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in presence of the rubber treated with Resinicium bicolor compared to untreated rubber demonstrated that detoxification with fungi is possible.

  17. The expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification are regulated in Helicoverpa armigera to cope up with chlorpyrifos insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; More, Tushar H; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is a key pest in many vital crops, which is mainly controlled by chemical strategies. To manage this pest is becoming challenging due to its ability and evolution of resistance against insecticides. Further, its subsequent spread on nonhost plant is remarkable in recent times. Hence, decoding resistance mechanism against phytochemicals and synthetic insecticides is a major challenge. The present work describes that the digestion, defense and immunity related enzymes are associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in H. armigera. Proteomic analysis of H. armigera gut tissue upon feeding on chlorpyrifos containing diet (CH) and artificial diet (AD) using nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified upregulated 23-proteins in CH fed larvae. Database searches combined with gene ontology analysis revealed that the identified gut proteins engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification. Biochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of candidate proteins indicated that insects were struggling to get nutrients and energy in presence of CH, while at the same time endeavoring to metabolize chlorpyrifos. Moreover, we proposed a potential processing pathway of chlorpyrifos in H. armigera gut by examining the metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. H. armigera exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral, morphological adaptations and resistance to insecticides by regulating expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification mechanisms to cope up with chlorpyrifos. In these contexts, as gut is a rich repository of biological information; profound analysis of gut tissues can give clues of detoxification and resistance mechanism in insects. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Ultrasonic process for detoxification of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an investigation of the ultrasonic irradiation of carbon tetrachloride at various pH values, temperatures, and power intensities. Kinetic data and selected chemical mechanism are discussed and proposed. To study oxidant efficiency, chemical oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, are also considered. This work is part of a project entitled ''Ultrasonic Process for Detoxification of Groundwater and Soil,'' sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, to develop an innovative process for the effective destruction of chlorinated organics in soil and groundwater

  19. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  20. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  1. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of West-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Hahn, R.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Bernard, A.

    1985-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to assess whether or not environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic auf Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly polluted by cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population we selected 65- and 66-year-old women who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average levels of cadmium in blood and urine showed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg > Duisburg > Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. With respect to other biological findings (total proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, serum complement) no significant differences between the study populations were noted. It cannot be excluded, however, that in the Stolberg group there is a synergism of ageing and cadmium with respect to the age related decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

  2. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  3. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDITO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Rudito, Suwarto, Azkiyah L, Witono Y, Saragih B, Arung ET. 2017. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 99-103. Finding of local food sources to enhance food security areas. This study focuses on the characteristics of growth Dayak Borneo yam observation, toxic substances and detoxification techniques development of non nutritional. The objective of the research was to find out a more concrete picture, as well as comparing it with Java yam non nutritional components as a basis for further exploration of alternative food. Observations indicate that the plant growth of Dayak Borneo yam had specific characteristics, and can be grown in intercropping with other crops. Yam tubers have negative image due to the toxins contained by this commodity, as well as technology management (detoxification and processing of yam products that have not been controlled by the community. But based on the results of physical and chemical detoxification, indicates that the Dayak Borneo yam can be exploited further as food. Dayak Borneo yam need to be developed modification process in raw materials of Dayak Borneo yam as modified starch through fermentation techniques which also intended to obtain intermediate product from which Dayak Borneo yam has a larger functionality as a food ingredient.

  4. Transcription factor DecR (YbaO) controls detoxification of L-cysteine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Kan; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-09-01

    YbaO is an uncharacterized AsnC-family transcription factor of Escherichia coli. In both Salmonella enterica and Pantoea ananatis, YbaO homologues were identified to regulate the adjacent gene encoding cysteine desulfhydrase for detoxification of cysteine. Using the genomic SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) screening system, we identified the yhaOM operon, located far from the ybaO gene on the E. coli genome, as a single regulatory target of YbaO. In both gel shift assay in vitro and reporter and Northern blot assays in vivo, YbaO was found to regulate the yhaOM promoter. The growth of mutants lacking either ybaO or its targets yhaOM was delayed in the presence of cysteine, indicating involvement of these genes in cysteine detoxification. In the major pathway of cysteine degradation, hydrogen sulfide is produced in wild-type E. coli, but its production was not observed in each of the ybaO, yhaO and yhaM mutants. The yhaOM promoter was activated in the presence of cysteine, implying the role of cysteine in activation of YbaO. Taken together, we propose that YbaO is the cysteine-sensing transcriptional activator of the yhaOM operon, which is involved in the detoxification of cysteine. We then propose the naming of ybaO as decR (regulator of detoxification of cysteine).

  5. Shortening Anesthesia Duration does not Affect Severity of Withdrawal Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Ultra Rapid Opioid Detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaleh Shami

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultra rapid opioid detoxification (UROD is one of the new methods of detoxification. This method of detoxification involves putting patients under general anesthesia and actively giving them opioid antagonists. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of anesthesia duration in UROD on severity of withdrawal syndrome. Sixty addicted patients seeking UROD procedure assigned randomly to one of the 2hr, 4hr or 6hr anesthesia duration groups. Premedication and anesthesia procedure (induction and maintenance were the same for three groups. Detoxification was done for all patients with 50 mg oral naltroxane (prior to induction and 20 mg intravenous naloxane (8 mg/bolus and 12 mg/infusion. Blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate were automatically measured and recorded every 5 minutes. The severity of withdrawal syndrome was measured and recorded every one hour during anesthesia, 2hours post-anesthesia, and 12 and 24 hours following the induction of anesthesia according to the Wang Scale modified by Lomier (WSMBL. Patients aged 20-58 in three groups. Three cases experienced delirium after detoxification that lasted 24 hours in one. Severity of withdrawal syndrome in patients of groups 2, 4 and 6 hour were 8.7, 7.4 and 5.1 respectively during anesthesia and 12.3, 11.1 and 13.9 after 18 hours of anesthesia. Results of this study showed that, in standard settings, UROD is a safe method for detoxification and has low complications. The withdrawal symptoms during and after anesthesia are low. Shortening the duration of anesthesia has no affect on severity of withdrawal syndrome during and after anesthesia.

  6. Who needs inpatient detox? Development and implementation of a hospitalist protocol for the evaluation of patients for alcohol detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John R; Liles, E Allen; Dancel, Ria; Gilchrist, Michael; Kirsch, Jonathan; DeWalt, Darren A

    2014-04-01

    Clinicians caring for patients seeking alcohol detoxification face many challenges, including lack of evidence-based guidelines for treatment and high recidivism rates. To develop a standardized protocol for determining which alcohol dependent patients seeking detoxification need inpatient versus outpatient treatment, and to study the protocol's implementation. Review of best evidence by ad hoc task force and subsequent creation of standardized protocol. Prospective observational evaluation of initial protocol implementation. Patients presenting for alcohol detoxification. Development and implementation of a protocol for evaluation and treatment of patients requesting alcohol detoxification. Number of admissions per month with primary alcohol related diagnosis (DRG), 30-day readmission rate, and length of stay, all measured before and after protocol implementation. We identified one randomized clinical trial and three cohort studies to inform the choice of inpatient versus outpatient detoxification, along with one prior protocol in this population, and combined that data with clinical experience to create an institutional protocol. After implementation, the average number of alcohol related admissions was 15.9 per month, compared with 18.9 per month before implementation (p = 0.037). There was no difference in readmission rate or length of stay. Creation and utilization of a protocol led to standardization of care for patients requesting detoxification from alcohol. Initial evaluation of protocol implementation showed a decrease in number of admissions.

  7. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Hansen, Jens C.; Riget, Frank

    2006-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 μg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 μg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 μg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low

  8. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Mulvad, Gert [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hansen, Jens C. [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 {mu}g/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 {mu}g/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 {mu}g/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low.

  9. Coprecipitation of cadmium with calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu; Kumagai, Tetsu; Shigematsu, Tsunenobu; Matsui, Masakazu

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of cadmium between precipitates of calcite and saturated aqueous solution was measured at 25 0 C to understand the distribution of cadmium in the bivalves. Calcite was precipitated from calcium bicarbonate solution by the gradual release of carbon dioxide. The cadmium ions were coprecipitated in calcite, obeying the logarithmic distribution law. The apparent distribution coefficient was decreased as α, α'-dipyridyl increased, but the true distribution coefficient was found to be an almost constant value, 560. This value is fairly close to the ratio of solubility product constants K sub(calcite)/K sub(CdCO 3 ), 890. This suggests that the deviation of the present solid solution from ideality is not very large. (auth.)

  10. Chlorination leaching of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, E.; Pajak, I.; Bojanowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the investigations on chlorination leaching of cadmium from dust coming from dry dust collector of sinter belt, that is leaching with water saturated with gaseous chlorine and leaching with solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride were given. The optimum conditions for these processes were established. It was found, that the method of leaching in the presence of gaseous chlorine is more effective, as it allows to report into the solution over 90% cadmium contained in dust. Owing to technical difficulties, environmental protection and safety conditions more advantageous seems to be the use as leaching agent of the ammonium chloride solutions. When applying 20% NH 4 Cl and temperature of 60 0 C, the time of 2 hours and the ratio of solid to liquid of 1:5, 70% cadmium contained in the dust can be reported into the solution. (auth.)

  11. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  12. Transcriptome analysis and identification of P450 genes relevant to imidacloprid detoxification in Bradysia odoriphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chengyu; Wang, Cuicui; Liu, Ying; Shi, Xueyan; Gao, Xiwu

    2018-02-07

    Pesticide tolerance poses many challenges for pest control, particularly for destructive pests such as Bradysia odoriphaga. Imidacloprid has been used to control B. odoriphaga since 2013, however, imidacloprid resistance in B. odoriphaga has developed in recent years. Identifying actual and potential genes involved in detoxification metabolism of imidacloprid could offer solutions for controlling this insect. In this study, RNA-seq was used to explore differentially expressed genes in B. odoriphaga that respond to imidacloprid treatment. Differential expression data between imidacloprid treatment and the control revealed 281 transcripts (176 with annotations) showing upregulation and 394 transcripts (235 with annotations) showing downregulation. Among them, differential expression levels of seven P450 unigenes were associated with imidacloprid detoxification mechanism, with 4 unigenes that were upregulated and 3 unigenes that were downregulated. The qRT-PCR results of the seven differential expression P450 unigenes after imidacloprid treatment were consistent with RNA-Seq data. Furthermore, oral delivery mediated RNA interference of these four upregulated P450 unigenes followed by an insecticide bioassay significantly increased the mortality of imidacloprid-treated B. odoriphaga. This result indicated that the four upregulated P450s are involved in detoxification of imidacloprid. This study provides a genetic basis for further exploring P450 genes for imidacloprid detoxification in B. odoriphaga.

  13. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun; Qian, Yitai

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. De novo characterization of the Iris lactea var. chinensis transcriptome and an analysis of genes under cadmium or lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-Qin; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Xia; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Iris lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) is tolerant to accumulations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In this study, the transcriptome of I. lactea var. chinensis was investigated under Cd or Pb stresses. Using the gene ontology database, 31,974 unigenes were classified into biological process, cellular component and molecular function. In total, 13,132 unigenes were involved in enriched Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways, and the expression levels of 5904 unigenes were significantly changed after exposure to Cd or Pb stresses. Of these, 974 were co-up-regulated and 1281 were co-down-regulated under the two stresses. The transcriptome expression profiles of I. lactea var. chinensis under Cd or Pb stresses obtained in this study provided a resource for identifying common mechanisms in the detoxification of different heavy metals. Furthermore, the identified unigenes may be used for the genetic breeding of heavy-metal tolerant plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  17. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi; Cheng Shukhan

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis

  18. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of Portunus trituberculatus exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong-Fang; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Jin, Shan; Hu, Yan-Jun; Tan, Fu-Qing; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2013-01-01

    after cadmium (Cd) exposure as measured by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Therefore, we suggest that MT-1 and MT-2 perform important functions in spermiogenesis and testis detoxification in P. trituberculatus

  19. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of Portunus trituberculatus exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dong-Fang [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhu, Jun-Quan; Jin, Shan [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Hu, Yan-Jun [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tan, Fu-Qing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Yang, Wan-Xi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2013-09-15

    after cadmium (Cd) exposure as measured by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Therefore, we suggest that MT-1 and MT-2 perform important functions in spermiogenesis and testis detoxification in P. trituberculatus.

  20. Modification of cadmium pigments for colouring of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinskaya, T.V.; Livshits, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Modification conditions are studied of cadmium pigments, obtained by different methods, aliphatic acids(C 5 , C 8 and C 17 ). It is found, that cadmium pigments can adsorb acids with the number of atoms of carbon not less than 8. Stearic acid adsorption on lemon cadmium pigment taken as an example has shown the efficiency of pigment modification influence on its dispersancy in non-polar medium. Modification of yellow cadmium pigments of stearic acid makes possible to obtain pigment output forms ensuring a good particle distribution during polyolefine colouring

  1. Cadmium release from a reprocessing electrorefiner falling over

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solbrig, Charles W., E-mail: Charles.solbrig@inl.gov [Batelle Energy Alliance, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 2528, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States); Pope, Chad L. [Batelle Energy Alliance, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 2528, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We model an accident in a nuclear fuel processing facility caused by an earthquake. ► The earthquake causes the argon cell to breach and the electrorefiner to tip over. ► Cadmium is spilled and a cathode falls on the cadmium and starts to burn. ► Cadmium can be transported to people in the building, the site, and the public. ► The results show negligible doses to all persons except in one low probability case. -- Abstract: The possible biological consequences of a release of cadmium due to a design basis earthquake in the Idaho Nuclear Laboratory's nuclear fuel reprocessing cell are evaluated. The facility is designed to withstand the design basis earthquake except for some non-seismically qualified feedthroughs. The earthquake is hypothesized to breach these feedthroughs (allowing air into the argon atmosphere processing cell) and cause the MK-IV electrorefiner (ER) in the cell to tip over or split and spill its contents of fission product laden salt and cadmium. In addition, the uranium dendrite product cathode is assumed to fall on the cadmium and burn. The heat from the burning cathode results in release of cadmium vapor into the cell atmosphere. Ingestion and inhalation of a sufficient concentration of cadmium for a critical time period can cause irreversible health effects or death. The release of the small quantity of fission products, analyzed elsewhere, results in negligible doses. Analysis reported here shows there is no danger to the general public by the cadmium release or to on-site workers except in one low probability case. This one case requires a fivefold failure where the safety exhaust system fails just after the 4% oxygen concentration combustion limit in the cell is reached. Failure of the SES allows oscillatory inflow and outflow (and hence cadmium outflow) from the cell due to gravity. The dose to a worker in the basement exceeds the mortality limit in this one event if the worker does not leave the basement.

  2. Cadmium release from a reprocessing electrorefiner falling over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Pope, Chad L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model an accident in a nuclear fuel processing facility caused by an earthquake. ► The earthquake causes the argon cell to breach and the electrorefiner to tip over. ► Cadmium is spilled and a cathode falls on the cadmium and starts to burn. ► Cadmium can be transported to people in the building, the site, and the public. ► The results show negligible doses to all persons except in one low probability case. -- Abstract: The possible biological consequences of a release of cadmium due to a design basis earthquake in the Idaho Nuclear Laboratory's nuclear fuel reprocessing cell are evaluated. The facility is designed to withstand the design basis earthquake except for some non-seismically qualified feedthroughs. The earthquake is hypothesized to breach these feedthroughs (allowing air into the argon atmosphere processing cell) and cause the MK-IV electrorefiner (ER) in the cell to tip over or split and spill its contents of fission product laden salt and cadmium. In addition, the uranium dendrite product cathode is assumed to fall on the cadmium and burn. The heat from the burning cathode results in release of cadmium vapor into the cell atmosphere. Ingestion and inhalation of a sufficient concentration of cadmium for a critical time period can cause irreversible health effects or death. The release of the small quantity of fission products, analyzed elsewhere, results in negligible doses. Analysis reported here shows there is no danger to the general public by the cadmium release or to on-site workers except in one low probability case. This one case requires a fivefold failure where the safety exhaust system fails just after the 4% oxygen concentration combustion limit in the cell is reached. Failure of the SES allows oscillatory inflow and outflow (and hence cadmium outflow) from the cell due to gravity. The dose to a worker in the basement exceeds the mortality limit in this one event if the worker does not leave the basement

  3. Cadmium-induced changes in pigments, total phenolics, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in fronds of Azolla imbricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling-Peng; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Huang, Yu; Li, Min-Jing

    2006-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of cadmium on several color-related parameters (including chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin), total phenolics, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity in an aquatic fern species Azolla imbricate (A. imbricata). Cd accumulation and effects in the fronds were closely related with Cd concentration in the growth medium. The fronds under 0.5 mg/L Cd treatment turned red on the 3rd day, and this color change also appeared under 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L Cd treatment on the 5th day. Correlated with the color change, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid in the fronds significantly decreased in the presence of high Cd concentrations, while the anthocyanin content increased during the experiment. Significant increase in total phenolics content and PAL activity were also detected during Cd treatment. The results suggested that the Cd-induced change in color of fronds might be due to the decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid and the increase in anthocyanin. Anthocyanin, total phenolics and their biosynthesis-related PAL might play a role in detoxification of Cd in A. imbricata.

  4. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of stone crab Charybdis japonica exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Tan Fuqing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu Junquan [Faculty of Life Science and Bioengineering, Ningbo University, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Zhou Hong [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Metallothionein (MT) participates in metallic homeostasis and detoxification in living animals. Previous studies have focused mainly on the functions of MT in vertebrates, but the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in the Japanese stone crab (Charybdis japonica), we identified the C. japonica MT complete cDNA sequence from the total RNA of the testis using RT-PCR and RACE. The 587 bp MT cDNA contains: an 80 bp 5 Prime untranslated region, a 333 bp 3 Prime untranslated region, and a 174 bp open reading frame. MT has 57 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The protein alignment between MT sequences of C. japonica and other crabs shows a high similarity and a strong identity in cysteine residues vital for the metal-binding affinity of MT. After the cadmium (Cd) exposure, the testis displays both abnormal morphology and MT mRNA expression both of which indicate a sensitive response of testis MT to Cd. Therefore, we suggest that MT is an excellent biomarker candidate for evaluating Cd pollution.

  5. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yutaka, E-mail: yaoki@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Yee, Jennifer [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Epidemiology Elective Program, MS E-92, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Family Medicine, 4000 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington D.C 20057 (United States); Mortensen, Mary E. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, MS F-20, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  6. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yee, Jennifer; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  7. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  8. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; McEwan, Deborah L; Conery, Annie L; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-05-01

    Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  9. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  10. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A

    1977-02-02

    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  11. Cadmium decontamination using in-house resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sangita; Thalor, K.L; Prabhakar, S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Goswami, J.L.; Tewari, P.K.; Dhanpal, Pranav; Goswami, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A selective and strong in-house chelator has been studied w.r.t. basic parameters like concentration, time, and elution. De-contamination of cadmium, mercury, chromium, lead etc by using high uptake values fro cadmium ions proves its selectivity with high elution ratio ensures further decontamination of run-off water during natural calamities. In three step cascade use the concentration of original cadmium solution (500 ppm) decocted to safe disposable attribute. This polymeric ligand exchanger displayed outlet effluent concentration to 1 ppm and less than 200 ppb when treated for inlet feed concentration of 50 ppm and 500 ppm respectively. (author)

  12. Autophagy as a defense strategy against stress: focus on Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Roberto; Martino, Chiara; Agnello, Maria; Bosco, Liana; Roccheri, Maria Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is used by organisms as a defense strategy to face environmental stress. This mechanism has been described as one of the most important intracellular pathways responsible for the degradation and recycling of proteins and organelles. It can act as a cell survival mechanism if the cellular damage is not too extensive or as a cell death mechanism if the damage/stress is irreversible; in the latter case, it can operate as an independent pathway or together with the apoptotic one. In this review, we discuss the autophagic process activated in several aquatic organisms exposed to different types of environmental stressors, focusing on the sea urchin embryo, a suitable system recently included into the guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays to monitor autophagy. After cadmium (Cd) exposure, a heavy metal recognized as an environmental toxicant, the sea urchin embryo is able to adopt different defense mechanisms, in a hierarchical way. Among these, autophagy is one of the main responses activated to preserve the developmental program. Finally, we discuss the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in the sea urchin embryo, a temporal and functional choice that depends on the intensity of stress conditions.

  13. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L −1 ) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H 2 O 2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H + -ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H 2 O 2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H + -ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H 2 O 2 may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H + -ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the detoxification of PhACs in plants. • Results

  14. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christou, Anastasis [Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus); Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas [NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fotopoulos, Vasileios, E-mail: vassilis.fotopoulos@cut.ac.cy [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus)

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L{sup −1}) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H{sup +}-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the

  15. New process to discharge negative cadmium electrodes for Ni/Cd batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiker, B.; Vignaud, R.

    1984-01-01

    The new process relates to the chemical oxidation (whether partial or total) of cadmium metal negative electrodes, as used in alkaline nickel-cadmium or silver-cadmium batteries. This process concerns all cadmium electrodes but more particularly the electrodeposited cadmium electrode developed by the company LES PILES WONDER and described in this publication

  16. Metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in mycorrhizal Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2017-12-01

    Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil. Our results suggest that the sequestration on the cell wall is the main detoxification mechanism in white birch exposed to acute chronic metal-stress, while phytochelatins play a role mitigating metal toxicity inside the cells. Given its high Mn and Zn root-to-shoot translocation rate, Betula pubescens is a very promising species for the phytoremediation of soils polluted with these metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... concentrations alleviated the toxic effect of cadmium on the growth and water status of lettuce plants. The three lettuce varieties ... electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys ..... Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Third edition, Salt Lake City, UT: Acad. Press. Österås ...

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.

  19. Use of Strychnos Nux-Vomica (Azraqi) Seeds in Unani System of Medicine: Role of Detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Seema; Khan, Shamshad A; Masood, Akbar; Iqbal, M

    2010-01-01

    Some plants used in Unani system of medicine are toxic, even deadly poisonous. The drugs having such plants as their components are detoxified before they are dispensed to the patients. One such drug, capsule Hudar, has Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Azraqi) seeds as one of its components and is very effectively used to elevate blood pressure. Ancient manuscripts describe many methods of its detoxification. It has been found that the detoxification processes studied reduce the strychnine content, a...

  20. Cadmium uptake in oyster isognomon alatus under laboratory condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayon Saed; Ahmad Ismail; Missri Kusnan; Hishamuddin Omar

    1999-01-01

    The uptake of cadmium in Flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for two weeks. Oysters were exposed to 100 μg 1'-1 cadmium and the accumulation of cadmium in the tissues was measured for every two days. Soft tissues of oyster were digested in concentrated acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The accumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of oysters was increased during the first six days from 0.73 μg g- 1 to 10.77 μg g'-1, and remaining constant for four days at average level of 10.96 μg g'-1. The Cl concentrations was increased to 32.70 μg g'-1 until the end of experiment. There was no sign of cadmium accumulation approaching saturation for the period of exposure. (author)

  1. Use of Strychnos nux-vomica (Azraqi) seeds in Unani system of medicine: role of detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Seema; Khan, Shamshad A; Masood, Akbar; Iqbal, M

    2010-01-01

    Some plants used in Unani system of medicine are toxic, even deadly poisonous. The drugs having such plants as their components are detoxified before they are dispensed to the patients. One such drug, capsule Hudar, has Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Azraqi) seeds as one of its components and is very effectively used to elevate blood pressure. Ancient manuscripts describe many methods of its detoxification. It has been found that the detoxification processes studied reduce the strychnine content, as determined either by using uv-vis spectrophotometer or HPLC, present in Strychnos nux vomica seeds which is responsible for Strychnos nux vomica toxicity. The decrease in strychnine amount was best when the seeds were immersed for detoxification in excess of water for 5 days, in milk for 2 days followed by their boiling in milk. Strychnine in small amounts has been reported to give subjective feeling of stimulation.

  2. Effect of cadmium on myocardial contractility and calcium fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilati, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on myocardial mechanical performance and calcium fluxes was studied in kitten isometric papillary muscles and in isovolumic Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Therefore, it is concluded that cadmium-induced decreases in contractility are not primarily the result of cadmium interference with ATP metabolic processes. Furthermore, these results imply that cadmium causes no structural alterations of the contractile proteins. These data suggest that cadmium may be competing with the calcium needed for excitation-contraction coupling. During experiments using radioisotopic calcium, a statistically significant cellular influx of calcium was observed following the onset of 100 μM Cd ++ perfusion of isolated, Langendorff-prepared rabbit hearts

  3. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  4. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zhou; Yong-hui Lu; Hui-feng Pi; Peng Gao; Min Li; Lei Zhang; Li-ping Pei; Xiang Mei; Lin Liu; Qi Zhao; Qi-Zhong Qin; Yu Chen; Yue-ming Jiang; Zhao-hui Zhang; Zheng-ping Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the preva...

  5. Stabilization of cadmium electrode properties when introducing surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, M.E.; Mansurov, F.Kh.; Nikol'skij, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The results of tests of both separate cadmium electrodes and silver-cadmium accumulators, depending on introduction of surfactants (polyethylene oxide - PO - and its derivatives), have been considered. The influence of PO on the course of electrochemical reaction on cadmium is pronounced in facilitation of anodic process. In case of PO introduction in the amount of 1 % instead of sodium lignosulfonate (2 %) into accumulators with silver-cadmium electrodes, the electrode potential is stabilized, while the accumulator capacity increases. The time period of the accumulation maintenance in the charged state increases 2-3 fold (1-1,5 years). 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  7. An experimental study of the retention of zinc, zinc-cadmium mixture and zinc-65 in the presence of cadmium in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1976-07-01

    Zinc uptake was studied in eels in fresh water, using stable zinc, a zinc-cadmium mixture, and zinc 65 in the presence of small amounts of cadmium. The zinc content in the eel began to increase after 45 days only, and reached approximately 85 ppm after 76 days in water initially containing 5ppm of zinc. At the conclusion of the experiment (76 days), the body organs could be classified in decreasing order in zinc content (in ppm): kidneys (152), skeleton (133), skin (129), muscles (89), head (80), gills (78), digestive tract (77), liver (63) spleen-heart-air bladder (32), and mucus (15). A comparison of experimental results obtained with the zinc-cadmium mixture and cadmium alone showed that zinc decreased the cadmium content of all organs except the gills. The presence of cadmium in water did not inhibit zinc uptake. As cadmium content in water increased, then zinc content in the digestive tract and the kidneys decreased and in all cases remained lower than when zinc alone was present. In the presence of cadmium the percentage of zinc in the kidneys was always lower than the value obtained for zinc alone, and that of the digestive tract did not increase. Contamination of eels treated with 18 and 50ppb of cadmium for 29 days, then contaminated by zinc-65 (5μCi/l) while maintaining the same low cadmium content, showed no significant difference in zinc 65 uptake in the two groups. The same applied to the body organs, and particularly the digestive tract and kidneys, where the highest activity levels were observed. By weight, muscles represented approximately 30% of the total contamination after 45 days [fr

  8. Polarographic studies on the nature of cadmium in scallop, oyster, and lobster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C L; Uthe, J F; Zook, E G

    1978-04-01

    Free and bound forms of cadmium were determined in raw shellfish by use of differential pulse polarography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Free cadmium is defined by its polarographic peak potential of -0.62 +- 0.02 V (saturated calomel electrode) in solvent washed ammonium sulfate extracts. Bound cadmium was determined by subtracting the free cadmium from the total cadmium present in the meat. Both scallop (various species) and American lobster (Homarus americanus) muscle tissues contain no free cadmium. Oyster (various species), on the other hand, had a considerable percentage (approximately 50%) of its total cadmium present as free cadmium, a phenomena as yet unexplained. The detection limit for free cadmium is approximately 0.05 ..mu..g/g raw tissue.

  9. Detoxification of cyanides in cassava flour by linamarase of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Detoxification of ... utilizing indigenous bacteria from cyanide rich cassava peel waste and exploited their potential for ... Figure 1. Enzyme catalyzed degradation of cyanogenic glycosides. pains ..... Linamarin - the toxic compound of cassava. J. Venom. Anim. Toxins. 2(1): 6-12.

  10. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  11. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  12. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  13. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  14. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  15. A study on complex formation of cadmium(II) ions, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Haruo; Hirabayashi, Yoshihiro

    1984-01-01

    In the potentiometric titration of the solution containing a cadmium(II) ion and an amino acid, white precipitates often appear in the test solution, and they disturb the emf measurements. Such precipitates were formes in the solutions, pH ranging 7.5--8.5, during the course of titrations of the test solutions containing cadmium(II) ion and amino acid such as glycine, α-alanine. 2-aminobutanoic acid, 3-aminobutanoic acid, 4-aminobutanoic acid, 2-aminopentanoic acid, 5-aminopentanoic acid, 2-aminohexanoic acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, or glutamine. The identification of the precipitates obtained from the solutions containing cadmium(II) ion and L-aspartic acid, 4-aminobutanoic acid, or 6-aminohexanoic acid were carried out by both of elemental analysis and the infrared spectroscopy. These results indicated that the precipitate obtained from the solution containing cadmium(II) ion and L-aspartic acid was 1:1 cadmium(II)-L-aspartic acid complex and did not contain any cadmium(II) hydroxide, and other two precipitates were mostly cadmium(II) hydroxide and contained a little cadmium(II)-amino acid complexes. (author)

  16. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH,

  17. Effect of cadmium on electron and energy transfer reactions in corn mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R J; Bittell, J E; Koeppe, D E

    1973-01-01

    The effects of cadmium on isolated corn shoot mitochondria were determined. In the absence of phosphate cadmium stimulated the oxidation of exogenous NADH optimally at 0.025 mM, but was inhibitory at 0.1 mM and above. The presence of phosphate negated the cadmium stimulation of exogenous NADH oxidation and permitted inhibitions only at higher cadmium concentrations. Succinate or malate + pyruvate oxidation in the absence of phosphate was inhibited to a greater extent by cadmium than when phosphate was present. ADP/O and respiratory control ratios were reduced by cadmium but generally were less sensitive to cadmium than state 4 or minus phosphate respiration. The data suggest that the site of cadmium effect is likely to be early in electron transport. Cadmium had a pronounced effect on mitochondrial swelling under either passive or active conditions. When succinate or exogenous NADH were being oxidized swelling occurred at 0.05 mM cadmium, but with malate + pyruvate the cadmium concentration had to exceed 1.0 mM. Phosphate (2 mM) prevented the swelling. Dithiothreitol, a SH group protector, prevented any effect of cadmium on swelling or respiration which suggests that sulfhydryl groups are likely involved in the cadmium-membrane interaction.

  18. Electro-spark machining of cadmium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovskij, V.N.; Stepakhina, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data on electrical erosion of the semiconductor material (cadmium antimonide) alloyed with tellurium are given. The potentialisies and expediency of using the electric-spark method of cutting cadmium antimonide ingots with the resistivity of 1 ohm is discussed. Cutting has been carried out in distilled water and in the air

  19. Complete detoxification is the most effective treatment of medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Louise Ninett; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-01-01

    /month by 46% (95% CI 34-58) compared with 22% (95% CI 11-34) in program-B ( p = 0.005), and 70% in program A versus 42% in program B were reverted to episodic headache ( p = 0.04). Migraine-days/month were reduced by 7.2 in program A ( p 0.001) and 3.6 in program B ( p = 0.002) after 6 months. Conclusion......Background There is lack of evidence on how to detoxify medication-overuse headache. Aim To compare the effect of complete stop of acute medication with restricted intake. Methods Medication-overuse headache patients were included in a prospective, outpatient study and randomized to two months...... Both detoxification programs were very effective. Detoxification without analgesics or acute migraine-medication was the most effective program. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02903329)....

  20. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  1. Decoloration and detoxification of effluents by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.; Morais, Aline V.; Rosa, Jorge M.; Badaró-Pedroso, Cintia; Conceição Pereira, Maria da; Higa, Marcela C.

    2016-01-01

    Three distinct textile samples were investigated for color and toxicity (S1–chemical/textile industry; S2–final textile effluent; S3 - standard textile produced effluent–untreated blue). Radiation processing of these samples were carried out at Dynamitron Electron Beam Accelerator and color and toxicity removal were determined: color removal by radiation was 96% (40 kGy, S1); 55% (2.5 kGy, S2) and 90% (2.5 kGy, S3). Concerning toxicity assays, Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria demonstrated higher reduction after radiation than the other systems: removal efficiencies were 33% (20 kGy, S1); 55% (2.5 kGy, S2) and 33% (2.5 kGy, S3). Daphnia similis and Brachionus plicatilis fitted well for S3 effluents. Hard toxic volumes into biological treatment plant may be avoided if radiation would be previously applied in a real plant. Results reveled how indispensable is to run toxicity to more than one living-organism. - Highlights: • 2.5 kGy was enough for decoloration and detoxification of S2 and S3. • S1 effluents were very toxic and required at least 20 kGy for detoxification. • Radiation processing reduced toxicity for 100% of treated samples. • V. fischeri was the best tool for toxicity measurements.

  2. Extracorporeal Detoxification in Victims with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye. Khoroshilov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of victims with massive crushes of soft tissues in severe concomitant injury (SCI, by applying extracorporeal detoxification techniques as soon as possible. Subjects and methods. The results of examination and treatment were studied in 41 victims with SCI treated at the N. N. Burdenko Main Military Clinical Hospital in 2006 to 2008. In the early posttraumatic period (on days 1—3, all the victims (n=41 were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 victims (n=19 underwent hemodiafiltration (HDF with replacement at 35 ml/kg/hr; Group 2 (n=22 had plasmapheresis. Results. Early HDF applied to Group 1 victims could achieve 32, 44, and 37% reductions in the elevated levels creatine phosphokinase, myoglobin, and middle-sized molecules, respectively. In Group 2, plasmapheresis showed a lower effect (19, 25, and 26% reductions. Furthermore, there was a decrease in total protein in Group 1, which was absent in Group 2. Conclusion. The timely use of extracorporeal detoxification techniques in victims with massive crushes of soft tissues in the early posttraumatic period prevents the development of fatal complications of SCI, at the same time HDF is more effective and safe than plasmapheresis. Key words: severe concomitant injury, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobin, plasmapheresis, hemodiafiltration.

  3. Forager bees (Apis mellifera) highly express immune and detoxification genes in tissues associated with nectar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannette, Rachel L; Mohamed, Abbas; Johnson, Brian R

    2015-11-09

    Pollinators, including honey bees, routinely encounter potentially harmful microorganisms and phytochemicals during foraging. However, the mechanisms by which honey bees manage these potential threats are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the expression of antimicrobial, immune and detoxification genes in Apis mellifera and compare between forager and nurse bees using tissue-specific RNA-seq and qPCR. Our analysis revealed extensive tissue-specific expression of antimicrobial, immune signaling, and detoxification genes. Variation in gene expression between worker stages was pronounced in the mandibular and hypopharyngeal gland (HPG), where foragers were enriched in transcripts that encode antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and immune response. Additionally, forager HPGs and mandibular glands were enriched in transcripts encoding detoxification enzymes, including some associated with xenobiotic metabolism. Using qPCR on an independent dataset, we verified differential expression of three AMP and three P450 genes between foragers and nurses. High expression of AMP genes in nectar-processing tissues suggests that these peptides may contribute to antimicrobial properties of honey or to honey bee defense against environmentally-acquired microorganisms. Together, these results suggest that worker role and tissue-specific expression of AMPs, and immune and detoxification enzymes may contribute to defense against microorganisms and xenobiotic compounds acquired while foraging.

  4. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shute, Tracy; Macfie, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify cadmium and zinc accumulated by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) when the metals were supplied separately and together. The highest dose of cadmium (100 mg/kg) reduced plant height and dry weight (down to 40% and 34% of control, respectively); the highest dose of zinc (2000 mg/kg) reduced plant height to 55% of control and dry weight to 70% of control. With both metals present, the plants were approximately the same size as those treated with cadmium only. The concentration of cadmium in the roots was unaffected by zinc. In other tissues, the effect of zinc on the accumulation of cadmium depended on the doses provided. At low doses, the addition of zinc reduced the concentration of cadmium in aboveground tissues to 40-50% of that found in plants exposed to cadmium only. However, when applied in high doses, the presence of zinc in cadmium-contaminated soils increased the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in aboveground tissues by up to 42%. In contrast, at high doses, the presence of cadmium in zinc-contaminated soil resulted in approximately 35% lower concentrations of zinc in all tissues. At a lower dose, cadmium had no effect on concentration of zinc in the plant tissues. The effects of high doses of one metal on the uptake of the other metal can be partially explained by the effects of one metal on the bioavailability of the other metal. In soils to which only one metal was added, bioavailable cadmium was 70-80% of the total cadmium, and bioavailable zinc was 50-70% of the total zinc. When both metals were added to the soil, 80-100% of the cadmium and 46-60% of the zinc were bioavailable. Concentrations of both metals were highest in root tissues (10-fold higher for cadmium, and up to 2-fold higher for zinc). Although relatively little cadmium was translocated to pods and seeds, the seeds of all plants (including those from control and zinc-treated plants) had concentrations of cadmium 3-4 times above the limit of 0

  5. Mutagenic effect of cadmium on tetranucleotide repeats in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebos, Robbert J.C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: r.slebos@vanderbilt.edu; Li Ming [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Evjen, Amy N. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Coffa, Jordy [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Cadmium is a human carcinogen that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair processes that are all important to carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that cadmium inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in yeast cells and in human cell-free extracts (H.W. Jin, A.B. Clark, R.J.C. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J.A. Taylor, T.A. Kunkel, M.A. Resnick, D.A. Gordenin, Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair, Nat. Genet. 34 (3) (2003) 326-329), but cadmium also inhibits DNA excision repair. For this study, we selected a panel of three hypermutable tetranucleotide markers (MycL1, D7S1482 and DXS981) and studied their suitability as readout for the mutagenic effects of cadmium. We used a clonal derivative of the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 to assess mutation levels in microsatellites after cadmium and/or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure to study effects of cadmium in the presence or absence of base damage. Mutations were measured in clonally expanded cells obtained by limiting dilution after exposure to zero dose, 0.5 {mu}M cadmium, 5 nM MNNG or a combination of 0.5 {mu}M cadmium and 5 nM MNNG. Exposure of HT1080-C1 to cadmium led to statistically significant increases in microsatellite mutations, either with or without concurrent exposure to MNNG. A majority of the observed mutant molecules involved 4-nucleotide shifts consistent with DNA slippage mutations that are normally repaired by MMR. These results provide evidence for the mutagenic effects of low, environmentally relevant levels of cadmium in intact human cells and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is involved.

  6. Manganese-induced cadmium stress tolerance in rice seedlings: Coordinated action of antioxidant defense, glyoxalase system and nutrient homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) alters different physiological and biochemical attributes that affect plant growth and yield. In our study, we investigated the regulatory role of supplemental manganese (Mn) on hydroponically grown rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan29) seedlings under Cd-stress conditions. Exposure of 14-d-old seedlings to 0.3mM CdCl 2 for three days caused growth inhibition, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and higher Cd accumulation. Higher Cd uptake caused oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG). The exogenous application of 0.3mM MnSO 4 to Cd-treated seedlings partly recovered Cd-induced water loss, chlorosis, growth inhibition, and nutrient imbalance by reducing Cd uptake and its further translocation to the upper part of the plant. Supplemental Mn also reduced Cd-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by improved antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems through enhancing ROS and MG detoxification, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Cadmium elemination from phosphoric acid by ionic flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    The ion flotation process for the recovery of cadmium from wet phosphoric acid (30%P2O5) has been studied. This technique combines a chemical recation between the collector and the cadmium to form a precipitate (sublate) which is carried to the surface of the solution by air bubbles. the resulting foam containing the cadmium may then separated from solution. The influence of parameters such as collector and cadmium concentration as well as iron content have been investigated for the case a synthetic acid (30% P2O5). The result have been applied to the industrial phosphoric acid produced from Djebel Onk's phosphates (Algeria)

  8. Gene expression analysis of 4 biomarker candidates in Eisenia fetida exposed to an environmental metallic trace elements gradient: A microcosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulle, Franck; Lemiere, Sebastien [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, Lille 1, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Douay, Francis [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Groupe ISA, 48 boulevard Vauban, F-59046 Lille Cedex (France); Vandenbulcke, Franck, E-mail: franck.vandenbulcke@univ-lille1.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, Lille 1, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-11-15

    Past activities of 2 smelters (Metaleurop Nord and Nyrstar) led to the accumulation of high amounts of Metal Trace Elements (TEs) in top soils of the Noyelles-Godault/Auby area, Northern France. Earthworms were exposed to polluted soils collected in this area to study and better understand the physiological changes, the mechanisms of acclimation, and detoxification resulting from TE exposure. Previously we have cloned and transcriptionally characterized potential biomarkers from immune cells of the ecotoxicologically important earthworm species Eisenia fetida exposed in vivo to TE-spiked standard soils. In the present study, analysis of expression kinetics of four candidate indicator genes (Cadmium-metallothionein, coactosin like protein, phytochelatin synthase and lysenin) was performed in E. fetida after microcosm exposures to natural soils exhibiting an environmental cadmium (Cd) gradient in a kinetic manner. TE body burdens were also measured. This microcosm study provided insights into: (1) the ability of the 4 tested genes to serve as expression biomarkers, (2) detoxification processes through the expression analysis of selected genes, and (3) influence of land uses on the response of potential biomarkers (gene expression or TE uptake). - Highlights: {yields} Expression biomarkers in animals exposed to Cadmium-contaminated field soils. {yields} Expression kinetics to test the ability of genes to serve as expression biomarkers. {yields} Study of detoxification processes through the expression analysis of selected genes.

  9. Sequential Determination of Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Concentrated Cadmium Sulphate Solutions by Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry after Online Cation Exchanger Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Cacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9 μg dm-3 and 2.7 μg dm-3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300 μg dm-3 for sample volumes of 4 mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60 g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant.

  10. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhouli [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); He Xingyuan, E-mail: hexy@iae.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Chen Wei; Yuan Fenghui [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yan Kun [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jia 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Tao Dali [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-09-30

    Phytoremediation using hyperaccumulators is a promising technique of removing soil pollutants. In the study, growth responses, cadmium (Cd) accumulation capability and physiological mechanisms of Lonicera japonica Thunb. under Cd stress were investigated. Exposed to 5 and 10 mg L{sup -1} Cd, the plants did not show any visual symptoms, furthermore, the height, dry biomass of leaves, roots and total and the chlorophyll (CHL) content were obtained different grade increase. When the concentration of Cd was up to 50 mg L{sup -1}, the height, dry biomass of leaves and roots had not significant differences compared with the control. The indexes of tolerance (IT) were all above 0.8. The maintenance of high superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, suggesting strong internal detoxification mechanisms inside plant cells. After 21 days exposure to 25 mg L{sup -1} Cd, stem and shoot Cd concentrations reached 344.49 {+-} 0.71 and 286.12 {+-} 9.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} DW, respectively and the plant had higher bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF). According to these results, it was shown L. japonica had strong tolerance and accumulation capability to Cd, therefore it is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  11. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo, E-mail: sjung@knu.ac.kr

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  12. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F v /F m , as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H 2 O 2 production and greater increases in H 2 O 2 -decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress

  13. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  14. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  15. Cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, M.W.; Williamson, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis L. in culture are reported. The time course of uptake under various light conditions shows that cadmium is concentrated as the result of an on-going anabolic process and not as a consequence of a pH gradient as provided by photosynthesis. The effect of cycloheximide is in agreement with de novo protein synthesis being a prerequisite for cadmium accumulation. Autoradiography suggests a specific intracellular location for bound cadmium--apparently the nucleus.

  16. Impact of Detoxification Techniques on Pulmonary Gas Exchange Function in Patients with Generalized Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mlinnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of different detoxification techniques on pulmonary gas exchange function in patients with generalized peritonitis complicated by multiple organ failure. Subjects and methods. One hundred and thirty patients with generalized peritonitis were examined. According to the used detoxification techniques, the patients were divided into 5 groups. All the patients underwent a comprehensive examination, the key element of which was the evaluation of gas exchange parameters. Results. Membrane plasmapheresis and plasmapheresis with sodium hypochlorite infusion to the plasma filter in patients with peritonitis are shown to improve pulmonary blood oxygenation.

  17. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Jeekeeree, Wanpen; Funkhiew, Thippawan; Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn; Phopueng, Ittipol

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β 2 -microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β 2 -microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β 2 -microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β 2 -microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children

  19. Detoxification of wood preserving waste under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, M.S.; Brown, K.W.; Dale, B.E.; Donnelly, K.C.; He, L.Y.; Markiewicz, K.V. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Detoxification of pentachlorophenol-containing wood preserving waste was monitored under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions for genotoxicity and parent compound removal. Samples were collected throughout the treatment periods and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane and methanol with the Tecator Soxtec apparatus. The organic extracts were analyzed on GC/ECD and GC/MS. The extract mutagenic and genotoxic potentials were evaluated with and without metabolic activation with the Salmonella Microsomal and E. coli Prophage Induction assays. The Salmonella mutagenic responses of extracts from Weswood soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under ambient conditions were 2.0, 34.6 and 2.4 times greater than the solvent control on days 0, 540 and 1,200 respectively. Organic extracts of soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under enhanced conditions in a solid-phase rotating drum bioreactor had mutagenic potentials of 3.4, 4.9 and 3.5 on days 0, 14 and 30, respectively. Extracts from wood preserving waste sludge treated with potassium polyethylene glycol were shown to have mutagenic potentials of 2.8, 6.1 and 3.8 at 0, 10 and 30 minutes. The results indicate that the initial products of the wood preserving waste detoxification under all treatment conditions appear to have greater genotoxic potentials than the starting material. The results also suggest that a more rapid detoxification occurs under enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions.

  20. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  1. Cadmium in the aquatic environment. Volume 19. Advances in environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, J.O.; Sprague, J.B. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This book addresses the biogeochemistry of cadmium in the marine and freshwater aquatic environment and comprises 10 chapters on: distribution and cycling of cadmium in the environment; evidence for anthropogenic modification of global transport of cadmium; cadmium in fresh water: The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River; cadmium associations in freshwater and marine sediment; biological cycling of cadmium in fresh water; toxicity of cadmium to freshwater microorganisms, phytoplankton, and invertebrates; effects of cadmium on freshwater fish; effects of cadmium on marine biota; biological cycling of cadmium in marine environment; and methods of cadmium detection. Although there is some overlap of chapter topics, the major compartments of the aquatic system are addressed: atmosphere, water, sediment, phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and fish. These chapters are well written and critically review the available data in each area. The research cited is heavily dominated by studies of the Great Lakes and Western European rivers such as the Rhine, but this reflects the degree of cadmium contamination of these important water bodies and the environmental concerns they have raised. Many of the chapters strive to critically address the problems of data quality, which are a result of the great difficulty in detecting cadmium at the ng/L or ..mu..g/kg levels at which cadmium contamination occurs.

  2. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  3. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Yungang; Liu, Yufei; Liang, Boheng; Zhou, Hongwei; Li, Yingyue; Zhang, Yuhua; Huang, Jie; Yu, Chao; Chen, Kuncai

    2018-03-20

    Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile) cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4) μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW), accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption) was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile) was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  4. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4 μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW, accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI. Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  5. Revelations from the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans on the Complex Interplay of Metal Toxicological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebany J. Martinez-Finley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals have been definitively linked to a number of disease states. Due to the widespread existence of metals in our environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources, understanding the mechanisms of their cellular detoxification is of upmost importance. Organisms have evolved cellular detoxification systems including glutathione, metallothioneins, pumps and transporters, and heat shock proteins to regulate intracellular metal levels. The model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, contains these systems and provides several advantages for deciphering the mechanisms of metal detoxification. This review provides a brief summary of contemporary literature on the various mechanisms involved in the cellular detoxification of metals, specifically, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, mercury, and depleted uranium using the C. elegans model system for investigation and analysis.

  6. Experimental study, in rat wistar, of cadmium distribution and elimination as a function of administration route. Cadmium 109 maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Marc.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption and the elimination of cadmium have been investigated in rats wistar after oral administration or after inhalation. Before studying gastro-intestinal absorption, it appeared necessary to precise acute toxicity of orally administred cadmium. The distribution of cadmium within organes was determined following a single or multiple oral doses, and we specially studied retention of a Cd dose ingested after several weeks of treatment with Cd-Acetate. Pulmonary and gastro-intestinal absorption of cadmium after ihalation of Cd-microparticles were studied. Data obtained from these studies on rats and extrapolated to man were used to calculate mximum permissible concentration (M.P.C.) of Cd-109 in water and in air [fr

  7. Administration of venlafaxine after chronic methadone detoxification blocks post-depression relapse in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Fadaei-Kenarsary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Relapse is highly prevalent after detoxification and depression. Due to the advantages of venlafaxine compared with other antidepressants, it is expected that venlafaxine administration may reduce relapse after detoxification and depression. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of venlafaxine on depression-induced relapse to morphine dependence after methadone detoxification. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated and conditioned with morphine (10 mg/kg, S.C., for 4 days. After that, primary forced swimming and conditioned place preference (CPP were tested. They were followed by methadone (70 mg/kg/day, P.O., for 7 days administration, extinguishing, forced swimming stress (FSS and administration of venlafaxine (80 mg/kg/day, I.P., for 7 days. Finally same tests were performed. Administration of venlafaxine resulted in a decrement in final preference scores associated with a prime morphine injection (PMI compared to the primary scores in methadone treated (MTD+ animals. In a swimming test, venlafaxine increased the amount of final floating and decreased final activity scores compared with the primary scores after administration of methadone. Venlafaxine reduced locomotor activity in MTD+ animals in the final test with PMI. There was a positive correlation between the final activity and preference scores after PMI. In conclusion, venlafaxine improved anxiety and depression-induced relapse on methadone detoxified rats.

  8. Differential effects of citric acid on cadmium uptake and accumulation between tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuTing; Dong, Qin; Wang, ZhaoLong

    2017-11-01

    Organic acids play an important role in cadmium availability, uptake, translocation, and detoxification. A sand culture experiment was designed to investigate the effects of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass. The results showed that two grass species presented different Cd chemical forms, organic acid components and amount in roots. The dormant Cd accumulated in roots of tall fescue was the pectate- and protein- integrated form, which contributed by 84.85%. However, in Kentucky bluegrass, the pectate- and protein- integrated Cd was only contributed by 35.78%, and the higher proportion of Cd form was the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes. In tall fescue, citric acid dramatically enhanced 2.8 fold of Cd uptake, 3 fold of root Cd accumulation, and 2.3 fold of shoot Cd accumulation. In Kentucky bluegrass, citric acid promoted Cd accumulation in roots, but significantly decreased Cd accumulation in shoots. These results suggested that the enhancements of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue was associated with its promotion of organic acids and the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes in roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, Jane A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Hampton, John M.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration

  10. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  11. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  12. Cadmium and children: Exposure and health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis

  13. Preferences for Aftercare Among Persons Seeking Short-Term Opioid Detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D; Anderson, Bradley J; Bailey, Genie L

    2015-12-01

    Without aftercare treatment, the period following discharge from short-term inpatient detoxification for opioid dependence presents a high risk of relapse. Yet the role of patient preference in treatment selection is rarely discussed in the substance-abuse literature. We surveyed 485 persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification who were predominantly male (71.3%) and had detoxed in the past (73.2%). When asked to choose the one treatment that would work best for them after discharge, 43% of participants selected medication-assisted treatment (MAT), 29% preferred residential, 12% selected drug-free counseling, 12% NA/AA meetings only, and 4% preferred no additional treatment. Residential treatment preference was significantly associated with homelessness, having been in a detox program within the past year, and having pending legal problems, indicating that there is a distinct profile of detox patients who prefer residential treatment despite its limited availability. Detox program staff should work with patients to understand reasons for treatment preferences to optimize aftercare services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell metabolomics reveals the neurotoxicity mechanism of cadmium in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Li; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui

    2018-01-01

    The heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) can induce neurotoxicity. Extensive studies about the effects of Cd on human health have been reported, however, a systematic investigation on the molecular mechanisms of the effects of Cd on central nervous system is still needed. In this paper, the neuronal PC-12 cells were treated with a series of concentrations of CdCl 2 for 48h. Then the cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The IC 15 value (15% inhibiting concentration) was selected for further mechanism studies. After PC-12 cells incubated with CdCl 2 at a dose of IC 15 for 48h, the intracellular and extracellular metabolites were profiled using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based cell metabolomics approach. As found, the effects of the heavy metal Cd produced on the PC-12 cell viability were dose-dependent. The metabolic changes were involved in the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, biopterin metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acids beta-oxidation. These could cause the perturbation of cell membrane, redox balance, energy supply, cellular detoxification, further affecting the cellular proliferation and apoptosis and other cellular activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of cadmium on lung lysosomal enzymes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, S.N.; Hollinger, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Labilization of lysosomal enzymes is often associated with the general process of inflammation. The present study investigated the effect of the pneumotoxin cadmium on the release and activity of two lung lysosomal enzymes. Incubation of rat lung lysosomes with cadmium resulted in the release of β-glucuronidase but not acid phosphatase. The failure to ''release'' acid phosphatase appears to be the result of a direct inhibitory effect of cadmium on this enzyme. The K I for cadmium was determined to be 26.3 μM. The differential effect of cadmium on these two lysosomal enzymes suggests that caution should be exercised in selecting the appropriate enzyme marker for assessing lysosomal fragility in the presence of this toxicant. Furthermore, the differential basal release rate of the two enzymes from lung lysosomes may reflect the cellular heterogeneity of the lung. (orig.)

  16. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisa, A. U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N. [Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Food and Biotechnology

    2013-07-15

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  17. Quantification and detoxification of aflatoxin in food items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Hina, S.; Ejaz, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify and detoxify the antitoxins in food items. For this purpose, total 30 samples of food were collected. The samples were quantified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the presence of aflatoxin level in food items. Out of them aflatoxins were not found in 10 samples. Remaining 20 aflatoxins +ve samples were treated with various chemical solutions i.e. 0.1% HCl, 0.3%HCl, 0.5% HCI, 10% citric acid, 30% citric acid, 50% calcium hydroxide, 0.2 and 0.3% NaOCl, 96% ethanol and 99% acetone for detoxification. The aflatoxins were reduced to 55.1%, 90.9%, 28.08% and 80.0% in Super Sella rice, Super Basmati rice, Brown rice and White rice, respectively. The aflatoxin level was reduced in maize grain, damaged wheat, peanut, figs and dates upto 31.3 %, 64.3 %, 63.6%, 42.7% and 19.8%, respectively. Aflatoxins were detoxified in cereals Dal Chana, Dal Mash, Dal Masoor, turmeric (Haldi) and Nigela seeds (Kalwangi) upto 70.5%, 83.0%, 46.2%, 82.09% and 36.9%, respectively. Reduction of aflatoxins was carried out 39.7 %,7.l % 39.5% 82.0% and 62.0% in red chilli, makhana, corn flakes, desert (Kheer Mix) and pistachio. The significant results (p = 0.042) of detoxification of aflatoxins in food items were obtained from present study. (author)

  18. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A D; Souza, A L T; Cruz, L H C; Marques, P P; Camilli, J A; Nakagaki, W R; Esteves, A; Rossi-Junior, W C; Fernandes, G J M; Guerra, F D; Soares, E A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179 ± 2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06): CT (control), AC (chronic alcoholic), DT (detoxification). After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT) allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC) presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC - UNIFENAS.

  19. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. D. Garcia

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179±2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06: CT (control, AC (chronic alcoholic, DT (detoxification. After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC – UNIFENAS.

  20. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. ► Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. ► Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. ► Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-κB dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  1. An assessment of the effects of a cadmium discharge ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, J.H.; Schultz, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem facing the MMSD was high levels of cadmium in Milorganite fertilizer. The cause was determined to be discharges from industry, primarily electroplaters. The solution was the cooperative development of an ordinance to limit the discharge of cadmium. Because the dischargers acted responsibly to comply with the ordinance, the ordinance succeeded in achieving its objective of significantly reducing the cadmium loading to the municipal sewerage system and subsequently reducing the cadmium concentration in Milorganite fertilizer

  2. Bacterial epimerization as a route for deoxynivalenol detoxification: the influence of growth and environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wei eHe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several Fusarium species that infest wheat and corn. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to both humans and livestock and form a major barrier for international trade. Microbial detoxification represents an alternative approach to the physical and chemical detoxification methods of DON-contaminated grains. The present study details the characterization of a novel bacterium, Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8, that is capable of transforming DON to a non-toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol under aerobic conditions, mild temperature (25-30 oC, and neutral pH. The biotransformation takes place in the presence of rich sources of organic nitrogen and carbon without the need of DON to be the sole carbon source. The process is enzymatic in nature and endures a high detoxification capacity (3 µg DON/h/108 cells. The above conditions collectively suggest the possibility of utilizing the isolated bacterium as a feed treatment to address DON contamination under empirical field conditions.

  3. Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and elimination in carp Cyprinus carpio tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conto Cinier, C. de; Petit-Ramel, M.; Faure, R.; Garin, D.; Bouvet, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were tested for cadmium accumulation and elimination during and after a simulated pollution exposure. Fish were distributed in two 1000-l indoor concrete aquaria supplied with a continuous flow (8 l min -1 ) of well water. The cadmium concentration was maintained at 53 μg l -1 in one aquarium and 443 μg l -1 in the other aquarium for 127 days. The exposure phase was followed by a 43-day depuration period. The cadmium accumulation in liver, kidney and muscle was measured by means of ICP-MS. The data showed that cadmium exposure produces significant cadmium uptake in tissues. Cadmium concentrations increased sharply in kidney and liver, whereas the pollutant level in muscle was only significant after 106 days. After 127 days of Cd exposure (53 μg l -1 ), the cadmium concentration in kidney was 4-fold higher than in liver and 50-fold higher than in muscle for a toxic level of 53 μg l -1 . At a Cd of 443 μg l -1 , kidney cadmium content was 2-fold higher than in liver and 100-fold higher than in muscle. In kidney and liver, the toxic concentration increased as the concentration of pollutant in water increased. During the 43 depuration days, the loss of accumulated cadmium was rapid and immediate in muscle. Conversely, no loss of cadmium was observed in kidney and liver. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. A Study on the Fabrication of Uranium-Cadmium Alloy and its Distillation Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yong; Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Kim, Si Hyung

    2010-01-01

    The pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycle process, called pyroprocessing, has been known as a promising nuclear fuel recycling technology. Pyroprocessing technology is crucial to advanced nuclear systems due to increased nuclear proliferation resistance and economic efficiency. The basic concept of pyroprocessing is group actinide recovery, which enhances the nuclear proliferation resistance significantly. One of the key steps in pyroprocessing is 'electrowinning' which recovers group actinides with lanthanide from the spent nuclear fuels. In this study, a vertical cadmium distiller was manufactured. The evaporation rate of pure cadmium in vertical cadmium distiller varied from 12.3 to 40.8 g/cm 2 /h within a temperature range of 773 ∼ 923 K and pressure below 0.01 torr. Uranium - cadmium alloy was fabricated by electrolysis using liquid cadmium cathode in a high purity argon atmosphere glove box. The distillation behavior of pure cadmium and cadmium in uranium - cadmium alloy was investigated. The distillation behavior of cadmium from this study could be used to develop an actinide recovery process from a liquid cadmium cathode in a cadmium distiller

  5. A Study on the Fabrication of Uranium-Cadmium Alloy and its Distillation Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yong [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Kim, Si Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycle process, called pyroprocessing, has been known as a promising nuclear fuel recycling technology. Pyroprocessing technology is crucial to advanced nuclear systems due to increased nuclear proliferation resistance and economic efficiency. The basic concept of pyroprocessing is group actinide recovery, which enhances the nuclear proliferation resistance significantly. One of the key steps in pyroprocessing is 'electrowinning' which recovers group actinides with lanthanide from the spent nuclear fuels. In this study, a vertical cadmium distiller was manufactured. The evaporation rate of pure cadmium in vertical cadmium distiller varied from 12.3 to 40.8 g/cm{sup 2}/h within a temperature range of 773 {approx} 923 K and pressure below 0.01 torr. Uranium - cadmium alloy was fabricated by electrolysis using liquid cadmium cathode in a high purity argon atmosphere glove box. The distillation behavior of pure cadmium and cadmium in uranium - cadmium alloy was investigated. The distillation behavior of cadmium from this study could be used to develop an actinide recovery process from a liquid cadmium cathode in a cadmium distiller.

  6. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  7. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao; Selvaraj, Uthra; Kumar, Vadivel Vinod; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip; Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael; Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich; Raman, Thiagarajan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH) 2 without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd 2+ ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd 2+ ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd 2+ from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights: • Toxicity of Cd

  8. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Selvaraj, Uthra [Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Kumar, Vadivel Vinod [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip, E-mail: philip@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael [Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich [Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Raman, Thiagarajan, E-mail: raman@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH){sub 2} without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd{sup 2+} ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd{sup 2+} ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd{sup 2+} from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights:

  9. Inhalative cadmium effects in pregnant and fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigge, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were continuously exposed for 21 days to an aerosol containing 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg cadmium/m/sup 3/ air. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats exposed to clean air served as controls. The aerosol was generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer and was carried into inhalation chambers. The median aerodynamic diameters were on the order of 0.6 ..mu..m. After inhalation of cadmium aerosols, serum iron levels were not lowered significantly in adult rats. A polycythaemic response of non-pregnant rats was observed due to a direct stimulatory effect of cadmium on erythropoiesis. Polycythaemia was less marked in pregnancy, presumably due to iron loss to placenta and fetus. Disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange or decreased plasma volumes were excluded as causative mechanisms of polycythaemia. In pregnant rats there was a marked dose dependent decrease of the activity of the alkaline phosphatase after cadmium inhalation, while there was no effect in exposed non-pregnant rats. This decreased enzyme activity, together with slowed growth rates and hemolytic effect indicate a higher sensitivity to cadmium in pregnancy. Proteinuria was not found in neither pregnant nor non-pregnant rats. Therefore, it is concluded that in this respect cadmium intoxication by inhalation does not resemble human toxemia of pregnancy, as discussed in the literature.

  10. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, K.; Moskowitz, P.; Fthenakis, V.

    1998-02-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  11. Detoxification of acid pretreated spruce hydrolysates with ferrous sulfate and hydrogen peroxide improves enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudham, Venkata Prabhakar; Brandberg, Tomas; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Larsson, Christer

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate whether a detoxification method already in use during waste water treatment could be functional also for ethanol production based on lignocellulosic substrates. Chemical conditioning of spruce hydrolysate with hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO₄) was shown to be an efficient strategy to remove significant amounts of inhibitory compounds and, simultaneously, to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of the substrates. Without treatment, the hydrolysates were hardly fermentable with maximum ethanol concentration below 0.4 g/l. In contrast, treatment by 2.5 mM FeSO₄ and 150 mM H₂O₂ yielded a maximum ethanol concentration of 8.3 g/l. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, Z.; Cupr, P.; Zlevorova-Zlamalikova V.; Komarek, J.; Dusek, L.; Holoubek, I.

    2003-01-01

    Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r 2 =0.96, P<0.001). The results of the ecotoxicologica evaluation, which represent the bioavailable fraction of cadmium, correlated well with DTPA extractability and also with the concentration of free cadmium ion, which is recognized as the most bioavailable metal form. The results of the WHAM as well as the results of extraction experiments showed a strong binding of cadmium to organic matter and a weak sorption of cadmium to clay minerals

  13. Cadmium ban spurs interest in zinc-nickel coating for corrosive aerospace environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. (Pure Coatings Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

    1994-02-01

    OSHA recently reduced the permissible exposure level for cadmium. The new standard virtually outlaws cadmium production and use, except in the most cost-insensitive applications. Aerospace manufacturers, which use cadmium extensively in coatings applications because of the material's corrosion resistance, are searching for substitutes. The most promising alternative found to date is a zinc-nickel alloy. Tests show that the alloy outperforms cadmium without generating associated toxicity issues. As a result, several major manufacturing and standards organizations have adopted the zinc-nickel compound as a standard cadmium replacement. The basis for revising the cadmium PEL -- which applies to occupational exposure in industrial, agricultural and maritime occupations -- is an official OSHA determination that employees exposed to cadmium under the existing PEL face significant health risks from lung cancer and kidney damage. In one of its principal uses, cadmium is electroplated to steel, where it acts as an anticorrosive agent.

  14. Synthesis of cadmium tungstate films via sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennstrom, Kirk; Limmer, Steven J.; Cao Guozhong

    2003-06-23

    Cadmium tungstate is a scintillator material with excellent intrinsic photoluminescent properties. It is highly resistant to gamma radiation, has an almost non-existent afterglow and is highly efficient. Cadmium tungstate is also non-hydroscopic, unlike the more prevalent thallium-doped alkali halide scintillators. In order to create thin films of cadmium tungstate with precise stoichiometric control, a sol-gel processing technique has been applied to produce this material for the first time. In addition to lower processing temperatures, sol-gel-derived cadmium tungstate is cheaper and easier than other technologies, particularly for thin films. Furthermore, it has the potential to produce nanostructured materials with good optical quality. X-Ray diffraction results of sol-gel-derived materials fired at various temperatures imply crystallization of cadmium tungstate without the intermediate formation of either tungsten oxide or cadmium oxide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows the formation of nano-sized particles prior to heat treatment, which form meso-sized particles after the heat treatment. Photoluminesce analysis indicates emission of derived films at 480 nm, which agrees with other published data. Finally, the efficiency of derived films was approximately 6%{+-}1.8%.

  15. The concentration of cadmium in hepatoma among Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejandrino, A.L.; Goze, C.B.; Paradero, R.R.

    1977-08-01

    The concentration of cadmium in liver hepatoma and in normal liver in Filipinos was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Using NBS Bovine Liver (SRM1577) as reference material, a value of 0.28+-0.025 ug/g dry weight was obtained for cadmium which is close to the certified NBS value of 0.27+-0.04 ug/g. The mean percentage recovery for cadmium determination by AAS was 98.38%. A mean value of 2.14+-1.58 ug Cd/g liver hepatoma was observed for the 12 cases investigated, showing decreased cadmium levels in the cancerous liver compared to the mean value of 12.62 ug Cd/g observed for normal liver obtained from 10 cases of accidental deaths. The values are expressed on a dry weight basis

  16. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... which indicated that cadmium uptake across the plasma membrane was ... to cadmium pollution in water-soil-plant systems because .... plants were separated into roots and shoots, blotted dry with paper tissue .... Analysis of the kinetic constants for cadmium uptake ..... proteins (Welch and Norvell, 1999).

  17. Selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium by basic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, P P; Balog, J S [Uzhgorodskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-12-01

    Two variants of selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium with basic dyes have been developed. In the first one, cadmium is extracted as the iodide by a tributyl phosphate solution in benzene from aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M KI (pH 6-10). Then the cadmium is transformed into a coloured ion associate by treatment of the extracts with Malachite Green in the presence of iodide ions. In the second case, the extract is equilibrated with an equeous solutions of Rhodamine B in the presence of KBr. In this variant, the cadmium is transformed into an anionic iodide-bromide complex which reacts with Rhodamine B cations to form an ion associate. Procedures have been developed of selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium in sulphur, indium-gallium and zinc concentrates, Zn-As-Cd-Se and Zn-As-Cd-Te films, Cd-S-In and Ga-Sb-Cd-Te alloys.

  18. Dissolution ad uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, B.; Bergman, M.; Soeremark, R.

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium ( 115 Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of 115 Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver. (author)

  19. Dissolution and uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, B; Bergman, M; Soeremark, R [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium (/sup 115/Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of /sup 115/Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver.

  20. Phytoextraction and phytoexcretion of Cd by the leaves of Tamarix smyrnensis growing on contaminated non-saline and saline soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manousaki, Eleni; Kadukova, Jana; Papadantonakis, Nikolaos; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation and more specifically phytoextraction, is an alternative restoration strategy for the clean up of heavy metal contaminated soils. Phytoextraction can only be successful if suitable plant species colonize the contaminated area, extract the toxic substances and accumulate them in their above ground tissues. In this study, the salt cedar Tamarix smyrnensis that is a widespread salt-tolerant plant in the Mediterranean region has been investigated. A pot experiment is conducted with T. smyrnensis grown in polluted soil with 16 ppm of cadmium and at three different salt concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 3.0% NaCl) for a 10-week period. It took place in an open-air area with natural light, at ambient temperature and humidity in an effort to keep the plants under conditions as similar as possible to those in the field. However, care was taken not to let them be rained on. Temperature ranged from 19 to 50 deg. C with 33 and 21 deg. C being the average day and night temperature, respectively. Humidity ranged from 28% to 87% with a 13-14 h photoperiod. The specific aims of this work are to investigate the accumulation of cadmium via root uptake at different saline conditions and cadmium excretion through salt glands on the surface of the leaves as a probable detoxification mechanism of the plant. Furthermore, measurements of chlorophyll content, biomass, and shoot length are used to evaluate the potential of the plant for the removal of cadmium from contaminated saline and non-saline soils. The experimental data suggest that increased soil salinity results in an increase of the cadmium uptake by T. smyrnensis. Analysis of white salt crystals taken from glandular tissue confirmed the fact that this plant excretes cadmium through its salt glands on the surface of the leaves as a possible detoxification mechanism in order to resist metal toxicity. Excreted cadmium is again released into the environment and it is redeposited on the top soil. Furthermore, increased

  1. Protective effect of hemin against cadmium-induced testicular damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, Amr A.; Qureshi, Habib A.; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T.; Ali, Abdellah Abusrie

    2009-01-01

    The protective effect of hemin, the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, was investigated in rats with cadmium induced-testicular injury, in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role. Testicular damage was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Hemin was given for three consecutive days (40 μmol/kg/day, s.c.), starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Hemin treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by cadmium. Hemin compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities), and suppressed lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, hemin attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels, and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, hemin ameliorated cadmium-induced testicular tissue damage observed by light and electron microscopic examinations. The protective effect afforded by hemin was abolished by prior administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, the heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor. It was concluded that hemin, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium

  2. Solubility of nickel-cadmium ferrite in acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'ski, V.; Vol'ska, Eh.; Politan'ska, U.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of a solid solution of nickel-cadmium ferrite containing an excess of ferric oxide, (CdO)sub(0.5), (NiO)sub(0.5) and (Fe 2 O 3 )sub(1.5), in hydrochloric and nitric acids at 20, 40 and 60 deg C, was determined colorimetrically and chelatometrically, as well as by studying the x-ray diffraction patterns of the preparations prior to dissolution and their residues after dissolution. It is shown that cadmium passes into the solution faster than iron and nickel; after 800 hours, the solution contains 40% of iron ions and more than 80% of cadmium ions. The kinetics of ferrite dissolution is studied

  3. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Boyaka, Prosper N. [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle, E-mail: Estelle.boyaka@osumc.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-{kappa}B dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  4. Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast Technology Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) Jack Benfer Senior Materials...Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Rinse Black Oxide Rinse CRES Passivation Chrome Plating Cadmium Plating Cadmium Brush Plating Class N (TRL 9) Class N (TRL 7) Class N (TRL 6

  5. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  6. Social factors and readmission after inpatient detoxification in older alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Julia F.; van den Brink, Wim; Kist, Nicolien; Hermes, Jolanda S. J.; Kok, Rob M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is often a chronic relapsing disorder with frequent admissions to inpatient facilities. This study in older alcohol-dependent inpatients investigates the role of social factors in readmissions after inpatient detoxification. In a prospective study, 132 older alcohol-dependent

  7. Gravimetric determination of cadmium with o-phenanthroline and iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Kazunori; Taga, Mitsuhiko; Hikime, Seiichiro

    1976-01-01

    Cadmium forms insoluble mixed ligand complex with o-phenanthroline and iodide ions. By using the complex a new gravimetric method for the determination of cadmium was investigated. The recommended analytical procedure is as follows: Adjust pH value of a solution containing 5 to 45 mg cadmium to 4 with 3 M acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution. Add over threefold moles of potassium iodide to the solution and heat to just before boiling. To the solution add 0.1% ascorbic acid solution and then 0.1 M o-phenanthroline solution drop by drop in excess with stirring, and cool the mixture to room temperature. Filter the precipitates and wash first with 0.01% potassium iodide solution and then with water. Dry the precipitates at 110 0 C for two hours and weigh as Cd(o-phen) 2 I 2 (I). The gravimetric factor of the complex for cadmium is 0.1547. Chemical composition of the precipitate is variable when o-phenanthroline is added less than twofold moles to cadmium. Adding the o-phenanthroline solution 2.4-fold moles against cadmium, the ternary complex (I) precipitates quantitatively. Though a large excess of iodide ion in the solution contaminated the precipitate, the contamination was avoided when precipitation was carryed out at high temperature and in the presence of ascorbic acid. By the presented procedure 5 to 45 mg of cadmium are determined with a standard deviation of 0 C. (JPN)

  8. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  9. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  10. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose of the st......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose...... of the study was to determine whether cadmium-induced damage in the kidneys and the skeletal system could be detected among 100 ringed seals from Northwest Greenland. The cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex ranged from 0 to 248 microg/g wet weight (mean=44.5, N=100) in the 99 kidneys examined....... Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one...

  11. Effect of pH on cadmium biosorption by coconut copra meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofomaja, Augustine E.; Ho, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Biosorption of cadmium ion by coconut copra meal, an agricultural waste product was investigated as a function of initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Pseudo-second-order kinetic analyses were performed to determine the rate constant of biosorption, the equilibrium capacity, and initial biosorption rate. Cadmium biosorption by copra meal was found to be dependent on the initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Ion exchange occurred in the initial biosorption period. In addition, mathematical relationships were drawn to relate the change in the solution hydrogen ion concentration with equilibrium biosorption capacity, initial cadmium concentration, and equilibrium biosorption capacity

  12. Changes in Nutrition-Related Behaviors in Alcohol-Dependent Patients After Outpatient Detoxification: The Role of Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Anna; Rohdemann, Maren; Landes, Tom; Engel, Katharina; Banas, Roman; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Christian A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification, but prospective studies assessing the effects of these changes on maintaining abstinence are lacking. To assess changes in craving and consumption of chocolate and other sweets over time up to six months after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment and to detect differences in abstinent versus nonabstinent patients. One hundred and fifty alcohol-dependent patients were included in this prospective observational study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires on nutrition-related behaviors and craving before detoxification treatment (baseline, t1), one week (t2), one month (t3), and six months later (t4). Significant changes in craving for and consumption of chocolate as well as in craving for other sweets were observed over time. Increases were most prominent within the first month. Patients who remained abstinent until t3 consumed three times more chocolate than nonabstainers. One quarter of the patients switched from being rare (t1) to frequent (t3) chocolate eaters, and 84% of these remained abstinent until t3. No significant correlations were found between craving for alcohol and craving for or consumption of chocolate or other sweets. In the first month after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment, significant changes in nutrition-related behaviors were observed. These changes were not associated with alcohol craving. For a subgroup, increasing the frequency of chocolate consumption might be a temporary protective factor with respect to alcohol relapse.

  13. Antinutritional factors and hypocholesterolemic effect of wild apricot kernel (Prunus armeniaca L.) as affected by detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Beenu; Modgil, Rajni; Goyal, Ankit

    2018-04-25

    The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of detoxification on the nutrients and antinutrients of wild apricot kernel followed by its hypocholesterolemic effect in male Wistar albino rats. The results revealed a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect of detoxification on the proximate composition except total carbohydrates and protein content. However, detoxification led to a significant (p acid (76.82%), β-carotene (25.90%), dietary fiber constituents (10.51-28.92%), minerals (4.76-31.08%) and antinutritional factors (23.92-77.05%) (phenolics, tannins, trypsin inhibitor activity, saponins, phytic acid, alkaloids, flavonoids, oxalates) along with the complete removal (100%) of bitter and potentially toxic hydrocyanic acid (HCN). The quality parameters of kernel oil indicated no adverse effects of detoxification on free fatty acids, lipase activity, acid value and peroxide value, which remained well below the maximum permissible limit. Blood lipid profile demonstrated that the detoxified apricot kernel group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of HDL-cholesterol (48.79%) and triglycerides (15.09%), and decreased levels of total blood cholesterol (6.99%), LDL-C (22.95%) and VLDL-C (7.90%) compared to that of the raw (untreated) kernel group. Overall, it can be concluded that wild apricot kernel flour could be detoxified efficiently by employing a simple, safe, domestic and cost-effective method, which further has the potential for formulating protein supplements and value-added food products.

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization Alters Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms of Cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and Resists Cadmium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) that were grown in Cd-added soils. The fungus significantly colonized alfalfa roots by day 25 after planting. Colonization of alfalfa by G. intraradices in soils contaminated with Cd ranged from 17% to 69% after 25–60 days and then decreased to 43%. The biomass of plant shoots with AM fungi showed significant 1.7-fold increases compared to no AM fungi addition under the treatment of 20 mg·kg−1 Cd. Concentrations of Cd in the shoots of alfalfa under 0.5, 5, and 20 mg·kg−1 Cd without AM fungal inoculation are 1.87, 2.92, and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than those of fungi-inoculated plants. Fungal inoculation increased Cd (37.2–80.5%) in the cell walls of roots and shoots and decreased in membranes after 80 days of incubation compared to untreated plants. The proportion of the inactive forms of Cd in roots was higher in fungi-treated plants than in controls. Furthermore, although fungi-treated plants had less overall Cd in subcellular fragments in shoots, they had more inactive Cd in shoots than did control plants. These results provide a basis for further research on plant-microbe symbioses in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may potentially help us develop management regimes for phytoremediation. PMID:23139811

  15. Enhanced Tolerance to Cadmium in Bacterial-Fungal Co-Cultures as a Strategy for Metal Biorecovery from e-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geremia Losa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a microbe-based approach to be used for the biorecovery of valuable metals from e-waste. E-waste is a heterogeneous matrix at the microbial scale. Therefore, this study aims at taking advantage of bacterial-fungal (BF interactions in order to mobilize and immobilize a selected metal present in e-waste. We used cadmium (Cd and a selection of Cd-tolerant microorganisms from our culture collection or isolated from a naturally cadmium-contaminated soil. Several experiments were designed in order to use the synergistic bioremediation capabilities of BF couples to mobilize and immobilize Cd from a culture medium. Initial results showed that the selected synergistic BF couples are more tolerant to Cd concentrations than the organisms alone. However, setting the conditions leading to effective immobilization of this toxic metal still need further work. Using microbial consortia rather than single species represents an innovative alternative to traditional bioremediation approaches for the development of new biotechnological approaches in urban mining.

  16. Cadmium accumulation in Salix in relation to cadmium concentration in the soil; Kadmiumhalten i Salix relaterad till kadmiumhalten i jorden. Studier av olika Salixkloners foermaaga att ta upp kadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, M; Landberg, T [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    1996-05-01

    It has earlier been shown that different clones of Salix accumulate cadmium to a different degree. Moreover, the distribution of cadmium within the plant also differs between clones. If these properties are stable, there will be possibilities to chose clones for different purposes. The aim with this investigation was to find out if the differences between clones were stable and persist even though the clones were collected from different fields. Furthermore, to find out if the differences depend on the soil status and the concentration of cadmium of different soil fractions. The cadmium concentration of stems on different level within a plant and at different age of stems were analysed. The concentration in bark and wood as well as in leaves were examined to increase the knowledge of cadmium distribution within the different clones. The cadmium concentration was always higher in the leaves than in the stems. The difference between leaf content and stem content was highest in those clones which had a high transport to the shoot. The contribution of cadmium to the soil by the leaf shed will therefore be high from the high accumulating and high transporting clones. The conclusions one can draw from this investigation are that the clones possess specific properties to accumulate and transport cadmium, and these properties are independent of where the clones are collected. The differences in cadmium concentration within one clone collected from different fields is therefore to be explained by environmental conditions, other than those studied in this investigation. This work indicates that these unknown environmental factors influence the cadmium accumulation of stems more than the soil conditions and the cadmium level of the soil. It is therefore possible to chose clones with desired properties of cadmium accumulation, while the level of cadmium uptake is determined by the field conditions. 19 refs, 17 figs, 9 tabs

  17. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  18. Cadmium (II) removal mechanisms in microbial electrolysis cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colantonio, Natalie; Kim, Younggy, E-mail: younggy@mcmaster.ca

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • Rapid removal of Cd(II) was achieved in 24 h using microbial electrolysis cells. • Cathodic reduction (electrodeposition) of Cd(II) cannot explain the rapid removal. • H{sub 2} evolution in microbial electrolysis cells increases local pH near the cathode. • High local pH induces Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdCO{sub 3} precipitation only with electric current. • Neutral pH caused by low current and depleted substrate dissolves the precipitated Cd. - Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal, causing serious environmental and human health problems. Conventional methods for removing cadmium from wastewater are expensive and inefficient for low concentrations. Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can simultaneously treat wastewater, produce hydrogen gas, and remove heavy metals with low energy requirements. Lab-scale MECs were operated to remove cadmium under various electric conditions: applied voltages of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 V; and a fixed cathode potential of −1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Regardless of the electric condition, rapid removal of cadmium was demonstrated (50–67% in 24 h); however, cadmium concentration in solution increased after the electric current dropped with depleted organic substrate under applied voltage conditions. For the fixed cathode potential, the electric current was maintained even after substrate depletion and thus cadmium concentration did not increase. These results can be explained by three different removal mechanisms: cathodic reduction; Cd(OH){sub 2} precipitation; and CdCO{sub 3} precipitation. When the current decreased with depleted substrates, local pH at the cathode was no longer high due to slowed hydrogen evolution reaction (2H{sup +} + 2e{sup −} → H{sub 2}); thus, the precipitated Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdCO{sub 3} started dissolving. To prevent their dissolution, sufficient organic substrates should be provided when MECs are used for cadmium removal.

  19. Cadmium, ATPase-P, yeast. From transport to toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarin, Aurelie

    2007-01-01

    Two projects has been developed during my PhD. One consisting in the functional study of CadA, the Cd 2+ -ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, the other one was focused on the toxicity of cadmium and the associated response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This two studies used a a phenotype of sensitivity to cadmium induced by CadA expression in yeast. This phenotype was used as a screening tool to identify essential amino acids of Cd transport by CadA and to study cadmium toxicity and the corresponding yeast cellular response. CadA actively transports Cd using ATP hydrolysis as energy source. Directed mutagenesis of the membranous polar, sulphur and charged amino-acids revealed that Cd transport pathway implied four transmembrane segments (Tm) and more precisely the cysteine C 354 , C 356 and proline P 355 of the CPC motif located in Tm6, aspartate D 692 in Tm8, glutamate E 164 in Tm4 and methionine M 149 in Tm5. From our studies, 2 Cd ions would be translocated for each hydrolysis ATP. Expression of CadA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an hypersensitivity to Cd. A wild type cell can grow up to 100 μm cadmium whereas CadA expressing yeast cannot grow with 1 μm cadmium in the culture medium. This cadmium sensitivity was due to the localisation of CadA in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Transport of cadmium in this compartment produces an accumulation of mis-folded proteins that induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As UPR also occurs in a wild type yeast exposed to low Cd concentration, one can point out endoplasmic reticulum as a extremely sensitive cellular compartment. UPR also appears as an early response to Cd as it happens far before any visible signs of toxicity. (author) [fr

  20. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase regulates cadmium-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoung Woo; Kil, In Sup; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2010-04-01

    Cadmium ions have a high affinity for thiol groups. Therefore, they may disturb many cellular functions. We recently reported that cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) functions as an antioxidant enzyme to supply NADPH, a major source of reducing equivalents to the cytosol. Cadmium decreased the activity of IDPc both as a purified enzyme and in cultured cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that the knockdown of IDPc expression in HEK293 cells greatly enhances apoptosis induced by cadmium. Transfection of HEK293 cells with an IDPc small interfering RNA significantly decreased the activity of IDPc and enhanced cellular susceptibility to cadmium-induced apoptosis as indicated by the morphological evidence of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and condensation, cellular redox status, mitochondria redox status and function, and the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins. Taken together, our results suggest that suppressing the expression of IDPc enhances cadmium-induced apoptosis of HEK293 cells by increasing disruption of the cellular redox status. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  2. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Jia, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Ba, Qian, E-mail: qba@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  3. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya; VK Jain; GPS Chak; SK Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remedi...

  4. Slow recombination centers in cadmium selenide monocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyntyna, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of annealing when concentration of selenium Vacancies decreases due to their diffusion towards the surface, show recombination K-centers begin to influence the photoelectric properties of monocrystalline cadmium selenide layers. Energy levels of K-centers are located by 0.23-0.25 eV over the valent zone ceiling. The nature of K-centers is determined by the presence in the cadmium selenide layer structure of intrisic defects-cadmium vacancies in contrast to r-centers of slow recombination which are bound with impurities in a semiconductor material

  5. mRNA expression of a cadmium-responsive gene is a sensitive biomarker of cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Taizo; Fujimori, Akira; Kinoshita, Keiji; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    The gene expression of environmental organisms is useful as a biomarker of environmental pollution. One of its advantages is high sensitivity. We identified the cDNA of a novel cadmium-responsive gene in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida. The deduced protein, designated 'metallothionein-like motif containing protein' (MTC), was cysteine-rich and contained a metallothionein-like motif with similarity to metallothionein, but had a much longer sequence than metallothionein and contained repeated sequences of amino acids. Expression of MTC mRNA was sensitively induced by cadmium exposure at 0.3 mg/kg of dry food, a concentration at which toxic effects are not observed, but expression was not affected by γ-ray exposure (an inducer of oxidative stress). These findings suggest that MTC is involved in cadmium-binding processes rather than in oxidative-stress responses. In conclusion, we suggest that gene expression of MTC may be a candidate biomarker for detecting low levels of cadmium contamination in soil. - The mRNA expression of a gene potentially encoding a metallothionein-like motif containing protein is sensitively induced by cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida.

  6. mRNA expression of a cadmium-responsive gene is a sensitive biomarker of cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, Taizo, E-mail: taizo@ynu.ac.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimori, Akira [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kinoshita, Keiji [Nagoya University Avian Bioscience Research Centre, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Satoshi [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    The gene expression of environmental organisms is useful as a biomarker of environmental pollution. One of its advantages is high sensitivity. We identified the cDNA of a novel cadmium-responsive gene in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida. The deduced protein, designated 'metallothionein-like motif containing protein' (MTC), was cysteine-rich and contained a metallothionein-like motif with similarity to metallothionein, but had a much longer sequence than metallothionein and contained repeated sequences of amino acids. Expression of MTC mRNA was sensitively induced by cadmium exposure at 0.3 mg/kg of dry food, a concentration at which toxic effects are not observed, but expression was not affected by gamma-ray exposure (an inducer of oxidative stress). These findings suggest that MTC is involved in cadmium-binding processes rather than in oxidative-stress responses. In conclusion, we suggest that gene expression of MTC may be a candidate biomarker for detecting low levels of cadmium contamination in soil. - The mRNA expression of a gene potentially encoding a metallothionein-like motif containing protein is sensitively induced by cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida.

  7. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  8. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Toman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group. Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluation of the results showed significantly (P < 0.01 reduced activity of cholinesterase in all experimental groups. The enzyme activity decreased from the control value 3.69 μkat/L to 1.81 μkat/L (diazinon group, 1.83 μkat/L (cadmium group and 1.35 μkat/L (cadmium+diazinon group. These results indicate that both cadmium and diazinon are potent to manifest the neurotoxic effects. Moreover, a synergistic effect of the co-administered cadmium and diazinon in the nervous system has been observed.

  9. Study on transfer of cadmium in soil-plant systems with the isotopic dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qitang; Morel, J.L.; Guckert, A.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the transfer rate from endogenous and exogenous cadmium in soil to plants. Soils were labelled with 109 Cd and amended with soluble cadmium salt or Cd containing sewage sludge. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were grown in pots and the effective transfer of cadmium from different sources to shoot of the plant were measured. The soils were also extracted with 0.1 M CaCl 2 , DTPA and 0.1 N HCl. The results showed that the addition of soluble cadmium salt substantially increased the plant cadmium content. Plant absorbed mainly the cadmium from exogenous sources in the soils treated with cadmium. The effective transfer rate of exogenous cadmium was higher than that of endogenous ones, and the soluble salt form was 2 to 3 times higher than that in the sewage sludge. 0.1 M CaCl 2 extracted Cd was significantly correlated with the plant cadmium content. The specific radioactivity of cadmium extracted by this reagent was nearer to the plant cadmium than that extracted by others. 0.1 N HCl extracted cadmium could not be absorbed by plants

  10. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower, QLD 4066 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Mazumder, Debashish [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Twining, John [Austral Radioecology, Oyster Bay, NSW, 2225 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sources and mechanisms of Cd bioaccumulation were examined using radiotracers. • Macrobrachium australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase. • Assimilation efficiencies were comparable for sediment and algae. • A biokinetic model predicted ingestion accounted for majority of bioaccumulated Cd. - Abstract: The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using {sup 109}Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately {sup 109}Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48–51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2–2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted

  11. Metallothionein in brook trout (Salvenlinus fontinalis) as a biological indicator of cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Mehrle, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A cadmium-saturation technique for quantifying metallothionein in mammalian tissues was evaluated for use in fish tissue. Metallothionein characteristically binds 7 gram-atoms of a metal such as cadmium per mole of protein so saturating MT with respect to one metal and then quantifying that metal would thus result in the indirect quantification of MT. The authors administered 3 mg 109 cadmium/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection over a 5-day period to adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to induce MT in liver and kidney tissues. Homogenates were centrifuged and the supernatant was used to quantitate cadmium in three fractions: 100,000 g supernatant, cadmium-saturated MT, and unsaturated MT. The cadmium-saturated MT method involved the following steps: saturation of MT in an aliquot of 100,000 g supernatant with excess cadmium; removal of excess cadmium by addition of 2% hemoglobin; denaturation of hemoglobin by heating at 100 0 C followed by rapid cooling on ice; centrifugation at 10,000 g; digestion of an aliquot of supernatant in concentrated nitric acid for 16 hours at 70 0 C, and quantification of cadmium by atomic absorption and graphite furnace techniques or radiometric measurement with a scintillation counter. The cadmium saturation technique was modified in two ways so the amount of cadmium bound to unsaturated MT could be measured; first, the binding sites on MT were not saturated with excess cadmium, and second, the concentration of hemoglobin added to remove free cadmium and aid in coagulating low-molecular-weight proteins was 1% instead of 2%. The method gave precise measurements of MT concentrations when aliquots of liver homogenate which were analyzed separately were quantified by atomic absorption or radiometric measurements. Two to four times more cadmium and MT concentrated in the liver of treated fish than in the kidney

  12. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries

  13. Oxidation and detoxification of trivalent arsenic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aposhian, H. Vasken; Zakharyan, Robert A.; Avram, Mihaela D.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Wollenberg, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic compounds with a +3 oxidation state are more toxic than analogous compounds with a +5 oxidation state, for example, arsenite versus arsenate, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III ) versus monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA III ) versus dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ). It is no longer believed that the methylation of arsenite is the beginning of a methylation-mediated detoxication pathway. The oxidation of these +3 compounds to their less toxic +5 analogs by hydrogen peroxide needs investigation and consideration as a potential mechanism for detoxification. Xanthine oxidase uses oxygen to oxidize hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid. Hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen are also products. The oxidation of +3 arsenicals by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the xanthine oxidase reaction was blocked by catalase or allopurinol but not by scavengers of the hydroxy radical, e.g., mannitol or potassium iodide. Melatonin, the singlet oxygen radical scavenger, did not inhibit the oxidation. The production of H 2 O 2 by xanthine oxidase may be an important route for decreasing the toxicity of trivalent arsenic species by oxidizing them to their less toxic pentavalent analogs. In addition, there are many other reactions that produce hydrogen peroxide in the cell. Although chemists have used hydrogen peroxide for the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate to purify water, we are not aware of any published account of its potential importance in the detoxification of trivalent arsenicals in biological systems. At present, this oxidation of the +3 oxidation state arsenicals is based on evidence from in vitro experiments. In vivo experiments are needed to substantiate the role and importance of H 2 O 2 in arsenic detoxication in mammals

  14. A study on complex formation of cadmium (II) ions, 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Haruo

    1984-01-01

    Formation constants of cadmium (11) complexes with dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic, methylmalonic, succinic, and glutaric acids were determined in aqueous solutions containing 3 mol.dm -3 LiClO 4 as a constan ionic medium at 25 0 C by potentiometric titrations. It was reported in the previous works that cadmium (11)- aspartic acid complexes contained two chelate rings. However, a problem remained whether the second chelate ring could be formed by six membered-ring containing -O-Cd-N- bond or by seven membered-ring containing -O-Cd-O- bond. The results of the present work suggested that it would be formed by a six membered ring. Cadmium (11) ions were coordinated with a carboxylic group of the dicarboxylic acids studied, and formed no chelate ring within the complexes. The white precipitate appeared in the solution containing cadmium (11) ion and oxalic acid, in the pH range below 3.0, therefore, the chelate formation was not ascertained in this case. The formation constants, log βsub(pr)= log([Cdsub(p)Lsub(r)sup((2p-2r)+)]/([Cd 2+ ]sup(p)[L 2- ]sup(r))), of the complexes were: log β 11 = 1.98, log β 12 = 3.05 for cadmium (11)-malonic acid; log β 11 = 2.28, log β 12 = 3.06 for cadmium (11)-methylmalonic acid; log β 11 = 1.78, log β 12 = 3.08 for cadmium (11)-succinic acid; log β 11 = 1.85, log β 12 = 3.28 for cadmium (11)-glutaric acid complexes. (author)

  15. Removal of cadmium by Lactobacillus kefir as a protective tool against toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus kefir strains to remove cadmium cations and protect eukaryotic cells from cadmium toxicity. Lb. kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 were grown in a 1/2 dilution of MRS broth supplemented with Cd(NO3)2 ranging 0 to 1 mM. Growth kinetics were followed during 76 h at 30 °C by registering optical density at 600 nm every 4-10 h. The accumulated concentration of cadmium was determined on cultures in the stationary phase by atomic absorption. The viability of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) upon exposure to (a) free cadmium and (b) cadmium previously incubated with Lb. kefir strains was evaluated by determining the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Lb. kefir strains were able to grow and tolerate concentrations of cadmium cations up to 1 mM. The addition of cadmium to the culture medium increased the lag time in all the concentrations used. However, a decrease of the total biomass (maximum Absorbance) was observed only at concentrations above 0.0012 and 0.0011 mM for strains CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818, respectively. Shorter and rounder lactobacilli were observed in both strains upon microscopic observations. Moreover, dark precipitates compatible with intracellular precipitation of cadmium were observed in the cytoplasm of both strains. The ability of Lb. kefir to protect eukaryotic cells cultures from cadmium toxicity was analysed using HepG2 cells lines. Concentrations of cadmium greater than 3×10(-3) mM strongly decreased the viability of HepG2 cells. However, when the eukaryotic cells were exposed to cadmium pre-incubated 1 h with Lb. kefir the toxicity of cadmium was considerably lower, Lb. kefir JCM 5818 being more efficient. The high tolerance and binding capacity of Lb. kefir strains to cadmium concentrations largely exceeding the tolerated weekly intake (TWI) of cadmium for food (2.5 μg per kg of body weight) and water (3 μg/l) addressed to human consumption, is an important added value when

  16. A biosensor for cadmium based on bioconvective patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.

    1990-01-01

    An 'in vitro' method for monitoring cadmium, one of the most lethal bivalent heavy metals, can detect biologically active levels. The effects of cadmium tend to concentrate in protozoa far above natural levels and therein begin transferring through freshwater food chains to animals and humans. In a small sample volume (approximately 5 ml) the method uses the toxic response to the protozoa, Tetrahymena pyriformis, to cadmium. The assay relies on macroscopic bioconvective patterns to measure the toxic response, giving a sensitivity better than 1 micro-g/1 and a toxicity threshold to 7 micro-g/1 for Cd(2+). Cadmium hinders pattern formation in a dose-dependent manner. Arrested organism growth arises from slowed division and mutation to non-dividing classes. Unlike previous efforts, this method can be performed in a shallow flow device and does not require electronic or chemical analyses to monitor toxicity.

  17. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: Lin.Yu-Sheng@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Ho, Wen-Chao [Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Caffrey, James L. [Integrative Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Sonawane, Babasaheb [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  18. Study on damage of DNA in mice induced by mercury cadmium and/or lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaopan; Zhou Jianhua; Shi Xijing; Yan Liping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the joint injury actions of mercury, cadmium and/or lead on DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. Methods: The blood specimens were obtained from mice at the 2 day after the peritoneal injections. DNA damages were determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and 3 H-TdR incorporation. Results: Acquired by SCGE technique, tail movement of DNA in mercury-cadmium-lead group was significantly greater than that in the single exposure group, the difference was significant too between mercury-cadmium group and cadmium group, cadmium-lead group and cadmium group. The results of 3 H-TdR incorporation showed: the values of DPM in mercury-cadmium group and cadmium-lead group were lower than that in the single exposure group and the value of DPM lowered more significantly after exposure to mercury-cadmium-lead. Conclusion: The combined effects of mercury, cadmium, lead on DNA damage are more significant. (author)

  19. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  20. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    OpenAIRE

    Fels-Klerx, van der, H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van, L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys). The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize ...

  2. Can Chlorella pyrenoidosa be a bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Li-Fang, E-mail: hulif127@163.com [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Long, Yu-Yang; Shen, Dong-Sheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Jiang, Chen-Jing [The Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Four kinds of solid waste residue (SWR, S1 to S4) from different stages in a sequential detoxification process were chosen. The biotoxicity of the leachates from S1 to S4 was tested by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The growth inhibition, the chlorophyll a (chla) and chlorophyll b (chlb) concentrations, and the ultrastructural morphology of cells of C. pyrenoidosa were studied. It shows that the growth inhibition of C. pyrenoidosa significantly increased with increasing leachate concentration when exposed to the leachates from S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively. It well reflects the toxicity difference of leachate from SWR at different treatment stages, namely S1 > S2 > S3 > S4. Correspondingly, the chla and chlb concentrations of C. pyrenoidosa increased gradually as SWR was treated deeply. Leachate disrupted chlorophyll synthesis and inhibited cell growth. The changing of the ultrastructural morphology of cells under different leachate exposures, such as volume of chloroplasts and quantity of thylakoids reducing, confirmed the toxicity decrease of leachates from different stages. C. pyrenoidosa is a good bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification. The EC{sub 50} at difference scenarios also suggests that it was feasible to estimate ecological toxicity of leachates to C. pyrenoidosa after exposure times of 72 h. C. pyrenoidosa can be introduced to evaluate the effect of hazardous solid waste disposal by biotoxicity assessment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detoxification process of hazardous solid waste was evaluated by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best exposure time of ecological toxicity assessment of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible toxicity of the hazardous solid waste at different disposal stage on Chlorella pyrenoidosa was explored from cell tissue.

  3. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination has an adverse effect on soil productivity and crop production. Phytoremediation is a long term and environmental friendly technology to remediate Cadmium polluted areas. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Hopea adorata for remediation of soils contaminated with Cd.

  4. Cadmium-binding proteins in midgut gland of freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Ramo, J.; Pastor, A.; Torreblanca, A.; Medina, J.; Diza-Mayans, J.

    1989-02-01

    Metallothioneins, metal binding proteins, were originally isolated and characterized by Margoshes and Vallee. These proteins have a high affinity for various heavy metals, particularly cadmium and mercury and have extensively been studied in mammals. Metal binding proteins have been observed in a variety of marine invertebrates; however, there is very little information available on metal binding proteins in freshwater invertebrates, and particularly in freshwater crustaceans. Cadmium is an ubiquitous non essential element which possesses high toxicity to aquatic organisms. Cadmium binding proteins observed in invertebrates have similar characteristics to mammalian metallothioneins. In 1978, the American red crayfish appeared in Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields (Valencia, Spain). Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals) from the many urban and wastewaters in this area. In previous reports the authors studied the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium on Procambarus clarkii of Albufera Lake. This crayfish shows a high resistance to cadmium and a great accumulation rate of this metal in several tissues, including midgut gland. Since Procambarus clarkii shows a high resistance to cadmium, the presence of cadmium binding proteins (Cd-BP) in midgut gland of these crayfish would be expected. This report describes results on the characterization of Cd-BPs obtained from cadmium exposed crayfish Procambarus clarkii, demonstrating their presence in this freshwater crayfish.

  5. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High solids (30% dry matter) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. • Horizontal rotary reactor for hydrolysis and fermentation. • In situ hydrolysates detoxification using inhibitors adsorbing PEI polymer. • 50% of inhibitors recovered as by-product, recyclability of PEI polymer up to 5 times. • 76% of maximum theoretical ethanol was fermented at final concentration of 51 g/kg. - Abstract: Performing the bioethanol production process at high solids loading is a requirement for economic feasibility at industrial scale. So far this has successfully been achieved using wheat straw and other agricultural residues at 30% of water insoluble solids (WIS), but for softwood species (i.e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to ∼20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings. In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble polyelectrolyte polymer (polyethylenimine, PEI) to absorb inhibitory compounds in the material. On average 50% removal and recovery of the main inhibitors (HMF, furfural, acetic acid and formic acid) was achieved dosing 1.5% w/w of soluble PEI. The use of PEI was compatible with operating the process at high solids loadings and enabled fermentation of hydrolysates, which

  6. Hydriding of steel in cyanide electrolytes of cadmium plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol'skaya, N.B.; Maksimchuk, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogenation of steel in cyanide electrolytes for cadmium deposition has been studied in a wide range of compositions. Also investigated have been the scattering capacity and polarization parameters of these electrolytes. The basic components are Cd 2+ and CH - ; besides that, Na 2 SO 4 x10H 2 O, NaOH and NiSO 4 x7H 2 O have been added to the electrolytes. Hydrogenation upon cadmium electrolytic deposition has been determined by the rate of hydrogen penetration through a steel membrane 0.5 mm thick. At the NaCN/Cd(CN) 2 ratio more than 2 the increase in sodium cyanide concentration in the electrolyte appreciably increases neither its hydrogenating and scattering capacity, nor cathodic polarization. The greatest scattering capacity and the highest hydrogenation is exhibited by diluted cadmium deposition elecctrolytes (CdO concentration 9-12 g/1), which prove particularly effective for deposition of regular coatings on complex shape articles. Cadmium deposition on high strength steels, however, should rather involve cyanide electrolytes with high cadmium concentration (50-60 g/1) in order to reduce hydrogenation

  7. Detoxification of furfural in Corynebacterium glutamicum under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Hori, Yoshimi; Kudou, Motonori; Ishii, Jun; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    The toxic fermentation inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates raise serious problems for the microbial production of fuels and chemicals. Furfural is considered to be one of the most toxic compounds among these inhibitors. Here, we describe the detoxification of furfural in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic culture conditions, furfuryl alcohol and 2-furoic acid were produced as detoxification products of furfural. The ratio of the products varied depending on the initial furfural concentration. Neither furfuryl alcohol nor 2-furoic acid showed any toxic effect on cell growth, and both compounds were determined to be the end products of furfural degradation. Interestingly, unlike under aerobic conditions, most of the furfural was converted to furfuryl alcohol under anaerobic conditions, without affecting the glucose consumption rate. Both the NADH/NAD(+) and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio decreased in the accordance with furfural concentration under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These results indicate the presence of a single or multiple endogenous enzymes with broad and high affinity for furfural and co-factors in C. glutamicum ATCC13032.

  8. Pilot-scale study of the solar detoxification of VOC-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Pacheco, J.; Boegel, A.J.; Merrill, T.; Stanley, R.

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in groundwater at a Superfund site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process uses ultraviolet (UV) energy, available in sunlight, in conjunction with the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, to decompose organic chemicals into nontoxic compounds. The field experiment was developed by three federal laboratories: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA), and LLNL. The US Department of Energy funded the experiment. The objectives of the pilot-scale study included the advancement of the solar technology into a nonlaboratory waste-remediation environment the compilation of test data to help guide laboratory research and future demonstrations and the development of safe operational procedures. Results of the pilot study are discussed, emphasizing the effect of several process variables on the system performance. These variables include alkalinity, catalyst loading, flow velocity through the reactor, and incident solar UV radiation. The performance of the solar detoxification process are discussed as it relates to concentrating and nonconcentrating collectors

  9. Analysis of cadmium in high alpha solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Overman, L.A.; Hodgens, H.F.

    1977-07-01

    Cadmium nitrate is occasionally used as a neutron poison for convenience in the separation of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. As the classical methods of analysis for cadmium are very time-consuming, a method to isolate it in solution using solvent extraction of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium with TBP in an n-paraffin hydrocarbon was investigated. After removal of the radionuclides, the cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Precision of the method at the 95 percent confidence level is +-2.4 percent. Alpha content of the solutions was typically reduced from 1-10 x 10 11 dis/(min ml) 238 Pu to 1-15 x 10 4 dis/(min ml). Analysis time was typically reduced from approximately 24 hours per sample to less than 1 hour

  10. Cadmium removal using Cladophora in batch, semi-batch and flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Steven P K; Dorn, Ryan W

    2002-02-01

    This study presents the results of using viable algae to remove cadmium from a synthetic wastewater. In batch and semi-batch tests, a local strain of Cladophora algae removed 80-94% of the cadmium introduced. The flow experiments that followed were conducted using non-local Cladophora parriaudii. Results showed that the alga removed only 12.7(+/-6.4)% of the cadmium introduced into the reactor. Limited removal was the result of insufficient algal quantities and poor contact between the algae and cadmium solution.

  11. Cadmium pollution and amphibians--Studies in tadpoles of Rana limnocharis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patar, Arabinda; Giri, Anirudha; Boro, Freeman; Bhuyan, Krishna; Singha, Utsab; Giri, Sarbani

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium is released into the environment in increasing amounts from different natural and anthropogenic activities contaminating the aquatic habitats. Amphibian tadpoles develop in water and hence are likely to be adversely affected by cadmium present in the aquatic environment. We have studied the toxic and genotoxic effects of CdCl2 on the tadpoles of Rana limnocharis. CdCl2 in the concentration range between 0.1 and 0.4 mg/L induced significant mortality in R. limnocharis tadpoles in a dose and time dependent manner. The 10-day LC50 which has more ecological relevance was far less than the 24-h LC50. Tadpoles exposed to CdCl2 metamorphosed at an early age possibly as a survival strategy to move out of the stressful environment. The body weight of the CdCl2 exposed animals at metamorphosis was lower compared to the control individuals which may affect survival and reproductive fitness in adult life. Besides, the average body length of the metamorphosed individuals in the CdCl2 exposed group was higher than the control group. CdCl2 was found to be genotoxic in micronucleus test and comet assay. The ambient concentration of Cd could reach up to 60 μg/L or more. Exposure to 18.5 μg/L of CdCl2 (1% of 24-h LC50) induced significant increase in DNA strand breaks as compared to the control. The present findings demonstrate that presence of cadmium in the aquatic environment can significantly alter the life history traits and cause DNA damage in amphibians and hence, could contribute towards their population decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Glutathione S-Transferases: Role in Combating Abiotic Stresses Including Arsenic Detoxification in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As, naturally occurring metalloid and a potential hazardous material, is found in low concentrations in the environment and emerges from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The presence of As in ground water, which is used for irrigation, is a matter of great concern since it affects crop productivity and contaminates food chain. In plants, As alters various metabolic pathways in cells including the interaction of substrates/enzymes with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins and the replacement of phosphate in ATP for energy. In addition, As stimulates the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS, resulting in oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs quench reactive molecules with the addition of glutathione (GSH and protect the cell from oxidative damage. GSTs are a multigene family of isozymes, known to catalyze the conjugation of GSH to miscellany of electrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. GSTs have been reported to be associated with plant developmental processes and are responsive to multitude of stressors. In past, several studies suggested involvement of plant GST gene family in As response due to the requirement of sulfur and GSH in the detoxification of this toxic metalloid. This review provides updated information about the role of GSTs in abiotic and biotic stresses with an emphasis on As uptake, metabolism, and detoxification in plants. Further, the genetic manipulations that helped in enhancing the understanding of the function of GSTs in abiotic stress response and heavy metal detoxification has been reviewed.

  13. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r p = 0.70, p p = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous data seem to underestimate kidney cadmium at low urinary cadmium

  14. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerstrom, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.akerstrom@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous

  15. Extensive Variation in Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation among Populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Tessa M.; Cory, Wendy; Rutter, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    Plant populations may vary substantially in their tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals, and assessment of this variability is important when selecting species to use in restoration or phytoremediation projects. We examined the population variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation in a leguminous pioneer species native to the eastern United States, the partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata). We assayed growth, reproduction and patterns of cadmium accumulation in six populations of C. fasciculata grown on a range of cadmium-contaminated soils. In general, C. fasciculata exhibited tolerance in low to moderate soil cadmium concentrations. Both tolerance and accumulation patterns varied across populations. C. fasciculata exhibited many characteristics of a hyperaccumulator species, with high cadmium uptake in shoots and roots. However, cadmium was excluded from extrafloral nectar. As a legume with tolerance for moderate cadmium contamination, C. fasciculata has potential for phytoremediation. However, our findings also indicate the importance of considering the effects of genetic variation on plant performance when screening plant populations for utilization in remediation and restoration activities. Also, there is potential for cadmium contamination to affect other species through contamination of leaves, fruits, flowers, pollen and root nodules. PMID:23667586

  16. Extensive variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation among populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M Henson

    Full Text Available Plant populations may vary substantially in their tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals, and assessment of this variability is important when selecting species to use in restoration or phytoremediation projects. We examined the population variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation in a leguminous pioneer species native to the eastern United States, the partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata. We assayed growth, reproduction and patterns of cadmium accumulation in six populations of C. fasciculata grown on a range of cadmium-contaminated soils. In general, C. fasciculata exhibited tolerance in low to moderate soil cadmium concentrations. Both tolerance and accumulation patterns varied across populations. C. fasciculata exhibited many characteristics of a hyperaccumulator species, with high cadmium uptake in shoots and roots. However, cadmium was excluded from extrafloral nectar. As a legume with tolerance for moderate cadmium contamination, C. fasciculata has potential for phytoremediation. However, our findings also indicate the importance of considering the effects of genetic variation on plant performance when screening plant populations for utilization in remediation and restoration activities. Also, there is potential for cadmium contamination to affect other species through contamination of leaves, fruits, flowers, pollen and root nodules.

  17. Effect of natural organic materials on cadmium and neptunium sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, K.S.; Triay, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    In a batch sorption study of the effect of naturally occurring organic materials on the sorption of cadmium and neptunium on oxides and tuff surfaces, the model sorbents were synthetic goethite, boehmite, amorphous silicon oxides, and a crushed tuff material from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An amino acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxypheny)-DL-alanine (DOPA), and an aquatic-originated fulvic material, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid (NAFA), were used as model organic chemicals. Sorption isotherm results showed that DOPA sorption followed the order aluminum oxide > iron oxide > silicon oxide and that the amount of DOAP sorption for a given sorbent increased as the solution pH was raised. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on the iron oxide was about ten times higher than that on the aluminum oxide. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on natural tuff material was much lower than that on aluminum and iron oxides. The sorption of cadmium on iron and aluminum oxides was found to be influenced by the presence of DOPA, and increasing the amount of DOPA coating resulted in higher cadmium sorption on aluminum oxide. However, for iron oxide, cadmium sorption decreased with increasing DOPA concentration. The presence of the model organic materials DOPA and NAFA did not affect the sorption of neptunium on tuff material or on the iron and aluminum oxides. Spectroscopic results indicate that cadmium complexes strongly with DOPA. Therefore, the effect of the organic material, DOPA, on the cadmium sorption is readily observed. However, neptunium is possibly complexed weakly with organic material. Thus, DOPA and NAFA have little effect on neptunium sorption on all sorbents selected for study

  18. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M.; Arques, A.; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R.; Ano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC 50 of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN - and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO 2 , but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu 2+ and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay

  19. Kinetics of Natural Detoxification of Hydrogen Cyanide Contained In Retted Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the kinetics of natural detoxification of hydrogen cyanide contained in retted cassava roots. Retting is traditional fermentation of cassava, performed to soften the roots. During retting, cyanide diffuses into water used for the retting. The fresh cassava roots (bitter and sweet varieties used for this experiment were separately retted at ambient 0 temperature of 30 C. The cyanide content and pH were monitored daily. From the analysis of the experimental results, a first order consecutive rate equation is an adequate tool for explaining the mechanism of HCN reduction (or decay in retted cassava roots. The detoxification constants for the bound cyanide in the bitter and sweet cassava roots were 0.378/day and 0.438/day respectively, while that of the free hydrogen cyanide were 0.63/day and 0.74/day for the bitter and sweet varieties respectively. Cassava tubers from different species cannot be fermented with the same retting condition unless they have same or close functional properties.

  20. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Arques, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain)], E-mail: aarques@txp.upv.es; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Ano, E. [Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion, Area de producto y desarrollo sostenible, Asociacion de Investigacion de la Industria del Juguete, Conexas y Afines (AIJU), Avda. de la industria, 23, 03440 Ibi (Spain)], E-mail: m.ambiente@aiju.info

    2008-05-30

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC{sub 50} of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN{sup -} and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO{sub 2}, but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu{sup 2+} and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay.

  1. Novel Strategies for the Removal of Toxic Metals from Soils and Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundhill, D. Max

    2004-02-01

    This article surveys the toxicities of mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, cadmium, and the actinides. Strategies for the removal of these metals include surfactants, aqueous biphasic systems, and liquid membranes. For soils, both in situ stabilization and detection are discussed. For extraction from soils, electrokinetic extraction, phytoremediation, and bioremediation methods are critically evaluated. This article provides an educator with the resources to set up a series of lectures on inorganic aspects of environmental chemistry.

  2. Comparative study of the active cadmium efflux systems operating at the plasma membrane and tonoplast of cucumber root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migocka, Magdalena; Papierniak, Anna; Kosatka, Ewelina; Klobus, Grazyna

    2011-10-01

    The strategies developed by plants to avoid the toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and other heavy metals involve active sequestration of metals into the apoplast and vacuoles. The protein systems excluding heavy metals from the cell cytosol localize to the plasma membrane and tonoplast and are energized either by ATP or by the electrochemical gradient generated by H(+)-ATPase or by V-ATPase and pyrophosphatase (PPase), respectively. In this work, a comparative study on the contribution of both the plasma membrane and tonoplast in the active detoxification of plant cells after treatment with Cd was performed. The studies using plants treated and untreated with Cd reveal that both, H(+)-coupled and MgATP-driven efflux of Cd across plasma membranes and tonoplast is markedly stimulated in the presence of Cd in the environment. Previous studies on plasma-membrane localized H(+)-coupled Cd efflux together with the present data demonstrating tonoplast H(+)/Cd(2+) antiport activity suggest that H(+)-coupled secondary transport of Cd displays a lower affinity for Cd when compared with Cd primary pumps driven by MgATP. In addition, it is shown that MgATP-energized Cd efflux across both membranes is significantly enhanced by cysteine, dithiothreitol, and glutathione. These results suggest that Cd is excluded from the cytosol through an energy-dependent system as a free ion as well as a complexed form. Although both membranes contribute in the active exclusion of ionized and complexed Cd from the cytosol, the overall calculation of Cd accumulation in the everted plasma membranes and vacuolar vesicles suggests that the tonoplast and vacuole have a major function in Cd efflux from the cytosol in the roots of cucumber subjected to Cd stress.

  3. Analysis of the swimming velocity of cadmium-stressed Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillieul, M.; Blust, R.

    1999-01-01

    The swimming velocity of the waterflea Daphnia magna is dependent on its body size. Therefore, environmental factors like toxic stress that influence growth also influence swimming velocity. An experiment was set up to test whether exposure to cadmium would reduce only growth, with a concomitant decrease in velocity, or whether it would reduce velocity below the swimming velocity of similarly-sized control animals. Daphnids were exposed for 10 days to free cadmium ion concentrations ranging from 1x10 -8 to 1x10 -7 M Cd 2+ , and body size and swimming velocity were measured every 2 days. The results showed that cadmium decreased both growth and velocity, i.e. exposed daphnids swam slower than similarly-sized control daphnids. Swimming velocity provided no indication of successful acclimation in any cadmium treatment. Food consumption and assimilation were reduced by exposure to cadmium. This reduced food intake may have, at least partially, caused the decreased growth rates. However, since reduced food intake does not affect swimming velocity, the reduced swimming velocity must be attributed to toxic effects of cadmium, other than those on food intake. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Rice (Oryza sativa) Laccases Involved in Modification and Detoxification of Herbicides Atrazine and Isoproturon Residues in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng Tian; Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shuang; Luo, Fang; Yang, Hong

    2016-08-24

    Atrazine (ATR) and isoproturon (IPU) as herbicides have become serious environmental contaminants due to their overuse in crop production. Although ATR and IPU in soils are easily absorbed by many crops, the mechanisms for their degradation or detoxification in plants are poorly understood. This study identified a group of novel genes encoding laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) that are possibly involved in catabolism or detoxification of ATR and IPU residues in rice. Transcriptome profiling shows at least 22 differentially expressed laccase genes in ATR/IPU-exposed rice. Some of the laccase genes were validated by RT-PCR analysis. The biochemical properties of the laccases were analyzed, and their activities in rice were induced under ATR/IPU exposure. To investigate the roles of laccases in degrading or detoxifying ATR/IPU in rice, transgenic yeast cells (Pichia pastoris X-33) expressing two rice laccase genes (LOC_Os01g63180 and LOC_Os12g15680) were generated. Both transformants were found to accumulate less ATR/IPU compared to the control. The ATR/IPU-degraded products in the transformed yeast cells using UPLC-TOF-MS/MS were further characterized. Two metabolites, hydroxy-dehydrogenated atrazine (HDHA) and 2-OH-isopropyl-IPU, catalyzed by laccases were detected in the eukaryotic cells. These results indicate that the laccase-coding genes identified here could confer degradation or detoxification of the herbicides and suggest that the laccases could be one of the important enzymatic pathways responsible for ATR/IPU degradation/detoxification in rice.

  5. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  6. A zinc-resistant human epithelial cell line is impaired in cadmium and manganese import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselet, Estelle; Richaud, Pierre; Douki, Thierry; Chantegrel, Jocelyne Garcia; Favier, Alain; Bouron, Alexandre; Moulis, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    A human epithelial cell line (HZR) growing with high zinc concentrations has been analyzed for its ability to sustain high cadmium concentrations. Exposure to up to 200 μM of cadmium acetate for 24 h hardly impacted viability, whereas most of parental HeLa cells were killed by less than 10 μM of cadmium. Upon challenge by 35 fold higher cadmium concentrations than HeLa cells, HZR cells did not display increased DNA damage, increased protein oxidation, or changed intracellular cadmium localization. Rather, the main cause of resistance against cadmium was by avoiding cadmium entry into cells, which differs from that against zinc as the latter accumulates inside cells. The zinc-resistant phenotype of these cells was shown to also impair extracellular manganese uptake. Manganese and cadmium competed for entry into HeLa cells. Probing formerly identified cadmium or manganese transport systems in different animal cells did not evidence any significant change between HeLa and HZR cells. These results reveal zinc adaptation influences manganese and cadmium cellular traffic and they highlight previously unknown connections among homeostasis of divalent metals

  7. Study of soil pollution by cadmium in Qatina region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargouth, G.; Johar, Y.; Ashkar, I.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium are specify to form complex compounds in soils make it difficulty to be absorbed from plants, but if prevailing circumstances changeability in soil and make these elements in absorbed actionable case to the plants, direct threatening upon of polluted soil with such elements will begin, and appears on plants, animals and humans. Holding comprehensive environmental evaluation on the agricultural soil field according to the prevailing circumstances in the transplanting zone, considered as important environmental practical stage in reducing environmental cadmium problems risk. Accordingly, we look to terming and controlling environment either to manage a soil pollution problem existed, or prophecy with circumstances lowers upon cadmium concentrations in the environment system (soil-plant) in order not to occurs environmental cadmium problems in the field soil futurity. (author)

  8. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava M, I.

    1994-01-01

    The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption. In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis. The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. (Author)

  9. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  10. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, Jacob K., E-mail: jkreso2@uic.edu; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-10-15

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is