WorldWideScience

Sample records for cadmium 95

  1. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  2. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  3. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  4. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  5. [Investigation of urinary cadmium characteristics of the general population in three non-cadmium-polluted rural areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Hu, Ji; Sun, Hong; Jing, Qiqing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of urinary cadmium of the non-occupational-cadmium-exposed population in non-cadmium contaminated rural area in China. Randomly selected non-occupational cadmium exposed population 2548 people (male 1290, female 1258) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P95) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Urinary cadmium increased with age and showed an upward trend. The urinary cadmium of the population of ≥ 30 years old was significantly higher than that of populations (China (GB Z17-2002). The urinary cadmium reference value of non-occupational-cadmium-exposed populations is China, but for smoking women over 30 year-old it needs more research to explore.

  6. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  7. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  8. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    carcinogenic, leachable Trivalent and non- chrome passivates generally struggle with conductivity Major Differences in Trivalent vs. Hexavalent Passivates...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  9. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  10. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  11. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  12. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed at characterizing mechanisms controlling cadmium accumulation in lettuce, which is a food crop showing one of the highest capacities to accumulate this toxic compound. In this study, plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for eight days on media supplemented or not with cadmium (15 μM CdCl2) and ...

  13. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Hansen, Jens C.; Riget, Frank

    2006-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 μg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 μg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 μg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low

  14. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Mulvad, Gert [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hansen, Jens C. [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 {mu}g/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 {mu}g/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 {mu}g/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low.

  15. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  16. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 1School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, ... Cadmium is a non-essential ... (1994) reported that cadmium might interact ... uptake of cadmium, lead and mercury (Svecova et al.,.

  17. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Yungang; Liu, Yufei; Liang, Boheng; Zhou, Hongwei; Li, Yingyue; Zhang, Yuhua; Huang, Jie; Yu, Chao; Chen, Kuncai

    2018-03-20

    Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile) cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4) μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW), accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption) was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile) was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  18. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4 μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW, accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI. Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  19. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  20. Analysis of cadmium in high alpha solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Overman, L.A.; Hodgens, H.F.

    1977-07-01

    Cadmium nitrate is occasionally used as a neutron poison for convenience in the separation of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. As the classical methods of analysis for cadmium are very time-consuming, a method to isolate it in solution using solvent extraction of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium with TBP in an n-paraffin hydrocarbon was investigated. After removal of the radionuclides, the cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Precision of the method at the 95 percent confidence level is +-2.4 percent. Alpha content of the solutions was typically reduced from 1-10 x 10 11 dis/(min ml) 238 Pu to 1-15 x 10 4 dis/(min ml). Analysis time was typically reduced from approximately 24 hours per sample to less than 1 hour

  1. Determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kharif, Ya.L.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical method of determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry is developed. The method nature consists in the fact, that under definite conditions dissolved cadmium is extracted from crystals to a vapor phase and then is determined in it using the photocolorimetric method. Cadmium solubility in CdSe crystal is calculated from known CdSe mass and amount of separated cadmium. The lower boundary of determined contents constitutes 1x10 -5 % mol at sample of cadmium selenide 10 g

  2. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  3. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  4. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  5. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  6. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  7. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... concentrations alleviated the toxic effect of cadmium on the growth and water status of lettuce plants. The three lettuce varieties ... electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys ..... Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Third edition, Salt Lake City, UT: Acad. Press. Österås ...

  8. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  9. Flux of Cadmium through Euphausiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, G.; Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux of the heavy metal cadmium through the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica was examined. Radiotracer experiments showed that cadmium can be accumulated either directly from water or through the food chain. When comparing equilibrium cadmium concentration factors based on stable element measurements with those obtained from radiotracer experiments, it is evident that exchange between cadmium in the water and that in euphausiid tissue is a relatively slow process, indicating that, in the long term, ingestion of cadmium will probably be the more important route for the accumulation of this metal. Approximately 10% of cadmium ingested by euphausiids was incorporated into internal tissues when the food source was radioactive Artemia. After 1 month cadmium, accumulated directly from water, was found to be most concentrated in the viscera with lesser amounts in eyes, exoskeleton and muscle, respectively. Use of a simple model, based on the assumption that cadmium taken in by the organism must equal cadmium released plus that accumulated in tissue, allowed assessment of the relative importance of various metabolic parameters in controlling the cadmium flux through euphausiids. Fecal pellets, due to their relatively high rate of production and high cadmium content, accounted for 84% of the total cadmium flux through M. norvegica. Comparisons of stable cadmium concentrations in natural euphausiid food and the organism's resultant fecal pellets indicate that the cadmium concentration in ingested material was increased nearly 5-fold during its passage through the euphausiid. From comparisons of all routes by which cadmium can be released from M. norvegica to the water column, it is concluded that fecal pellet deposition represents the principal mechanism effecting the downward vertical transport of cadmium by this species. (author)

  10. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  11. Chlorination leaching of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, E.; Pajak, I.; Bojanowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the investigations on chlorination leaching of cadmium from dust coming from dry dust collector of sinter belt, that is leaching with water saturated with gaseous chlorine and leaching with solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride were given. The optimum conditions for these processes were established. It was found, that the method of leaching in the presence of gaseous chlorine is more effective, as it allows to report into the solution over 90% cadmium contained in dust. Owing to technical difficulties, environmental protection and safety conditions more advantageous seems to be the use as leaching agent of the ammonium chloride solutions. When applying 20% NH 4 Cl and temperature of 60 0 C, the time of 2 hours and the ratio of solid to liquid of 1:5, 70% cadmium contained in the dust can be reported into the solution. (auth.)

  12. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  13. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, R L [Cadmium Association, London (UK)

    1979-03-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world.

  14. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  15. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  16. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  17. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H; Iverfeldt, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H; Lithner, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  18. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world. (orig./IHOE) [de

  19. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Rochelle E., E-mail: rochelle.garner@canada.ca [Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Levallois, Patrick [Direction de la santé environnementale et de la toxicologie, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Axe santé des populations et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Québec (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  20. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  1. Cadmium exposure in association with history of stroke and heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: jpeters@hsph.harvard.edu [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Perlstein, Todd S. [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Perry, Melissa J.; McNeely, Eileen [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weuve, Jennifer [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Background: It is unclear whether environmental cadmium exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease, although recent data suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of measured cadmium exposure with stroke and heart failure (HF) in the general population. Methods: We analyzed data from 12,049 participants, aged 30 years and older, in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for whom information was available on body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and socio-demographic characteristics. Results: At their interviews, 492 persons reported a history of stroke, and 471 a history of HF. After adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, a 50% increase in blood cadmium corresponded to a 35% increased odds of prevalent stroke [OR: 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.65] and a 50% increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 9% increase in prevalent stroke [OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00-1.19]. This association was higher among women [OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.11-1.72] than men [OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 0.93-1.79] (p-value for interaction=0.05). A 50% increase in blood cadmium corresponded to a 48% increased odds of prevalent HF [OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.17-1.87] and a 50% increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 12% increase in prevalent HF [OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20], with no difference in sex-specific associations. Conclusions: Environmental exposure to cadmium was associated with significantly increased stroke and heart failure prevalence. Cadmium exposure may increase these important manifestations of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, Jane A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Hampton, John M.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration

  3. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  4. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  5. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaya, N.M.; McLean, J.E.; Halverson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  6. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  7. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L * a * b * tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined. (orig.)

  8. Cadmium in the biofuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabyhammar, T.; Fahlin, M.; Holmroos, S.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of biofuel depletes the soil of important nutrients. Investigations are being made of possibilities to return most of these nutrients by spreading the ashes remaining after combustion in the forest or on field. Return of ashes implies that both beneficial and harmful substances are returned. This study has been conducted to illustrate that the return of cadmium implies the greatest risk for negative influences. The occurrence, utilization, emissions and effects of cadmium are discussed. The behaviour of cadmium in soil is discussed in detail. Flows and quantities of cadmium in Swedish society are reviewed. Flows and quantities of both total and plant available cadmium in the entire forest and arable areas of Sweden are given. A scenario for a bioenergy system of max 100 TWh is discussed. The cadmium flow in different biofuels and forest raw products, and anticipated amounts of ashes and cadmium concentrations, are calculated. Power production from biofuels is surveyed. Possibilities to clean ashes have been examined in laboratory experiments. Ashes and trace elements occurring as a result of the gasification of biofuels are reviewed. Strategies for handling ashes are discussed. Proposals on continued inputs in both the biological and technical sciences are made. 146 refs, 23 figs, 38 tabs

  9. Rapid radiochemical separation of zirconium-95 and niobium-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, D.M.; McLaughlin, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid method for the quantitative separation of 95 Zr and 95 Nb has been developed. The method is based on the ion flotation of cationic zirconium complex ions with sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) from niobium which is masked with hydrogen peroxide. The separation was applied to mixtures of 95 Zr and 95 Nb initially in oxalic acid solution and quantitative recoveries of the radiochemically pure radioisotopes were obtained. (orig.)

  10. Rapid radiochemical separation of zirconium-95 and niobium-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, D.M.; McLaughlin, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid method for the quantitative separation of /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb has been developed. The method is based on the ion flotation of cationic zirconium complex ions with sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) from niobium which is masked with hydrogen peroxide. The separation was applied to mixtures of /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb initially in oxalic acid solution and quantitative recoveries of the radiochemically pure radioisotopes were obtained.

  11. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  12. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. [95/95] Approach for design limits analysis in WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, L.; Tsyganov, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses a well-known condition [95%/95%], which is important for monitoring some limits of core parameters in the course of designing the reactors (such as PWR or WWER). The condition ensures the postulate 'there is at least a 95 % probability at a 95 % confidence level that' some parameter does not exceed the limit. Such conditions are stated, for instance, in US standards and IAEA norms as recommendations for DNBR and fuel temperature. A question may arise: why can such approach for the limits be only applied to these parameters, while not normally applied to any other parameters? What is the way to ensure the limits in design practice? Using the general statements of mathematical statistics the authors interpret the [95/95] approach as applied to WWER design limits. (Authors)

  14. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  15. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: Lin.Yu-Sheng@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Ho, Wen-Chao [Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Caffrey, James L. [Integrative Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Sonawane, Babasaheb [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  16. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  17. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  18. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  19. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  20. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data...

  1. Coprecipitation of cadmium with calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu; Kumagai, Tetsu; Shigematsu, Tsunenobu; Matsui, Masakazu

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of cadmium between precipitates of calcite and saturated aqueous solution was measured at 25 0 C to understand the distribution of cadmium in the bivalves. Calcite was precipitated from calcium bicarbonate solution by the gradual release of carbon dioxide. The cadmium ions were coprecipitated in calcite, obeying the logarithmic distribution law. The apparent distribution coefficient was decreased as α, α'-dipyridyl increased, but the true distribution coefficient was found to be an almost constant value, 560. This value is fairly close to the ratio of solubility product constants K sub(calcite)/K sub(CdCO 3 ), 890. This suggests that the deviation of the present solid solution from ideality is not very large. (auth.)

  2. ECN contributions to GLOBAL `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report contains the 9 contributions of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN to the international conference on evaluation of emerging nuclear fuel cycle systems, GLOBAL `95, held in Versailles, France, on September 11-14, 1995. (orig./GL).

  3. ECN contributions to GLOBAL '95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report contains the 9 contributions of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN to the international conference on evaluation of emerging nuclear fuel cycle systems, GLOBAL '95, held in Versailles, France, on September 11-14, 1995. (orig./GL)

  4. Health hazards of environmental cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, G F

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium, a metal widely used in industrial processes, has been recognized to be a highly toxic and dangerous environmental pollutant. In this study the author describes the sources and occurrence of cadmium, and the intake by human beings. He states that present standards for daily intake do not allow sufficient safety margins. The fate and known effects of cadmium in human beings are summarized; some effects associated with cadmium are renal (kidney) damage, anemia, hypertension, and liver damage. Cadmium was identified as the main cause of the Itai-Itai disease in Japan, and epidemiological studies from various areas of Japan are presented. 64 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Cadmium burden and the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Pu, Yeong S; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Wu, Tony T; Lai, Ming Kuen; Yang, Chun Y; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the association between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure have yielded conflicting results. This study explored cadmium burden on the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer in men with no evident environmental exposure. Hospital-based 261 prostate cancer cases and 267 controls with benign diseases were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Demographic, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by standardized questionnaires. Blood cadmium (BCd) and creatinine-adjusted urine cadmium (CAUCd) levels were measured for each participant. Statistical analyses measured the prostate cancer risk associated with BCd and CAUCd separately, controlling for age, smoking and institution. BCd and CAUCd levels within cases were compared in relation to the disease stage and the Gleason score. High family income, low beef intake, low dairy product consumption and positive family history were independently associated with the prostate carcinogenesis. There was no difference in BCd levels between cases and controls (median, 0.88 versus 0.87 μg/l, p = 0.45). Cases had lower CAUCd levels than controls (median, 0.94 versus 1.40 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.001). However, cases with higher BCd and CAUCd levels tended to be at more advanced stages and to have higher Gleason scores. The prostate cancer cases with Gleason scores of ≥ 8 had an odds ratio of 2.89 (95% confidence interval 1.25-6.70), compared with patients with scores of 2-6. Higher CAUCd and BCd levels may be associated with advanced cancer phenotypes, but there was only a tenuous association between cadmium and prostate cancer

  6. Maternal body burden of cadmium and offspring size at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Megan E., E-mail: megan_romano@brown.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States); Enquobahrie, Daniel A. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Simpson, Christopher [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Checkoway, Harvey [Department of Family Medicine & Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Williams, Michelle A. [Center for Perinatal Studies, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log{sub 2}-transformed Cd (log{sub 2}-Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29 μg/g creatinine, middle 0.29–0.42 μg/g creatinine, high≥0.43 μg/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [β(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=−0.59 cm (−1.37, 0.19), high=−0.83 cm (−1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18 cm (−0.59, 0.95), high=0.78 cm (–0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log{sub 2}-Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; β(95% CI): female=0.25 kg/m{sup 3} (−0.20, 0.70); male=−0.63 kg/m{sup 3} (−1.01, −0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; β(95% CI): female=−0.47 cm (−0.74, −0.20), male=0.32 cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd’s associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth. - Highlights: • Cadmium levels in the general population potentially adversely affect size at birth. • Maternal urinary cadmium was inversely related to birth length among female infants. • For male infants, maternal cadmium was positively associated

  7. Maternal body burden of cadmium and offspring size at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Megan E.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Simpson, Christopher; Checkoway, Harvey; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log 2 -transformed Cd (log 2 -Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29 μg/g creatinine, middle 0.29–0.42 μg/g creatinine, high≥0.43 μg/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [β(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=−0.59 cm (−1.37, 0.19), high=−0.83 cm (−1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18 cm (−0.59, 0.95), high=0.78 cm (–0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log 2 -Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; β(95% CI): female=0.25 kg/m 3 (−0.20, 0.70); male=−0.63 kg/m 3 (−1.01, −0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; β(95% CI): female=−0.47 cm (−0.74, −0.20), male=0.32 cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd’s associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth. - Highlights: • Cadmium levels in the general population potentially adversely affect size at birth. • Maternal urinary cadmium was inversely related to birth length among female infants. • For male infants, maternal cadmium was positively associated with birth length.

  8. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  9. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  10. Method Development of Cadmium Investigation in Rice by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promsawad, Arunee; Pareepart, Ratirot; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Arunee, Kongsakpaisal

    2007-08-01

    Full text: A radiochemical neutron activation analysis for the determination of cadmium was investigated. A chemical separation of cadmium utilized ion exchange chromatography of a strong basic anion-exchange resin BIO-RAD 1X 8 (Chloride form). The adsorbing medium of 2M HCl was found to be the most suitable among the concentration attempted (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10M HCl) and the eluent for desorption of the cadmium from column was 8M NH 3 solution. A chemical yield of 95% was found. The method has been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials with 0.5.g/g (SRM 1577b, Bovine Liver) and 2.48.g/g (SRM 1566b, Oyster Tissue) cadmium. The agreement of the result with certified values is within 92% for Bovine Liver and 96% for Oyster Tissue. The method developed was applied to determine the cadmium concentrations in contaminated Thai rice. It was found that the cadmium concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 578.9 ppb

  11. TWEAT '95: User's documentation update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertus, B.; Lambert, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report is designed to be a supplement to TWEAT'94 (PVTD-C94-05.01K Rev.1). It is intended to describe the primary features of the Ternary Waste Envelope Assessment Tool software package that have been added in FY'95 and how to use them. It contains only minimal duplication of information found in TWEAT'94 even though all features of TWEAT'94 will still be available. Emphasis on this Update is the binary plotting capability and the OWL Import modifications. Like it's predecessors, this manual does not provide instructions for modifying the program code itself. The user of TWEAT'95 is expected to be familiar with the basic concepts and operation of the TWEAT software as discussed in TWEAT'94. Software and hardware requirements have not changed since TWEAT'94. TWEAT has now been tested using Macintosh System software versions 6.05 through 7.5

  12. STS-95 Day 03 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, are seen checking out equipment that will be used for the deployment of the Spartan, a small, Shuttle-launched and retrieved satellite, whose mission is to study the Sun.

  13. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl 2 . Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl 2 . This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  15. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  16. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard; Lee, Sundong

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 μg/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 μg/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  17. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  18. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Timothy; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel; Hauser, Russ; Wright, Robert O

    2013-02-05

    Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, age 20-59, who participated in a computer-based neurocognitive evaluation. There were four outcome measures: the Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT: visual motor speed), the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST: attention/perception), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) trials-to-criterion, and the SDLT total-error-score (SDLT-tests: learning recall/short-term memory). We fit multivariable-adjusted models to estimate associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and test scores. 5662 participants underwent neurocognitive screening, and 5572 (98%) of these had a urinary cadmium level available. Prior to multivariable-adjustment, higher urinary cadmium concentration was associated with worse performance in each of the 4 outcomes. After multivariable-adjustment most of these relationships were not significant, and age was the most influential variable in reducing the association magnitudes. However among never-smokers with no known occupational cadmium exposure the relationship between urinary cadmium and SDST score (attention/perception) was significant: a 1 μg/L increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 1.93% (95%CI: 0.05, 3.81) decrement in performance. These results suggest that higher cumulative cadmium exposure in adults may be related to subtly decreased performance in tasks requiring attention and perception, particularly among those adults whose cadmium exposure is primarily though diet (no smoking or work based cadmium exposure). This association was observed among exposure levels

  19. The association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Dai, Yan; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhu, Guoying; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Taiyi

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium exposure can cause renal tubular dysfunction. Recent studies show that vitamin D can play multiple roles in the body. However, the association between serum vitamin D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium has not been clarified. We performed study to assess the effects of cadmium on serum 25(OH) D levels and the association between serum 25(OH) D levels and renal tubular dysfunction in a population environmentally exposed to cadmium. A total of 133 subjects living in control area and two cadmium polluted areas were included in the present study. Cadmium in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd), urinary β2Microglobulin (UBMG), urinary retinol binding protein (URBP) and serum 25 (OH) D were determined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between 25 (OH) D and prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction. No significant differences were observed in serum 25(OH) D levels among the four quartile of UCd and BCd after adjusting with cofounders. After adjusted with the confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of subjects with 25(OH) D ≥ 40 ng/ml were 0.20 (95%CI: 0.1-0.8) if UBMG was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction and 0.28 (95%CI: 0.1-1.1) if URBP was chosen as indicators of renal dysfunction, compared with those with 25(OH) D < 30 ng/ml, respectively. Similar results were observed in those subjects living in cadmium polluted areas or with high level of UCd or BCd. Our data indicated that cadmium exposure did not affect serum 25(OH) D level and high 25 (OH) D levels were associated with a decreased risk of renal tubular dysfunction induced by cadmium.

  20. STS-95 Day 02 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this second day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, are seen preparing a glovebox device in the middeck area of Discovery, an enclosed research facility that will support numerous science investigations throughout the mission. Payload Specialist John Glenn, activates the Microgravity Encapsulation Process experiment (MEPS). This experiment will study the formation of capsules containing two kinds of anti-tumor drugs that could be delivered directly to solid tumors with applications for future chemotherapy treatments and the pharmaceutical industry.

  1. STS-95 Day 09 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, spend a good part of their day checking out important spacecraft systems for entry and landing. The commander and pilot begin the flight control system checkout by powering up one auxiliary power unit and evaluating the performance of aerodynamic surfaces and flight controls. The flight crew conducts a reaction control system hot fire, followed by a test of the communications system.

  2. STS-95 Day 05 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, check the status of components of the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test (HOST) payload, which provides an on-orbit test bed for hardware that will be used during the third Hubble servicing mission. Then Parazynski and Pilot Steve Lindsey set up some of the tools that will be used during the rendezvous and subsequent capture and reberthing of the Spartan satellite.

  3. STS-95 Day 06 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, test a device called the Video Guidance Sensor, a component of an automated docking system being prepared for use on the International Space Station. As Discovery closes in on Spartan, the astronauts will use a laser system that provides precise measurements of how far away the shuttle is from a target and how fast it is moving toward or away from the target.

  4. Distribution of cadmium between calcium carbonate and solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Yasushi; Kanamori, Nobuko; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko

    1978-01-01

    The distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has been measured in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions, which forms complexes with cadmium ions. It has been confirmed experimentally that cadmium carbonate is present as a solid solution between calcitic calcium carbonate and cadmium carbonate in the carbonate precipitate formed in the solution system. However, the constant value of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has not been obtained experimentally in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions. It may have been caused by the very specific behavior of cadmium ions, but the exact reason remains unsolved and must be studied. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.

    2009-01-01

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  6. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  7. STS-95 Day 01 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  8. STS-95 Day 04 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this forth day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, are seen performing an evaluation of bone cell activity under microgravity conditions. Glenn then provides blood samples as part of the Protein Turnover Experiment, which is looking at the balance between the building and breakdown of muscle. He also works with the Advanced Organic Separations (ADSEP) experiment, to provides the capability to separate and purify biological materials in microgravity; and with the Microencapsulation Electrostatic Processing System (MEPS), that studies the formation of anti-tumor capsules containing two kinds of drugs.

  9. STS-95 Day 07 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, again test the Orbiter Space Vision System. OSVS uses special markings on Spartan and the shuttle cargo bay to provide an alignment aid for the arm's operator using shuttle television images. It will be used extensively on the next Space Shuttle flight in December as an aid in using the arm to join together the first two modules of the International Space Station. Specialist John Glenn will complete a daily back-pain questionnaire by as part of a study of how the muscle, intervertebral discs and bone marrow change after exposure to microgravity.

  10. STS-95 Day 08 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-95 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn, continue to perform microgravity experiments. Specialist John Glenn completes a back-pain questionnaire as part of a study of how the muscle, intervertebral discs and bone marrow change due to microgravity. The results will then be compared with data provided by astronauts during previous missions. Glenn continues blood sample analysis and blood processing that are part of the Protein Turnover (PTO) experiment, which is studying the muscle loss that occurs during space flight.

  11. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  12. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  13. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to detemine the body burden of lead and cadmium in women aged 50 to 59 years from a mining and smelter area (Hettstedt) and two control areas (Bitterfeld, Zerbst) in eastern Germany. In the years 1992-93 1405 women aged 50 to 59 participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate: 41.6%). 1188 women provided blood and urine samples and in 411 of these samples blood lead levels and cadmium levels in urine (standardised by creatinine) were determined. The geometric mean of blood lead levels among the 50 to 59 year-old woman was 41.5 {mu}g/l with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 39.6-43.6. The geometric mean of cadmium in urine was 0.417 {mu}g/g Cr (95% C.I. 0.390-0.447). Thus the body burden of lead and cadmium differed only slightly, if at all, from the body burden of the general population. The measured body burden did not pose a risk to the evaluated population. Compared to women from the control regions Bitterfeld and Zerbst, women from Hettstedt did not have elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels, which reflect mostly the current exposure to lead, were positively influenced by individual behaviours such as smoking and by the distance of the residential area of Hettstedt from the former smelters. Besides this, elevated lead concentrations in tap water and the release of lead from bone after menopause resulted in increased blood lead levels. Compared to women from the control regions women from Hettstedt had significantly increased cadmium excretion in urine. Cadmium levels in urine reflect mainly the cumulative, lifetime exposure to cadmium. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung hatte zum Ziel, die innere Belastung von Frauen mit Blei und Cadmium in den Regionen Hettstedt (Huettenstandort), Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu untersuchen. 1992/93 nahmen 1405 50- bis 59-jaehrige Frauen an einer Querschnittsuntersuchung teil (Teilnahmerate: 41,6%). In 411 Blut- bzw. Urin-Proben wurden die Bleikonzentration im Blut und die

  14. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 μg/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 μg/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 μg/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 μg/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: → Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. → Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium

  15. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  16. Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    parameters were generally depressed by Cd stress, especially under the high Cd concentrations. Cd concentration and accumulation in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd concentrations. Relationships between corrected parameters of growth, photosynthesis and fluorescence and corrected......Seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Jing 411, Jinmai 30 and Yangmai 10 were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 μM of CdCl2 in a solution culture experiment. The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on wheat growth, leaf photon energy conversion, gas exchange, and Cd accumulation in wheat...

  17. STS-95 Post Flight Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-95 flight crew, Cmdr. Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn present a video mission over-view of their space flight. Images include prelaunch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the "whiteroom" for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. The primary objectives, which include the conducting of a variety of science experiments in the pressurized SPACEHAB module, the deployment and retrieval of the Spartan free-flyer payload, and operations with the HST Orbiting Systems Test (HOST) and the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payloads are discussed in both the video and still photo presentation.

  18. Annual report 1994-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the various constituent units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and also of the institutions financially aided by DAE during the year 1994-95 are reported. The various constituent units of DAE consist of nuclear research establishments, nuclear power plants, heavy water plants, nuclear fabrication facilities, electronic and instrumentation production facilities, atomic mineral processing units and other nuclear installations. These activities cover the whole gamut of nuclear fuel cycle, research and development in nuclear science and reactor technology, applications of radiation and radioisotopes, radiation protection, environmental aspects, research and development in front line areas such as robotics, lasers, parallel processing etc. The activities are described under the headings: introduction, the year at a glance, nuclear power, non-power sectors, public sector undertakings, support to research, services etc.. Other activities of DAE include international relations, emergency planning, training, technology transfer etc. Service activities include materials management, construction, publicity and information etc. The text is illustrated with a number of coloured photographs. A chart showing the organisational structure of atomic energy administration of the country and a map of India showing locations of various atomic energy establishments, spread all over the country are also included in this Annual Report of the Department of Atomic Energy. (M.G.B.)

  19. Annual report 1994-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Activities of the various constituent units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and also of the institutions financially aided by DAE during the year 1994-95 are reported. The various constituent units of DAE consist of nuclear research establishments, nuclear power plants, heavy water plants, nuclear fabrication facilities, electronic and instrumentation production facilities, atomic mineral processing units and other nuclear installations. These activities cover the whole gamut of nuclear fuel cycle, research and development in nuclear science and reactor technology, applications of radiation and radioisotopes, radiation protection, environmental aspects, research and development in front line areas such as robotics, lasers, parallel processing etc. The activities are described under the headings: introduction, the year at a glance, nuclear power, non-power sectors, public sector undertakings, support to research, services etc.. Other activities of DAE include international relations, emergency planning, training, technology transfer etc. Service activities include materials management, construction, publicity and information etc. The text is illustrated with a number of coloured photographs. A chart showing the organisational structure of atomic energy administration of the country and a map of India showing locations of various atomic energy establishments, spread all over the country are also included in this Annual Report of the Department of Atomic Energy. (M.G.B.).

  20. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occupational exposure to cadmium as follows: (1) Reassess the employee's work practices and personal hygiene... employee's work practices and personal hygiene; the employee's respirator use, if any; the employee's...; assuring that all employees exposed to air cadmium levels above the PEL wear appropriate personal...

  2. Cadmium and children: Exposure and health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis

  3. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  5. Electro-spark machining of cadmium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovskij, V.N.; Stepakhina, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data on electrical erosion of the semiconductor material (cadmium antimonide) alloyed with tellurium are given. The potentialisies and expediency of using the electric-spark method of cutting cadmium antimonide ingots with the resistivity of 1 ohm is discussed. Cutting has been carried out in distilled water and in the air

  6. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  7. Association of cadmium and arsenic exposure with salivary telomere length in adolescents in Terai, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillman, Toki; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Watanabe, Chiho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cadmium and arsenic are ubiquitous metals commonly found in the environment which can harm human health. A growing body of research shows telomere length as a potential biomarker of future disease risk. Few studies have examined the effects of metals on telomere length and none have focused on adolescents. Objectives: In this study, the impact of cadmium and arsenic on salivary telomere length was studied in adolescents in Terai, Nepal. Methods: Adolescents aged 12–16 years old (n=351)were recruited where questionnaire interviews and both saliva and urine collection took place. Telomere length was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using DNA extracted from saliva. Urinary cadmium and arsenic concentration were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between urinary metals and salivary telomere length. Results: The geometric means and standard deviations of cadmium and arsenic were 0.33±0.33 μg/g creatinine and 196.0±301.1 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively associated with salivary telomere length after adjustment for confounders (β=−0.24, 95% CI −0.42,−0.07). Arsenic showed positive associations with telomere length but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that cadmium may shorten adolescent telomeres, even at exposure levels that may be considered low. These results agree with prior experimental and adult epidemiological studies, and also help identify the mechanism of DNA damage by cadmium. This study expanded current evidence on the harmful effects of cadmium exposure on telomere length even to adolescents. - Highlights: • This is the first study examining metal exposure on telomere length in adolescents. • Urinary cadmium levels were similar to non-industrially polluted levels in Asia. • Urinary arsenic levels were as high as groundwater

  8. Association of cadmium and arsenic exposure with salivary telomere length in adolescents in Terai, Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillman, Toki, E-mail: tokif@humeco.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana, E-mail: hana-shimizu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Ng, Chris Fook Sheng, E-mail: chrisng-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad, E-mail: rp.parajuli@mcgill.ca [Basu Laboratory, CINE Building, Macdonald Campus, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Watanabe, Chiho, E-mail: chiho@humeco.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Background: Cadmium and arsenic are ubiquitous metals commonly found in the environment which can harm human health. A growing body of research shows telomere length as a potential biomarker of future disease risk. Few studies have examined the effects of metals on telomere length and none have focused on adolescents. Objectives: In this study, the impact of cadmium and arsenic on salivary telomere length was studied in adolescents in Terai, Nepal. Methods: Adolescents aged 12–16 years old (n=351)were recruited where questionnaire interviews and both saliva and urine collection took place. Telomere length was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using DNA extracted from saliva. Urinary cadmium and arsenic concentration were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between urinary metals and salivary telomere length. Results: The geometric means and standard deviations of cadmium and arsenic were 0.33±0.33 μg/g creatinine and 196.0±301.1 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary cadmium concentration was negatively associated with salivary telomere length after adjustment for confounders (β=−0.24, 95% CI −0.42,−0.07). Arsenic showed positive associations with telomere length but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that cadmium may shorten adolescent telomeres, even at exposure levels that may be considered low. These results agree with prior experimental and adult epidemiological studies, and also help identify the mechanism of DNA damage by cadmium. This study expanded current evidence on the harmful effects of cadmium exposure on telomere length even to adolescents. - Highlights: • This is the first study examining metal exposure on telomere length in adolescents. • Urinary cadmium levels were similar to non-industrially polluted levels in Asia. • Urinary arsenic levels were as high as groundwater

  9. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3 ) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene ( cadA4 ) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette ( cadA4C ), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and

  10. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  11. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  12. Liquid scintillation counting analysis of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.K.; Barfuss, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently the authors have used radiolabled cadmium-109 to measure the transport of inorganic cadmium in renal proximal tubules. An anomaly discovered in the liquid scintillation counting analysis of Cd-109 which is not attributable to normal decay; it consists of a significant decrease in the measured count rate of small amounts of sample. The objective is to determine whether the buffer solution used in the membrane transport studies is causing precipitation of the cadmium or whether cadmium is being adsorbed by the glass. It was important to determine whether the procedure could be modified to correct this problem. The problem does not appear to be related to the use of the buffer or to adsorption of Cd onto glass. Correction based on using triated L-glucose in all of these experiments and calculating a correction factor for the concentration of cadmium

  13. Cadmium-induced bone effect is not mediated via low serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Annette; Skerving, Staffan; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Burgaz, Ann; Lundh, Thomas; Samsioe, Goeran; Vahter, Marie; Akesson, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant, which is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. It has been proposed that cadmium's toxic effect on bone is exerted via impaired activation of vitamin D, secondary to the kidney effects. To test this, we assessed the association of cadmium-induced bone and kidney effects with serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D); measured by enzyme immunoassay. For the assessment, we selected 85 postmenopausal women, based on low (0.14-0.39 μg/L) or high (0.66-2.1 μg/L) urinary cadmium, within a cross-sectional population-based women's health survey in Southern Sweden. We also measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D, cadmium in blood, bone mineral density and several markers of bone remodeling and kidney effects. Although there were clear differences in both kidney and bone effect markers between women with low and high cadmium exposure, the 1,25(OH) 2 D concentrations were not significantly different (median, 111 pmol/L (5-95th percentile, 67-170 pmol/L) in low- and 125 pmol/L (66-200 pmol/L) in high-cadmium groups; p=0.08). Also, there was no association between 1,25(OH) 2 D and markers of bone or kidney effects. It is concluded that the low levels of cadmium exposure present in the studied women, although high enough to be associated with lower bone mineral density and increased bone resorption, were not associated with lower serum concentrations of 1,25(OH) 2 D. Hence, decreased circulating levels of 1,25(OH) 2 D are unlikely to be the proposed link between cadmium-induced effects on kidney and bone

  14. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisberg, Michael; Joseph, Pius; Hale, Beverley; Beyersmann, Detmar

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd 2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  15. Cadmium safety rod thermal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal testing of cadmium safety rods was conducted as part of a program to define the response of Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA leading to a drained reactor tank. The safety rods are present in the reactor core only during shutdown and are not used as a control mechanism during operation; thus, their response to the conditions predicted for the LOCA is only of interest to the extent that it could impact the progression of the accident. This document provides a description of this testing

  16. Testing Cadmium-Free Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    Secretary of Defense Directive • “Approve the use of alternatives [to hexavalent chromium (Cr6+)] where they can perform adequately for the intended...Effect of corrosion on breakaway torque 12 OPSEC approved for public release Fastener Finish Study FINISH POST-TREATMENT LUBRICANT Cadmium Hexavalent ...Past Testing Electrical Connectors Coatings Al / TCP ZnNi / TCP ZnNi / Non- Chrome Passivation (NCP) Ni-PTFE 1 Ni-PTFE 2 Note: SnZn tested on flat

  17. CONFERENCE: Quark Matter '95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions have become one of the major growth areas of modern physics. Providing common ground between particle and nuclear physics, it has produced a wave of new interest and a series of major projects to provide beams of higher energies and increasing nuclear complexity. Reflecting this interest, and despite record rainstorms, over 450 enthusiastic high energy heavy ion followers met in Monterey, California, at the 11th International Conference on Ultra-relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions. Named Quark Matter '95, the meeting was characterized by its own flood of new results from experiments studying collisions of gold nuclei at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and with silicon beams at the CERN SPS synchrotron, as well as preliminary results from the first run with lead beams at CERN late last year (December 1994, page 15). A striking aspect of the Conference was the growth in attendance and, in particular, the large number of young physicists who attended the meeting, underlining the vitality and appeal of this important field. The new preliminary data from CERN experiments NA44, NA49, NA52, WA97, and WA98, made available with remarkable speed following the initial lead beam run in November and December 1994, represent a significant step in the study of heavy ion collisions. Physicists have finally come close to conditions where it is possible to consider event-by-event analysis of these very complex final states. The importance of this emerging approach to relativistic heavy ion collisions was emphasized by Reinhard Stock (Frankfurt) and other speakers in a pre-conference workshop devoted to physics with the collider detectors at big new projects now in the pipeline - RHIC at Brookhaven and LHC at CERN. The study of collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic energies is dominated by the search for the Quark-Gluon Plasma, the 'soup' of free quarks and gluons expected to have played an important role

  18. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook; Parsons, Patrick J.; Spector, June; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Jaar, Bernard G.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) μg/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r s =0.5; p 2 ; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  19. Relation between dietary cadmium intake and biomarkers of cadmium exposure in premenopausal women accounting for body iron stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant with adverse effects on kidneys and bone, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of end-stage renal diseases, fractures and cancer. Urinary cadmium is considered a valid biomarker of lifetime kidney accumulation from overall cadmium exposure and thus used in the assessment of cadmium-induced health effects. We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary cadmium intake assessed by analyses of duplicate food portions and cadmium concentrations in urine and blood, taking the toxicokinetics of cadmium into consideration. Methods In a sample of 57 non-smoking Swedish women aged 20-50 years, we assessed Pearson's correlation coefficients between: 1 Dietary intake of cadmium assessed by analyses of cadmium in duplicate food portions collected during four consecutive days and cadmium concentrations in urine, 2 Partial correlations between the duplicate food portions and urinary and blood cadmium concentrations, respectively, and 3 Model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration predicted from the dietary intake using a one-compartment toxicokinetic model (with individual data on age, weight and gastrointestinal cadmium absorption and urinary cadmium concentration. Results The mean concentration of cadmium in urine was 0.18 (+/- s.d.0.12 μg/g creatinine and the model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration was 0.19 (+/- s.d.0.15 μg/g creatinine. The partial Pearson correlations between analyzed dietary cadmium intake and urinary cadmium or blood concentrations were r = 0.43 and 0.42, respectively. The correlation between diet and urinary cadmium increased to r = 0.54 when using a one-compartment model with individual gastrointestinal cadmium absorption coefficients based on the women's iron status. Conclusions Our results indicate that measured dietary cadmium intake can reasonably well predict biomarkers of both long-term kidney accumulation

  20. Influence of protein deficiency on cadmium toxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, P C; Jain, V K; Ashquin, M; Tandon, S K

    1986-07-01

    The effects of a low protein diet on the body uptake and retention of cadmium, levels of essential trace elements, and cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in liver and kidneys of the rat were investigated. Low dietary protein disturbs cadmium induced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, essential trace elements metabolism and offsets the hepatic and renal process of cadmium detoxification. Protein malnutrition enhances the susceptibility to cadmium intoxication.

  1. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lu, Yong-Hui; Pi, Hui-Feng; Gao, Peng; Li, Min; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Li-Ping; Mei, Xiang; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Qi; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p dyslipidemia increased dose-dependently with elevations in blood cadmium concentrations (p for trend dyslipidemia across the increasing blood cadmium quartiles were 1.21(1.16-1.55), 1.56(1.11-1.87), 1.79(1.26-2.25) respectively (referencing to 1.00; p for trend dyslipidemia remained unchanged (all p for trend dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects. © 2016 The

  2. Radiochemical separation of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Mukhtarov, A.; Nurbaeva, D.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Cadmium-109 has a half-life of 461.9 days and decays by electron capture to 109 Ag with the emission of 88 keV γ-ray (3.79%) along with the characteristic X-ray from the K level of Ag, with energy of 22.5 keV. This radionuclide has found widespread use as a photon source in x-ray fluorescence analysis devices employed in industry for numerous applications such as the direct determination of gold in ores, the analysis of metals and identification of steels. Other applications range from its use as an electron source for measurement of densities of air-pollution samples, to tracer studies in mushrooms and mice and rats. In the nuclear medicine field there is growing interest in employing 109 Cd in a 109 Cd/ 109mA g generator, as an alternative to other biomedical generators of ultra short-lived gamma emitters. There are several methods for the production of 109 Cd in literature: 1. Bombardment of silver cyclotron target via 109 Ag(d,2n) 109 Cd reaction with 16 MeV deuterons. 2. Bombardment of natural silver target via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction with 14 MeV protons. 3. Proton bombardment of natural indium target with 96 MeV protons. 4. Irradiation of enriched 107 Ag target in high-flux nuclear reactor at neutron flux 2x10 15 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 107 Ag(n,γ) 108 Ag → 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. 5. Irradiation of enriched 108 Cd target in nuclear reactor at neutron flux 1x10 14 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. The production of 109 Cd with proton beam via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction is ideal for the cyclotron U-150, since it is not required the change of the regime for the machine functioning. Because of its relatively long half-life the time required for separation is also not an important factor, but its use as an X-ray source requires a very high radiochemical purity. In the present work we studied two methods for separation of 109 Cd from model solution of silver targets. First method is based on precipitation of silver as

  3. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  4. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of 109 CdCl 2 into the amygdala of rats, 109 Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K + , suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 μM CdCl 2 . The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  5. Cadmium - a case of mistaken identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D

    1984-05-01

    New evidence is presented which describes the impact of cadmium in the environment. Cadmium is a persistent material, although its compounds may undergo a range of chemical changes in the environment. In soluble form cadmium and its compounds are toxic at relatively low concentrations to aquatic animals although their bioconcentrations in such animals is in general low, and there is no evidence of biomagnification. In insoluble form cadmium and its compounds are relatively non-toxic to aquatic animals and are unlikely to be bioconcentrated. As such, cadmium is similar to most other heavy metals. Recent studies indicate that cadmium is not implicated in Itai-Itai disease and does not appear to cause hypertension or cancer. In addition, the accepted critical level in the kidney may have been underestimated. Thus, the hazard to man appears to be considerably less than the original estimates. In view of these data, there seems little justification in treating cadmium in any way differently from the other metals and hence no reason for retaining it on the Black List of the international conventions. 19 references.

  6. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K + and Na + ) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  7. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  8. Epidemiological approach to cadmium pollution in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, I.

    1984-04-01

    The study of health problems due to cadmium pollution in Japan originated from an endemic episode of Itai-itai disease in a rural area in north-central Japan after World War II. The disease was defined as osteomalacia with tubular changes in the kidney and considered to be associated with excess intake of cadmium. This episode motivated the Japanese Government to conduct health examinations on the general population in cadmium-polluted and non-polluted areas throughout the country since 1969. Although Itai-itai disease-like bone changes were rarely found, these studies revealed a higher prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction among elderly people in the cadmium-polluted areas. No significant difference was noted in cancer mortality, but mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes tended to be lower in cadmium-polluted areas. Clinical and pathological studies in man as well as experiments on primates have recently been made to elucidate the pathogenesis of Itai-itai disease and the health effects of cadmium. The lack of knowledge on the ecological and biological complex of cadmium resulted in the impediment of studies on this problem. The lesson from this experience is that basic research is essential for promoting the study of pollutants such as heavy metals, though pollution problems usually require urgent solutions.

  9. Cadmium exposure and atherosclerotic carotid plaques –Results from the Malmö diet and Cancer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerberg, Björn; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Forsgard, Niklas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha; Borné, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that cadmium exposure through diet and smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are few data on the relationship between cadmium and plaques, the hallmark of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Objectives: To examine the association between exposure to cadmium and the prevalence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Methods: A population sample of 4639 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined in 1991–1994. Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Cadmium in blood was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1 of blood cadmium, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of any plaque was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6–2.2) after adjustment for sex and, age; 1.4 (1.1–1.8) after additional adjustment for smoking status; 1.4 (1.1–1.7) after the addition of education level and life style factors; 1.3 (1.03–1.8) after additional adjustment for risk factors and predictors of cardiovascular disease. No effect modification by sex was found in the cadmium-related prevalence of plaques. Similarly, ORs for the prevalence of small and large plaques were after full adjustment 1.4 (1.0–2.1) and 1.4 (0.9–2.0), respectively. The subgroup of never smokers showed no association between cadmium and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: These results extend previous studies on cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular events by adding data on the association between cadmium and underlying atherosclerosis in humans. The role of smoking remains unclear. It may both cause residual confounding and be a source of pro-atherogenic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium level is associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. • The results extend previous knowledge of cadmium exposure and clinical events. • The role of smoking remains unclear

  10. Cadmium exposure and atherosclerotic carotid plaques –Results from the Malmö diet and Cancer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.se [Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.sallsten@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, SE 413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Forsgard, Niklas, E-mail: niklas.forsgard@vgregion.se [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-413 45 Gothenburg (Sweden); Östling, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.ostling@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Persson, Margaretha, E-mail: margaretha.persson@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); Borné, Yan, E-mail: yan.borne@med.lu.se [Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, 205 02 Malmö (Sweden); and others

    2015-01-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that cadmium exposure through diet and smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are few data on the relationship between cadmium and plaques, the hallmark of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Objectives: To examine the association between exposure to cadmium and the prevalence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. Methods: A population sample of 4639 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined in 1991–1994. Carotid plaque was determined by B-mode ultrasound. Cadmium in blood was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Comparing quartile 4 with quartile 1 of blood cadmium, the odds ratio (OR) for prevalence of any plaque was 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6–2.2) after adjustment for sex and, age; 1.4 (1.1–1.8) after additional adjustment for smoking status; 1.4 (1.1–1.7) after the addition of education level and life style factors; 1.3 (1.03–1.8) after additional adjustment for risk factors and predictors of cardiovascular disease. No effect modification by sex was found in the cadmium-related prevalence of plaques. Similarly, ORs for the prevalence of small and large plaques were after full adjustment 1.4 (1.0–2.1) and 1.4 (0.9–2.0), respectively. The subgroup of never smokers showed no association between cadmium and atherosclerotic plaques. Conclusions: These results extend previous studies on cadmium exposure and clinical cardiovascular events by adding data on the association between cadmium and underlying atherosclerosis in humans. The role of smoking remains unclear. It may both cause residual confounding and be a source of pro-atherogenic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium level is associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid artery. • The results extend previous knowledge of cadmium exposure and clinical events. • The role of smoking remains unclear.

  11. Cadmium decontamination using in-house resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sangita; Thalor, K.L; Prabhakar, S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Goswami, J.L.; Tewari, P.K.; Dhanpal, Pranav; Goswami, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A selective and strong in-house chelator has been studied w.r.t. basic parameters like concentration, time, and elution. De-contamination of cadmium, mercury, chromium, lead etc by using high uptake values fro cadmium ions proves its selectivity with high elution ratio ensures further decontamination of run-off water during natural calamities. In three step cascade use the concentration of original cadmium solution (500 ppm) decocted to safe disposable attribute. This polymeric ligand exchanger displayed outlet effluent concentration to 1 ppm and less than 200 ppb when treated for inlet feed concentration of 50 ppm and 500 ppm respectively. (author)

  12. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A

    1977-02-02

    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  13. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Erin W.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  14. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Erin W. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schaumberg, Debra A. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Sung Kyun, E-mail: sungkyun@umich.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  15. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p Conclusion: Elevated blood cadmium concentration is associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects.

  16. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non essential heavy metal belonging to group ... Cd from a contaminated environment leads to various pathological ..... interact with genes that are involved in human ..... Tolonen, M. (1990) Vitamins and minerals in Health.

  17. Large silver-cadmium technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlip, S.; Lerner, S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of varying cell design on operation factors on the electrochemical performance of sealed, silver-cadmium cells were determined. A factorial experiment was conducted for all test cells constructed with organic separators. Three operating factors were evaluated: temperature, depth of discharge, and charge rate. The six construction factors considered were separator, absorber, electrolyte quantity, cadmium electrode type, cadmium-to-silver ratio, and auxiliary electrode. Test cells of 4 ampere-hour capacity were fabricated and cycled. The best performing cells, on a 94 minute orbit, at 40% depth of discharge, were those containing silver-treated fibrous sausage casings as the separator, and Teflon-ated, pressed cadmium electrodes. Cycling data of cells with inorganic separators (Astroset) are given. Best performance was shown by cells with nonwoven nylon absorbers. Rigid inorganic separators provided the best barrier to silver migration.

  18. 46 CFR 95.50-5 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 95.50-5 Section 95.50-5 Shipping COAST... Details § 95.50-5 Classification. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing... extinguishing systems are set forth in Table 95.50-5(c). Table 95.50-5(c) Classification Type Size Soda-acid and...

  19. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  20. Progress in cadmium-related health effects in persons with high environmental exposure in northwestern Thailand: A five-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Krintratun, Somyot; Punta, Boonyarat; Funkhiew, Thippawan

    2012-01-01

    Food-borne cadmium was the principal source of exposure for persons living in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. This report presents progress in cadmium-related health effects among persons with high cadmium exposure. The study included 436 persons who had urinary cadmium levels ≥5 μg/g creatinine and were screened for urinary cadmium, renal function, hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones in 2005 (baseline) and 2010 (5-year follow-up). Study renal biomarkers included urinary excretion of β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG), total protein and calcium, serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium statistically significantly reduced from 9.5±1.6 μg/g creatinine in 2005 to 8.8±1.6 μg/g creatinine in 2010. Compared to baseline, the follow-up examination revealed significant increases in urinary β 2 -MG (tubular effect), urinary total protein and serum creatinine, and a decrease in GFR (glomerular effects). Progressive renal dysfunctions were similarly observed in persons both with and without reduction in cadmium intake. Significant increases in prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones were also detected at follow-up. These three disorders were found to markedly impair renal functions in the study persons. Our study indicates that in persons with prolonged excessive cadmium exposure, toxic health effects may progress even after exposure reduction. Renal damage from cadmium can be due to its direct nephrotoxic effect and also through the related disorders causing nephropathy.

  1. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  2. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  3. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  4. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  5. Separation of Cadmium in Printing Industrial Liquid Waste by Electromagnetic Plating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno

    2007-01-01

    To prevent incidence of environmental contamination and its effect to society health and other mortal, poisonous and dangerous substance waste have to be managed peculiarly by minimizing or eliminating the nature of its danger. Various processing have been developed to degrade the waste rate for example sorption, flotation, flocculation, etc., but the yield of the degradation of metal rate can not fulfill permanent standard quality of liquid waste. Because of the reason explained before, its important to make a new breakthrough as one of final phase processing alternative named reductant electromagnetic plating. Waste to be degraded in this research is cadmium. In fact cadmium represent the foregain metal for human and is not require at all in human body for metabolism process. Though plenty of cadmium exploited, but during for centuries it caused the food poisoned because this metal insoluble in organic acid. Separation of cadmium rate with electromagnetic plating influenced by time process, concentration, current strength, and type of electrode plate. Result of research indicate that the optimum time processing if using plate of copper electrode is during 30 minute and using plate of aluminium electrode is during 20 minute. Optimum of strong current that used in process of electromagnetic plating is only 0.8 Ampere and concentration effective is 5 mg / L. The most effective type of electrode plate for reducing cadmium from waste by using electromagnetic plating is aluminium. Appliance of electromagnetic plating system is very compatible used for the reduction of cadmium and others metal for feed concentration (1 - 5) mg/L .at the price efficiency of reduction is (95 - 98) %, standard quality of liquid waste is (0.05 - 1) mg/L. (author)

  6. Impact of prenatal exposure to cadmium on cognitive development at preschool age and the importance of selenium and iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Bottai, Matteo; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Koutra, Katerina; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vafeiadi, Marina; Fthenou, Eleni; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vahter, Marie; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding a potential link of low-to-moderate iodine deficiency, selenium status, and cadmium exposure during pregnancy with neurodevelopment is either contradicting or limited. We aimed to assess the prenatal impact of cadmium, selenium, and iodine on children’s neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. The study included 575 mother–child pairs from the prospective “Rhea” cohort on Crete, Greece. Exposure to cadmium, selenium and iodine was assessed by concentrations in the mother’s urine during pregnancy (median 13 weeks), measured by ICPMS. The McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities was used to assess children’s general cognitive score and seven different sub-scales. In multivariable-adjusted regression analysis, elevated urinary cadmium concentrations (≥0.8 µg/L) were inversely associated with children’s general cognitive score [mean change: −6.1 points (95 % CI −12; −0.33) per doubling of urinary cadmium; corresponding to ~0.4 SD]. Stratifying by smoking status (p for interaction 0.014), the association was restricted to smokers. Urinary selenium was positively associated with children’s general cognitive score [mean change: 2.2 points (95 % CI −0.38; 4.8) per doubling of urinary selenium; ~0.1 SD], although the association was not statistically significant. Urinary iodine (median 172 µg/L) was not associated with children’s general cognitive score. In conclusion, elevated cadmium exposure in pregnancy of smoking women was inversely associated with the children’s cognitive function at pre-school age. The results indicate that cadmium may adversely affect neurodevelopment at doses commonly found in smokers, or that there is an interaction with other toxicants in tobacco smoke. Additionally, possible residual confounding cannot be ruled out.

  7. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Bernard, A.; Stiller-Winkler, R.; Hahn, R.; Manojlovic, N.

    1985-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed to assess whether environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly contaminated by cadmium, lead and other heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population the authors selected 65- and 66-year-old women (n = 286) who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average cadmium levels in blood (CdB) and urine (CdU) revealed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg greater than Duisburg greater than Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. However, with respect to the urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins (beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein), albuminuria, total proteinuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia and some other biological findings, no significant differences between the study populations were noted. Similarly, the prevalence of clinically-confirmed hypertension as well as the relative frequency of hypertensive subjects (systolic greater than or equal to 160 and/or diastolic greater than or equal to 95 mm Hg) did not differ significantly among the three study groups. There was no exposure-response relationship between CdU and tubular proteinuria in the range of the CdU-levels found (0.1 to 5.2 micrograms/g creatinine). However, albuminuria tended to be increased at CdU levels greater than 2 micrograms/g creatinine.

  8. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  9. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  10. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  11. 33 CFR 159.95 - Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety. 159.95 Section 159.95... SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.95 Safety. (a) Each device must— (1) Be free of... explosion or over pressurization as a result of an accumulation of gases; and (3) Meet all other safety...

  12. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable devices...

  13. 49 CFR 95.1 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration, the Federal Railroad Administration, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, the National... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 95.1 Section 95.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 95.1 Applicability. (a) This part...

  14. 7 CFR 1948.95 - Grant monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Grant monitoring. 1948.95 Section 1948.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... § 1948.95 Grant monitoring. Each grant will be monitored by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  15. 46 CFR 95.60-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 95.60-10 Section 95.60-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Axes § 95.60-10 Location. (a) Fire axes shall be distributed throughout the spaces available to persons...

  16. 46 CFR 95.50-10 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location. 95.50-10 Section 95.50-10 Shipping COAST GUARD...-10 Location. (a) Approved hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable fire extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with Table 95.50-10(a). The location of the equipment shall be to...

  17. 49 CFR 95.13 - Antitrust laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antitrust laws. 95.13 Section 95.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 95.13 Antitrust laws. The activities of advisory committees are subject to the antitrust laws and committee members are not immune from prosecution...

  18. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR... INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must be... information. The facility may obtain defensive security, threat awareness, and other education and training...

  19. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP means...

  20. 10 CFR 71.95 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 71.95 Section 71.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... § 71.95 Reports. (a) The licensee, after requesting the certificate holder's input, shall submit a written report to the Commission of— (1) Instances in which there is a significant reduction in the...

  1. 10 CFR 95.57 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 95.57 Section 95.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.57 Reports. Each licensee, certificate holder, or other person having a facility clearance shall report to the CSA and the Regional Administrator of the appropriate NRC...

  2. 29 CFR 95.24 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program income. 95.24 Section 95.24 Labor Office of the... Program Management § 95.24 Program income. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, program income earned during the project period shall be retained by the recipient and added to funds...

  3. 29 CFR 4022.95 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples. 4022.95 Section 4022.95 Labor Regulations... IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Certain Payments Owed Upon Death § 4022.95 Examples. The following examples show how the rules in §§ 4022.91 through 4022.94 apply. For examples on how these rules...

  4. 21 CFR 1250.95 - Insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect control. 1250.95 Section 1250.95 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.95 Insect control. Vessels shall be... generally accepted methods of insect control. ...

  5. 50 CFR 27.95 - Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fires. 27.95 Section 27.95 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.95 Fires. On all national wildlife refuges persons are prohibited from the following: (a) Setting on fire or causing to be set on fire any...

  6. 29 CFR 95.52 - Financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Financial reporting. 95.52 Section 95.52 Labor Office of the... Records § 95.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients: (1) SF-269 or SF-269A, Financial...

  7. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  8. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  9. Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); Lacasaña, Marina, E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Lorca, Andres [Department of Clinical, Experimental and Social Psychology, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [Research Center on Health and Environment (CYSMA), University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Rohlman, Diane S. [Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Science University (United States); Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa (United States); González-Alzaga, Beatriz [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); Molina-Villalba, Isabel [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Mendoza, Ramón [Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente [Center for Public Health Research (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    This study assessed the association between cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in children from a region with high industrial and mining activities in southwestern Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 261 children aged 6–9 years between January and March 2012. Cadmium exposure was measured in urine and hair of children, and neuropsychological development was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and with three computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the association between neuropsychological development and cadmium exposure measured in urine and hair samples. Geometric means of urine and hair cadmium levels were 0.75 μg/g creatinine and 0.01 μg/g, respectively. We observed that doubling of levels of cadmium in urine was associated with a reduction of two points (95% CI: −3.8 to −0.4) in the Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in boys. By domains, association was statistically significant for Verbal Comprehension (β=−2.0; p=0.04) and close to the significance level for Perceptual Reasoning (β=−1.8; p=0.06). Among girls, only Verbal Comprehension showed suggestive associations with cadmium exposure (β=−1.7; p=0.06). Cadmium exposure is associated with cognitive delays in boys in our region. Our results provide additional evidence of the neurotoxic effect of low-level postnatal cadmium exposure among children, and support the hypothesis of differences between sexes in the neurotoxic effect of metals on children. - Highlights: • This study associates Cd exposure and neuropsychological development in children. • Cd exposure was associated with cognitive delay in boys, but not in girls. • Intellectual quotient of boys decreased two points for a

  10. Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Gil, Fernando; Lorca, Andres; Alguacil, Juan; Rohlman, Diane S.; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Mendoza, Ramón; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the association between cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in children from a region with high industrial and mining activities in southwestern Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 261 children aged 6–9 years between January and March 2012. Cadmium exposure was measured in urine and hair of children, and neuropsychological development was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and with three computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the association between neuropsychological development and cadmium exposure measured in urine and hair samples. Geometric means of urine and hair cadmium levels were 0.75 μg/g creatinine and 0.01 μg/g, respectively. We observed that doubling of levels of cadmium in urine was associated with a reduction of two points (95% CI: −3.8 to −0.4) in the Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in boys. By domains, association was statistically significant for Verbal Comprehension (β=−2.0; p=0.04) and close to the significance level for Perceptual Reasoning (β=−1.8; p=0.06). Among girls, only Verbal Comprehension showed suggestive associations with cadmium exposure (β=−1.7; p=0.06). Cadmium exposure is associated with cognitive delays in boys in our region. Our results provide additional evidence of the neurotoxic effect of low-level postnatal cadmium exposure among children, and support the hypothesis of differences between sexes in the neurotoxic effect of metals on children. - Highlights: • This study associates Cd exposure and neuropsychological development in children. • Cd exposure was associated with cognitive delay in boys, but not in girls. • Intellectual quotient of boys decreased two points for a

  11. Maternal exposure to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury and neural tube defects in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brender, Jean D.; Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Gilani, Zunera; Stinchcomb, David; Moody, Karen; Henry, Judy; Hendricks, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are neurotoxins, and some studies suggest that these elements might also be teratogens. Using a case-control study design, we investigated the relation between exposure to these heavy metals and neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring of Mexican-American women living in 1 of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico. A total of 184 case-women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 225 control-women with normal live births were interviewed about their environmental and occupational exposures during the periconceptional period. Biologic samples for blood lead and urinary arsenic, cadmium, and mercury were also obtained for a subset of these women. Overall, the median levels of these biomarkers for heavy metal exposure did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between case- and control-women. However, among women in the highest income group, case-women were nine times more likely (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-57) than control-women to have a urinary mercury >=5.62μg/L. Case-women were 4.2 times more likely (95% CI 1.1-16) to report burning treated wood during the periconceptional period than control-women. Elevated odds ratios (ORs) were observed for maternal and paternal occupational exposures to arsenic and mercury, but the 95% CIs were consistent with unity. The 95% CIs of the ORs were also consistent with unity for higher levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in drinking water and among women who lived within 2 miles at the time of conception to industrial facilities with reported emissions of any of these heavy metals. Our findings suggest that maternal exposures to arsenic, cadmium, or lead are probably not significant risk factors for NTDs in offspring. However, the elevated urinary mercury levels found in this population and exposures to the combustion of treated wood may warrant further investigation

  12. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  13. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  14. Dietary intake of cadmium from Bangladeshi foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, S W; Jenkins, R O; Haris, P I

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is associated with various diseases and high levels of Cd have been detected in Bangladeshi population warranting further research to identify the source of this exposure. In this study, Cd levels in 327 and 94 samples of Bangladeshi food and non-food samples, respectively, were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This is the largest number of Bangladeshi food and nonfood samples investigated for their Cd content. High Cd levels were detected in leafy vegetables (mean 31 [SD 29]μg/kg). Of these vegetables, lal shak (Amaranthus tricolor) contained the highest Cd level (303 μg/kg [wet weight]; mean 100.5 [SD 95]μg/kg). Bangladeshi rice also showed significant concentration of Cd (mean 37.2 [SD 30]μg/kg). Of particular concern is the very high level of Cd detected in some puffed rice, which we attribute to the illegal practice of using urea for whitening the puffed rice. Tobacco leaves, which are commonly consumed during betel quid chewing by Bangladeshis, contain significant levels of Cd (mean 95 [SD 87]μg/kg). The total daily intake (TDI) of Cd from foods for Bangladeshis was estimated to be 34.55 μg/d. This is rather high when compared to the TDI of Cd for other populations. Our analysis reveals that this is mainly due to the very high intake of rice and vegetables, and lower consumption of animal products (which are low in Cd), by the Bangladeshis. We also determined the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and target hazard quotients values for Cd. Clearly a more balanced diet is necessary to reduce the Cd intake in the Bangladeshi population, especially by reducing the very high intake of rice and certain leafy vegetables. Food manufacturing and agricultural practices needs to be altered to reduce the entry of Cd into the food chain. Exposure to high levels of Cd can be harmful to human health and this study provides a comprehensive analysis of Cd levels in a variety of food items from

  15. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zhou; Yong-hui Lu; Hui-feng Pi; Peng Gao; Min Li; Lei Zhang; Li-ping Pei; Xiang Mei; Lin Liu; Qi Zhao; Qi-Zhong Qin; Yu Chen; Yue-ming Jiang; Zhao-hui Zhang; Zheng-ping Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the preva...

  16. An assessment of the effects of a cadmium discharge ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, J.H.; Schultz, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem facing the MMSD was high levels of cadmium in Milorganite fertilizer. The cause was determined to be discharges from industry, primarily electroplaters. The solution was the cooperative development of an ordinance to limit the discharge of cadmium. Because the dischargers acted responsibly to comply with the ordinance, the ordinance succeeded in achieving its objective of significantly reducing the cadmium loading to the municipal sewerage system and subsequently reducing the cadmium concentration in Milorganite fertilizer

  17. Cadmium voltametric quantification in table chocolate produced in Chiquinquira-Boyaca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Vargas Moreno

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of heavy metals such as cadmium has been a major concern in scientific communities and international food organizations, given the great toxicological risk to the consumer, and in many places there is no detailed record of its actual content. In this way, the need arises to carry out a study and registration of the concentration of this metal in products such as table chocolate, of great consumption at regional and national level. Likewise, we seek to have effective quantification tools and a reliable and affordable method to achieve the aim of this research. In this research, Cadmium content in powdered and granulated table chocolate was determined, elaborated and commercialized in the municipality of Chiquinquira, Boyacá-Colombia, using the differential pulse voltammetric method of anodic redisolution (DPVMAR. Previously, the parameters of this method were evaluated, selecting selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy with satisfactory results as follows: selective at a potential range of 0.54 to 0.64 V, sensitivity in ppb, R2> 0.95, % CV 80%. Analysis of variance showed no significant statistical differences (P <0.05 between the results. Cadmium quantification in samples of granulated and powder chocolate showed values of concentration between 214 and 260 ppb, with the highest concentrations of powder chocolate. Cadmium level did not exceed the tolerable weekly intake limit for this type of food.

  18. The factors affecting the 95Nb/95Zr and 140La/95Zr-cooling time correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh

    2005-03-01

    The factors affecting the 95 Nb/ 95 Zr and 140 La/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlations were studied by analysing the gamma scanning results of the IRT fuel assemblies. the results showed that, these ratios are stable along the fuel assembly regardless of the position of the measured section. This allow to limit gamma scanning of the whole assembly on the measurement of the central section. The effects of irradiation history and conditions, burnup, control rods on the 95 Nb/ 95 Zr and 140 La/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlations were studied. The results showed the following: the identical irradiation history and conditions during the last irradiation, whose period is comparable with half lives of the used fission products, is fundamental condition for fission product ratio-cooling time correlation. The background resulting from burnup cause high systematic error in the measured results and it does not cause arbitrary error; whereas control rods cause high arbitrary error. The 95 Nb/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlation is more sensitive than the 140 La/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlation. (author)

  19. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  20. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... which indicated that cadmium uptake across the plasma membrane was ... to cadmium pollution in water-soil-plant systems because .... plants were separated into roots and shoots, blotted dry with paper tissue .... Analysis of the kinetic constants for cadmium uptake ..... proteins (Welch and Norvell, 1999).

  1. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 μg l -1 for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure

  2. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH,

  3. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell.

  4. Metal biosorption-flotation. Application to cadmium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, K A; Zouboulis, A I; Grigoriadou, A A; Lazaridis, N K; Ekateriniadou, L V

    1996-05-01

    Biosorption using suspended non-living biomass, and flotation (for consequent solid/liquid separation of the metal-loaded biomass) have been studied in the laboratory as a possible combined process, for the removal of toxic metals (i.e., cadmium) from dilute aqueous solutions. The various parameters of the process were investigated in depth, including re-use of biosorbent. A filter aid (contained in the biomass industrial waste used) was found not really to interfere. Zeta-potential measurements of the aforementioned system were also carried out. Promising results were obtained during continuous-flow experiments. A flotation residence time of 4 min was achieved. Metal removal and suspended biomass recovery were generally over 95%.

  5. All-cause mortality increased by environmental cadmium exposure in the Japanese general population in cadmium non-polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Morikawa, Yuko; Nishijo, Muneko; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure indicated by urinary Cd on all-cause mortality in the Japanese general population. A 19-year cohort study was conducted in 1067 men and 1590 women aged 50 years or older who lived in three cadmium non-polluted areas in Japan. The subjects were divided into four quartiles based on creatinine adjusted U-Cd (µg g(-1) cre). The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous U-Cd or the quartiles of U-Cd were estimated for all-cause mortality using a proportional hazards regression.The all-cause mortality rates per 1000 person years were 31.2 and 15.1 in men and women, respectively. Continuous U-Cd (+1 µg g(-1) cre) was significantly related to the all-cause mortality in men (HR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09) and women (HR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07). Furthermore in men, the third (1.96-3.22 µg g(-1) cre) and fourth quartile (≥3.23 µg g(-1) cre) of U-Cd showed a significant, positive HR (third: HR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.03-1.77, fourth: HR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.26-2.14) for all-cause mortality compared with the first quartile (women, the fourth quartile of U-Cd (≥4.66 µg g(-1) cre) also showed a significant HR (1.49, 95% CI 1.11-2.00) for all-cause mortality compared with the first quartile (<1.46 µg g(-1) cre).In the present study, U-Cd was significantly associated with increased mortality in the Japanese general population, indicating that environmental Cd exposure adversely affects the life prognosis in Cd non-polluted areas in Japan. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) μg/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis

  7. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)], E-mail: moiwasak@gan2.res.ncc.go.jp; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko [Research Center for Occupational Poisoning, Tokyo Rosai Hospital, Japan Labour Health and Welfare Organization, 4-13-21 Omoriminami, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0013 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2008-09-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  8. Elevated metallothionein-bound cadmium concentrations in urine from bladder carcinoma patients, investigated by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Christian [Department of Molecular Trace Element Research in the Life Sciences, Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: wolf@helmholtz-berlin.de; Strenziok, Romy [Department of Urology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin (Germany); Kyriakopoulos, Antonios [Department of Molecular Trace Element Research in the Life Sciences, Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-12

    Cadmium is discussed as being involved in the development of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and can be observed in urine of these patients. Investigations of urinary samples from bladder cancer patients and normal controls were carried out with special emphasis on metallothionein (MT)-bound cadmium. Compounds that are constituents of urine were separated in urine samples by means of size exclusion chromatography and cadmium was monitored continuously with a hyphenated inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) system. MT-bound cadmium was quantified by peak area integration, taking into account the intensity of the rhodium signal which was added continuously before ICP-MS detection. The obtained results show that urinary cadmium is predominantly bound to the observed MT-fraction. The median of the MT-bound cadmium concentration in the control group was found to be 0.8 {mu}g L{sup -1} whereas the cancer group has a median of 1.8 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The variance of the data in the cancer group is much higher than in the controls. However, the urinary MT-bound cadmium is significantly elevated in the cancer group; odds-ratio test: 7.11 (95% C.I.: 1.89-26.80), taking into account the total protein content. Due to the fact that only one main cadmium-containing fraction was observed, there is no necessity to separate the MT-fraction before cadmium determination in urine samples in future studies.

  9. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  10. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  11. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  12. Effects of cadmium and mycorrhizal fungi on growth, fitness, and cadmium accumulation in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Laura M S; Ernst, Charlotte L; Charneskie, Rebecca; Ruane, Lauren G

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural soils have become contaminated with a variety of heavy metals, including cadmium. The degree to which soil contaminants affect plants may depend on symbiotic relationships between plant roots and soil microorganisms. We examined (1) whether mycorrhizal fungi counteract the potentially negative effects of cadmium on the growth and fitness of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and (2) whether mycorrhizal fungi affect the accumulation of cadmium within plant parts. Two flax cultivars (Linott and Omega) were grown in three soil cadmium environments (0, 5, and 15 ppm). Within each cadmium environment, plants were grown in either the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. Upon senescence, we measured growth and fitness and quantified the concentration of cadmium within plants. Soil cadmium significantly decreased plant fitness, but did not affect plant growth. Mycorrhizal fungi, which were able to colonize roots of plants growing in all cadmium levels, significantly increased plant growth and fitness. Although mycorrhizal fungi counteracted the negative effects of cadmium on fruit and seed production, they also enhanced the concentration of cadmium within roots, fruits, and seeds. The degree to which soil cadmium affects plant fitness and the accumulation of cadmium within plants depended on the ability of plants to form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. The use of mycorrhizal fungi in contaminated agricultural soils may offset the negative effects of metals on the quantity of seeds produced, but exacerbate the accumulation of these metals in our food supply.

  13. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on various concentrations of cadmium, zinc and cobalt halides in the presence of sulphuric acid. A long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and an organophosphorus solvent (TBP) were used. In most cases the value of the distribution ratio decreases with the increase of metal concentration in the aqueous phase. The various possibilities of chemical and radiochemical separations of cadmium from accompanying metal species are reported: separation of (sup109m)Ag from irradiated Cd targets, separation of (sup115m)In using HDEHP, separation of Cd and Zn from their mixtures. (T.G.)

  14. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  15. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  16. Effect of cadmium on myocardial contractility and calcium fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilati, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on myocardial mechanical performance and calcium fluxes was studied in kitten isometric papillary muscles and in isovolumic Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Therefore, it is concluded that cadmium-induced decreases in contractility are not primarily the result of cadmium interference with ATP metabolic processes. Furthermore, these results imply that cadmium causes no structural alterations of the contractile proteins. These data suggest that cadmium may be competing with the calcium needed for excitation-contraction coupling. During experiments using radioisotopic calcium, a statistically significant cellular influx of calcium was observed following the onset of 100 μM Cd ++ perfusion of isolated, Langendorff-prepared rabbit hearts

  17. Hip fracture risk and cadmium in erythrocytes: a nested case-control study with prospectively collected samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Lundh, Thomas; Svensson, Olle; Hallmans, Göran; Bergdahl, Ingvar A

    2014-02-01

    Several studies have investigated the relation between bone mass density and cadmium exposure, but only few studies have been performed on fractures and biomarkers of cadmium. This study analyzed the association between hip fracture risk and cadmium in erythrocytes (Ery-Cd). Prospective samples from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study's biobank were used for 109 individuals who later in life had sustained a low-trauma hip fracture, matched with two controls of the same age and gender. The mean concentration of Ery-Cd (±SD) in case samples was 1.3 ± 1.4 versus 0.9 ± 1.0 μg/L in controls. The odds ratio (OR) was 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.42] for suffering a hip fracture for each microgram per liter increase in Ery-Cd. However, when taking smoking into consideration (never, former, or current), neither Ery-Cd nor smoking showed a statistically significant increase in fracture risk. Using multiple conditional logistic regression with BMI, height, and smoking, the estimated OR for a 1-μg/L increase in Ery-Cd was 1.52 (95% CI 0.77-2.97). Subgroup analysis showed an increased fracture risk among women (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.18-3.20, for a 1 μg/L increase), which also remained in the multiple analysis (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.29-8.56). This study shows that fracture risk is associated with Ery-Cd. It is, however, not possible to draw firm conclusions on whether cadmium is the causal factor or whether other smoking-related factors cause this association. Subgroup analysis shows that cadmium is a risk factor for hip fracture among women.

  18. 27 CFR 31.95 - Caterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caterers. 31.95 Section 31....95 Caterers. (a) General. When a contract to furnish liquors is made by a caterer at a place of business for which the caterer has registered under this part, no additional registration is required by...

  19. 40 CFR 95.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 95.1 Section 95.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY... have the meaning given them by the Act. (b) Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 7401...

  20. 49 CFR 1018.95 - Board determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Board determination. 1018.95 Section 1018.95... determination. (a) Following review of the evidence, the Board will issue a written decision which will include... determination, it shall notify the debtor of its intent to refer the debt to the IRS for offset against the...

  1. 47 CFR 95.1215 - Disclosure policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1215 Disclosure policies. Manufacturers... transmitter is authorized by rule under the Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (in part 95 of the FCC Rules) and must not cause harmful interference to stations operating in the 400.150-406.000 MHz band in...

  2. 47 CFR 95.1101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1101 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations governing the operation of Wireless Medical Telemetry Devices in the 608-614 MHz, 1395-1400 MHz, and 1427-1432 MHz frequency bands. See § 95.630 regarding permissible frequencies. [75...

  3. 22 CFR 95.3 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures. 95.3 Section 95.3 Foreign Relations... torture are made or the issue is otherwise brought to the Department's attention, appropriate policy and... Secretary as to whether or not to sign the surrender warrant. (b) Based on the resulting analysis of...

  4. 27 CFR 24.95 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General. 24.95 Section 24.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... wine spirits may be used for testing purposes, and wine may be used for tasting or sampling on bonded...

  5. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  6. Effects of cadmium electrode properties on nickel-cadmium cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Tests have been conducted on a number of nickel-cadmium cells that have exhibited a variety of performance problems, ranging from high voltages and pressures during overcharge to low capacity. The performance problems that have been specifically linked to the cadmium electrode are primarily related to two areas, poor sinter and the buildup of excessive pressure during overcharge. A number of specific nickel-cadmium cell and cadmium electrode characterists have been studied in this work to determine what the effects of poor sinter are, and to determine what factors are important in causing excessive pressures during overcharge in cells that otherwise appear normal. Several of the tests appear suitable for screening cells and electrodes for such problems

  7. Durable fear memories require PSD-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Pinard, Courtney R.; Camp, Marguerite C.; Feyder, Michael; Sah, Anupam; Bergstrom, Hadley; Graybeal, Carolyn; Liu, Yan; Schlüter, Oliver; Grant, Seth G.N.; Singewald, Nicolas; Xu, Weifeng; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic fear memories are highly durable but also dynamic, undergoing repeated reactivation and rehearsal over time. While overly persistent fear memories underlie anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, the key neural and molecular mechanisms underlying fear memory durability remain unclear. Post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95) is a synaptic protein regulating glutamate receptor anchoring, synaptic stability and certain types of memory. Employing a loss-of-function mutant mouse lacking the guanylate kinase domain of PSD-95 (PSD-95GK), we analyzed the contribution of PSD-95 to fear memory formation and retrieval, and sought to identify the neural basis of PSD-95-mediated memory maintenance using ex vivo immediate-early gene mapping, in vivo neuronal recordings and viral-mediated knockdown approaches. We show that PSD-95 is dispensable for the formation and expression of recent fear memories, but essential for the formation of precise and flexible fear memories and for the maintenance of memories at remote time points. The failure of PSD-95GK mice to retrieve remote cued fear memories was associated with hypoactivation of the infralimbic cortex (IL) (not anterior cingulate (ACC) or prelimbic cortex), reduced IL single-unit firing and bursting, and attenuated IL gamma and theta oscillations. Adeno-associated PSD-95 virus-mediated knockdown in the IL, not ACC, was sufficient to impair recent fear extinction and remote fear memory, and remodel IL dendritic spines. Collectively, these data identify PSD-95 in the IL as a critical mechanism supporting the durability of fear memories over time. These preclinical findings have implications for developing novel approaches to treating trauma-based anxiety disorders that target the weakening of overly persistent fear memories. PMID:25510511

  8. Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Okorie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2 as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0, 21.0 (C21, 40.7 (C41, 83.5 (C83, 162 (C162, 1,387 (C1,387 and 2,743 (C2,743 mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed efficiency (FE of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05. Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet.

  9. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya; VK Jain; GPS Chak; SK Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remedi...

  10. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  12. Comparison Uptake of Cadmium (II from Aqueous Solution, onto Algae Brown Fucus Serratus and Cystoseira Indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium metal not only has detrimental effects on the nervous system, the kidneys, and the human fetus but is also lethal because of its carcinogenic effects. Biological absorption of cadmium has a number of advantages over conventional methods that include high removal efficiency for eliminating heavy metals from dilute solutions, availability and abundance of the required materials in nature, and reproducibility and reusability of the materials. In this study, the biosorption of cadmium (II ions onto the dry biomass of two brown algae, Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus, was investigated. Cystoseira indica was collected from the coastal areas of the Oman Sea and Fucus serratus was collected from the coastal area of the Atlantic Ocean. The algae were first dried, washed three times with tap water, and finally washed with distilled water without ions before they were isolated in pieces 0.5-1.5 mm in diameter. In all the experiments, distilled water was used to which known amounts of cadmium were added before the algae were introduced into the solution. The metal ion concentrations in the solution were measured using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after the metal came into contact with the algae. The optimum pH for the adsorption of cadmium was found to be 3/0 ± 5/6 and 3/0 ± 5/5 for Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus, respectively. The maximum metal uptakes by both algae were observed in acidic pH conditions. The time required for the biosorption of the metal to reach equilibrium was 360 minutes for Cystoseira indica and 300 minutes Fucus serratus. The adsorption capacities for Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus using the Langmuir isotherm were determined as 44/58 and 54/95 mg /g, respectively. Moreover, the functional groups involved in cadmium uptake in both algae were identified. Finally, the results of this study showed that Fucus serratus algae had a higher capacity for adsorbing cadmium ions than did

  13. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  14. Production of 95mTc with proton bombardment of 95Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, M.; Matsuoka, H.; Sorita, T.; Nagame, Y.; Sekine, T.; Hata, K.; Baba, S.

    1991-01-01

    Formation cross sections of 95m Tc and 95g Tc via the 95 Mo (p,n) reaction have been measured to evaluate the production yield of 95m Tc which is expected to be a useful radiotracer of technetium isotopes. It was found from the cross section data that for incident proton energies above 15 MeV, the thick-target yield of 95m Tc was more than 20 μCi/μAh at the end of bombardment and the 95g Tc contamination was less than 1% after 12 d cooling. To examine the separation and purification of 95m Tc from target, we have carried out a test production of 95m Tc using a thick 95 Mo-enriched target. Other reactions of producing 95m Tc are compared and discussed in terms of the production yield and amounts of contaminants. (author)

  15. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator grey poplar (Populus × canescens) was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method. Young Populus × canescens were grown and hydroponic experiments were conducted under four Cd2+ concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 70 μM) ...

  16. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  17. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  18. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  19. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM MOBILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Cadmium is a toxic metal often found with a strong enrichment factor in coastal sediments. ... into the food chain, which could result in a wide variety of adverse effects in animals and ... Sampling scheme and sample conservation ..... of Cd with Fe and Mn oxides has also been reported in others studies [38, 39].

  20. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by ...

  1. Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolt, J.P.; Sneller, F.E.C.; Bryngelson, T.; Lundborg, T.; Schat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations in organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease Cd accumulation in the grains of wheats aimed for human consumption. In response to Cd, higher plants synthesize sulphur-rich peptides, phytochelatins (PCs).

  2. New process to discharge negative cadmium electrodes for Ni/Cd batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiker, B.; Vignaud, R.

    1984-01-01

    The new process relates to the chemical oxidation (whether partial or total) of cadmium metal negative electrodes, as used in alkaline nickel-cadmium or silver-cadmium batteries. This process concerns all cadmium electrodes but more particularly the electrodeposited cadmium electrode developed by the company LES PILES WONDER and described in this publication

  3. 47 CFR 95.5 - Licensee eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.5 Licensee eligibility. (a) An individual (one man or one... entity other than an individual) is ineligible to obtain a new GMRS system license or make a major...

  4. Radtech Asia'95 radiation curing conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Radtech Asia'95 Radiation Curing Conference was held in November, 20-24, 1995 in Guilin, China. The subjects include chemistry, application, Measurement and Equipment, and Material modification. Out of 86 titles, some 30 papers are in INIS scope

  5. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  6. 27 CFR 1.95 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industrial use, unless such distilled spirits are shipped or delivered directly to the industrial user... of Distilled Spirits Sales of Distilled Spirits for Industrial Use § 1.95 General. Distillers...

  7. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzanti, R.; Colzi, I.; Arnetoli, M.; Gallo, A.; Pignattelli, S.; Gabbrielli, R.; Gonnelli, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. ► Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. ► Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. ► As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K m value. ► The V max values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO 4 for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K m value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V max values were not significantly different among the plants. Present data revealed metallicolous plants are also suitable for the phytoremediation of metals underrepresented in the environment of their

  8. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanti, R., E-mail: rbarzanti@supereva.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Colzi, I., E-mail: ilariacolzi@hotmail.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Arnetoli, M., E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gallo, A., E-mail: galloalessia@hotmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Pignattelli, S., E-mail: sara.pignattelli@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gabbrielli, R., E-mail: gabbrielli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gonnelli, C., E-mail: cristina.gonnelli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K{sub m} value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO{sub 4} for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K{sub m} value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the

  9. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl 2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109 Cd-labeled CdCl 2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl 2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  10. Modelling of cadmium fluxes on energy crop land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, V.

    1992-04-01

    The flux of cadmium on energy crop land is investigated. Three mechanisms are accounted for; Uptake by plant, transport with water, and sorption to soil. Sorption is described with Freundlich isotherms. The system is simulated mathematically in order to estimate the sensitivity and importance of different parameters on the cadmium flow and sorption. The water flux through the soil and the uptake by plants are simulated with a hydrological model, SOIL. The simulated time period is two years. The parameters describing root distribution and evaporation due to crop are taken from measurements on energy crop (Salix). The resulting water flux, water content in the soil profile and the water uptake into roots, for each day and soil compartment, are used in the cadmium sorption simulation. In the cadmium sorption simulation the flux and equilibrium chemistry of cadmium is calculated. It is shown that the amount of cadmium that accumulates in the plant, and the depth to which the applied cadmium reaches depends strongly on the constants in the sorption isotherm. With an application of 10 mg Cd/m 2 in the given range of Freundlich equations, the simulations gave a plant uptake of between 0 and 30 % of the applied cadmium in two years. At higher concentrations, where cadmium sorption can be described by nonlinear isotherms, more cadmium is present in soil water and is generally more bioavailable. 25 refs

  11. Determination of low cadmium concentrations in wine by on-line preconcentration in a knotted reactor coupled to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, R.F. [Inst. de Investigaciones Mineras, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Wuilloud, R.G.; Salonia, J.A. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, National University of San Luis (Argentina); Olsina, R.A.; Martinez, L.D. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, National University of San Luis (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2001-12-01

    An on-line cadmium preconcentration and determination system implemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) associated to flow injection (FI) with ultrasonic nebulization system (USN) was studied. The cadmium was retained as the cadmium-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, Cd-(5-Br-PADAP), complex, at pH 9.5. The cadmium complex was removed from the knotted reactor (KR) with 3.0 mol/L nitric acid. A total enhancement factor of 216 was obtained with respect to ICP-OES using pneumatic nebulization (12 for USN and 18 for KR) with a preconcentration time of 60 s. The value of the detection limit for the preconcentration of 5 mL of sample solution was 5 ng/L. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 5 {mu}g/L Cd level was 2.9% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for cadmium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 1000 {mu}g/L. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in wine samples. (orig.)

  12. Separation of cadmium from solutions containing high concentration of zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.D.; Bhutani, A.K.; Parvathisem, P.

    1984-01-01

    In hydrometallurgical process of extracting cadmium as a byproduct, zinc dust is added for separation of cadmium as cadimum sponge. High amounts of zinc are quite often noticed in the cadmium electrolyte subjected for electrowinning of the metal. This leads to poor quality of cadmium deposit and lower current efficiencies. Study of cadmium sponge cementation process revealed that zinc dust may be added to an acidic cadmium solution for precipitation of cadmium sponge without neutralization of the free acidity present in the system. This fact is utilized for obtaining a high cadmium sponge with 75-80 per cent cadmium and 5-10 per cent zinc with 98 per cent recovery of cadmium from the solution as sponge. The suggested process is confirmed in a cadmium production plant producing 11.0 MT of cadmium per month. (author)

  13. Cadmium uptake in oyster isognomon alatus under laboratory condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayon Saed; Ahmad Ismail; Missri Kusnan; Hishamuddin Omar

    1999-01-01

    The uptake of cadmium in Flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for two weeks. Oysters were exposed to 100 μg 1'-1 cadmium and the accumulation of cadmium in the tissues was measured for every two days. Soft tissues of oyster were digested in concentrated acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The accumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of oysters was increased during the first six days from 0.73 μg g- 1 to 10.77 μg g'-1, and remaining constant for four days at average level of 10.96 μg g'-1. The Cl concentrations was increased to 32.70 μg g'-1 until the end of experiment. There was no sign of cadmium accumulation approaching saturation for the period of exposure. (author)

  14. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  15. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  16. Urinary cadmium and mortality from all causes, cancer and cardiovascular disease in the general population: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal distributed in the environment. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association between urinary cadmium concentration and mortality from all causes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. Studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase (to 30 March 2015) and the reference lists of retrieved articles. We included prospective studies that reported hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between urinary cadmium concentration and all-cause, cancer or CVD mortality. A random-effects model was used to combine study-specific results. Nine cohort studies, including 5600 deaths from all causes, 1332 deaths from cancer and 1715 deaths from CVD, were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The overall HRs for the highest vs lowest category of urinary cadmium were1.44 (95% CI, 1.25-1.64; I(2 )= 40.5%) for all-cause mortality (six studies), 1.39 (95% CI, 0.96-1.99; I(2 )= 75.9%) for cancer mortality (four studies) and 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95; I(2 )= 34.0%) for CVD mortality (five studies). In an analysis restricted to six cohort studies conducted in populations with a mean urinary cadmium concentration of ≤1 µg/g creatinine, the HRs were 1.38 (95% CI, 1.17-1.63; I(2 )= 48.3%) for all-cause mortality, 1.56 (95% CI, 0.98-2.47; I(2 )= 81.0%) for cancer mortality and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.18-1.91; I(2 )= 38.2%) for CVD mortality. Even at low-level exposure, cadmium appears to be associated with increased mortality. Further large prospective studies of cadmium exposure and mortality are warranted. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  17. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  18. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more. (author)

  19. Impact of acute cadmium exposure on the trunk lateral line neuromasts and consequences on the 'C-start' response behaviour of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, Karine; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre; Lagardere, Jean Paul

    2006-01-01

    Behavioural responses of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated after exposure to cadmium ions in laboratory-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to discover whether environmental exposure to cadmium ions inactivates fish lateral line system neuromasts, and to determine the behavioural consequences of such a sensory blockage. For this, fish escape behaviour in response to an artificial water jet was recorded using a 25-frames s -1 analog video camera before and after cadmium exposure. Experimental set up was tested with fish whose lateral line system was artificially inactivated by antibiotics (gentamicin and streptomycin). Histological analyses with scanning electron microscopy showed antibiotic treatment destroyed lateral line system neuromasts. In addition, these fish did not respond to stimulations provoked by the water jet after antibiotic treatment. Fish escape behaviour was then recorded before and after cadmium exposure at two different concentrations. When fish were exposed to the first concentration of cadmium tested (0.5 μg l -1 , which represents the maximal cadmium concentration encountered in contaminated estuaries), no alteration in neuromast tissue was observed. In addition, before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively in 98.41 ± 4.95% of lateral line system stimulations (escape behaviour in response to the water jet). After cadmium exposure, no behavioural modification could be detected: the fish responded positively in 95.16 ± 9.79% of stimulations (χ 2 = 2.464, p = 0.116). In contrast, the high cadmium concentration used (5 μg l -1 , which represents 10 times the concentration occurring in highly polluted estuarine areas) involved severe neuromast tissue damage. Just after such cadmium exposure, fish showed only 41.67 ± 35.36% of positive responses to their lateral line system stimulations, while they responded positively in 95.93 ± 9.10% of stimulations under control conditions (χ 2 = 24.562, p 2 = 2.876, p = 0

  20. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jun Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2. In comparison with obese subjects with blood cadmium <1.00 μg/L, those with blood cadmium >1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01 and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38 at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  1. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  2. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    OpenAIRE

    Fels-Klerx, van der, H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van, L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys). The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize ...

  3. 46 CFR 111.95-1 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Boat Winches § 111.95-1 Applicability. (a) The electric installation of each electric power-operated boat winch must meet the requirements in this subpart, except that limit...

  4. 49 CFR 383.95 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the skills test and the restriction, air brakes shall include any braking system operating fully or...; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Vehicle Groups and Endorsements § 383.95 Restrictions. (a) Air brake restrictions... skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes, the State must indicate on the CDL, if issued...

  5. 47 CFR 95.1217 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1217 Labeling requirements. (a) MedRadio... operating in the 400.150-406.000 MHz band in the Meteorological Aids, Meteorological Satellite, and Earth... shall be identified with a serial number. The FCC ID number associated with a medical implant...

  6. 47 CFR 95.1113 - Frequency coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1113 Frequency coordinator. (a) The Commission will designate a frequency coordinator(s) to manage the usage of the frequency bands for the operation of medical telemetry devices. (b) The frequency coordinator shall (1) Review and...

  7. Miami, FL I-95 express lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Miami-Ft. Lauderdale region is creating a 22-mile managed-lane facility, : including HOT lanes on I-95, between I-395 and I-595, with a longer term goal of : providing a network of managed lanes throughout the congested region. Freeflowing : cond...

  8. SRAC95; general purpose neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Kaneko, Kunio.

    1996-03-01

    SRAC is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications have been made for nuclear data libraries and programs. Thus, the new version SRAC95 has been completed. The system consists of six kinds of nuclear data libraries(ENDF/B-IV, -V, -VI, JENDL-2, -3.1, -3.2), five modular codes integrated into SRAC95; collision probability calculation module (PIJ) for 16 types of lattice geometries, Sn transport calculation modules(ANISN, TWOTRAN), diffusion calculation modules(TUD, CITATION) and two optional codes for fuel assembly and core burn-up calculations(newly developed ASMBURN, revised COREBN). In this version, many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors, especially for burn-up calculations. SRAC95 is available not only on conventional IBM-compatible computers but also on scalar or vector computers with the UNIX operating system. This report is the SRAC95 users manual which contains general description, contents of revisions, input data requirements, detail information on usage, sample input data and list of available libraries. (author)

  9. SRAC95; general purpose neutronics code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Tsuchihashi, Keichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Kunio

    1996-03-01

    SRAC is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications have been made for nuclear data libraries and programs. Thus, the new version SRAC95 has been completed. The system consists of six kinds of nuclear data libraries(ENDF/B-IV, -V, -VI, JENDL-2, -3.1, -3.2), five modular codes integrated into SRAC95; collision probability calculation module (PIJ) for 16 types of lattice geometries, Sn transport calculation modules(ANISN, TWOTRAN), diffusion calculation modules(TUD, CITATION) and two optional codes for fuel assembly and core burn-up calculations(newly developed ASMBURN, revised COREBN). In this version, many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors, especially for burn-up calculations. SRAC95 is available not only on conventional IBM-compatible computers but also on scalar or vector computers with the UNIX operating system. This report is the SRAC95 users manual which contains general description, contents of revisions, input data requirements, detail information on usage, sample input data and list of available libraries. (author).

  10. Cadmium Adsorption on HDTMA Modified Montmorillionite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Elmuntasir I. Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto modified montmorillonite clay is investigated. Batch adsorption experiments performed revealed an enhanced removal of cadmium using HDTMA modified montmorillonite to 100% of its exchange capacity. Modified montmorillonite adsorption capacity increases at higher pHs suggesting adsorption occurs as a result of surface precipitation and HDTMA complex formation due to the fact that the original negatively charged montmorillonite is now covered by a cationic layer of HDTMA. Adsorption isotherms generated followed a Langmuir isotherm equation possibly indicating a monolayer coverage. Adsorption capacities of up to 49 mg/g and removals greater than 90% were achieved. Anionic selectivity of the HDTMA modified monmorillonite is particularly advantageous in water treatment applications where high concentrations of less adsorbable species are present, and the lack of organoclay affinity for these species may allow the available capacity to be utilized selectively by the targeted species.

  11. Phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils by tuberose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, S.; Biswas, A.K.; Singh, A.B.; Ajay; Ahirwar, N.K.; Behera, S.K.; Subba Rao, A.; Naveen Kumar, P.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of three varieties of tuberose (Prajwal, Shringar and Mexican single) for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium was evaluated by subjecting the plants to five levels of Cd (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg -1 soil). Applied Cd did not produce any toxic symptoms in all the three varieties of tuberose except marginal reduction in the photosynthesis rate and total dry weight beyond 50 mg Cd kg -1 soil. The study showed that tuberose possessed the typical ability of Cd hyper accumulator characterized by (1) accumulation of Cd in the shoots of the plant exceeding the critical judging standard i.e., 100 μg g -1 DW and (2) ratio of Cd in the shoots to bulbs >1. It was concluded that tuberose may be an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils. (author)

  12. Cadmium in milk and mammary gland in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson Grawe, K.; Oskarsson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the uptake of cadmium in mammary tissue, effects on milk secretion and composition, and lactational transport of cadmium to the sucklings. Cadmium exposure during lactation resulted in retention of cadmium in the mammary tissue in mice and rats. The uptake of cadmium in the mammary tissue was rapid, as shown in lactating mice by whole-body autoradiography 4 h after an intravenous injection of a tracer dose of 109 CdCl 2 . Retention of cadmium in kidneys of suckling pups was observed in the autoradiograms at 7 days after exposure of the dams. Lactating rats were intravenously infused with 109 CdCl 2 in 0.9% saline via osmotic minipumps from day 3 to day 16 after parturition. The cadmium dose given was 0, 8.8, 62 and 300 μg Cd/kg body wt. per day. Plasma and milk were collected at day 10 and 16 after parturition. Plasma cadmium levels in dams increased from day 10 to day 16. Cadmium levels were higher in milk than in plasma, with milk/plasma ratios varying from 2 to 6. Zinc levels in milk were positively correlated to cadmium levels in milk (r 2 =0.26; P=0.03). In milk, 109 Cd was distributed in fat (46-52%), casein fraction (40-46%), and whey fraction (6-8%). There was a high correlation between cadmium concentrations in pups' kidney and cadmium concentrations in dam's milk (r 2 =0.98; P 109 Cd was bound to metallothionein in mammary tissue. The fraction of radiolabelled cadmium bound to metallothionein increased in a dose-dependent manner in both the liver (88-98%) and mammary tissue (57-80%). The present results indicate a low transfer of cadmium to the suckling pup, which might be due to binding of cadmium to metallothionein in the mammary tissue. However, during the susceptible developmental period even a low cadmium exposure may be of concern. (orig.)

  13. Cadmium elemination from phosphoric acid by ionic flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    The ion flotation process for the recovery of cadmium from wet phosphoric acid (30%P2O5) has been studied. This technique combines a chemical recation between the collector and the cadmium to form a precipitate (sublate) which is carried to the surface of the solution by air bubbles. the resulting foam containing the cadmium may then separated from solution. The influence of parameters such as collector and cadmium concentration as well as iron content have been investigated for the case a synthetic acid (30% P2O5). The result have been applied to the industrial phosphoric acid produced from Djebel Onk's phosphates (Algeria)

  14. Cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, M.W.; Williamson, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis L. in culture are reported. The time course of uptake under various light conditions shows that cadmium is concentrated as the result of an on-going anabolic process and not as a consequence of a pH gradient as provided by photosynthesis. The effect of cycloheximide is in agreement with de novo protein synthesis being a prerequisite for cadmium accumulation. Autoradiography suggests a specific intracellular location for bound cadmium--apparently the nucleus.

  15. Cadmium incorporation by the marine copepod Pseudodiaptomus coronatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, L.V.; Baptist, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Pseudodiaptomus coronatus, after exposure to phytoplankton and cadmium in concentrations like those in temperate, coastal environments, incorporated 109 Cd at higher rates from ambient water than from phytoplankton food. When ambient stable cadmium concentrations were increased from 0.03 to 1.00 μg.liter -1 , cadmium concentration by phytoplankton cells increased and the rate of cell ingestion by P. coronatus decreased. This inverse relation between the accumulation of cadmium in phytoplankton cells and the animal's ingestion rate resulted in relatively small net increases in the cadmium accumulated from phytoplankton by copepods. Rates of stable cadmium ingestion for P. coronatus ranged from 0.18 to 0.38 ng.mg animal dry wt -1 .h -1 , depending on the initial algal cell density and the ambient cadmium concentration. For cadmium concentrations of 0.03 to 1.00 μg.liter -1 , percentage assimilation efficiencies ranged from 13.20 to 68.40. Both rates of cadmium ingestion and assimilation efficiencies were higher than published values for carnivorous zooplankton

  16. Stabilization of cadmium electrode properties when introducing surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, M.E.; Mansurov, F.Kh.; Nikol'skij, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The results of tests of both separate cadmium electrodes and silver-cadmium accumulators, depending on introduction of surfactants (polyethylene oxide - PO - and its derivatives), have been considered. The influence of PO on the course of electrochemical reaction on cadmium is pronounced in facilitation of anodic process. In case of PO introduction in the amount of 1 % instead of sodium lignosulfonate (2 %) into accumulators with silver-cadmium electrodes, the electrode potential is stabilized, while the accumulator capacity increases. The time period of the accumulation maintenance in the charged state increases 2-3 fold (1-1,5 years). 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Modification of cadmium pigments for colouring of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinskaya, T.V.; Livshits, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Modification conditions are studied of cadmium pigments, obtained by different methods, aliphatic acids(C 5 , C 8 and C 17 ). It is found, that cadmium pigments can adsorb acids with the number of atoms of carbon not less than 8. Stearic acid adsorption on lemon cadmium pigment taken as an example has shown the efficiency of pigment modification influence on its dispersancy in non-polar medium. Modification of yellow cadmium pigments of stearic acid makes possible to obtain pigment output forms ensuring a good particle distribution during polyolefine colouring

  19. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; R. K. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  20. Genetic variability and cadmium metabolism and toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Rentschler, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is ubiquitous in the environment. Human exposure in non-smokers occurs mainly via intake of healthy food like vegetables, cereals, and shellfish. Adverse health effects on kidney and bone at low-level environmental Cd exposure are well-documented in adults. There is considerable inter-individual variation in both metabolism (toxicokinetics) and toxicity (toxicodynamics) of Cd. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this thesis was to identify genetic fact...

  1. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  2. Incidence of nephrolithiasis in relation to environmental exposure to lead and cadmium in a population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Azusa; Yang, Wen-Yi; Petit, Thibault; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Odili, Augustine N. [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences University of Abuja (Nigeria); Thijs, Lutgarde [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Hasselt (Belgium); Staessen, Jan A., E-mail: jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); R& D Group VitaK, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Whether environmental exposure to nephrotoxic agents that potentially interfere with calcium homeostasis, such as lead and cadmium, contribute to the incidence of nephrolithiasis needs further clarification. We investigated the relation between nephrolithiasis incidence and environmental lead and cadmium exposure in a general population. In 1302 participants randomly recruited from a Flemish population (50.9% women; mean age, 47.9 years), we obtained baseline measurements (1985–2005) of blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) and covariables. We monitored the incidence of kidney stones until October 6, 2014. We used Cox regression to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for nephrolithiasis. At baseline, geometric mean BPb, BCd and UCd was 0.29 µmol/L, 9.0 nmol/L, and 8.5 nmol per 24 h, respectively. Over 11.5 years (median), nephrolithiasis occurred in 40 people. Contrasting the low and top tertiles of the distributions, the sex- and age-standardized rates of nephrolithiasis expressed as events per 1000 person-years were 0.68 vs. 3.36 (p=0.0016) for BPb, 1.80 vs. 3.28 (p=0.11) for BCd, and 1.65 vs. 2.95 (p=0.28) for UCd. In continuous analysis, with adjustments applied for sex, age, serum magnesium, and 24-h urinary volume and calcium, the hazard ratios expressing the risk associated with a doubling of the exposure biomarkers were 1.35 (p=0.015) for BPb, 1.13 (p=0.22) for BCd, and 1.23 (p=0.070) for UCd. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in the general population. - Highlights: • Prevalence and incidence rates of nephrolithiasis are increasing worldwide. • Lead and cadmium interfere with calcium homeostasis and might cause nephrolithiasis. • Environmental exposure to lead, not cadmium, predicts nephrolithiasis in the population. • Safety standards for environmental lead exposure need to account for nephrolithiasis. • Reducing environmental

  3. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  4. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd

  5. Cadmium exposure and endometrial cancer risk: A large midwestern U.S. population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A McElroy

    Full Text Available Estrogen-mimicking chemicals, such as cadmium, may be associated with increased susceptibility to hormone-dependent cancers, though supporting data are sparse, particularly for endometrial cancer. The Health and Environmental Exposure Research (HEER study worked with the Arkansas Central Cancer Registry, Iowa Cancer Registry and Missouri Cancer Registry to obtain names of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer who were willing to be contacted for participation in our case control study. Voter registration lists from Iowa and Missouri were used to randomly select similarly aged women as represented in the case population. Participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on known or suspected endometrial risk factors. Urine kits were sent to participants for home collection and returned for analysis. Our case-control study consisted of 631 incident cases of endometrial cancer diagnosed from January 2010 to October 2012 and 879 age-matched population-based controls, ages 18-81 years (mean age 65 years. We quantified cadmium amounts in urine and standardized these values through creatinine adjustment. Using data from all survey completers, we developed a multivariable model for endometrial cancer. Creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was added to this model. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for endometrial cancer were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, higher creatinine-adjusted cadmium exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase of endometrial cancer risk (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.44. Our results provide evidence that cadmium may increase the risk of endometrial cancer, possibly through estrogenic effects.

  6. Determination of bismuth and cadmium after solid-phase extraction with chromosorb-107 in a syringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokman, Nilgun; Akman, Suleyman

    2004-01-01

    The determination of bismuth and cadmium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Chromosorb-107 filled in a syringe was described. To retain the analytes, the sample solution treated with and without ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was drawn into the syringe filled with Chromosorb-107 and discharged back manually. Bismuth and cadmium were quantitatively sorbed at pH ≥ 6 irrespective of whether the analyte was complexed with APDC prior to passing through the Chromosorb-107. Analyte elements sorbed on the resin were quantitatively eluted with 3.0 M of HNO 3 again drawing and discharging the eluent into the syringe and ejected it back. Optimum flow rates of sample or eluent for sorption and elution processes were 20 ml min -1 for drawing and 20 ml min -1 for discharging in all cases. Bismuth and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The elements could be concentrated by drawing and discharging several portions of sample successively but eluting only one time. The validity of the proposed method was checked with standard reference materials (NIST SRM 1515 Apple-Leaves, CWW-TM-E Waste Water and CRM-SW Sea Water). The analyte elements were quantitatively (>95%) recovered from different matrices irrespective of treated samples with APDC. Detection limits (δ) were 0.8 and 1.2 μg l -1 for Bi and Cd, respectively. The method can be characterized with fastness, simplicity, quantitative recovery and high reproducibility

  7. Effects of barium and cadmium on the population development of the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, V F; Santos, G A P; Derycke, S; Larrazabal, M E L; Fonsêca-Genevois, V G; Moens, T

    2011-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling often involves the use of fluids containing barium and traces of other heavy metals. These may affect the environment, but information on their toxicity to benthic biota remains scant. Here, we present results of a 10-day bioassay with the marine nematode Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina at different loads of barium (0-10 ,000 ppm nominal concentrations) and cadmium (0-12 ppm) in the range of concentrations reported from drilling-impacted sediments. Barium did not affect the fitness and population development of R. (P.) marina at concentrations up to 300 ppm, but did cause a decrease in population abundance and an increase in development time from concentrations of 400-2000 ppm onwards. Increased mortality occurred at 4800 ppm Ba. For cadmium, LOEC and EC₅₀ values for total population abundance were 2.95 and 8.82 ppm, respectively. Cd concentrations as low as 2.40 to 2.68 caused a decrease in the abundance of adult nematodes, indicating that assays covering more generations would likely demonstrate yet more pronounced population-level effects. Our results indicate that oil and gas drilling activities may potentially have important implications for the meiobenthos through the toxicity of barium and associated metals like cadmium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cadmium-related mortality and long-term secular trends in the cadmium body burden of an environmentally exposed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Tim S; Van Hecke, Etienne; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Jin, Yu; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Roels, Harry A; Staessen, Jan A

    2008-12-01

    Few population studies have reported on the long-term changes in the internal cadmium dose and simultaneously occurring mortality. We monitored blood cadmium (BCd), 24-hr urinary cadmium (UCd), and mortality in an environmentally exposed population. Starting from 1985, we followed BCd (until 2003), UCd (until 1996), and mortality (until 2007) among 476 and 480 subjects, randomly recruited from low- exposure areas (LEA) and high-exposure areas (HEA). The last cadmium-producing plant in the HEA closed in 2002. From 1985-1989 to 1991-1996, BCd decreased by 40.3% and 18.9% in the LEA and HEA, respectively (p fashion without threshold.

  9. Selected papers for global `95 concerning plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, W.G. [ed.

    1996-06-14

    This report contains selected papers from the Global `95 Conference ``Evaluation of Emerging Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems,`` held in Versailles, Sept. 11-14, 1995. The 11 papers in Part I are from ``Benefits and Risks of Reprocessing`` sessions. The 7 papers in Part II are some of the more interesting poster papers that relate to the use of Pu for power generation. Finally, the 3 papers are on the topic of management and disposition of Pu from retired nuclear weapons.

  10. Selected papers for global '95 concerning plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains selected papers from the Global '95 Conference ''Evaluation of Emerging Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems,'' held in Versailles, Sept. 11-14, 1995. The 11 papers in Part I are from ''Benefits and Risks of Reprocessing'' sessions. The 7 papers in Part II are some of the more interesting poster papers that relate to the use of Pu for power generation. Finally, the 3 papers are on the topic of management and disposition of Pu from retired nuclear weapons

  11. Mutagenic effect of cadmium on tetranucleotide repeats in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebos, Robbert J.C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: r.slebos@vanderbilt.edu; Li Ming [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Evjen, Amy N. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Coffa, Jordy [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Cadmium is a human carcinogen that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair processes that are all important to carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that cadmium inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in yeast cells and in human cell-free extracts (H.W. Jin, A.B. Clark, R.J.C. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J.A. Taylor, T.A. Kunkel, M.A. Resnick, D.A. Gordenin, Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair, Nat. Genet. 34 (3) (2003) 326-329), but cadmium also inhibits DNA excision repair. For this study, we selected a panel of three hypermutable tetranucleotide markers (MycL1, D7S1482 and DXS981) and studied their suitability as readout for the mutagenic effects of cadmium. We used a clonal derivative of the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 to assess mutation levels in microsatellites after cadmium and/or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure to study effects of cadmium in the presence or absence of base damage. Mutations were measured in clonally expanded cells obtained by limiting dilution after exposure to zero dose, 0.5 {mu}M cadmium, 5 nM MNNG or a combination of 0.5 {mu}M cadmium and 5 nM MNNG. Exposure of HT1080-C1 to cadmium led to statistically significant increases in microsatellite mutations, either with or without concurrent exposure to MNNG. A majority of the observed mutant molecules involved 4-nucleotide shifts consistent with DNA slippage mutations that are normally repaired by MMR. These results provide evidence for the mutagenic effects of low, environmentally relevant levels of cadmium in intact human cells and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is involved.

  12. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Dero, B.

    1990-01-01

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Cow Bone Powder for the Adsorption of Cadmium from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulRahman, A.; Latiff, A. A. A.; Daud, Z.; Ridzuan, M. B.; D, N. F. M.; Jagaba, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have been conducted on the removal of heavy metals from palm oil mill effluent. In this study, cow bones were developed as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium II from POME. A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the prepared activated cow bone powder for the sorption of cadmium II from raw POME. The experiment was carried out under fixed conditions using 100mg/L raw POME combined with different adsorbent dosage of CBP of 184.471 Ra(nm) surface roughness. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the hydrophobic CBP of average contact angle 890 was determined from the relationship between the initial and equilibrium liquid phase concentrations of POME. The optimum adsorption of cadmium II on CBP was at 10g adsorbent dosage for sample 1 and 2 at 97.8% and 96.93% respectively. The least uptake was at 30g adsorbent weight for both samples at average of 95.1% for both samples. The effective removal of cadmium ion showed that CBP has a great potential for the treatment of heavy metal in POME.

  14. Toxicity testing of heavy metals with the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis: high sensitivity to cadmium and arsenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, H.; Bode-Kirchhoff, A.; Madeheim, A.; Wetzel, A. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Biologie

    1998-07-01

    We present data that the formation of nodules (nodulation) may serve for ecotoxicological evaluation of heavy metals in different binding states. Tests were performed in petri dishes with alfalfa (lucerne) seedlings inoculated with Rhizobium meliloti. Cultivation took place in growth cabinets with carefully standardized and documented growth conditions. Data from stressed plants was recorded after 14 days of cultivation on contaminated substrate. A dose responsive decrease in nodulation was found after application of cadmium acetate, cadmium iodide, cadmium chloride, sodium salts of arsenate and arsenite, arsenic pentoxide, and lead nitrate, whereas lead acetate showed no effect up to a concentration of 3 {mu}M. The dose response curves were used to calculate EC10, EC50 and EC90 values. EC50 values for cadmium compounds range from 1.5 to 9.5 {mu}M. Testing different arsenic compounds results in EC50 from 2.6 to 20.1 {mu}M. EC50 of lead nitrate is 2.2 {mu}M. The sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability of this test system is discussed compared to established biotests. (orig./MG)

  15. Blood lead and cadmium levels in preschool children and associated risk factors in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Silva, Júlia Prestes da Rocha; Silva, Agnes Soares da; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves

    2018-05-18

    In Brazil, there are scarce data on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination, especially for more vulnerable populations such as preschool children. In this paper, we answer two questions: (1) What are the exposure levels of lead and cadmium in preschool children, in Sao Paulo, Brazil? and (2) What are the risk factors associated with this exposure? This cross-sectional study included 50 day care centers (DCCs), totaling 2463 children aged 1-4 years. Venous blood samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Questionnaires were administered to the parents. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs) and potential risk factors. The geometric mean for BLLs was 2.16 μg/dL (95% CI: 2.10-2.22 μg/dL), and the 97.5th percentile was 13.9 μg/dL (95% CI: 10.0-17.3 μg/dL). For cadmium exposure, the geometric mean for BCLs was 0.48 μg/L (95% CI: 0.47-0.50 μg/L), and the 95th percentile was 2.57 μg/L (95% CI: 2.26-2.75 μg/L). The DCCs' geographic region was associated with high BLLs and BCLs, indicating hot spots for lead and cadmium exposures. In addition, it was found that the higher the vehicles flow, the higher were the BLLs in children. Red lead in household gates was also an important risk factor for lead exposure. Comparing these results with the findings of the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals by CDC-2013, it was found that in Brazilian preschool children the BLLs are almost three times higher (97.5th percentile) and the BCLs are almost twelve times higher (95th percentile) than those in U.S. children. This information is essential to formulate public health policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electron gun simulation for 95 GHz gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sinha, A.K., E-mail: uday.ceeri@gmail.com, E-mail: aksinha@ceeri.ernet.in [Gyrotron Laboratory, Microwave Tube Area, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani (India); Purohit, L.P. [Department of Physics, Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar (India)

    2011-07-01

    A triode type Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) for a 2 MW, 95 GHz Gyrotron has been designed by using commercially available code EGUN and another in-house developed code MIGANS. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE{sub 24.8} and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The operating voltages of the modulating anode and the accelerating anode are 61 kV and 85 kV respectively. The parametric dependences of modulating anode voltage and cathode magnetic field on the beam quality have also been studied. (author)

  17. Electron gun simulation for 95 GHz gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sinha, A.K.; Purohit, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    A triode type Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) for a 2 MW, 95 GHz Gyrotron has been designed by using commercially available code EGUN and another in-house developed code MIGANS. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE 24.8 and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The operating voltages of the modulating anode and the accelerating anode are 61 kV and 85 kV respectively. The parametric dependences of modulating anode voltage and cathode magnetic field on the beam quality have also been studied. (author)

  18. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  19. Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat dams during gestation. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... It was concluded that cadmium, contrary to previous reports, can pass through the placenta in appreciable quantity to contaminate the fetus to possibly cause fetal ...

  20. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of low level cadmium (Cd) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase ... cancer, aging and a diversity of diseases [5]. Superoxide .... responsible for the long biological half-life of cadmium [12]. ... indicator of the balance between the damaging effects and the ... Scand J Work Environ.

  1. Mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in unfried and fried fish samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activies of copper, zinc etc. This paper presents results of finding on losses of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish. (author)

  2. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  3. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination has an adverse effect on soil productivity and crop production. Phytoremediation is a long term and environmental friendly technology to remediate Cadmium polluted areas. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Hopea adorata for remediation of soils contaminated with Cd.

  4. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  5. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Goswami, Chandrima; Chatterjee, Sumon; Majumder, Arunabha; Mishra, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  6. Cadmium verification measurements of HFIR shroud assembly 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses radiation-based nondestructive examination methods which have been used to successfully verify the presence of cadmium in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) spent-fuel shroud assembly number 22 (SA22). These measurements show, in part, that SA22 is certified to meet the criticality safety specifications for a proposed reconfiguration of the HFIR spent-fuel storage array. Measurement of the unique 558.6-keV gamma-ray from neutron radiative capture on cadmium provided conclusive evidence for the presence of cadmium in the outer shroud of the assembly. Cadmium verification in the center post and outer shroud was performed by measuring the degree of neutron transmission in SA22 relative to two calibration shroud assemblies. Each measurement was performed at a single location on the center post and outer shroud. These measurements do not provide information on the spatial distribution or uniformity of cadmium within an assembly. Separate measurements using analog and digital radiography were performed to (a) globally map the continuity of cadmium internal mass, and (b) locally determine the thickness of cadmium. Radiography results will be reported elsewhere. The measurements reported here should not be used to infer the thickness of cadmium in either the center post or outer shroud of an assembly

  7. Use of cadmium in solution in the EL 4 reactor moderator irreversible fixing of cadmium on the metallic surfaces; Utilisation du cadmium en solution dans le moderateur du reacteur EL 4 - fixation irreversible du cadmium sur les surfaces metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croix, O; Paoli, O; Lecomte, J; Dolle, L; Gallic, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research into the poisoning of the EL-4 reactor by cadmium sulphate, measurements have been made by two different methods of the residual amounts of cadmium liable to be fixed irreversibly on the surfaces in contact with the heavy water. A marked influence of the pH has been noticed. The mechanism of the irreversible fixing is compatible with the hypothesis of an ion-exchange in the surface oxide layer. In a sufficiently wide range of pH the cadmium thus fixed causes very little residual poisoning. The stability of the cadmium sulphate solutions is however rather low in the conditions of poisoning. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes sur l'empoisonnement du reacteur EL-4 par le sulfate de cadmium, les quantites residuelles de cadmium susceptibles de se fixer irreversiblement sur les parois que mouillerait l'eau lourde, ont ete mesurees experimentalement par deux methodes differentes. On observe une influence nette du pH. Le mecanisme de la fixation irreversible est compatible avec l'hypothese d'un echange d'ions dans la pellicule d'oxyde superficielle. Dans des limites suffisamment larges de pH, la cadmium ainsi fixe n'occasionne pas d'empoisonnement residuel important. La stabilite des solutions de sulfate de cadmium dans les conditions de l'empoisonnement est cependant mediocre. (auteurs)

  8. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  9. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  10. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  11. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi; Cheng Shukhan

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis

  12. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  13. Concentration of Cadmium in Cacao Beans and its Relationship with Soil Cadmium in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg-1 established by the European Union) has raised concerns of safety in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate (dark chocolate). Currently, little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil,...

  14. Simultaneous determination of cadmium, iron and tin in canned foods using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Danilo J; Junior, Mario M S; Brandao, Geovani C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2016-06-01

    A method was established to simultaneously determine cadmium, iron and tin in canned-food samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). The quantification step has been performed using the primary line (228.802nm) for cadmium and the adjacent secondary lines (228.725nm and 228.668nm) for iron and tin, respectively. The selected chemical modifier was an acid solution that contained a mixture of 0.1% (w/v) Pd and 0.05% (w/v) Mg. The absorbance signals were measured based on the peak area using 3 pixels for cadmium and 5 pixels for iron and tin. Under these conditions, cadmium, iron and tin have been determined in canned-food samples using the external calibration technique based on aqueous standards, where the limits of quantification were 2.10ngg(-1) for cadmium, 1.95mgkg(-1) for iron and 3.00mgkg(-1) for tin, and the characteristic masses were 1.0pg for cadmium, 0.9ng for iron and 1.1ng for tin. The precision was evaluated using two solutions of each metal ion, and the results, which were expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD%), were 3.4-6.8%. The method accuracy for cadmium and iron was confirmed by analyzing a certified reference material of apple leaves (NIST 1515), which was supplied by NIST. However, for tin, the accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results of the proposed method and another analytical technique (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). The proposed procedure was applied to determine cadmium, iron and tin in canned samples of peeled tomato and sardine. Eleven samples were analyzed, and the analyte concentrations were 3.57-62.9ngg(-1), 2.68-31.48mgkg(-1) and 4.06-122.0mgkg(-1) for cadmium, iron and tin, respectively. In all analyzed samples, the cadmium and tin contents were lower than the permissible maximum levels for these metals in canned foods in the Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun; Qian, Yitai

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium by basic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, P P; Balog, J S [Uzhgorodskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-12-01

    Two variants of selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium with basic dyes have been developed. In the first one, cadmium is extracted as the iodide by a tributyl phosphate solution in benzene from aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M KI (pH 6-10). Then the cadmium is transformed into a coloured ion associate by treatment of the extracts with Malachite Green in the presence of iodide ions. In the second case, the extract is equilibrated with an equeous solutions of Rhodamine B in the presence of KBr. In this variant, the cadmium is transformed into an anionic iodide-bromide complex which reacts with Rhodamine B cations to form an ion associate. Procedures have been developed of selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium in sulphur, indium-gallium and zinc concentrates, Zn-As-Cd-Se and Zn-As-Cd-Te films, Cd-S-In and Ga-Sb-Cd-Te alloys.

  18. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  19. Effect of cadmium on lung lysosomal enzymes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, S.N.; Hollinger, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Labilization of lysosomal enzymes is often associated with the general process of inflammation. The present study investigated the effect of the pneumotoxin cadmium on the release and activity of two lung lysosomal enzymes. Incubation of rat lung lysosomes with cadmium resulted in the release of β-glucuronidase but not acid phosphatase. The failure to ''release'' acid phosphatase appears to be the result of a direct inhibitory effect of cadmium on this enzyme. The K I for cadmium was determined to be 26.3 μM. The differential effect of cadmium on these two lysosomal enzymes suggests that caution should be exercised in selecting the appropriate enzyme marker for assessing lysosomal fragility in the presence of this toxicant. Furthermore, the differential basal release rate of the two enzymes from lung lysosomes may reflect the cellular heterogeneity of the lung. (orig.)

  20. Transient behavior of cadmium in a grassland arthropod food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hook, R.I.; Yates, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Biological assimilation and transport of cadmium were determined for an arthropod food chain in an east Tennessee grassland community. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that there were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in assimilation rates (17 percent assimilation per day) or biological half-lives (7 days) of 109 Cd either as soluble nitrate or insoluble oxide in crickets under identical conditions. Field experiments demonstrated that primary consumers (crickets) accumulated 109 Cd much more rapidly (uptake rate = 0.55 day -1 ) than did the spider predators (uptake rate = 0.08 day -1 ). Equilibrium concentrations in crickets were obtained in 9 days (0.04 ppM cadmium), while equilibrium was not reached in spiders during the 30-day study. Food-chain concentration of cadmium did not occur as crickets accumulated levels of cadmium 60 percent of that in their vegetation food sources and spiders accumulated only 70 percent of the cadmium present in the cricket tissues

  1. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  2. Do cadmium, lead, and aluminum in drinking water increase the risk of hip fractures? A NOREPOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between cadmium, lead, and aluminum in municipality drinking water and the incidence of hip fractures in the Norwegian population. A trace metals survey in 566 waterworks was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country (1994-2000). In all those supplied from these waterworks, 5,438 men and 13,629 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture. Poisson regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, region of residence, urbanization, and type of water source as well as other possibly bone-related water quality factors. Effect modification by background variables and interactions between water quality factors were examined (correcting for false discovery rate). Men exposed to a relatively high concentration of cadmium (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.01, 1.20) had an increased risk of fracture. The association between relatively high lead and hip fracture risk was significant in the oldest age group (66-85 years) for both men (IRR = 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21) and women (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.16). Effect modification by degree of urbanization on hip fracture risk in men was also found for all three metals: cadmium, lead, and aluminum. In summary, a relatively high concentration of cadmium, lead, and aluminum measured in drinking water increased the risk of hip fractures, but the associations depended on gender, age, and urbanization degree. This study could help in elucidating the complex effects on bone health by risk factors found in the environment.

  3. Cadmium, type 2 diabetes, and kidney damage in a cohort of middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barregard, Lars; Bergström, Göran; Fagerberg, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that diabetic patients are more sensitive to the nephrotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) compared to non-diabetics, but few studies have examined this in humans, and results are inconsistent. Aim: To test the hypothesis that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have higher risk of kidney damage from cadmium compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: All 64-year-old women in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited to a screening examination including repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. Random samples of women with DM, IGT, and NGT were recruited for further clinical examinations. Serum creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Albumin (Alb) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were analyzed in a 12 h urine sample. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between markers of kidney function (eGFR, Alb, and RBP) and quartiles of B-Cd and U-Cd were evaluated in models, including also blood pressure and smoking habits. Results: The mean B-Cd (n=590) was 0.53 µg/L (median 0.34 µg/L). In multivariable models, a significant interaction was seen between high B-Cd (upper quartile, >0.56 µg/L) and DM (point estimate +0.40 mg Alb/12 h, P=0.04). In stratified analyzes, the effect of high B-Cd on Alb excretion was significant in women with DM (53% higher Alb/12 h, P=0.03), but not in women with IGT or NGT. Models with urinary albumin adjusted for creatinine showed similar results. In women with DM, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) for microalbuminuria (>15 mg/12 h) was increased in the highest quartile of B-Cd vs. B-Cd quartiles 1–3 in women with DM (OR 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–12). No such effect was found in women with IGT or NGT. There were no associations between B-Cd and eGFR or excretion of RBP, and no differences between women with DM, IGT, or NGT

  4. Cadmium, type 2 diabetes, and kidney damage in a cohort of middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg P.O. Box 414, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Bergström, Göran, E-mail: goran.bergstrom@wlab.gu.se [Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Wallenberg Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.se [Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Wallenberg Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    Background: It has been proposed that diabetic patients are more sensitive to the nephrotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) compared to non-diabetics, but few studies have examined this in humans, and results are inconsistent. Aim: To test the hypothesis that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have higher risk of kidney damage from cadmium compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: All 64-year-old women in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited to a screening examination including repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. Random samples of women with DM, IGT, and NGT were recruited for further clinical examinations. Serum creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Albumin (Alb) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were analyzed in a 12 h urine sample. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between markers of kidney function (eGFR, Alb, and RBP) and quartiles of B-Cd and U-Cd were evaluated in models, including also blood pressure and smoking habits. Results: The mean B-Cd (n=590) was 0.53 µg/L (median 0.34 µg/L). In multivariable models, a significant interaction was seen between high B-Cd (upper quartile, >0.56 µg/L) and DM (point estimate +0.40 mg Alb/12 h, P=0.04). In stratified analyzes, the effect of high B-Cd on Alb excretion was significant in women with DM (53% higher Alb/12 h, P=0.03), but not in women with IGT or NGT. Models with urinary albumin adjusted for creatinine showed similar results. In women with DM, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) for microalbuminuria (>15 mg/12 h) was increased in the highest quartile of B-Cd vs. B-Cd quartiles 1–3 in women with DM (OR 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–12). No such effect was found in women with IGT or NGT. There were no associations between B-Cd and eGFR or excretion of RBP, and no differences between women with DM, IGT, or NGT

  5. The operational staff during exercise RESUME-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    With more than 100 participants entering the exercise RESUME-95 the Exercise Planning Committee decided to establish an operational staff named Directing Staff (DISTAFF) to ensure that the exercise plan was followed, the planned activities were carried out and to intervene if anything went wrong. In general the duties of the operational staff involve tasks such as secretarial assistance, keeping log of the progress of the situation and gathering, updating and distributing information on all aspects of the situation. Throughout the entire event it is the staff's responsibility to keep a general view of the current situation and to make the necessary plans for the progress of the situation based on the available information. Furthermore the staff should ensure necessary contact to the public and to the media. (au)

  6. Topfuel '95: Fuel for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1995, 425 nuclear power stations with an installed capacity of 360 263 MW were in operation in 30 countries of the world, and a total of 60 units with a capacity of 53 580 MWe were being cnstructed in 18 countries. The supply of nuclear fuels to these nuclear power stations was the central issue of the Topfuel '95 - Topical Meeting on Nuclear Fuel. More than 350 experts from 23 countries had been invited to Wuerzburg by the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) and the European Nuclear Society (ENS). The conference was accompanied by an exhibition at which twelve inernational fuel cycle enterprises presented their products, processes, and problem solutions. The poster session in the hall of the Cogress Center Wuerzburg exhibited 42 contributions which are be discussed in the second part of the conference report. (orig./UA) [de

  7. The operational staff during exercise RESUME-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J. [Jensen Consult, Virum (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    With more than 100 participants entering the exercise RESUME-95 the Exercise Planning Committee decided to establish an operational staff named Directing Staff (DISTAFF) to ensure that the exercise plan was followed, the planned activities were carried out and to intervene if anything went wrong. In general the duties of the operational staff involve tasks such as secretarial assistance, keeping log of the progress of the situation and gathering, updating and distributing information on all aspects of the situation. Throughout the entire event it is the staff`s responsibility to keep a general view of the current situation and to make the necessary plans for the progress of the situation based on the available information. Furthermore the staff should ensure necessary contact to the public and to the media. (au).

  8. The operational staff during exercise RESUME-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J [Jensen Consult, Virum (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    With more than 100 participants entering the exercise RESUME-95 the Exercise Planning Committee decided to establish an operational staff named Directing Staff (DISTAFF) to ensure that the exercise plan was followed, the planned activities were carried out and to intervene if anything went wrong. In general the duties of the operational staff involve tasks such as secretarial assistance, keeping log of the progress of the situation and gathering, updating and distributing information on all aspects of the situation. Throughout the entire event it is the staff`s responsibility to keep a general view of the current situation and to make the necessary plans for the progress of the situation based on the available information. Furthermore the staff should ensure necessary contact to the public and to the media. (au).

  9. Cadmium purification with a vibrating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, N.; Esna-Ashari, M.; Biallas, H.; Kangas, K.

    1986-01-01

    While electrolytically producing zinc from sulfide concentrates, purification is the most significant step. Impurities such as Co, Sn, Ge, Ni and Sb can cause extensive redissolution of the electrodeposited zinc, thus diminishing current efficiency. Other metals, particularly cadmium, lead and copper, can negatively affect zinc properties by deposition on the cathode. It is standard practice to use atomized zinc dust as a reducing agent in the purification process, either alone or combined with additives. In conventional operations, special facilities are necessary to produce zinc dust in an amount close to 8wt% of cathode production. This paper examines a technique which makes use of zinc granules instead of dust

  10. Electromechanical properties of polycrystalline cadmium pyroniobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, V.A.; Tarasova, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature dependences of electromechanical properties (piezoelectric modulus, elastic pliability, mechanical high quality and dielectric permittivity) as well as thermal expansion of polycristalline samples of Cd 2 Nb 2 O 7 cadmium pyroniobate are investigated. On curves obtained a considerable number of maxima is observed which when electric field applied to samples shiff, αin in strength or weaken, appear or disappear. A part of these maxima undoubtedly is related to phase transitions. Some of them are manifested probably only when the electric field of sufficient value is applied. A part of maxima possibly is related to domain-relaxation processes

  11. Valence electron momentum distributions in cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Weigold, E.; Mitroy, J.

    1982-08-01

    The valence 5s and 4d electron momentum distributions in cadmium have been measured using noncoplanar symmetric (e, 2e) electron coincidence spectroscopy at a total energy of 1200eV. They are in close agreement with Hartree-Fock momentum distributions both in shape and relative magnitudes. Some satellite lines of very low intensity have been detected. A CI calculation of the Cd ground state and several Cd + ion states has been carried out to predict cross reactions for the ground state and various satellite transitions. The predictions are in agreement with the data

  12. Ethanol dehydration on doped cadmium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salaam, K.M.

    1975-01-01

    The vapour phase catalytic dehydration of ethanol over Fe impregnated cadmium oxide was investigated between 200-450 0 C in atmospheric pressure. Electron transfer mechanisms involved in adsorption and catalytic dehydration reaction were investigated. The change in electrical conductivity of the catalyst resulting from calcination, adsorption and surface reaction processes were studied. Adsorption conductivity at low temperature ( 0 C) indicates that ethanol adsorbs as an electron donor. A mechanism of creation of interstitial Cd atoms responsible for the catalytic dehydration of ethanol on the catalyst surface was suggested. (orig.) [de

  13. Fast-neutron scattering from elemental cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-07-01

    Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental cadmium are measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at incident-neutron energy intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Concurrently, lumped-level neutron inelastic-excitation cross sections are measured. The experimental results are used to deduce parameters of an optical-statistical model that is descriptive of the observables and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  14. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaochuan; Zhang Shirong; Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting; Gong Guoshu; Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji

    2010-01-01

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg -1 ) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L -1 ) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations ≤ 90 mg kg -1 and ≤ 20 mg L -1 in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg -1 and 1006.95 μg pot -1 in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg -1 and 668.42 μg pot -1 in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  15. Successful micropropagation of the cadmium hyperaccumulator Viola baoshanensis (Violaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Tian; Deng, Dong-Mei; Peng, Guang-Tian; Deng, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Jun; Liao, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Viola baoshanensis is one of the most rare cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulators, however, it is hard to propagate. Micropropagation has been applied to solve the problems with propagation of a few heavy metal hyperaccumulators. Therefore there is a high likelihood that micropropagation may offer a suitable method for large-scale propagation of V. baoshanensis To test this hypothesis, three types of explants were used for shoot regeneration and various combinations of four plant growth regulators were used to improve shoot regeneration efficiency from leaflet of V. baoshanensis. Best shoot regeneration efficiency was obtained by incubating leaflet in a 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 2.5 oM BA + 2.5 microM IBA, therein shoot regeneration rate was 70.9% and the number of shoots formation per explant was 22.4. Rooting was achieved from almost all regenerated shoot growing on 1/2 MS medium without plant growth regulator. Micropropagated seedlings were acclimatized under greenhouse conditions and 95% of them survived and showed no visible morphological variation compared to their donor plant. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between regenerated and seed-germinated V. baoshanensis in Cd tolerance and accumulation. These results suggested that an efficient and rapid micropropogation system was successfully developed for V. baoshanensis.

  16. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaochuan [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Gong Guoshu [Agricultural College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg{sup -1}) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L{sup -1}) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations {<=} 90 mg kg{sup -1} and {<=} 20 mg L{sup -1} in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 1006.95 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 668.42 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  17. Cadmium induced changes in cell organelles: An ultrastructural study using cadmium sensitive and resistant muntjac fibroblast cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ord, M.J.; Chibber, R.; Bouffler, S.D.

    1988-09-01

    A detailed electron microscopy study of cadmium sensitive and resistant muntjac fibroblast cell lines has identified a wide range of intracellular damage following exposure to cadmium. Damaged organelles included cell membrane, mitochondria, Golgi cisternae and tubular network, chromatin, nucleoli, microfilaments and ribosomes. Although cell membrane damage was generally the earliest indication of adverse cadmium action, particularly with continuous cadmium exposures, cells could tolerate extensive membrane loss. Mitochondrial distortion and some damage to Golgi was also tolerated. The turning point at which cadmium became lethal was generally marked by a cascade of events which included damage to both nuclear and cytoplasmic components. These results for fibroblasts are discussed and compared with damage reported in other types of cells.

  18. "Parlament 95" = "Parliament 95" / Ionel Lehari, Janno Roos ; kommenteerinud Illi Ong

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehari, Ionel, 1967-

    2015-01-01

    Rändnäitus "Parlament 95" Eesti suuremate linnade kaubanduskeskustes. Autorid Janno Roos, Andres Labi (Ruumilabor), Ionel Lehari, Maret Põldre (Identity), Taavi Rull. Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2014/2015 parima installatsiooni eest

  19. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  20. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed. • Neonatal lead

  1. Patterns of gene expression in carp liver after exposure to a mixture of waterborne and dietary cadmium using a custom-made microarray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynders, Hans; Ven, Karlijn van der; Moens, Lotte N.; Remortel, Piet van; De Coen, Wim M.; Blust, Ronny

    2006-01-01

    Gene expression changes in carp liver tissue were studied after acute (3 and 24 h) and subchronic (7 and 28 days) exposure to a mixture of waterborne (9, 105 and 480 μg/l) and dietary (9.5, 122 and 144 μg/g) cadmium, using a custom-made microarray. Suppression subtractive hybridization-PCR (SSH-PCR) was applied to isolate a set of 643 liver genes, involved in multiple biological pathways, such as energy metabolism (e.g. glucokinase), immune response (e.g. complement C3) and stress and detoxification (e.g. cytochrome P450 2F2, glutathione-S-transferase pi). These genes were subsequently spotted on glass-slides for the construction of a custom-made microarray. Resulting microarray hybridizations indicated a highly dynamic response to cadmium exposure. At low exposure concentrations (9 μg/l through water and 9.5 μg/g dry weight through food) mostly energy-related genes (e.g. glucokinase, elastase) were influenced, while a general stress response was obvious through induction of several stress-related genes, including hemopexin and cytochrome P450 2F2, at high cadmium concentrations. In addition, fish exposed to the highest cadmium concentrations showed liver damage after 7 days of exposure, as measured by elevated alanine transaminase activity in plasma and increased liver water content (wet-to-dry weight ratio). Moreover, decreased hematocrit and growth were found at the end of the experiment. Altogether this study clearly demonstrated the importance of varying exposure conditions for the characterization of the molecular impact of cadmium and showed that microarray results can provide important information, required to unravel the molecular events and responses related to cadmium exposure

  2. Study on damage of DNA in mice induced by mercury cadmium and/or lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaopan; Zhou Jianhua; Shi Xijing; Yan Liping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the joint injury actions of mercury, cadmium and/or lead on DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. Methods: The blood specimens were obtained from mice at the 2 day after the peritoneal injections. DNA damages were determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and 3 H-TdR incorporation. Results: Acquired by SCGE technique, tail movement of DNA in mercury-cadmium-lead group was significantly greater than that in the single exposure group, the difference was significant too between mercury-cadmium group and cadmium group, cadmium-lead group and cadmium group. The results of 3 H-TdR incorporation showed: the values of DPM in mercury-cadmium group and cadmium-lead group were lower than that in the single exposure group and the value of DPM lowered more significantly after exposure to mercury-cadmium-lead. Conclusion: The combined effects of mercury, cadmium, lead on DNA damage are more significant. (author)

  3. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) efficiently alleviates the acute toxicity of injected cadmium chloride, but enhances the acute toxicity of orally administered cadmium chloride. Further, DDC induces extensive changes in organ distribution of cadmium, and mobilizes aged cadmium depots. The present study...... investigates effects of DDC on the toxicokinetics of cadmium at lower doses of cadmium than those used in previous studies. During single exposure to subtoxic oral doses of cadmium chloride DDC enhanced intestinal cadmium absorption, both after intraperitoneal and oral administration of DDC. In such acute...... exposure experiments orally administered DDC only slightly changed the relative organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, while intraperitoneal administration of DDC induced extensive changes in organ preference of absorbed cadmium. The relative hepatic and testicular deposition was reduced, while...

  4. Direct examination of cadmium bonding in rat tissues dosed with mine wastes and cadmium-containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diacomanolis, V.; Ng, J. C.; Sadler, R.; Harris, H. H.; Nomura, M.; Noller, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Direct examination by XANES and EXAFS of metal bonding in tissue can be demonstrated by examining cadmium uptake and bonding in animal tissue maintained at cryogenic temperatures. XANES at the K-edge of cadmium were collected at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR), NW10A beam line at KEK-Tsukuba-Japan. Rats fed with 1g mine waste containing 8-400 mg/kg cadmium per 200g body weight (b.w.) or dosed by oral gavage with either cadmium chloride solution alone (at 6 mg/kg b.w.) or in combination with other salts (As, Cu or Zn), 5 days/week for 6 weeks, had 0.1-7.5 and 8-86 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney, respectively. Rats given intraperitoneally (ip) or intravenously (iv) 1-4 times with 1 mg/kg b.w. cadmium solution had 30-120 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney. Tissues from rats were kept and transferred at cryogenic temperature and XANES were recorded at 20 K. The spectra for rat liver samples suggested conjugation of cadmium with glutathione or association with the sulfide bond (Cd-S) of proteins and peptides. EXAFS of rat liver fed by Cd and Zn solutions showed that Cd was clearly bound to S ligands with an inter-atomic distance of 2.54 A ring for Cd-S that was similar to cadmium sulfide with an inter-atomic distance of 2.52 A ring for Cd-S. Liver or kidney of rats fed with mine wastes did not give an edge in the XANES spectra indicating little uptake of cadmium by the animals. Longer and higher dosing regimen may be required in order to observe the same Cd-S bond in the rat tissue from mine wastes, including confirmation by EXAFS.

  5. Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Grandér, Margaretha; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Schindler, Birgit K.; Schoeters, Greet; Smolders, Roel; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Blumen, Luies; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Mørck, Thit A.; Joas, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults and developmental effects in children. This study is the first pan-European human biomonitoring project that succeeded in performing harmonized measurements of Cd in urine in a comparable way in mother–child couples from 16 European countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the overall Cd exposure and significant determinants of Cd exposure. A study population of 1632 women (24–52 years of age), and 1689 children (5–12 years of age), from 32 rural and urban areas, was examined within a core period of 6 months in 2011–2012. Women were stratified as smokers and non-smokers. As expected, smoking mothers had higher geometric mean (gm) urinary cadmium (UCd; 0.24 µg/g crea; n=360) than non-smoking mothers (gm 0.18 µg/g crea; n=1272; p<0.0001), and children had lower UCd (gm 0.065 µg/g crea; n=1689) than their mothers at the country level. Non-smoking women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home had 14% (95% CI 1–28%) higher UCd than those who were not exposed to ETS at home (p=0.04). No influence of ETS at home or other places on UCd levels was detected in children. Smoking women with primary education as the highest educational level of the household had 48% (95% CI 18–86%) higher UCd than those with tertiary education (p=0.0008). The same observation was seen in non-smoking women and in children; however they were not statistically significant. In children, living in a rural area was associated with 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.03) compared to living in an urban area. Children, 9–12 years had 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.04) than children 5–8 years. About 1% of the mothers, and 0.06% of the children, exceeded the tolerable

  6. Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Marika, E-mail: marika.berglund@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Kristin; Grandér, Margaretha [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Intitute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Schindler, Birgit K. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance—Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA) (Germany); Schoeters, Greet; Smolders, Roel [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health, Mol (Belgium); Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair [Public Health England, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Blumen, Luies [Environmental Health Sciences International, Hulst (Netherlands); Horvat, Milena [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Copenhagen (Denmark); Joas, Anke [BiPRO GmbH, Munich (Germany); and others

    2015-08-15

    The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults and developmental effects in children. This study is the first pan-European human biomonitoring project that succeeded in performing harmonized measurements of Cd in urine in a comparable way in mother–child couples from 16 European countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the overall Cd exposure and significant determinants of Cd exposure. A study population of 1632 women (24–52 years of age), and 1689 children (5–12 years of age), from 32 rural and urban areas, was examined within a core period of 6 months in 2011–2012. Women were stratified as smokers and non-smokers. As expected, smoking mothers had higher geometric mean (gm) urinary cadmium (UCd; 0.24 µg/g crea; n=360) than non-smoking mothers (gm 0.18 µg/g crea; n=1272; p<0.0001), and children had lower UCd (gm 0.065 µg/g crea; n=1689) than their mothers at the country level. Non-smoking women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home had 14% (95% CI 1–28%) higher UCd than those who were not exposed to ETS at home (p=0.04). No influence of ETS at home or other places on UCd levels was detected in children. Smoking women with primary education as the highest educational level of the household had 48% (95% CI 18–86%) higher UCd than those with tertiary education (p=0.0008). The same observation was seen in non-smoking women and in children; however they were not statistically significant. In children, living in a rural area was associated with 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.03) compared to living in an urban area. Children, 9–12 years had 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.04) than children 5–8 years. About 1% of the mothers, and 0.06% of the children, exceeded the tolerable

  7. Physiological response of Arundo donax to cadmium stress by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunhui; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Hongping

    2018-06-01

    The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (spectroscopy technique for the non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the plants stressed with heavy metals, Arundo donax is suitable for phytoremediation of cadmium -contaminated wetland.

  8. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  9. STS-95 Mission Highlights Resources Tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-95 flight crew, Commander Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Scott E. Parazynski, Stephen K. Robinson, and Pedro Duque, and Payload Specialists Chiaki Mukai and John H. Glenn present a video overview of their space flight. They are seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. Once on-orbit the primary objectives include conducting a variety of science experiments in the pressurized SPACEHAB module, the deployment and retrieval of the Spartan free-flyer payload, and operations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Orbiting Systems Test (HOST) and the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payloads being carried in the payload bay. Throughout the presentation, the astronauts take turns narrating particular aspects of the mission with which they were involved.

  10. Unsaturated zone flow modeling for GWTT-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.K.; Altman, S.J.; McKenna, S.A.; Arnold, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    In accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation regarding groundwater travel times at geologic repositories, various models of unsaturated flow in fractured tuff have been developed and implemented to assess groundwater travel times at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Kaplan used one-dimensional models to describe the uncertainty and sensitivity of travel times to various processes at Yucca Mountain. Robey and Arnold et al. used a two-dimensional equivalent continuum model (ECM) with inter- and intra-unit heterogeneity in an attempt to assess fast-flow paths through the unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain (GWTT-94). However, significant flow through the fractures in previous models was not simulated due to the characteristics of the ECM, which requires the matrix to be nearly saturated before flow through the fractures is initiated. In the current study (GWTT-95), four two-dimensional cross-sections at Yucca Mountain are simulated using both the ECM and dual-permeability (DK) models. The properties of both the fracture and matrix domains are geostatistically simulated, yielding completely heterogeneous continua. Then, simulations of flow through the four cross-sections are performed using spatially nonuniform infiltration boundary conditions. Steady-state groundwater travel times from the potential repository to the water table are calculated

  11. Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, Z.; Cupr, P.; Zlevorova-Zlamalikova V.; Komarek, J.; Dusek, L.; Holoubek, I.

    2003-01-01

    Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r 2 =0.96, P<0.001). The results of the ecotoxicologica evaluation, which represent the bioavailable fraction of cadmium, correlated well with DTPA extractability and also with the concentration of free cadmium ion, which is recognized as the most bioavailable metal form. The results of the WHAM as well as the results of extraction experiments showed a strong binding of cadmium to organic matter and a weak sorption of cadmium to clay minerals

  12. Bacterial bioremediation of aquatic cadmium 11 of area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Malik, S. A.; Javed, M.; Qamar, I.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium Cd/sup +2/ pollution arises mainly from contamination of minerals used in agriculture and from industrial process. The usual situation is of large volume of soil and H/sub 2/O that are contaminated with low but significant concentration of Cd/sup +2/. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metal both to human health and aquatic ecosystem. Microorganisms have developed different strategies to regulate uptake and to detoxify heavy metals viz; by different mechanisms i.e. by adsorption to cell surface, by intercellular accumulation, precipitation, biosynthesis of metallothioneins to volatile compounds. Microcosm experiments in chemostat incubated at 20 deg. C showed that Cadmium Contamination does not greatly affect bacterial communities in cultures contaminated with up to 1mg CdI/sup -1/. acterial productivity remains unchanged and Cadmium- resistant strains arise quickly and in great number. The cadmium accumulation by bacteria depend on the bacterial productivity. The free bacteria can accumulate up to 1200 ppm Cadmium Where as the adhering bacteria concentrate up to 6100 ppm. At a steady state, 11-29% Cadmium is removed from the water phase of cultures. This paper includes Cd (II) removal by Bacteria from waste water of Wah Cantonment Pakistan. (author)

  13. Gravimetric determination of cadmium with o-phenanthroline and iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Kazunori; Taga, Mitsuhiko; Hikime, Seiichiro

    1976-01-01

    Cadmium forms insoluble mixed ligand complex with o-phenanthroline and iodide ions. By using the complex a new gravimetric method for the determination of cadmium was investigated. The recommended analytical procedure is as follows: Adjust pH value of a solution containing 5 to 45 mg cadmium to 4 with 3 M acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution. Add over threefold moles of potassium iodide to the solution and heat to just before boiling. To the solution add 0.1% ascorbic acid solution and then 0.1 M o-phenanthroline solution drop by drop in excess with stirring, and cool the mixture to room temperature. Filter the precipitates and wash first with 0.01% potassium iodide solution and then with water. Dry the precipitates at 110 0 C for two hours and weigh as Cd(o-phen) 2 I 2 (I). The gravimetric factor of the complex for cadmium is 0.1547. Chemical composition of the precipitate is variable when o-phenanthroline is added less than twofold moles to cadmium. Adding the o-phenanthroline solution 2.4-fold moles against cadmium, the ternary complex (I) precipitates quantitatively. Though a large excess of iodide ion in the solution contaminated the precipitate, the contamination was avoided when precipitation was carryed out at high temperature and in the presence of ascorbic acid. By the presented procedure 5 to 45 mg of cadmium are determined with a standard deviation of 0 C. (JPN)

  14. Comprehensive study of the effects of age, iron deficiency, diabetes mellitus, and cadmium burden on dietary cadmium absorption in cadmium-exposed female Japanese farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Kayoko; Ikeda, Yoko; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2004-01-01

    The absorption rate of dietary cadmium (Cd) was investigated among 38 female farmers who had been exposed to Cd at levels close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI); these levels were much higher than those examined in previous studies. The study group composed of 7 diabetics and their 13 age-matched controls and 6 anemic subjects and their 12 controls. With their informed consent, the study participants were confined in an inn for 7 nights and 8 days to collect all feces and urine and duplicates of all food consumed. The dietary Cd absorption rate was calculated for each subject from her total Cd intake and fecal excretion. The means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the diabetic group and the anemic group did not differ significantly from those of their respective controls. By individual analysis using all 38 subjects, however, significant Pearson's correlation coefficients were observed between Cd absorption rate and age, serum ferritin, serum iron, and blood and urine Cd levels. Among these, multiple regression analysis revealed that only age was a significant factor contributing to Cd absorption rate. The actual Cd absorption rate in the youngest age group (20-39 years) was 44.0%, which was highly accelerated compared with the rate in the total subject group of 6.5%, while zero to negative balance was observed in the older subjects. These results demonstrate that age, rather than iron deficiency, diabetes mellitus (DM), or Cd burden, is the only independent factor affecting the Cd absorption rate, suggesting that young women are always at high risk

  15. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects.

  16. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  17. Reactions of organic zinc- and cadmium elementoxides with ethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.A.; Krasnov, Yu.N.

    1980-01-01

    Studied are reactions of triphenylmethoxy, -triphenylsiloxyethylzinc and -cadmium with ethylene oxide in ratio of 1:1. Reactions have been carried out in tolyene solutions in ampules sealed in argon atmosphere. It is found that interaction of triphenylsiloxy-, triphenylmethoxyethylcadmium and triphenylsiloxyethylzinc with ethylene oxide occurs at the metal-carbon bond with formation of implantation products. Triphenylmethoxyethylzinc reacts with ethylene oxide both at the metal-carbon and metal-oxygen bonds. Alkoxytriphenylsiloxyderivatives of zinc and cadmium are thermally instable and decompose under the conditions of reaction (130 deg C) with migration of phenyl group from silicon to zinc or cadmium, giving alkoxyphenylderivative and with bensene splitting out

  18. Determination of cadmium in aluminium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, D.A.; Erlijman, L.H.

    1978-12-01

    A direct method for the determination of cadmium in elemental aluminium is described. Metal samples are dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid and cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in an air-acetylene flame. Interference by non-specific absorption observed at the analytical wavelength incorrected for by means of a non-absorbing line emitted by the hollow-cathode lamp. Relatively large amounts of arsenic do not interfere. The minimun determinable concentration of cadmium for this procedure is 2-3 ppm, expressed on aluminium basis. (author) [es

  19. Slow recombination centers in cadmium selenide monocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyntyna, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of annealing when concentration of selenium Vacancies decreases due to their diffusion towards the surface, show recombination K-centers begin to influence the photoelectric properties of monocrystalline cadmium selenide layers. Energy levels of K-centers are located by 0.23-0.25 eV over the valent zone ceiling. The nature of K-centers is determined by the presence in the cadmium selenide layer structure of intrisic defects-cadmium vacancies in contrast to r-centers of slow recombination which are bound with impurities in a semiconductor material

  20. Removal of cadmium and cyanide from aqueous solutions through electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder Luciano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of galvanic industry wastewaters containing heavy metals and cyanide is one of the largest sources of water pollution. The use of the electrodialysis technique for the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing approximately 0.0089 mol L-1 cadmium and 0.081 mol L-1 cyanide was studied using a five-compartment electrodialysis cell. The results demonstrate that the removal of cadmium and cyanide depends on the applied current density and it is limited by the precipitation of cadmium on the cation-exchange membrane in the diluate central cell compartment.

  1. The relationship between the bone mineral density and urinary cadmium concentration of residents in an industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Minah; Paek, Domyung [Institute of Health and Environment, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Gwanak-599, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Chungsik, E-mail: csyoon@snu.ac.kr [Institute of Health and Environment, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Gwanak-599, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: An association between cadmium exposure and bone mineral density (BMD) has been demonstrated in elderly women, but has not been well studied in youths and men. Some studies report either no or a weak association between cadmium exposure and bone damage. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the urinary cadmium (U-Cd) levels and BMD of females and males of all ages. Methods: A total of 804 residents near an industrial complex were surveyed in 2007. U-Cd and BMD on the heel (non-dominant calcaneus) were analyzed with AAS-GTA and Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Demographic characteristics were collected by structured questionnaires. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined by BMD cut-off values and T-scores set by the WHO; T score>-1, normal; -2.5=}1.0 {mu}g/g creatinine) in females (OR=2.92; 95% CI, 1.51-5.64) and in males (OR=3.37; 95% CI, 1.09-10.38). With the multiple linear regression model, the BMD of the adult group was negatively associated with U-Cd (<0.05), gender (female, p<0.001) and age (p<0.001). The BMD of participants who were {<=}19 years of age was negatively associated with gender (female, p<0.01), whereas it was positively associated with age and BMI (p<0.001). BMD was not associated with exercise, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, job or parental education. Conclusion: Results suggested that U-Cd might be associated with osteopenia as well as osteoporosis in both male and female adults. Age and female gender were negatively associated with BMD in the adult group, whereas age was positively

  2. The relationship between the bone mineral density and urinary cadmium concentration of residents in an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Minah; Paek, Domyung; Yoon, Chungsik

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association between cadmium exposure and bone mineral density (BMD) has been demonstrated in elderly women, but has not been well studied in youths and men. Some studies report either no or a weak association between cadmium exposure and bone damage. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the urinary cadmium (U-Cd) levels and BMD of females and males of all ages. Methods: A total of 804 residents near an industrial complex were surveyed in 2007. U-Cd and BMD on the heel (non-dominant calcaneus) were analyzed with AAS-GTA and Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Demographic characteristics were collected by structured questionnaires. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined by BMD cut-off values and T-scores set by the WHO; T score>-1, normal; -2.5< T score <-1, osteopenia; and T score <-2.5, osteoporosis. Logistic and multiple linear regressions were applied to estimate the association between U-Cd levels and BMD. Results: The U-Cd levels in females (0.64 μg/g creatinine) were higher than those in males (0.48 μg/g creatinine) (p<0.001). With the logistic regression model, osteopenia was associated with high U-Cd levels (≥1.0 μg/g creatinine) in females (OR=2.92; 95% CI, 1.51-5.64) and in males (OR=3.37; 95% CI, 1.09-10.38). With the multiple linear regression model, the BMD of the adult group was negatively associated with U-Cd (<0.05), gender (female, p<0.001) and age (p<0.001). The BMD of participants who were ≤19 years of age was negatively associated with gender (female, p<0.01), whereas it was positively associated with age and BMI (p<0.001). BMD was not associated with exercise, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, job or parental education. Conclusion: Results suggested that U-Cd might be associated with osteopenia as well as osteoporosis in both male and female adults. Age and female gender were negatively associated with BMD in the adult group, whereas age was positively associated with

  3. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  4. Nonlinear acoustic properties of the B95 aluminum alloy and the B95/nanodiamond composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, A. I.; Prokhorov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Research results for the nonlinear acoustic properties of the B95 polycrystalline aluminum alloy and the B95/nanodiamond composite have been described. The nonlinear properties of the alloys have been studied by the spectral method that measures the efficiency of generation of the second harmonic of a bulk acoustic wave at a frequency of 2 f = 10 MHz in the field of a finite-amplitude longitudinal acoustic wave at a frequency of f = 5 MHz. The results derived by this method have been compared with the results of studies of the nonlinear acoustic properties of the test alloys using the Thurston-Brugger quasi-static method.

  5. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M.; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  6. Low cadmium (LCD), a novel gene related to cadmium tolerance and accumulation in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Shimo, Hugo; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; An, Gynheung; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.

    2011-01-01

    The contamination of food crops by cadmium (Cd) is a major concern in food production because it can reduce crop yields and threaten human health. In this study, knockout rice plants (Oryza sativa) tagged with the gene trap vector pGA2707 were screened for Cd tolerance, and the tolerant line lcd was obtained. The lcd mutant showed tolerance to Cd on agar plates and in hydroponic culture during early plant development. Metal concentration measurements in hydroponically grown plants revealed si...

  7. Postlactational changes in cadmium retention in mice orally exposed to cadmium during pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Sellers, D.A.; Peterson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Mice were continuously exposed to 109Cd in drinking water (0.03 microCi/ml; 0.11 ppb total cadmium) during pregnancy and lactation. After cessation of exposure, 109 Cd retention and distribution were examined during a 4-week postlactational period. At the start of the postlactational period (0 time), the fraction of oral 109 Cd retained by the dams was 2.4 times greater than that retained by similarly exposed nonpregnant mice. 109 Cd concentrations at 0 time were greater in the dams than in the nonpregnant mice in kidney (5-fold), liver (2.6-fold), mammary tissue (greater than 28-fold), and duodenum (13-fold). No changes in 109 Cd content of the whole body (minus gastrointestinal tract) occurred during the 4 weeks after cessation of exposure in either the dams or the nonpregnant mice; i.e., pregnancy-dependent increases in 109 Cd contents of individual organs were maintained during the 4 weeks of observation. An indication of translocation of 109 Cd from liver to kidney was observed in the dams but not in the nonpregnant mice. 109 Cd concentrations in the mammary tissue of the dams increased 2-fold during the postlactational period concomitant with a 3-fold decrease in mammary tissue mass. 109 Cd in the duodenum of the pregnant/lactating mice decreased, with a half-life of 14 days. Results indicate that multiparous women exposed to environmental levels of cadmium may takeup and retain in their kidneys, livers, and mammary tissue a greater fraction of their dietary cadmium than women with few or no children. Such results may bear on the etiology of Itai-Itai disease, a disease of the skeleton potentially related to oral cadmium exposure, with an incidence predominantly among postmenopausal women with a history of multiple childbirths

  8. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-09-28

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index obese subjects with blood cadmium 1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99-16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  9. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1089 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index obese subjects with blood cadmium 1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males. PMID:26426028

  10. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-01-01

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: → Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. → We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. → The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  11. Evaluation of liquid metal embrittlement of stainless steel 304 by cadmium and cadmium-aluminum solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.; Thomas, J.K.; Begley, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The susceptibility of stainless steel 304 (SS304) to liquid metal embrittlement (LME) by cadmium (Cd) and cadmium-aluminum (Cd-Al) solutions was examined as part of a failure evaluation for SS304-clad cadmium reactor safety rods which had been exposed to elevated temperatures. The safety rod test data and destructive examination of the specimens indicated that LME was not the failure mode. The available literature data also suggest that austenitic stainless steels are not particularly susceptible to LME by Cd or Cd-Al solutions. However, the literature data is not conclusive and an experimental study was therefore conducted to examine the susceptibility of SS304 to LME by Cd and Cd-Al solutions. Temperatures from 325 to 600 C and strain rates from 1x10 -6 to 5x10 -5 s -1 were of interest in this evaluation. Tensile tests carried out in molten Cd-Al and Cd solutions over these temperatures and strain rates with both smooth bar and notched specimens showed no evidence of LME. U-bend tests conducted in liquid Cd at 500 and 600 C also showed no evidence of LME. It is concluded that SS304 is not subject to LME by Cd or Cd-Al solutions over the range of temperatures and strain rates of interest. ((orig.))

  12. 95th Anniversary of Pathophysiology in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Zdenko

    2017-12-01

    University level of Pathophysiology research and teaching in Croatia had started with the third year of Medical School of Zagreb in academic year 1919./20. Ever since, despite historical changes of the main university stake holder, the state of Croatia, Department of Pathophysiology development progressed and has made visible academic achievements, with a broader effect in medical community. The first 95 years of academic tradition and major achievements are shortly described in this paper. Professor Miroslav Mikuličić envisioned Pathophysiology in close relations with Pharmacology and made the pioneering steps of establishing the "double" department at Šalata. His group was academically very pro-active, with strong international scientific participation and recruitment of professionals. The group published the first voluminous textbook of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, in Croatian. In fifties, professor Pavao Sokolić established clinical pathophysiology within the Hospital Centre at Rebro. Out of "double" department two new departments were founded, the Pathophysiology one was completed with the clinical ward. That institutional move from Šalata hill to the Rebro hill was a necessary gigantic step and a prerequisite for the proper further development. It was in accordance with the concept of the Mikuličić's program of Pathophysiology from 1917. Pavao Sokolić has been remembered for his visions, deep insights into etiopathogenesis, ability to transfer knowledge and friendly relations to students. Sharp intellectual power, emanating charisma, academic erudition and unique clinical competencies made the legendary image of the "Teacher" - as students used to refer to him with admiration. He was second to no one when complex patient issues were to be resolved. Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb and his Department at Rebro have become a referral point to whom to go to despair. Students recognized in their Teacher the landmark of Croatian medicine, which made a

  13. CD95-CD95L: can the brain learn from the immune system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, B; Barker, P A; Owens, T

    1998-01-01

    being recognized that CD95 signaling by immune cells mediates effects other than apoptosis, such as cell survival and under inflammatory conditions expression of this protein promotes neural-immune interactions. Both neuroscientists and immunologists can contribute to defining the mechanisms underlying...

  14. The Indigenous World, 1994-95 = El Mundo Indigena, 1994-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Marianne, Comp.; Sjorslev, Inger, Comp.

    1995-01-01

    This annual publication examines political, legal, social, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples in various countries around the world during 1994-95. Part I highlights news events and ongoing situations in specific countries. In the United States and Canada, these include: (1) the arrest of three Canadian Inuit hunters for the…

  15. 29 CFR 95.50 - Purpose of reports and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements Reports and Records § 95.50 Purpose of reports and records. Sections 95.51 through 95.53 set forth the procedures for monitoring and reporting on the recipient's financial and program performance and... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purpose of reports and records. 95.50 Section 95.50 Labor...

  16. Polarographic studies on the nature of cadmium in scallop, oyster, and lobster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C L; Uthe, J F; Zook, E G

    1978-04-01

    Free and bound forms of cadmium were determined in raw shellfish by use of differential pulse polarography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Free cadmium is defined by its polarographic peak potential of -0.62 +- 0.02 V (saturated calomel electrode) in solvent washed ammonium sulfate extracts. Bound cadmium was determined by subtracting the free cadmium from the total cadmium present in the meat. Both scallop (various species) and American lobster (Homarus americanus) muscle tissues contain no free cadmium. Oyster (various species), on the other hand, had a considerable percentage (approximately 50%) of its total cadmium present as free cadmium, a phenomena as yet unexplained. The detection limit for free cadmium is approximately 0.05 ..mu..g/g raw tissue.

  17. Study of soil pollution by cadmium in Qatina region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargouth, G.; Johar, Y.; Ashkar, I.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium are specify to form complex compounds in soils make it difficulty to be absorbed from plants, but if prevailing circumstances changeability in soil and make these elements in absorbed actionable case to the plants, direct threatening upon of polluted soil with such elements will begin, and appears on plants, animals and humans. Holding comprehensive environmental evaluation on the agricultural soil field according to the prevailing circumstances in the transplanting zone, considered as important environmental practical stage in reducing environmental cadmium problems risk. Accordingly, we look to terming and controlling environment either to manage a soil pollution problem existed, or prophecy with circumstances lowers upon cadmium concentrations in the environment system (soil-plant) in order not to occurs environmental cadmium problems in the field soil futurity. (author)

  18. Influence of diethyldithiocarbamate on cadmium and copper toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    Abstract. Toxic effects of two heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu), and a fungicide, .... mining 50% morbid concentrations (MC50) and 50% inhibition .... WHITTON B and SHEHATA F (1982) Influence of cobalt, nickel, copper.

  19. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium and lead by chitosan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... The lead and cadmium adsorption kinetic behavior could not be described using the Langmuir ... by chemical or by physical adsorption (Dean and Dixon,. 1992 ... phate fertilizer burning fuels, cement production, mining.

  20. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parisa

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... 6Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak, Malaysia. Accepted 19 December, 2011. Cadmium (Cd) contamination has an adverse effect on soil productivity and ...... J. Food, Agric.

  1. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AXIS OF JAPANESE MEDAKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubquitous element and a significant inorganic pollutant that has previously been found to bioaccumulate in reproductive organs of fish and disrupt important endocrine processes, especially those involved in synthesis, release and metabolism of hormones. Clearly,...

  2. Model for cadmium transport and distribution in CHO cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, T.L.; Turner, J.E.; Williams, M.W.; Cook, J.S.; Hsie, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    A compartmental model is developed to study the transport and distribution of cadmium in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Of central importance to the model is the role played by sequestering components which bind free Cd/sup 2 +/ ions. The most important of these is a low-molecular-weight protein, metallothionein, which is produced by the cells in response to an increase in the cellular concentration of Cd/sup 2 +/. Monte Carlo techniques are used to generate a stochastic model based on existing experimental data describing the intracellular transport of cadmium between different compartments. This approach provides an alternative to the usual numerical solution of differential-delay equations that arise in deterministic models. Our model suggests subcellular structures which may be responsible for the accumulation of cadmium and, hence, could account for cadmium detoxification. 4 figures, 1 table.

  3. nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of. Aspergillus niger. SAMAR ... gens and UV irradiation to study transportation of cad- mium ion through cell ..... Rowley W S 1993 Yeast bZib proteins mediate pleiotropic drug and metal ...

  4. Assessment of Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Organical Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Ariel

    2000-08-01

    In this report the electrochemical method of differential pulse anode voltametry redisolution voltametry is used to quantitative assessment of copper, cadmium and lead in solution. The methodology is described in the preparation of samples for measurement

  5. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  6. Reducing the cadmium content of crude phosphates and mineral fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessen, H von; Schimmel, G

    1987-10-01

    Crude sedimentary phosphates generally contain cadmium together with traces of other heavy metals. These Cd traces generally end up in fertilizers produced from the crude phosphates. Processes have therefore been developed to separate the Cd from the crude phosphate or from the crude phosphoric acids arising therefrom as intermediates. In this way, the Cd content of the crude phosphate can be reduced to less the 10% of its original value, and to 50% thereof by extractive treatment with acidic calcium nitrate solution. Older calcination processes for crude phosphate have been improved to give residual Cd contents of 10 to 50% at temperatures of 800 to 1000/sup 0/C. Cadmium can be removed almost quantitatively from crude phosphate by means of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid esters by extraction, binding to adsorbents, or ion flotation. Cadmium can be extracted from crude acids in high yield by long-chained amines. After partial neutralization of the crude acids, precipitation as cadmium sulphide is also possible.

  7. A biosensor for cadmium based on bioconvective patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.

    1990-01-01

    An 'in vitro' method for monitoring cadmium, one of the most lethal bivalent heavy metals, can detect biologically active levels. The effects of cadmium tend to concentrate in protozoa far above natural levels and therein begin transferring through freshwater food chains to animals and humans. In a small sample volume (approximately 5 ml) the method uses the toxic response to the protozoa, Tetrahymena pyriformis, to cadmium. The assay relies on macroscopic bioconvective patterns to measure the toxic response, giving a sensitivity better than 1 micro-g/1 and a toxicity threshold to 7 micro-g/1 for Cd(2+). Cadmium hinders pattern formation in a dose-dependent manner. Arrested organism growth arises from slowed division and mutation to non-dividing classes. Unlike previous efforts, this method can be performed in a shallow flow device and does not require electronic or chemical analyses to monitor toxicity.

  8. Phytoextraction potential of cadmium and lead contamination using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Vegetative growth, biomass, chemical content and uptake of cadmium (Cd) and ... Vegetative growth and chemical properties of M. azedarach are ..... MSc thesis. ... In: Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology.

  9. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava M, I.

    1994-01-01

    The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption. In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis. The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. (Author)

  10. The concentration of cadmium in hepatoma among Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejandrino, A.L.; Goze, C.B.; Paradero, R.R.

    1977-08-01

    The concentration of cadmium in liver hepatoma and in normal liver in Filipinos was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Using NBS Bovine Liver (SRM1577) as reference material, a value of 0.28+-0.025 ug/g dry weight was obtained for cadmium which is close to the certified NBS value of 0.27+-0.04 ug/g. The mean percentage recovery for cadmium determination by AAS was 98.38%. A mean value of 2.14+-1.58 ug Cd/g liver hepatoma was observed for the 12 cases investigated, showing decreased cadmium levels in the cancerous liver compared to the mean value of 12.62 ug Cd/g observed for normal liver obtained from 10 cases of accidental deaths. The values are expressed on a dry weight basis

  11. Cadmium in the aquatic environment. Volume 19. Advances in environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, J.O.; Sprague, J.B. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This book addresses the biogeochemistry of cadmium in the marine and freshwater aquatic environment and comprises 10 chapters on: distribution and cycling of cadmium in the environment; evidence for anthropogenic modification of global transport of cadmium; cadmium in fresh water: The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River; cadmium associations in freshwater and marine sediment; biological cycling of cadmium in fresh water; toxicity of cadmium to freshwater microorganisms, phytoplankton, and invertebrates; effects of cadmium on freshwater fish; effects of cadmium on marine biota; biological cycling of cadmium in marine environment; and methods of cadmium detection. Although there is some overlap of chapter topics, the major compartments of the aquatic system are addressed: atmosphere, water, sediment, phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and fish. These chapters are well written and critically review the available data in each area. The research cited is heavily dominated by studies of the Great Lakes and Western European rivers such as the Rhine, but this reflects the degree of cadmium contamination of these important water bodies and the environmental concerns they have raised. Many of the chapters strive to critically address the problems of data quality, which are a result of the great difficulty in detecting cadmium at the ng/L or ..mu..g/kg levels at which cadmium contamination occurs.

  12. Nickel-cadmium batteries: waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, C.A.; Delmas, F.; Margarido, F.; Guimaraes, C.; Sequerira, C.A.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Brito, P.S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Given the hazardous heavy metal content of Ni-Cd batteries, recycling is the preferred waste management option when they can no longer be recharged. Mechanical and physical methods can be used to dismantle the batteries and to separate the component materials but this yields material which is impure or heterogeneous and needs subsequent thermal or chemical treatment. Pyrometallurgical processes may be applied for the distillation of metals such as cadmium which have a low boiling point. Such processes are relatively simple and cheap but are not very versatile and are high in energy consumption. Hydrometallurgical processes, though more expensive, are more versatile, can be applied to a wider range of wastes and are more environmentally friendly. (13 references) (UK)

  13. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Badran, A.; El-Bassiouny, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on tracer concentrations of cadmium, zinc and silver halides in absence and presence of phosphoric acid. A long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and an organophosphorus solvent (TBP) have been investigated. Since orthophosphoric acid was found to have a similar role as sulphuric acid, it was interesting to carry out a systematic investigation on the extraction behaviour of the halides of the three elements Cs, Zn and Ag in orthophosphoric acid medium. The separation of Cd from Zn or Ag is frequently encountered in chemical as well as radiochemical analysis. The results presented here give many possibilities for such separation. Amberlite LA-2 was always used as 5 vol% and TBP as 50 vol% in benzene. The presence of phosphoric acid was found to enhance considerably the extraction of most halides. The mechanism of extraction has been discussed in light of the obtained results. (T.G.)

  14. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  15. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  16. Lead and cadmium content of some canned fruit and vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B; Roughan, J A; Watters, E D

    1973-01-01

    The levels of lead and cadmium have been determined in samples of canned tomatoes, blackcurrants, grapefruit, pineapples, apricots, oranges, peaches, rhubarb, apples, prunes, damsons, plums, spinach and baked beans. The lead content of the 76 samples was in the range 0.10 to 3.90 parts/million, the mean being 0.56 parts/million; the range and mean of the cadmium content were 0.01 to 0.18 and 0.02 parts/million, respectively.

  17. Cadmium contamination of atmospheric air in the Silesian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Moździerz; Małgorzata Juszko-Piekut; Jerzy Stojko

    2014-01-01

    Background. For many years, researchers have evaluated environmental damage caused by heavy metals, including cadmium, as well as health risks in the population exposed to them. Thus the aim of our study was to evaluate cadmium levels in the atmospheric air in 2009, including summer and winter heating season. A comparative analysis was performed using the corresponding data from 2005–2008. Material and Methods. In the study, we used the statistical output data of air p...

  18. Phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils using soybean varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlov, Ljupco; Balabanova, Biljana; Zajkova-Paneva, Vesna; Wei, Shuhe

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization and extraction of natural resources have resulted in large scale environmental contamination and pollution. Soil pollution with cadmium is due to strengthened industrial development, especially in the areas of drilling, exploitation and processing of mineral raw materials. On the territory of the Republic of Macedonia there are several areas with significant higher content of cadmium in the soil, including the vicinity of the mine lead and zinc “Zletovo” near the...

  19. Effect of natural organic materials on cadmium and neptunium sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, K.S.; Triay, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    In a batch sorption study of the effect of naturally occurring organic materials on the sorption of cadmium and neptunium on oxides and tuff surfaces, the model sorbents were synthetic goethite, boehmite, amorphous silicon oxides, and a crushed tuff material from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An amino acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxypheny)-DL-alanine (DOPA), and an aquatic-originated fulvic material, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid (NAFA), were used as model organic chemicals. Sorption isotherm results showed that DOPA sorption followed the order aluminum oxide > iron oxide > silicon oxide and that the amount of DOAP sorption for a given sorbent increased as the solution pH was raised. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on the iron oxide was about ten times higher than that on the aluminum oxide. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on natural tuff material was much lower than that on aluminum and iron oxides. The sorption of cadmium on iron and aluminum oxides was found to be influenced by the presence of DOPA, and increasing the amount of DOPA coating resulted in higher cadmium sorption on aluminum oxide. However, for iron oxide, cadmium sorption decreased with increasing DOPA concentration. The presence of the model organic materials DOPA and NAFA did not affect the sorption of neptunium on tuff material or on the iron and aluminum oxides. Spectroscopic results indicate that cadmium complexes strongly with DOPA. Therefore, the effect of the organic material, DOPA, on the cadmium sorption is readily observed. However, neptunium is possibly complexed weakly with organic material. Thus, DOPA and NAFA have little effect on neptunium sorption on all sorbents selected for study

  20. A study on complex formation of cadmium (II) ions, 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Haruo

    1984-01-01

    Formation constants of cadmium (11) complexes with dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic, methylmalonic, succinic, and glutaric acids were determined in aqueous solutions containing 3 mol.dm -3 LiClO 4 as a constan ionic medium at 25 0 C by potentiometric titrations. It was reported in the previous works that cadmium (11)- aspartic acid complexes contained two chelate rings. However, a problem remained whether the second chelate ring could be formed by six membered-ring containing -O-Cd-N- bond or by seven membered-ring containing -O-Cd-O- bond. The results of the present work suggested that it would be formed by a six membered ring. Cadmium (11) ions were coordinated with a carboxylic group of the dicarboxylic acids studied, and formed no chelate ring within the complexes. The white precipitate appeared in the solution containing cadmium (11) ion and oxalic acid, in the pH range below 3.0, therefore, the chelate formation was not ascertained in this case. The formation constants, log βsub(pr)= log([Cdsub(p)Lsub(r)sup((2p-2r)+)]/([Cd 2+ ]sup(p)[L 2- ]sup(r))), of the complexes were: log β 11 = 1.98, log β 12 = 3.05 for cadmium (11)-malonic acid; log β 11 = 2.28, log β 12 = 3.06 for cadmium (11)-methylmalonic acid; log β 11 = 1.78, log β 12 = 3.08 for cadmium (11)-succinic acid; log β 11 = 1.85, log β 12 = 3.28 for cadmium (11)-glutaric acid complexes. (author)

  1. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Jia, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Ba, Qian, E-mail: qba@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  2. False indications of 95Zr-95Nb internal contamination due to contaminated sacred thread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.P.; Singh, I.S.; Sharma, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Whole body monitoring of a worker showed an apparent internal contamination with a considerable amount of 95 Zr- 95 Nb. Inhalation exposure was suspected to have taken place about a week earlier when he had last worked in the radioactive area. Unexpected fast clearance indicated by the third periodical weekly follow up monitoring was considered to be an abnormal behaviour. Investigations revealed an external contamination on a sacred thread, which the worker was putting on across his thorax and not removing it at the time of bath due to religious considerations. These studies have underscored that short term follow up measurements data should be critically scrutinized and a caution should be exercised in the interpretation such data particularly in case of such relatively short lived radionuclides. (author)

  3. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Toman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group. Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluation of the results showed significantly (P < 0.01 reduced activity of cholinesterase in all experimental groups. The enzyme activity decreased from the control value 3.69 μkat/L to 1.81 μkat/L (diazinon group, 1.83 μkat/L (cadmium group and 1.35 μkat/L (cadmium+diazinon group. These results indicate that both cadmium and diazinon are potent to manifest the neurotoxic effects. Moreover, a synergistic effect of the co-administered cadmium and diazinon in the nervous system has been observed.

  4. Potentiometric stripping analysis of Cadmium and Lead in superficial waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Juan Miguel; Marciales Castiblanco, Clara

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains the implementation and validation of an analytical method for determining cadmium and lead in surface waters. This is a valuable tool for the description of actual conditions and qualitative and quantitative control of dangerous heavy metals discharge in water bodies. Test were run for selecting stripping potentiometry conditions that as indicated by results were: sample oxidant concentration 36.4 μg/L Hg 2+ stirring frequency 2400 rpm, electrolysis time 80 s., electrolysis potential -950 mV and pH of 2.0. Interference of Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ showed that copper concentrations larger than 150 μg/L and 500 μg/L negatively influence the analytical response for Cadmium and lead respectively; [Fe 3+ ] larger than 60 μg/L and 400 μg/L cause variations in cadmium and lead read content respectively. Linear concentration range for cadmium lies between 5 and 250 μg/L; for lead range goes from 10 to 250 μg/L. Precision expressed as repeatability for both system and method, exhibit good reproducibility with variation coefficients below 6%. Accuracy, assessed from recuperation, is strongly influenced by concentration level therefore standard addition is recommended for lead and cadmium quantification. Analysis performed on surface waters from Colombian Magdalena and Cauca rivers pointed lead and cadmium contents below detection limits

  5. Cadmium in the meat and organs of slaughtered animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, W.; Sansoni, B.; Kracke, W.; Wissmath, P.

    1975-03-01

    The cadmium content of the meat, liver and kidneys of 150 cattle was determined, and in the case of 6 cattle, that of the spleen also. This was done to find out the natural cadmium content of the meat and organs of cattle with a view to laying down limits for the cadmium content of foods, and also to determine whether age, breed, sex, management, feeding or season of the year have any effect on the distribution of cadmium in cattle. 141 animals came from a mainly agricultural region with little traffic or industry in the Swabian/Bavarian foothills of the Alps, while 9 animals came from the Weser marshes near Nordenham. Samples were taken from July 1972 to March 1974. 200 g meat (Mm. adductores), the liver and the kidneys were taken from the carcass of each animal, and in some cases the spleen also was removed. Each 100 g sample was ashed wet with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the cadmium was concentrated by precipitation, separated and determined from a dilute nitric acid solution by flameless atomic absorption in a graphite tube. In view of the results obtained with normally slaughtered cattle from an industrial region and from a country area where there is little traffic, it is recommended that the limit of 0.5 ppm cadmium in organs, which is at present under discussion in the German Federal Republic, should be reconsidered as regards kidneys. 92 references.

  6. Synthesis of cadmium tungstate films via sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennstrom, Kirk; Limmer, Steven J.; Cao Guozhong

    2003-06-23

    Cadmium tungstate is a scintillator material with excellent intrinsic photoluminescent properties. It is highly resistant to gamma radiation, has an almost non-existent afterglow and is highly efficient. Cadmium tungstate is also non-hydroscopic, unlike the more prevalent thallium-doped alkali halide scintillators. In order to create thin films of cadmium tungstate with precise stoichiometric control, a sol-gel processing technique has been applied to produce this material for the first time. In addition to lower processing temperatures, sol-gel-derived cadmium tungstate is cheaper and easier than other technologies, particularly for thin films. Furthermore, it has the potential to produce nanostructured materials with good optical quality. X-Ray diffraction results of sol-gel-derived materials fired at various temperatures imply crystallization of cadmium tungstate without the intermediate formation of either tungsten oxide or cadmium oxide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows the formation of nano-sized particles prior to heat treatment, which form meso-sized particles after the heat treatment. Photoluminesce analysis indicates emission of derived films at 480 nm, which agrees with other published data. Finally, the efficiency of derived films was approximately 6%{+-}1.8%.

  7. Inhalative cadmium effects in pregnant and fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigge, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were continuously exposed for 21 days to an aerosol containing 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg cadmium/m/sup 3/ air. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats exposed to clean air served as controls. The aerosol was generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer and was carried into inhalation chambers. The median aerodynamic diameters were on the order of 0.6 ..mu..m. After inhalation of cadmium aerosols, serum iron levels were not lowered significantly in adult rats. A polycythaemic response of non-pregnant rats was observed due to a direct stimulatory effect of cadmium on erythropoiesis. Polycythaemia was less marked in pregnancy, presumably due to iron loss to placenta and fetus. Disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange or decreased plasma volumes were excluded as causative mechanisms of polycythaemia. In pregnant rats there was a marked dose dependent decrease of the activity of the alkaline phosphatase after cadmium inhalation, while there was no effect in exposed non-pregnant rats. This decreased enzyme activity, together with slowed growth rates and hemolytic effect indicate a higher sensitivity to cadmium in pregnancy. Proteinuria was not found in neither pregnant nor non-pregnant rats. Therefore, it is concluded that in this respect cadmium intoxication by inhalation does not resemble human toxemia of pregnancy, as discussed in the literature.

  8. Use of ion selective electrodes for potentiometric analysis of solutions containing cadmium and cyanide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Glazkova, E.N.; Izmajlova, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Technique for cadmium potentiometric determination in the cadmium-plating cyanide electrolyte, which countains Cd(CN) n 2-n (n=1,2,3,4) complexes, is developed. Reactions of cadmium precipitation in the form of diethyldithiocarbamate serve as the ground for determination technique. Polycrystalline membrane electrodes with hard contact are used as indicator electrodes. Pd, Ni, Cu, Ag do not interfere with cadmium determination, Fe, Zn, Bi may coprecipitate with cadmium. Determination limit of cadmium ions is 5x10 -3 M

  9. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of West-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Hahn, R.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Bernard, A.

    1985-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to assess whether or not environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic auf Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly polluted by cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population we selected 65- and 66-year-old women who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average levels of cadmium in blood and urine showed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg > Duisburg > Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. With respect to other biological findings (total proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, serum complement) no significant differences between the study populations were noted. It cannot be excluded, however, that in the Stolberg group there is a synergism of ageing and cadmium with respect to the age related decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

  10. Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Uetani, Mirei; Nakada, Satoru; Kido, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for β2-MG was 3.5 μg/g creatinine in men and 3.7 μg/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

  11. Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwazono, Yasushi, E-mail: suwa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Uetani, Mirei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nakada, Satoru [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kido, Teruhiko [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Nakagawa, Hideaki [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for {beta}2-MG was 3.5 {mu}g/g creatinine in men and 3.7 {mu}g/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

  12. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  13. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2010-01-01

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4±2.3 μg/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0±2.2 μg/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  14. Cadmium release from a reprocessing electrorefiner falling over

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solbrig, Charles W., E-mail: Charles.solbrig@inl.gov [Batelle Energy Alliance, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 2528, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States); Pope, Chad L. [Batelle Energy Alliance, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 2528, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We model an accident in a nuclear fuel processing facility caused by an earthquake. ► The earthquake causes the argon cell to breach and the electrorefiner to tip over. ► Cadmium is spilled and a cathode falls on the cadmium and starts to burn. ► Cadmium can be transported to people in the building, the site, and the public. ► The results show negligible doses to all persons except in one low probability case. -- Abstract: The possible biological consequences of a release of cadmium due to a design basis earthquake in the Idaho Nuclear Laboratory's nuclear fuel reprocessing cell are evaluated. The facility is designed to withstand the design basis earthquake except for some non-seismically qualified feedthroughs. The earthquake is hypothesized to breach these feedthroughs (allowing air into the argon atmosphere processing cell) and cause the MK-IV electrorefiner (ER) in the cell to tip over or split and spill its contents of fission product laden salt and cadmium. In addition, the uranium dendrite product cathode is assumed to fall on the cadmium and burn. The heat from the burning cathode results in release of cadmium vapor into the cell atmosphere. Ingestion and inhalation of a sufficient concentration of cadmium for a critical time period can cause irreversible health effects or death. The release of the small quantity of fission products, analyzed elsewhere, results in negligible doses. Analysis reported here shows there is no danger to the general public by the cadmium release or to on-site workers except in one low probability case. This one case requires a fivefold failure where the safety exhaust system fails just after the 4% oxygen concentration combustion limit in the cell is reached. Failure of the SES allows oscillatory inflow and outflow (and hence cadmium outflow) from the cell due to gravity. The dose to a worker in the basement exceeds the mortality limit in this one event if the worker does not leave the basement.

  15. Cadmium release from a reprocessing electrorefiner falling over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Pope, Chad L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model an accident in a nuclear fuel processing facility caused by an earthquake. ► The earthquake causes the argon cell to breach and the electrorefiner to tip over. ► Cadmium is spilled and a cathode falls on the cadmium and starts to burn. ► Cadmium can be transported to people in the building, the site, and the public. ► The results show negligible doses to all persons except in one low probability case. -- Abstract: The possible biological consequences of a release of cadmium due to a design basis earthquake in the Idaho Nuclear Laboratory's nuclear fuel reprocessing cell are evaluated. The facility is designed to withstand the design basis earthquake except for some non-seismically qualified feedthroughs. The earthquake is hypothesized to breach these feedthroughs (allowing air into the argon atmosphere processing cell) and cause the MK-IV electrorefiner (ER) in the cell to tip over or split and spill its contents of fission product laden salt and cadmium. In addition, the uranium dendrite product cathode is assumed to fall on the cadmium and burn. The heat from the burning cathode results in release of cadmium vapor into the cell atmosphere. Ingestion and inhalation of a sufficient concentration of cadmium for a critical time period can cause irreversible health effects or death. The release of the small quantity of fission products, analyzed elsewhere, results in negligible doses. Analysis reported here shows there is no danger to the general public by the cadmium release or to on-site workers except in one low probability case. This one case requires a fivefold failure where the safety exhaust system fails just after the 4% oxygen concentration combustion limit in the cell is reached. Failure of the SES allows oscillatory inflow and outflow (and hence cadmium outflow) from the cell due to gravity. The dose to a worker in the basement exceeds the mortality limit in this one event if the worker does not leave the basement

  16. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.

  18. Effect of cadmium on electron and energy transfer reactions in corn mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R J; Bittell, J E; Koeppe, D E

    1973-01-01

    The effects of cadmium on isolated corn shoot mitochondria were determined. In the absence of phosphate cadmium stimulated the oxidation of exogenous NADH optimally at 0.025 mM, but was inhibitory at 0.1 mM and above. The presence of phosphate negated the cadmium stimulation of exogenous NADH oxidation and permitted inhibitions only at higher cadmium concentrations. Succinate or malate + pyruvate oxidation in the absence of phosphate was inhibited to a greater extent by cadmium than when phosphate was present. ADP/O and respiratory control ratios were reduced by cadmium but generally were less sensitive to cadmium than state 4 or minus phosphate respiration. The data suggest that the site of cadmium effect is likely to be early in electron transport. Cadmium had a pronounced effect on mitochondrial swelling under either passive or active conditions. When succinate or exogenous NADH were being oxidized swelling occurred at 0.05 mM cadmium, but with malate + pyruvate the cadmium concentration had to exceed 1.0 mM. Phosphate (2 mM) prevented the swelling. Dithiothreitol, a SH group protector, prevented any effect of cadmium on swelling or respiration which suggests that sulfhydryl groups are likely involved in the cadmium-membrane interaction.

  19. Flow injection determination of lead and cadmium in hair samples from workers exposed to welding fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespon-Romero, R.M.; Yebra-Biurrun, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    A flow injection procedure involving continuous acid leaching for lead and cadmium determination in hair samples of persons in permanent contact with a polluted workplace environment by flame atomic absorption spectrometry is proposed. Variables such as sonication time, nature and concentration of the acid solution used as leaching solution, leaching temperature, flow-rate of the continuous manifold, leaching solution volume and hair particle size were simultaneously studied by applying a Plackett-Burman design approach. Results showed that nitric acid concentration (leaching solution), leaching temperature and sonication time were statistically significant variables (confidence interval of 95%). These last two variables were finally optimised by using a central composite design. The proposed procedure allowed the determination of cadmium and lead with limits of detection 0.1 and 1.0 μg g -1 , respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was evaluated by the analysis of a certified reference material (CRM 397, human hair, from the BCR). The proposed method was applied with satisfactory results to the determination of Cd and Pb in human hair samples of workers exposed to welding fumes

  20. Lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of fungi in the Helsinki area and in unpolluted control areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuusi, T.; Liukkonen-Lilja, H.; Piepponen, S.; Laaksovirta, K.; Lodenius, M.

    1981-10-01

    More than 40 species of wild-growing fungi in Finland have been investigated with regard to their contents of lead, cadmium and mercury. A total of 326 samples was studied, 242 being from the urban area of Helsinki and 84 from unpolluted rural areas. The lead content ranged from < 0.5 to 78 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.5 to 13 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.5 to 16.8 mg/kg. The cadmium content ranged from < 0.2 to 101 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.2 to 16.8 mg/kg, and in the urban area from < 0.2 to 17.3 mg/kg. The mercury content ranged from < 0.01 to 95 mg/kg of dry matter. In the rural areas the mean contents for the diferent species ranged from 0.03 to 4.2 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.02 to 14.1 mg/kg. In conclusion, consumption of those fungi that grow in unpolluted rural areas carries no risk, particularly when they belong to mycorrhizal species. In urban areas the risk is somewhat greater. The Agaricus species show the highest contents of the metals studied and their use as food requires caution.

  1. Potentiometric microdetermination of cadmium in organic compounds after oxygen flask combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, A.

    1986-01-01

    The sample is burnt in an oxygen flask and the combustion products are absorbed in 1Μ HNO 3 . After removal of interfering gases by boiling, the solution is transfered to the titration cell and neutralized with NaOH in the presence of methyl red; cd(II) is finally titrated potentiometrically in a buffered 50% ethanolic medium with 0.01Μ sodium diethyldithiocarbamate in 50% ethanol. A silver/sulphide ion-selective electrode and a double junction referenceelectrode containing a 10% KNO 3 solution in 26% ethanol in the outer compartment are used in combination with a Titroprocessor to detect the end point. The results obtained are very accurate and reproducible: the maximum error does not exceed 0.09%, the recovery of cadmium is in the range 99.67 to 99.95% and the rel. standard deviation is 0.05%. The potentiometric titration with diethyldithiocarbamate, which is useful to determine small Cd(II) amounts down to 30μg (2μg ml -1 ), as well as the oxygen flask combustion of organic cadmium compounds are discussed. (Author)

  2. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skröder, Helena [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hawkesworth, Sophie [Medical Research Council (MRC), International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. (United Kingdom); Kippler, Maria [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Arifeen, Shams [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Wagatsuma, Yukiko [Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. (Japan); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  3. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  4. 46 CFR 95.10-5 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 95.10-5 Section 95.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD... Main System, Details § 95.10-5 Fire pumps. (a) Vessels shall be equipped with independently driven fire pumps in accordance with Table 95.10-5(a). Table 95.10-5(a) Gross tons Over Not over Minimum number of...

  5. Cadmium (II) removal mechanisms in microbial electrolysis cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colantonio, Natalie; Kim, Younggy, E-mail: younggy@mcmaster.ca

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • Rapid removal of Cd(II) was achieved in 24 h using microbial electrolysis cells. • Cathodic reduction (electrodeposition) of Cd(II) cannot explain the rapid removal. • H{sub 2} evolution in microbial electrolysis cells increases local pH near the cathode. • High local pH induces Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdCO{sub 3} precipitation only with electric current. • Neutral pH caused by low current and depleted substrate dissolves the precipitated Cd. - Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal, causing serious environmental and human health problems. Conventional methods for removing cadmium from wastewater are expensive and inefficient for low concentrations. Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can simultaneously treat wastewater, produce hydrogen gas, and remove heavy metals with low energy requirements. Lab-scale MECs were operated to remove cadmium under various electric conditions: applied voltages of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 V; and a fixed cathode potential of −1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Regardless of the electric condition, rapid removal of cadmium was demonstrated (50–67% in 24 h); however, cadmium concentration in solution increased after the electric current dropped with depleted organic substrate under applied voltage conditions. For the fixed cathode potential, the electric current was maintained even after substrate depletion and thus cadmium concentration did not increase. These results can be explained by three different removal mechanisms: cathodic reduction; Cd(OH){sub 2} precipitation; and CdCO{sub 3} precipitation. When the current decreased with depleted substrates, local pH at the cathode was no longer high due to slowed hydrogen evolution reaction (2H{sup +} + 2e{sup −} → H{sub 2}); thus, the precipitated Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdCO{sub 3} started dissolving. To prevent their dissolution, sufficient organic substrates should be provided when MECs are used for cadmium removal.

  6. Coprecipitation of cadmium with copper 8-hydroxyquinolate from homogeneous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, Kazuyoshi; Kozen, Terumi; Ueki, Yasuyo; Ishida, Hiromi

    1976-01-01

    The coprecipitation of copper and cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolates from homogeneous solution was conducted from the viewpoint of crystal and analytical chemistry. To the mixed solution containing copper and cadmium ions an 8-acetoxyquinoline solution was added by keeping the pH of the solution at 9 and the resulted solution was stirred at 25 0 C. The precipitate formed at each stage of the reaction was analyzed. The precipitates in an initial stage were composed of needle crystals which characterizes copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, and were associated with a slight amount of cadmium. The first half of the coprecipitation curve for the needle crystal formation resembles the logarithmic distribution curve of lambda equal to about 0.01. The precipitation of most of the copper ions was followed by the precipitation of cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate crystal in the plate form. The needle crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate started to dissolve and transformed to plate crystals. In the second half of the coprecipitation, both crystals, owing to the identical crystal structure, precipitated simultaneously and form a solid solution. When cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate was precipitated by the PFHS method (precipitation from homogeneous solution) in the presence of the needle crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, the above mentioned phenomenon was observed. The precipitation of cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate in the plate form is due to the seeding effect of the plate crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, which were scantily transformed from the needle crystals. The plate crystals of cadmium compound acts as a seed to transform the needle crystals of copper compound to plate crystals. (auth.)

  7. Cadmium, ATPase-P, yeast. From transport to toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarin, Aurelie

    2007-01-01

    Two projects has been developed during my PhD. One consisting in the functional study of CadA, the Cd 2+ -ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, the other one was focused on the toxicity of cadmium and the associated response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This two studies used a a phenotype of sensitivity to cadmium induced by CadA expression in yeast. This phenotype was used as a screening tool to identify essential amino acids of Cd transport by CadA and to study cadmium toxicity and the corresponding yeast cellular response. CadA actively transports Cd using ATP hydrolysis as energy source. Directed mutagenesis of the membranous polar, sulphur and charged amino-acids revealed that Cd transport pathway implied four transmembrane segments (Tm) and more precisely the cysteine C 354 , C 356 and proline P 355 of the CPC motif located in Tm6, aspartate D 692 in Tm8, glutamate E 164 in Tm4 and methionine M 149 in Tm5. From our studies, 2 Cd ions would be translocated for each hydrolysis ATP. Expression of CadA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an hypersensitivity to Cd. A wild type cell can grow up to 100 μm cadmium whereas CadA expressing yeast cannot grow with 1 μm cadmium in the culture medium. This cadmium sensitivity was due to the localisation of CadA in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Transport of cadmium in this compartment produces an accumulation of mis-folded proteins that induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As UPR also occurs in a wild type yeast exposed to low Cd concentration, one can point out endoplasmic reticulum as a extremely sensitive cellular compartment. UPR also appears as an early response to Cd as it happens far before any visible signs of toxicity. (author) [fr

  8. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eybl, V.; Sykora, J.; Koutensky, J.; Caisova, D.; Schwartz, A.; Mertl, F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl 2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of /sup 115mCdCl 2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatement of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl 2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of /sup 115m/Cd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes

  9. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eybl, V; Sýkora, J; Koutenský, J; Caisová, D; Schwartz, A; Mertl, F

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of 115mCdCl2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatment of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination of the retention and distribution of Cd in mice, it was demonstrated that the combined application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of 115mCd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes. PMID:6734561

  10. Cadmium ban spurs interest in zinc-nickel coating for corrosive aerospace environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. (Pure Coatings Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

    1994-02-01

    OSHA recently reduced the permissible exposure level for cadmium. The new standard virtually outlaws cadmium production and use, except in the most cost-insensitive applications. Aerospace manufacturers, which use cadmium extensively in coatings applications because of the material's corrosion resistance, are searching for substitutes. The most promising alternative found to date is a zinc-nickel alloy. Tests show that the alloy outperforms cadmium without generating associated toxicity issues. As a result, several major manufacturing and standards organizations have adopted the zinc-nickel compound as a standard cadmium replacement. The basis for revising the cadmium PEL -- which applies to occupational exposure in industrial, agricultural and maritime occupations -- is an official OSHA determination that employees exposed to cadmium under the existing PEL face significant health risks from lung cancer and kidney damage. In one of its principal uses, cadmium is electroplated to steel, where it acts as an anticorrosive agent.

  11. Effect of Biochar on Relieving Cadmium Stress and Reducing Accumulation in Super japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-yu; MENG Jun; DANG Shu; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to solve the threats induced by cadmium pollution on crops. This paper examined the effect of biochar on cadmium accumulation in japonica rice and revealed the mechanism underlying the response of protective enzyme system to cadmium stress. Biochar derived from rice straw was applied at two application rates under three cadmium concentrations. Shennong 265, super japonica rice variety, was selected as the test crop. The results indicated that cadmium content in above-ground biomass of rice increased with increasing soil cadmium concentrations, but the biochar application could suppress the accumulation of cadmium to some extent. Under high concentrations of cadmium, content of free proline and MDA (malondialdehyde) were high, so did the SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) activity in the lfag leaf of rice. However, the protective enzyme activities remained at low level when biochar was added.

  12. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice: Effects of penicillamine, dimercaptosuccinic acid and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The antidotal efficacies of chelators during acute cadmium intoxication has previously been examined in experiments where both a soluble cadmium salt and the chelator were administered parenterally. In the present study, PA, DMSA and related compounds were studied as oral antidotes during oral CdCl 2 intoxication. According to the antagonistic effects noted on mortality, peristaltic toxicity and intestinal cadmium uptake, the relative efficacies of the compounds tested were: DMSA>PAD>DMPS>MSA>PA>NAPA. None of the chelators induced major changes in the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, in particular no increased cerebral deposition of cadmium. This study indicates that, in oral cadmium intoxication in humans, orally administered DMSA would be likely to offer protection against the local toxicity of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract as well as to reduce the risk of systemic toxicity of absorbed cadmium. (author)

  13. Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast Technology Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) Jack Benfer Senior Materials...Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Rinse Black Oxide Rinse CRES Passivation Chrome Plating Cadmium Plating Cadmium Brush Plating Class N (TRL 9) Class N (TRL 7) Class N (TRL 6

  14. Irradiation and corrosion behaviour of cadmium aluminate, a burnable poison for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattenbach, K.; Ahlf, J.; Hilgendorff, W.; Zimmermann, H.U.

    1979-01-01

    In quest of a cadmium containing material for use as burnable poison cadmium aluminate seemed promising. Therefore irradiation and corrosion experiments on specimens of cadmium aluminate in a matrix of aluminia were performed. Irradiation at 575 K and fast fluences up to 10 25 m -2 showed the material to have good radiation resistance and low swelling rates. Cadmium pluminate was resistant to corrosion attack in demineralized water of 575K. (orig.) [de

  15. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both Pnickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H 2 DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  17. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  18. Cadmium, diabetes and chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Joshua R.; Prozialeck, Walter C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between exposure to the environmental pollutant cadmium (Cd) and the incidence and severity of diabetes. In this review, we examine the literature suggesting a relationship between Cd exposure, elevated blood glucose levels, and the development of diabetes. In addition we review human and animal studies indicating that Cd potentiates or exacerbates diabetic nephropathy. We also review the various possible cellular mechanisms by which Cd may alter blood glucose levels. In addition, we present some novel findings from our own laboratories showing that Cd elevates fasting blood glucose levels in an animal model of subchronic Cd exposure before overt signs of renal dysfunction are evident. These studies also show that Cd reduces insulin levels and has direct cytotoxic effects on the pancreas. Together, these findings indicate that Cd may be a factor in the development of some types of diabetes and they raise the possibility that Cd and diabetes-related hyperglycemia may act synergistically to damage the kidney.

  19. Collinear laser spectroscopy of atomic cadmium

    CERN Document Server

    Frömmgen, Nadja; Bissell, Mark L.; Bieroń, Jacek; Blaum, Klaus; Cheal, Bradley; Flanagan, Kieran; Fritzsche, Stephan; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Kreim, Kim; Krieger, Andreas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Rajabali, Mustafa M.; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Papuga, Jasna; Yordanov, Deyan T.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfine structure $A$ and $B$ factors of the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\rm{P}_2 \\rightarrow 5s\\,6s\\,\\; ^3\\rm{S}_1$ transition are determined from collinear laser spectroscopy data of $^{107-123}$Cd and $^{111m-123m}$Cd. Nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments are extracted using reference dipole moments and calculated electric field gradients, respectively. The hyperfine structure anomaly for isotopes with $s_{1/2}$ and $d_{5/2}$ nuclear ground states and isomeric $h_{11/2}$ states is evaluated and a linear relationship is observed for all nuclear states except $s_{1/2}$. This corresponds to the Moskowitz-Lombardi rule that was established in the mercury region of the nuclear chart but in the case of cadmium the slope is distinctively smaller than for mercury. In total four atomic and ionic levels were analyzed and all of them exhibit a similar behaviour. The electric field gradient for the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\mathrm{P}_2$ level is derived from multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculatio...

  20. Towards practical cadmium phytoextraction with Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R W; Chaney, R L; Angle, J S; Kruatrachue, M; Klinphoklap, S; Reeves, R D; Bellamy, P

    2015-01-01

    A series of field trials were conducted to investigate the potential of Noccaea caerulescens F.K. Mey [syn. Thlaspi caerulescens J &C Presl. (see Koch and Al-Shehbaz 2004)] populations (genotypes) derived from southern France to phytoextract localized Cd/Zn contamination in Thailand. Soil treatments included pH variation and fertilization level and application of fungicide. N. caerulescens populations were transplanted to the field plots three months after germination and harvested in May, prior to the onset of seasonal rains. During this period growth was rapid with shoot biomass ranging from 0.93-2.2 g plant(-1) (280-650 kg ha(-1)) DW. Shoot Cd and Zn concentrations for the four populations evaluated ranged from 460-600 and 2600-2900 mg kg(-1) DW respectively. Cadmium and Zn Translocation Factors (shoot/root) for the populations tested ranged from 0.91-1.0 and 1.7-2.1 and Bioaccumulation Factors ranged from 12-15 and 1.2-1.3. We conclude that optimizing the use of fungicidal sprays, acidic soil pH, planting density and increasing the effective cropping period will increase rates of Cd and Zn removal enough to facilitate practical Cd phytoextraction from rice paddy soils in Thailand.

  1. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley M.; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A. [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States); Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas [Fraunhofer USA – CCL, 1449 Engineering Research Ct., East Lansing 48824, MI (United States); Dweik, Badawi M., E-mail: bdweik@ginerinc.com [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium.

  2. Hydriding of steel in cyanide electrolytes of cadmium plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol'skaya, N.B.; Maksimchuk, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogenation of steel in cyanide electrolytes for cadmium deposition has been studied in a wide range of compositions. Also investigated have been the scattering capacity and polarization parameters of these electrolytes. The basic components are Cd 2+ and CH - ; besides that, Na 2 SO 4 x10H 2 O, NaOH and NiSO 4 x7H 2 O have been added to the electrolytes. Hydrogenation upon cadmium electrolytic deposition has been determined by the rate of hydrogen penetration through a steel membrane 0.5 mm thick. At the NaCN/Cd(CN) 2 ratio more than 2 the increase in sodium cyanide concentration in the electrolyte appreciably increases neither its hydrogenating and scattering capacity, nor cathodic polarization. The greatest scattering capacity and the highest hydrogenation is exhibited by diluted cadmium deposition elecctrolytes (CdO concentration 9-12 g/1), which prove particularly effective for deposition of regular coatings on complex shape articles. Cadmium deposition on high strength steels, however, should rather involve cyanide electrolytes with high cadmium concentration (50-60 g/1) in order to reduce hydrogenation

  3. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarnicki, Guenter J.K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2.5 were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM 2.5 , both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals

  4. Kinetic parameters and TL mechanism in cadmium tetra borate phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annalakshmi, O.; Jose, M.T.; Sridevi, J.; Venkatraman, B.; Amarendra, G.; Mandal, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline powder samples of cadmium tetra borate were synthesized by a simple solid state sintering technique and gamma irradiated sample showed a simple Thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak around 460 K. The TL kinetic parameters of gamma irradiated phosphor were determined by initial rise (IR), isothermal decay (ID), peak shape (PS), variable heating rate (VHR) and glow curve de-convolution method. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) were calculated by IR, ID, PS and VHR methods are in the order of ∼1.05 eV, 10 9 –10 12 s −1 and 1.58, respectively. From the results of TL and PL emission studies carried out on the phosphor revealed that the defect centers related to TL is different from that for PL. EPR measurements were carried out to identify the defect centers formed in cadmium tetra borate phosphor on gamma irradiation. Based on EPR studies the mechanism for TL process in cadmium tetra borate is proposed in this paper -- Highlights: • Polycrystalline powder samples of undoped cadmium tetra borate synthesized. • Cadmium tetra borate phosphor exhibits a dosimetric peak at 458 K. • Kinetic parameters of the trap responsible for TL evaluated. • TL mechanism is proposed from TL to EPR correlation studies

  5. Kinetic parameters and TL mechanism in cadmium tetra borate phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annalakshmi, O. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Jose, M.T., E-mail: mtj@igcar.gov.in [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Sridevi, J. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India); Venkatraman, B. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Mandal, A.B. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India)

    2014-03-15

    Polycrystalline powder samples of cadmium tetra borate were synthesized by a simple solid state sintering technique and gamma irradiated sample showed a simple Thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak around 460 K. The TL kinetic parameters of gamma irradiated phosphor were determined by initial rise (IR), isothermal decay (ID), peak shape (PS), variable heating rate (VHR) and glow curve de-convolution method. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) were calculated by IR, ID, PS and VHR methods are in the order of ∼1.05 eV, 10{sup 9}–10{sup 12} s{sup −1} and 1.58, respectively. From the results of TL and PL emission studies carried out on the phosphor revealed that the defect centers related to TL is different from that for PL. EPR measurements were carried out to identify the defect centers formed in cadmium tetra borate phosphor on gamma irradiation. Based on EPR studies the mechanism for TL process in cadmium tetra borate is proposed in this paper -- Highlights: • Polycrystalline powder samples of undoped cadmium tetra borate synthesized. • Cadmium tetra borate phosphor exhibits a dosimetric peak at 458 K. • Kinetic parameters of the trap responsible for TL evaluated. • TL mechanism is proposed from TL to EPR correlation studies.

  6. Determinants of serum cadmium levels in a Northern Italy community: A cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Tommaso; Michalke, Bernhard; Malagoli, Carlotta; Grill, Peter; Bottecchi, Ilaria; Malavolti, Marcella; Vescovi, Luciano; Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Cherubini, Andrea; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Modenesi, Marina; Castiglia, Paolo; Vinceti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a serious environmental hazard to humans. Some uncertainties still exist about major sources of Cd exposure in non-occupationally exposed subjects in addition to cigarette smoking, such as diet and outdoor air pollution. We sought to determine the influence of these sources on a biomarker of exposure, serum Cd concentration. Methods: We recruited 51 randomly selected residents from an Italian urban community, from whom we obtained detailed information about dietary habits and smoking habits, and a blood sample for serum Cd determination. We also assessed outdoor air Cd exposure, by modeling outdoor air levels of particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM 10 ) from motorized traffic at geocoded subjects’ residence. Results: In crude analysis, regression beta coefficients for dietary Cd, smoking and PM10 on serum Cd levels were 0.03 (95% CI -0.83 to 0.88), 6.96 (95% CI -0.02 to 13.95) and 0.62 (95% CI -0.19 to 1.43), respectively. In the adjusted analysis, regression beta coefficients were -0.34 (95% CI -1-40 to 0.71), 5.81 (95% CI -1.43 to 13.04) and 0.47 (95% CI -0.35 to 1.29), respectively. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was the most important factor influencing serum Cd in our non-occupationally exposed population, as expected, while dietary Cd was not associated with this biomarker. Outdoor air pollution, as assessed through exposure to particulate matter generated by motorized traffic, was an additional source of Cd exposure. - Highlights: • Smoking markedly increases serum Cd levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals. • Overall dietary Cd intake shows little association with serum Cd levels. • Air pollution from motorized traffic increases serum Cd levels.

  7. Determinants of serum cadmium levels in a Northern Italy community: A cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippini, Tommaso [CREAGEN, Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, Section of Public Health - Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Michalke, Bernhard [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Malagoli, Carlotta [CREAGEN, Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, Section of Public Health - Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Grill, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Bottecchi, Ilaria; Malavolti, Marcella [CREAGEN, Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, Section of Public Health - Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Vescovi, Luciano [IREN, Reggio Emilia and Piacenza (Italy); Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio [Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezia 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Cherubini, Andrea; Maffeis, Giuseppe [TerrAria s.r.l., Via Melchiorre Gioia 132, 20125 Milan (Italy); Modenesi, Marina [Local Health Unit of Modena, Modena (Italy); Castiglia, Paolo [Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Vinceti, Marco, E-mail: marco.vinceti@unimore.it [CREAGEN, Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, Section of Public Health - Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a serious environmental hazard to humans. Some uncertainties still exist about major sources of Cd exposure in non-occupationally exposed subjects in addition to cigarette smoking, such as diet and outdoor air pollution. We sought to determine the influence of these sources on a biomarker of exposure, serum Cd concentration. Methods: We recruited 51 randomly selected residents from an Italian urban community, from whom we obtained detailed information about dietary habits and smoking habits, and a blood sample for serum Cd determination. We also assessed outdoor air Cd exposure, by modeling outdoor air levels of particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM{sub 10}) from motorized traffic at geocoded subjects’ residence. Results: In crude analysis, regression beta coefficients for dietary Cd, smoking and PM10 on serum Cd levels were 0.03 (95% CI -0.83 to 0.88), 6.96 (95% CI -0.02 to 13.95) and 0.62 (95% CI -0.19 to 1.43), respectively. In the adjusted analysis, regression beta coefficients were -0.34 (95% CI -1-40 to 0.71), 5.81 (95% CI -1.43 to 13.04) and 0.47 (95% CI -0.35 to 1.29), respectively. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was the most important factor influencing serum Cd in our non-occupationally exposed population, as expected, while dietary Cd was not associated with this biomarker. Outdoor air pollution, as assessed through exposure to particulate matter generated by motorized traffic, was an additional source of Cd exposure. - Highlights: • Smoking markedly increases serum Cd levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals. • Overall dietary Cd intake shows little association with serum Cd levels. • Air pollution from motorized traffic increases serum Cd levels.

  8. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  9. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  10. Study on transfer of cadmium in soil-plant systems with the isotopic dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qitang; Morel, J.L.; Guckert, A.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the transfer rate from endogenous and exogenous cadmium in soil to plants. Soils were labelled with 109 Cd and amended with soluble cadmium salt or Cd containing sewage sludge. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were grown in pots and the effective transfer of cadmium from different sources to shoot of the plant were measured. The soils were also extracted with 0.1 M CaCl 2 , DTPA and 0.1 N HCl. The results showed that the addition of soluble cadmium salt substantially increased the plant cadmium content. Plant absorbed mainly the cadmium from exogenous sources in the soils treated with cadmium. The effective transfer rate of exogenous cadmium was higher than that of endogenous ones, and the soluble salt form was 2 to 3 times higher than that in the sewage sludge. 0.1 M CaCl 2 extracted Cd was significantly correlated with the plant cadmium content. The specific radioactivity of cadmium extracted by this reagent was nearer to the plant cadmium than that extracted by others. 0.1 N HCl extracted cadmium could not be absorbed by plants

  11. Effects of chronic alternating cadmium exposure on the episodic secretion of prolactin in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Medicina Complutense; Marquez, N.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Lafuente, A. [Vigo Univ., Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium increases or decreases prolactin secretion depending on the dose and duration of the exposure to the metal. However, whether there are cadmium effects on the episodic prolactin secretion is less well known. This study was undertaken to address whether chronic alternating exposure to two different doses of cadmium affects the episodic pattern of prolactin and to what extent the effects of cadmium are age-dependent. Male rats were treated s.c. with cadmium chloride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) from day 30 to 60, or from day 60 to 90 of age, with alteration of the doses every 4 days, starting with the smaller dose. Controls received vehicle every 4 days. The last dose of cadmium was given 48 h prior to the pulsatility study. Prolactin secretion in the 4 experimental groups studied was episodic and changed significantly after cadmium exposure. Cadmium administration from day 30 to 60 of life significantly decreased the mean half-life of prolactin. On the other hand, when administered from day 60 to 90 cadmium significantly decreased the mean as well as serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses, their duration, the relative amplitude or the mean half-life of the hormone. The frequency of prolactin peaks was not changed by cadmium administration. The results indicate that low intermittent doses of cadmium chronically administered change the episodic secretion pattern of prolactin in rats. The effects of cadmium on prolactin secretion were age dependent. (orig.)

  12. Detection of Cadmium Ion by Evanescent Wave Based Chitosan Coated Optical Fiber Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulianti, I; Edy, S S; Saputra, B A; Aji, M P; Susanto; Kurdi, O

    2017-01-01

    Evanescent wave based-optical fiber sensor to detect cadmium ion is proposed. Chitosan was used by using the dip-coating method. The sensor was fabricated in U-bent shape. U-bent optical sensor at aconcentration of 2ppm and 5ppm had asensitivity of 0.2067 dBm/ppm and -0.7995 dBm/ppm, respectively. At a level of 2ppm - 5ppm, the optical sensor has a linear response with asensitivity of -0.283 dBm/ppm. The sensor takes 9.5 minutes to reach steady stateat aconcentration of 1 ppm. Atalevel of 2ppm - 5ppm, the sensor takes 5 minutes to 10.45 minutes to reach steady state. (paper)

  13. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cadmium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, I.M.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Cd(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activities against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cadmium(II) iodide was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine is quite effective against the rare pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi but comparatively less effective against Pathogenic fungi. Nicotine was found to be completely ineffective against the selected species of Occasional pathogenic fungi. Cadmium(II) iodide effectively inhibited Pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi whereas relatively ineffective against the Occasional pathogenic and Rare pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Cadmium(II) nicotine complex inhibited all the selected species of fungi except Fusarium solani. (author)

  14. Chemical characterisation of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazulla Barreda, M. F.; Rodrigo Edo, M.; Blasco Roca, E.; Orduna Cordero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper addresses the development of a methodology that allows the complete chemical characterisation of zircon cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments including minor and major elements. To develop the methodology, five zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide pigments with different hues were selected, studying the different measurement process steps, from sample preparation to the optimisation of the measurement of the different components of the pigments by spectroscopic techniques (WD-XRF and elemental analysis by combustion and IR detection). The chemical characterisation method developed was validated with synthetic standards prepared from the mixture of certified reference materials and pure oxides because no certified referenced materials of this type of pigments were commercially available. The developed method can be used for a complete chemical characterization of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments with a very low uncertainty for all the elements analysed. (Author)

  15. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  16. Effect of cadmium on plants of oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesko, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of some production parameters of hydroponically grown plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent by cadmium and determine the amount of cadmium accumulated in plant organs. Studying the effect of cadmium on plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent confirmed that application of metal reduced the length and also fresh and dry weight of plant organs, while the inhibitory effect of Cd with increasing concentration of metal in solution increased. Plant roots responded to toxic effect of Cd more responsive. As a result of Cd applications occurred a significant decrease of content of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) in plant leaves. Species of rape Opponent is a significant Cd battery, and for these plants is characterized by a high rate of translocation of this metal into the shoots.

  17. Solubility of nickel-cadmium ferrite in acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'ski, V.; Vol'ska, Eh.; Politan'ska, U.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of a solid solution of nickel-cadmium ferrite containing an excess of ferric oxide, (CdO)sub(0.5), (NiO)sub(0.5) and (Fe 2 O 3 )sub(1.5), in hydrochloric and nitric acids at 20, 40 and 60 deg C, was determined colorimetrically and chelatometrically, as well as by studying the x-ray diffraction patterns of the preparations prior to dissolution and their residues after dissolution. It is shown that cadmium passes into the solution faster than iron and nickel; after 800 hours, the solution contains 40% of iron ions and more than 80% of cadmium ions. The kinetics of ferrite dissolution is studied

  18. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST

  19. Problem of cadmium, arsenic and zinc determination in enviroment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyugin, M.S.; Luzhnova, M.A.; Lontsikh, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Using the emission spectroscopy technique new information has been obtained on cadmium-, arsenic and zinc content in some reference samples (RS) of rocks and soils not previously certified as to the content of the elements, as well as in nealy issued RS of soils. Metrologic estimation of the results obtained is carried out. A comparison with the atomic-absorption analysis data as well as with those of the neutron-activation-, colorimetric and other methods of the analysis permits to refer to the advantages of using the spectrographic determination technique based on fractionated evaporation, in case of determining cadmium and arsenic in rocks and soils. Consideration of the results of cadmium, arsenic and zinc spectrography contributed greatly to the certification of reference samples of soils

  20. 27 CFR 20.95 - Developmental samples of articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... articles. 20.95 Section 20.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process § 20.95 Developmental samples of articles. (a) A user may use limited quantities of specially denatured spirits in the manufacture of samples of articles for submission in accordance with § 20...

  1. 46 CFR 111.95-3 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements. 111.95-3 Section 111.95-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Boat Winches § 111.95-3 General requirements. (a) Each electrical...

  2. 46 CFR 196.95-1 - Pilot boarding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding operations. 196.95-1 Section 196.95-1... Pilot Boarding Operations § 196.95-1 Pilot boarding operations. (a) The master shall ensure that pilot boarding equipment is maintained as follows: (1) The equipment must be kept clean and in good working order...

  3. 7 CFR 2.95 - Director, Office of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Director, Office of Ethics. 2.95 Section 2.95... Administration § 2.95 Director, Office of Ethics. The Director, Office of Ethics, shall be the USDA Alternate Agency Ethics Official, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.202, and shall exercise the authority reserved to the...

  4. 46 CFR 9.5 - Night, Sunday, and holiday defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Night, Sunday, and holiday defined. 9.5 Section 9.5... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.5 Night, Sunday, and holiday defined. (a) For the purpose of this part... term holiday shall mean only national legal public holidays, viz., January 1, February 22, May 30, July...

  5. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  6. 29 CFR 95.21 - Standards for financial management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for financial management systems. 95.21 Section 95... Requirements Financial and Program Management § 95.21 Standards for financial management systems. (a... practical. (b) Recipients' financial management systems shall provide for the following: (1) Accurate...

  7. 7 CFR 1780.95 - Public bidding on bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... public bidding. The Agency will not submit a bid at the advertised sale unless required by State law, nor... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public bidding on bonds. 1780.95 Section 1780.95... Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public Body Applicants § 1780.95 Public bidding on bonds. Bonds...

  8. 28 CFR 2.95 - Early termination from supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early termination from supervision. 2.95 Section 2.95 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS District of Columbia Code: Prisoners and Parolees § 2.95 Early termination from...

  9. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the tanks...

  10. 29 CFR 95.35 - Supplies and other expendable property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate value upon termination or completion of the project or program... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplies and other expendable property. 95.35 Section 95.35... Requirements Property Standards § 95.35 Supplies and other expendable property. (a) Title to supplies and other...

  11. 9 CFR 95.2 - Region of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Region of origin. 95.2 Section 95.2... BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.2 Region of... Administrator, Veterinary Services, the name of the region of origin of such product or material: Provided, That...

  12. 22 CFR 9.5 - Original classification authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification authority. 9.5 Section 9.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.5 Original classification authority. (a) Authority for original classification of information as Top Secret may be exercised...

  13. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  14. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Jeekeeree, Wanpen; Funkhiew, Thippawan; Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn; Phopueng, Ittipol

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β 2 -microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β 2 -microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β 2 -microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β 2 -microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children

  15. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2012-05-01

    Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940-2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure-response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m(3) Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20-25 years. These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m(3) Cd.

  16. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerup, Lars; Akesson, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 μg Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 μg/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

  17. Mineral-like clathrate of cadmium cyanide with benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazava, T.; Nishimura, A.

    1999-01-01

    A new mineral-like clathrate of cadmium cyanide with benzene Cd(CN) 2 ·C 6 H 6 is prepared. Data of x-ray diffraction analysis show that benzene molecule is incorporated in cadmium cyanide lattice and a new mineral-like lattice of Cd(CN) 2 belongs to structures of cristobalite type. Clathrate Cd(CN) 2 ·C 6 H 6 crystallizes in trigonal space group R3m, a=8.953(4), c=21929(6) A [ru

  18. Reactivity of the cadmium ion in concentrated phosphoric acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gyves, J; Gonzales, J; Louis, C; Bessiere, J

    1989-07-01

    The solvation transfer coefficients which characterize the changes of ion reactivity with phosphoric acid concentration have been calculated for cadmium from the constants of the successive chloride complexes, and for silver and diethyldithiophosphate from potentiometric measurements. They evidence the strong desolvation of the cadmium species in concentrated phosphoric acid media, causing a remarkable increase of its reactivity. They allow the results of liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation and flotation reactions to be correctly interpreted and their changes to be foreseen when the reagents are modified.

  19. Spectroscopic study of cadmium (II) complexes with heterocyclic dithiocarbamate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Fontan, S.; Rodriguez-Seoane, P.; Casas, J.S.; Sordo, J.; Jones, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Cadmium(II) dithiocarbamates [Cd(dtc) 2 ] (dtc=4-carboxamidopiperidine-1-carbodithioate, morpholine-1-carbodithioate or 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-carbodithioate) and [Cd(dtc) 2 ].H 2 O (dtc=4-hydroxypiperidine-1-carbodithioate} have been prepared and characterized by thermal analysis and IR and NMR ( 13 C, 113 Cd) spectrometry. Two of these ligands have previously been shown capable of removing cadmium from its aged in vivo storage sites. The use of solid state 13 C NMR measurements to establish the coordination mode of the dithiocarbomate ligands is also examined and the difficulties which arise are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Gut as a target for cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gritsenko, Viktor A; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Cherkasov, Sergey V; Aaseth, Jan; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2018-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to review the impact of Cd exposure on gut microbiota and intestinal physiology, as well as to estimate whether gut may be considered as the target for Cd toxicity. The review is based on literature search in available databases. The existing data demonstrate that the impact of Cd on gut physiology is two-sided. First, Cd exposure induces a significant alteration of bacterial populations and their relative abundance in gut (increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio), accompanied by increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production, reflecting changed metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiome. Second, in intestinal wall Cd exposure induces inflammatory response and cell damage including disruption of tight junctions, ultimately leading to increased gut permeability. Together with increased LPS production, impaired barrier function causes endotoxinemia and systemic inflammation. Hypothetically, Cd-induced increase gut permeability may also result in increased bacterial translocation. On the one hand, bacteriolysis may be associated with aggravation of endotoxemia. At the same time, together with Cd-induced impairment of macrophage inflammatory response, increased bacterial translocation may result in increased susceptibility to infections. Such a supposition is generally in agreement with the finding of higher susceptibility of Cd-exposed mice to infections. The changed microbiome metabolic activity and LPS-induced systemic inflammation may have a significant impact on target organs. The efficiency of probiotics in at least partial prevention of the local (intestinal) and systemic toxic effects of cadmium confirms the role of altered gut physiology in Cd toxicity. Therefore, probiotic treatment may be considered as the one of the strategies for prevention of Cd toxicity in parallel with chelation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cadmium Concentration in Human Autopsy Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Sadlik, Józefa K

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of cadmium in human tissues obtained on the basis of autopsies of non-poisoned Polish people (n = 150), aged from 1 to 80 years, examined between 1990 and 2010, is presented. The following values were found in wet digested samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (mean ± SD, median, and range, μg/g of wet weight): brain 0.020 ± 0.031, 0.084, 0-0.120 (n = 41); stomach 0.148 ± 0.195, 0.084, 0-1.25 (n = 89); small intestine 0.227 ± 0.231, 0.130, 0-0.830 (n = 39); liver 1.54 ± 1.55, 1.01, 0.015-9.65 (n = 99); kidney 16.0 ± 13.2, 14.0, 0.62-61.3 (n = 91); lung 0.304 ± 0.414, 0.130, 0-1.90 (n = 25); and heart 0.137 ± 0.107, 0.140, 0.017-0.250 (n = 4). Additionally, results (n = 13 people, aged from 2 to 83 years, 63 samples) obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) between 2010 and 2015 are given. The obtained data on Cd concentration in the human body can be used to estimate the amounts occurring in "healthy" people and those occurring in cases of chronic or acute poisonings with Cd compounds, which are examined for forensic purposes or to assess environmental exposure levels.

  2. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, E.; He, Z.L.; Stoffella, P.J.; Mylavarapu, R.S.; Li, Y.C.; Moyano, B.; Baligar, V.C.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg −1 ) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg −1 , respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg −1 . Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg −1 ), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg −1 , and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil Cd contamination is

  3. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Selvaraj, Uthra [Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Kumar, Vadivel Vinod [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip, E-mail: philip@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael [Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich [Scientific Educational Center of Nanotechnology, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690990 (Russian Federation); Raman, Thiagarajan, E-mail: raman@biotech.sastra.edu [Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH){sub 2} without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd{sup 2+} ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd{sup 2+} ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd{sup 2+} from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights:

  4. Effect of surfactant in mitigating cadmium oxide nanoparticle toxicity: Implications for mitigating cadmium toxicity in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmuri, Sricharani Rao; Selvaraj, Uthra; Kumar, Vadivel Vinod; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip; Tsatsakis, Aristides Michael; Golokhvast, Kirill Sergeevich; Raman, Thiagarajan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), classified as human carcinogen, is an extremely toxic heavy metal pollutant, and there is an increasing environmental concern for cadmium exposure through anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke. Though Cd based nanoparticles such as cadmium oxide (CdO) are being widely used in a variety of clinical and industrial applications, the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles has not been well characterized. Herein we report the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles employing zebrafish as a model. Two different CdO nanoparticles were prepared, calcination of Cd(OH) 2 without any organic molecule (CdO-1) and calcination of Cd-citrate coordination polymer (CdO-2), to evaluate and compare the toxicity of these two different CdO nanoparticles. Results show that zebrafish exposed to CdO-2 nanoparticles expressed reduced toxicity as judged by lower oxidative stress levels, rescue of liver carboxylesterases and reduction in metallothionein activity compared to CdO-1 nanoparticles. Histopathological observations also support our contention that CdO-1 nanoparticles showed higher toxicity relative to CdO-2 nanoparticles. The organic unit of Cd-citrate coordination polymer might have converted into carbon during calcination that might have covered the surface of CdO nanoparticles. This carbon surface coverage can control the release of Cd 2+ ions in CdO-2 compared to non-covered CdO-1 nanoparticles and hence mitigate the toxicity in the case of CdO-2. This was supported by atomic absorption spectrophotometer analyses of Cd 2+ ions release from CdO-1 and CdO-2 nanoparticles. Thus the present study clearly demonstrates the toxicity of CdO nanoparticles in an aquatic animal and also indicates that the toxicity could be substantially reduced by carbon coverage. This could have important implications in terms of anthropogenic release and environmental pollution caused by Cd and human exposure to Cd 2+ from sources such as cigarette smoke. - Highlights: • Toxicity of Cd

  5. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); He, Z.L., E-mail: zhe@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Stoffella, P.J. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Mylavarapu, R.S. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL 33611 (United States); Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Moyano, B. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); Baligar, V.C. [United State Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg{sup −1}) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg{sup −1}. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg{sup −1}), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg{sup −1}, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil

  6. Preparation of new conductive polymer nanocomposites for cadmium removal from industrial wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoleikani, Leila; Issazadeh, Hossein; ZareNezhad, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Different conductive polymer nanocomposites have been synthesized, characterized and tested, regarding the removal of cadmium from industrial wastewaters. The chemical structure and morphology are studied by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cadmium removal performance, using the produced polypyrrole, polyaniline and polythiophene nanocomposites, are about 40.2 %, 59 % and 99.94 %, respectively, suggesting the superior performance of synthesized polythiophene conductive nanocomposite for cadmium removal from industrial wastewaters. It is shown that the Langmuir adsorption model can be used for accurate description of cadmium removal mechanism using different synthesized conductive nanocomposites. Keywords : wastewater, nanocomposite, polythiophene, cadmium removal, conductive polymer.

  7. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  8. Effect of pH on cadmium biosorption by coconut copra meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofomaja, Augustine E.; Ho, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Biosorption of cadmium ion by coconut copra meal, an agricultural waste product was investigated as a function of initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Pseudo-second-order kinetic analyses were performed to determine the rate constant of biosorption, the equilibrium capacity, and initial biosorption rate. Cadmium biosorption by copra meal was found to be dependent on the initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Ion exchange occurred in the initial biosorption period. In addition, mathematical relationships were drawn to relate the change in the solution hydrogen ion concentration with equilibrium biosorption capacity, initial cadmium concentration, and equilibrium biosorption capacity

  9. Physiological response of Arundo donax to cadmium stress by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunhui; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Hongping

    2018-06-05

    The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique for the non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the plants stressed with heavy metals, Arundo donax is suitable for phytoremediation of cadmium -contaminated wetland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, K.; Moskowitz, P.; Fthenakis, V.

    1998-02-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  11. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure

  12. Biosensors paving the way to understanding the interaction between cadmium and the estrogen receptor alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fechner

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal ubiquitously present in the environment and subsequently in the human diet. Cadmium has been proposed to disrupt the endocrine system, targeting in particular the estrogen signaling pathway already at environmentally relevant concentrations. Thus far, the reports on the binding affinity of cadmium towards human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα have been contradicting, as have been the reports on the in vivo estrogenicity of cadmium. Hence, the mode of interaction between cadmium and the receptor remains unclear. Here, we investigated the interaction between cadmium and hERα on a molecular level by applying a novel, label-free biosensor technique based on reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS. We studied the binding of cadmium to hERα, and the conformation of the receptor following cadmium treatment. Our data reveals that cadmium interacts with the ligand binding domain (LBD of the ERα and affects the conformation of the receptor. However, the binding event, as well as the induced conformation change, greatly depends on the accessibility of the cysteine tails in the LBD. As the LBD cysteine residues have been reported as targets of post-translational modifications in vivo, we present a hypothesis according to which different cellular pools of ERα respond to cadmium differently. Our proposed theory could help to explain some of the previously contradicting results regarding estrogen-like activity of cadmium.

  13. A Study on the Fabrication of Uranium-Cadmium Alloy and its Distillation Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yong; Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Kim, Si Hyung

    2010-01-01

    The pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycle process, called pyroprocessing, has been known as a promising nuclear fuel recycling technology. Pyroprocessing technology is crucial to advanced nuclear systems due to increased nuclear proliferation resistance and economic efficiency. The basic concept of pyroprocessing is group actinide recovery, which enhances the nuclear proliferation resistance significantly. One of the key steps in pyroprocessing is 'electrowinning' which recovers group actinides with lanthanide from the spent nuclear fuels. In this study, a vertical cadmium distiller was manufactured. The evaporation rate of pure cadmium in vertical cadmium distiller varied from 12.3 to 40.8 g/cm 2 /h within a temperature range of 773 ∼ 923 K and pressure below 0.01 torr. Uranium - cadmium alloy was fabricated by electrolysis using liquid cadmium cathode in a high purity argon atmosphere glove box. The distillation behavior of pure cadmium and cadmium in uranium - cadmium alloy was investigated. The distillation behavior of cadmium from this study could be used to develop an actinide recovery process from a liquid cadmium cathode in a cadmium distiller

  14. Alleviation of adverse impact of cadmium stress in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALLAH, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Hend, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important ornamental plant and good source of vegetable oil, widely accepted as potential promising plant for phytoremediation. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of cadmium on the growth and some biochemical attributes of sunflower and role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in assuaging the cadmium stress induced changes. Cadmium treatment reduced growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability. AMF inoculated plants showed increased growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability and also mitigated changes caused due to cadmium. Cadmium caused increase in lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide production. An increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed due to cadmium treatment which was further enhanced by inoculation of AMF. Increase in proline and total phenols due to cadmium stress was obvious. Cadmium stressed plants showed enhanced fatty acid content. AMF inoculated plants showed higher activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases which were reduced by cadmium stress. However palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3) reduced in cadmium treated plants and the negative impact of cadmium was mitigated by AMF. (author)

  15. A Study on the Fabrication of Uranium-Cadmium Alloy and its Distillation Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yong [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Kim, Si Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycle process, called pyroprocessing, has been known as a promising nuclear fuel recycling technology. Pyroprocessing technology is crucial to advanced nuclear systems due to increased nuclear proliferation resistance and economic efficiency. The basic concept of pyroprocessing is group actinide recovery, which enhances the nuclear proliferation resistance significantly. One of the key steps in pyroprocessing is 'electrowinning' which recovers group actinides with lanthanide from the spent nuclear fuels. In this study, a vertical cadmium distiller was manufactured. The evaporation rate of pure cadmium in vertical cadmium distiller varied from 12.3 to 40.8 g/cm{sup 2}/h within a temperature range of 773 {approx} 923 K and pressure below 0.01 torr. Uranium - cadmium alloy was fabricated by electrolysis using liquid cadmium cathode in a high purity argon atmosphere glove box. The distillation behavior of pure cadmium and cadmium in uranium - cadmium alloy was investigated. The distillation behavior of cadmium from this study could be used to develop an actinide recovery process from a liquid cadmium cathode in a cadmium distiller.

  16. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  17. Dissolution ad uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, B.; Bergman, M.; Soeremark, R.

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium ( 115 Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of 115 Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver. (author)

  18. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fuzhong; Yang Wanqin; Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 ± 19.22 and 576.75 ± 40.55 μg cadmium per plant with 110.77 ± 12.68 and 202.54 ± 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  19. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Fuzhong [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Yang Wanqin, E-mail: scyangwq@163.com [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China)

    2010-05-15

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 {+-} 19.22 and 576.75 {+-} 40.55 {mu}g cadmium per plant with 110.77 {+-} 12.68 and 202.54 {+-} 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  20. Cadmium and cadmium-tolerant soil bacteria in cacao crops from northeastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, D; Pardo-Díaz, S; Benavides-Erazo, J; Rengifo-Estrada, G; Braissant, O; Leon-Moreno, C

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to assess total-cadmium soil content and microbiological aspects to understand the dynamics of culturable cadmium-tolerant bacteria (CdtB) in cacao soils from northeastern Colombia. An integration of inverted dish plating, Cd determination and a microcalorimetry assay (IMC) was carried out. A farm in Boyacá showed the highest level of total soil Cd (3·74 mg kg -1 ) followed by farms in Santander and Arauca (2·76 and 1·16 mg kg -1 , respectively). Coefficient of determination between total soil Cd and CFU of CdtB was high (R 2  = 0·83) for the farm in Boyacá. Moreover, a pool of 129 CdtB was isolated, and phylogeny of 21 CdtB was discussed. Among CdtB strains isolated, Enterobacter sp. CdDB41 showed major Cd immobilization capacity (Q max of 2·21 and 2·32 J at 6 and 24 mg l -1 of CdCl 2 ), with an immobilization rate of 0·220 mg kg -1  h -1 . Among CdtB strains isolated, Enterobacter sp. CdDB41 showed major Cd immobilization capacity (Q max of 2·21 and 2·32 J at 6 and 24 mg l -1 of CdCl 2 ), with an immobilization rate of 0·220 mg kg -1  h -1 . Nothing is known about soil CdtB in cacao. Our data showed that CdtB such as Enterobacter sp. has high immobilization capacity. Furthermore, the otavite found in situ might be mineralized due to the bacterial metabolic activity of CdtB. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Cadmium, follicle-stimulating hormone, and effects on bone in women age 42-60 years, NHANES III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center L3-R071, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8338 (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Moonga, Baljit S. [Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, New York (United States); Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Increased body burden of environmental cadmium has been associated with greater risk of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and older women, and an inverse relationship has been reported between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMD in middle-aged women; however, the relationships between cadmium and FSH are uncertain, and the associations of each with bone loss have not been analyzed in a single population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium (UCd) and FSH levels, and the associations between UCd and FSH with BMD and osteoporosis, in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women aged 42-60 years. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). Outcomes evaluated were serum FSH levels, femoral bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and osteoporosis indicated by femoral BMD cutoffs based on the international standard. Urinary cadmium levels were analyzed for association with these outcomes, and FSH levels analyzed for association with bone effects, using multiple regression. Subset analysis was conducted by a dichotomous measure of body mass index (BMI) to proxy higher and lower adipose-synthesized estrogen effects. Results: UCd was associated with increased serum FSH in perimenopausal women with high BMI (n=642; {beta}=0.45; p{<=}0.05; R{sup 2}=0.35) and low BMI (n=408; {beta}=0.61; p{<=}0.01; R{sup 2}=0.34). Among perimenopausal women with high BMI, BMD was inversely related to UCd ({beta}=-0.04; p{<=}0.05) and FSH ({beta}=-0.03; p{<=}0.05). In postmenopausal women with low BMI, an incremental increase in FSH was associated with 2.78 greater odds for osteoporosis (109 with and 706 without) (OR=2.78; 95% CI=1.43, 5.42; p{<=}0.01). Conclusion: Long-term cadmium exposure at environmental levels is associated with increased serum FSH, and both FSH

  2. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yutaka, E-mail: yaoki@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Yee, Jennifer [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Epidemiology Elective Program, MS E-92, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Family Medicine, 4000 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington D.C 20057 (United States); Mortensen, Mary E. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, MS F-20, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  3. Metallothionein in brook trout (Salvenlinus fontinalis) as a biological indicator of cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Mehrle, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A cadmium-saturation technique for quantifying metallothionein in mammalian tissues was evaluated for use in fish tissue. Metallothionein characteristically binds 7 gram-atoms of a metal such as cadmium per mole of protein so saturating MT with respect to one metal and then quantifying that metal would thus result in the indirect quantification of MT. The authors administered 3 mg 109 cadmium/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection over a 5-day period to adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to induce MT in liver and kidney tissues. Homogenates were centrifuged and the supernatant was used to quantitate cadmium in three fractions: 100,000 g supernatant, cadmium-saturated MT, and unsaturated MT. The cadmium-saturated MT method involved the following steps: saturation of MT in an aliquot of 100,000 g supernatant with excess cadmium; removal of excess cadmium by addition of 2% hemoglobin; denaturation of hemoglobin by heating at 100 0 C followed by rapid cooling on ice; centrifugation at 10,000 g; digestion of an aliquot of supernatant in concentrated nitric acid for 16 hours at 70 0 C, and quantification of cadmium by atomic absorption and graphite furnace techniques or radiometric measurement with a scintillation counter. The cadmium saturation technique was modified in two ways so the amount of cadmium bound to unsaturated MT could be measured; first, the binding sites on MT were not saturated with excess cadmium, and second, the concentration of hemoglobin added to remove free cadmium and aid in coagulating low-molecular-weight proteins was 1% instead of 2%. The method gave precise measurements of MT concentrations when aliquots of liver homogenate which were analyzed separately were quantified by atomic absorption or radiometric measurements. Two to four times more cadmium and MT concentrated in the liver of treated fish than in the kidney

  4. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yee, Jennifer; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  5. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shute, Tracy; Macfie, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify cadmium and zinc accumulated by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) when the metals were supplied separately and together. The highest dose of cadmium (100 mg/kg) reduced plant height and dry weight (down to 40% and 34% of control, respectively); the highest dose of zinc (2000 mg/kg) reduced plant height to 55% of control and dry weight to 70% of control. With both metals present, the plants were approximately the same size as those treated with cadmium only. The concentration of cadmium in the roots was unaffected by zinc. In other tissues, the effect of zinc on the accumulation of cadmium depended on the doses provided. At low doses, the addition of zinc reduced the concentration of cadmium in aboveground tissues to 40-50% of that found in plants exposed to cadmium only. However, when applied in high doses, the presence of zinc in cadmium-contaminated soils increased the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in aboveground tissues by up to 42%. In contrast, at high doses, the presence of cadmium in zinc-contaminated soil resulted in approximately 35% lower concentrations of zinc in all tissues. At a lower dose, cadmium had no effect on concentration of zinc in the plant tissues. The effects of high doses of one metal on the uptake of the other metal can be partially explained by the effects of one metal on the bioavailability of the other metal. In soils to which only one metal was added, bioavailable cadmium was 70-80% of the total cadmium, and bioavailable zinc was 50-70% of the total zinc. When both metals were added to the soil, 80-100% of the cadmium and 46-60% of the zinc were bioavailable. Concentrations of both metals were highest in root tissues (10-fold higher for cadmium, and up to 2-fold higher for zinc). Although relatively little cadmium was translocated to pods and seeds, the seeds of all plants (including those from control and zinc-treated plants) had concentrations of cadmium 3-4 times above the limit of 0

  6. Zirconium/niobium-95 determined in Hudson River water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Cohen, N.

    1982-01-01

    Zirconium 95 and Niobium 95 are the fission products detected in greatest abundance in Hudson River water following the atmospheric testing of a nuclear device in N.W. China in 1980. Water samples, collected continuously and on a 'grab' basis, and processed monthly, have been studied to determine 95 Zr and 95 Nb concentrations, and plotted against collection time. Total precipitation values for each month, averaged over the whole Hudson River are also plotted. Airborne concentration data were obtained from sites in Lower Manhattan and Chester, N.J. A maximum value for 95 Zr in the Hudson River was found for February 1981. Half-time removal of 95 Zr from water was also calculated. (U.K.)

  7. Effect of cadmium on lipid metabolism of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, S.; Gill, K.D.; Nath, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of early postnatal cadmium exposure on the in vivo incorporation of (1- 14 C) sodium acetate into various lipid classes of the weanling rat brain was studied. A stimulated incorporation of the label was observed in total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, cerebrosides and sulphatides of the brain of Cd-exposed animals compared to controls. (author)

  8. Use of the industrial yeast Candida utilis for cadmium sorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kujan, Petr; Prell, Aleš; Šafář, Hynek; Sobotka, Miroslav; Řezanka, Tomáš; Holler, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 257-260 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : candida utilis * cadmium * yeast Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  9. Cadmium accumulation and antioxidative defenses in leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn (Zea Mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd) concentration levels (0 - 1 mg/l) in a hydroponic system to analyze the antioxidant enzyme system, Cd concentration in the shoots and roots of plants, proline contents, growth responses and chlorophyll contents in the leaves of ...

  10. The Crystal Structures of Two Novel Cadmium-Picolinic Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crystal structures of two novel cadmium-picolinic acid complexes grown in aqueous solutions at selected pH values are reported. The structures are compared to expected solution species under the same conditions. The crystal structure of complex 1 exhibits a seven coordinate structure which contains a protonated ...

  11. Optical characterisation of thin film cadmium oxide prepared by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optical transmission spectra of transparent conducting cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films deposited by a modified reactive evaporation process onto glass substrates have been measured. The interference fringes were used to calculate the refractive index, thickness variation, average thickness and absorption coefficient ...

  12. Biosorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions Using A local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... Through the study period, the organism was routinely maintained at. 4°C on the ..... Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies of the Biosorption of Cadmium. (II) by Snail ... An innovative matrix to enhance the biosorption of Cd (II) ...

  13. Mechanism of cadmium ion removal by base treated juniper fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo-Hong Min; J.K. Park; James S. Han; Eun Woo Shin

    2003-01-01

    Pinyon juniper, Juniperus Monosperma, is a small-diameter and underutilized (SDU) lignocellulosic material. Evaluated were efficacy of base-treated juniper fiber (BTJF) sample for cadmium (Cd 2+ ) sorption and the viability of juniper fiber as a sorbent for the removal of Cd 2+ from water. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that...

  14. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  15. Effect of cadmium hyperaccumulation on antioxidative defense and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in cadmium (Cd) accumulation, the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll and free proline in Solanum nigrum, Cd-hyperaccumulator were examined and compared with a ...

  16. Sublethal effects of cadmium ingestion on mallard ducks. [Anas platyrhynchos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giulio, R T; Scanlon, P F

    1984-11-01

    Juvenile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) drakes were fed diets containing 0, 50, 150, or 450 ppM cadmium for 42 +/- 1 days in order to assess the impacts of cadmium ingestion on energy metabolism and tissue metal concentrations in this species. Most significant effects on energy metabolism were observed only in the 450 ppM group which displayed reduced body and liver weights, increased kidney weights, reduced liver aldolase activity, increased plasma concentrations of uric acid, decreased plasma triiodothyronine concentrations, and elevated adrenal weights and adrenal corticosterone concentrations. Ducks in the 150 ppM group displayed increased adrenal and kidney weights and elevated plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Among all treatments, increased cadmium and zinc concentrations in both livers and kidneys were dose-related; a similar trend was observed for copper concentrations in kidneys but not livers. Cadmium interference with carbohydrate metabolism in similar studies with mammals was more severe than that observed in mallards in the present study. 52 references, 6 tables.

  17. High cadmium / zinc ratio in cigarette smokers: potential implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoke may be one of the most common sources of cadmium (Cd) in the general population, particularly in the rising population of smokers in developing countries. Although a relationship between both cigarette smoking and environmental Cd contamination with prostate cancer exist, the mechanisms are unclear.

  18. Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cadmium(II) in 2 in a non-ended fashion affording a 3D network structure. In the crystalline state, each ..... Light brown DMF solutions of free bnzd, 1 and 2 show strong absorption at 253, ... 972; (b) Steel P J 2005 Acc. Chem. Res. 38 243; (c).

  19. Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Cadmium and Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of tobacco as cigarette or otherwise has been demonstrated to contribute to air pollution via smoke generation resulting in adverse health effect. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the concentration, distribution of cadmium and lead between ash residue and smoke in some ...

  20. Phosphate-induced cadmium adsorption in a tropical savannah soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of phosphate (P) on cadmium (Cd) adsorption was examined in a savanna soil with long history of different fertilizer amendment. The soil was incubated with P at 0, 250 and 500 mg P kg-1 soil and left to equilibrate for 2 weeks. Cd was added to the P-incubated soil at concentrations ranging from 27, 49 and ...