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Sample records for cadiz township wisconsin

  1. PLSS Townships and Sections, section.shp, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Door County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is...

  2. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  3. Public Land Survey Township Boundaries of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains polygons representing the PLSS township boundaries of the state of Iowa. TOWNSHIP was developed from a set of 99 individual county coverages...

  4. The Cadiz margin study off Spain: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Cadiz continental margin of the northeastern Gulf of Cadiz off Spain was selected for a multidisciplinary project because of the interplay of complex tectonic history between the Iberian and African plates, sediment supply from multiple sources, and unique Mediterranean Gateway inflow and outflow currents. The nature of this complex margin, particularly during the last 5 million years, was investigated with emphasis on tectonic history, stratigraphic sequences, marine circulation, contourite depositional facies, geotechnical properties, geologic hazards, and human influences such as dispersal of river contaminants. This study provides an integrated view of the tectonic, sediment supply and oceanographic factors that control depositional processes and growth patterns of the Cadiz and similar modem and ancient continental margins.

  5. Cities, Towns and Villages, Political townships, USPLS townships, Published in 2008, Harrison County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset as of 2008. It is described as 'Political townships, USPLS townships'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  6. 75 FR 21194 - Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair; Harrison Township, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair; Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Port Detroit Zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, Michigan. This special local regulation...

  7. 75 FR 39445 - Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Harrison Township Grand Prix, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... Detroit Zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, Michigan. This special local regulation is intended...

  8. PLSS Townships and Sections, Township, Range and Section grid lines., Published in 1988, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset as of 1988. It is described as 'Township, Range and Section grid lines.'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  9. 78 FR 44433 - Safety Zone; Metedeconk River; Brick Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Metedeconk River; Brick Township, NJ AGENCY... regulation applies to only one recurring fireworks event held in the Metedeconk River in Brick Township, NJ... CFR 165.506, an entry 19 for the Metedeconk River, Brick Township, NJ Safety Zone will be added from...

  10. Wisconsin Charter Schools, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John T.; Fortier, John; Allen, Lawrence; Wicklund, Dennis

    This report consists of a state summary of Wisconsin charter schools, a description of each charter school in operation, a description of charter schools opened in 2000, and appendixes listing teaching requirements for charter schools, Wisconsin Charter School law, and the chartering authority for each charter school. The state summary includes a…

  11. Affluence of Data on Volcanism in The Gulf of Cadiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wulff-Barreiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the recent progress on mud volcanism data accumulation in the case of the Gulf of Cadiz area. The discovery of giant mud volcanoes, deep coral reefs, and gas hydrates in 1999, from the Guadalquivir Diapiric Ridge to the Larache Moroccan margin, launched a dynamic expansion of new projects (GeNesis, MoundForce, HERMES and international oceanographic campaigns (R/V Sonne, Marion-Dufresne. The present monitoring of this Ibero-Moroccan oceanic zone is in need of a comprehensive database available in one site to make online search possible from a single interface. The database would constitute a reference point for a focused full scope collection.

  12. The impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ligthelm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The retail sector forms a critical element of a community’s economic and social welfare. It provides people with choices and services. These choices were until recently very limited in township areas. The pre-1994 retail landscape was dominated by small, often informal businesses offering basic household necessities to relatively low income earners. This has resulted in township residents’ preference to shop outside townships, known as ‘outshopping’. Rapid income growth of township residents since 1994 resulted in a substantial increase in consumer expenditure in these areas, known as ‘in-bound shopping’. This lucrative emerging market forms the last retail frontier in South Africa and is being explored by national retailers, especially supermarket chains. This article is aimed at establishing the impact of shopping mall development in townships on the traditional small township retailers including spaza/tuck shops. The net balance sheet on the impact of shopping mall development on small township retailers clearly suggests a decline in the township retailers’ market share. A change in small business model towards, inter alia, effective customer service with a small dedicated assortment of merchandise, satisfaction of emergency needs, selling in small units and extension of credit facilities may result in the survival of some small township retailers (albeit often at a smaller turnover.

  13. Searching for Seismically Active Faults in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, S.; Antunes, V.; Arroucau, P.

    2015-12-01

    The repeated occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in southwest Iberia in historical and instrumental times suggests the presence of active fault segments in the region. However, due to an apparently diffuse seismicity pattern defining a broad region of distributed deformation west of Gibraltar Strait, the question of the location, dimension and geometry of such structures is still open to debate. We recently developed a new algorithm for earthquake location in 3D complex media with laterally varying interface depths, which allowed us to relocate 2363 events having occurred from 2007 to 2013, using P- and S-wave catalog arrival times obtained from the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IPMA, Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera), for a study area lying between 8.5˚W and 5˚W in longitude and 36˚ and 37.5˚ in latitude. The most remarkable change in the seismicity pattern after relocation is an apparent concentration of events, in the North of the Gulf of Cadiz, along a low angle northward-dipping plane rooted at the base of the crust, which could indicate the presence of a major fault. If confirmed, this would be the first structure clearly illuminated by seismicity in a region that has unleashed large magnitude earthquakes. Here, we present results from the joint analysis of focal mechanism solutions and waveform similarity between neighboring events from waveform cross-correlation in order to assess whether those earthquakes occur on the same fault plane.

  14. Dimensions of Successful Leadership in Soweto Township Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbokazi, Zakhele

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the success of schools in disadvantaged township communities is shaped by an interplay of four dimensions: strategy, regulation, pedagogy and compensation. The paper presents these dimensions of successful leadership in secondary schools by drawing on a research study focusing on cases of three Soweto township secondary…

  15. [Analysis of the anesthesiology doctoral theses in Cadiz during the Six-Year Revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Espinós, C; Herrera Rodríguez, F

    1989-01-01

    Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla, after the 1868 Revolution, made possible in Spain the decentralization of doctorate's studies, which traditionally were done in Madrid. It was because of that fact that the Doctor degree could be obtained at the Faculty of Medicine in Cadiz during the Sexenio Revolucionario. The intention of this work is to analyse the anaesthesiologist doctorate thesis defended at the Faculty of Medicine in Cadiz during that period. We give unpublished news about the evolution of the obstetrics anaesthesia in Spain and different opinions about the use of anaesthetics in labours at that time.

  16. Unregulated gambling in South African townships: a policy conundrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Leanne; Barr, Graham

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the nature of informal or illegal gambling in South African townships, to investigate what motivates people to participate in this form of gambling and what they perceive are the associated benefits and dis-benefits. A series of focus group workshops was conducted with two groups of gamblers, all of whom had experience of some form of township gambling: one group currently lived in townships and the other had previously resided in townships. Gambling for the township residents was a far more frequent activity than for non-township residents and consumed substantially more of their time. The majority of the township residents classified themselves as unemployed, while of those who were unemployed, most people indicated that gambling was a major source of their income; some even described it as their only source of income. The most significant difference between what township and non-township residents expressed as wanting and getting from gambling was that the former indicated quite clearly and unanimously that what they sought and gained from gambling was money. Township residents were far more likely to indicate that they used gambling to balance their budgets than ex-township residents who gambled primarily at casinos. A lottery type game called "Fahfee" is the most widely spread and pervasive form of gambling and was unanimously portrayed as a necessary and beneficial form of support for the poor and unemployed. Lottery and Casino gambling were, in contrast, widely perceived by the township participants as being 'rigged' and unfair. Township Dice and cards were perceived as being 'fairer' and as allowing punters to be more in control than casino gambling. The downside of township gambling was reported to be high levels of violence, crime and insecurity surrounding, in particular, the game of Dice. There was widespread inability to calculate expected payoffs or odds, and an apparent belief that these were not particularly

  17. PLSS Townships and Sections - LANDSURVEY_TOWNSHIPS_POLY_IN: Township or Range Lines of Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — LANDSURVEY_TOWNSHIPS_POLY_IN is a 1:24,000-scale polygon shapefile with a projection of Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) North American Datum (NAD) 1983 zone 16.

  18. Quality of compost from composting plant in Puerto Real (Cadiz, Spain); Calidad del compost procedente de la planta de compostaje de Puerto Real (Cadiz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godillo Romero, M. D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.; Garrido Perez, C.; Rodriguez Barros, R.; Sales Marquez, D. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The compost taken from the Compost Plant, treating urban solid residues from the Consorcio Bahia de Cadiz in the municipal district of Puerto Real, Cadiz, has been analysed for its particular qualities over the years 1990-1996. With this in mind we have determined the most important of parameters with a view to defining the quality of this organic fertilizer extracted from urban solid residues (USR): pH, conductivity, rejection through net meshing, humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, C/N relationship, cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, tin, zinc and mercury. The compost gathered complies with the established legal requisites concerning fertilizers and their related substances. The quality in the first years of this study is better due possibly to the construction of the bio-recycling plant leaving the latter as a holding plant. (Author)

  19. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  20. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  1. PLSS Townships and Sections, Township Range anno1, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2004. It is described as 'Township Range anno1'. Data by this publisher are...

  2. PLSS Townships and Sections, Section, range, townships given to us by R&S Digital, Published in Not Provided, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of Not Provided. It is described as 'Section, range, townships...

  3. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in unknown, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  4. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  5. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  6. Government Districts, Other, Civil Townships, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Civil Townships'. Data by this...

  7. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  8. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in 2004, WTH Technology, Inc..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2004. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  9. WHISKER LAKE WILDERNESS, WISCONSIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral-resource potential of the Whisker Lake Wilderness in northeastern Wisconsin was evaluated. Only a strip along the southwest corner of the wilderness is assessed as having probable mineral-resource potential. If mineral deposits exist, they probably are of the massive sulfide type. The geologic terrain precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources. Sand and gravel and peat in swampy lowlands are the only resources of the Whisker lake Wilderness.

  10. PLSS Townships and Sections, township index, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  11. PLSS Townships and Sections, township labels, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  12. PLSS Townships and Sections, PLSS townships, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  13. PLSS Townships and Sections, Township Range, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as...

  14. PLSS Townships and Sections, GCDB township range, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  15. Occurrence of Lophogaster spinosus Ortmann, 1906 (Crustacea, Lophogastrida in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelló, P.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the lophogastrid crustacean Lophogaster spinosus is reported for the Gulf of Cadiz waters, in the North-East Atlantic. This is the first report of the species for the Iberian Atlantic region. Samples were collected by demersal trawling during a fisheries research survey performed in March 2008. A total of four specimens were collected at three sampling sites. Depths of occurrence ranged between 363 and 548 m.

  16. Activité volcanique dans le golfe de Cadiz : disponibilité bibliographique

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff-Barreiro, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    International audience; An ocean basin hydrocarbon province is emplaced along the Iberian-Moroccan wedge, in the Gulf of Cadiz. Giant seismically-chaotic bodies with thicknesses exceeding 4 km covers an area as great as 90.000 km2 with potential hydrocarbon reserves revealing the Gulf of Mexico, suitable for petroleum storage. In cooperation with Moroccan institutions the Naval Research Laboratory of the United States carried out in 1999 a series of prospecting with the objective of mapping t...

  17. Sustaining health workforce recruitment and retention in township hospitals: a survey on 110 directors of township hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingmin; Li, Jie; Jiang, Xingxing; Zhang, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Township hospitals, the main provider of rural primary healthcare in China, are severely understaffed. International studies on factors influencing rural working are increasing; however, studies on factors affecting the recruitment and retention of health workers in Chinese township hospitals are limited. The current study aims to understand the motivation of health workers and arrive at a systematic framework of pluralistic factors that would help support health workers in terms of receiving posts and remaining in posts in township hospitals. A three-stage integrated quantitative and qualitative methodology was employed. First, a survey on 120 directors of township hospitals was conducted to learn the latest status of health workers in township hospitals and distinguish existing problems. Second, after sending these problems back to the directors, an open-ended pen-and-paper survey was conducted to ask the directors to identify the factors influencing the attraction and retention of health workers in township hospitals. Third, four focus groups were conducted to gauge the underlying reasons. Five problems from the questionnaire survey were recognized, and numbers of thematic factors were identified at the individual, professional, and treatment environment from the pen-and-paper survey and focus group. Similar to other studies, this framing of both non-financial and financial elements affected the attraction and retention of health workers in township hospitals, thereby filling the gap in a Chinese context. Although several factors had been recognized earlier, our findings further highlighted the importance of these factors. Meanwhile, the factors identified in this study were barely explored in literature. This paper identifies and develops multi-faceted factors to call for a bundled package of multidimensional incentives if decision-makers get interested. The evidence-based findings in our study can be used to provide China-specific policy recommendations on how

  18. Political Township Boundaries in Iowa for 2010, derived from Census Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, Iowa townships are not actually classified as civil townships, but as special district governments. Special district governments exist to provide only one...

  19. IODP Expedition 339 in the Gulf of Cadiz and off West Iberia: Decoding the environmental significance of the Mediterranean outflow water and its global influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Molina, F.J.; Stow, D.A.V.; Alvarez-Zarikian, C.; Acton, G.; Bahr, A.; Balestra, B.; Ducassou, E.; Flood, R.; Flores, J.-A.; Furota, S.; Grunert, P.; Hodell, D.; Jimenez-Espejo, F.; Kim, J.K.; Krissek, L.; Kuroda, J.; Li, B.; Llave, E.; Lofi, J.; Lourens, L.; Miller, M.; Nanayama, F.; Nishida, N.; Richter, C.; Roque, C.; Pereira, H.; Sanchez Goñi, M.F.; Sierro, F.J.; Singh, A.D.; Sloss, C.; Takashimizu, Y.; Tzanova, A.; Voelker, A.; Williams, T.; Xuan, C.

    2013-01-01

    IODP Expedition 339 drilled five sites in the Gulf of Cadiz and two off the west Iberian margin (November 2011 to January 2012), and recovered 5.5 km of sediment cores with an average recovery of 86.4%. The Gulf of Cadiz was targeted for drilling as a key location for the investigation of Mediterran

  20. Influence Factors and Improvement Recommendations for Core Competency of Township Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chengjun

    2014-01-01

    Core competency of township enterprises may be influenced from the property right, technology, scale operation, financial management and talent. In view of these influence factors, township enterprises should conduct technological innovation, bring into full play functions of talents, promote corporate culture of township enterprises, attach great importance to development of core products and innovation of relevant systems, and establish market information platform for township enterprises.

  1. Influence Factors and Improvement Recommendations for Core Competency of Township Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Core competency of township enterprises may be influenced from the property right,technology,scale operation,financial management and talent. In view of these influence factors,township enterprises should conduct technological innovation,bring into full play functions of talents,promote corporate culture of township enterprises,attach great importance to development of core products and innovation of relevant systems,and establish market information platform for township enterprises.

  2. 76 FR 27251 - Safety Zone; Coughlin Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ..., Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI. This safety zone is intended to... radius of the fireworks barge launch site located off the shore of Harrison Township, MI at position...

  3. 76 FR 58110 - Safety Zone; Giannangeli Wedding Fireworks, Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    .... Clair, Harrison Township, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake St. Clair, Harrison Township, MI. This zone is... site located off the shore of Harrison Township, MI at position 42 36'31'' N, 082 48'2'' W from 10...

  4. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  5. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are disadvantaged in areas such as technology, labour skills, education levels of staff, access to bank loans and government support

  6. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are disadvantaged in areas such as technology, labour skills, education levels of staff, access to bank loans and government

  7. Teen Center: Schaumburg Township District Library, Schaumburg, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Teen Center at the Schaumburg Township District Library (Illinois) that was built with a sports theme. Highlights include the physical environment; the library collection, mainly recreational, that includes music CDs; the young adult population and community; hours of operation; staffing; youth participation and programs; and the…

  8. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Perotti; L. Sun; L. Zou

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are at a disadvantage in areas such as technology, labor skills, education levels of staff access to bank loans and government suppo

  9. Building a socialist harmonious society and the reform of township institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su ZhenDian

    2015-01-01

    building a socialist harmonious society should be focusing on the foundation, and the township is the base unit of the community foundation. Even urban township, even under the village, is a very strong correlation grassroots units. Our concern reform of township institutions not only in its achievements, but also concerned about their legacy. Not only concerned about the tangible aspects of institutional settings, such as team building, we have to study is its intangible aspects, such as the social costs of the township institutional reform, the introduction of competition mechanism, the social significance of the township institutional reform, scientific management, rural institutions the opportunity cost of personnel.

  10. A survey of floating population in 50 townships in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the findings from the survey of the floating population in China. The survey was conducted in 1991 among 58 townships in 20 provinces after a pilot survey was carried out in Sanhe County of Hebei Province and Wutai County of Shanxi Province. Townships were selected that were representative of the situations in their province. The final sample included only 50 townships due to poor quality data. The population in the sample townships included 18,926 immigrants, or 22.5% of total population, and 9,678 emigrants, or 11.6% of total population. Among seven suburban townships the immigration rate was 44.9% and the emigration rate was 3.2%. Eight coastal townships had an immigrant population of 24.9% and an emigrant population of 3.9%. Inland townships (35) had an immigration rate of 13.9% and emigration rate of 16.5%. Inland migrants moved to places with better economic conditions. 67.4% of the total floating population was male, and 32.6% was female. 4.88% were aged under 14 years and 1.64% were aged over 60 years. 73.4% were aged 15-29 years. 52.7% of the floating population had a junior high education and 32.1% had an elementary school education. The floating population comprised a high proportion of unmarried persons. Most shifted their occupations from the agricultural to the nonagricultural sector. 84.7% of the floating population lived in suburbs, and many worked as vendors, handicraft workers, and sanitation workers. In coastal areas, most were employed in industries and lived in company dorms or rented houses. The average income was RMB1373. Average household income was RMB347 more than the amount for rural residents. Coastal income was higher. 61% worked in services, construction, and transportation. 16% worked in commerce. 23% were visitors. The author states that the floating population is a product of a large and growing rural labor surplus.

  11. Chemosymbiotic species from the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic: distribution, life styles and nutritional patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work in the mud volcanoes from the Gulf of Cadiz (South Iberian Margin revealed a high number of chemosymbiotic species, namely bivalves and siboglinid polychaetes. In this study we give an overview of the distribution and life styles of these species in the Gulf of Cadiz, determine the role of autotrophic symbionts in the nutrition of selected species using stable isotope analyses (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S and investigate the intra-specific variation of isotope signatures within and between study sites. During our studies, we identified twenty siboglinidae and nine bivalve chemosymbiotic species living in fifteen mud volcanoes. Solemyid bivalves and tubeworms of the genus Siboglinum are widespread in the study area, whereas other species were found in a single mud volcano (e.g. "Bathymodiolus" mauritanicus or restricted to deeper mud volcanoes (e.g. Polybrachia sp., Lamelisabella denticulata. Species distribution suggests that different species may adjust their position within the sediment according to their particular needs, and to the intensity and variability of the chemical substrata supply. Tissue stable isotope signatures for selected species are in accordance with values found in other studies, with thiotrophy as the dominant nutritional pathway, and with methanotrophy and mixotrophy emerging as secondary strategies. The heterogeneity in terms of nutrient sources (expressed in the high variance of nitrogen and sulphur values and the ability to exploit different resources by the different species may explain the high diversity of chemosymbiotic species found in the Gulf of Cadiz. This study increases the knowledge on distributional patterns and resource partitioning of chemosymbiotic species and highlights how trophic fuelling varies on spatial scales with direct implications to seep assemblages and potentially to the biodiversity of continental margin.

  12. Potential geologic hazards on the eastern Gulf of Cadiz slope (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraza, J.; Ercilla, G.; Nelson, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic hazards resulting from sedimentary, oceanographic and tectonic processes affect more than one third of the offshore Gulf of Cadiz, and are identified by interpreting high-resolution seismic profiles and sonographs. Hazards of sedimentary origin include the occurrence of slope instability processes in the form of single or multiple slumps occupying up to 147 km2 mainly concentrated in the steeper, upper slope area. Besides the presence of steep slopes, the triggering of submarine landslides is probably due to seismic activity and favoured by the presence of biogenic gas within the sediment. Gassy sediments and associated seafloor pockmarks cover more than 240 km2 in the upper slope. Hazards from oceanographic processes result from the complex system of bottom currents created by the interaction of the strong Mediterranean Undercurrent and the rough seafloor physiography. The local intensification of bottom currents is responsible for erosive processes along more than 1900 km2 in the upper slope and in the canyons eroded in the central area of the slope, undermining slopes and causing instability. The strong bottom currents also create a mobile seafloor containing bedforms in an area of the Gulf that extends more than 2500 km2, mostly in the continental slope terraces. Hazards of tectonic origin are important because the Gulf of Cadiz straddles two major tectonic regions, the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone and the Betic range, which results in diapir uplift over an area of more than 1000 km2, and in active seismicity with earthquakes of moderate magnitude. Also, tsunamis produced by strong earthquakes occur in the Gulf of Cadiz, and are related to the tectonic activity along the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone.

  13. Current inversion and wind relaxation events along the western inner shelf of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, Erwan; Relvas, Paulo; Drago, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    At Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems, warm counter-currents leaning along the coast are recurrently observed inshore of previously upwelled cold water. This feature is well-evidenced in summer by SST satellite imagery along the western part of the northern continental margin of the Gulf of Cadiz, Southern Iberia. At this location, wind driven upwelling prevails roughly from April till October, producing a typical equatorward (eastward) alongshore coastal circulation. This flow temporally alternates with a warm coastal counter-current propagating poleward (westward) that develops during non-upwelling (relaxation) wind conditions. These opposed circulation regimes occur also in winter but without the generation of thermal fronts. The onset of counter-currents along the inner shelf of the Gulf of Cadiz is driven by complex processes. It is generally assumed that inversion events develop when a background alongshore pressure gradient resulting from local wind or large scale atmospheric pressure systems becomes unbalanced during relaxation events. Additional mechanisms may include: strong upwelling jets producing local pressure gradients in the lee of capes and promontories; advection of warm water from very shallow inland areas in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz; and, flow response to short but strong westward wind events (Leventer) that typically occur after upwelling favourable winds. Until now, relatively short (less than 1 month) hydrodynamic observations were available for the study of the processes driving current inversions. The present research compiles 6 Acoustic Doppler Current Meter (ADCP) deployments of 2 to 3 months duration at a single location on the inner shelf (20 m water depth), constituting about 18 months of hourly records. Wind data from an offshore buoy (Cadiz) are also used to define relaxation periods, based on selected thresholds. The excellent correspondence between inversion periods and relaxations confirms that the circulation regime in this area

  14. Dextromethorphan in Wisconsin drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochems, Amy; Harding, Patrick; Liddicoat, Laura

    2007-05-01

    Dextromethorphan is a synthetic analogue of codeine used in hundreds of over-the-counter medications for its antitussive effects. There have been numerous reports of dextromethorphan abuse by young adults. Dextromethorphan can produce psychoactive effects similar to that of marijuana, and higher doses will produce dissociative effects, including sensory enhancement and hallucinations. The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene examined data from blood samples submitted from January 1999 through December 2004 to determine the incidence of dextromethorphan in suspected impaired drivers. A total of 108 samples were found to be positive for dextromethorphan during this time. Dextromethorphan concentrations in these cases ranged from less than 5 to 1800 ng/mL (mean 207 ng/mL), compared to an expected therapeutic concentration range of 0.5-5.9 ng/mL. Overall, the highest dextromethorphan concentrations observed were in males aged 16-20 years. Ninety-six percent of the specimens included in this study were also found to be positive for drugs other than dextromethorphan. A review of police and drug recognition expert reports from several of these cases showed that dextromethorphan-impaired drivers exhibited poor psychomotor performance on standardized field sobriety tests, horizontal gaze nystagmus, vertical gaze nystagmus, and overall signs of central nervous system depression.

  15. Libraries in Wisconsin: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/wisconsin.html Libraries in Wisconsin To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Appleton APPLETON MEDICAL CENTER DECOCK MEMORIAL LIBRARY 1818 NORTH MEADE STREET APPLETON, WI 54911 920- ...

  16. Tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Gulf of Cadiz: fault model and recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Matias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Cadiz, as part of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary, is recognized as a potential source of big earthquakes and tsunamis that may affect the bordering countries, as occurred on 1 November 1755. Preparing for the future, Portugal is establishing a national tsunami warning system in which the threat caused by any large-magnitude earthquake in the area is estimated from a comprehensive database of scenarios. In this paper we summarize the knowledge about the active tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz and integrate the available seismological information in order to propose the generation model of destructive tsunamis to be applied in tsunami warnings. The fault model derived is then used to estimate the recurrence of large earthquakes using the fault slip rates obtained by Cunha et al. (2012 from thin-sheet neotectonic modelling. Finally we evaluate the consistency of seismicity rates derived from historical and instrumental catalogues with the convergence rates between Eurasia and Nubia given by plate kinematic models.

  17. Chemosynthetic bacteria found in bivalve species from mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clara F; Webster, Gordon; Cunha, Marina R; Duperron, Sébastien; Weightman, Andrew J

    2010-09-01

    As in other cold seeps, the dominant bivalves in mud volcanoes (MV) from the Gulf of Cadiz are macrofauna belonging to the families Solemyidae (Acharax sp., Petrasma sp.), Lucinidae (Lucinoma sp.), Thyasiridae (Thyasira vulcolutre) and Mytilidae (Bathymodiolus mauritanicus). The delta(13)C values measured in solemyid, lucinid and thyasirid specimens support the hypothesis of thiotrophic nutrition, whereas isotopic signatures of B. mauritanicus suggest methanotrophic nutrition. The indication by stable isotope analysis that chemosynthetic bacteria make a substantial contribution to the nutrition of the bivalves led us to investigate their associated bacteria and their phylogenetic relationships based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and cloning of bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding genes confirmed the presence of sulfide-oxidizing symbionts within gill tissues of many of the studied specimens. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that most bacteria were related to known sulfide-oxidizing endosymbionts found in other deep-sea chemosynthetic environments, with the co-occurrence of methane-oxidizing symbionts in Bathymodiolus specimens. This study confirms the presence of several chemosynthetic bivalves in the Gulf of Cadiz and further highlights the importance of sulfide- and methane-oxidizing symbionts in the trophic ecology of macrobenthic communities in MV.

  18. Cold-water coral mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz: The MiCROSYSTEMS project approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, D.; Blamart, D.; De Mol, L.; Mienis, F.; Pirlet, H.; Wehrmann, L. M.; Barbieri, R.; Maignien, L.; Templer, S. P.; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Frank, N.; Larmagnat, S.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Stivaletta, N.; van Weering, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hamoumi, N.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Henriet, J.-P.; The MiCROSYSTEMS MD 169 Shipboard Party

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a case study of three cold-water coral mounds in a juvenile growth stage on top of the Pen Duick Escarpment in the Gulf of Cadiz; Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and open slope, no actual living cold-

  19. Cold-water coral mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz: The MiCROSYSTEMS project approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, D.; Blamart, D.; De Mol, L.; Mienis, F.; Pirlet, H.; Wehrmann, L. M.; Barbieri, R.; Maignien, L.; Templer, S. P.; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Frank, N.; Larmagnat, S.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Stivaletta, N.; van Weering, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hamoumi, N.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Henriet, J.-P.; The MiCROSYSTEMS MD 169 Shipboard Party

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a case study of three cold-water coral mounds in a juvenile growth stage on top of the Pen Duick Escarpment in the Gulf of Cadiz; Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and open slope, no actual living

  20. A Township Girls’ School in the 1920s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THIS old photograph, taken in the early 1920s, was passed down to me by my eldest sister, an educator. It is a group photo of students from Fanzhen Girls’ Primary School, a church school in Xinan Township, Anxin County in Zhili (now Hebei) Province. In the school, which was located by my hometown of Baiyangdian, 43 students of varying ages and grades studied in a single classroom. The middle-aged

  1. Educational Attainment in Southeast Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Laura; Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese

    2010-01-01

    In metro Milwaukee, as a part of the WIRED Initiative, the Regional Workforce Alliance (RWA)--a collaboration of organizations representing workforce development, economic development and education across southeast Wisconsin--has established the framework for pursuing the local talent dividend goal and a regional strategy for increasing…

  2. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

  3. Health Insurance Reform and Efficiency of Township Hospitals in Rural China: An Analysis from Survey Data

    OpenAIRE

    Audibert, Martine; Xiao Xian HUANG; Mathonnat, Jacky; Pelissier, Aurore; Anning MA

    2012-01-01

    In the rural health-care organization of China, township hospitals ensure the delivery of basic medical services. Particularly damaged by the economic reforms implemented from 1975 to the end of the 1990s, township hospitals efficiency is questioned, mainly with the implementation since 2003 of the reform of health insurance in rural areas. From a database of 24 randomly selected township hospitals observed over the period 2000-2008 in Weifang prefecture (Shandong), the study examines the eff...

  4. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the "Bay of Cadiz" Natural Park (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, R A; Vidal, J; Meléndez, M J; Hamani, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2009-03-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range=0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders.

  5. Air-water greenhouse gases exchange in two coastal systems in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Forja, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are subject to a great anthropogenic pressure because more than half of the world's population lives in its vicinity, causing organic matter inputs, which intensifies greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Water surface greenhouse gas concentrations (CH4 and N2O) have been estimated in two aquatic systems of Cadiz Bay Natural Park: Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel Water renewal in Rio San Pedro Creek is tidally controlled. Due to its little freshwater input, the Creek is essentially a marine system. Several fish farms are distributed on its banks discharging effluents without previous treatment. Nine sampling stations are distributed along this system 12 Km length. Sancti Petri Channel is a flow channel-ebb tides extending from the inner Cadiz Bay to the Atlantic Ocean along 17 Km. Organic matter pollution sources in this environment are straggly. There exist anthropogenic inputs such as aquaculture effluents and sewage discharges coming through the Iro River, which flows into the Channel central part. In addition there are natural organic matter inputs from surrounding marshes. It has been established 11 sampling stations crossing this system. Sampling was conducted seasonally during 2013. CH4 and N2O concentrations were obtained though a gas chromatograph connected to an equilibration system. Greenhouse gas values vary between 24 and 295 nM and 16 and 27 nM for CH4 and N2O, respectively. Gas concentrations increase close to the fish farm effluent in Rio San Pedro Creek, and next to Iro River's mouth in Sancti Petri tidal Channel. Both environments act as greenhouse gas sources into the atmosphere, showing seasonal variations. It has been estimated mean fluxes of 75.3 μmol m-2 d-1 of CH4 and 31.9 μmol m-2 d-1 of N2O for both systems.

  6. Water resources of Wisconsin: lower Wisconsin River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Borman, Ronald G.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.

  7. Sediment yields of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Flint, R.F.

    1970-01-01

    Sediment in Wisconsin streams causes economic and engineering problems in water management and reduces the value of water for nearly all uses. Sediment produces problems such as reduced reservoir capacity, navigation hazards, increased cost of water treatment, property damage, temporary loss of farmland, destruction of feeding and nesting grounds of fish, and destruction of wildlife habitat. Sediment in water also reduces the aesthetic value of surface waters and is detrimental to the State's tourist and recreation industry.

  8. [The prolonged maintenance of a high birth rate in the province of Cadiz: the recent beginning of the secular decline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ruiz, J F

    1982-02-01

    This article describes and analyzes the stages of the demographic transition in Cadiz, a representative province in 1 of the most pronatalist regions of Spain. The prolonged maintenance of birth rates much higher than the Spanish average occurred in a province with a low overall level of development, high illiteracy rates, and very unequal division of income and wealth. The data, from the national statistical institute, are of relatively low quality prior to 1960 or 1970. The high fertility of Cadiz cannot be explained by nuptiality, since the nuptiality rate was lower than the national average from 1911-60. The average age at marriage for woman was slightly higher than the national average through 1970; although declining, it was still a relatively high 24.4 years in 1970-75. The rate of illegitimacy however was about twice the national average until midcentury, and only since about 1970 has declined to the insignificant level of 1.8% in Cadiz. The crude birth rate in 1971-75 was 24.0/1000, almost 5 points above the national average. The crude birth rate however does not exactly measure natality; a higher than average rate of abortions and the fact that births are not counted as live until the infant has survived for 24 hours suggest an even higher level of fertility. Until about 1965, birth rates in Cadiz were as or almost as high as in the 19th century. Beginning in 1965, the rate began an incipient though irreversible process of decline which occurred despite the increasing nuptiality rate and declining age at marriage. The average annual birth rates were 33/1000 in the 1st 3rd of the century, with a slight decline around World War I, and 27/1000 from 1936-65, with declines caused by the Civil War and difficult postwar years. A sustained fertility rate of 27/1000 from 1957-66 was associated with strong nuptiality and a decline of the illegitimacy rate from 9.0% in 1951-55 to 3.4% in 1961-65. The decline of the birth rate to 23/1000 in 1975 indicated the

  9. PLSS Townships and Sections, Townships and Sections, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Dane County Land Information Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is...

  10. PLSS Townships and Sections, PLSS Townships and Sections are in separate files, Published in 1997, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1997....

  11. PLSS Townships and Sections, PLSS Township lines, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  12. PLSS Townships and Sections, Township Range anno2, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as...

  13. A first look at mobile internet use in township communities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phokeer, A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of mobile data usage in South African townships. In contrast to previous studies, which have studied mobile data usage in developing regions (including South Africa), we focus our study on two townships in South Africa...

  14. Tale of two townships: race, class and the changing contours of collective action in the Cape Town townships of Guguletu and Bonteheuwel, 1976 - 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Staniland, John Luke Seneviratne

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the emergence and evolution of ‘progressive activism and organisation’ between 1976 and 2006 in the African township of Guguletu and the coloured township of Bonteheuwel within the City of Cape Town. In doing so it compares both how activism has changed over time (including as a result of democratisation) and how it differed between and within these two communities. Whilst at heart an empirical study of activism it seeks to move beyond the specificities ...

  15. Carbonate mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz in relation to methane seepage: unrelated phenomena or coupling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnitskaia, Alina; Baas, Marianne; de Haas, Henk; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.; Kreulen, Rob R.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2010-05-01

    For more than decade, the formation of carbonate mounds, related ecosystem development and organization/functioning of the entire mound habitats are subjects for a growing amount of studies and discussions. Carbonate mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz are of special interest due to their association with active mud volcanoes within the El Arraiche mud volcano field. Such co-occurrence of ecologically contrasting phenomena anticipates complex biogeochemical interactions between a carbonate mound interior and seeping through hydrocarbon-rich fluids. To get closer in understanding of how methane affects a carbonate mound development in the gulf, a combination of inorganic and organic geochemical techniques was applied to two sedimentary cores collected from summits of Alfa and Beta mounds. These mounds were found at the NW slope of the Gimini MV at the Pen Duick Mound Province. We analyzed vertical distribution profiles of sulfate, sulfide, chlorinity, DIC in combination with hydrocarbon gas measurements and lipid biomarker study. To have estimates of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the carbonate mound formation, we applied the TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of tetraethers with 86 carbon atoms; Schouten et al., 2002) and the alkenone-based UK37 index (Müller et al., 1998). The pore-water data revealed the presence of brine inflow, which is consistent with the data of Hensen et al., (2007). The behavior of sulfide distribution profiles and δ13C values from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) indicated that most of the sulfide and DIC are resulted from the microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) processes. In contrast, the analysis of archaeal membrane lipids from distinct clades of AOM-mediating anaerobic methanotrophs showed exceedingly low concentrations of specific biomarkers, which is in contradiction with pore-water and gas chemistry data. Besides, AOM is the main cause for the increase of sedimentary alkalinity that leads to carbonate precipitation. Instead, some

  16. Evidences of microbial mediation in the formation of MDAC in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, V. H.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Birguel, D.; Peckmann, J.; Niemann, H.; Santos, L.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J.; Ivanov, M.

    2006-12-01

    The study of methane-derived authigenic carbonates (MDAC) in the Gulf of Cadiz allowed the identification and collection of different types of authigenic carbonates: (I) dolomite crusts, dolomite nodules, chimneys or filled burrows and (II) aragonitic slabs or pavements. Both correspond to the cementation of sediments by the precipitation of authigenic carbonates, and the different lithologic types correspond to different geochemical environment of formation. Authigenic carbonates yielded 13C values indicating methane as the major carbon source with ratios as low as -46.9(per mil PDB). Likewise, the crusts and chimneys can be interpreted as a record of extensive methane seepage in this particular area of the Gulf of Cadiz. SEM observations revealed large amounts of structures and textures that clearly indicate microbial activity. In the cement of the dolomite chimneys, which consists of minor aggregates of rhombohedric calcite, high-Mg calcite and dolomite, SEM observations allowed the identification of a large variety of microbial-induced fabrics, such as: (1) microbial filaments; (2) high Mg-calcite and dolomite crystal aggregates calcifying and mimetizing filaments and flattening themselves against dolomite and calcite minerals; (3) rods with brush-like terminations; (4) dumbbell-like and cauliflower structures. The identification of microbial and mucous biofilms is frequent in aragonite pavements, occurring as a coating, draped between the aragonite fibres and needles of the stromatolitic layers. Also, aragonite batons, ball-capped batons and nanograins are observed. Specific 13C-depleted biomarkers indicators of archaea involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as PMI, squalane, crocetane/phytane have been identified in dolomite chimney samples. The aragonite crusts showed even better preserved biomarkers. PMI is accompanied by unsaturated derivatives with 1 to 3 double bonds. Several bacterial lipid biomarkers, also with 13C-depleted compositions

  17. The unperceived risk to Europe's coasts: tsunamis and the vulnerability of Cadiz, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmann, J.; Teichman, K. V.; Welle, T.; González, M.; Olabarrieta, M.

    2010-12-01

    The development of appropriate risk and vulnerability reduction strategies to cope with tsunami risks is a major challenge for countries, regions, and cities exposed to potential tsunamis. European coastal cities such as Cadiz are exposed to tsunami risks. However, most official risk reduction strategies as well as the local population are not aware of the probability of such a phenomenon and the potential threat that tsunami waves could pose to their littoral. This paper outlines how tsunami risks, and particularly tsunami vulnerability, could be assessed and measured. To achieve this, a vulnerability assessment framework was applied focusing on the city of Cadiz as a case study in order to highlight the practical use and the challenges and gaps such an assessment has to deal with. The findings yield important information that could assist with the systematic improvement of societal response capacities of cities and their inhabitants to potential tsunami risks. Hazard and vulnerability maps were developed, and qualitative data was obtained through, for example, focused group discussions. These maps and surveys are essential for the development of a people-centred early warning and response system. Therefore, in this regard, the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and connected seas promoted by the UNESCO-Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) should encompass these assessments to ensure that action is particularly intensified and fostered by those potentially exposed. That means that besides the necessary technical infrastructure for tsunami detection, additional response and adaptation measures need to be promoted - particularly those that reduce the vulnerability of people and regions exposed - in terms of national systems. In addition, it is important to develop emergency preparedness and awareness plans in order to create an integrated regional Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) by 2011. The

  18. Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center is responsible for presenting data collected or estimated for water withdrawals and diversions every 5 years to the National Water-Use Information Program (NWUIP). This program serves many purposes such as quantifying how much, where, and for what purpose water is used; tracking and documenting water-use trends and changes; and providing these data to other agencies to support hydrologic projects. In 2005, data at both the county and subbasin levels were compiled into the USGS national water-use database system; these data are published in a statewide summary report and a national circular. This publication, Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005, presents the water-use estimates for 2005; this publication also describes how these water-use data were determined (including assumptions used), limitations of using these data, and trends in water-use data presented to the NWUIP. Estimates of water use in Wisconsin indicate that about 8,608 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn during 2005. Of this amount, about 7,622 Mgal/d (89 percent) were from surface-water sources and about 986 Mgal/d (11 percent) were from ground-water sources. Surface water used for cooling at thermoelectric-power plants constituted the largest portion of daily use at 6,898 Mgal/d. Water provided by public-supply water utilities is the second largest use of water and totaled 552 Mgal/d. Public supply served approximately 71 percent of the estimated 2005 Wisconsin population of 5.54 million people; two counties - Milwaukee and Dane - accounted for more than one-third of the public-supply withdrawal. Industrial and irrigation were the next major water uses at 471 and 402 Mgal/d, respectively. Non-irrigational agricultural (livestock and aquaculture) accounted for approximately 155 Mgal/d and is similar to the combined withdrawal for the remaining water-use categories of domestic, commercial, and mining (131 Mgal/d). Data on water use

  19. 77 FR 47488 - Wisconsin Disaster #WI-00032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of WISCONSIN dated...

  20. 75 FR 58451 - Wisconsin Disaster #WI-00027

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Wisconsin...

  1. 75 FR 57539 - Wisconsin Disaster # WI-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Wisconsin dated...

  2. 78 FR 53492 - Wisconsin Disaster # WI-00047

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00047 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Wisconsin dated...

  3. Water resources of Oley Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulachok, G.N.; Wood, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Oley Township covers an area of 24 square miles, about half of which is underlain by highly permeable carbonate rocks. Nondomestic wells in these rocks typically have yields of 200 gallons per minute, and some wells yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. Ground-water yield for Oley Township is about 0.5 million gallons per day per square mile. Thus, about 12 million gallons per day could be pumped from wells on a sustained basis. However, pumping this amount would adversely affect streamflow. A series of discharge measurements on Manatawny Creek in January 1983 showed that the creek was gaining approximately 12 cubic feet per second where it crosses the more- permeable carbonate rocks. Thus, the streams are directly connected to these aquifers. The northern and western parts of the township are mostly underlain by shale, quartzite, granite, gneiss, and carbonate rocks of low permeability, and some wells do not yield enough water for domestic supplies. A water-table map shows that two active quarries in low-permeability rocks have had little effect on the hydrologic system. Specific yields are about 4.5 percent for the carbonate rocks; 5 percent for quartzite, granite, and gneiss; 1 percent for the noncarbonate sedimentary rocks; and 1.5 percent for the Jacksonburg Limestone, which consists of argillaceous limestone. In 1982--a year of average precipitation--the ground-water contribution to total streamflow ranged from 56 to 88 percent. Basins with the highest percentage of carbonate rock contribute the largest amount of ground water to streamflow. Evapotranspiration averaged about 26 inches in 1982. Water loss was 32 inches in the Limekiln Creek basin; this suggests that about 6 inches of precipitation bypassed the Limekiln Creek gaging station as ground-water underflow. The most serious water-quality problems are excessive nitrate concentrations and bacterial contamination. Water from 3 of 19 wells in carbonate rocks had nitrate concentrations in excess of the

  4. Does Property Right Transformation Improve Township and Village Enterprises Performance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiong Du; Yoichi Izumida

    2006-01-01

    To date, few observations have been made about the performance improvement that resulted from the property right transformation of the collective-owned township and village enterprises (TVE) in the middle of 1990s. Using data collected from a questionnaire survey on the privatized TVE and their employees, the present paper provides some empirical evidence about this topic, and the analysis suggests that property right transformation has had a positive impact on sample enterprises'performance, including business improvement,employment expansion, incremental investment and contributions to government revenues.The present study concludes that, from a transient viewpoint, the property right transformation has not distorted local governments' intentions to establish TVE in earlier years.

  5. Morphodynamic characterization of the Spanish beaches of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, J.; Gracia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Anfuso, G.; Rodriguez-Ramirez, A.

    2015-07-01

    During the1980s several attempts were made to classify beaches according to their morphodynamic behav- iour. Published papers proposed classifications based mainly on wave incident energy and beach character- istics, such as foreshore slopes and sediment settling velocities. In the 1990s more complex classifications appeared, where the effect of tides on wave action was included, highlighting their relevance to the determi- nation of the morphodynamic state of the beach. In this paper we present a beach monitoring programme, in which more than 30 beaches located along the Spanish shores of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Strait of Gibraltar were surveyed for four years (2000-2004). The long study period allowed the monitoring of beach morphologies related both to fair weather (summer) and storm (winter) conditions. The coastal setting in the study area provided the opportunity for covering a wide range of tidal conditions, from high mesotidal (MSTR ca. 4 m) to microtidal (MSTR around 1 m). Furthermore, the dimensions of the study area permitted the mon- itoring of beaches linked to different boundary conditions, thus including both attached and detached beach- es located at varying distances from main sediment sources, and influenced by different wave regimes. The analysis of the beach morphologies related to such contrasting conditions allowed the identification of the real significance of the tidal effect on beach profile morphology and hence on beach morphodynamics. Finally, we conclude that the effect of tides on wave action is the main factor determining beach morphody- namic behaviour. (Author)

  6. Evaluating Tsunami Impact on the Gulf of Cadiz Coast (Northeast Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.

    2011-06-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz coasts are exposed to tsunamis. Emergency planning tools are now taking into account this fact, especially because a series of historical occurrences were strikingly significant, having left strong evidence behind, in the mareographic records, the geological evidence or simply the memory of the populations. The study area is a strip along the Algarve coast, south Portugal, an area known to have been heavily impacted by the 1 November 1755 event. In this study we use two different tsunami scenarios generated by the rupture of two thrust faults identified in the area, corresponding to 8.1-8.3 magnitude earthquakes. Tsunami propagation and inundation computation is performed using a non-linear shallow water code with bottom friction. Numerical modeling results are presented in terms of flow depth and current velocity with maximum values of 7 m and 8 m/s for inundation depth and flow speed, respectively. These results constitute a valuable tool for local authorities, emergency and decision planners to define the priority zones where tsunami mitigation measures must be implemented and to develop tsunami-resilient communities.

  7. Biodiversity and distribution of macroinfauna assemblages on sandy beaches along the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. José Reyes-Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the macroinfauna communities inhabiting 12 sandy beaches along the Spanish coast of the Gulf of Cadiz were describe in order to characterize their unexplored biodiversity, their zonation patterns and their environmental features. A total of 66 macroinfauna taxa were recorded on 12 sandy beaches, ranging from 4 to 33 species. Density reached 848 individual per m2. The individual zonation pattern ranged from two to three zones, regardless of the morphodynamic state. A common zonation pattern of the whole set of beaches was established, comprising three across-shore biological zones. Generally, the supralittoral zone was typified by the air-breathing amphipod Talitrus saltator and coleopterans; the middle zone was dominated by true intertidal species, such as Haustoriidae amphipods (Haustorius arenarius, Cirolanidae isopods (Eurydice affinis, Spionidae polychaetes (Scolelepis spp. and nemerteans; and the lower or sublittoral zone was typified by Pontoporeiidae amphipods, mysids and spionid polychaetes. Sediment moisture, average grain size, organic matter content and elevation were the main predictor variables of zonation patterns. We used the conservation and recreation potential indices to show how this information can be useful for coastal management. Most beaches studied show a score above 5 on the conservation index, so the beaches have a reasonable potential for conservation management.

  8. Estimate of the annual effective dose for natural radionuclides of anthropogenic origin in the Bay of Cadiz; Estimacion de la dosis efectiva anual correspondiente a radionucleidos naturales y de origen antropogenico en la Bahia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo, J. F.; Martinez-Ramos, C.; Barbero, L.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2011-07-01

    Knowledge of radioactivity levels in soils has a double interest: on the one hand, allows you to set the reference values ??(base Linne) from a region or geographic area, and secondly, to evaluate the external radiation dose received by the population and biota, through appropriate dosimetric model. The natural radioactivity, especially the radionuclides in the natural series. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of gamma emitting radionuclides in marine sediments of the Bay of Cadiz, and dose rates from external radiation received in the areas studied. (Author)

  9. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain); Los procesos de erosion hidrica en el retroceso erosivo de acantilados sobre rocas blandas en la provincia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del

    2009-07-01

    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. The Apseudomorpha (Crustacea: Tanaidacea) of the Gulf of Cadiz and Horseshoe Continental Rise (NE Atlantic): A taxonomic review with new records, species, and ecological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquete, P; Cunha, M R

    2017-06-09

    The apseudomorphan tanaidaceans of the deep sea have been under-studied, especially in chemosynthetic habitats. A total of ten species present in the Gulf of Cadiz and the Horseshoe Continental Rise (SW off the Iberian Peninsula) are listed here, and new distribution data, ecological remarks and description of one new species of Atlantapseudes (Atlantapseudes curvatus sp. nov.) from recent research cruises are added. Pseudosphyrapus azorensis and Francapseudes uniarticulatus are recorded for the first time since the original descriptions. Notes on morphological development of Leviapseudes segonzaci and intraspecific variation of F. uniarticulatus are included, together with illustrations and descriptions of the material from the Gulf of Cadiz to complement previous descriptions.

  11. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in 2008, Chautauqua County/Elk County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2008. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  12. PLSS Townships and Sections, TwnSections, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'TwnSections'. Data by this publisher...

  13. PLSS Townships and Sections, Section coverage, Published in unknown, CLAY COUNTY.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Section coverage'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate...

  14. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern Arizona

  15. [Study on elasticity of medical service demand at the township level in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-xing; Lv, Jun; Xie, Yi-ping; Wang, Ying; Jia, Jin-zhong; Chang, Feng-shui; Duan, Lin; Sun, Mei; Wang, Zhi-feng; Hao, Mo

    2010-06-18

    To find out the economic laws regulating medical service demand in accordance with influencing factors at the township level, thus to provide references for further adjusting the medical service demand reasonably in the future. The model of medical service demand was established to measure the elasticity of demand in 49 township health clinics in 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2007. The price elasticity of outpatient and inpatient demand was stable during the four periods, and the average value was -0.029 and -0.132 respectively; the average value of income elasticity was 0.973 and 0.977, registering a downward trend in general. The medical service demand at the township level is price inelastic, indicating that it is a necessity for rural residents. The downward trend of income elasticity under the influence of some health policies illustrates a lightening in economic burden for medical service demand among rural residents in township health clinics.

  16. Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010 as Derived from Census Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010, as Derived from Census Datasets Original Abstract: The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and...

  17. Township/Village Administration from the Late Qing to the Warlord Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Guangqi; Ding Haixiu

    2006-01-01

    In ancient China,formal govemment institutions stretched to the county level.This system witnessed a radical transformation during the late Qing and the Warlord period,with various types of township/village administrations mushrooming in many places across the country to meet the requirements of institutional reform and the demands for modernization in local regions.These township/village administrations can be divided into two types:one is the newborn township/village administration in the late Qing dynasty,and the other is the township/village or quasi-administration that evolved from the old localized Xiangdi (local administrative system).Functionally,the former can be further divided into two kinds,the monofunctional township/village administration,which might include education,or police and security,and the multifunctional administration.The latter falls into three categories:some were new-model administrations directly translated from the old rural Xiangdi system;some were subdivisions of the neonatal administration composed of the old local Xiangdi system;and still,others basically reserved the intrinsic property and function of the old Xiangdi system.As political entities,township/village administrations of this era can be further differentiated into those bordering on "self-govemment" and those lingering under "the official system."Township/village administration at this time mostly consisted of a standing body,with their personnel,who enjoyed the status of professional civil servants,set up by legal proceedings.Govemment outlay was sponsored by public finance or tax income,and it assumed all kinds of modem administrative functions,basically of a modem character.Meanwhile,of course,it retained much of its traditional flavor in actual operation.All in all,the birth of this form of township/village administration constituted an important dimension of the modemization of China's local administration system.

  18. Spatial distribution and intra-annual variability of water masses on the Eastern Gulf of Cadiz seabed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanco, M. J.; Sánchez-Leal, R. F.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the spatial distribution and intra-annual variability of seabed hydrography in the Eastern Gulf of Cadiz based on more than 10 years of near-bottom CTD observations. Well-defined water masses and a variety of mixing products are persistently sorted along three bathymetric areas occupying particular depth intervals: (i) inner shelf waters (Gibraltar driven both by an elevated MOW and a less stratified ENACW could explain the winter salinification of most of the grounds deeper than 250 m.

  19. The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, C B; Brookhart, M; Cooper, C M; Clark, M; Desangles, V; Egedal, J; Endrizzi, D; Miesch, M; Khalzov, I V; Li, H; Milhone, J; Nornberg, M; Olson, J; Peterson, E; Roesler, F; Schekochihin, A; Schmitz, O; Siller, R; Spitkovsky, A; Stemo, A; Wallace, J; Weisberg, D; Zweibel, E

    2015-01-01

    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) is a flexible user facility designed to study a range of astrophysically relevant plasma processes as well as novel geometries which mimic astrophysical systems. A multi-cusp magnetic bucket constructed from strong samarium cobalt permanent magnets now confines a 10 m$^3$, fully ionized, magnetic-field free plasma in a spherical geometry. Plasma parameters of $ T_{e}\\approx5-20$ eV and $n_{e}\\approx10^{11}-5\\times10^{12}$ cm$^{-3}$ provide an ideal testbed for a range of astrophysical experiments including self-exciting dynamos, collisionless magnetic reconnection, jet stability, stellar winds, and more. This article describes the capabilities of WiPAL along with several experiments, in both operating and planning stages, that illustrate the range of possibilities for future users.

  20. Evaluation of Township Competitiveness in China: A Case Study of Zhenjiang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on relevant theories about competitiveness,we establish a set of theoretical evaluation indicator system of township competitiveness,in accordance with the township characteristics. We rank 41 towns in Zhenjiang City in terms of comprehensive competitiveness,using factor analysis method and entropy method. Compared with other towns across the country,we find that the township development in all districts (cities) is highly uneven; the township development within urban district of Zhenjiang City is not so rosy; the township features are not prominent; the number and scale of the township enterprises is not enough; individually-run enterprises never get anywhere. Then,the corresponding countermeasures are put forth for the development of agriculture-based towns and industry-based towns: for agricultural town,it should accelerate the development of modern high-efficiency agriculture,develop characteristic agriculture,and promote quality of agricultural products; for industrial town,it can make full use of the advantages in transport and geographical location,consciously draw on the driving role of urban economy,take actions that suit local circumstances to develop characteristic economy,vigorously develop the private economy and export-oriented economy to enrich people,and strengthen the government service function to create efficient government.

  1. Cold-water coral growth and mound formation on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, Furu; de Stigter, Henko C.; de Haas, Henk; Groot, Diane; Frank, Norbert; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.

    2010-05-01

    Abundant skeletal remains of cold-water corals in sediments around the Pen Duick Escarpment, southern Gulf of Cadiz, suggest that corals thrived in the area in a relatively recent past. Cold-water coral carbonate mounds with heights of up to 60 m are found at about 550 m water depth on the edge of an elevation delimited by the Pen Duick Escarpment. Coral debris is abundantly present in the sediment on the carbonate mounds as well as on the escarpment, with Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata as most common species. However, living coral is rare, and a mud drape of a few cm to tens of cm thick is usually found covering the coral-bearing sediment. On and off mound sediment cores are presently investigated in detail to determine the timing of the decline of cold-water coral communities on the Pen Duick Escarpment. Planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope stratigraphy and U/Th datings of coral debris from the on mound core show that the main framework building cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata were present on the mound during glacial periods (Marine Isotope Stage 2, 6 and 8) and the early Holocene, but absent during the late Holocene. During glacial periods a dense framework of cold-water corals existed and sedimentation rates were high. Both on and off mound cores show low magnetic susceptibility values until marine isotope stage 3, after which values are increasing. A large hiatus is found between 36 and 141 kyr. Our finding that cold-water corals on Pen Duick escarpment occurred mostly during glacial times contrasts with that of cold-water corals on the Rockall Trough margins and in the Porcupine Seabight, where they seem to have mainly lived during interglacials. The reason for the late Holocene decline of cold-water corals on Pen Duick escarpment is still a matter of speculation. Observations made with CTD and long-term deployment of benthic landers indicate activity of internal waves in the area with semi-diurnal periodicity, inducing

  2. Black carbon and other refractory forms in recent sediments from the Gulf of Cadiz, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vila, F. J.; de la Rosa, J. M.; González-Pérez, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation is a ubiquitous form of refractory organic matter (ROM) widely distributed in the environment. The stable non-reactive, mainly aromatic, BC has received special interest in recent years as a possible carbon sink in soils and sediments. At present, several methods have been used, with applications for soil and sediments, although no single method has been accepted to detect BC forms, and therefore providing the analytical data required to estimate BC contribution to terrestrial and sedimentary carbon fluxes and the global carbon cycle. This study considers the potential of the combined use of analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and solid state 13C NMR to determine the presence of BC and to characterize the refractory organic matter in a set of recent marine sediments from the Southwest Atlantic coast of Spain (Gulf of Cadiz). The content of BC-like material found in sediments (3.0 - 16.5 % of total organic carbon) was in the range previously reported for this kind of samples and decreases from coast to offshore. Solid state CP-MAS 13C NMR and Py-GC/MS analysis of the isolated ROM revealed a conspicuous aliphatic domain remained in the samples after chlorite oxidation. Our results suggests that, in recent sediments from fluvial and marine environments, not only BC and refractory carbon forms with aromatic nature may be sequestered in a stable form; it also seems probable that the ROM pool contains a significant amount of C immobilized in the form of alkylic compounds.

  3. Contributions to the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiz, Irene; Tejedor, Begoña; Gómez-Enri, Jesús; Aboitiz, Alazne; Villares, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    The spatial distribution of the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) has been analysed using monthly maps of sea level anomalies from gridded multi-mission altimeter data, along with monthly means of sea level heights from three tide gauge stations. Moreover, the contribution to the sea level seasonal cycle of atmospheric pressure and wind and the steric effect were evaluated using maps of sea level residuals from the VANI2-ERA hindcast, and a combination of satellite Sea Surface Temperature maps with a very high resolution Temperature and Salinity climatology for the region. The atmospheric contribution accounted for 55-58% of the sea level variance offshore, with this percentage diminishing toward the coast, where the effect of wind stress might be underestimated, especially over regions of complex bathymetry. The steric contribution was addressed by considering local, open ocean, basin-wide and continental shelf steric effects. Results obtained highlighted the oceanographic complexity of the GoC at regional scales. In this sense, the open ocean steric contribution explained the largest percentage of atmospheric-corrected sea level variance at the offshore part of the basin (50-67%) and over the eastern shelf (42-48%), suggesting that the sea level seasonal cycle within the eastern shelf is connected to the large scale circulation system. West of Cape Santa Maria, both over the continental shelf and offshore, the best results were obtained with the local steric contribution, suggesting a decoupling of deep and shallow water sea level variations at the seasonal scale in that region.

  4. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, W.R.; Conger, D.H.; Gebert, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 269 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years. Annual flood peaks for the period of record for each gaged site are included.

  5. Wisconsin Inventors` Network Database final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-04

    The Wisconsin Innovation Service Center at UW-Whitewater received a DOE grant to create an Inventor`s Network Database to assist independent inventors and entrepreneurs with new product development. Since 1980, the Wisconsin Innovation Service Center (WISC) at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater has assisted independent and small business inventors in estimating the marketability of their new product ideas and inventions. The purpose of the WISC as an economic development entity is to encourage inventors who appear to have commercially viable inventions, based on preliminary market research, to invest in the next stages of development, perhaps investigating prototype development, legal protection, or more in-depth market research. To address inventor`s information needs, WISC developed on electronic database with search capabilities by geographic region and by product category/industry. It targets both public and private resources capable of, and interested in, working with individual and small business inventors. At present, the project includes resources in Wisconsin only.

  6. 1999 Yellow River Aerial Photos, Central Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 25-mile stretch of the Yellow River adjacent to the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin provides valuable habitat to numerous species of...

  7. Arbitrator Decisions in Wisconsin Teacher Wage Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Craig A.; Jarley, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examination of arbitration decisions in Wisconsin teacher wage disputes, 1977-86, found that wage increases agreed to earlier by comparable school districts had a substantial impact on the arbitrators' decisions. (SK)

  8. URBAN RECONFIGURATIONS OF SPACE AND PLACE WITHIN TOWNSHIP TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Craciunescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays global economic and cultural constellation determined urban communities to find a solution in order to preserve local identity and at the same time to attract capital into the area. Tourism represents in our opinion one of the greatest solutions ever exploited in mankind’s history which erases boundaries of nations and economic policies, creating glocalized encounters. In the case of a city, tourism or township tourism becomes an economical, political and cultural vector that unifies urban space which develops a network of genuine and artificial urban inter-relations between the principal stakeholders. The city as a destination must be a ‘safe’ construct that meets the expectations of various kinds of travellers and of their different travelling motivations. We believe that to a certain extent, the (rebranding of cities consists in the creation of a harmonized space that would reiterate the home-facilities of the traveller. A matter of life-style and life-quality, this issue will be analysed through the lens of travelling as a leisure activity, or as a way of escaping monotone routine of daily living, eventually a way of reinvesting income and creating economic equilibrium.

  9. Interaction of tectonic and depositional processes that control the evolution of the Iberian Gulf of Cadiz margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, A.; Nelson, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an integrated view of the growth patterns and factors that controlled the evolution of the Gulf of Cadiz continental margin based on studies of the tectonic, sedimentologic and oceanographic history of the area. Seven sedimentary regimes are identified, but there are more extensive descriptions of the late Cenozoic regimes because of the larger data base. The regimes of the Mesozoic passive margin include carbonate platforms, which become mixed calcareous-terrigenous deposits during the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary. The Oligocene and Early Miocene terrigenous regimes developed, in contrast, over the active and transcurrent margins near the African-Iberian plate boundary. The top of the Gulf of Cadiz olistostrome, emplaced in the Late Miocene, is used as a key horizon to define the 'post-orogenic' depositional regimes. The Late Miocene progradational margin regime is characterized by a large terrigenous sediment supply to the margin and coincides with the closing of the Miocene Atlantic-Mediterranean gateways. The terrigenous drift depositional regime of the Early Pliocene resulted from the occurrence of high eustatic sea level and the characteristics of the Mediterranean outflow currents that developed after the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar. The Late Pliocene and Quaternary regimes are dominated by sequences of deposits related to cycles of high and low sea levels. Deposition of shelf-margin deltas and slope wedges correlate with regressive and low sea level regimes caused by eustasy and subsidence. During the highstand regimes of the Holocene, inner shelf prograding deltas and deep-water sediment drifts were developed under the influence of the Atlantic inflow and Mediterranean outflow currents, respectively. A modern human cultural regime began 2000 years ago with the Roman occupation of Iberia; human cultural effects on sedimentary regimes may have equalled natural factors such as climate change. Interplay of tectonic and

  10. Rehabilitation of Delavan Lake, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Helsel, D.R.; MacKinnon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive rehabilitation plan was developed and implemented to shift Delavan Lake, Wisconsin, from a hypereutrophic to a mesotrophic condition. The plan was threefold: (1) reduce external phosphorus (P) loading by applying Best Management Practices in the watershed, enhance an existing wetland, and short-circuit the inflows through the lake, (2) reduce internal P loading by treating the sediments with alum and removing carp, and (3) rehabilitate the fishery by removing carp and bigmouth buffalo and adding piscivores (biomanipulation). The first and second parts of the plan met with only limited success. With only minor reductions in internal and external P loading, P concentrations in the lake returned to near pre-treatment concentrations. The intensive biomanipulation and resulting trophic cascade (increased piscivores, decreased planktivores, increased large zooplankton populations, and reduced phytoplankton populations) eliminated most of the original problems in the lake (blue-green algal blooms and limited water clarity). However, now there is extensive macrophyte growth and abundant filamentous algae. Without significantly reducing the sources of the problems (high P loading) in Delavan Lake, the increased water clarity may not last. With an improved understanding of the individual components of this rehabilitation program, better future management plans can be developed for Delavan Lake and other lakes and reservoirs with similar eutrophication problems.

  11. The snails' tale in deep-sea habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génio, L.; Warén, A.; Matos, F. L.; Cunha, M. R.

    2013-07-01

    Bridging the Atlantic and Mediterranean continental margins, the South Iberian region has recently been the focus for geological and biological investigations. In this region, the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) encompasses a great variety of deep-sea habitats that harbour highly diverse biological communities. In this study, we describe the composition of gastropod assemblages obtained from in situ colonization experiments and benthic sampling of deep-sea habitats in the GoC. Gastropod distributional patterns, such as bathymetric ranges, bathymetric turnover, affinity to substrate types and abundance-occupancy relationships, are analysed and interpreted in relation to their inferred dispersal capabilities and substrate availability. Overall, the GoC comprises a high diversity of gastropods (65 species), and distinct assemblages were found in typical sedimentary environments at mud volcanoes and in association with carbonate and coral samples or organic substrata. The number of taxa peaked at the Carbonate Province in the middle slope (600-1200 m depth), a highly heterogeneous area with numerous mud volcanoes, carbonate mounds and corals. Darwin (1100 m) and Captain Arutyunov (1300 m) mud volcanoes harboured the most species-rich and abundant gastropod assemblages, respectively. Colonization experiments with organic substrata (wood and alfalfa grass) also yielded diverse and abundant gastropod assemblages. These organic inputs allowed the recruitment of local species but mainly of wood specialist taxa that were not previously known from the GoC. Our results suggest that the distribution of gastropod assemblages may be primarily determined by the occurrence of suitable habitats, probably due to the effect of the substrate type on the structural complexity of the habitat and availability and diversity of adequate food sources. The type of larval development is apparently not a limiting factor for colonization of deep-sea habitats. However, the predominance of non

  12. The snails' tale at deep-sea habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génio, L.; Warén, A.; Matos, F. L.; Cunha, M. R.

    2013-02-01

    Bridging the Atlantic and Mediterranean continental margins, the South Iberian region has recently been the focus for geological and biological investigations. The Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) encompasses a great variety of deep-sea habitats that harbour highly diverse biological communities. In this study, we describe the taxa composition of gastropod assemblages from deep-sea habitats in the GoC and analyse the species distributional patterns in relation to their dispersal capabilities and substrate availability. Distinct gastropod assemblages were found at mud volcanoes, carbonate and coral sites, and organic-falls. Overall, the GoC comprises a high diversity of gastropods that include 65 taxa representing 32 families, 48 genera and 30 named species. The highest number of taxa was found at the highly heterogeneous carbonate province in the middle slope (500-1500 m depth), and higher abundance of individuals was observed in Captain Arutyunov mud volcano, one of the most active sites found in the GoC. Faunal similarities were found with Mediterreanean cold-seeps (species- and genus-level) and other chemosynthetic environments in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (genus-level). Colonization experiments with organic substrata (wood and alfalfa grass) yielded high abundances of gastropod species. These organic inputs allowed the recruitment of local species but also of wood specialist taxa that were not known to occur in the GoC. Our results suggest that distribution of gastropod assemblages may be primarily determined by the occurrence of suitable habitats probably due to effect of the substrate type on feeding strategies and that larval development is not a limiting factor for colonization of the deep sea. However, the predominance of non-planktotrophy, and especially lecithotrophy, suggests that the trade-off between a more limited dispersal capability and the higher potential for self-recruitment may be favoured by the gastropod species inhabiting reducing environments and

  13. The snails' tale in deep-sea habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Génio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bridging the Atlantic and Mediterranean continental margins, the South Iberian region has recently been the focus for geological and biological investigations. In this region, the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC encompasses a great variety of deep-sea habitats that harbour highly diverse biological communities. In this study, we describe the composition of gastropod assemblages obtained from in situ colonization experiments and benthic sampling of deep-sea habitats in the GoC. Gastropod distributional patterns, such as bathymetric ranges, bathymetric turnover, affinity to substrate types and abundance-occupancy relationships, are analysed and interpreted in relation to their inferred dispersal capabilities and substrate availability. Overall, the GoC comprises a high diversity of gastropods (65 species, and distinct assemblages were found in typical sedimentary environments at mud volcanoes and in association with carbonate and coral samples or organic substrata. The number of taxa peaked at the Carbonate Province in the middle slope (600–1200 m depth, a highly heterogeneous area with numerous mud volcanoes, carbonate mounds and corals. Darwin (1100 m and Captain Arutyunov (1300 m mud volcanoes harboured the most species-rich and abundant gastropod assemblages, respectively. Colonization experiments with organic substrata (wood and alfalfa grass also yielded diverse and abundant gastropod assemblages. These organic inputs allowed the recruitment of local species but mainly of wood specialist taxa that were not previously known from the GoC. Our results suggest that the distribution of gastropod assemblages may be primarily determined by the occurrence of suitable habitats, probably due to the effect of the substrate type on the structural complexity of the habitat and availability and diversity of adequate food sources. The type of larval development is apparently not a limiting factor for colonization of deep-sea habitats. However, the predominance of non

  14. Characterisation of coastal counter-currents on the inner shelf of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, E.; Laiz, I.; Drago, T.; Relvas, P.

    2016-03-01

    At the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC), poleward currents leaning along the coast alternate with coastal upwelling jets of opposite direction. Here the patterns of these coastal countercurrents (CCCs) are derived from ADCP data collected during 7 deployments at a single location on the inner shelf. The multiyear (2008-2014) time-series, constituting ~ 18 months of hourly records, are further analysed together with wind data from several sources representing local and basin-scale conditions. During one deployment, temperature sensors were also installed near the mooring site to examine the vertical thermal stratification associated with periods of poleward flow. These observations indicate that the coastal circulation is mainly alongshore and barotropic. However, a baroclinic flow is often observed shortly at the time of flow inversion to poleward. CCCs develop all year-round and exclusively control the occurrence of warm coastal water during the upwelling season. On average, one poleward flow lasting 3 days was observed every week, corresponding to CCCs during ~ 40% of the time without seasonal variability. Thus, the studied region is distinct from typical upwelling systems where equatorward coastal upwelling jets largely predominate. CCCs often start to develop near the bed and are frequently associated with 2-layer cross-shore flows characteristic of downwelling conditions (offshore near the bed). In general, the action of alongshore wind stress alone does not justify the development of CCCs. The coastal circulation is best correlated and shows the highest coherence with south-eastward wind in the basin that proceeds from the rotation of southward wind at the West coast of Portugal, hence suggesting a dominant control of large-scale wind conditions. In agreement, wavelet analyses indicate that CCCs are best correlated with alongshore wind occurring in a band period characteristic of the upwelling system (8-32 days). Furthermore, in the absence of wind coastal currents tend

  15. Observations of the Mediterranean Undercurrent and eddies in the Gulf of Cadiz during 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambar, I.; Serra, N.; Neves, F.; Ferreira, T.

    The North Atlantic is strongly influenced by the presence of a high salinity and temperature water mass - the Mediterranean Water (MW) - lying at intermediate levels. A detailed field survey in the region around the Portimão Canyon, which constitutes the first large canyon that the Mediterranean Undercurrent encounters downstream of the Strait of Gibraltar, has been repeated in three different seasonal conditions (winter, spring and summer) of the year 2001, in the frame of Project MEDTOP. This paper is based on the observations undertaken during MEDTOP and focus on relevant aspects of the thermohaline and velocity fields associated with the Mediterranean Undercurrent and the associated eddies, bringing further evidence of hypotheses presented in previous work on the dynamical behaviour of the Mediterranean Outflow and its intra-annual variability, and describing new observations of meddy formation and subsequent evolution in the centre of the Gulf of Cadiz. The analysis of the CTD data at the MW levels has shown the presence of four MW cores: the Upper and Lower Cores (centred at about 800 and 1200 m), the Shallow Core (between 400 and 600 m) and, in the region close to the Portimão Canyon, a core with higher density than the classical Lower Core at depths between 1300 and 1600 m. The analysis of the RAFOS floats trajectories has shown the Upper and Lower Cores flowing independently along the continental slope, the Upper Core reaching systematically higher velocities than the Lower Core. Within the meddies, there was evidence of a weak vertical coherence of the Cores in the early stages of the eddy life, and a tendency for acquiring a solid-body rotation as they evolve away from their source. The RAFOS floats evidenced the formation of MW eddies at three sites off the Portuguese coast: in Portimão Canyon, off Cape St. Vincent and in the Estremadura Promontory. The period of eddy generation could be quantified within the range 45-60 days. The comparison between

  16. Shallow seismic structure of the Pen Duick area, Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Henk; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.; Tokarev, Mikhail; Ivanov, Michael; Gorban, Anna; Mienis, Furu

    2010-05-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between structural features, seabed morphology and carbonate mounds in the Pen Duick and Renard Ridge area of the El Arraiche mud volcano field in the south-eastern Gulf of Cadiz, based on seismic and multibeam echosounder data. In 2006 a grid of 100 high resolution 24-channel seismic lines with a length of about 5 nautical miles and a spacing of about 50 m mainly aligned NE-SW and NW-SE was recorded using an array of three sleeve guns (40, 20 and 10 cu.inch) towed at 37 meters behind the ship. Shooting was done every 5 seconds at a pressure of 100 bars and an average sailing speed of 4.2 knots, thus with an average shot distance of 10.5 metres across the Pen Duick Escarpment and the Lazarillo de Tormes mud volcano. Addditional lines were recorded as cross lines for correlation accross the western cone of the Gemini mud volcano. During a follow-up cruise in October 2006 with RV Pelagia, the multibeam coverage was expanded to include the Gemini and Al Idrissi mud volcanoes and adjacent area. NMO corrections, CDP stacking and swell correction were applied to improve the raw images. Results show that the Pen Duick Escarpment is lined along its upper flank with a string of relatively small and steep mound structures. The majority of mounds concentrate on the top and on the western slope of the Pen Duick Escarpment. A large chain of mounds (about 1.6 km long) is situated to the west of the Pen Duick Escarpment. There are also small isolated groups of mounds located to the east of the Pen Duick Escarpment. These mounds do not show a clear internal structure. The seismic facies within the mounds are chaotic. The mounds at the Pen Duick Escarpment occur locally clustered but mainly as isolated structures They are at maximum about 50 m high, are located in water depths from 500 to 650 m and consist mainly of fine grained (muddy) sediments. Our seismic profiles do not reflect a relationship with the possible presence of gas, gashydrates

  17. Stomach contents of cetaceans in the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Cadiz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcia-Polo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the diet, through the analysis of stomach contents, of different species of cetaceans in Andalusian waters. Stomachs of 53 specimens, 36 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba, 13 common dolphins (Delphinus delphis and 4 Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus stranded in the provinces of Cadiz, Huelva, Malaga and Almeria (South Iberian Peninsula were examined. Strandings were attended by members of the official stranding network of Andalusia. Fourteen of the specimens had no food remains in the stomachs: 9 striped dolphins, 2 common dolphins and 1 Risso´s dolphin. Prey remains consisted mostly of hard structures e.g. fish otoliths, bones and eye lenses, cephalopod jaws and eye lenses and crustaceans exoskeletons. These remains were identified using published guides (e.g. Clarke, 1986; Härkonen, 1986; Xavier & Cherel, 2009 and reference material available at the Centro Oceanográfico in Vigo of the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO. Diet was characterised for each cetacean species using three standard indices, calculated for each category of prey and for group totals: the frequency of occurrence in the stomachs, the number of individuals and the reconstructed prey weight. These indices were also expressed as percentages to allow comparison between cetacean species and groups (e.g. dolphin sex and area of stranding. The results indicate that striped dolphins feed predominantly on small mesopelagic fish, mainly species of the Myctophidae family, although pearlsides (Maurolicus muelleri were also present. Significant numbers of gobies (Gobiidae were also found in the stomachs. Other prey identified were hake (Merluccius merluccius, silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus, bogue (Boops boops and scads (Trachurus spp.. Because of the degree of erosion of some otoliths they could not be identified to species level. Cephalopods were also found in the stomachs of striped dolphins with specimens of the families Brachioteuthidae

  18. The snails' tale at deep-sea habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Génio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bridging the Atlantic and Mediterranean continental margins, the South Iberian region has recently been the focus for geological and biological investigations. The Gulf of Cadiz (GoC encompasses a great variety of deep-sea habitats that harbour highly diverse biological communities. In this study, we describe the taxa composition of gastropod assemblages from deep-sea habitats in the GoC and analyse the species distributional patterns in relation to their dispersal capabilities and substrate availability. Distinct gastropod assemblages were found at mud volcanoes, carbonate and coral sites, and organic-falls. Overall, the GoC comprises a high diversity of gastropods that include 65 taxa representing 32 families, 48 genera and 30 named species. The highest number of taxa was found at the highly heterogeneous carbonate province in the middle slope (500–1500 m depth, and higher abundance of individuals was observed in Captain Arutyunov mud volcano, one of the most active sites found in the GoC. Faunal similarities were found with Mediterreanean cold-seeps (species- and genus-level and other chemosynthetic environments in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (genus-level. Colonization experiments with organic substrata (wood and alfalfa grass yielded high abundances of gastropod species. These organic inputs allowed the recruitment of local species but also of wood specialist taxa that were not known to occur in the GoC. Our results suggest that distribution of gastropod assemblages may be primarily determined by the occurrence of suitable habitats probably due to effect of the substrate type on feeding strategies and that larval development is not a limiting factor for colonization of the deep sea. However, the predominance of non-planktotrophy, and especially lecithotrophy, suggests that the trade-off between a more limited dispersal capability and the higher potential for self-recruitment may be favoured by the gastropod species inhabiting reducing

  19. Earthquakes Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing in Poland Township, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoumal, R.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Currie, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Felt seismicity induced by hydraulic fracturing is very rare with only a handful of reported cases worldwide. Using an optimized multi-station cross-correlation template matching routine, 77 earthquakes were identified in Poland Township, Mahoning County, Ohio that were closely related spatially and temporally to active hydraulic fracturing operations. We identified earthquakes as small as M ~1 up to M 3, one of the largest earthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing in the United States. These events all occurred 4-12 March 2014 and the rate decayed once the Ohio Department of Natural Resources issued a shutdown of hydraulic fracturing at a nearby well on 10 March. Using a locally derived velocity model and double difference relocation, the earthquake epicenters occurred during six stimulation stages along two horizontal well legs that were located ~0.8 km away. Nearly 100 stages in nearby wells at greater distances from the earthquake source region did not coincide with detected seismicity. During the sequence, hypocenters migrated ~600 m along an azimuth of 083 degrees defining a vertically oriented plane of seismicity close to the top of the Precambrian basement. The focal mechanism determined for the M 3 event had a vertically oriented left-lateral fault plane consistent with the earthquake distribution and the regional stress field. The focal mechanism, orientation, and depth of hypocenters were similar to that of the 2011 Youngstown earthquake sequence that occurred ~20 km away, but was correlated with wastewater injection instead of hydraulic fracturing. Considering the relatively large magnitude of these events and the b-value of 0.85, it appears the hydraulic fracturing induced slip along a pre-existing fault/fracture zone optimally oriented in the regional stress field.

  20. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  1. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  2. Seismotectonics of the Gulf of Cadiz and Horseshoe Abyssal Plain - active faulting in continental and oceanic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Matias, Luis

    2013-04-01

    In the area to the west of the Gibraltar Arc the plate boundary between Africa and Iberia is poorly defined. The deformation in the area is forced by the slow NW-SE convergence of 4 mm/yr between the oceanic domains of Iberia/Eurasia and Africa and is accommodated over a 200 km broad tectonically-active deformation zone. The region, however, is also characterized by large earthquakes and tsunamis, such as the 1969 Mw=7.9 Horseshoe Abyssal Plain earthquake and the November 1, 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake with an estimated magnitude of Mw~8.5. The exact location of the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake is still unknown. Recent work, however, may suggest that the event occurred in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault, an oblique thrust fault. Further, the area is marked by the presence of compressive structures with a roughly NE-SW orientation and E-W trending, segmented, crustal-scale, strike slip faults that extend from the Gorringe Bank to the Gibraltar arc in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, which were called "South West Iberian Margin" or SWIM faults. The fault system may mark a developing Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. Two local seismic networks were operated in the area. First, within the framework of TOPOE-EUROPE, a network of 24 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) monitored the seismicity between January and July 2010 in the northern Gulf of Cadiz to the north of 36°N between 9°30'W and ~7 °W. The second network operated between April and October 2012 14OBS in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault between 10°W to 11°W, and 35°50'N to 36°10'N. Recordings from the both deployments were supplemented by land stations operated in Portugal and the Gibraltar Arc. The networks provided in the order of 100 locale earthquakes occurring with the networks. In the Gulf of Cadiz, the two largest events of Mw~3.6 where thrust faulting events occurring in the vicinity of the Portimao Bank. With a depth of 40-50 km these events, among others, occurred within the continental

  3. Ecological evaluation of the effects of a massive fish killing in the lower Barbate river (Cadiz); Caracterizacion ecologica de los efectos de una mortandad de peces en el tramo bajo del rio Barbate (Cadiz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenda, J.; Arenas, M. P.; Carranza, J.; Ruiz Casanueva, J.

    2001-07-01

    In May 1998 massive fish killing was registered in the lower Barbate river (Cadiz province, South Spain) as a consequence of the toxic spill of plaguicides (mainly copper sulphate and malathion) used in the nearby rice fields. In this work we study the ecological consequences of this massive fish mortality on the fish community inhabiting the lower Barbate river. In the fluvial reach where the fish mortality was located significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the fish community (dominated by Barbus sclateri, Atherina boyeri and Liza ramada) were observed. The spatial distribution of the aforementioned changes allowed the precise geographical delimitation of the reach where the fish mortality happened. In addition, the fish assemblage observed upstream the site where the pollution was registered was replaced downstream, where the massive fish death was observed. (Author) 14 refs.

  4. Patterns of houses and habitat loss from 1937 to 1999 in northern Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Abraham, Charlotte E; Radeloff, Volker C; Hawbaker, Todd J; Hammer, Roger B; Stewart, Susan I; Clayton, Murray K

    2007-10-01

    Rural America is witnessing widespread housing development, which is to the detriment of the environment. It has been suggested to cluster houses so that their disturbance zones overlap and thus cause less habitat loss than is the case for dispersed development. Clustering houses makes intuitive sense, but few empirical studies have quantified the spatial pattern of houses in real landscapes, assessed changes in their patterns over time, and quantified the resulting habitat loss. We addressed three basic questions: (1) What are the spatial patterns of houses and how do they change over time; (2) How much habitat is lost due to houses, and how is this affected by spatial pattern of houses; and (3) What type of habitat is most affected by housing development. We mapped 27 419 houses from aerial photos for five time periods in 17 townships in northern Wisconsin and calculated the terrestrial land area remaining after buffering each house using 100- and 500-m disturbance zones. The number of houses increased by 353% between 1937 and 1999. Ripley's K test showed that houses were significantly clustered at all time periods and at all scales. Due to the clustering, the rate at which habitat was lost (176% and 55% for 100- and 500-m buffers, respectively) was substantially lower than housing growth rates, and most land area was undisturbed (95% and 61% for 100-m and 500-m buffers, respectively). Houses were strongly clustered within 100 m of lakes. Habitat loss was lowest in wetlands but reached up to 60% in deciduous forests. Our results are encouraging in that clustered development is common in northern Wisconsin, and habitat loss is thus limited. However, the concentration of development along lakeshores causes concern, because these may be critical habitats for many species. Conservation goals can only be met if policies promote clustered development and simultaneously steer development away from sensitive ecosystems.

  5. Key Dimensions of Effective Leadership for Change: A Focus on Township and Rural Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcobo, Thandi; Tikly, Leon Paul

    2010-01-01

    The article identifies key dimensions of effective leadership for change in historically disadvantaged, township and rural schools in South Africa. It is based on original case study research in 13 schools in Kwa-Zulu Natal. Although the sample included mainly township and rural primary and secondary schools it also included a smaller sample of…

  6. SOCIO-CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE E-MARKETING USERS (CASE OF RASHT TOWNSHIP, IRAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed ALAVIOON; Mohammad ALLAHYARI

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to study the socio-cultural index of rice electronic marketing users in Rasht Township, Iran. This study used a survey design and was conducted with a random sample of 367 paddy farmers in Rasht Township. To identify the socio-cultural characteristics of rice e-marketing users, a self-designed questionnaire was developed to gather data. For determining the validity of the questionnaire, the face and content validity were used. Reliability for the instrume...

  7. Two new species of scale worms (Polychaeta: Aphroditiformia) from deep-sea habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravara, Ascensão; Cunha, Marina R

    2016-03-31

    Two new species of scale worms are described from the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic), at depths between 1100 and 2230 m. Australaugeneria iberica sp. nov. (Polynoidae) was obtained from an alcyonarian colony collected at the flank of Carlos Ribeiro mud volcano; it is characterized by the presence of neuropodial hooks only on segment two and by having the first parapodia not enlarged. This is the first report of the genus for the deep sea. The diagnosis of Australaugeneria is emended and a table comparing all species of the genus is provided. Pholoe petersenae sp. nov. (Pholoidae) was collected from the crater of three mud volcanoes (Darwin, Captain Arutyunov and Carlos Ribeiro) in areas of active seepage. This species is characterized by the presence of prostomial peaks and parapodia stylodes and the absence of eyes.

  8. Pliocene-Quaternary contourites along the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin: sedimentary stacking pattern and regional distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llave, Estefanía; Matias, Hugo; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Ercilla, Gemma; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Medialdea, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    This study reports novel findings on the Pliocene-Quaternary history of the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin and the spatiotemporal evolution of the associated contourite depositional system. Four major seismic units (P1, P2, QI and QII) were identified in the Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary record based on multichannel seismic profiles. These are bounded by five major discontinuities which, from older to younger, are the M (Messinian), LPR (lower Pliocene revolution), BQD (base Quaternary discontinuity), MPR (mid-Pleistocene revolution) and the actual seafloor. Unit P1 represents pre-contourite hemipelagic/pelagic deposition along the northern Gulf of Cadiz margin. Unit P2 reflects a significant change in margin sedimentation when contourite deposition started after the Early Pliocene. Mounded elongated and separated drifts were generated during unit QI deposition, accompanied by a general upslope progradation of drifts and the migration of main depocentres towards the north and northwest during both the Pliocene and Quaternary. This progradation became particularly marked during QII deposition after the mid-Pleistocene (MPR). Based on the spatial distribution of the main contourite depocentres and their thickness, three structural zones have been identified: (1) an eastern zone, where NE-SW diapiric ridges have controlled the development of two internal sedimentary basins; (2) a central zone, which shows important direct control by the Guadalquivir Bank in the south and an E-W Miocene palaeorelief structure in the north, both of which have significantly conditioned the basin-infill geometry; and (3) a western zone, affected in the north by the Miocene palaeorelief which favours deposition in the southern part of the basin. Pliocene tectonic activity has been an important factor in controlling slope morphology and, hence, influencing Mediterranean Outflow Water pathways. Since the mid-Pleistocene (MPR), the sedimentary stacking pattern of contourite drifts has been

  9. 78 FR 51262 - Wisconsin Disaster # WI-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  10. Community Living in Three Wisconsin Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven J.

    The site visit report describes community living programs for persons with severe disabilities in the Wisconsin counties of Dane, LaCrosse, and Columbia. The visit attempted to identify and document promising practices through interviews with administrators, officials and staff; observations of three foster homes, two small group homes, and two…

  11. Wisconsin Charter Schools, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmaster, Elizabeth; Dold, Steve; Soldner, Robert; Decker, Paula Crandall

    This publication includes up-to-date information about charter schools in Wisconsin. It is intended to present best or promising practices of charter schools to each local educational agency in the state. It is a means of demonstrating agency accountability for informing the public, legislators, and those interested in charter schools, both within…

  12. The University of Wisconsin OAO operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacox, H. C.; Mcnall, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The Wisconsin OAO operating system is presented which consists of two parts: a computer program called HARUSPEX, which makes possible reasonably efficient and convenient operation of the package and ground operations equipment which provides real-time status monitoring, commanding and a quick-look at the data.

  13. Cooperative Educational Service Agencies: The Wisconsin Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Judson A.; Bowles, B. Dean

    This paper gives a brief historical account of Wisconsin's Cooperative Educational Service Agencies (CESA's) and the need for changes, outlines some of the recommendations of a CESA fact-finding task force, and describes the current transition period. The first section describes the background and legislative history of the CESA, followed by an…

  14. 75 FR 51294 - Wisconsin Disaster # WI-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  15. 77 FR 48196 - WIsconsin Disaster #WI-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WIsconsin Disaster WI-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  16. 75 FR 67162 - Wisconsin Disaster #WI-00028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  17. 76 FR 20799 - Wisconsin Disaster #WI-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster WI-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  18. Chemosymbiotic bivalves from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic, with descriptions of new species of Solemyidae, Lucinidae and Vesicomyidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Graham; Rodrigues, Clara F; Cunha, Marina R

    2011-01-01

    The chemosymbiotic bivalves collected from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz are reviewed. Of the thirteen species closely associated with chemosynthetic settings two Solemyidae, Solemya (Petrasma) elarraichensissp. n. and Acharax gadiraesp. n., one Lucinidae, Lucinoma asapheussp. n., and one Vesicomyidae, Isorropodon megadesmussp. n. are described and compared to close relatives of their respective families. The biodiversity and distribution of the chemosymbiotic bivalves in the Gulf of Cadiz are discussed and compared to the available information from other cold seeps in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Although there is considerable similarity at the genus level between seep/mud volcano fields in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, there is little overlap at the species level. This indicates a high degree of endemism within chemosymbiotic bivalve assemblages.

  19. «Homeland». A Monologue performed in the theatre of the city of Cadiz (19 March 1812. Edition, introduction and notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María RODRÍGUEZ GUTIÉRREZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This play we have edited was performed to celebrate the promulgation of the Constitution on 19 March 1812 at the Teatro Principal in Cadiz. The edition includes a preliminary study that outlines the literary and journalistic productions of the author of the play, Luis de Sosa y Tovar, during his stay in Cadiz in the times of the Cortes. It also remarks on the actress who performed in the play, Agustina Torres, the Teatro Principal’s First Lady during the years of the Constitution period. The edition also includes a genre analysis, the content of the monologue and an analysis of the anthem that was the climax of the performance. Likewise, we have tried to provide explanations of its mythological and symbolic allusions, and shed light on certain verses.

  20. Levels of 137Cs in muddy sediments on the seabed in the Bay of Cadiz (Spain). Part II. Model of vertical migration of (137)Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligero, R A; Barrera, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2005-01-01

    This second part of the study reports the development of a model to describe the vertical migration of the artificial radioisotope (137)Cs in the sediment column on the seabed of the Bay of Cadiz. The application of the model provides an overall picture of the process of sedimentation in the Inner Bay of Cadiz. The spatial distribution of the rate of sedimentation enables us to study the sources of sediments and the means by which the sediments have been transported. A method has been derived from the rate of sedimentation to perform the dating of the layers of sediment. The model describes the behaviour of (137)Cs in the area under study, taking into account the time of residence in the zones that are the source of accumulation, the origin of the sedimentary material, together with the diffusion of the radionuclide in the sediment of the seabed.

  1. Chemosymbiotic bivalves from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic, with descriptions of new species of Solemyidae, Lucinidae and Vesicomyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Oliver

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemosymbiotic bivalves collected from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz are reviewed. Of the thirteen species closely associated with chemosynthetic settings two Solemyidae, Solemya (Petrasma elarraichensis sp. n. and Acharax gadirae sp. n., one Lucinidae, Lucinoma asapheus sp. n., and one Vesicomyidae, Isorropodon megadesmus sp. n. are described and compared to close relatives of their respective families. The biodiversity and distribution of the chemosymbiotic bivalves in the Gulf of Cadiz is discussed and compared to the available information from other cold seeps in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Although there is considerable similarity at the genus level between seep/mud volcano fields in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, there is little overlap at the species level. This indicates a high degree of endemism within chemosymbiotic bivalve assemblages.

  2. Growing Readers: Wendy Wilcox--West Bloomfield Township Public Library, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 youth services librarian Wendy Wilcox begged her boss for the chance to make West Bloomfield Township Public Library (WBTPL) one of 20 demonstration sites for the Public Library Association (PLA)/Association for Library Service to Children initiative Every Child Ready To Read. While all participating libraries teach parents and caregivers…

  3. 77 FR 70372 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South Channel), Avon Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South..., across Shark River (South Channel) at Avon Township, NJ. The existing regulation contains a drawbridge... Transportation (NJDOT) to replace the existing bascule bridge, which carries S35 over Shark River (South...

  4. Household food wastage in a developing country: A case study of Mamelodi Township in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, including those with food shortages a large portion of household waste is estimated to be food. This paper reports on findings of a research study conducted in one of South Africa’s largest townships (Mamelodi) within...

  5. Evaluation of Dry Wells and Cisterns for Stormwater Control: Millburn Township, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of the Township of Millburn’s use of on-site dry wells to limit stormwater flows into the local drainage system. The objective was to examine this stormwater management alternative applicable for mature ur...

  6. 78 FR 21849 - Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Ely, NV to Middletown Township, NJ AGENCY... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal...

  7. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  8. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results. About 75% (28/39 of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39 mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39 showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion. Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor’s relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.

  9. Growing Readers: Wendy Wilcox--West Bloomfield Township Public Library, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 youth services librarian Wendy Wilcox begged her boss for the chance to make West Bloomfield Township Public Library (WBTPL) one of 20 demonstration sites for the Public Library Association (PLA)/Association for Library Service to Children initiative Every Child Ready To Read. While all participating libraries teach parents and caregivers…

  10. Labour Manoeuvrability and Economic Performance in Township-Village Enterprises: The Case of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modderman, Eelco; Gorter, Cees; Dalhuisen, Jasper; Nijkamp, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the relationship between economic performance and labourmanoeuvrability of township-village enterprises in the Jiangsu province, China. We start with a general overview of the development in the Chinese economy and the functioning of labour markets. Next, we p

  11. TownshipNet: A localized hybrid TVWS-WiFi and cloud services network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadzic, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available community who will benefit from the interventions. We analyze the data usage patterns of mobile users in the township to provide us with a real understanding of the needs of the community. This data usage analysis is used to inform the design of the network...

  12. Identifying Some Factors That Might Predispose Drug Abuse among Learners in a South African Township School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, R.; Khatite, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study inquires into some of the factors that might predispose the use and abuse of drugs among secondary school learners in a township school. The objective of this research is to identify these factors and to offer a few suggestions on how the abuse may be prevented. A quantitative research strategy is used and a document analysis technique…

  13. "Clever v. Cherry Hill Township Board of Education": Recognition of Religious Diversity in Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1994-01-01

    A New Jersey school board enacted a policy to broaden students' understanding of their multicultural community's religious heritage. The federal district court upheld the Cherry Hill Township's approach to recognizing religious diversity in public schools. Reviews the policy and the court decision, and explores implications for public schools. (90…

  14. Site suitability evaluation for ecotourism using GIS and AHP: A case study of Isfahan Townships, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mobaraki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism, as a multibillion dollars business, is an industry with high potentials for economic competition. One of the proper solutions for developing ecotourism is better identification of different regions where there is a tourism capacity and accurate planning for performing feasibility study of those regions in terms of attracting ecotourism as well as creating infrastructures in those regions. This paper evaluates capacities and power of tourism as well as nature tourism in Isfahan Township using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process. The present research is applied and research method is descriptive-analytical. Meanwhile, to analyze data, Arc GIS is used. Findings indicate that regarding the map of ecotourism capacity of Isfahan townships, resulted from combining various climatologically, geological, hydrological, topological maps and access maps, the township is not homogeneous in terms of nature tourism and coastal parts of the township (regions around Zayand-e-Rood have better condition than other parts and should be considered for tourism development planning.

  15. Budget Monitoring and Control in South African Township Schools: Democratic Governance at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…

  16. The experiences of AIDS orphans living in a township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ricks

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An overwhelming challenge to health-care professionals today, is the rendering of care services to AIDS orphans. This article is based on a study that explored and described the lived experiences of AIDS orphans in a township in order to understand their ‘life world’ as AIDS orphans. A further purpose was to provide information to primary health-care nurses (PHCNs, related professionals and partners involved in the care of these children, so that they could plan a care response to meet the orphans’ unique needs. A qualitative research design that used an explorative, descriptive, contextual and phenomenological strategy of inquiry was employed. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews from a purposively selected sample, and were analysed according to the steps of qualitative data analysis proposed by Tesch (Creswell 1994. Guba’s model was used to ensure the trustworthiness of the qualitative data. Two main themes and their sub-themes were identified. The first theme was that children experience devastating changes in their life circumstances when they become AIDS orphans. The second theme highlighted how the participants rediscovered hope to persevere. Recommendations directed at nursing practice, education and research, were made based upon the findings.

    Opsomming

    ‘n Uitdaging wat professionele gesondheidswerkers huidiglik oorweldig, is dienslewering aan VIGS weeskinders. Die doel van die studie was om die geleefde ervaring van kinders wat in dorpsgebiede woon en VIGS weeskinders geword het, te verken en te beskryf ten einde hul leefwêreld te verstaan. Hierdie inligting kan deur Primêre Gesondheidsorg Verpleegkundiges (PVGs, verwante beroepslui en vennote betrokke by die versorging van hierdie kinders, gebruik word as basis om versorging te beplan wat in die kinders se unieke behoeftes sal voorsien. ‘n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp met verkennende, beskrywende, kontekstuele en fenomologiese

  17. Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Qian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59. About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM, and almost all prescriptions (98.07% contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the

  18. Occurrence, distribution and environmental risk of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in coastal and ocean waters from the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel-Maeso, Miriam; Baena-Nogueras, Rosa María; Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2017-08-31

    In this study, we have evaluated the occurrence and distribution of 78 pharmaceuticals in different aquatic marine environments from the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Spain) for the first time. The obtained results revealed that pharmaceuticals were present in seawater at total concentrations ranging 61-2133 and 16-189ngL(-1) in coastal and oceanic transects, respectively. Potential marine pollution hotspots were observed in enclosed or semi-enclosed water bodies (Cadiz Bay), showing concentrations that were one or two orders of magnitude higher than in the open ocean. The presence of these chemicals in local sewage treatment plants (STPs), one of the main contamination sources, was also assessed, revealing total concentrations of up to 23μgL(-1) in effluents. PhACs with the highest detection frequencies and concentrations in the sampling region were analgesics and anti-inflammatories followed by antibiotics in the case of samples from Cadiz Bay or caffeine in oceanic seawater samples. Risk quotients, expressed as ratios between the measured environmental concentration (MEC) and the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) were higher than 1 for two compounds (gemfibrozil and ofloxacin) in effluent of Jerez de la Frontera sewage treatment plant (STP). No high environmental risk was detected in both coastal and oceanic sampling areas, although the information available about the effects of these chemicals on marine biota is still very limited and negative effects on non-target species cannot be discarded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Micro-enterprise predicament in township economic development: Evidence from Ivory Park and Tembisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Charman

    2017-05-01

    Aim: In response to the developmental need to stimulate micro-enterprise growth in South African townships, the paper poses the question: what approaches are most likely to have a positive impact on township businesses, given current micro-enterprise dynamics? Setting: Primary research was undertaken in two neighbouring townships in Gauteng province, in Ivory Park and Tembisa. Methods: The data comprises a geospatial census of enterprise activities, a survey of select firms and qualitative interviews with business owners. The research utilised a small-area census approach to obtain data on business activities within an area of approximately 2km2 in each site. The census enumerated 2509 micro-enterprises in Ivory Park and 1722 micro-enterprises in Tembisa. Firm interviews were conducted with business owners in four sectors: grocery retail, liquor retail, hair care and early childhood development centres. Results: The business census identifies a strong similarity in the structure of the townships’ informal micro-entrepreneurship despite the considerable differences in the socio-economic status of the respective case sites. The enterprise survey highlights the resource constraints of township businesses and thinness of local markets. Interviews with entrepreneurs reveal four main pathways through which individuals enter into self-employment with the most dynamic enterprises established by inward investing entrepreneurs. Spatial considerations exert an influence on the position of enterprise sectors, whilst access to land and business infrastructure are notable constraints. Conclusion: Reflecting on the evidence, the paper concludes with making a call for a more low-geared development approach, focusing on lessening the legal, institutional and regulatory obstacles to enterprise growth as a first step. Municipalities have an important role in liberalising the spaces and places where township informal enterprises can and should be permitted to trade as well as

  20. First results from the NEAREST-SEIS deep seismic cruise across the Gulf of Cadiz accretionary wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, A.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Graindorge, D.; Sallarès, V.; Bartolome, R.; Gracia, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz lies offshore of Southwest Iberia and Northwest Morocco, bounded to the West by the Azores-Gibraltar transform and to the East by the Betic-Rif mountain belt. The region is famous for the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami. Here the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia is complex, marked by a broad region of deformation spanning about 200 km in a north-south direction. One of the most striking structures characterizing the Gulf of Cadiz is the presence of a thick tectonically deformed sedimentary wedge, which is interpreted as an accretionary wedge formed by the W to SW migration of the Rif-Betic block. Two types of geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the recent tectonics and formation of this region: those invoking delamination of continental lithosphere beneath the Betic-Rif Alboran Sea region, and those favouring subduction of oceanic lithosphere, with associated roll-back. Numerous marine geophysical surveys were performed in the Gulf of Cadiz area during the last years, many as part of the NEAREST European project. Multi-beam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired, which help constrain the upper crustal structures. Deep structural maps demonstrate that sediment thicknesses in the central Gulf of Cadiz (beneath the accretionary wedge) reach a maximum of 12-13 km. Additional wide-angle seismic records acquired during the SISMAR experiment (2001) testify to the difficulty of even low-frequency waves to penetrate below this thick sedimentary body. Nevertheless, from the resulting models a 7-to-10-km thick basement is inferred beneath the western and central Gulf, which forms a roughly E-W oriented trough between the thicker (20-30 km) continental crust of SW Iberia and NW Morocco. During the NEAREST-SEIS cruise on the B/O Hesperides (nov. 2008), two wide-angle seismic lines were acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz area using a seismic source composed of seven 1500LL Bolt airguns (4520 in3), shot at 90 s

  1. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  2. Macrofaunal assemblages from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz: abundance, biodiversity and diversity partitioning across spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Cadiz is an extensive seepage area in the south Iberian margin (NE Atlantic encompassing over 40 mud volcanoes (MVs at depths ranging from 200 to 4000 m. The area has a long geologic history and a central biogeographic location with a complex circulation ensuring oceanographic connectivity with the Mediterranean Sea, equatorial and North Atlantic regions. The geodynamics of the region promotes a notorious diversity in the seep regime despite the relatively low fluxes of hydrocarbon-rich gases. We analyse quantitative samples taken during the cruises TTR14, TTR15 and MSM01-03 in seven mud volcanoes grouped into Shallow MVs (Mercator: 350 m, Kidd: 500 m, Meknès: 700 m and Deep MVs (Captain Arutyunov: 1300 m, Carlos Ribeiro: 2200 m, Bonjardim: 3000 m, Porto: 3900 m and two additional Reference sites (ca. 550 m. Macrofauna (retained by a 500 μm sieve was identified to species level whenever possible. The samples yielded modest abundances (70–1567 individuals per 0.25 m2, but the local and regional number of species is among the highest ever reported for cold seeps. Among the 366 recorded species, 22 were symbiont-hosting bivalves (Thyasiridae, Vesicomyidae, Solemyidae and tubeworms (Siboglinidae. The multivariate analyses supported the significant differences between Shallow and Deep MVs: The environmental conditions at the Shallow MVs make them highly permeable to the penetration of background fauna leading to high diversity of the attendant assemblages (H′: 2.92–3.94; ES(100: 28.3–45.0; J′: 0.685–0.881. The Deep MV assemblages showed, in general, contrasting features but were more heterogeneous (H′: 1.41–3.06; ES(100: 10.5–30.5; J′: 0.340–0.852 and often dominated by one or more siboglinid species. The rarefaction curves confirmed the differences in biodiversity of Deep and Shallow MVs as well as the convergence of the latter to the Reference sites. The Bray–Curtis dissimilarity demonstrated the high

  3. Passive-solar-design handbook for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steege, D.; Keiffer, B.; Tipler, G.

    1981-12-01

    The principles, definitions, and detailed calculations needed to design and evaluate passive solar systems are presented. The types of systems, principles of heat loss and heat gain, definitions of relevant terms and concepts, and the initial calculations later used to determine the annual solar savings fraction are introduced. The detailed climatic data, modification curves, and monthly solar savings fractions for various Wisconsin locations are given that will be used in the calculations. (LEW)

  4. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VII.- Andalucia (b): Cadiz, Malaga, Granada y Almeria; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. volumen VII.- Andalucia (b): Cadiz, Malaga, Granda y Almeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C.; Magister, M. [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Granada and Almeria of the Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia. (Author) 78 refs.

  5. PLSS Townships and Sections, section corners, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  6. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in 2008, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Off.of Admin - ITSD.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008....

  7. PLSS Townships and Sections, PLSS Data, Published in 2000, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Walworth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale as of 2000. It is described as 'PLSS Data'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  8. PLSS Townships and Sections, PLSS Section Lines, Published in 2003, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Sheridan County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale as of 2003. It is described as 'PLSS Section Lines'. Data by this publisher are...

  9. PLSS Townships and Sections, PLSS Sections, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  10. PLSS Townships and Sections, future tics- Enoch, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as...

  11. PLSS Townships and Sections, Published in 2013, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2013. Data by...

  12. PLSS Townships and Sections, Sections, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as...

  13. PLSS Townships and Sections, GCDB sections, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  14. PLSS Townships and Sections, sec control- Enoch, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as...

  15. Developing a sustainable community tourism strategy for townships : the case of Soshanguve / Paul Nkemngu Acha-Anyi

    OpenAIRE

    Acha-Anyi, Paul Nkemngu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a sustainable tourism strategy for the Soshanguve Township. The motivation for this study arose out of the acute developmental challenges facing many township communities in South Africa, mainly due to the absence of economic opportunities. This results in a high unemployment rate, poverty and an elevated number of crime incidences. A sustainable community tourism strategy could alleviate this situation by availing itself of the opportunities presented by ...

  16. Living in the townships: An appraisal of Pentecostal social ministry in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Molobi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an appraisal of the social ministry of Pentecostal churches through fellowship, healing and livelihood creation in the township communities of the city of Tshwane. In meeting this aim the discussion advances a thesis of these churches as agents of social support and survival of the downcast. In particular, the article attempts to show how these churches exert themselves towards establishing not only moral responsibility, but also a context where the weakest and the least privileged can learn how to survive. The squatter camp people are unique with the special challenges requiring distinctive consideration. Pentecostal churches believe that the lost people matter to God and are of importance to their congregations as well. The backyard Bible study ministries and mutual cooperation strategies are employed for mutual support. Making use of the existing empirical research data and available literature will show how Pentecostal churches in the townships support the laity and community in times of need.

  17. Microbial diversity in Frenulata (Siboglinidae, Polychaeta) species from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clara F; Hilário, Ana; Cunha, Marina R; Weightman, Andrew J; Webster, Gordon

    2011-06-01

    Frenulates are a group of gutless marine annelids belonging to the Siboglinidae that are nutritionally dependent upon endosymbiotic bacteria. We have characterized the bacteria associated with several frenulate species from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz by PCR-DGGE of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, coupled with analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries. In addition to the primary symbiont, bacterial consortia (microflora) were found in all species analysed. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the primary symbiont in most cases belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria and were related to thiotrophic and methanotrophic symbionts from other marine invertebrates, whereas members of the microflora were related to multiple bacterial phyla. This is the first molecular evidence of methanotrophic bacteria in at least one frenulate species. In addition, the occurrence of the same bacterial phylotype in different Frenulata species, from different depths and mud volcanoes suggests that there is no selection for specific symbionts and corroborates environmental acquisition as previously proposed for this group of siboglinids.

  18. A high-resolution hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model of the Gulf of Cadiz – Alboran Sea region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. MACIAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern Iberia regional seas comprise the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea sub-basins connected by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. Both basins are very different in their hydrological and biological characteristics but are, also, tightly connected to each other. Integrative studies of the whole regional oceanic system are scarce and difficult to perform due to the relative large area to cover and the different relevant time-scales of the main forcings in each sub-basin. Here we propose, for the first time, a fully coupled, 3D, hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model that covers, in a single domain (~2km resolution both marine basins for a 20 years simulation (1989-2008. Model performance is assessed against available data in terms of spatial and temporal distributions of biological variables. In general, the proposed model is able to represent the climatological distributions of primary and secondary producers and also the main seasonality of primary production in the different sub-regions of the analyzed basins. Potential causes of the observed mismatches between model and data are identified and some solutions are proposed for future model development. We conclude that most of these mismatches could be attributed to the missing tidal forcing in the actual model configuration. This model is a first step to obtain a meaningful tool to study past and future oceanographic conditions in this important marine region constituting the unique connection of the Mediterranean Sea with the open world’s ocean.

  19. An approximation to short-term evolution and sediment transport pathways along the littoral of Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfuso, G.; Benavente, J.; Del Río, L.; Gracia, F. J.

    2008-11-01

    This work presents the results of a beach-monitoring program carried out in the Bay of Cadiz (SW Spain), which consists of urban, natural and nourished beaches. In the present study, 24 topographic profiles have been monthly monitored during the 1996 1998 period, in order to draw the morphodynamic behavior of this coast and the general characterization of short-term coastal trends. This way, total volumetric budgets have been calculated for each beach profile in order to group beaches in different erosive/accreting sectors. Studied beaches recorded both erosion and accretion: the greatest accretionary trends have been observed at Aguadulce, La Costilla and Rota beaches, with values ranging from 30 to 70 m3/m. The largest erosion episodes have been recorded in the southernmost end of Valdelagrana spit, with values over 50 m3/m, and in Rota and Vistahermosa, after nourishment works. Main erosion and accretion pathways have been related to the existence of natural and human structures, which blocked the longshore drift suggesting the existence of littoral cells.

  20. Fe-Mn nodules associated with hydrocarbon seeps: A new discovery in the Gulf of Cadiz(eastern central Atlantic)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. J. González; L. Somoza; R. Lunar; J. Martínez-Frías; J. A. Martín Rubí; T. Torres; J. E. Ortíz; V. Díaz-del-Río

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Gulf of Cadiz is situated geologically at the Gibraltar Arc, the westernmost arc of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Based on extensive previous studies that include swath bathymetry, multi-channel and very high-resolution seismic reflection, gravimetry, magnetism, heat flow probes, and underwater photography surveys, more than 500 polymetallic nodules were collected at water depths ranging from 850 to 1000 m, associated with hydrocarbon-derived carbonate chimneys, slabs, and crusts. Nodules show a wide range of sizes, densities, weights and morphologies. Nodules are composed of multiple millimetre-thick layers of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides surrounding a nucleus composed of Early-Middle Miocene plastic marls, which were expulsed from underlying units by fluid venting. Nodules show a high mean abundance of Fe (39.03%), moderate Mn (5.84%),and low contents of trace metals and REEs compared to the average content of deep-sea polymetallic nodules. They display fast growth rates (av. 2,500 mm Myr-1) which are probably the main cause for the low contents of transition metals.

  1. A high-resolution hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model of the Gulf of Cadiz – Alboran Sea region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. MACIAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern Iberia regional seas comprise the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea sub-basins connected by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. Both basins are very different in their hydrological and biological characteristics but are, also, tightly connected to each other. Integrative studies of the whole regional oceanic system are scarce and difficult to perform due to the relative large area to cover and the different relevant time-scales of the main forcings in each sub-basin. Here we propose, for the first time, a fully coupled, 3D, hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model that covers, in a single domain (~2km resolution both marine basins for a 20 years simulation (1989-2008. Model performance is assessed against available data in terms of spatial and temporal distributions of biological variables. In general, the proposed model is able to represent the climatological distributions of primary and secondary producers and also the main seasonality of primary production in the different sub-regions of the analyzed basins. Potential causes of the observed mismatches between model and data are identified and some solutions are proposed for future model development. We conclude that most of these mismatches could be attributed to the missing tidal forcing in the actual model configuration. This model is a first step to obtain a meaningful tool to study past and future oceanographic conditions in this important marine region constituting the unique connection of the Mediterranean Sea with the open world’s ocean.

  2. How resilient adolescent learners in a township school cope with school violence: a case study.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse and describe how resilient adolescent learners in a township school cope with school violence in order to develop and recommend a model to promote resilience in coping with school violence. As basis for this study violence is described and explained in the theoretical framework of the ecosystemic theory, as well as the social learning and cognitive behavioural theories. Based on these theories violence is discussed as a reaction and as an action that occurs...

  3. Background research paper : township of East Garafraxa utilities and renewable energy planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-11

    This paper established the foundation for future policies in Ontario's Township of East Garafraxa regarding renewable energy facilities and utilities. The paper provided research which included a summary of policy and regulatory best practices; a lexicon for renewable energy and wind power terminology; a baseline for scales of facilities; identification of constraints and land use issues; a discussion on alternative energy sources and their impacts; a summary of discussions with stakeholders and interest groups; and an opportunity and constraints analysis. Specifically, the report provided an overview of the Township of East Garafraxa and discussed regulations such as the Environmental Assessment Act and Environmental Protection Act. The forms of renewable energy that were discussed included wind, solar, biomass, hydro and geothermal energy. A jurisdictional analysis was then presented. Scale options for each renewable energy system were presented along with recommended scales for each renewable energy system. It was concluded that the Township of East Garafraxa has an opportunity to proactively accommodate new renewable energy land uses in a manner that reflects the local characteristics and aspirations of its residents. 50 refs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  4. Intercultural partnering for the benefit of South Africa township high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janis; Dodge, Emily; Welderufael, Martha

    2014-12-01

    An intercultural partnership was formed to meet South African township high schools' need to provide career education and identify barriers and hope in relation to career choice. The objective of this study was to collect data on the students' perceptions of career choice, barriers prohibiting students from engaging in a career of choice and their general hopefulness. A non-experimental, descriptive study was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis strategies was used. A significant difference was found based on gender in relation to having career options and with regard to how knowledge about careers is gained. Despite barriers to career choice, students are hopeful about the future. Occupational deprivation is a risk factor for South African youth living in disadvantaged communities. Results are from two township high schools in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. English as a second language may have influenced data analysis. Future research must explore the role of occupational therapy in South African township high schools and the issue of career choice among South African youth. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mixing zones studies of the waste water discharge from the Consolidated Paper Company into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Ganatra, R.

    1973-01-01

    Effluent concentration distributions from the waste water discharge of the Kraft Division Mill, Consolidated Paper Company, into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, is investigated. Effluent concentrations were determined from measurements of the temperature distribution, using temperature as a tracer. Measurements of the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the outfall were also made. Due to limitations in the extent of the field observations, the analysis and comparison of the measurements is limited to the region within about 300 feet from the outfall. Effects of outfall submergence, of buoyancy and momentum of the effluent and of the pattern and magnitude of river currents on these characteristics are considered.

  6. Quality of Wisconsin stormwater, 1989-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, Roger T.; Legg, Andrew D.; Greb, Steven R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality data were compiled from four urban stormwater monitoring projects conducted in Wisconsin between 1989 and 1994. These projects included monitoring in both storm-sewer pipes and urban streams. A total of 147 constitu ents were analyzed for in stormwater sampled from 10 storm-sewer pipes and four urban streams. Land uses represented by the storm-sewer watersheds included residential, commercial, industrial, and mixed. For about one-half the con stituents, at least 10 percent of the event mean con centrations exceeded the laboratory's minimum reporting limit. Detection frequencies were greater than 75 percent for many of the heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in both the storm sewer and stream samples, whereas detec tion frequencies were about 20 percent or greater for many of the pesticides in both types of sam ples. Stormwater concentrations for conventional constituents, such as suspended solids, chloride, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria were greater than minimum reporting limits almost 100 percent of the time. Concentrations of many of the constituents were high enough to say that stormwater in the storm sewers and urban streams might be contrib uting to the degradation of the streams. In this report, constituents defined as potential contami nants are those for which the laboratory minimum report limit was exceeded for at least 10 percent of the sampled storm events, and for which at least one event mean concentration exceeded an estab lished water-quality standard. Storm-sewer sam ples had event mean concentrations of lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, and silver that frequently exceeded Wisconsin's acute toxicity criteria for cold water fisheries. Wisconsin's human cancer criteria was exceeded almost 100 percent of the time for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater samples from storm sewers and streams. Maximum concentrations of diazinon found in storm sewers exceeded recommended levels of diazinon. Storm

  7. Cadiz, Jamaica or London? The British colony at Cadiz and the changes of English trade with Spanish America (1655-1750 ¿Cádiz, Jamaica o Londres? La colonia británica de Cádiz y las transformaciones del comercio inglés con la América española (1655-1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Martínez Ruiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neither the exchanges through Jamaica, which had been seized from Spain in 1655, nor the privileges enjoyed by the South Sea Company as the result of the Tratado del Asiento from 1713 onwards entailed the decadence of the British merchant colony at Cadiz in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. In order to explain this apparent paradox, the article analyses the contribution of the Cadiz Factory to British imperial and commercial expansion in a period characterised by the strengthening of the ties between the Atlantic, Mediterranean and Asian worlds.Ni los intercambios realizados a través de Jamaica, conquistada a España en 1655, ni los privilegios disfrutados por la Compañía del Mar del Sur en virtud del Tratado del Asiento a partir de 1713 conllevaron la decadencia de la colonia mercantil británica de Cádiz a finales del siglo XVII y comienzos del siglo XVIII. Con objeto de explicar esta aparente paradoja, el artículo analiza la forma en que la Cadiz Factory contribuyó a la expansión comercial e imperial británica en un periodo caracterizado por el reforzamiento de los lazos entre los mundos atlántico, mediterráneo y asiático.

  8. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.

    2017-05-22

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.

  9. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  10. Wisconsin Elementary and Secondary School Accounting System Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. Richard

    This handbook is the basic accounting document for Wisconsin's public school systems; it presents the means to achieve uniformity in reporting on the efficacy of the Wisconsin Elementary and Secondary School Accounting System (WESSAS). Its purpose is to provide financial information that will promote reporting, auditing, interdistrict comparison,…

  11. Wisconsin Farmers' Use and Understanding of Broadcast News. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupa, Eugene A.; Burnett, Claron

    A survey of Wisconsin farmers in four market areas was made to determine their market information requirements, their surveillance of media market reports, and their understanding and use of market news received from the Wisconsin broadcast media. The survey was conducted as a follow-on to a study of the timing, frequency, and completeness of…

  12. Fiscal Stress in Wisconsin Small Governments: Indicators and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolensky, Robert P.; Enright, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 59 Wisconsin officials to determine the fiscal crises in U.S. small towns. Results did not reveal a fiscal crisis, but fiscal stress was evident. Wisconsin small governments responded to fiscal stress though increasing local taxes, borrowing money, obtaining increased state aid and shared revenue, reducing expenditures, and promoting…

  13. Water Quality in Iron County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    The report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  14. Water Quality in Bayfield County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    The report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  15. Water Quality in Ashland County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    This report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  16. Water Quality in Douglas County, Wisconsin; Its Understanding, Preservation, Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwent, Myron O., Ed.

    The report represents the efforts of two schools of higher education in northern Wisconsin to keep Lake Superior, the largest surface area, fresh water lake in the world, close to the condition it was in thousands of years ago when it was formed. The University of Wisconsin-Superior and Northland College have been studying, since 1972, water…

  17. Re-evaluation of the ;elevated epifauna; as indicator of Mediterranean Outflow Water in the Gulf of Cadiz using stable isotopes (δ13C, δ18O)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallardo, Ángela; Grunert, Patrick; Voelker, Antje H. L.; Mendes, Isabel; Piller, Werner E.

    2017-08-01

    The presence and high abundances of the benthic foraminiferal group ;elevated epifauna; has been proposed as indicator of the existence of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in the Gulf of Cadiz. Here we intend to use this potential proxy to reconstruct MOW in the early Pliocene at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1387C. Cibicides lobatulus, Planulina ariminensis and Cibicides refulgens were found at this site, but high abundances of C. lobatulus and C. refulgens coincide with increases of shelf taxa and grain size, related to episodes of downslope transport. This issue calls into question the applicability of these species as MOW proxies. The present study therefore reassesses the role of these three elevated epifaunal species by means of stable isotope analyses (δ18O, δ13C) by contrasting their isotopic signature with that of shelf dwellers and deep-water taxa from Pliocene and Recent sediments from the Gulf of Cadiz and the western Iberian margin. Since foraminiferal calcite does not always precipitate in equilibrium with seawater, substantial efforts have been taken in order to determine species-specific offset values and to correct the isotopic signature for vital effects. Our corrected results demonstrate that C. lobatulus and C. refulgens are isotopically similar to the shelf dwellers in the Pliocene data-set, eliminating them as MOW indicators. Recent samples from the Gulf of Cadiz and the western Portugal shelf corroborate the wide bathymetric range of C. lobatulus from the shelf to the slope. Our results thus warrant for caution when considering C. lobatulus and C. refulgens as indicators of bottom current strength in unstable slope settings, particularly when co-occurring with allochthonous shelf dwellers. In contrast, P. ariminensis shows a signature close to deep-water taxa, corroborating its reliability as indicator of MOW.

  18. Coccolithophore and benthic foraminifera distribution patterns in the Gulf of Cadiz and Western Iberian Margin during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, B.; Grunert, P.; Ausin, B.; Hodell, D.; Flores, J.-A.; Alvarez-Zarikian, C. A.; Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Stow, D.; Piller, W. E.; Paytan, A.

    2017-06-01

    For the first time during an Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition (Exp. 339, Mediterranean Outflow) water samples for living coccolithophore distributions and mudline samples for coccoliths, benthic foraminifera, and geochemical analyses in the underlying surface sediments were collected. In total, 14 water samples (from 5 to 20 m water depth) and 7 mudline samples were gathered at the drill sites. Coccolithophore distributions show spatial variations in species diversity. In particular, assemblages that characterize the Western Iberian Margin differ from those in the Gulf of Cadiz, indicative of oceanographic and environmental controls on the community in the upper ocean (0-20 m depth). Comparison of the living assemblages to those in surface sediments shows differences in the presence of some species, suggesting the influence of post deposition sedimentary processes. Other factors such as the season of sampling and the limited sampling depth may also have a role in the differences recorded. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages seem to be primarily determined by source, quantity and quality of available food. Sites in the Gulf of Cadiz are bathed by Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) and characterized by a considerable amount of advected food particles. Elevated epibenthic foraminifera exploit this niche, while arborescent epifaunal and infaunal taxa thrive on food particles falling out of MOW. The combined data suggest different flow speeds and settling of MOW suspension load in the Gulf of Cadiz. In contrast, assemblages from the Western Iberian Margin located farthest from or outside of MOW are determined by local export productivity and mirror trophic conditions in the surface waters. Both assemblages reveal variation in the composition at intermediate and deep water depths along the southern and western Iberian Margins with distance from the Strait of Gibraltar.

  19. Progress toward the Wisconsin Free Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, Joseph; Eisert, D; Fisher, M V; Green, M A; Jacobs, K; Kleman, K J; Kulpin, J; Rogers, G C; Lawler, J E; Yavuz, D

    2011-03-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison/Synchrotron Radiation Center is advancing its design for a seeded VUV/soft X-ray Free Electron Laser facility called WiFEL. To support this vision of an ultimate light source, we are pursuing a program of strategic R&D addressing several crucial elements. This includes development of a high repetition rate, VHF superconducting RF electron gun, R&D on photocathode materials by ARPES studies, and evaluation of FEL facility architectures (e.g., recirculation, compressor scenarios, CSR dechirping, undulator technologies) with the specific goal of cost containment. Studies of high harmonic generation for laser seeding are also planned.

  20. Archaeological Investigations at a Wisconsin Petroglyph Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Steinbring

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary test excavations at the Hensler Petroglyph Site in East Central Wisconsin, U.S.A. have disclosed the remains of aboriginal engravings below Aeolian sediments dated to ca. 15,000 years B.P. The stratified deposits lying adjacent to an engraved panel, containing 35 pecked images, have yielded animal-like cobbles, some covered with red ochre, apparently picked for some esoteric use. The site itself has unusual natural shapes in the rock formation, along with acoustical properties, lightning strikes, a magnetic anomaly, and geographic prominence. Collectively these factors are thought to have attracted the ancient rock artists to the site.

  1. Origin of carbonate concretions from mud mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula); Origen de las concreciones carbonatadas de los monticulos de fango en el Golfo de Cadiz (SO Peninsula Iberica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejas, M.; Taberner, C.; Pueyo, J. J.; Giralt, S.; Mata, M. P.; Gibert, J. M. de; Diaz del Rio, V.

    2015-07-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz displays a number of structures that are associated with fluid circulation (mud volcanoes, mud mounds and pockmarks).This area has been used as natural laboratory for the sedimentological, bio- logical and biogeochemical studies of these environments. Analysis of the associated authigenic carbonates has been widely used as a proxy to yield insights into the circulation and chemical composition of these flu- ids. A study of carbonate concretions from the Iberico, Cornide and Arcos mud mounds in the Diasom Field was undertaken to better understand the origin and type of fluids from which these concretions precipitated. The concretions display varying morphologies, some of which correspond to bioturbation traces. X-ray dif- fractions revealed that these carbonate concretions are mainly composed of dolomite, Fe-rich dolomite, high magnesium calcite (HMC) and ankerite. The δ{sup 1}3 C values of carbonate minerals ranged between -48.3 and-10.9 V-PDB, which suggests that the main processes involved in their genesis are organic matter oxidation, bac- terial sulphate-reduction (BSR) and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM). The origin of the methane is main- ly thermogenic, and only few concretions yielded δ{sup 1}3C values lower than -40 V-PDB, suggesting oxidation of microbial methane. Fluids involved in the carbonate precipitation are interpreted as being related to gas hydrate destabilisation (δ{sup 18}O fluid-V-SMOW values higher than +2%) and, to a lesser extent, modified seawater enriched in {sup 18}O due to rock-water interaction. Nevertheless, the highest δ{sup 1}8O fluid-V-SMOW values suggest that the influence of other deep-seated fluids due to clay-mineral dehydration cannot be ruled out. (Author)

  2. Preliminary observations of pollution of the sea bed and disturbance of sub-littoral communities in northern Brittany by oil from the Amoco Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabioch, L.; Dauvin, J.; Gentil, F.

    1978-11-01

    One of the peculiarities of the Amoco Cadiz oil spill was the rapid penetration of a considerable amount of oil into the sea bed. Important factors governing the logistics of the oil spill penetration are reviewed. The distribution of benthic communities in the area under consideration is described. It is concluded that the final development of the disruption produced by hydrocarbons in sublittoral benthic communities will depend largely on two general conditions: the natural capacity of the various types of habitat present to speed up or hinder their own cleansing; and the proximity of large reserves for recolonization. (1 graph, 2 maps, 6 references, 1 table)

  3. RRS Discovery Cruise 249, 19 Aug-10 Sep 2000. History of sedimentation in the Gulf of Cadiz: investigations with the SOC giant piston corer

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, P.P.E.

    2003-01-01

    This was the third cruise using the new SOC giant piston corer. The objectives were to complete the testing of the giant piston corer which was begun on cruise D219 in November/December 1995 and cruise D225 in February/March 1997, and to collect giant piston cores from the Gulf of Cadiz on sites selected from the TOBI survey carried out on cruise D244 in December 1999. As on previous cruises we had problems with both the ships equipment (outboard sheave on coring gantry), and the giant pist...

  4. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Kerrie [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Hannigan, Eileen [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  5. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  6. Sedimentary infilling of bedrock-controlled palaeo-embayments off Cape Trafalgar, Strait of Gibraltar (Gulf of Cadiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Sandra; Lobo, Francisco J.

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates two bedrock-controlled palaeo-coastal embayments on the Barbate Platform off Cape Trafalgar near the Strait of Gibraltar (Gulf of Cadiz shelf, SW Iberian Peninsula), aiming to reveal their infilling dynamics and the influence of rocky outcrops on shallow-water hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The approach relies on detailed multibeam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic profiles and tidal current simulations. Elongated rocky outcrops formed a palaeo-coast when sea level was approximately 35 to 20 m below that of the present day, and bound a relatively flat area. However, the seismic profiles enabled to distinguish two main troughs (A and B) that were infilled following a distinctive evolution during the last transgression. Five seismic units were identified (I to V, from base to top). Deposit A is composed of seismic units II to V and is interpreted as a marine embayment infill, here termed the Barbate palaeo-embayment (BPE). Deposit B is composed of seismic units I to IV and is interpreted as a palaeo-valley infill, here termed the Barbate palaeo-valley (BPV). The complex internal stratigraphic architecture depicts an overall evolution from tidal/fluvial deposits to shallow-water marine deposits. Most significant is the occurrence of coupled tidal flats/estuarine sand bars constituting the infilling of the BPE; this suggests the persistence of a high-energy current in a shallow, confined embayment, which was amplified by the rocky outcrop constrictions and possibly facilitated by the episodic movement of a normal fault. In contrast to this active setting, the nearby straight and narrow BPV was subjected to lower-energy infilling dynamics during its initial flooding phases. There, tidal activity was possibly reduced by the straight morphology of the valley and the occurrence of a topographic constriction (i.e. the Barbate Passage) at the mouth of the valley.

  7. The Role of Villages and Townships in Informal Land Development in China: An Investigation on the City Fringe of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The past decades have witnessed a number of informal land developments on the urban fringe in China although many strict state regulations have been made to control this. The dual urban rural land system is widely believed to be one major determinant of informal developments in the existing literature. However, the important role of local villages and townships are often neglected. This paper aims to shed light on this by looking at the gated informal housing communities in Beijing as a case study. It investigates the role of villages and townships in informal land development and the conflicts of interest that arise with state regulations in the context of political decentralization. The results of analysis show that township governments have an ambivalent attitude or even give tacit approval to informal land development in villages since these informal developments actually bring economic benefits to local villagers and themselves. The situation seems to be worse as townships have poor fiscal capacity and a growing administrative responsibility for improvement of local development in the context of decentralization. Villages are keen to capture economic benefits from informal land development with help from private developers. As a result, a local, informal coalition between townships, villages, and private developers emerged at the grass roots level. This presents a major challenge to the state regulations designed for sustainable urban growth management.

  8. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Jiao, Mingli; Ma, Hongkun; Qiao, Hong; Hao, Yanhua; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Sun, Hong; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Wu, Qunhong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%). Results A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients’ relatives (62.3%), followed by the patient (22.6%); 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60) resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%). Most respondents (62.8%) did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting) with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats) was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc.). Conclusions Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue. PMID:26571388

  9. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals.A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%.A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients' relatives (62.3%, followed by the patient (22.6%; 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60 resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%. Most respondents (62.8% did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc..Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue.

  10. Bio- and Petroleum Geochemistry of Mud Volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea) and in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic): From Fluid Sources to Microbial Methane Oxidation and Carbonate Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    The Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea) and the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic) are both mud volcano (MV) provinces characterized by the presence of gas hydrates, methane-related carbonates, and chemosynthetic biota but possess differences in geological history, tectonics, composition of sedimentary cover, an

  11. Aged in a typical South African township: creating a liveable and supportive environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motsatsi, L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available .kashan.co.za] The aged in a typical South African township: creating a liveable and supportive environment L MOTSATSI CSIR Built Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: lmotsatsi@csir.co.za – www.csir.co.za IntroductIon the 21st century.../AIDS has skewed the demographic profile of the country. Part of the middle-age group of the potentially productive stratum of society has already succumbed to the disease, thereby creating more orphans and a greater proportion of older people...

  12. Forensic Toxicology Program: alcohol and drug testing in Wisconsin drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Patrick; Liddicoat, Laura J

    2003-01-01

    The Forensic Toxicology Program of the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene (WSLH) provides analytical and support services to assist in the identification of alcohol- and/or drug-impaired drivers and to assist in determining cause of death. These services are provided to law enforcement agencies, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, and county medical examiners and coroners. Program staff is active in alcohol and drug training, policy-making, and research on a national and international level.

  13. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  14. US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

  15. Wisconsin Energy Extension Service implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-09

    As part of an effort to lower energy consumption levels among individuals and small establishments that use energy, The Energy Extension Service, operating in ten pilot states, has implemented programs which focus on the particular needs of small businesses. These programs have been developed to deliver a range of services to the many different kinds of enterprises which fit into the small business category. The programs currently operating in the ten pilot states are described and examples are given. In Alabama, Auburn University provides information and analyses to test the feasibility of using alternative fuels for small businesses. In Connecticut, the Department of Commerce provides audits to businesses throughout the State. In Michigan, the Department of Commerce, through two contractors, provides seminars to one tenth of the small businesses in southeastern Michigan. In New Mexico, the small business program provides demonstration audits of small businesses using alternative energy sources. In Pennsylvania, EES, in connection with the Pennsylvania State University, provides technical assistance to small businesses throughout the State. In Tennessee, the program provides audits, seminars, and counseling services to small businesses in three of that state's counties. In Texas, the Texas A and M College of Engineering operates an information retrieval system for small manufacturers through a bi-monthly bulletin. In Seattle, Washington, the small business program provides audits to Mom and Pop type businesses in two of that city's neighborhoods. In Wisconsin, the University of Wisconsin provides seminars and audits to hospitality industry businesses. In Wyoming, the small business program provides seminars to firms in the building industry.

  16. Babesiosis Surveillance - Wisconsin, 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Elizabeth; Elbadawi, Lina I; Kazmierczak, James; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2017-07-07

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Babesia microti, an intraerythocytic protozoan. Babesia microti, like the causal agents for Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, is endemic to the northeastern and upper midwestern United States where it is usually transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Although babesiosis is usually a mild to moderate illness, older or immunocompromised persons can develop a serious malaria-like illness that can be fatal without prompt treatment. The most common initial clinical signs and symptoms of babesiosis (fever, fatigue, chills, and diaphoresis) are nonspecific and present diagnostic challenges that can contribute to delays in diagnosis and effective treatment with atovaquone and azithromycin (1). Results of one study revealed a mean delay of 12-14 days from symptom onset to treatment (2). Knowledge of the incidence and geographic distribution of babesiosis can raise the index of clinical suspicion and facilitate more prompt diagnosis and lifesaving treatment (1). The first known case of babesiosis in Wisconsin was detected in 1985 (3), and babesiosis became officially reportable in the state in 2001. Wisconsin babesiosis surveillance data for 2001-2015 were analyzed in 3-year intervals to compare demographic, epidemiologic, and laboratory features among patients with cases of reported babesiosis. To determine possible reasons for an increase in reported Babesia infection, trends in electronic laboratory reporting and diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR) were examined. Between the first and last 3-year analysis intervals, there was a 26-fold increase in the incidence of confirmed babesiosis, in addition to geographic expansion. These trends might be generalizable to other states with endemic disease, similar suburbanization and forest fragmentation patterns, and warming average temperatures (4). Accurate surveillance in states where babesiosis is endemic is necessary to estimate the

  17. Faculty Retrenchment: The Experience of The University of Wisconsin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondrom, Cyrena

    1981-01-01

    An examination of recent experiences in the varied institutions of The University of Wisconsin System suggests valuable lessons regarding the impact of various approaches to faculty reduction. Principal provisions of retrenchment regulations are summarized. (Author/LB)

  18. Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods for Wisconsin urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Equations for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods for Wisconsin streams with drainage basins containing various amounts of existing or projected urban development were developed by flood-frequency and multiple-regression analyses.

  19. Wisconsin Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Wisconsin Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  20. Archaeological Reconnaissance of Lewiston and Portage Levees, Portage, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-06

    Years of Eastern Wisconsin Oneota Prehistory:" Foreign Language proficiency: Spanish, French, Minor Studies: Linguistics) Membership in Professional...Excavation Analyses of Archaeological Materials and data Hominid Paleontology North American Prehistory North American Indians (*indicates Graduate course

  1. 1994 Wisconsin trumpeter swan decoy-rearing final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This was the sixth year of the Wisconsin Trumpeter Swan Decoy-Rearing Program at Necedah National Wildlife Refuge. Necedah NWR staff and refuge manager Bud Oliveira...

  2. Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohelski, J.T.; Kammerer, P.A.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin, were investigated during the period October 1981 through September 1987. The report presents baseline data and some interpretation of ground- and surface-water hydrology and quality of the Reservation.

  3. SOCIO-CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE E-MARKETING USERS (CASE OF RASHT TOWNSHIP, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed ALAVIOON

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study the socio-cultural index of rice electronic marketing users in Rasht Township, Iran. This study used a survey design and was conducted with a random sample of 367 paddy farmers in Rasht Township. To identify the socio-cultural characteristics of rice e-marketing users, a self-designed questionnaire was developed to gather data. For determining the validity of the questionnaire, the face and content validity were used. Reliability for the instrument was estimated at 0.81. The Kurskal-Wallis and U Mann-Whitney test have been used to identify the effective factors on e-marketing. The result revealed that almost 68% of farmers had high tendency to adoption of electronic marketing and more than 70% of respondents chose rural ICT offices for rice e-marketing. Experience in using the internet services and internet skill had significant effects on e-marketing adoption. Finally, the result of this research presents a brokerage model. The nature of this model is (B2C which means truck between business (ICT office and customers. In this model, rural ICT offices have a role as buy/sell fulfillment.

  4. An investigative study of the experiences of elderly people in a South African black township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Chigali

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences which impact on aspects of the lives and sense of well-being of elderly people in a township in South Africa in order to make recommendations for future service delivery. A cross- sectional, qualitative survey was carried out in Mfuleni Township, a part of the Cape Metropolitan Region in the Western Cape.  Sixteen people of ages ranging from 60-82 years were conveniently selected from a group of elderly people who meet regularly at a community centre. Data were collected through focused  group discussions and unstructured interviews. Analysis of data revealed three main categories namely, psychological/ emotional, socio-economic and health, under which different themes emerged. The experiences of individuals in a given society may vary, but somehow, their basic rights tend to be universal as revealed by the literature. Loneliness and isolation, lack of recreation facilities, loss of dignity and respect, poor health services and lack of shelter are some of the experiences expressed by the elderly people in this sample. These experiences highlight the need for clearly stated policies andcommitment by governmental and non-governmental structures, appropriate health service strategies and improved socio-economic standards supported by properly researched data.

  5. The story of a narrative: Teaching and assessing English writing in a township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Akinyeye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The new language curriculum in South Africa recommends that extended writing be taught through a combination of text-based (or genre and process approaches. This article reports on a study of the teaching and assessment of narrative writing in English as a first additional language (FAL at a time of curriculum change. The setting is a Cape Flats township school. In focusing on a story written by a Grade 9 learner and assessed by her teacher, the study sought evidence of the use of text-based and process approaches. The theoretical frame is informed by genre theory, which draws on Systemic Functional Linguistics and social constructivist approaches to language learning. A qualitative research paradigm was used. Data obtained for this case study included the learner’s writing, interviews with the teacher, and classroom observation. The study finds very little evidence of a scaffolded approach to the teaching and assessment of writing, and explores the constraints on the realisation of the curriculum cycle in English FAL. These relate to the teacher’s understanding of writing as well as to material conditions in township schools.

  6. Information and communications technology adoption amongst township micro and small business: The case of Soweto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: No empirical evidence is available on whether or not information and communications technology (ICT is adopted by South African township micro and small businesses (MSBs in order to grow the business. ICT, as an enabler, can grow the business. It is evident from literature that ICT enables MSBs to be more productive and efficient.Objectives: This research determines to what extent ICT is adopted by MSBs in Soweto, and whether or not a positive correlation exists between the adoption rate of ICT and the financial and growth performance of the MSB itself.Method: A structured questionnaire was completed by 978 respondents to determine the extent of ICT adoption and for what ICT is used. This exploratory research provides new knowledge about the acceptance of ICT within township MSBs.Results: The results indicate that ICT is not used to the fullest by MSBs. Rather, it is used as a basic tool for doing business but it does not form an integral part of the business. This research provides insight into the usage and adoption of ICT and it opens the door for further cross-analysis research.Conclusion: Education and training are needed to ensure that MSBs use ICT to the fullest. MSBs embracing ICT can evolve from a survivalist SME to a more sustainable micro and small MSB.

  7. Understanding teenage pregnancy in a post-apartheid South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi

    2010-05-01

    Although South Africa's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of early childbearing remain a concern. Most teenage pregnancies occur among poor black and coloured South Africans. The majority of these pregnancies are said to be unwanted and unplanned and the teenager's relationships, unstable. Becoming a mother during one's teenage years is perceived to be socially, economically and physically deleterious for the teenager and her baby. This paper presents ethnographic data collected over a five-year period in the South African township of Nyanga East in the Western Cape. It draws attention to the circumstances that surround teenage pregnancy and discusses reactions to teenage pregnancies in this community. Findings highlight that despite the negative perception of teenage pregnancy within the township, particular social and cultural circumstances provided fertile ground for its occurrence. Furthermore, the paper argues that in this particular community the management of a teenage pregnancy played a functional and critical role in maintaining and reproducing social norms and ideals regarding intergenerational relationships, which ultimately ensured that the rates of early childbearing remained high.

  8. Critical Failure Factors in Selling Shoplots towards Sustainability of New Township Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawil N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is to identify the critical factors of shop houses sale failure in Nilai New Township. The critical factors of sale failure of commercial property types, shop houses in new township need to be discover as reported by Valuation and Property Services Department (JPPH showed 5,931 units of shop houses in Malaysia is currently completed but remained unsold where Johor was recorded as the highest with unsold units followed by Negeri Sembilan. Thus Nilai New towship is chosen as research sample for unsold shop houses units due to its strategic location which is near to KLIA, International Sepang Circuit, educational instituitions and surrounded by housing scheme but yet still has numbers of unsold units. Data was gathered from survey question between developers, local authority, purchasers/tenant and local residents.. Generally, the factors of sale failure are economy, demography, politic, location and access, public and basic facilities, financial loan, physical of product, current stock of shop houses upon completion, future potential of subsale and rental, developer’s background, promotion and marketing, speculation and time.

  9. Feasibility of annual alfalfa (Medicago scutellata cropping in Aq-Qalla township (Golestan province using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    niloofar Nasrollahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, geographical information system (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE were applied to feasibility of agricultural lands in Aq-Qalla township for annual alfalfa (Medicago scutellata cultivation. For this purpose, required data and information of the study area collected during 2013, and thematic maps were provided. Kriging and IDW methods were applied to interpolation of environmental variables. The digital environmental layers overlaid and integrated in GIS media in respect to AHP weights and then zoning of lands carried out in four classes (high suitable, suitable, semi suitable and non-suitable. The results showed that 23.1% and 47/2% of this area were high suitable and suitable for alfalfa cropping, respectively. These zones had enough rainfall, suitable topography and high fertility. The semi- suitable and non- suitable regions (about 30% of area were located in the northwest, east and south of Aq-Qalla township. In these zones, the environmental requires of annual alfalfa had not fitted to ecological variables of agricultural land. In this study, the limitation factors were including: high EC (about 30 dS/m, deficient of organic matter, K and Ca In these zones, the environmental requires of annual alfalfa had not fitted to ecological variables of agricultural land. In this study, the limitation factors were including: high EC (about 30 dS/m, deficient of organic matter, K and Ca.

  10. Renewable Energy Use in Smallholder Farming Systems: A Case Study in Tafresh Township of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shabanali Fami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate use of renewable energy and materials in smallholder farming system of the Tafresh township of Iran. The population of the study consisted of 2,400 small farmers working in the smallholder farming systems of the area, in which 133 people were selected as sample using Cochran formula and simple random sampling technique. In order to gather the information, a questionnaire was developed for the study and validated by the judgment of the experts in agricultural development and extension. The reliability of the main scales of the questionnaire was examined by Cronbach Alpha coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 0.93, indicating the tool of study is reliable. The findings revealed that the majority of the respondents use renewable energy and materials directly in its traditional forms without enabling technologies, and they lack the access to renewable technologies to improve the efficiency of energy use. They preferred fossil energy for many activities due to its lower cost and ease of access. The overall conclusion is that there are potentials and capacities for using renewable energies and materials in the farming systems of the Tafresh township. The government has to support and encourage the adoption of renewable technologies and abandon fossil fuels wherever possible.

  11. Betel Quid and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in a Periurban Township in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Ko-Ko; Ohnmar, Mya; Hlaing, Moh-Moh; Oo, Yin-Thet-Nu; Win, Swe-Swe; Htike, Maung-Maung-Than; Aye, Phyu-Phyu; Shwe, Sein; Htwe, Moe-Thida; Thein, Zaw-Moe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe betel quid chewing practice and compare oral potentially malignant disorders between chewers and non-chewers of betel quid among residents in Dagon Myothit (East) Township, Myanmar. The study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a representative sample of 542 adults aged 18 years and above in the township. The trained interviewers collected data using a pretested structured questionnaire. On-site oral examination was done for suspected oral lesions. The mean age of the respondents was 45 years and 59% were women. Fifty-two percent of the respondents were currently in the habit of chewing betel quids (72% of men and 39% of women). Among 284 current betel quid chewers, 240 (85%) chewed betel quids together with tobacco. Out of 284 current betel quid chewers, 24 (8.5%) were found to have oral potentially malignant disorders; out of 258 betel quid non-chewers, only 1 (0.4%) was found to have oral potentially malignant disorders. This highlights the growing importance of smokeless tobacco use as public health problem. PMID:27611195

  12. Implementation of a "County-Township-Village" Allied HIV Prevention and Control Intervention in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.

  13. Applying spatial clustering analysis to a township-level social vulnerability assessment in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yen Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The degree of social vulnerability may vary according to the conditions and backgrounds of different locations, yet spatial clustering phenomena may exist when nearby spatial units exhibit similar characteristics. This study applied spatial autocorrelation statistics to analyze the spatial association of vulnerability among townships in Taiwan. The vulnerability was first assessed on the basis of a social vulnerability index that was constructed using Fuzzy Delphi and analytic hierarchy process methods. Subsequently, the corresponding indicator variables were applied to calculate standardized vulnerability assessment scores by using government data. According to the results of the vulnerability assessment in which T scores were normalized, the distribution of social vulnerabilities varied among the townships. The scores were further analyzed using spatial autocorrelation statistics for spatial clustering of vulnerability distribution. The Local G statistic identified 42 significant spatial association pockets, whereas the Global G statistic indicated no spatial phenomenon of clustering. This phenomenon was verified and explained by applying Moran's I statistics to examine the homogeneity and heterogeneity of spatial associations. Although both statistics were originally designed to identify the existence of spatial clustering, they serve diverse purposes, and the results can be compared to obtain additional insights into the distribution patterns of social vulnerability.

  14. Assessing the recurrence of big earthquakes and tsunami in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia) using thin-sheet neotectonic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T.; Matias, L. M.; Terrinha, P.; Negredo, A.; Rosas, F.; Fernandes, R.; Pinheiro, L.

    2008-12-01

    The eastern end of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary is characterized by distributed deformation that accommodates the collision between the Eurasia and Africa plates. Despite this, the active faults in the area can generate very large earthquakes and destructive tsunamis, such as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, that occurred in the 1st November 1755 (estimated Mw = 8.7). The largest instrumental earthquake recorded was the 28th of February 1969 Mw=8.0, localized in the Horseshoe abyssal plain with a thrust fault mechanism. In this study we used a thin-shell approximation (SHELLS- Bird, P., Computers and Geosciences, 25, 383- 394, 1999) to model the neotectonics of this segment of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary and put constraints on the recurrence periods of earthquakes and tsunamis. In relation to previous neotectonic models in the region we use a better constrained structural map, particularly in the Gulf of Cadiz and SW Iberia, based on recently acquired multi-beam bathymetry, backscatter data and numerous high quality multi- channel seismic profiles. Importantly, the map shows the existence of several NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW thrust faults, associated to prominent bathymetric features, and a set of very long (up to 600 km) strike-slip lineaments, extending between the western Horseshoe Abyssal Plain and the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. Different models have been tested, for various boundary scenarios (geometry and plate velocities) and fault networks, and the results compared with seismic strain release, recent GPS observations and stress orientation. The modeling suggests that, when mature, the long strike-slip lineaments will accommodate most of the relative motion between Eurasia and Africa (aprox. 4 mm/a) along a "transform-type" plate boundary. This situation, however, is associated with only minor thrust faulting in the region and predicts a strong attenuation of the velocity field between the northern Morocco and Gibraltar, in contradiction with present day GPS

  15. "Girls Don't Play Soccer": Children Policing Gender on the Playground in a Township Primary School in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeza, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is based on an ethnographic study conducted between 2012 and 2014 with a group of 64 boys and girls aged 6-10, all attending the same township primary school in South Africa. The paper explores how the young children construct gender "boundaries" and "police" gender "transgressions" on the school playground…

  16. On the Use of Spreadsheet Algebra Programs in the Professional Development of Teachers from Selected Township High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierdien, M. Faaiz

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the initial stages of a small-scale project involving the use of "spreadsheet algebra programs" in the professional development of eight teachers from three township high schools. In terms of the education context, the paper draws on social practice theory. It then details what is meant by spreadsheet algebra. An…

  17. Validation of Altimeter Data in the Spanish Coasts (Gulf of Cadiz and Strait of Gibraltar): Lessons Learned in the Prospect of Sentinel-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Enri, P.; Vignudelli, S.; Coca, J.; Tejedor, B.; Aboitiz, A.; Munoz, J. J.; Alvarez, O.; Cipollini, P.; Passaro, M.; Villares, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Iberian Peninsula) and the Strait of Gibraltar (the choke point connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea) are being used to validate altimeter information coming from past (Envisat RA-2) and present (Cryosat-2 SIRAL) European Space Agency (ESA) missions, among others. These regions represent a valuable opportunity to validate future (Sentinel-3 SRAL) altimeter missions too. We present some of the results obtained in the study areas in terms of validation of altimeter-derived sea level data coming from Envisat RA-2 and Cryosat-2 SIRAL against the in-situ measurements, and we discuss the extension of the developed techniques to AltiKa SARAL (ISRO-CNES) and Sentinel-3 SRAL (ESA).

  18. Emergency contraception in Wisconsin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Laura; Schrager, Sarina

    2006-07-01

    Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy in the event of unprotected sexual intercourse. The most common methods of emergency contraception are combination and progestin-only oral contraceptive pills. They are effective, safe, and have few side effects. Most physicians are aware of emergency contraception, yet it is not widely prescribed or used. The American Medical Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend providing information and access to emergency contraceptive pills at routine gynecologic visits. Evidence has shown that women provided with advance supplies of emergency contraceptive pills were more likely to use them. There is no evidence of increased sexual risk-taking behavior or reduction in use of regular birth control methods. It is estimated that with wider use of emergency contraceptive, nearly half of unplanned pregnancies and abortions could be prevented. Access and knowledge of emergency contraception are the biggest barriers to use. Many emergency departments in Wisconsin do not prescribe emergency contraception, making access for women in rural areas difficult. By increasing use of emergency contraceptive pills by improving access and improving patient knowledge, unplanned pregnancies and abortions may be reduced.

  19. Acculturation Processes of Hmong in Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kha Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines acculturation processes among Hmong who live in Eastern Wisconsin by using the East Asian Acculturation Measure (EAAM, which was developed by Barry (2001. The results indicated that in terms of Acculturation, Hmong ranked highest in integration, then separation, assimilation, and lastly marginalization. Questions on each dimension of integration, separation, assimilation, and marginalization were analyzed and positive correlations were found between the youngest of the generations, the length of residency in the United States, and the ability to speak, read, and write in English. In contrast, the older the age of the participant when they came to the United States had a positive correlation with separation. The ability to speak, read, and write in English had a positive correlation with assimilation, and the older the age of coming to the United States had a positive correlation with marginalization. Assimilation and separation had a positive correlation with marginalization, while integration had a negative correlation with marginalization and a positive correlation with assimilation, and separation had no correlation with marginalization. Results are discussed in regards to previous Hmong acculturation studies.

  20. Features Of The Legal Practices Application In The Decisions Of The Township Courts In Russia In The Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Dashkovskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the concept of legal custom as a source of law is researched. The role of legal customs in Russian Empire is shown. It is proved that during the Russian Empire period legal custom played an important role in the legal system, being one of the building blocks. Peculiarities of township courts activity are researched. Significance of legal customs for proceedings in the township courts is shown. For the importance of township courts in the Russian Empire played the fact that in their work they used existing among peasants customs and it was sanctioned by the authorities. Author stresses out that by recognizing custom, state thus authorizes current pattern of behavior in the society, a way of resolve conflicts that to the greatest extent are consistent with the understanding of justice by the society. To the legal custom, following features: custom is formed as a result of certain action frequent repetition; the source of the legal custom formation is a social consciousness; customs largely reflect the level of the society development at the particular stage; customs has quite a local character; customs reflect collective understanding on the fair nature of law. In the article two features which the judicial system of the Russian Empire had in the post-reform period: presence of class township courts as a class judiciary and application of legal customs to the township courts are noted. Combination of these two features allowed government to preserve patriarchal relations in the countryside. Such conservation, to some extent, was contrary to the liberal orientation of the "great reforms" of Alexander II, hindered development of the capitalist relations in the country, delaying implementation of the judicial reform principles.

  1. Distribution and geological control of mud volcanoes and other fluid/free gas seepage features in the Mediterranean Sea and nearby Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascle, Jean; Mary, Flore; Praeg, Daniel; Brosolo, Laetitia; Camera, Laurent; Ceramicola, Silvia; Dupré, Stéphanie

    2014-06-01

    Existing knowledge on the distribution of mud volcanoes (MVs) and other significant fluid/free gas-venting features (mud cones, mud pies, mud-brine pools, mud carbonate cones, gas chimneys and, in some cases, pockmark fields) discovered on the seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea and in the nearby Gulf of Cadiz has been compiled using regional geophysical information (including multibeam coverage of most deepwater areas). The resulting dataset comprises both features proven from geological sampling, or in situ observations, and many previously unrecognized MVs inferred from geophysical evidence. The synthesis reveals that MVs clearly have non-random distributions that correspond to two main geodynamic settings: (1) the vast majority occur along the various tectono-sedimentary accretionary wedges of the Africa-Eurasia subduction zone, particularly in the central and eastern Mediterranean basins (external Calabrian Arc, Mediterranean Ridge, Florence Rise) but also along its westernmost boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz; (2) other MVs characterize thick depocentres along parts of the Mesozoic passive continental margins that border Africa from eastern Tunisia to the Levantine coasts, particularly off Egypt and, locally, within some areas of the western Mediterranean back-arc basins. Meaningfully accounting for MV distribution necessitates evidence of overpressured fluids and mud-rich layers. In addition, cross-correlations between MVs and other GIS-based data, such as maps of the Messinian evaporite basins and/or active (or recently active) tectonic trends, stress the importance of assessing geological control in terms of the presence, or not, of thick seals and potential conduits. It is contended that new MV discoveries may be expected in the study region, particularly along the southern Ionian Sea continental margins.

  2. Micro-seismicity in the Gulf of Cadiz: Is there a link between micro-seismicity, high magnitude earthquakes and active faults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Terrinha, Pedro; Matias, Luis; Duarte, João C.; Roque, Cristina; Ranero, César R.; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Zitellini, Nevio

    2017-10-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz seismicity is characterized by persistent low to intermediate magnitude earthquakes, occasionally punctuated by high magnitude events such as the M 8.7 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake and the M = 7.9 event of February 28th, 1969. Micro-seismicity was recorded during 11 months by a temporary network of 25 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in an area of high seismic activity, encompassing the potential source areas of the mentioned large magnitude earthquakes. We combined micro-seismicity analysis with processing and interpretation of deep crustal seismic reflection profiles and available refraction data to investigate the possible tectonic control of the seismicity in the Gulf of Cadiz area. Three controlling mechanisms are explored: i) active tectonic structures, ii) transitions between different lithospheric domains and inherited Mesozoic structures, and iii) fault weakening mechanisms. Our results show that micro-seismicity is mostly located in the upper mantle and is associated with tectonic inversion of extensional rift structures and to the transition between different lithospheric/rheological domains. Even though the crustal structure is well imaged in the seismic profiles and in the bathymetry, crustal faults show low to negligible seismic activity. A possible explanation for this is that the crustal thrusts are thin-skinned structures rooting in relatively shallow sub-horizontal décollements associated with (aseismic) serpentinization levels at the top of the lithospheric mantle. Therefore, co-seismic slip along crustal thrusts may only occur during large magnitude events, while for most of the inter-seismic cycle these thrusts remain locked, or slip aseismically. We further speculate that high magnitude earthquake's ruptures may only nucleate in the lithospheric mantle and then propagate into the crust across the serpentinized layers.

  3. The role of estuarine discharges on the biogeochemical characteristics of the nearby continental shelf ecosystem. The Guadalquivir-Gulf of Cadiz case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Macías, Diego; Peliz, Alvaro; Prieto, Laura; Ruiz, Javier

    2013-04-01

    The hydrodynamics and biogeochemical conditions of the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian peninsula) is strongly influenced by the input of fresh, warm and nutrient-rich water from the main estuary in the region, the Guadalquivir River. This sea-river interaction favors the generation of surface retention structures that encompasses highly productive waters throughout the year constituting and ideal place for fish spawning and nursery. The biological productivity of the Gulf and its high fisheries yields are, thus, heavily forced by the Guadalquivir River discharges which are conditioned by the freshwater inputs from the upstream sections of the river and by the tidal mixing dynamics in the lower reaches of the estuary. In this work we use a coupled hydrological-biogeochemical 3D model of the Gulf of Cadiz, Strait of Gibraltar and Alboran Sea (a regional application of the Regional Ocean Model System) connected to a virtual estuary representing the Guadalquivir River. With this coupled model we quantify the relative importance of each process (freshwater discharges and tidal mixing) for creating the special conditions of the nearby continental shelf. We found that freshwater input is only relevant during fall and winter when precipitation are important in the river catchment area. Tidal mixing, on the other hand, is more constant throughout the entire year and provides a nutrient input to the marine ecosystem of the same order of magnitude as the freshwater runoff. We also run the model with and without the river input and quantify, for the first time, the exact role of this external forcing on the biogeochemical conditions of the continental shelf ecosystem.

  4. Reservoir management strategy for East Randolph Field, Randolph Township, Portage County, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safley, L.E.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.; Fowler, M.L.; Wing, J.L.; Thomas, J.B.; Mills, J.; Wood, D.

    1998-07-01

    The primary objective of the Reservoir Management Field Demonstration Program is to demonstrate that multidisciplinary reservoir management teams using appropriate software and methodologies with efforts scaled to the size of the resource are a cost-effective method for: Increasing current profitability of field operations; Forestalling abandonment of the reservoir; and Improving long-term economic recovery for the company. The primary objective of the Reservoir Management Demonstration Project with Belden and Blake Corporation is to develop a comprehensive reservoir management strategy to improve the operational economics and optimize oil production from East Randolph field, Randolph Township, Portage County, Ohio. This strategy identifies the viable improved recovery process options and defines related operational and facility requirements. In addition, strategies are addressed for field operation problems, such as paraffin buildup, hydraulic fracture stimulation, pumping system optimization, and production treatment requirements, with the goal of reducing operating costs and improving oil recovery.

  5. Preventive Factors to Found Walnut Production Cooperatives in Tuyserkan Township, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdolmaleky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to seek the opinion of walnut producers on barriers affecting the success of producers to found production cooperatives regarding horticultural products in Tuyserkan Township, Iran. A sample of 234 walnut producers were randomly selected through multistage cluster sampling technique. Descriptive-correlation research method was used in this study which has been implemented through the questionnaire. For determining the validity of questionnaire, the face and content validity was used. Reliability for the instrument was estimated at 0.94. According to factor analysis, barriers to found and develop walnut production cooperatives were categorized into seven groups that explained 65.799% of the total variance of the research variables. The results also indicated that lack of cultural infrastructures, inadequate knowledge and incorrect opinions of producers and leaders, inadequate laws and vulnerability and infrastructural barriers had the most effect to found and develop walnut production cooperatives, respectively.

  6. Challenging Pentecostal moralism: erotic geographies, religion and sexual practices among township youth in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, Marian

    2011-06-01

    Research on constructions of sexuality in Pentecostalism often struggles with the fact that the research setting is defined ex ante in terms of church communities, which imposes upon ethnographic accounts the same limitations Pentecostal morality imposes upon church members' discourse. Taking young Pentecostals operating in a space that is not explicitly religious as the methodological entrance to the field, this paper explores negotiations over sexuality, intimate relationships and love among Xhosa-speaking township youth. It introduces the notion of erotic geographies to consider how possible influences of religious discourses on sexuality are refracted by alternative cultural orientations and material contexts. Findings suggest that premarital abstinence appears as a highly exceptional ideal for youth. Even among Pentecostal youth, notions of sexuality are largely severed from religiosity and faithfulness and romanticism are dominant ideals. Future research on Pentecostalism and sexuality should be less religious-centric and rooted more firmly in ethnographies of youth sexual cultures.

  7. Flood magnitude and frequency of Pochack Creek at two sites, at Pennsauken Township, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Six methods were used to estimate the magnitude and frequency of floods at Pochack Creek at the down- stream end of the culvert on United States Route 130 and at a second site about 1,600 feet upstream at Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. Flood magnitude and frequency calculated by the six methods, as well as drainage-basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimates for the culvert site range from 280 cubic feet per second to 2,600 cubic feet per second. The 100-year-flood estimates for the upstream site range from 216 cubic feet per second to 1,800 cubic feet per second. Flood magni- tude and frequency estimates obtained by using the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Special Report 38 method fall within the range of values estimated by using the U.S. Geological Survey transfer method with data collected from three nearby crest-stage gages.

  8. Engineering feasibility analysis for in-situ stabilization of Burrell Township site residues. [UMTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-01

    The Burrell Township site, located in western Pennsylvania, received approximately 11,600 tons of radioactively-contaminated material in late 1956 and early 1957 from the Vitro Manufacturing Company's operations in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. WESTON was requested to conduct an engineering study to determine the feasibility of stabilizing the site in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) interim and proposed standards (45 FR 27366--27368, April 22, 1980, and 46 FR 2556--2563, January 9, 1981). The scope of this study is limited to those alternatives that can be implemented on the site and will not require removal and offsite disposal of radioactively-contaminated material. Four alternatives for control of the radioactive material at the Burrell site were considered and evaluated, as follows: 1. Site stabilization and closure. 2. Site control and containment. 3. Waste excavation and encapsulation. 4. Waste excavation, incineration, and encapsulation. 2 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Product platform considerations on a project that develops sustainable low-cost housing for townships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörösch, Michael; Bonev, Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    by INCOSE. 1) to 3) have been studied using action research on a case project. The case company´s success in their endeavor contributes to people currently living without decent housing getting insulated low-cost houses based on the latest technology. The fact that those low-cost houses are solid gives......Construction companies in Denmark are often working with profit margins as little as 1-3% in situations where they deliver high-end buildings to the local market. Even though customers are willing to pay a premium price for high quality, construction companies earn very little on their products....... Consequently one Danish company took the decision to produce sustainable low-cost houses and to sell them to development countries that have township housing programs. Why does this company believe in still making profit in the low-cost housing segment abroad, when there is almost no profit in the high...

  10. Food practices among postnatal mothers in a hilly township in Northeastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K

    2014-12-01

    A descriptive study on food practice among postnatal mothers in a hilly township in northeastern Nepal was carried out with 50 mothers (aged 20-39 years) of different ethnic groups (Adibasi-Janajati: 46.0%, Bahun/ Chhetri: 34.0% and Dalit 20.0%). Findings show that this township was representative of a rural area in northeastern Nepal in terms of demographic characteristics like mixed ethnic composition, high illiteracy rate (especially among women), joint family structure in majority of the households (80% of the total participants) and agriculture as the more common occupation (44% of the total participants). It was seen that various factors are responsible for affecting food practices of mothers during the postnatal period in this region. Socio-cultural beliefs are contributory to the food practices followed, like the frequency of meals/day eaten by the mothers. Other factors that affected were: Lower economic status of the family (33% of Dalit women and 50% of women who work as laborers were only eating meals two times a day); Support from the family (75% of women living in joint families were eating meals four times a day while 80% of the women living in nuclear families were eating meals three times a day); It also showed more attention and care was given to younger, first-time mothers (younger mothers who were mostly first-time mothers were eating meals four times a day while experienced and older mothers were eating meals three times a day). The study also showed that there are food taboos surrounding specific food items, which were not consumed from 11 days to six months after delivery based on various socio-cultural beliefs and practices.

  11. Wisconsin Healthy Birth Outcomes: minority health program challenges and contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Evelyn; Guhleman, Patricia; Onheiber, Patrice Mocny

    2008-11-01

    For at least 20 years, the probability that an infant born in Wisconsin would die during the first year of life has been approximately three times greater for infants born to African American women than for those born to White women. Over the same period of time, other states have made improvements in African American infant mortality, whereas Wisconsin's ranking has fallen to last place. Various state and local efforts have been made to address the issue; however, it is only in the last 2 to 3 years that Wisconsin's high rate of African American infant mortality has become an agreed-upon health priority. This article discusses the factors that have converged to bring African American infant mortality to the forefront of Wisconsin public health policy and programs. Particular attention is given to the role of Wisconsin's Minority Health Program in relation to public health leadership and coalition building. Key actions currently underway to implement effective, evidence-based solutions are also described.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  13. MODFLOW-NWT 2016 groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A new groundwater flow model was created for Dane County, Wisconsin, to replace an earlier model developed in the 1990s by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural...

  14. 75 FR 80493 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Wisconsin AGENCY: Environmental... of Wisconsin submitted a primacy application for its approved Public Water System Supervision...

  15. Cadiz, California Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data base...

  16. The Medical Response to Sex Trafficking of Minors in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Angela

    2015-04-01

    Medical professionals are in a unique position to identify and assist pediatric victims of sex trafficking, who experience a high prevalence of physical, mental, and sexual health problems. However, providers report a need for education and guidelines for medical care of this population. A literature review was conducted on the nature and scope of pediatric sex trafficking in Wisconsin, the medical and mental health needs of victims, and existing guidelines for medical management. Few existing medical guidelines for the care of trafficking victims are specific to pediatrics or include specific recommendations for the forensic medical evaluation. Because of legislation and resources specific to Wisconsin, national guidelines may not apply locally. Based on the literature review, as well as input from community partners and medical professionals who frequently provide services to victims, guidelines for the medical care of pediatric sex trafficking victims in Wisconsin were developed. Additional community barriers that may prevent an effective medical response also are discussed.

  17. 40 CFR 81.158 - Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.158 Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern Wisconsin Intrastate...

  18. 78 FR 48900 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.... ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703, telephone... Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. The human remains were removed from Outagamie County, WI. This...

  19. PLSS Townships and Sections, PLSS sections and corners, Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Cochise County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1995. It is described as...

  20. Studying the Relationship between Ethical Sales Behavior, Relationships Qualityand Customers’ Loyalty (Case Study: The Branches of Iran Insurance of Sanandaj Township)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammad Mahroo; Abdolnaser Shojaei; Reza Shafei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of performing this research is to study the relationship between ethical sales behavior, relationships quality and customers loyalty in the branches of Iran insurance of Sanandaj Township...

  1. PLSS Townships and Sections, quarter quarter sections, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  2. PLSS Townships and Sections, GCDB quarter quarter sections, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This PLSS Townships and Sections dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  3. Biblioteca y Centro de Estudios de la Universidad de Wisconsin - Kenosha - . Wisconsin – (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, George

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuing the line established by these same architects in previous University designs, the Library and Study Hall of the University of Wisconsin is another attempt at creating an exciting atmosphere, particularly conducive to the development of university life. It is to be noted, in this case, the arrangement of the library and study areas around a central common open space, sort of an inner courtyard used as a relaxation and sitting área, where all traffic corridors and promenades from the adjacent faculties come to meet, thus becoming the main reference point for the entire campus. The library with a current capacity for 245,000 volumes and 1,400 reading stalls is designed so it can be eventually enlarged permitting to almost double its book capacity and increasing the reading stalls to more than 2,000.

    Continuando la línea marcada por estos mismos arquitectos en anteriores proyectos de universidades, la biblioteca y el centro de estudios de la Universidad de Wisconsin procura definir atractivos espacios para el desarrollo de la vida universitaria. En este caso destaca la organización de los servicios de biblioteca y estudio en torno a un espacio comunitario central, a modo de plaza interior, destinado a sala de estar y recreo, y en donde confluyen las circulaciones que provienen de los locales adyacentes, convirtiéndolo en el principal punto de referencia del campus universitario. La biblioteca, que actualmente tiene capacidad para 245.000 volúmenes y 1.400 lectores, ha previsto una ampliación que le permitirá casi doblar el número de volúmenes y proporcionar espacio para más de 2.000 lectores.

  4. (Re)visualizing Black lesbian lives, (trans)masculinity, and township space in the documentary work of Zanele Muholi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imma, Z'étoile

    2017-04-03

    This article explores the politics of representing Black queer and trans subjectivities in the recent documentary film and photography of South African lesbian visual activist Zanele Muholi. While Muholi's work has been most often been positioned as an artistic response to the hate-crimes and violence perpetuated against Black lesbians in South African townships, most notably acts of sexual violence known increasingly as corrective rape, I argue that Muholi's documentary texts trouble the spatial, gendered, and highly racialized articulations that make up an increasingly global corrective rape discourse. The article considers how her visual texts foreground and (re)visualize Black queer and trans gender experiences that relocate, challenge, collaborate with, and at times, perform, masculinity as means to subvert heterosexist and racist constructions of township space and the Black gendered body.

  5. EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL SITUATION IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS ON TOWNSHIP ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Rusakova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper examines the question of creation a mathematical apparatus for estimation the ecological situation in case of accidents on township roads (explosions. First of all the development of numerical model to calculate the level of air pollution in the emission of toxic chemical, taking into account meteorological parameters of the environment. Identifying areas where the maximum allowable concentration of this pollutant (in this case, ammonia is exceeded and favorable areas for the population. Methodology. The developed method of numerical calculation of the air pollution concentration in case of toxic chemical (ammonia was used, which is based on the coordinated decision of the hydrodynamic task and task of the pollutants transfer in the atmosphere. Hydrodynamic solution is based on the method of discrete vortices with the different geometry of buildings and their relative position, and solution of the task about transfer the pollutant is based on convection-diffusion equation of pollutant transfer using implicit difference schemes. Findings. Several computational experiments were made on the base of the developed numerical model.As a result of the calculations the vortex structures were obtained, which are formed in the flow around buildings; the velocity field of the wind flow around buildings and picture of the streamlines in the flow were come out; the concentration of the toxic chemical (ammonia in research domain was calculated; the comparative analysis with the maximum permissible concentration (MPC for this pollutant were made; the regularities of changing the ammonia concentration from different sides of the building were determined. Originality. A numerical model that allows visually reconstructing and analyzing the flow pattern, the presence of dead zones, areas of reverse flow at different geometry of buildings and their relative position that influences the distribution of pollutant in the atmosphere was calculated

  6. Unconventional Pn wave tomography of the Western Mediterranean region and the Gulf of Cadiz. Constraints on plausible locations of major future and past historical earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghoul, Noureddine; Mezioud-Saich, Amira; Said Oucherif, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Selected Pn arrival times extracted from the ISC data, from 1964 to present, are used in an unconventional Pn wave seismic tomography, to map with a much improved resolution, the lateral mantle lid velocity variations in the Western Mediterranean region and the Gulf of Cadiz. In a classical tomography study, one defines an initial lithosphere model, determined by fitting a line over all Pn travels times. Its slope and corresponding intercept allows defining an average Pn velocity and an average Moho depth. The average crustal velocity has been fixed to 6.4 km/s; residuals correspond to the difference between times read at the stations and the ray theoretical times, computed from this pre-determined initial lithosphere model. This initial model corresponds to a regional travel time, sampling broad tectonic provinces, with huge velocity variations. Therefore, the residuals projection, lead to poor resolutions of the mantle lid velocity and Moho depths variations. In the present study first neat observational travel times are established for the 22 major Mediterranean Basin physiographic regions. Second, better ray theoretical times are quantified through this set of pre-determined lithospheres polygons. The obtained residuals are corrected for several effects: (1) the station topography, (2) the Moho depth variations from the source to the receiver, (3) the source depth using a simple efficient approach, and (4) the oceanic and/or continental context of the source and/or station location. As a result residuals have by far, less scatter, and are more meaningfully representative of the lateral velocity variations. This process confines in a much narrower intervals the variations of the sought variables: mantle lid velocity variations in the different polygons and stations delays. A strong correlation is observed between the mapped lateral velocity, Moho depths variations, and the tectonic features observed at the surface. The most important new observations are: (a) a

  7. The interplay of contourite and mass-wasting recent sedimentary processes at the Guadalquivir Bank Margin uplift, Gulf of Cadiz: morphological high-resolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marga; Alonso, Belén; Tomas Vazquez, Juan; Ercilla, Gemma; Palomino, Desirée; Estrada, Ferran; Fernandez Puga, Ma Carmen; Lopez Gonzalez, Nieves; Roque, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz records the interplay of a variety of sedimentary processes related to the flow of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) exiting the Mediterranean Sea, with downslope sedimentary processes and the topography of the region. This work presents detailed morphological features of the Guadalquivir Ridge area, based on high resolution bathymetry and very-high resolution seismic profiles (TOPAS) acquired during the MONTERA cruise. The Guadalquivir Ridge is a SW-NE-oriented relief located on the middle slope of the Gulf of Cadiz (8º-7º10' W). It reaches minimum depths at two highs, one at the Guadalquivir Bank, at the western extreme of the ridge (275 m), and a second one close to the eastern extreme (350 m). The ridge is cut by a gap where the Diego Cao contourite moat is incised forming a narrow, 4-5 km wide, SE-NW oriented channel. It delimits two contourite sheeted drifts (SD) at the northern side of the ridge: the Faro SD at the east (~ 600 m water depth) and the Bartolomeo Dias SD, at the west (~750 m water depth). The SD are relatively flat and become shallower progressively in a SE direction towards the Guadalquivir Ridge. At the SE side of the Guadalquivir Ridge depth increases dramatically where the Huelva and Cadiz contourite channels occur. They are originated by the direct erosion of the Lower Core of the MOW, running at depths of around 1200 m. The Diego Cao channel is related to the Upper Core, which runs at depths of around 800 m (Ambar and Serra, 2007). High resolution data reveal the existence of a variety of features. Semi-circular scarps, up to 10s km long, occur at the SE side of the Guadalquivir Ridge and at the SW side of the Bartolomeo Dias SD, at the rim of the Diego Cao contourite channel. Scarps occur at depths of 550 to 750 m and form steep steps of tens to hundreds of meters and in some cases occur overlapped one on each other at different depths. The second type of feature is a series of circular to ellipse

  8. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers’ worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory. Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%. One hundred and six (12.6% respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%. While most (85.2% respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents’ suggested measures for controlling violence included “widening channels on medical dispute solutions,” “improving doctor-patient communication,” and “advocating for respect for medical workers via the media.” Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers’ worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.

  9. Concern about Workplace Violence and Its Risk Factors in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Jiao, Mingli; Cui, Yu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Jinghua; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuchong; Zhao, Yanming; Li, Ye; Liang, Libo; Kang, Zheng; Wu, Qunhong; Yin, Mei

    2016-08-10

    Workplace violence in Chinese township hospitals is a major public health problem. We identified the risk factors of healthcare workers' worry about experiencing workplace violence in 90 Chinese township hospitals and determined specific measures for differing stages of violence (based on crisis management theory). Participants were 440 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from Heilongjiang Province, China (response rate 84.6%). One hundred and six (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Regarding psychological violence, the most common type reported was verbal abuse (46.0%). While most (85.2%) respondents had some degree of worry about suffering violence, 22.1% were worried or very worried. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that being ≤35 years of age, having a lower educational level, having less work experience, and working night shifts were all associated with worry about workplace violence. Furthermore, those without experience of such violence were more likely to worry about it. Respondents' suggested measures for controlling violence included "widening channels on medical dispute solutions," "improving doctor-patient communication," and "advocating for respect for medical workers via the media." Results suggest the target factors for reducing healthcare workers' worry by according to the type of education and training and possible measures for limiting workplace violence in township hospitals.

  10. 元朝云南行省乡兵新探%A Study of Yuan Dynasty Yunnan Province Township Soldiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李魏巍

    2012-01-01

    Yuan dynasty is the first national unification created by ethnic minorities in the history of china,in order to dominate extremely vast territory,Mongolian rely more on foreign troops to make up for the shortage of troops or engage in other tasks,township soldier system formed.Township soldiers have played an important role in the border areas of yunnan.According to many historical records,the township soldiers of Yunnan province gradually revealing the mystery.%元朝是中国历史上由少数民族建立的第一个全国性的大一统王朝,为了统治无比辽阔的疆域,蒙元政府更多的依靠外族军队来弥补兵力不足或从事其他任务,乡兵制度应运而生。在云南边疆地区,乡兵曾起到重要作用,依据许多史料的记载,云南行省乡兵逐渐露出了神秘的面纱。

  11. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Iron River Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frishman, D

    1982-09-01

    No area within the Iron River 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin, appears to be favorable for the existence of a minimum of 100 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at a grade of 0.01 percent or better.

  12. 77 FR 16674 - Establishment of the Wisconsin Ledge Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... environmental group, a local science museum, and 10 commenters who did not list any affiliation. All of the... this point. Once this final rule becomes effective, wine bottlers using ``Wisconsin Ledge'' in a brand... be labeled with a viticultural area name or with a brand name that includes a viticultural area...

  13. Wisconsin Certification Manual for Public Librarians. Bulletin No. 7075.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.

    Designed to be used as a guide for public librarians and boards of trustees in meeting the requirements of Wisconsin's public librarian certification law, this manual is divided into two major sections covering public librarian certification and certification renewal/continuing education requirements. The first section includes discussions of…

  14. Food Processing and Agriculture. Wisconsin Annual Farm Labor Report, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.

    A yearly report on the migrant farm worker situation in Wisconsin evaluates the year 1968 in relation to past years and makes projections for the future. Comparisons are made of trends in year-round employment practices, seasonal food processing, the cherry industry, and the cucumber industry. The report includes a discussion on the social aspects…

  15. Wisconsin Inventors' Network Database final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-04

    The Wisconsin Innovation Service Center at UW-Whitewater received a DOE grant to create an Inventor's Network Database to assist independent inventors and entrepreneurs with new product development. Since 1980, the Wisconsin Innovation Service Center (WISC) at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater has assisted independent and small business inventors in estimating the marketability of their new product ideas and inventions. The purpose of the WISC as an economic development entity is to encourage inventors who appear to have commercially viable inventions, based on preliminary market research, to invest in the next stages of development, perhaps investigating prototype development, legal protection, or more in-depth market research. To address inventor's information needs, WISC developed on electronic database with search capabilities by geographic region and by product category/industry. It targets both public and private resources capable of, and interested in, working with individual and small business inventors. At present, the project includes resources in Wisconsin only.

  16. Team Visitation Guidelines for Wisconsin Secondary Vocational Programs. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Dorothy; Klitzke, Elizabeth

    These guidelines outline the role of the visiting team members and the team leader and familiarize the team with details necessary to conduct a comprehensive external evaluation of Wisconsin secondary vocational programs. First, the three goals of the on-site evaluation are outlined. A discussion of the team selection and team members' functions…

  17. 75 FR 55832 - Wisconsin Disaster Number WI-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster Number WI-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  18. 76 FR 27740 - Wisconsin Disaster Number WI-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Wisconsin Disaster Number WI-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public...

  19. WHAT DETERMINES WISCONSIN CARD SORTING PERFORMANCE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERDOES, AJW; VANDENBOSCH, RJ

    1992-01-01

    Deficient performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) by patients with schizophrenia is a consistent finding. Although the test has been found sensitive to frontal lobe damage in neurological patients, it is not certain whether WCST performance in schizophrenia is caused by a structural ab

  20. Queer & Ally Youth Involvement in the Fair Wisconsin Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role and experience of queer youth and allies in the Fair Wisconsin campaign that fought against the marriage amendment to that state's constitution. It illustrates how LGBT and ally youth involvement can be incorporated into other organizations. Following an explanation of the campaign, are narratives of two…

  1. Queer & Ally Youth Involvement in the Fair Wisconsin Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role and experience of queer youth and allies in the Fair Wisconsin campaign that fought against the marriage amendment to that state's constitution. It illustrates how LGBT and ally youth involvement can be incorporated into other organizations. Following an explanation of the campaign, are narratives of two…

  2. Wisconsin EMT Association: A Statewide Injury Prevention Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ralph; Evans, Diane

    This report provides a detailed description of a statewide injury prevention program of the Wisconsin Emergency Medical Technician Association. A project introduction is followed by brief descriptions of the components of the injury prevention program: occupant protection seminars; mock crash seminars; Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Buckle Bear,…

  3. Neotectonics of the SW Iberia margin, Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea: a reassessment including recent structural, seismic and geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T. A.; Matias, L. M.; Terrinha, P.; Negredo, A. M.; Rosas, F.; Fernandes, R. M. S.; Pinheiro, L. M.

    2012-03-01

    We use a thin-shell approximation for the lithosphere to model the neotectonics of the Gulf of Cadiz, SW Iberia margin and the westernmost Mediterranean, in the eastern segment of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary. In relation to previous neotectonic models in the region, we utilize a better constrained structural map offshore, and the recent GPS measurements over NW Africa and Iberia have been taken into account, together with the seismic strain rate and stress data, to evaluate alternative geodynamic settings proposed for the region. We show that by assuming a relatively simple, two-plate tectonic framework, where Nubia and Eurasia converge NW-SE to WNW-ESE at a rate of 4.5-6 mm yr-1, the models correctly predict the amount of shortening and wrenching between northern Algeria-Morocco and southern Spain and between NW Morocco and SW Iberia, as estimated from both GPS data and geological constraints. The consistency between modelled and observed velocities in the vicinity of Gibraltar and NW Morocco indicates that forcing by slab sinking beneath Gibraltar is not required to reproduce current horizontal deformation in these areas. In the Gulf of Cadiz and SW Iberia, the modelling results support a diffuse Nubia-Eurasia Plate boundary, where the convergence is accommodated along NNE-SSW to NE-SW and ENE-WSW thrust faults and WNW-ESE right-lateral strike-slip faults, over an area >200 km wide, in good general agreement with the distribution of the seismic strain rate and associated faulting mechanisms. The modelling results are robust to regional uncertainties in the structure of the lithosphere and have important implications for the earthquake and tsunami hazard of Portugal, SW Spain and Morocco. We predict maximum, long-term average fault slip rates between 1-2 mm yr-1, that is, less than 50 per cent the average plate relative movement, suggesting very long return periods for high-magnitude (Mw > 8) earthquakes on individual structures.

  4. Reservoirs of the basin of Majaceite river (Hurones and Guadalcacin) in Cadiz; water quality and their influence with the drought; Influencia de la sequia en la calidad de las aguas de los embalses (Hurones y Guadalcacin) en la cuencia del rio Majaceite de la provincia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barroso, M. R.; Vidal Valderas, L.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    In this work the results of the limnological study of the two reservoirs of the basin of Majaceite river is presented: Guadalcacin and Hurones. These reservoirs are part of the hydrography net of the county of Cadiz (south of Spain) and it belongs to the Guadalquivir Hydrography Confederation. The study of physical chemical parameters, together with the data of the climate variations have allowed to know the quality of the dammed water, as well as, to predict certain behaviour rules in the adaptation of the water, in the drinking waters treatment plant for their final destination as water of supply. The results obtained in this study allow to conclude that the waters quality of the reservoirs of Hurones are biggest than the reservoir of Guadalcin makes then more appropriate for the public supply because present smaller saline content. (Author) 18 refs.

  5. Economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Bakhshi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township and investigation of factors influencing it. Statistical population of this research consisted of all the greenhouse owners in Birjand (50 units. For economic assessment, the profitability index (TR/TC and discriminative analysis were used. Based on the TR/TC index and cluster analysis with –K mean method, the considered society was divided into two groups of successful and less-successful units. The median of this index was more than 1.49 in the successful group and less than1.49 in the other group. After dividing the groups by discriminative analysis, the variables distinguishing the groups were determined. Results showed that the most important variables which influence the TR/TC index and distinguish these two groups are amount of applied micronutrients, greenhouse area, number of irrigations, amount of the applied manure, educational-extension films, and visiting other greenhouse-owners’ activities.

  6. Differences in tuberculosis incidence rates in township and in rural populations in Ntcheu District, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A; Harries, A D; Salaniponi, F M

    1999-01-01

    There has been a large upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly as a result of the co-existing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Malawi has had a well-run National TB Control Programme (NTP) with good registration and recording of cases. For some years the NTP has had the impression that TB in the country is concentrated around townships and is less prevalent in the rural areas. This impression was investigated in a rural district (Ntcheu District) in Malawi. Data on new TB cases were collected from the district TB register for the years 1992-96 and average annual TB incidence rates per 100,000 for semi-urban and rural populations were calculated for this period. There was a significantly higher incidence of TB, particularly amongst cases with smear-negative pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB, in the semi-urban population compared with the rural population. Possible explanations could be higher HIV seroprevalence rates in semi-urban areas compared with rural areas, under-diagnosis at health centres or poor access to medical facilities for rural people.

  7. Are we teaching critical literacy? Reading practices in a township classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynis Lloyd

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in educational provision in South Africa since 1994, the opportunities for learners from historically under-resourced schools to gain access to powerful English resources remain limited and unequal (Prinsloo 2012. In this article I will provide a detailed description of literacy practices in a township high school in Cape Town, specifically of the orientations to text that are made available to learners. I will draw on feminist poststructuralist theory, in which the subject is theorised as constructed and contested in language to construct difference. The analysis of classroom discourse and text-based tasks shows that the orientations to reading that were offered were characterised by a focus on the surface meaning of the texts and by an absence of critical engagement, despite the latter being required in the new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement. The analysis reveals how the power dynamics of our racialised past and dominant ideologies about gender, class and race continue to define teaching in our classrooms in ways that limit access to the English resources that learners in under-resourced schools need for academic success.

  8. Flood magnitude and frequency of Chandlers Run at two sites, at Pennsauken Township, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Six methods were used to estimate the magnitude and frequency of floods at Chandlers Run at the culvert on New Jersey Route 612, and at a second site about 2,100 feet upstream, at New Jersey Route 70 at Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. Flood magnitude and frequency calculated by the six methods, as well as drainage-basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimates for the culvert site on Route 612 range from 268 cubic feet per second to 2,050 cubic feet per second. The 100-year-flood estimates for the upstream site at Route 70 range from 246 cubic feet per second to 2,320 cubic feet per second. Flood magnitude and frequency estimates obtained by using the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Special Report 38 method and other pre- viously published estimates fall within the range of values estimated by using the U.S. Geological Survey transfer method with data collected from three nearby crest-stage gages.

  9. A journey towards inclusive education; a case study from a 'township' in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Rosemary; Prudhomme, Debbie; Bullen, Ann; Pitt, Catherine; Geiger, Martha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to relate part of the journey to appropriate education for two young children with physical disabilities in a low socio-economic peri-urban informal settlement - or 'township' - in South Africa. The part of the on-going journey described here spanned four-and-a-half years and included the two children, their families, their teachers, their community and a small team of rehabilitation professionals working for a non-profit organisation in the area. The rehabilitation professionals' goals were to provide support for the children, their families, their current special care centre and the school(s) they would attend in the future. The steps from the special care centre, to a mainstream early childhood development (ECD) centre for both of them, and then on to (a) a school for learners with special educational needs (LSEN) for one child and (b) a mainstream primary school for the other, are described. Challenges encountered on the way included parental fears, community attitudes and physical accessibility. Practical outcomes included different placements for the two children with implications and recommendations for prioritised parent involvement, individual approaches, interdisciplinary and community-based collaborations. Recommendations are given for clinical contexts, curricula and policy matters; for research and for scaling up such a programme through community workers.

  10. Energy aspects of city districts and rural townships; Energieaspekte staedtischer und laendlicher Siedlungen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Arend, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Beaujean, K. [Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Schneider, S. [Planungsbuero Jud AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-01-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the energy consumption of various residential districts in cities and in rural townships. The analysis examines the consumption of primary energy by residential buildings, their supply and disposal infrastructures and that of traffic induced by settlements. Also, grey energy: consumption for the construction, renovation and demolition of buildings and infrastructures as well as the consumption of primary energy for the production and disposal of individual motor vehicle traffic and public transport is reviewed. Four Swiss case studies are dealt with including largely homogenous residential districts in Effretikon, Oetwil am See, Uster and the City of Zurich. The results of the analyses made are presented in graphical form. The authors quote the great potential for the reduction of the consumption of settlement-dependent primary energy that lies in the fields of energy-efficiency of buildings, mobility and power consumption. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive appendix.

  11. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ntswane

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155 of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.

  12. Blood typing profile of a school-aged population of a North Togo township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovor, Ahoefa; Fétéké, Lochina; Kueviakoe, Irénée M; Kpatarou, Laye; Mawussi, Koffi; Magnang, Hézouwè; Ségbéna, Akuété Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of hemoglobin (Hb) variants and ABO blood groups in a school population aged 6 to 9 years in the township of Agbandé-Yaka in North Togo. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 children of four primary schools at Agbande-Yaka, between March and July 2010. Hemoglobin characterization was done by alkaline buffer electrophoresis and the blood types ABO-Rhesus (Rh) D by immuno-hematological methods. A Hb variant was detected in 37.0% of the schoolchildren. Among them, the AS trait accounted for 11.9% and the AC trait for 20.2%. Homozygous Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) was not found but Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) appeared at a frequency of 3.3%, while compound heterozygotes carrying Hb SC were seen at a frequency of 1.6%. The O, B and A blood groups accounted for 49.0, 26.8 and 21.9%, respectively. The Hb anomalies reached a high prevalence in this school population. These results are remarkable by the absence of homozygous Hb S individuals compared to homozygous Hb C individuals, which were as numerous as expected. The frequencies of the ABO blood groups are similar to what has been found in other West African populations.

  13. Hydro chemical characteristic and Quality Assessment of Groundwater of Ranchi Township Area, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhunath Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, detail investigation of groundwater for the suitability of drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in Ranchi township area. For this purpose, 27 groundwater samples from wells and tube wellswere collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS , major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ and major anions (HCO3- F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-. pH of the analyzed samples indicates slightly alkaline nature of the water samples. Total dissolved solids of 94% of analyzed groundwater samples were falling in the category of fresh water and 6% in the category of brackish water. HCO3- and Cl- are dominant anions and Ca2+and Na+ as the dominant cation in the water chemistry.In majority of the samples, the analyzed parameters are well within the desirable limits and water is potable for drinking purposes. However, concentrations of EC, TDS, TH, Ca2+, and Mg2+exceed the desirable limit at few sites.Parameter like residual sodium carbonate (RSC, permeability index (PI, percent sodium (%Na, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR were calculated and plotted to understand the water quality and utilitarian aspect of groundwater for irrigation uses. The calculated parameters show that the majority of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation uses. However,high salinity values at few sites restrict the suitability of the water for irrigation uses.

  14. Aedes larval indices and the occurrence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in urban community of Thanlyin Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thae’ Zar Chi Bo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban community of Thanlyin Township, Yangon Region during 2014 to determine Aedes larval indices and the occurrence of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF within past one year. A total of 327 households and 1491 members were included in the study. Aedes larval indices detected in this study were 25.7% for house index, 15.5% for container index and 48.0% for Breteau index. The occurrence of DHF among households and family members were 2.1% (95% CI: 0.9%, 4.4% and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3%, 1.1%, respectively. The occurrence was highest among 5 to 14 years age-group. No case was reported among persons with equal or more than 60 years of age. Mortality and case fatality rates were 0% during study period. Larval positivity among households was significantly related to sufficiency of family income and number of water container they have. Surveillance and control procedures for both DHF and vector should be intensified in urban area. Awareness and participation of the community in prevention and control of DHF should also be raised. Socioeconomic status as well as proper water supply and storage should be improved in urban area.

  15. Feasibility Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement, Wisconsin River at Portage, Wisconsin, Feasibility Study for Flood Control. Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    hardhack, horsemint, meadowsweet, swamp milkweed , and bouncing bet are the most common forbs and grasses. Haw- thorn, viburnum, dogwood, black cherry, and...Corixidae (true bugs ). Stenonema terminatum and Heptagenia flavescens (both mayflies) and Isoperla sp. (a stonefly) were found only in the Wisconsin

  16. The use of multivariate analysis to link sediment contamination and toxicity data to establish sediment quality guidelines: an example in the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain); El uso del analisis multivariante en la union de datos de toxicidad y contaminacion para establecer guias de calidad de sedimento: Un ejemplo en la Bahia de Cadiz (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valls, T. Angel; Forja, Jesus M [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz, (Spain); Gomez-Parra, Abelardo [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, CSIC, Puerto Real, Cadiz, (Spain)

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate marine sediment quality in the Gulf of Cadiz, chemical concentration and toxicity test endpoints from sediments were linked using multivariate analysis. Sediment samples were collected synoptically at seven stations in two littoral ecosystems of the Gulf of Cadiz (five in the Bay of Cadiz and two in the salt marsh of the Barbate River), and subjected to six separate, replicated sediment toxicity tests and comprehensive sediment chemistry analyses. The toxic effects of sediments were tested using three operational sediment phases: whole sediment, using the estuarine amphipod Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (10 d static: survival) and the estuarine clam Ruditapes philippinaru (48 h static: survival) and of the marine fish Sparus aurata (48 h static. Survival); and interstitial water, using populations of the estuarine rotifer Brachionus Plicatilis (7 d static: Population decline) and of the marine bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox ). To evaluate the levels of contamination, the concentrations in the sediments of organic carbon, 14 trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ag, Hg, As, Sn, V, Ni, Co and Cr) and the surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) were measured. The results of the toxicity tests were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites, demonstrating a general agreement between the toxicity values determined by all the tests, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity (principally due to toxic mixtures of trace metals). Data derived from sediment chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (PCA and factor analysis), showing that the two data types could be represented by only five factors corresponding to five overlapping chemical-biological effect relations. Positive prevalence of these factors in the cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The sediment quality guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below

  17. Fishery and life history of spot-tail mantis shrimp, Squilla mantis (Crustacea: Stomatopoda, in the Gulf of Cadiz (eastern central Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vila

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Squilla mantis is an economically important species that is mainly caught by the Sanlucar de Barrameda bottom trawl fleet in the Gulf of Cadiz (eastern central Atlantic. Annual landings have ranged between 24 t in 1999 and 600 t in 2003, with a mean value of 269 t for the period 1984-2010. Catches have a marked seasonality, peaking in winter and showing the lowest values in summer. Larval abundance was negatively correlated with depth and distance from the coast but positively correlated with sea surface temperature. No correlation with sea surface salinity was found. The highest larval abundance was observed in June at 20-25 m depth, while adults were mostly found at 30-35 m depth. This species is mainly concentrated in the area of influence of the Guadalquivir River but is very scarce in the rest of the study area. The maturation of the ovary and the activity of the sexual accessory glands begin in early winter. The population is age-structured in three year classes and females reach first maturity within the second year class, at 23.7 mm carapace length.

  18. Trophic relationships, feeding habits and seasonal dietary changes in an intertidal rockpool fish assemblage in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaire, Jesus C.; Cabrera, Remedios; Gómez-Cama, Carmen; Soriguer, Milagrosa C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the use of resources and diet of nine resident fish species in the rocky intertidal zone of the Gulf of Cadiz and examines whether their populations are affected by trophic competition. A stomach content analysis of the nine species revealed that only one was herbivorous (Parablennius sanguinolentus), while the rest were mainly carnivorous (Gobius bucchichi, Gobius cobitis, Gobius paganellus, Zebrus zebrus, Salaria pavo, Lepadogaster lepadogaster, Scorpaena porcus and Tripterygion tripteronotum). The most frequently consumed prey were amphipods, isopods, polychaetes, decapods, chironomids, tanaidaceans, gastropods, copepods, cumaceans and ostracods. In most species, the occurrence of polychaetes and molluscs was higher in the cold season, whereas that of isopods, decapods, chironomids and fish increased in the warm season. In general, larger specimens consumed larger prey, with an increase in the occurrence of isopods, decapods and fish. An analysis of trophic niche breadth defined G. cobitis as generalist, G. bucchichi as opportunist and S. porcus as specialist, whereas the values obtained for the other species did not indicate a clearly defined strategy. Low diet overlap values and the segregation observed in several analyses indicated an adequate distribution of resources.

  19. Nurses for Wisconsin: A Collaborative Initiative to Enhance the Nurse Educator Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda K; Adams, Jan L; Lundeen, Sally; May, Katharyn A; Smith, Rosemary; Wendt, L Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Wisconsin, like much of the nation, is currently suffering from a growing nursing shortage. The University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire College of Nursing and Health Sciences, in partnership with the University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and University of Wisconsin Oshkosh nursing programs, took advantage of a University of Wisconsin System Incentive Grant for economic and workforce development to address this problem. With a $3.2 million award, the Nurses for Wisconsin goal is to increase the number of baccalaureate registered nurses by expanding the nursing education capacity within the University of Wisconsin System. Nurses for Wisconsin is accelerating the preparation of nursing faculty by supporting nurses to enroll in doctor of nursing practice or nursing doctor of philosophy programs with pre- and postdoctoral fellowship awards ranging from $21,500 to $90,000 and the recruitment of faculty with a loan repayment program of up to $50,000. In exchange for the financial support, fellows and faculty must make a 3-year commitment to teach in a UW System nursing program. Two conferences for program participants are also funded through the award. The first conference was held in October 2014. The second conference is scheduled for summer 2015. With the first year of the 2-year project completed, this article describes Nurses for Wisconsin from inception to implementation and midterm assessment with a focus on lessons learned. A follow-up article addressing final outcomes and next steps is planned.

  20. Wisconsin statutes regarding HIV testing in primary care: frequent questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeront, J M; Reiser, W J; Druckenmiller, J K; Krchnavek, K A; Davis, J P

    1998-12-01

    The authors review Wisconsin statutes related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in primary care, including the areas of written informed consent, documentation of consent, testing without consent, testing of minors, disclosure of test results without the consent of the test subject, reporting requirements, discrimination, access by insurance companies and third-party payors to HIV test results, and civil liabilities and criminal penalties associated with violation of HIV-related state statutes. During the course of the HIV epidemic in Wisconsin, many individuals (service providers, legislators, consumers and advocates) supported the enactment of HIV-related legislation. Today, Wisconsin has some of the nation's most comprehensive HIV legislation. These laws have set a legal framework that balances the rights of individuals with protection of public's health. The relatively low seroprevalence of HIV infection in Wisconsin can be attributed, in part, to the state's HIV-related legislation. While Wisconsin HIV legislation is broadly focused, much of it is concerned with HIV testing. This article examines common questions as they pertain to HIV testing in primary care and to the following areas addressed by state statutes: counseling and referral for health and support services [Wisconsin statute s. 252 14(3)] informed consent for testing or disclosure [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] written consent to disclose [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(3) & (4)] testing without consent of the test subject [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] confidentiality of an HIV test [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(5)] reporting of positive test results [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(7)] discrimination [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(2)] civil and criminal liabilities [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(4); 252.15(8) & (9)].

  1. Pupil Nondiscrimination Guidelines. Implementing S.118.13 of the Wisconsin Statutes and PI 9 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code. Bullein No. 8327.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The new S. 118.13, Wisconsin Statutes, bans pupil discrimination in any curricular, extracurricular, pupil services, recreational, or other program or activity in the State of Wisconsin on the basis of sex; race; national origin; ancestry; creed; pregnancy; marital or parental status; sexual orientation; or physical, mental, emotional, or learning…

  2. Unmet needs in continuing medical education programs for rural Chinese township health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Yi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to describe the system of continuing medical education (CME in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and to ascertain the perceived needs related to that system, in order to improve the performance of health professionals in Chinese township health centers (THCs. Methods: In-depth key informant interviews were conducted to gain insights into the current CME system. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was also carried out from March to August 2014 in order to identify perceived needs among THC personnel in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Logistic regression was used to identify factors related to respondents’ interest in pursuing different levels of degree study. Results: The areas of need perceived by the respondents included general clinical competence and emergency or first aid knowledge. Most respondents wanted to study at medical colleges in order to obtain a higher degree. Respondents aged below 45 years with neutral or positive attitudes about the benefit of degree study for the licensure examination were more likely to attend a bachelor-level CME program than their older peers and respondents with negative attitudes towards degree study. Female respondents and respondents aged below 45 years were more likely to attend a junior college CME program than males and older respondents, respectively. Conclusion: It is necessary to develop degree-linked CME programs to meet the need for young health professionals in Chinese THCs; therefore, this programs can improve the expertise of poorly educated young health workers, who overwhelm rural Chinese heath systems.

  3. Studies of the Reform of the Electoral System for Town and Township Heads%中国乡镇长选举制度改革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖立辉

    2004-01-01

    @@ Town and township governments are the most basic administrative organs of contemporary political system on Chinese mainland. In accordance with relevant stipulations in the country's Constitution and the Organic Law of Local People's Congresses and Local People's Governments, candidates for town/township head are firstly nominated by the presidium of the town/township people's congress and then put to vote and elected by the congress. However, following the CPC dictum that it would itself “assume responsibility for cadres' affairs,” much weight, even the final decision, lies with what the organization departments of the Party committee at town/township level and above have to say during the process of nomination. While opinions are also sought from the masses of local people in the processes of democratic recommendation and evaluation, assessments by the organization departments of higher Party committees play a crucial role through the whole process.1 Once the candidates are selected, the list is forwarded to the presidium of the town/township people's congress for the congress to vote and decide. It can be said that this system of selection and appointment have,for a period of time, proved to be quite efficient, not only bringing forth the persons needed by the Party, but also carrying out resolutely the line and general and specific policies of superior Party organizations.Nevertheless, the election process itself has changed very much into a mere formality.

  4. The Wisconsin approach to newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbsky, James; Thakar, Monica; Routes, John

    2012-03-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening disease of infants that is curable with hematopoietic cell transplantation if detected early. Population-based screening for SCID using the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay began in Wisconsin in 2008; 5 infants with SCID or other forms of severe T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) have been detected, and no infants with SCID have been missed. This review will provide an overview of the TREC screening assay and an update of the findings from Wisconsin on all infants screened from January 1, 2008, until December 31, 2010. Importantly, we give practical recommendations regarding newborn population-based screening using the TREC assay, including the evaluation and care of infants detected.

  5. Water resources of Wisconsin--Lake Superior basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Skinner, Earl L.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.

  6. Retention of asbestos fibres in lungs of workers with asbestosis, asbestosis and lung cancer, and mesothelioma in Asbestos township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A; Bégin, R; Massé, S; Dufresne, C M; Loosereewanich, P; Perrault, G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a mineralogical study on the particles retained in the necropsied lungs of a homogenous group of asbestos miners and millers from Asbestos township (and a local reference population) and to consider the hypothesis that there is a difference in size between fibres retained in the lungs of patients with asbestosis with and without lung cancer. METHODS: Samples of lung tissue were obtained from 38 patients with asbestosis without lung cancer, 25 with asbestosis and lung cancer, and 12 with mesothelioma, from necropsied Quebec chrysotile miners and millers from Asbestos township. Fibre concentrations in the lungs of these patients were compared with those in tissue from necropsies carried out on a local reference population: men who had died of either accidental death or acute myocardial infarction between 1990 and 1992. 23 were born before 1940 and 26 after 1940. RESULTS: Geometric mean (GM) concentrations were higher in cases than in the controls for chrysotile fibres 5 to 10 microns long in patients with asbestosis with or without lung cancer; for tremolite fibres 5 to 10 microns long in all patients; for crocidolite, talc, or anthophyllite fibres 5 to 10 microns long in patients with mesothelioma; for chrysotile and tremolite fibres > or = 10 microns long in patients with asbestosis; and crocidolite, talc, or anthophyllite fibres > or = 10 microns long in patients with mesothelioma. However, median concentrations of each type of fibre in the lungs did not show any significant differences between the three disease groups. Average length to diameter ratios of the fibres were calculated to be larger in patients with asbestosis and lung cancer than in those without lung cancer for crocidolite fibres > or = 10 microns long, for chrysotile, amosite, and tremolite fibres 5 to 10 microns long, and for chrysotile and crocidolite fibres Asbestos township who had an equal concentration of retained fibres but a tendency to a higher length to diameter

  7. Determination of target Exchange rate for the comparative advantage of Iran crops (A Case of Sari Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Pakravan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the value of exchange rate was calculated inorder to determine comparative advantage in crops of SariTownship during 2009-2010. Hence, first, comparative advantageindices are estimated by using a policy analysis matrix. Theresults showed that just wheat has a DRC index of one in theminimum amount of national currency exchange rate value.This indicated the fact that only wheat, compared to Rice,Soybean, Canola and Barley in this region, can compete withglobal markets and had a social profitable production system.Therefore, it is recommended that executive policies, whichmake competitive ability in wheat, should also be applied forother products.

  8. Trois ans après l'"Amoco-Cadiz" : Hydrocarbures persistants dans les huîtres et cinétique d'épuration - Contrat CNEXO n° 80/6317

    OpenAIRE

    Gouygou, Jean-paul; Michel, Pierre

    1981-01-01

    L'accident de l'"Amoco-Cadiz"le 16 mars 1978 est venu compromettre gravement les activites ostréicoles implantées en Bretagne nord et plus spécialement dans l'Aber Benoît, l'Aber Wrac'h et la baie de Morlaix. Malgré l'importance de la contamination, il est vite apparu que sur les huîtres les mortalites dues au petrole étaient insignifiantes et les consequences sur la physiologie des animaux restaient mineures. Par contre, du fait de l'aptitude de ces coquillages à concentrer les hydrocarbures...

  9. RRS "Charles Darwin" Cruise 178, 14 Mar - 11 Apr 2006. 3D seismic acquisition over mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz and submarine landslides in the Eivissa Channel, western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, D. G.; C. Berndt

    2006-01-01

    The major aims of Charles Darwin Cruise 178 were to obtain (i) 3D seismic imagery, video transects and swath bathymetry maps of mud volcanoes in the southern Gulf of Cadiz, (ii) video transects across suspected cold water coral reefs in the Alboran Sea and (iii) 3D seismic imagery of submarine landslides in the Eivissa Channel, immediately east of the Balearic Islands in the western Mediterranean Sea. The cruise was in support of the EU Framework 6 ‘HERMES’ project (Hotspot Ecosystem Research...

  10. Source and impact of lead contamination on {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Blasco, J. [Instituto Ciencias Marinas Andalucia (CSIC), Campus Rio San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Delgado, J. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, A.M. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2011-01-17

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme ({delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 {+-} 1.09 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 {+-} 0.10 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels (<0.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e{sup -8.3[Pb]}; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in

  11. Geomorphological record of extreme wave events during Roman times in the Guadalquivir estuary (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Spain): An archaeological and paleogeographical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Antonio; Villarías-Robles, Juan J. R.; Pérez-Asensio, José N.; Santos, Ana; Morales, Juan Antonio; Celestino-Pérez, Sebastián; León, Ángel; Santos-Arévalo, Francisco Javier

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of the geological record has made it possible to delimit for the Guadalquivir estuary the traces of extreme wave events (EWEs) during the Roman period in the Iberian Peninsula (218 BCE to 476 CE). The largest event occurred in the 2nd-3rd century CE. It generated clearly visible erosive effects in the coastal barriers, including washover fans and erosional scarps. In the inner estuary, however, the effects were minor: crevasse splays that broke levees and cheniers, as well as a residual sedimentary lag. The significant development of the spits protected the inner estuary from the marine incursion, which only caused a water level rise with low-regime waves. Correlation of the geomorphological and sedimentary marks left by this event with the archaeological and geological evidence of other events recognized elsewhere in the Gulf of Cadiz effectively argues for a tsunami as to the nature of the 2nd-3rd century CE event. Yet this and the other identified EWEs in the Guadalquivir estuary during the pre-Roman and the Roman period all fit a model of paleogeographic evolution dominated by processes of coastal progradation and estuarine infilling. Radiocarbon dating, geomorphological analysis, and historical references fail to warrant the so-called '218-209 BCE' Atlantic tsunami, as hypothesized in the received scientific literature. In pre-Roman and Roman times, human occupation at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River was strongly influenced by various geodynamic processes, the location of the settlements being contingent upon dependable, fast communication with the sea and, above all, upon adequate protection from EWEs, on the leeward side of spits. Progressive progradation of these coastal barriers combined with the gradual infilling of the estuary to make navigation to open sea increasingly difficult and, eventually, to result in the abandonment of settlements.

  12. Assessing the impact of environmental forcing on the condition of anchovy larvae in the Cadiz Gulf using nucleic acid and fatty acid-derived indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodósio, M. A.; Garrido, S.; Peters, J.; Leitão, F.; Ré, P.; Peliz, A.; Santos, A. M. P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the environmental processes affecting fish larvae survival is critical for population dynamics, conservation purposes and to ecosystem-based fishery management. Using anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) of the Cadiz Gulf as a study case and considering the "Ocean Triad" hypothesis, we investigate the larval ecophysiological status and potential survival in relation to oceanographic variables. Therefore, this study aims to describe the nutritional condition of anchovy larvae during spawning season (peak in summer) through nucleic acid- and fatty acid (FA)-derived indices and to analyze the effects of the major environmental parameters (Depth, Temperature, Salinity, Plankton biomass) on anchovy survival potential at early phases. Fish larvae were collected in August from 30 m to 400 m depth at 35 stations off the southern Iberian coast. A previous upwelling event influenced the oceanographic conditions of the more western stations off Cape São Vicente (CSV). Along the coast, the water became warmer from west to the east through Cape Santa Maria (CSM) ending at Guadiana estuary, where easterly winds originated the development of a counter current. The standardized RNA/DNA (sRD) of anchovy larvae decreased throughout larval ontogeny, reflecting a reduction of growth during the development. Essential FA concentrations also decreased, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in particular was highly conserved even after the reduction of total FA concentration in anchovy larvae related to the onset of swimming abilities (post-flexion phase). The oceanographic conditions (west upwelling, east counter current, and stratification) led to a nearshore aggregation of plankton and anchovy larvae with good ecophysiological conditions in the central area of the southern coast, where an optimal range of temperature and chlorophyll, as an indirect food proxy for anchovy larval development, were registered. The study proves that the oceanographic conditions of the study area are

  13. Fine-scale thermohaline ocean structure retrieved with 2-D prestack full-waveform inversion of multichannel seismic data: Application to the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, D.; Sallarès, V.; Biescas, B.; Ranero, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of 2-D time-domain, adjoint-state acoustic full-waveform inversion (FWI) to retrieve high-resolution models of ocean physical parameters such as sound speed, temperature and salinity. The proposed method is first described and then applied to prestack multichannel seismic (MCS) data acquired in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberia) in 2007 in the framework of the Geophysical Oceanography project. The inversion strategy flow includes specifically designed data preconditioning for acoustic noise reduction, followed by the inversion of sound speed in the shotgather domain. We show that the final sound speed model has a horizontal resolution of ˜ 70 m, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the initial model constructed with coincident eXpendable Bathy Thermograph (XBT) data, and close to the theoretical resolution of O(λ). Temperature (T) and salinity (S) are retrieved with the same lateral resolution as sound speed by combining the inverted sound speed model with the thermodynamic equation of seawater and a local, depth-dependent T-S relation derived from regional conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) measurements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) database. The comparison of the inverted T and S models with XBT and CTD casts deployed simultaneously to the MCS acquisition shows that the thermohaline contrasts are resolved with an accuracy of 0.18oC for temperature and 0.08 PSU for salinity. The combination of oceanographic and MCS data into a common, pseudo-automatic inversion scheme allows to quantitatively resolve submeso-scale features that ought to be incorporated into larger-scale ocean models of oceans structure and circulation.

  14. Palaeohydrological changes over the last 50 ky in the central Gulf of Cadiz: complex forcing mechanisms mixing multi-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaud, Aurélie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Luise Voelker, Antje Helga; Turon, Jean-Louis

    2016-09-01

    New dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) analyses were carried out at high resolution in core MD99-2339, retrieved from a contouritic field in the central part of the Gulf of Cadiz, for the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 interval, allowing for discussion of palaeohydrological changes over the last 50 ky in the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean. Some index dinocyst taxa, according to their (palaeo)ecological significance, shed light on significant sea-surface changes. Superimposed on the general decreasing pattern of dinocyst export to the seafloor over the last 50 ky, paralleling the general context of decreasing aeolian dust fertilization, a complex variability in dinocyst assemblages was detected at the millennial timescale. Enhanced fluvial discharges occurred during Greenland Interstadials (GIs), especially GI 1, 8 and 12, while enhanced upwelling cell dynamics were suggested during the Last Glacial Maximum and Heinrich Stadials. Finally, during the early Holocene, and more specifically during the Sapropel 1 interval (around 7-9 ka BP), we evidenced a strong decrease in dinocyst fluxes, which occurred synchronously to a strong reduction in Mediterranean Outflow Water strength and which we attributed to an advection of warm and nutrient-poor subtropical North Atlantic Central Waters. Over the last 50 ky, our study thus allows for capturing and documenting the fine tuning existing between terrestrial and marine realms in North Atlantic subtropical latitudes, in response to not only the regional climate pattern but also monsoonal forcing interfering during precession-driven Northern Hemisphere insolation maxima. This mechanism, well expressed during the Holocene, is superimposed on the pervasive role of the obliquity as a first major trigger for explaining migration of dinocyst productive centres in the NE Atlantic margin to the subtropical (temperate) latitudes during glacial (interglacial) periods.

  15. An Inquiry into the Problems in Township High School Music Education%乡镇中学音乐教育存在问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜

    2013-01-01

    Through analyzing the problems in the implementation of township high school music education, combining with the characteristics of quality education and music education, this pa-per provides some references for township music teaching.%  本文通过对乡镇中学音乐教育实施中存在的问题,结合素质教育和音乐结合的特点进行了探讨,为乡村的音乐教学提供一些参考意见。

  16. Incidence of Crohn's disease and CARD15 mutation in a small township in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, M; Renda, M C; Mattaliano, A; Oliva, L; Fries, W; Criscuoli, V; Modesto, I; Scimeca, D; Maggio, A; Casà, A; Maisano, S; Mocciaro, F; Sferrazza, A; Orlando, A

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been shown to be lower in Southern than in Northern Europe. Data on the frequency of the NOD2/CARD15 mutations for Mediterranean area are very scant. To determine the incidence of CD from 1979 to 2002 in a township in Sicily together with the allele frequency of NOD2/CARD15 mutations in patients, family members and controls, and to determine the allele frequency of these mutations in sporadic CD from other areas of Sicily in comparison with a control population. Casteltermini is a small town close to Agrigento (Sicily) with a population of 9,130 inhabitants. All the diagnoses of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) made from 1979 to 2002 were obtained through the local health authority. NOD2/CARD15 mutations were studied in 23 out of the 29 patients with CD in Casteltermini, in 60 family members and in 64 controls. NOD2/CARD15 was also studied in 80 sporadic cases of CD disease among Sicilians outside Casteltermini and 118 healthy controls. From 1979 to 2002, 29 patients with CD and 13 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) were registered. The 6-year mean incidence of CD ranged from 8.0 to 17 new cases for every 100,000 inhabitants, whereas the mean incidence of UC ranged from five new cases to 7.8 for every 100,000 inhabitants. The allele frequencies of NOD2/CARD15 mutations (L1007finsC, G908R, R702W) were 8.7, 4.3 and 8.7%, respectively, in CD cases; 5.0, 4.2 and 3.1% in family members; 1.6, 2.3 and 3.1% in controls. In sporadic Sicilian CD patients outside Casteltermini the allele frequency was 7.5, 8.1, 6.2% whereas in control population it was 3.3, 1.6, 1.6%. A high incidence of CD compared with UC was observed in this small town in Southern Italy. The frequency of NOD2/CARD15 mutations in CD is similar to other Caucasian population studied so far.

  17. Unmet health, welfare and educational needs of disabled children in an impoverished South African peri-urban township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloojee, G; Phohole, M; Saloojee, H; IJsselmuiden, C

    2007-05-01

    Childhood disability in South Africa has failed to receive adequate attention from governmental agencies, such as the health, education and social welfare departments, despite there being more than 1 million disabled children in the country. This study sought to assess the unmet rehabilitation, education and welfare needs of disabled children living in a peri-urban township. As no register of disabled children existed, snowball sampling was used to recruit a convenience sample of 156 disabled children living in Orange Farm township near Soweto, South Africa. Children's impairments, their health and educational needs, and the availability and utilization of services were assessed using a structured interview. Few disabled children attended pre-school (35%) or school (44%). Only a quarter (26%) of children in need of rehabilitation received such services. Children with motor impairments were more likely to receive rehabilitation than those with intellectual impairment (44% vs. 8%, P children entitled to a social assistance grant were receiving it. Lack of money, limited awareness about available services, and bureaucratic obstacles were the main reasons offered by caregivers for the low utilization of available services and resources. Children with disabilities living in Orange Farm are not enjoying the rights and services to which they are entitled. Innovative, co-ordinated service delivery strategies, and better-informed caregivers combined with community recognition of, and support for, the needs of disabled children are required to address these unmet needs.

  18. A Proposed Aquatic Plant Community Biotic Index for Wisconsin Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Stanley; Weber, Steven; Shaw, Byron

    2000-11-01

    The Aquatic Macrophyte Community Index (AMCI) is a multipurpose tool developed to assess the biological quality of aquatic plant communities in lakes. It can be used to specifically analyze aquatic plant communities or as part of a multimetric system to assess overall lake quality for regulatory, planning, management, educational, or research purposes. The components of the index are maximum depth of plant growth; percentage of the littoral zone vegetated; Simpson's diversity index; the relative frequencies of submersed, sensitive, and exotic species; and taxa number. Each parameter was scaled based on data distributions from a statewide database, and scaled values were totaled for the AMCI value. AMCI values were grouped and tested by ecoregion and lake type (natural lakes and impoundments) to define quality on a regional basis. This analysis suggested that aquatic plant communities are divided into four groups: (1) Northern Lakes and Forests lakes and impoundments, (2) North-Central Hardwood Forests lakes and impoundments, (3) Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains lakes, and (4) Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains impoundments, Driftless Area Lakes, and Mississippi River Backwater lakes. AMCI values decline from group 1 to group 4 and reflect general water quality and human use trends in Wisconsin. The upper quartile of AMCI values in any region are the highest quality or benchmark plant communities. The interquartile range consists of normally impacted communities for the region and the lower quartile contains severely impacted or degraded plant communities. When AMCI values were applied to case studies, the values reflected known impacts to the lakes. However, quality criteria cannot be used uncritically, especially in lakes that initially have low nutrient levels.

  19. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Energy Optimization Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).

  20. 78 FR 53186 - Revised Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement: Milwaukee County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... is located in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bethaney Bacher-Gresock, Environmental Program Manager, FHWA Wisconsin Division Office, City Center West, 525 Junction Road, Suite 8000... necessary east of 25th Street to accommodate alternatives that would tie back into I-94 near 16th Street...

  1. Tree seed handling, processing, testing, and storage at Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Christians

    2008-01-01

    The Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin grows more than 40 species from seeds. Up to 6000 bushels of raw unprocessed tree and shrub seeds are collected each year, and all seeds are collected in Wisconsin or adjacent states. All white spruce (Picea glauca) and some white pine seeds (Pinus strobus) are collected from orchards containing...

  2. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the...

  3. 75 FR 70026 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wisconsin Historical Society, Museum Division, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Wisconsin Historical Society, Museum Division... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Wisconsin Historical Society, Museum...). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or...

  4. 77 FR 46952 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Regional Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... and Radiation Division, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. This facility is open from... Wisconsin emissions, using the `on the books' inventory, decrease at a similar or greater rate than Michigan... Figures 6 and 7. However, the critical test is whether Wisconsin has provided ``all measures necessary...

  5. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  6. 75 FR 69152 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Brown County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Brown County, WI Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart...

  7. 75 FR 52369 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wisconsin Historical Society, Museum Division, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ..., Madison, WI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... Wisconsin Historical Society (aka State Historical Society of Wisconsin), Museum Division, Madison, WI. The..., Ashland County, WI. This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's...

  8. 78 FR 59424 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Brown County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Brown County, WI On September 6, 2013, Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL) filed with the Surface Transportation Board a petition...

  9. 78 FR 17282 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Kaukauna, Outagamie County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Kaukauna, Outagamie County, WI Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt....

  10. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI Wisconsin Central, Ltd. (WCL), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart...

  11. 78 FR 44596 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI... Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703, telephone (608) 261-2461, email Jennifer.Kolb... Wisconsin, Madison, WI. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from Waupaca...

  12. An Examination of Inter-District Public School Transfers in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, David M.; Statz, Bambi; Skidmore, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Using data for all Wisconsin school districts over the 2003/04 through 2006/07 school years, we evaluate the state of Wisconsin's Open Enrollment (inter-district transfer) program to determine which school district characteristics influence parental transfer decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study of school choice in a public school…

  13. Hydrology and water quality of Geneva Lake, Walworth County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.; Rose, William J.; Garrision, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    As part of continuing efforts to improve the water quality of Geneva Lake, a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and the Geneva Lake Environmental Agency was initiated in 1997 to document the present quality of the lake and its sediments, compute detailed hydrologic and nutrient (primarily phosphorus) budgets for the lake, estimate how changes in nutrient loading may affect water quality, and describe changes in the lake over the past 170 years by comparing water quality measured in this study with historical measurements and sediment-core information. This report presents the results of this collaborative study.

  14. Simulated Performance of the Wisconsin Superconducting Electron Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Bosch, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    The Wisconsin superconducting electron gun is modeled with multiparticle tracking simulations using the ASTRA and GPT codes. To specify the construction of the emittance-compensation solenoid, we studied the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the solenoid's strength and field errors. We also evaluated the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the bunch's initial emittance and the size of the laser spot on the photocathode. The results suggest that a 200-pC bunch with an emittance of about one mm-mrad can be produced for a free-electron laser.

  15. Liver cancer in Wisconsin: The potential for prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkin, I.R.; Remington, P.L.; Moss, M.; Anderson, H. (Wisconsin Division of Health, Madison (USA))

    1990-02-01

    In this study liver cancer deaths that could be attributed to certain risk factors were calculated. Applying population attributable risk methodology, the attributable risk of liver cancer was estimated for alcohol use, hepatitis B viral exposure, and occupational and industrial exposures. We found that these three risk factors accounted for 38% of liver cancer mortality in Wisconsin; 29% was attributable to alcohol consumption, 7% to occupational exposures, and 2% to hepatitis B viral infection. More than half of liver cancer mortality, however, was not accounted for by the three risk factors studied.

  16. Reservoirs of the basin of Guadalete river (Zahara. El Gastor, Bornos and Arcos) in Cadiz; waters quality and their influence with the drought; Embalses de la cuencia del rio Guadalete (Zahara-El Gastor, Bornos y Arcos) de la provincia de Cadiz: calidad de las aguas y su influencia con la sequia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barroso, M. R.; Vidal Valderas, L.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    In this work the results of the limnological study of the reservoirs of the basin of Guadalete river is presented: Zahara-El Gastor, Bonos and Arcos. These reservoirs are part of the hydrography net of the county of Cadiz (south of Spain) and it belongs to the Guadalquivir Hydrography Confederation. The study of physical chemical parameters, together with the data of the climate variations have allowed to know the quality of the dammed water, as well as, to predict certain behaviour rules in the adaptation of the water, in the drinking waters treatment plant for their final destination ad water of supply. The results obtained show a similarity of the waters quality of the reservoirs of Bornos and Arcos, and different to the reservoirs of Zahara-El Gastor because are more saline content. It is showed a progressive decrees of the waters quality dammed during the drought period (1992-1995). In 1995 the water levels was alarmingly lowest. (Author) 19 refs.

  17. Flood magnitude and frequency of Jacks Run at the culvert on U.S. Route 206, Southampton Township, Burlington County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Flood magnitude and frequency of Jacks Run at the culvert on U.S. Route 206, Southampton Township, New Jersey, were determined by using the rational method. Flood magnitude and frequency estimates, as well as basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimate is 29 cubic feet per second.

  18. Flood magnitude and frequency of Monongahela Brook at the culvert on New Jersey Route 41, Deptford Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Flood magnitude and frequency of Monongahela Brook in Deptford Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, were determined by using the rational method. Flood-magnitude and -frequency estimates, as well as drainage-basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimate is 80 cubic feet per second.

  19. Factors Associated with the Competencies of Public Health Workers in Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing Municipality, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhifei; Cheng, Zhaohui; Fu, Hang; Tang, Shangfeng; Fu, Qian; Fang, Haiqing; Xian, Yue; Ming, Hui; Feng, Zhanchun

    2015-11-09

    This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs) of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China), and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China), from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. (1) RESULTS of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 economic level (p = 0.000 economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.001), years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.001), title (p = 0.001 < 0.005), and public health major (p = 0.007 < 0.01). The competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China), are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial to improve the competencies of PHWs in the township hospitals of Chongqing Municipality. The results of this study can be mirrored in other areas of China.

  20. EPA Finalizes Plan to Address Contaminated Groundwater at Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund Site in Milford Borough and Alexandria Township, N.J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has finalized a plan to clean up contaminated groundwater at the Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund site in Milford Borough and Alexandria Township, New Jersey. The site includes the former Milford P

  1. Facilitating access to English for Xhosa-speaking pupils in black township primary schools around Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Hibbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper results from a research project completed by the author in 1994 on the quality of language-learning environments in the Cape Town area . . Xhosa is now constitutionally enshrined as one of the eleven official languages of South Africa, and is the dominant language in Western Cape black townships. This paper questions the fruitfUlness of primary schools in black townships attempting to use English as the sole medium of instruction. The paper shows that in actual classroom situations the Ll (Xhosa is used as an aid to L2 (English medium instruction in the schools of Khayelitsha and Lagunya townships around Cape Town. The paper argues for the recognition and forther extension of such bilingual practices in primary schools to work towards more successfUl use of the L2 as the medium of instruction. It assesses the implications of such bilingual policy for classroom interaction and materials development. Hierdie artikel spruit voort uit 'n navorsingsprojek wat in 1994 deur die skrywer onderneem is in groter Kaapstad oor die kwaliteit van die omgewings waarbinne taal aange/eer word. Xhosa is volgens die konstitusie een van die elf amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika en is die oorheersende taal in die swart woonbuurte van die Wes-Kaap. In hierdie artikel word die waarde bevraagteken van die poging wat in die primere skole in die swart woonbuurte aangewend word om Engels as enigste medium van onderrig te gebruik. In die artikel word ook daarop gewys dat skole in Khayelitsha en Lagunya, twee swart woonbuurte naby Kaapstad, Xhosa (Tl gebruik as hulpmiddel by die onderrig deur medium van Engels (T2. Daar word aangevoer dat hierdie gebruik van tweetalige onderrig in primere skole erkenning behoort te kry en verder uitgebrei behoort te word sodat daar gestrewe kan word na 'n meer suksesvol/e gebruik van die tweede taal as onderrigmedium. 'n Waardebepaling van die implikasies van so 'ntweetalige beleid vir k/askamerinteraksie en die ontwikkeling van

  2. Microbial methylation of mercury in upper Wisconsin river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, S.M.; Winfrey, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The microbial methylation of Hg was studied in water and sediments from the Upper Wisconsin River by quantifying the methylation of radioactive Hg(II) (/sup 203/Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/). Methylation activity was near detection limits in the water, highest in surface sediments (0 to 4 cm), and decreased with increasing sediment depth. Methylation had a temperature optimum of 35/sup 0/C. Organically enriched sediments exhibited higher methylation activity than less eutrophic sediments. Methylation activity in sediments was stimulated by the addition of peptone but not by glucose or starch. Oxygenation of sediments inhibited methylation activity. A summertime peak in methylation activity, observed in water, floc, and sediments, was related to factors other than temperature. More than 98% of the added /sup 203/Hg(II) was bound to sediments within 4 hr of inoculation, while more than 3% was methylated during a 10-day incubation. As much as 7% of the added /sup 203/Hg(II) was methylated in other experiments, suggesting that bound Hg is available for methylation. These data suggest that organic-rich surficial sediments in the Upper Wisconsin River have the potential to produce significant amounts of toxic methylmercury during late summer months.

  3. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Meyer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Samples from several wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin were screened for the presence of 21 antibiotic compounds. These facilities spanned a range of community size served (average daily flow from 0.0212 to 23.6 million gallons/day), secondary treatment processes, geographic locations across the state, and they discharged the treated effluents to both surface and ground waters (for ground water after a soil passage). A total of six antibiotic compounds were detected (1-5 compounds per site), including two sulfonamides (sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole), one tetracycline (tetracycline), fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin), macrolide (erythromycin-H2O) and trimethoprim. The frequency of detection of antibiotics was in the following order: tetracycline and trimethoprim (80%) > sulfamethoxazole (70%) > erythromycin-H2O (45%) > ciprofloxacin (40%) > sulfamethazine (10%). However, the soluble concentrations were in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range (??? 1.3 ??g/L), and importantly were unaffected by the size of the wastewater treatment facility. The concentrations detected were within an order of magnitude of those reported for similar systems in Europe and Canada: they were within a factor of two in comparison to those reported for Canada but generally lower relative to those measured in wastewater systems in Europe. Only sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in groundwater monitoring wells adjacent to the treatment systems. Future intensive wastewater monitoring programs in Wisconsin may be limited to the six antibiotic compounds detected in this study. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Duane H.

    1971-01-01

    This report provides methods for estimating flood characteristics at most sites where flood information may be needed for planning and design and summatizes the significant flood data and related information available on Wisconsin streams. Individual equations are presented for estimating flood discharges for selected recurrence intervals up to a 25-year flood for drainage areas 0.5 square miles and larger, a 50-year flood for drainage areas 20 square miles and larger, and a 100-year flood for drainage areas 50 square miles and larger. A ratio method is used for estimating a 50-year flood for drainage areas 0.5 to 20 square miles. The equations were defined from multiple-regression analysis of flood peak records and basin characteristics for 119 continuous-record gaging stations and 114 crest-stage partial-record stations in Wisconsin and adjoining States. Of the severai basin characteristics used in this study, only drainage area, main-channel slope, lake and marsh area, and areal factors were found to be statistically significant at the 99 percent effectiveness level for all flood frequencies. Solution of a hypothetical problem is given for using the flood-frequency equations. Graphs are presented for solution of flood discharges on regulated streams where the formulas are not applicable. Flood-frequency characteristics, 2-year flood to 100-year flood, and drainage basin characteristics for stations used in the multiple regression are presented in the appendices of this report.

  5. The Emergence of Clinically Relevant Babesiosis in Southwestern Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Todd J; Jobe, Dean A; Dolan, Emily C; Kessler, Anne; Lovrich, Steven D; Callister, Steven M

    2015-08-01

    To determine the frequency and characteristics of babesiosis cases, and to assess the impact of the introduction of a tick-borne infection diagnostic panel on babesiosis diagnosis in the region surrounding La Crosse, Wisconsin, where babesiosis in non-travelers was previously rare. In the spring of 2013, we conducted a point-in-time survey of Ixodes scopuloris ticks for the presence of Babesia microti. We also conducted a retrospective study of all babesiosis cases diagnosed in our health system between January 1, 2004, and November 1, 2013. Finally, we compared the number of babesiosis cases diagnosed during the study period before and after the June 1, 2012, introduction of a tick-borne infection diagnostic panel in our organization. Babesia microti was present in 5% of ticks surveyed in our region. Twenty-two cases. of babesiosis were diagnosed in our organization during the study period-19 since 2010. The tick-borne infection diagnostic panel was used widely by clinicians, with an attendant increase in babesiosis diagnoses. Babesiosis should be considered endemic in southwestern Wisconsin, and testing should be considered for patients with compatible clinical and laboratory features.

  6. 3D crustal seismic velocity model for the Gulf of Cadiz and adjacent areas (SW Iberia margin) based on seismic reflection and refraction profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Lucía; Cantavella, Juan Vicente; Barco, Jaime; Carranza, Marta; Burforn, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic margin of the SW Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco has been subject of study during the last 30 years. Many seismic reflection and refraction profiles have been carried out offshore, providing detailed information about the crustal structure of the main seafloor tectonic domains in the region, from the South Portuguese Zone and the Gulf of Cadiz to the Abyssal Plains and the Josephine Seamount. The interest to obtain a detailed and realistic velocity model for this area, integrating the available data from these studies, is clear, mainly to improve real-time earthquake hypocentral location and for tsunami and earthquake early warning. Since currently real-time seismic location tools allow the implementation of 3D velocity models, we aim to generate a full 3D crustal model. For this purpose we have reviewed more than 50 profiles obtained in different seismic surveys, from 1980 to 2008. Data from the most relevant and reliable 2D seismic velocity published profiles were retrieved. We first generated a Moho depth map of the studied area (latitude 32°N - 41°N and longitude 15°W - 5°W) by extracting Moho depths along each digitized profile with a 10 km spacing, and then interpolating this dataset using ordinary kriging method and generating the contour isodepth map. Then, a 3D crustal velocity model has been obtained. Selected vertical sections at different distances along each profile were considered to retrieve P-wave velocity values at each interface in order to reproduce the geometry and the velocity gradient within each layer. A double linear interpolation, both in distance and depth, with sampling rates of 10 km and 1 km respectively, was carried out to generate a (latitude, longitude, depth, velocity) matrix. This database of all the profiles was interpolated to obtain the P-wave velocity distribution map every kilometer of depth. The new 3D velocity model has been integrated in NonLinLoc location program to relocate several representative

  7. 四川郫县古城乡汉墓%Han Period Tombs at Gucheng Township in Pixian County, Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成都市文物考古研究所; 郫县博物馆

    2004-01-01

    In 1997-1998, excavation revealed 14 tombs (12 earthen-pit and two brick-chambered) at Gucheng and Xinlu villages in Gucheng Township about 8 km north of the seat of Pixian County.They yielded rich funeral objects, including bronze, pottery, iron and bone articles. The pottery forms an overwhelming majority. It consists mainly of clay ware, and sandy one occurs in a small amount.There are gray and some brown products with plain surface in most cases. They belong to the jar, bo bowl, basin, fu cauldron, zeng steamer, ding tripod, models of well and kitchen range, etc. The earthen-pit tombs should be dated to the Western Han period, while the brick-chambered to the Eastern Han.

  8. Child Support Grant access and receipt among 12-week-old infants in an urban township setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanga Zembe-Mkabile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cash transfers (CTs are increasingly used as a strategy to alleviate poverty and improve child health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The Child Support Grant (CSG is the largest CT programme in South Africa, and on the continent, targeting poor children from birth until the age of 18 with a monthly sum of R300 (USD30. Evidence on the CSG shows that early receipt of the grant is associated with improved child health outcomes. Since its implementation, one of the major concerns about the grant has been take-up rates, particularly for younger children. This paper reports results on take-up rates for 12-week-old infants residing in an urban township in South Africa. Methods: This is a descriptive study utilising data from a community-based, cluster-randomised trial which evaluated a programme providing pregnancy and post-natal home visits by community health workers to 3,494 mothers in Umlazi township, South Africa. Results: At the 12-week visit, half (52% of the mothers who had enrolled in the study had applied for the CSG on behalf of their children, while 85% of the mothers who had not applied were still planning to apply. Only 38% (1,327 of all children had received the CSG. Conclusions: In this study, many mothers had not applied for the CSG in the first few months after delivery, and only a third of children had accessed the grant. Further research is needed to understand what the current barriers are that prevent mothers from applying for this important form of social protection in the early months after delivery.

  9. Report on a survey for new energy vision establishment in Yoshimatsu Township; Yoshimatsumachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper reports on a survey for new energy vision establishment in Yoshimatsu Township located in the northern tip of Kagoshima Prefecture. The estimated values for expected usable amounts of the new energies under the vision are solar energy at 3.9 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, wastes energy at 3349 Gcal/year, small hydraulic power at 0.1 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, wind power at 14.3 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, and geothermal energy at 62.25 Gcal/year. The new energies having high possibility for introducing them into the area are solar energy, wind power and small hydraulic power, all being utilized mainly for electric power generation. The specific introduction plan calls for installing wind power plants in the Mizuhara area to expand population exchange and enlighten people on the plan. The same purpose applies to solar energy power plus wind power generation in Ikedaira Park, and the solar energy power generation plan for the highway front. For enhancement, education and enlightenment of the people on welfare, solar energy power plants are intended to be built for the township office building, multi-purpose gymnasium, primary and secondary schools, lunch supply center, and the home of welfare. A micro-hydroelectric power plant is intended to be installed in the Takenaka water purification plant to expand population exchange and enlighten the people on the plan. A solar energy power plant is also planned to be built in front of Yoshimatsu Station (NEDO)

  10. Implementing a New Diabetes Resource for Wisconsin Schools and Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Nimsgern, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the nation. Students with diabetes face the daily task of balancing food, physical activity, and medication to survive. Teachers and school personnel often lack the knowledge needed to assist them. Context An estimated 2647 schoolchildren in Wisconsin have diabetes. The Wisconsin Diabetes Prevention and Control Program frequently receives anecdotal reports from parents and diabetes educators on the care of children with diabetes in the schools; the program also manages requests for information on new diabetes-related equipment from school personnel. Methods A statewide workgroup convened to develop Children with Diabetes: A Resource Guide for Wisconsin Schools and Families, aimed at improving the school staff's knowledge of diabetes and its management and their awareness of the benefits of maintaining glucose control. Training sessions for school professionals were developed and conducted around the state. All attendees were asked to complete an evaluation of the training. In addition, the workgroup included an evaluation form with each guide distributed and conducted a follow-up survey on the impact of the guide and changes to school policies. Consequences Of the 762 people who attended training sessions, 631 (83% completed the evaluation form. On questions about the training session’s content, quality, organization, and appropriateness, responses averaged 4.42 points on a scale of 1 (poor to 5 (excellent. More than 9713 resource guides were distributed to more than 1359 individuals; 58 recipients responded to the evaluation form included with the resource guide, with 57 (98% of these indicating that they would recommend the guide to others. Preliminary results of the follow-up impact survey show that many positive changes have been implemented to improve the school environment for children with diabetes since the resource guide was implemented. Interpretation This model of working

  11. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koker, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Lizotte, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility is a demonstration project that supported the first commercial-scale use in the United States of high solids, static pile technology for anaerobic digestion of organic waste to generate biogas for use in generating electricity and heat. The research adds to the understanding of startup, operation and supply chain issues for anaerobic digester technology. Issues and performance were documented for equipment installation and modifications, feedstock availability and quality, weekly loading and unloading of digestion chambers, chemical composition of biogas produced, and energy production. This facility also demonstrated an urban industrial ecology approach to siting such facilities near sewage treatment plants (to capture and use excess biogas generated by the plants) and organic yard waste collection sites (a source of feedstock).

  12. Plasma resistivity measurements in the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouchous, D. A.

    1980-11-01

    Resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field were made on gun injected plasmas ranging in density from 10/sup 9/cm/sup -3/ to 10/sup 1/parallelcm/sup -3/ in the Wisconsin levitated octupole with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. The 10/sup 9/cm/sup -3/ plasma was collisionless with lambda/sub mfp/ > 100 mirror lengths, had T/sub e/ = 10 eV, T/sub i/ = 30 eV and was found to have anomalous resistivity scaling like eta = ..sqrt..T/sub e//n/sub e/ when E/sub parallel/ > E/su c/ is the Dreicer critical field. The 10/sup 12/cm/sup -3/ plasma was collisional with lambda/sub mfp/ < mirror length, had T/sub e/ = T/sub i/ approx. = .2 eV and was found to have Spitzer resistivity when E/sub parallel/ < E/sub c/.

  13. What about inhibition in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Houssemand, Claude

    2011-05-01

    The commercially available Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is one of the most commonly used tests for assessing executive functions within clinical settings. Importantly, however, it remains relatively unclear exactly what processes are assessed by the test. Conceptually, increased perseverative errors in sorting cards are usually related to deficient inhibition processes. Empirically, evidence supporting this conclusion is limited. In a sample of 38 healthy adults we addressed the question to what extent inhibition mechanisms assessed by the go/no-go and the stop-signal paradigm are related to WCST performances. Inhibition-related scores were found to predict non-perseverative errors better than perseverative errors. Consequently we conclude that the non-perseverative errors score reflects processes that are partly dependent on inhibition functions.

  14. Factors Associated with the Competencies of Public Health Workers in Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing Municipality, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifei He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to explore the competencies of public health workers (PHWs of township hospitals in Chongqing Municipality (China, and determine the related impact factors of the competencies of PHWs; Methods: A cross-sectional research was conducted on 314 PHWs from 27 township hospitals in three districts in Chongqing Municipality (China, from June to August 2014. A self-assessment questionnaire was established on the basis of literature reviews and a competency dictionary. The differences in competencies among the three districts were determined by adopting the chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA method, and the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs were determined by adopting stepwise regression analysis. Results: (1 Results of the demographic characteristics of PHWs in three sample districts of Chongqing Municipality showed that a significant difference in age of PHWs (p = 0.021 < 0.05 and the majors of PHWs (p = 0.045 < 0.05; (2 In terms of the self-evaluation competency results of PHWs in township hospitals, seven among the 11 aspects were found to have significant differences in the three districts by the ANOVA test; (3 By adopting the t-test and ANOVA method, results of the relationship between the characteristics of PHWs and their competency scores showed that significant differences were found in the economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.05, age (p = 0.000 < 0.05, years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.05 and title of PHWs (p = 0.000 < 0.05; (4 Stepwise regression analysis was used to determine the impact factors of the competencies of PHWs in township hospitals, including the economic level (p = 0.000 < 0.001, years of working (p = 0.000 < 0.001, title (p = 0.001 < 0.005, and public health major (p = 0.007 < 0.01. Conclusions: The competencies of the township hospital staff in Chongqing Municipality (China, are generally insufficient, therefore, regulating the medical education and training skills of PHWs is crucial

  15. Linkages To Engagement At University of Wisconsin-Parkside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. V.

    2007-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Parkside Department of Geosciences is a small but successful department within one of the smallest comprehensive universities in the University of Wisconsin system. Formerly a more traditional "rocks and petroleum" program, the Department was on the verge of extinction in 1999. Fortunately, a farsighted Dean intervened and proposed a change of direction for the department, filling in behind retirements with new leadership and a strong environmental focus. Several strategies have been key to resuscitating the Department to its current status, increasing majors, faculty, and SCH/FTE. First, we embraced our niche as the environmental resource, specifically offering urban or other developed settings for our focus on environmental quality. Secondly we revamped our majors' curriculum to enable our students to learn to integrate practical technological skills in sampling, analysis, instrumentation use, and civic engagement to produce positive outcomes at both physical and social levels. Thirdly, our Department has become a strong and active supporter of a teacher preparation program that is undergoing important curriculum and organizational changes. Our newest faculty addition is an atmospheric chemist with significant teaching responsibility in our campus' new Liberal Arts major for elementary school teachers. Geosciences faculty also vigorously support a certificate program in Community Based Learning, direct the campus minor in Environmental Studies, and have actively participated in campus initiatives such as First Year Experience, General Education reform, the campus' Teaching and Learning Center, and collaborative course offerings that link academic skills (math, reading, writing) courses to extra support in General Education science courses. In addition, the Department has taken campus leadership in participation in the national SENCER initiative, which links science education and civic engagement. Finally, we have also amended and

  16. Early-season flood enhances native biological control agents in Wisconsin cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is predicated on the concept that crop plants are protected when predators suppress herbivore populations. However, many factors, including concurrent crop protection strategies, may modify the effectiveness of a predator in a given agroecosystem. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry...

  17. Food Abundance at Three Candidate Whooping Crane Reintroduction Sites in Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Horicon Marsh, Central Wisconsin, and Crex Meadows were studied during spring and summer 1999 to assess suitability as reintroduction sites for the endangered...

  18. Interim annual narrative report: Wisconsin Wetland Management District: July 1, 1975 - December 31, 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Wisconsin Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments from July through December of 1975. The report begins with an...

  19. 75 FR 28595 - Wisconsin Power River Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... River Company, P.O. Box 19001, Green Bay, Wisconsin 54307, (920) 433-1094. i. FERC Contact: Jade Alvey at (202) 502-6864 or Jade.Alvey@ferc.gov . j. Deadline for filing comments: June 14, 2010....

  20. Radon-222 concentrations in ground water and soil gas on Indian reservations in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWild, John F.; Krohelski, James T.

    1995-01-01

    The weighted average radon-222 concentration of indoor air in homes located on Wisconsin Indian Reservations is 5.8 picocuries per liter, which exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action limit of 4 picocuries per liter. Ground water is the principle source of drinking water on Wisconsin Indian Reservations and generally accounts for about 5 percent of the total indoor air radon-222 concentrations found in homes. To determine the distribution of radon-222, ground water from 29 private and community Wisconsin Indian Reservation wells and soil gas at a depth of about 3 feet below land surface adjacent to the wells were sampled. Sites with wells were distributed among the 11 Wisconsin Indian Reservations so that each Reservation contained at least 2 sites. The remaining seven sites were divided among the Reservation by acreage held by each tribe.

  1. The Trail Inventory of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Stations in Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to summarize the baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on National Wildlife Refuges in Wisconsin. Trails in this inventory are...

  2. Luminal preservation of rat small intestine with University of Wisconsin or Celsior solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuvenink, HGD; van Dijk, A; Freund, RL; Ploeg, RJ; van Goor, H

    2005-01-01

    Aims. Luminal administration of a preservation solution that prevents mucosal injury may decrease posttransplant complications. However, luminal administration of University of Wisconsin solution (UW) is controversial. In this study, we examined the potential of Celsior as a luminal small bowel

  3. EPA Awards Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities Grants to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Shoreline Cities grants totaling more than $800,000 to four cities in Wisconsin to fund green infrastructure projects that will improve water quality in

  4. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  5. The evolution of Wisconsin's urban FIA program—yesterday today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Stoltman; Richard B. Rideout

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, Wisconsin was part of two pilot projects in cooperation with the US Forest Service. The first was a street tree assessment, and the second was an urban FIA project. The data generated by these pilots changed the way that Wisconsin DNRs’ Urban Forestry Program conducts its business. Although there have been several urban FIA pilot projects throughout the U.S.,...

  6. Comparison and selection of three compensation policies for township hospitals%乡镇卫生院三种补偿政策的比较和选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杰

    2016-01-01

    This paper compared the three compensation policies for township hospitals since new health care reform in China. The results showed that“directional compensation”policy is in line with the actual situation in most areas. It can be used as main policy for the compensation of township hospitals. Besides some suggestions were put forward to improve this kind of policy.%文章分析比较了我国新医改以来乡镇卫生院的三类补偿政策,认为“定项补偿”符合大多数地区的实际情况,可作为乡镇卫生院补偿的主导政策,并提出了完善这一政策的建议。

  7. The role of education and training in job creation and poverty alleviation in the Sicelo township of Midvaal municipality / Mbuiswa Masoka

    OpenAIRE

    Masoka, Mbuiswa

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation studies the role of education and training in job creation and poverty alleviation in the Sicelo Township. The study focuses on three areas, namely, unemployment, poverty and education and training. The actual state of unemployment and poverty in Sicelo is determined and the role of education and training in solving the problems of unemployment and poverty is discussed. Unemployment is identified, amongst others, as a major determinant of poverty. The main component of an...

  8. Epidemiology of Human Fascioliasis and Intestinal Helminthes in Rural Areas of Boyer-Ahmad Township, Southwest Iran; A Population Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    HOSSEINI, Ghasem; Bahador SARKARI; Moshfe, Abdolali; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, is one of the most important plant and water borne disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis and intestinal helminthes in inhabitants of rural areas of Boyer-Ahmad in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province in Southwest of Iran.Methods: Stool samples (1025) were collected from inhabitant of 50 randomly selected villages in Boyer-Ahmad Township. Samples were evaluated with modified Telemann ...

  9. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yunbo; Hu, Guijie; Chen, Qingyun; Peng, Hailun; Li, Kailan; Wei, Jinling; Yi, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs), the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs) starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33%) had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55%) had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  10. Flood magnitude and frequency of Black Creek at the culvert on New Jersey Route 94, Vernon Township, Sussex County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of floods at Black Creek tributary at the culvert on New Jersey Route 94 at milepost 43.0 in Vernon Township, New Jersey, were determined by using the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Special Report 38 method. Estimates of flood magnitude and frequency calculated by the Special Report 38 method, as well as drainage-basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimate is 261 cubic feet per second.

  11. Flood magnitude and frequency of Little Timber Creek at the culvert on Interstate Route 295, Haddon Heights Township, Camden County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of floods at the Little Timber Creek at the culvert on Interstate 295, at milepost 28.9, in Haddon Heights Township, New Jersey, were determined by using the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Special Report 38 method. Flood-magnitude and -frequency estimates, as well as drainage-basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimate is 770 cubic feet per second.

  12. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Qing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs, the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. Methods: An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Results: Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33% had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55% had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Conclusion: Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  13. Comprehension of Fish Consumption Guidelines Among Older Male Anglers in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle R; Thompson, Brooke A; Schrank, Candy S; Williams, Meghan C W; Anderson, Henry A

    2016-02-01

    Although awareness of Wisconsin's fish consumption guidelines is high among older male anglers, little is known about comprehension of guideline content, and many anglers have levels of contaminants high enough to be associated with adverse health outcomes. The Environmental Protection Agency Great Lakes Restoration Initiative supported evaluation and revision of Wisconsin's fish consumption guideline program, using a web based survey of male Wisconsin anglers over the age of 50. A total of 3740 men completed the online survey; the median age of respondents was 62 years, and nearly all had lived and fished in Wisconsin for over 10 years. Comprehension of guideline content was relatively high, although two knowledge gaps were identified, one relating to mercury exposures and fish preparation, and the other to polychlorinated biphenyl content of certain fish species. The fishing regulations booklet distributed with annual fishing licenses and warning signs posted at fishing locations were commonly reported sources of guideline information in Wisconsin. Residents of coastal counties and consumers of Great Lakes fish were more likely to report guideline knowledge and behavior changes reflective of guideline knowledge, when compared to inland residents and those not consuming Great Lakes fish, respectively. In general, Wisconsin's consumption guidelines do not appear to discourage men from eating the fish they catch; rather, the most common behavioral changes included modifying the species eaten or the water body source of their meals. Continued efforts to educate anglers about the risks and benefits of fish consumption are needed.

  14. 浅析现代作家的“小城意识”%Analysis on Township Consciousness of Modern Writers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琼

    2011-01-01

    现代作家在以小城(镇)为背景的小说中,以乡村和城市为参照,借由小城引发了对社会历史的价值评判及由此衍生出来的审美倾向,即可称之为"小城意识"。"小城意识"的生成折射出写作者的精神状态,它在文本中可以具象化为既对立又相互包含、紧密联系的两个意识层面———家园意识和忧患意识,在"小城意识"的影响之下,许多作品存在着明显的局限性。%Modern writers use small cities and towns as the background of their novels by cities and countryside as the reference,thus bring about the value evaluation on the social history and the aesthetic trend derived from it,which can be called township consciousness.The formation of township consciousness reflects the writers' spiritual states of ambivalence,which shows in two levels of consciousness,namely,home and suffering consciousness.Influenced by the township consciousness,some works enjoy clear limitations.

  15. Impact on the Performance of Health Workers Adopted Performance-Related Contracts in the Provision of Basic Public Health Service at Village and Township Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper focus on the impact on the performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of a government stipulated package of basic public health service, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode. Methods: The concept of balanced scorecard was adopted and developed to gather the 11 evaluation indicators distributed in four quadrants. These were implemented using on-site questionnaire and interview design. Four thousand and twenty-one respondents at 30 administrative villages including 2674 respondents at 20 pilot villages and 1347 at 10 control villages were investigated. Meanwhile, 62 administration officials from three counties and nine townships were interviewed. Results: Eight of 11 evaluation indicators were obviously better in pilot counties than in Control County, The remaining three indicators respectively represented that equal, inferior to control county, and could not clear judge. Conclusion: The performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of basic public health service in pilot counties, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode, is better than before and control county.

  16. LOCAL GOVERNMENT, ENTERPRISES AND INDIVIDUALS:ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION IN THE PEARL RIVER DELTA——A Case Study in Beijiao Township, Shunde City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Pearl River (Zhujiang) Delta (PRD) has been a focal point in reform era academic circles not only for its dramatic industrial growth but also the simultaneous agricultural development. Unlike most of existing research on the PRD economic development and transformation from the whole region level, this paper explored this question from the perspective of a township using Beijiao in Shunde City as a case study. Unlike the conclusions of existing studies which attribute the regional economic transition to the macro factors, particularly the influence of external investment, this research reveals that at the level of township, the local government, the town-village owned enterprises and the individuals have been playing remarkable roles in local economic transformation. In the early stage since the economic reform, Beijiao township government, replacing the central and provincial governments before, began to manipulate the development of town-village owned enterprises and lead the local economic transformation from agricultural to industrial dominated. As the town-village owned enterprises grew during the later years, they gradually acted as the main dominant player leading the local agricultural and industrial growth. At the same time the individuals in Beijiao were playing more independent role to gain their most profits. While the local government changed to be the real manager of local economies. So the local economic transition was not entirely externally driven. In another word, the "driven from outside" model can not totally explain the economic fact in this specific region.

  17. Pulmonary Blastomycosis in Vilas County, Wisconsin: Weather, Exposures and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is a serious fungal infection contracted by inhalation of Blastomyces spores from the environment. Case occurrence in dogs in Vilas County, Wisconsin, has been associated with antecedent weather. We aimed to explore the effects of weather on the occurrence of human pulmonary blastomycosis in this area, and update exposure factors and symptoms since last published reports. Methods: Mandatory case reports were reviewed. Chi-square test was used for categorical data of exposures, comparing 1979–1996 (n=101 versus 1997–June 2013 (n=95. Linear regression was used to model local weather data (available 1990–2013; n=126; Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI, and Wisconsin River water discharge (WRD from the adjacent county (all available for 1984–2013; n=174; and case counts of known onset by warm (April–September and cold (October–March 6-month periods. Results: Distribution of pulmonary blastomycosis cases did not vary by season. Environmental exposures for the 1997–June 2013 group (mean age 45, 59% male were: residence(76%, excavation (42% and gardening (31%, all similar to the 1979–1996 group. Fishing (23% vs. 37%; P=0.09 and hunting (15% vs. 26%; P=0.13 exposures were less common in 1997–June 2013, but not significantly different. Overall, 69% of cases recalled some prior soil-disturbing activities. Considering the 6-month warm/cold periods, 19% of variation is explained by a direct relationship with total precipitation from two periods prior (P=0.005. There was no association of case occurrence with SOI, NAOI or WRD. Estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis for 1997–June 2013 was 27/100,000 compared with 44/100,000 for 1984–1996. Several symptoms were significantly less frequent in 2002–June 2013 compared to earlier years. Conclusions: As with dogs, human pulmonary blastomycosis occurrence is partially determined by antecedent precipitation. It is unclear if

  18. Reading is FUNdamental: The effect of a reading programme on vocabulary development in a high poverty township school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Scheepers

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of the vocabulary of grade 7 learners in a reading project currently underway at a school in Atteridgeville, a township on the outskirts of Pretoria. A library has been established at the school and teachers throughout the school attend workshops designed to heighten their awareness of the value of reading and the importance of vocabulary, and to provide them with strategies to facilitate the development of reading. This paper focuses on the vocabulary development of grade 7 learners – they are in the senior phase of primary school and will soon be entering high school where they will be faced with more academic vocabulary in context-reduced textbooks. Learners’ vocabulary was tested early in the year and then again towards the end to assess whether increased access to books and reading had had an effect on vocabulary growth. Results revealed that learners at the project school showed a lack of vocabulary, even at the end of the study period, not only in terms of academic words but also high frequency words. Extensive reading alone is clearly not enough – learners need explicit vocabulary instruction: in order to read successfully at high school level, learners need a working knowledge of academic vocabulary, and this knowledge is developed by reading – but learners cannot read successfully without an adequate basic high-frequency vocabulary.

  19. GIS-based groundwater spring potential assessment and mapping in the Birjand Township, southern Khorasan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtaghi, Zohre Sadat; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2014-05-01

    Three statistical models—frequency ratio (FR), weights-of-evidence (WofE) and logistic regression (LR)—produced groundwater-spring potential maps for the Birjand Township, southern Khorasan Province, Iran. In total, 304 springs were identified in a field survey and mapped in a geographic information system (GIS), out of which 212 spring locations were randomly selected to be modeled and the remaining 92 were used for the model evaluation. The effective factors—slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), slope length (LS), plan curvature, lithology, land use, and distance to river, road, fault—were derived from the spatial database. Using these effective factors, groundwater spring potential was calculated using the three models, and the results were plotted in ArcGIS. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn for spring potential maps and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed. The final results indicated that the FR model (AUC = 79.38 %) performed better than the WofE (AUC = 75.69 %) and LR (AUC = 63.71 %) models. Sensitivity and factor analyses concluded that the bivariate statistical index model (i.e. FR) can be used as a simple tool in the assessment of groundwater spring potential when a sufficient number of data are obtained.

  20. Job satisfaction and its modeling among township health center employees: a quantitative study in poor rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zu X

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction is important to staff management of township health centers (THCs, as it is associated with organizational performance, quality of care and employee retention. The purpose of this study was to measure job satisfaction level of THC employees in poor rural China and to identify relevant features in order to provide policy advice on human resource development of health service institutions in poor regions. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was used to assess the job satisfaction and relevant features (response rate: 90.5% among 172 employees (i.e., clinic doctors, medico-technical workers and public health workers of 17 THCs in Anhui and Xinjiang provinces of China. The study covered a time period of two months in 2007. Results The mean staff job satisfaction scored 83.3, which was in the category of "somewhat satisfied" on a scale ranging from 0 (extremely dissatisfied to 100 (extremely satisfied by employing Likert's transformation formula. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA revealed eight domains involved in modeling of job satisfaction, among which, the caregivers were more satisfied with job significance (88.2, job competency (87.9 and teamwork (87.7, as compared with work reward (72.9 and working conditions (79.7. Mean job satisfaction in Xinjiang (89.7 was higher than that in Anhui (75.5. Conclusions Employees of THCs have moderate job satisfactions in poor areas, which need to be raised further by improving their working conditions and reward.

  1. Speech-language therapists supporting foundation-phase teachers with literacy and numeracy in a rural and township context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wium, Anna-Marie; Louw, Brenda; Eloff, Irma

    2010-12-01

    Language is required for learning, but educators often find it difficult to facilitate listening and language skills while they have to adapt to a new national curriculum with an outcomes-based approach for which they have not necessarily been adequately trained. A multifaceted support programme was developed for foundation-phase educators to facilitate listening and language for literacy and numeracy, with a particular focus on language for numeracy. The aim of the research was to determine the value of this particular support programme for foundation-phase educators in two different contexts (a semi-rural and a township context). A mixed methods approach with a concurrent, equal status triangulation design was used, where qualitative data were transformed to quantitative data in order to be compared in a matrix. The results show that the participants benefited to varying degrees from the programme. The combination of workshops, practical and mentoring components proved to be an effective means of support. The results indicate a need for pre-training selection procedures as more effective support can be provided to homogeneous groups.

  2. Verification and value of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology township seasonal rainfall forecasts in Australia, 1997 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizard, A. L.; Anderson, G. A.; Buckley, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    We verified the Bureau of Meteorology's seasonal rainfall forecasts for 262 townships throughout Australia, from its inception in June 1997 to May 2005. The results indicate that the forecasting system had low skill. Brier Skill Score and the receiver operating characteristic values were uniformly close to the no skill value. Forecast variances were consistently small. The overall observed variance was 0.0048, 2.1% of the variance of a perfect system. The estimate of the gradient of the outcome against forecast was 0.42 and was imprecise. Definitive statements about bias cannot be made. The value of the forecasts for decision-makers was estimated using value score curves, calculated for six forecast scenarios. All curves indicated that no economic benefit could have been reliably derived by users of the seasonal rainfall forecasts, with the exception of users with decisions triggered by a small shift in the forecast from climatology, in which case small economic gains may have occurred. Small value scores were associated with the observed forecast variance, not the observed bias. We examined the expected change in value scores associated with any future increase in forecast variance. This showed that a moderate increase from the observed variance would bring limited benefits. Substantial value to a broad range of users will only occur with a large increase in forecast variance. To deliver this, new lead indicators with markedly better predictive characteristics may need to be developed for the seasonal rainfall forecasting system.

  3. The roles of community health workers in management of non-communicable diseases in an urban township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolekile, Lungiswa P; Puoane, Thandi; Schneider, Helen; Levitt, Naomi S; Steyn, Krisela

    2014-11-21

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly being recognised as a crucial part of the health workforce in South Africa and other parts of the world. CHWs have taken on a variety of roles, including community empowerment, provision of services and linking communities with health facilities. Their roles are better understood in the areas of maternal and child health and infectious diseases (HIV infection, malaria and tuberculosis). This study seeks to explore the current roles of CHWs working with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The study was conducted in an urban township in Cape Town, South Africa. A qualitative naturalistic research design utilising observations and in-depth interviews with CHWs and their supervisors working in Khayelitsha was used. CHWs have multiple roles in the care of NCDs. They act as health educators, advisors, rehabilitation workers and support group facilitators. They further screen for complications of illness and assist community members to navigate the health system. These roles are shaped both by expectations of the health system and in response to community needs. This study indicates the complexities of the roles of CHWs working with NCDs. Understanding the actual roles of CHWs provides insights into not only the competencies required to enable them to fulfil their daily functions, but also the type of training required to fill the present gaps.

  4. Evaluation of borehole geophysical and video logs, at Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, D.J.; Conger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Between February 1996 and November 2000, geophysical logging was conducted in 27 open borehole wells in and adjacent to the Butz Landfill Superfund Site, Jackson Township, Monroe County, Pa., to determine casing depth and depths of water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, and zones of vertical borehole flow. The wells range in depth from 57 to 319 feet below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so that the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, fluid-temperature, and video logs. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, and fluid-resistivity logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy.

  5. Report on a regional new energy vision establishment in Yatsuka Township; Yatsukamachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys and discussions were given on establishing a new energy vision in Yatsuka Township in Shimane Prefecture. For the survey on available amount of natural energies (sunlight and wind), all-weather insolation required for solar energy power generation was analyzed by using the NEDO information, and wind was analyzed based on observations at Matsue Meteorological Observatory, Sakai-minato Observatory, and Nakaura Water Gate. In discussing the system, power generation amount in the Matsue area was estimated for the case when solar cells of single crystal silicon plus amorphous hybrid type HIP-H48B1 are used. For wind power generation, power generation amount was calculated from observation values derived at the Nakaura water gate when wind mills with diameters from 2 to 10 m are used. Furthermore, calculations were performed on power amount generated uniformly by using a hybrid system using solar energy power generation and wind power generation. As a result of the discussions, a plan was established to introduce the new energies by means of a solar and wind energy hybrid power generation system to the greenhouse 'Green Stellar' symbolizing the Japan's largest peony production, being capable of year-round peony cultivation. The system is planned to be introduced to the town office building and other public organizations sequentially according to annual programs. (NEDO)

  6. Community perceptions of risk factors for interpersonal violence in townships in Cape Town, South Africa: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen

    2015-12-27

    Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.

  7. TOO SICK TO START: ENTREPRENEUR’S HEALTH AND BUSINESS ENTRY IN TOWNSHIPS AROUND DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAO, LI-WEI; SZREK, HELENA; PEREIRA, NUNO SOUSA; PAULY, MARK V.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike large firms with management teams, small businesses are usually run by one key person, the owner-entrepreneur, who bears almost all of the risks and makes almost all of the decisions related to the business. Because the owner-entrepreneur also embodies most of the firm-specific knowledge capital, health of the owner-entrepreneur is an important factor in the production process. Following a cohort of respondents in townships around Durban, South Africa, over a three-year period, we examined the relationship between an individual’s physical health and the decision to start a business. Our results suggest that respondents who were recent business entrants were in better health than respondents who did not start new businesses. Moreover, respondents without a business at the beginning of the study who later opened businesses during the three-year study interval were significantly more likely to have better baseline health than those respondents who never started a new business. Hence, good health among entrepreneurs seems to be an important prerequisite to small business entry. PMID:21603114

  8. Remote Sensing Image Classification Based on Decision Tree in the Karst Rocky Desertification Areas: A Case Study of Kaizuo Township

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyong; MA; Xinglei; ZHU; Yulun; AN

    2014-01-01

    Karst rocky desertification is a phenomenon of land degradation as a result of affection by the interaction of natural and human factors.In the past,in the rocky desertification areas,supervised classification and unsupervised classification are often used to classify the remote sensing image.But they only use pixel brightness characteristics to classify it.So the classification accuracy is low and can not meet the needs of practical application.Decision tree classification is a new technology for remote sensing image classification.In this study,we select the rocky desertification areas Kaizuo Township as a case study,use the ASTER image data,DEM and lithology data,by extracting the normalized difference vegetation index,ratio vegetation index,terrain slope and other data to establish classification rules to build decision trees.In the ENVI software support,we access the classification images.By calculating the classification accuracy and kappa coefficient,we find that better classification results can be obtained,desertification information can be extracted automatically and if more remote sensing image bands used,higher resolution DEM employed and less errors data reduced during processing,classification accuracy can be improve further.

  9. English reading and writing performance of Xitsonga-speaking Grade 7 learners in township schools: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor M Lemmer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A clear preference for English as language of teaching and learning (LoLT is evident in most South African schools. However, discrepancies exist between language policy aims and educational outcomes with regard to the successful acquisition of English among English second language (ESL learners. Effective participation in all learning activities is closely linked to learners’ proficiency in the LoLT; poor English proficiency leads to underachievement across the curriculum. In the light of this, a case study as conducted to investigate the English reading and writing performance of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners in three selected township schools in the Tshwane metropolitan area, Gauteng Province. Firstly, a literature review was undertaken to explore the importance of reading and writing skills in the classroom with particular reference to the demands made on ESL learners. Following this, standardised tests were used to assess the learners’ English reading and writing performance. Findings indicated that learners performed poorly in both reading and writing; however, no significant relationship could be demonstrated between reading and writing, possibly due to the nature of the components of the test. The overall lack of reading and writing competence in English holds implications for learners’ academic achievement in all learning areas in situations in which English is used as the LoLT.

  10. Township ecosystem health assessment based on fuzzy synthesis evaluation method: a case study of Tongzhou District, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan SHAN; Lina ZHANG; Xuan WANG; Bin CHEN

    2009-01-01

    With the quick development of urbanization, the urban environmental problem has broken out in rural towns. In this study, a reasonable review of the research progress in the field of urban ecosystem health was addressed. Based on the analysis of the structure-function characteristics of the compound ecosystem, the connota-tion of the township ecosystem health was determined. Then ecosystem health of eleven towns of Tongzhou District was evaluated. This was accomplished by first constructing an index system including three layers which were criterion, factor and index. The criterion layer contained five elements including vigor, organization structure, resilience, ecosystem service function and population health. The indicators amounted in the aggregate to twenty-two. Then the health assessment of the study area was carried out using the fuzzy synthesis evaluation method. The evaluation results were analyzed by GIS techniques. Comprehensive analysis for integral health has shown that eight towns are in sub-healthy conditions, and the other three towns of Songzhuang, Xiji and Yongledian are healthy.

  11. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF THE MOVEMENT OF SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT CHILDREN INTO WISCONSIN, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN WISCONSIN, REPORT 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LINDSEY, HERBERT H.; AND OTHERS

    USEFUL MEANS OF ANTICIPATING THE MOVEMENTS OF MIGRANT CHILDREN INCLUDE ANALYSIS OF CROPS, THE HARVESTING OF WHICH REQUIRES OUT-OF-STATE WORKERS, DISTRIBUTIONAL MAPS OF CROP ACREAGE, NORMAL TIME SCHEDULES FOR CROPS, AND INFORMATION ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS. SUCH INFORMATION ASSISTS IN THE PLANNING OF SCHOOL PROGRAMS. IN WISCONSIN, MOST MIGRANT…

  12. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  13. Effect of DOC on evaporation from small Wisconsin lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, C. J.; Morrison, K. A.; Rubsam, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Evaporation (E) dominates the loss of water from many small lakes, and the balance between precipitation and evaporation (P-E) often governs water levels. In this study, evaporation rates were estimated for three small Wisconsin lakes over several years using 30-min data from floating evaporation pans (E-pans). Measured E was then compared to the output of mass transfer models driven by local conditions over daily time scales. The three lakes were chosen to span a range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (3-20 mg L-1), a solute that imparts a dark, tea-stain color which absorbs solar energy and limits light penetration. Since the lakes were otherwise similar, we hypothesized that a DOC-mediated increase in surface water temperature would translate directly to higher rates of evaporation thereby informing climate response models. Our results confirmed a DOC effect on surface water temperature, but that effect did not translate to enhanced evaporation. Instead the opposite was observed: evaporation rates decreased as DOC increased. Ancillary data and prior studies suggest two explanatory mechanisms: (1) disproportionately greater radiant energy outflux from high DOC lakes, and (2) the combined effect of wind speed (W) and the vapor pressure gradient (es - ez), whose product [W(es - ez)] was lowest on the high DOC lake, despite very low wind speeds (changes in the variables that drive E can have measurable effects on water levels by shifting the balance between P and E.

  14. Prevalence and intensity of nematode parasites in Wisconsin ermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, Shelli; Buchholz, Matthew J; Lisiecki, Robert; Huspeni, Todd; Ginnett, Tim; Haen, Luke; Borsdorf, Phil

    2014-10-01

    In the midwestern United States, ermine ( Mustela erminea ) are economically important because they are legally harvested for pelts. Information on parasites of ermine is lacking, and the effects that nematode parasites have on body condition of ermine hosts are unknown. We identified Skrjabingylus nasicola and Filaroides martis in ermine trapped from 2007 to 2013 from 6 counties in Wisconsin. Small mammals, commonly consumed by ermine, serve as paratenic hosts for both parasites. Our goal was to identify how age and sex of ermine, along with year, influence nematode parasitism. We also investigated how infection affected body condition for male and female ermine using body mass standardized by length as an index of body condition. We commonly found S. nasicola and F. martis in male and female ermine, but both prevalence and intensity of infection were higher for males. Relative to juveniles (1 yr) male ermine did not exhibit significantly higher intensity or prevalence of either parasite. We found that body condition was not compromised by infection for either sex, and intensity of S. nasicola and prevalence of F. martis were highest during the 2010-2011 trapping season. Of the 6 yr studied, precipitation was highest during the summer before the 2010-2011 season, and increased precipitation can cause increases in populations of gastropod intermediate hosts. We think that several distinct natural history components, namely, mating structure, diet, and metabolic rate, influence nematode parasitism in ermine.

  15. Understanding Health Care Costs in a Wisconsin Acute Leukemia Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Steinert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated factors driving health care costs of patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Standard costs identified in insurance claims data obtained from the Wisconsin Health Information Organization were used in a sample of 837 acute leukemia patients from April 2009 to June 2011. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization guided selection of patient and community factors expected to influence health care costs. A generalized linear model fitting gamma-distributed data with log-link technique was used to analyze cost. Results: Type of treatment received and disease severity represented significant cost drivers, and patients receiving at least some of their treatment from academic medical centers experienced higher costs. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs of patients who received treatment from providers located in areas of higher poverty experienced lower costs, raising questions of potential treatment and medical practice disparities between provider locations. Directions of study findings were not consistent between different types of services received and underscore the complexity of investigating health care cost. Conclusions: While prevalence of acute leukemia in the United States is low compared to other diseases, its extreme high cost of treatment is not well understood and potentially influences treatment decisions. Acute leukemia health care costs may not follow expected patterns; further exploration of the relationship between cost and the treatment decision, and potential treatment disparities between providers in different socioeconomic locations, is needed.

  16. Serologic and hematologic values of wild coyotes in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G.J.; Rongstad, O.J.

    1980-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 30 coyotes (Canis latrans) captured in northern Wisconsin in conjunction with radio-telemetry studies. Samples were assayed for seven hematologic values, seven serum chemistries, serum albumin, globulin and total protein. Results are given with respect to sex and age and are compared with available data for captive wild and pen-raised coyotes. Leukocyte counts were greater for males than females and packed cell volumes were greater for adults than young, possibly due to differential response to capture and handling stress. Hemoglobin concentrations and calcium levels suggest differences in nutrition between pen-raised and wild coyotes. Sex and age differences in serum calcium for wild coyotes probably reflect nutritional differences between groups examined. Juvenile coyote serum alkaline phosphatase levels declined curvilinearly with age for coyotes less than one year old, suggesting a possible technique for separating juveniles and yearlings captured in autumn that are released for research purposes. Elevated glucose levels and leukocyte counts in wild coyotes may reflect greater handling stress than for pen-raised and captive coyotes. No significant sex or age effects were found for levels of serum urea nitrogen, total protein, cholesterol, and total bilirubin.

  17. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  18. Adapting to Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region: The Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, D.; Liebl, D.

    2012-12-01

    The mission of the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts (WICCI; http://www.wicci.wisc.edu) is to assess the impacts of climate change on Wisconsin's natural, human, and built environments; and to assist in developing, recommending, and implementing climate adaptation strategies in Wisconsin. WICCI originated in 2007 as a partnership between the University of Wisconsin Nelson Institute and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and has since grown to include numerous other state, public, and private institutions. In 2011, WICCI released its First Assessment Report, which documents the efforts of over 200 individuals around the state in assessing vulnerability and estimating the risk that regional climate change poses to Wisconsin. The success of WICCI as an organization can be traced to its existence as a partnership between academic and state institutions, and as a boundary organization that catalyzes cross-disciplinary efforts between science and policy. WICCI's organizational structure and its past success at assessing climate impacts in Wisconsin will be briefly discussed. As WICCI moves into its second phase, it is increasing its emphasis on the second part of its mission: development, and implementation of adaptation strategies. Towards these goals WICCI has expanded its organizational structure to include a Communications and Outreach Committee that further ensures a necessary two-way communication of information between stakeholders / decision makers, and scientific efforts. WICCI is also increasing its focus on place-based efforts that include climate change information as one part of an integrated effort at sustainable development. The talk will include a discussion of current outreach and education efforts, as well as future directions for WICCI efforts.

  19. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chang-Yue Shang; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-08-28

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = -0.372, p job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies.

  20. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = −0.372, p job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort studies. PMID:28846644

  1. Coordination Assessment Between Comprehensive Township Land Use Plan and Village-Township System Plan%乡镇级土地利用总体规划与村镇体系规划协调评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚丽; 黄塘嫦; 蔡运龙; 田华文; 别乾龙

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:弥补乡镇土地利用总体规划与村镇体系规划(简称“两规”)协调定量评价研究的不足,深入分析“两规”的协调机制。研究方法:层次分析法(AHP),特尔菲法(Delphi)和关联分析法。研究结果:提出“两规”协调评价的目的和思路,在进行“两规”单项实施评价的基础上,构建“两规”协调评价指标体系和提出评价方法,同时分析“两规”协调途径。研究结论:“两规”协调评价指标体系包括执行指标和效果指标层,共计23个指标,“两规”各自实施评价合格程度、“两规”协调发展程度均可分为5类,建议逐步完善规划体制,加强城乡规划部门和国土部门的协作,做好用地分类、建成区范围、人口预测和规划指标等数据的核实和统一工作。%The purpose of this paper is to analyze the coordination mechanism between two plans, i.e., the Comprehensive Township Land Use Plan and the Village-Township System Plan (Two Plans, in brief). Methods of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Delphi method and Correlation analysis are employed. The result shows on one hand the purpose system and ways regarding for the Two Plans' coordination assessment, and the performances of the implementation of the on the other hand it develops an assessment index Two Plans and the coordinating measures. The assessment index system is composed of the effective indexes and the performance ones, totally 23 indicators. Based on the system, the degree of the quantification of the Two Plans' implementation evaluation can be divided into 5 categories, so does their coordinated development degree. The paper concludes that it is urgent to gradually improve theplanning system, and enhance the departments' collaboration between the Urban-Rural planning and Land Resources administration, and eventually to ensure the consistence of land classification, regional planning

  2. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  3. The 2016 groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsen, Michael J.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Hunt, Randall J.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    A new groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin, replaces an earlier model developed in the 1990s by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This modeling study was conducted cooperatively by the WGNHS and the USGS with funding from the Capital Area Regional Planning Commission (CARPC). Although the overall conceptual model of the groundwater system remains largely unchanged, the incorporation of newly acquired high-quality datasets, recent research findings, and improved modeling and calibration techniques have led to the development of a more detailed and sophisticated model representation of the groundwater system. The new model is three-dimensional and transient, and conceptualizes the county’s hydrogeology as a 12-layer system including all major unlithified and bedrock hydrostratigraphic units and two high-conductivity horizontal fracture zones. Beginning from the surface down, the model represents the unlithified deposits as two distinct model layers (1 and 2). A single layer (3) simulates the Ordovician sandstone and dolomite of the Sinnipee, Ancell, and Prairie du Chien Groups. Sandstone of the Jordan Formation (layer 4) and silty dolostone of the St. Lawrence Formation (layer 5) each comprise separate model layers. The underlying glauconitic sandstone of the Tunnel City Group makes up three distinct layers: an upper aquifer (layer 6), a fracture feature (layer 7), and a lower aquifer (layer 8). The fracture layer represents a network of horizontal bedding-plane fractures that serve as a preferential pathway for groundwater flow. The model simulates the sandstone of the Wonewoc Formation as an upper aquifer (layer 9) with a bedding-plane fracture feature (layer 10) at its base. The Eau Claire aquitard (layer 11) includes shale beds within the upper portion of the Eau Claire Formation. This layer, along with overlying bedrock units, is mostly absent in the preglacially eroded valleys along

  4. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motadi, Selekane A; Mbhatsani, Vanessa; Shilote, Kulani O

    2016-07-29

    Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to determine the women's knowledge on food fortification. The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women's knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0%) of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0%) of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%]) of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  5. Twenty-first century learning in school systems: the case of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township, Indianapolis, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Marcia; Knoderer, Troy

    2006-01-01

    To empower students with skills such as information and technological literacy, global awareness and cultural competence, self-direction, and sound reasoning, teachers must master these skills themselves. This chapter examines how the Digital Age Literacy Initiative of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township in Indianapolis, Indiana, which is funded by the Lilly Endowment, incorporated twenty-first century learning through a systemic approach involving teacher training and the use of data. The authors explain the district's content, process, and context goals toward accomplishing its mission of empowering students with the necessary twenty-first century skills to succeed in the digital age. The district places a strong emphasis on professional development for teachers. To support the necessary teacher learning and therefore sustain the work of the initiative, the district has adopted action research, self-assessment, and an online professional development network. To support teachers in implementing new strategies, master teachers serve as digital age literacy coaches. The chapter discusses the initiative's focus on evidence of progress. Through a partnership with the Metiri Group of California, the district has built a range of assessments including online inventories and twenty-first century skill rubrics. For example, the Mankato Survey collected teacher and student data around access, ability, and use of technology in the classroom in 2001 and then in 2004. This research showed significant gains in some technologies across all grade levels and consistent gains in nearly all technologies for middle and high school students. As it moves into the next phase of implementing the Digital Age Literacy Initiative, the district embraces the systemic shifts in school culture necessary to institutionalize twenty-first century learning.

  6. Synthane Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Pennsylvania. Run report No. 2-DB: operating period September 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the operation of the Synthane Coal Gasification Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania from September 1977 through September 1978. The facility is owned by the United States Government and operated by C-E Lummus. Test Directive No. 2-DB directed the plant be operated with Illinois No. 6 coal from the River King Mine of the Peabody Coal Company at a pressure of 600 psig. Concurrent pretreater/gasifier operation was to take place at coal feed rates from 1.5 to 2.5 tons/hour. Gas was produced for 182 hours and 1,100 tons of coal were fed to the pretreater and gasifier. Continuous operation of up to 56 hours and carbon conversions based on char of up to 72% were achieved. This successful operation demonstrates that coal gasification via the Synthane Process is viable. Additional data are required for the design of a commercial facility; however, the data obtained to date are adequate to recommend improvements and modifications to the Synthane Process Pilot Plant to increase on stream time efficiency. The successful operation of the pilot plant with Illinois No. 6 coal demonstrates the feasibility of the Synthane Pilot Plant to process a caking type of coal. The ability to successfully pretreat a caking coal at high pressure in a plant of this size is a first and a direct result of the successful operation of the Synthane Process. Other similar type processes operated to date require pretreatment of a caking coal at atmospheric pressure with little or no recovery of the gases or heat produced during pretreatment.

  7. Socioeconomic and Institutional Dimensions of Dam Removals: The Wisconsin Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born; Genskow; Filbert; Hernandez-Mora; Keefer; White

    1998-05-01

    / There are tens of thousands of small dams in the United States; many of these aging structures are deteriorating. Governments and dam owners face decisions regarding repair or removal of these structures. Along with the many benefits society derives from dams and their impoundments, numerous recent ecological studies are revealing the extensive alteration and degradation of river ecosystems by dams. Dam removal-a principal restoration strategy-is an infrequent event. The major reasons for removal have been public safety and the high costs associated with repair; the goal of river ecosystem restoration now warrants greater attention. Substantial study is being given to the environmental aspects of dams and dam removals, but very little attention has been given to the socioeconomic and institutional dimensions associated with the removal of dams, although these factors play a significant role in the removal decision-making process. Based on a case study of dam removals in Wisconsin-where more than 30 of the state's 3600 small dams have been removed in the past few decades-legal, financial, and socioeconomic issues associated with dam removal are documented and assessed. Dam removal has been complex and contentious, with limited community-based support for removal and loss of the impounded waters. In cases examined here, the estimated costs of repairing a dam averaged more than three times the cost of removal. The availability of governmental financing has been a key determinant in removal decisions. Watershed-scale ecological considerations are not major factors for most local interests. As watershed management and restoration increasingly include dam removal options as part of an integrated strategy, more attention will need to be focused on socioeconomic factors and stakeholder perspectives-variables that strongly influence the viability of this management alternative.KEY WORDS: Dam removal; River restoration; Institutions; Stakeholders

  8. Wisconsin Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor. Report for 1966 and 1967 With a Summary of Earlier Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raushenbush, Elizabeth Brandeis

    A review of State and Federal activities relative to migrant labor problems presents a backdrop for the report of Wisconsin's Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor for the years 1966-67. The review includes summary data on the migrants and the programs provided in Wisconsin since 1945. The current report contains data on migrant population and…

  9. Ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Climate Change Response Framework Project in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Louis Iverson; Linda Parker; David Mladenoff; Leslie Brandt; Patricia Butler; Matt St. Pierre; Anantha Prasad; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters; Dale Higgins; Avery. Dorland

    2011-01-01

    The forests of northern Wisconsin will likely experience dramatic changes over the next 100 years as a result of climate change. This assessment evaluates key forest ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change across northern Wisconsin under a range of future climate scenarios. Warmer temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns are expected to influence ecosystem...

  10. Advancing Postsecondary Opportunity, Completion, and Productivity: Essential Performance Indicators for Wisconsin and Selected Peer States. 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwestern Higher Education Compact, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report portrays various performance indicators that are intended to facilitate an assessment of the postsecondary education system in Wisconsin. Descriptive statistics are presented for Wisconsin and five other comparison states as well as the nation. Comparison states were selected according to the degree of similarity of population…

  11. Why study lakes? An overview of USGS lake studies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.; Elder, J.F.; Robertson, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Wisconsin’s 15,000 lakes are prominent features in its landscape and an important public resource. In the northern part of the State, the recent glaciation (ending about 10,000 years ago) created one of the densest clusters of lakes found anywhere in the world, containing lakes that occupy depressions in the glacial moraines and outwash deposits (fig. 1). This Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion contains more than 80 percent of the State’s lakes (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2001). South of this ecoregion, there are fewer lakes, but they still are common. Usually situated in agricultural or urban land- scapes, lakes in southern Wisconsin generally have higher levels of nutrients and alkalinity, and higher biological productivity than their northern counterparts. For most lakes in Wisconsin, phosphorus is the nutrient that limits algal growth (Lillie and Mason, 1983).

  12. Mercury accumulation in transplanted Hypogymnia physodes lichens downwind of Wisconsin chlor-alkali plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makholm, M.M.; Bennett, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Emissions of mercury from a chlor-alkali plant in central Wisconsin have raised concern about possible effects on biota in the area. Samples of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, which no longer grows in the area, were transplanted from a site in northeastern Wisconsin and positioned on plastic stands at varying distances up to 1250 m from the plant and sampled for Hg quarterly for one year to test the hypothesis that Hg would be taken up by the lichens and would decline with distance. Average tissue concentrations were elevated when first sampled at three months and continued to increase at the nearest sites until the study ended after one year. Average concentrations after a year of exposure ranged from 4418 ppb at 250 m from the plant to 403 ppb at 1250 m from the plant. The decrease over distance followed a negative exponential pattern. Background concentrations at a control site in northern Wisconsin averaged 155 ppb.

  13. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections and associated risk factors among drug users in southwestern China: a township-level ecological study incorporating spatial regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Biao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are major public health problems. Many studies have been performed to investigate the association between demographic and behavioral factors and HIV or HCV infection. However, some of the results of these studies have been in conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data of all entrants in the 11 national methadone clinics in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected from the national database. Several spatial regression models were used to analyze specific community characteristics associated with the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection at the township level. The study enrolled 6,417 adult patients. The prevalence of HIV infection, HCV infection and co-infection was 25.4%, 30.9%, and 11.0%, respectively. Prevalence exhibited stark geographical variations in the area studied. The four regression models showed Yi ethnicity to be associated with both the prevalence of HIV and of HIV/HCV co-infection. The male drug users in some northwestern counties had greater odds of being infected with HIV than female drug users, but the opposite was observed in some eastern counties. The 'being in drug rehabilitation variable was found to be positively associated with prevalence of HCV infection in some southern townships, however, it was found to be negatively associated with it in some northern townships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The spatial modeling creates better representations of data such that public health interventions must focus on areas with high frequency of HIV/HCV to prevent further transmission of both HIV and HCV.

  14. Ground-water flow and quality in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The areal concentration distribution of commonmineral constituents and properties of ground water in Wisconsin's shallow aquifer system are described in this report. Maps depicting the water quality and the altitude of the water table are included. The shallow aquifer system in Wisconsin, composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel and shallow bedrock, is the source of most potable ground-water supplies in the State. Most ground water in the shallow aquifer system moves in local flow systems, but it interacts with regional flow systems in some areas.

  15. Total mercury and methylmercury residues in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Sean M

    2008-04-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) collected trapper-caught river otter (Lutra canadensis) from 3 distinct areas of Wisconsin (north, central, and south). Otter carcasses were collected from a total of 12 counties during the trapping seasons of 2003 and 2004. Liver, kidney, muscle, brain, and fur tissue was collected for mercury (Hg) analysis. Analysis of variance identified collection zone as the significant factor for differences in tissue Hg levels, with a pattern of decreasing Hg concentrations from north to south (p south, none of the tissue concentrations reached levels known to cause toxicity in either otter or mink.

  16. The Evaluation Indicator System for the Audit of Township Leading Cadres’ Economic Responsibility: Based on the Survey of One County in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfen; LUO; Chaozhou; LU

    2014-01-01

    Economic responsibility audit evaluation of township cadres is important and difficult. According to the evaluation content and principles,the paper constructs the evaluation indicator of five subsystems: " economic management", " economic decision-making", " implementation of economic policy", " economic development",and " honest and upright administration". Through the field survey of some county in Chongqing,evaluation indicator is screened. According to the expert questionnaire,it uses the Hierarchy Analysis Process method to construct the judgment matrix and calculate the indicator weight and thereby build evaluation indicator system. It focuses on traditional indicators and evaluation indicator of sustainable development to construct a new,more complete evaluation indicator system.

  17. Flood magnitude and frequency of Main Ditch at the culvert on New Jersey Route 44 and at the Conrail culvert downstream, West Deptford Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of floods at Main Ditch at the culvert on New Jersey Route 44 at milepost 8.3 and at the Conrail culvert 0.21 miles downstream, in West Deptford Township, New Jersey, were determined by using the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Special Report 38 method. Flood-magnitude and -frequency estimates, as well as drainage-basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimates are 285 cubic feet per second at the culvert on New Jersey Route 44 and 345 cubic feet per second at the Conrail culvert.

  18. 乡镇流通企业发展与农村地区消费增长%Township Circulation Enterprise Development and Consumption Growth in Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学品

    2015-01-01

    Township circulation enterprise has great influence on rural area consumption in the way of economical search expense, low transport cost, fast transaction, transaction frequency and radius, improved trade mode and scale, influential consumption concept and behavior, etc. According to the inter⁃provincial panel data during 2000⁃2011, the empirical analysis shows that income is still the main factor affecting rural area consumption, and that township circulation enterprise has prominent positive influences on consumption in rural area. Thereinto the turnover of township circulation enterprise mostly influence rural area consumption, while its labor productivity and quantity influence rural area consumption with obvious regional difference. Labor productivity influence rural area consumption less and less from east region to middle region and then west region, but the influence of township circulation enterprise quantity is in the reverse way.%乡镇流通企业通过节约搜寻费用、降低运输成本、提高交易速度、扩大交易频率和半径、改善交易方式和规模以及影响消费观念和消费行为等途径影响农村消费。采用2000—2011年中国省际面板数据的经验分析表明:收入仍然是影响我国各地农村消费的主要因素;乡镇流通企业发展对农村消费增长有显著正影响,其中,乡镇流通企业营业额对农村消费的影响最大,而乡镇流通企业劳动生产率和数量对农村消费的影响存在显著的区域差异,从东部到中部再到西部,乡镇流通企业劳动生产率对农村消费的影响依次减弱,乡镇流通企业数量对农村消费的影响则是依次增强。

  19. Atmospheric fluxes and geochemistries of stable Pb, Pb-210, and Po-210 in Crystal Lake, Wisconsin: Wisconsin power plant impact study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, R.W.; Andren, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    In a lake system where atmospheric input greatly exceeds other source inputs, the atmospheric supply, water column transport, and sediment accumulation should be coupled. This research examined the exchange of lead between these compartments. The approach was to use Pb-210 as a natural tracer to provide experimental evidence concerning the movement of lead between various compartments, thereby linking the geochemical regime of lead in an integrated lake system. The investigation was conducted in Crystal Lake, Wisconsin, an oligotrophic, non-calcareous, seepage lake located in a semi-remote, heavily forested area of north-central Wisconsin. The atmosphere serves as the principal route for transport of material to the lake. Stable Pb concentrations in the water column are of the order of 200 ng/kg.

  20. 基本药物政策对乡镇卫生院短期偿债能力的影响%The Influence of Essential Drug Policies on the Short-Term Debt Paying Ability of Township Health Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾岩; 孔庆梅; 刘国祥; 张歆

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of essential drug policies on the economic management development of township health care through the analysis of short-term debt paying ability of the township health centers. Methods: To analyze the debt paying ability of township health care by economic theory and finance analysis method. Results: Since the implement of essential drug policy, the liquidity ratio and quick ratio has been shown decreasing trend in township health care, and the short-term debt paying ability decreased obviously. Conclusion: The reduction of medical stocks resulting from the implement of essential drug policies is one of the main reasons that the liquid assets decrease in the township health centers, and the asset structure is being readjusted with the implement of essential drugs policy in the township health centers.%目的:通过对乡镇卫生院短期偿债能力的分析探究基本药物政策的实施对乡镇卫生院经营发展的影响。方法:运用经济学理论和财务分析方法对乡镇卫生院的偿债能力进行分析。结果:实施基本药物政策后,乡镇卫生院流动比率和速动比率均呈下降趋势,短期偿债能力明显下降。结论:基本药物政策所导致的药品库存量下降是卫生院流动资产下降的主要原因之一;基本药物政策的实施对乡镇卫生院的资产结构产生了重要影响。

  1. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  2. Girls want money, boys want virgins: the materiality of love amongst South African township youth in the context of HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; Pattman, Rob

    2011-09-01

    How do young South Africans give meaning to love? In this paper we draw on findings from an interview study to examine the ways in which young Africans, aged 16 to 17 years in a poor township in KwaZulu-Natal province, express ideals of love and romance. Their claims to love we show are strategic advantages as they negotiate poverty and economic marginalisation. Girls' ideals of love are tied to their aspirations towards middle-class consumerism. Love becomes inseparable from the idealisation of men who provide. Upholding provider masculinity is a strategic means to claim money, fashionable clothes and prestige. Unlike girls, the boys' love investments were focused on farm girls from rural areas in South Africa. Farm girls were constructed as virgins with little investment in commodification. Farm girls are a strategic option through which boys' economic marginalisation experienced in the township girls is reconciled through an exalted masculinity. Love is produced by particular sets of economic and social circumstances through which gender inequalities are reproduced, and should be taken more seriously in working with young people to address gendered social environments and HIV risk.

  3. The Christian church’s role in the escalating mob justice system in our black townships – An African pastoral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Baloyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the crimes in the South African black townships, mob justice has become a growing concern. Some questions that need to be asked are: Is our police force doing enough to protect the ordinary citizens of this country? If the situation continues, will all suspects be killed in the same manner or will there be a solution to change the situation? What is the impact of mob justice on the families of the victims and the witnesses of the brutal acts? How long are we going to live as a traumatised nation as a result of these violent acts? Is there any hope that our nation will ever have the peace it deserves in the context of democracy? This article intends to investigate the impact of the mob justice system and find out what the role of the Christian church should be in the midst of this escalating violence. This study aims to unveil the negative impact of mob justice on the lives of many township South Africans and giving pastoral-biblical suggestions of the church’s role in the elimination of this kind of brutality.

  4. Organizational barriers associated with the implementation of national essential medicines policy: A cross-sectional study of township hospitals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianping; Liu, Chaojie; Ferrier, J Adamm; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    This study identifies potential organizational barriers associated with the implementation of the Chinese National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP) in rural primary health care institutions. We used a multistage sampling strategy to select 90 township hospitals from six provinces, two from each of eastern, middle, and western China. Data relating to eight core NEMP indicators and institutional characteristics were collected from January to September 2011, using a questionnaire. Prescription-associated indicators were calculated from 9000 outpatient prescriptions selected at random. We categorized the eight NEMP indicators using an exploratory factor analysis, and performed linear regressions to determine the association between the factor scores and institution-level characteristics. The results identified three main factors. Overall, low levels of expenditure of medicines (F1) and poor performance in rational use of medicines (F2) were evident. The availability of medicines (F3) varied significantly across both hospitals and regions. Factor scores had no significant relationship with hospital size (in terms of number of beds and health workers); however, they were associated with revenue and structure of the hospital, patient service load, and support for health workers. Regression analyses showed that public finance per health worker was negatively associated with the availability of medicines (p public finance from local governments may reduce medicine stock lines of township hospitals and lead them to seek alternative sources of income, jeopardizing their capacity to meet the needs of local consumers.

  5. 76 FR 18261 - University of Wisconsin; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility License No. R-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION University of Wisconsin; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility License No. R-74 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) has issued renewed Facility License No. R-74, held by the... pulses with reactivity insertions up to 1.4% k/k. The renewed Facility License No. R-74 will expire...

  6. Effect of University of Wisconsin organ-preservation solution on haemorheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plaats, A; 't Hart, NA; Morariu, AM; Verkerke, GJ; Leuvenink, HGD; Ploeg, RJ; Rakhorst, G

    2004-01-01

    In conventional cold-storage organ preservation, the donor organ is flushed with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution at 0-4degreesC. The initial flush is used to wash out blood from the microcirculation to allow optimal preservation with the UW solution. The component hydroxyethyl starch (HES) of

  7. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  8. Wastewater Characterization Survey, General Mitchell International Airport, Air Force Reserve Facility, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    W., Jr., Industrial Water Pollution Control, Second Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1989. 4. Manahan , Stanley E., Environmental Chemistry , Fifth...FORCE RESERVE FACILITY, MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN M S T Darrin L Curtis, Captain, USAF, BSC R OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DIRECTORATE 0...USAF, BSC Environmental Engineer Consultant Chief, Bioenvironmental Engineering Division .LAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY AVAILABLE. THE

  9. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin White-tailed Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Damien O; Ribic, Christine A; Langenberg, Julie A; Beheler, Kerry; Batha, Carl A; Dhuey, Brian J; Rolley, Robert E; Bartelt, Gerald; Van Deelen, Timothy R; Samuel, Michael D

    2003-05-01

    Three White-tailed Deer shot within 5 km during the 2001 hunting season in Wisconsin tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of cervids. Subsequent sampling within 18 km showed a 3% prevalence (n=476). This discovery represents an important range extension for chronic wasting disease into the eastern United States.

  10. De-Islamizing Sikhaphobia: Deconstructing Structural Racism in Wisconsin Gurdwara Shooting 10/12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Manjeet; Gill, Hartej; Heer, Kal

    2015-01-01

    On Sunday, 5 August 2012, at approximately 10:00 a.m., an armed Wade Michael Page walked into the Oak Creek, Wisconsin Sikh gurdwara, a place of worship. Page killed six worshippers and injured four others. Although the murderer had links to several white supremacist organizations, authorities would not speculate on the motive of this incident. In…

  11. Late Wisconsin and early holocene glacial history, inner Ross Embayment, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, George H.; Bockheim, James G.; Wilson, Scott C.; Stuiver, Minze

    1991-01-01

    Lateral drift sheets of outlet glaciers that pass through the Transantarctic Mountains constrain past changes of the huge Ross ice drainage system of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Drift stratigraphy suggests correlation of Reedy III (Reedy Glacier), Beardmore, Britannia (Hatherton/Darwin Glaciers), Ross Sea (McMurdo Sound), and younger (Terra Nova Bay) drifts; radiocarbon dates place the outer limits of Ross Sea drift in late Wisconsin time at 24,000 to 13,000 yr B.P. Outlet glacier profiles from these drifts constrain late Wisconsin ice sheet surface elevations. Within these constraint, two extreme late Wisconsin reconstructions are given of the Ross ice drainage system. Both show little elevation change of the polar plateau coincident with extensive ice shelf grounding along the inner Ross Embayment. However, in the central Ross Embayment, one reconstruction shows floating shelf ice, where as the other shows a grounded ice sheet. Massive late Wisconsin/Holocene recession of grounded ice from the western Ross Embayment, which was underway at 13,040 yr B.P. and completed by 6600 to 6020 yr B.P., was accompanied by little change in plateau ice levels inland of the Transantarctic Mountains.

  12. Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Inventory of Portions of the Eau Galle Recreation Area, St. Croix County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    near Dorchester, Clark County, Wis. ETC Engineering Inc. An archaeological survey of Copeland Park. City of La Crosse. An archaeological inspection of...Project participation included: i .. -Archaeological Inventory and Evaluation of Weston , Unit 3 Power Plant, N: Marathon County, Wisconsin

  13. Cultural Resources Investigation: Survey of Portions of the State Road Coulee Project, La Crosse, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Dorchester, Clark County, Wis. ETC Engineering Inc. An archaeological survey of Copeland Park. City of La Crosse. An archaeological inspection of the Gillett...Evaluation of Weston , Unit 3 Power Plant, - Marathon County, Wisconsin. -Archaeological Inventory of the Sanitary Sewer Collection System and Waste Disposal

  14. 75 FR 49456 - Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest; Wisconsin, Phelps Vegetation and Transportation Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Forest Service Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest; Wisconsin, Phelps Vegetation and Transportation... Phelps Vegetation and Transportation Management Project area is approximately 53,055 acres in size; about... of all Under Analysis,'' then select Phelps Vegetation and Transportation Management Project.'' It...

  15. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng; Su, Jui-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the executive functions measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) between children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and age-matched normal controls. A second purpose was to examine the relations between executive functions and school functions in DCD children.…

  16. Affordable Housing: A Crisis for Wisconsin Families. A WisKids Count Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Council on Children and Families Inc., Madison.

    Growing up in poor quality, unsafe, and/or overcrowded housing magnifies all the other challenges and disadvantages that go along with poverty. Noting that as more and more families in Wisconsin and nationwide struggle to achieve sustainable housing, the connection between housing and child well-being is becoming increasingly obvious, this WisKids…

  17. The Effects of Charter Schools, Race, Socioeconomics, and Teacher Characteristics in Wisconsin's Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.

    2009-01-01

    The charter school movement focuses on the creation of public schools governed by a legally-binding agreement known as a charter. Charter schools are touted as allowing for innovation and creativity in exchange for increased accountability. The state of Wisconsin allows its school districts to authorize the formation charter schools. School…

  18. Manual of Operation for Administrative Functions, Wisconsin State University - Whitewater, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Univ., Whitewater.

    This Manual of Operation for the Administrative Functions at Wisconsin State University, Whitewater was developed to more clearly identify the administrative organization at WSU and to delineate the functions of the principal administrative officers. Part I presents state statutes and procedures outlining the authority for governance at State…

  19. Thriller-Dillers & Chillers. Wisconsin Summer Library Program Manual, 1985. Bulletin No. 5212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Debra Wilcox, Ed.

    The Wisconsin Summer Library Program was developed to promote use of the library by children during the summer, to familiarize them with the resources of the public library, and to help them retain their reading skills over the summer. Different ways of interpreting the theme of the summer program for 1985 were suggested by librarians throughout…

  20. The Economic Impact of the Child Care Industry in Southeast Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Melissa; Lam, Eva; Dickman, Anneliese

    2009-01-01

    Discussions of early childhood care and education usually focus on its social and educational value, and how it helps children and families. More recently, the focus in many states, including Wisconsin, has been on potential investments in child care quality improvements as strategies for improving long-term educational outcomes for disadvantaged…

  1. Celebrating the International Year of Crystallography with a Wisconsin High School Crystal Growing Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzei, Ilia A.

    2014-01-01

    In honor of the 2014 International Year of Crystallography, the first Wisconsin Crystal Growing Competition was successfully organized and conducted. High school students from 26 schools across the state competed for prizes by growing large crystals of CuSO[subscript4]·5(H[subscript2]O). This paper describes how the event was planned and carried…

  2. Techniques for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods for Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Duane H.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides improved methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for Wisconsin streams. Proper design of hydraulic structures and adequate flood-plain management depend on this information. Multiple-regression techniques were used to develop equations for estimating flood frequencies at ungaged sites.

  3. From Wisconsin to Wyoming and Back Again: The Journey to a Bachelor's Degree and Teacher Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel-Hoffman, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Susan Finkel-Hoffman, Ed.D. is the interim director of outreach for the Department of Special and Early Childhood Education at the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, and a coordinator for the Northern Arapaho Teacher Education Program. In this memior Finkel-Hoffman, recalls the journey of a group of teacher education students which began almost 10…

  4. Convective cells and their relationship to vortex diffusion in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhardt, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is two-fold: first, to present floating potential structure for different plasmas and operating parameters in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Second, to show how the observed potential structure can be used, within the framework of vortex diffusion, to account for enhanced diffusion in the appropriate parameter regimes.

  5. 78 FR 34966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... of Gasoline Vapor Recovery From Southeast Wisconsin AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... Stage II systems are specifically installed at gasoline dispensing facilities (GDF) and capture the refueling fuel vapors at the gasoline pump nozzle. The system carries the vapors back to the...

  6. Restoring Wisconsin Art Therapy Association in Art Therapy History: Implications for Professional Definition and Inclusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan; Burnie, Michele; Pearson, Rosemary; Ramirez, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Wisconsin Art Therapy Association (WATA), formally established in 1969, was the first incorporated organization of art therapists in the United States. Under the leadership of Wayne Ramirez, WATA lobbied the national association for an inclusive definition of art therapy that aimed to foster respect for psychiatric, educational, and community…

  7. VTAE CIM Conference (Menomonie, Wisconsin, June 6-7, 1990). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Howard D.

    This document reports on a workshop conducted to bring together vocational, technical, and adult education colleges and the University of Wisconsin-Stout staff members who are working with computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). Participants discussed current program content, identified areas that need further development, and determined how…

  8. Private forestland parcelization and development in Wisconsin's Northwoods: perceptions of resource-oriented stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Mark G. Rickenbach

    2004-01-01

    Increases in the parcelization and development of private forestlands in the US and other countries have become a major concern of natural resource agencies and groups. This concern is particularly heightened in heavily forested areas such as Wisconsin's "Northwoods," where private lands make up a majority of the forest area and play a critical role in...

  9. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  10. Crafting a Balanced System of Assessment in Wisconsin. Recommendations of the Next Generation Assessment Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Assessment Task Force was convened to formulate Wisconsin's path forward. Task force members listened to leaders from business and technology sectors as well as leaders from PK-12 and higher education. This summary shares the process, definitions, assumptions, and recommendations of the task force. This paper aims to use these…

  11. Affordable Housing: A Crisis for Wisconsin Families. A WisKids Count Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Council on Children and Families Inc., Madison.

    Growing up in poor quality, unsafe, and/or overcrowded housing magnifies all the other challenges and disadvantages that go along with poverty. Noting that as more and more families in Wisconsin and nationwide struggle to achieve sustainable housing, the connection between housing and child well-being is becoming increasingly obvious, this WisKids…

  12. Strategic planning in healthcare: the experience of the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollenberger, Donna K

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, after 25 years of stable leadership from a single CEO, the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics (UWHC) Authority Board named a new CEO. The 471-bed academic medical center had recently experienced significant change and challenges. In 1996, it had emerged as a public authority, a statutory designation by the state of Wisconsin that moved the hospital and clinics from the University of Wisconsin and the state of Wisconsin, and created it as a quasi-public entity with its own board. In 1999, when the new CEO was named, the hospital was experiencing a loss of revenue and market share, operating deficits, a 22 percent nurse vacancy rate, and patient satisfaction scores below the 40th percentile. The first task assigned to the new CEO by the board was the development of a new strategic plan that would reverse these trends and position UWHC as a premier academic hospital. The CEO began a strategic planning process that involved leaders, physicians, and staff from throughout the hospital and clinics, its affiliated medical school, and the physician practice plan. This article describes the collaborative, integrative, and communicative strategic planning process UWHC used; details the organization of the process; describes the results achieved by UWHC; and lists the lessons learned along the way.

  13. Age-dependent changes in ecosystem carbon fluxes in managed forests in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Jiquan Chen; Thomas R. Crow

    2007-01-01

    The age-dependent variability of ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes was assessed by measuring the net ecosystem exchange of C (NEE) in five managed forest stands in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study sites ranged in age from 3-year-old clearcut to mature stands (65 years). All stands, except the clearcut, accumulated C over the study period from May to October 2002. Seasonal...

  14. Exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances in tree swallows nesting in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure and effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were studied at eight locations in Minnesota and Wisconsin between 2007 and 2011 using tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) as sentinel species. These eight sites covered a range of possible exposure pathways and ecolog...

  15. Wisconsin Elementary Teacher Education Project. Volume VI, Feasibility Study: Pricing and Economic Analysis Study. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison.

    This document is the second volume of the feasibility study report for the Wisconsin Elementary Teacher Education Project. It provides in part 1 data on program, planning and budgeting, including cost figures for preparing students in the present and new programs, marginal expenses, and costs for implementing the program on other campuses. Part 2…

  16. A Descriptive Study of Wisconsin PK-12 Virtual Public School Program Operations and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    E-Learning as it pertains to public education is in its infancy in America. There is limited research on what operational design, development, and management attributes of virtual school programs foster student achievement. The Wisconsin Department of Instruction has not developed or adopted program standards for E-Learning programs. The purpose…

  17. Age Differences in Perseveration: Cognitive and Neuroanatomical Mediators of Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Denise; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Aging effects on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) are fairly well established but the mechanisms of the decline are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating age-related increases in perseveration on the WCST. MRI-based volumetry and measures of selected executive functions in…

  18. Restoring Wisconsin Art Therapy Association in Art Therapy History: Implications for Professional Definition and Inclusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan; Burnie, Michele; Pearson, Rosemary; Ramirez, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Wisconsin Art Therapy Association (WATA), formally established in 1969, was the first incorporated organization of art therapists in the United States. Under the leadership of Wayne Ramirez, WATA lobbied the national association for an inclusive definition of art therapy that aimed to foster respect for psychiatric, educational, and community…

  19. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  20. Censored and Censured: Racine Unified School District vs. Wisconsin Library Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Alan M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the censure of the Racine Unified School District by the Wisconsin Library Association for its internal censorship of library materials. Highlights include a chronology of events in the case, the district's history of censorship, its selection policy, and the importance of the case as a model. (EM)

  1. 77 FR 35870 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Partial Disapproval of “Infrastructure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Partial Disapproval of ``Infrastructure'' State Implementation Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule...'' State Implementation Plan (SIP). Specifically, we are finalizing the disapproval of portions of WDNR's...

  2. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Cognitive Assessment of Prefrontal Executive Functions: A Critical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhus, Erika; Barcelo, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    For over four decades the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has been one of the most distinctive tests of prefrontal function. Clinical research and recent brain imaging have brought into question the validity and specificity of this test as a marker of frontal dysfunction. Clinical studies with neurological patients have confirmed that, in its…

  3. 76 FR 69673 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New... tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. These... handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington,...

  4. Selected Evaluation Findings for Secondary Vocational Education--The Wisconsin Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Dorothy; Klitzke, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-eight Wisconsin high schools have undergone a comprehensive evaluation of their total vocational education program, including program management and administration as well as capstone, sequence, and exploratory programs in all vocational discipline areas. All aspects discussed--employability, job relatedness to training, employer hiring…

  5. The Third Annual Composite Evaluation Report for Secondary Vocational Education in Wisconsin, 1979-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Dorothy; Klitzke, Elizabeth

    Prepared to aid decision makers at local, state, and national levels in planning and assessing vocational education in Wisconsin, this composite report presents data from the first phase of the evaluation system of secondary vocational education--the Self Evaluation Phase. Chapter 1 overviews the evaluation activities and the remainder of this…

  6. Team Visitation Guidelines. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction Secondary Vocational Program Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Elizabeth; And Others

    The guidelines contained in this manual were written to outline the role of the visiting team members and the team leader and to familiarize the team with the details necessary to conduct a comprehensive external evaluation of Wisconsin secondary vocational programs. The responsibilities of school personnel are also spelled out so that team…

  7. Mini-Visit Guidelines and Rating Scale in Wisconsin Secondary Vocational Programs. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Dorothy; Klitzke, Elizabeth

    These guidelines outline the role of the visiting team members and familiarize them with those details necessary to conduct a condensed external evaluation of Wisconsin secondary vocational programs. (Such condensed evaluations are conducted when a full team visitation is not appropriate.) First, the three goals of the on-site evaluation are…

  8. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Performance in Relapsing-Remitting and Chronic-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Stephen M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), a measure of concept formation and set-shifting capacity, was administered to two groups of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients defined by clinical course. The chronic progressive patients achieved fewer conceptual categories due to significantly more perseverative responses than control patients, whereas the…

  9. Wisconsin timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  10. Memories of the Ku Klux Klan Honorary Society at the University of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer-Kruse, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    Recounts the history of the Ku Klux Klan Honorary Junior Society at the University of Wisconsin from 1919 to 1926. Although not tied to the national Ku Klux Klan, this honorary group became a powerful intrafraternity society that served as a barometer of the cultural and ideological climate of the university. (SLD)

  11. Quantifying fish habitat associated with stream simulation design culverts in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Timm; D. Higgins; J. Stanovick; R. Kolka; S. Eggert

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of culvert replacement design on fish habitat and fish weight by comparing substrate diversity and weight at three stream simulation (SS)-design and three bankfull and backwater (BB)-design sites on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Wisconsin. Stream channel cross-sections, Wolman substrate particle counts, and single-pass...

  12. Developing a Nonsexist/Nongendered Language Policy at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Erica J.; Kemp, Theresa D.; Pirlott, Angela; Coughlin, Casey; Forss, Quinn; Becherer, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project initiated in 2011 at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC) to develop a research-based action plan to justify the need for, and consequently the creation and adoption of, gender-inclusive language policies that aligned with UWEC's equity, diversity, and inclusivity goals and mission. By 2013, six…

  13. Gay Men's Book Clubs versus Wisconsin's Public Libraries: Political Perceptions in the Absence of Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, John

    2010-01-01

    Because of an absence of dialogue, a tense relationship appears to exist between Wisconsin's gay men's book discussion groups and their local public libraries. Public library directors express interest in accommodating these groups if approached but face budget restrictions and local communities that may oppose these gatherings; gay men's book…

  14. Effects of irrigation on sorghum forage yield and quality in the central sands region of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to assess effects of irrigation on yield and quality of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass in comparison to corn in central Wisconsin. The study was a strip-plot design with a 5 x 8 factorial arrangement of treatments. Five ...

  15. Wisconsin card sorting in adolescents: Analysis of performance, response times and heart rate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M. Somsen; M.W. van der Molen; J.R. Jennings; B. van Beek

    2000-01-01

    9 adolescents performed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). A main PCA component of WCST performance was identified as 'efficiency of reasoning.' This factor was related to feedback processing. From the WCST, a perseveration score can be derived. Perseveration is the continued application of a r

  16. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  17. Gay Men's Book Clubs versus Wisconsin's Public Libraries: Political Perceptions in the Absence of Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, John

    2010-01-01

    Because of an absence of dialogue, a tense relationship appears to exist between Wisconsin's gay men's book discussion groups and their local public libraries. Public library directors express interest in accommodating these groups if approached but face budget restrictions and local communities that may oppose these gatherings; gay men's book…

  18. Celebrating the International Year of Crystallography with a Wisconsin High School Crystal Growing Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzei, Ilia A.

    2014-01-01

    In honor of the 2014 International Year of Crystallography, the first Wisconsin Crystal Growing Competition was successfully organized and conducted. High school students from 26 schools across the state competed for prizes by growing large crystals of CuSO[subscript4]·5(H[subscript2]O). This paper describes how the event was planned and carried…

  19. Catalog Use at the University of Wisconsin-Stout: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mary

    This report describes a three-stage catalog use study conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Stout from 1982 through 1986 to determine the types of searches conducted and search success rates for both the card and online catalogs during the library's transition to the DataPhase Automated Library Information System (ALIS). Phase I, conducted…

  20. 78 FR 42693 - Safety Zone; USA Triathlon; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; USA Triathlon; Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin... enforce the safety zone listed in 33 CFR 165.T09-0140 Safety Zone; USA Triathlon, Milwaukee...

  1. Wisconsin-Milesky Test of Lip Reading Potential: A Composite of Subtest Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesky, Samuel D.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the Wisconsin-Milesky Battery, which includes such tests as subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test, provides a profile of elements predictive of the young deaf child's lip reading potential. (SBH)

  2. 76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    .... EPA Headquarters, Office of Science and Technology, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Mail Code 4305T... included in the database used to calculate the Limited Forage Fish criterion. Therefore, Wisconsin... direct toxicity to the organisms themselves, but rather the dietary source of selenium they provide...

  3. 77 FR 5710 - Federal Implementation Plans for Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... another state. The analysis for the final rule also identified two ozone maintenance receptors, located in... Wisconsin--interfered with maintenance problems at these receptors. EPA did not include ] these states in.... After publication of the final Transport Rule, various parties filed petitions for review of...

  4. Creating Jobs through Energy Efficiency Using Wisconsin's Successful Focus on Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Masood; Corrigan, Edward; Reitter, Thomas

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to provide administrative and technical support for the completion of energy efficiency projects that reduce energy intensity and create or save Wisconsin industrial jobs. All projects have been completed. Details in the attached reports include project management, job development, and energy savings for each project.

  5. 76 FR 63852 - Proposed Establishment of the Wisconsin Ledge Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... sheet and climatic erosion that altered the landform and brought in igneous and metamorphic rocks from... proposed Wisconsin Ledge viticultural area. The floor of the lowlands is composed of the back slope of... significant marine influence, which results in moderated climatic conditions that are conducive to...

  6. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  7. Do Student Migrations Affect School Performance? Evidence from Wisconsin's Inter-District Public School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, David M.; Zimmer, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the competitive effects of a unique school choice program implemented in the late 1990s, Wisconsin's open enrollment program, which allows families to send their children to schools outside their home district. In contrast to other school choice programs, districts not only face negative consequences from losing students and…

  8. Hydrology and water quality of the Forest County Potawatomi Indian Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwin, R.A.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents data from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Forest County Potawatomi Community of Wisconsin, to document the hydrology and water quality of the Potawatomi Indian Reservation in southern Forest County. Data were collected from October 1981 through September 1987.  

  9. Hate-Speech Code at U. of Wisconsin Voided by Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K

    1991-01-01

    A federal district judge has struck down a two-year-old University of Wisconsin code barring slurs or epithets based on an individual's race, sex, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or ethnic origin, ruling that it violates students' First-Amendment rights to freedom of speech. The decision affects a number of other colleges. (MSE)

  10. TOWNSHIP, SOUTH AFRICA.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-09-02

    Sep 2, 1999 ... the Bible, for a example when a child is born he or she is given a. Christian name ... language which is used by all age groups in the community. During the ... observation. i took part in most of the events in order to get a first-hand information. ... social places, for example, at parties and sport fields. Authors ...

  11. An Analysis of the New Jersey Public School District School Bond Referendum Process: A Historical Case Study of the Egg Harbor Township School District Bond Referendum of 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a historical case study of the Egg Harbor Township School District bond referendum that passed with an exceptionally high 92 percent of votes in January 2005. The methodology used in this study resulted in both an examination of the components of the New Jersey Public School District bond referendum process as well as an…

  12. Changes and Development Trend of Information Demand of Town and Township Enterprises%乡镇企业信息需求的变化及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵美娣; 孙媛

    2001-01-01

    Based on an investigation of the information demand of town and township enterprises, this paper compares the present investigation data with the previous ones, analyzes the changes and the development trend of their informarion demand, and puts forward some opinions and suggestions about how information organizations should provide informarion service for them according to their characteristics.

  13. EPA Encourages the Public to Provide Input on Plan to Address Contaminated Groundwater at Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund Site in Milford and Alexandria Township, New Jersey, Public Meeting to Take Place May 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a plan to clean up contaminated groundwater at the Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund site in Milford and Alexandria Township, New Jersey. The site includes the 86-acre historic former M

  14. Determinants of and opportunities for continuing education among health care professionals in public health care institutions in Jimma township, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fentahun N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Netsanet Fentahun,1 Ashagre Molla21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Nursing, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: An effectively prepared and continually updated workforce of health professionals is essential to maintenance and improvement in patient care. The major goal of continuing education is to improve and promote quality care. Continuing education is also important to an organization's strategic plan because of its positive influence on the quality of care provided. The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of and opportunities for continuing education among health care professionals at public health facilities in Jimma township.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 319 health care professionals working in the public health facilities of Jimma township was conducted from January 10, 2012 to February 28, 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. First, descriptive analysis was done to describe the characteristics of the study participants. Finally logistic regression was then used to determine the independent predictors of continuing education.Results: Only 70 (25% of the study participants were participating in continuing education. As working experience increased, participation in continuing education did not steadily increase. The working hours per week were higher for diploma holders than for those with any other qualification. One hundred and fifty-three (71.8% participants mentioned lack of support from their current employer as the reason for not participating in continuing education. Health care professionals with a lack of support from management were 2.4 times more likely not to participate in advanced education. Health care professionals with lack of funding were 0.3 times less likely to participate in advanced education. Health care professionals with lack of resources other than financial were 2.2 times more likely not to participate in

  15. Outcomes of a community-based HIV-prevention pilot programme for township men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Batist

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Men who have sex with men (MSM in Cape Town's townships remain in need of targeted HIV-prevention services. In 2012, a pilot community-based HIV-prevention programme was implemented that aimed to reach MSM in five Cape Town townships, disseminate HIV-prevention information and supplies, and promote the use of condoms and HIV services. Methods: Convenience sampling was used to recruit self-identified MSM who were 18 years old or older in five Cape Town townships. The six-month pilot programme trained five community leaders who, along with staff, provided HIV-prevention information and supplies to MSM through small-group meetings, community-based social activities and inter-community events. After the completion of the pilot programme, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with a subset of conveniently sampled participants and with each of the community leaders. Qualitative data were then analyzed thematically. Results: Overall, 98 mostly gay-identified black MSM consented to participate, 57 community-based activities were facilitated and 9 inter-community events were conducted. Following their enrolment, 60% (59/98 of participants attended at least one pilot activity. Of those participants, 47% (28/59 attended at least half of the scheduled activities. A total of 36 participants took part in FGDs, and five in-depth interviews were completed with community leaders. Participants reported gaining access to MSM-specific HIV-prevention information, condoms and water-based lubricant through the small-group meetings. Some participants described how their feelings of loneliness, social isolation, self-esteem and self-efficacy were improved after taking part. Conclusions: The social activities and group meetings were viable strategies for disseminating HIV-prevention information, condoms and water-based lubricant to MSM in this setting. Many MSM were also able to receive social support, reduce social isolation

  16. Flood-inundation maps for the Peckman River in the Townships of Verona, Cedar Grove, and Little Falls, and the Borough of Woodland Park, New Jersey, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemoczynski, Michal J.; Watson, Kara M.

    2016-10-19

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 7.5-mile reach of the Peckman River in New Jersey, which extends from Verona Lake Dam in the Township of Verona downstream through the Township of Cedar Grove and the Township of Little Falls to the confluence with the Passaic River in the Borough of Woodland Park, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the probable areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey (station number 01389534). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/.Flood profiles were simulated for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgages on the Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey (station number 01389534) and the Peckman River at Little Falls, New Jersey (station number 01389550). The hydraulic model was then used to compute eight water-surface profiles for flood stages at 0.5-foot (ft) intervals ranging from 3.0 ft or near bankfull to 6.5 ft, which is approximately the highest recorded water level during the period of record (1979–2014) at USGS streamgage 01389534, Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS

  17. 75 FR 14437 - North Eastern Wisconsin Hydro Inc. (N.E.W. Hydro); Notice of Intent To File License Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Marinette County, Wisconsin. No Federal lands are occupied by the project works or located within the... Division of Hydropower Licensing approved N.E.W. Hydro's request to use the Traditional Licensing Process...

  18. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Wisconsin Ice Island T3 Core Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1963 to 1972, 349 piston cores were collected from the Arctic Ocean using Ice Island T3 as a sampling platform and sent to the University of Wisconsin-Madison...

  19. Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey of Pool 10, Upper Mississippi River, Grant and Crawford Counties, Wisconsin, and Allamakee and Clayton Counties, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Hundred Years of Eastern Wisconsin Oneota Prehistory. " Foreign Language proficiency: Spanish and French. Minor Studies: Linguistics) Membership in...Field Archaeology--Survey and Excavation Analyses of Archaeological Materials and Data Hominid Paleontology North American Prehistory North American

  20. Green Bay and Gravel Island National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin Islands Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Wisconsin Islands Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...