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Sample records for cadavers

  1. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

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    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  2. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

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    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations. PMID:26748499

  3. Human Cadaver Material in Preclinical Oral Surgery.

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    Barber, H. Dexter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)

  4. Estimation of postmortem interval using the data of insulin level in the cadaver׳s blood

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    Sachil Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Insulin levels in cadaver blood are correlated significantly with PMI with a p value of <0.001. When insulin level increases by 1 unit the duration decreases by 0.93 units. The least square regression line is: [Duration(Y=22.71−0.93 Insulin level (X

  5. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

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    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  6. Posterior cervical foraminotomy: anatomic study in cadavers

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    Luizio Augusto Arantes Júnior

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to use different segments of the cervical spine in cadavers to determine how much lateral mass should be resected for adequate foraminal decompression. METHODS: Six cadavers were used. The region of the cervical spine from C1 to the C7-T1 transition was dissected and exposed. The lateral mass of each vertebra was measured bilaterally before the foraminotomy in the following segments: C2-C3, C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6 and C6-C7. The procedure was performed with a high-speed drill and through surgical microscopy. Three foraminotomies were performed (F1, F2, F3 in each level. Lateral masses were measured after foraminotomy procedures and compared to the initial measurement, creating a percentage of lateral mass needed for decompression.. The value of the entire surface was defined as 100%. RESULTS: There was a statistical difference between the amounts of the resected lateral mass through each foraminotomy (F1, F2, F3 at the same level. However, there was no statistical significant difference among the different levels. The average percentage of resection of the lateral masses in F2 were 27.7% at C2-C3, 24.8% at C3-C4, 24.4% at C4-C5 and 23.8% and 31.2% at C5-C6 and C6-C7, respectively. In F3, the level that needed greater resection of the lateral masses was C6-C7 level, where the average resection ranged between 41.2% and 47.9%. CONCLUSION: In all segments studied, the removal of approximately 24 to 32% of the facet joint allowed adequate exposure of the foraminal segment, with visualization of the dural sac and the exit of the cervical root.

  7. Estimation of postmortem interval using the data of insulin level in the cadaver׳s blood.

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    Kumar, Sachil; Verma, Anoop K

    2016-06-01

    An assessment of levels of Insulin in cadaveric fluids, to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) was carried out. To profile postmortem changes of Insulin, it was extracted at different intervals i.e. (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h), from the heart of 22 human cadavers. The cases included were the subjects of accidental deaths without any prior history of disease and their exact time of death was known. Immunoanalyzer Cobas e-411 instrument was used to detect the relationship between the amount of Insulin and PMI. Level of Insulin was measured in cardiac blood. Statically, significant correlations between levels of Insulin and PMI were studied and correlation coefficients were calculated. SPSS (version 12.0) was used for statistical analysis. Insulin levels in cadaver blood are correlated significantly with PMI with a p value of <0.001. When insulin level increases by 1 unit the duration decreases by 0.93 units. The least square regression line is: [Duration(Y)=22.71-0.93 Insulin level (X)]. PMID:26977436

  8. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

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    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  9. Sonographic detection of tracheal or esophageal intubation: A cadaver study

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    C A Tejesh; Manjunath, A. C.; Shivakumar, S.; P S Vinayak; Yatish, B; C R Geetha

    2016-01-01

    Background: The correct position of the endotracheal tube is confirmed by various modalities, most of which are not entirely reliable. Ultrasound is now increasingly available to anesthesiologists in the operating theater and is an attractive alternative. To investigate the usefulness of sonography in identifying the correct tracheal tube position in human cadavers. Materials and Methods: Endotracheal tubes placed randomly into trachea or esophagus was identified with a linear ultrasound ...

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the anterior cerebral artery in Indian cadavers

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    Shweta Kedia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microanatomy features of cerebral arteries may be variable and may be different in different ethnic groups. Aim: To study the anterior cerebral artery (ACA anatomy in North-West Indian cadavers. Materials and Methods: Microanatomy features of the ACA were studied in 15 formalin fixed human cadaveric brains under microscope. The outer diameter, length, and number of perforating branches with respective anomalies were measured for each of the following vessels: ACA (proximal A1 segment to distal A2 segment, anterior communicating artery (ACoA, Recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH, and callosomarginal artery and photographed for documentation. Results: The mean length and external diameter of right and left A1 segment was 12.09 mm and 12.0 mm and 2.32 mm and 2.36 mm respectively. Narrowing, duplication, and median ACA were seen in 6.6%, 3.3% and 6.6% of the vessels respectively. Complex ACoA type was seen in 40% cadavers. RAH originated at an average point of 0.2 mm distal to ACoA, but in one cadaver it arose 5 mm proximal to ACoA. Double RAH was found in 26.6%. The course of RAH in relation to A1 was superiorly in 60%, in anteriorly 30% and posteriorly in 10% of cadavers. The orbitofrontal artery (OFA and frontopolar artery (FPA arose from A2 in 83.3% to 40% respectively. The mean distance of OFA and FPA from ACoA was 4.17 mm and 8.5 mm respectively. After giving rise to central, callosal and cortical branches, pericallosal artery terminated near the splenium of the corpus callosum or on the precuneus as the inferomedial parietal artery. Conclusion: Knowledge of the microvascular anatomy is indispensable and it is mandatory to be aware of the possible variations in the anomalies to minimize morbidity.

  11. EVALUATION OF TECHNIQUES FOR CLEANING EMBALMED CADAVER BONES

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    Bhawani Shankar Modi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to find new technique for development of bone specimens from cadavers. Material and methods: Long bones, skull and other bones from embalmed cadaver were taken and cleansed by various methods. Four methods were employed for preparing specimens. In 1st method bones were boiled in tap water for 7-8 hours on gas stove. In 2nd method bones were immersed in water with addition of detergent at constant temperature. In 3rd method bones were kept at constant temperature in water without addition of detergent. In 4th method bones were buried for one month under superficial surface of soil during rainy season after boiling the bones for 7-8 hours Observations: Use of detergent in warm water (65o C was good for cleaning long bones while best result for long bones as well as skull was seen with boiling followed by burial of embalmed specimens. Results were found as expected. Time consumed in the present study was less than old classical methods. Bones specimens formed were of high quality. Conclusions: Preparation of bone specimen by embalmed cadaver can be of immense value and time saver for many research institutes to get their self-prepared specimens. There are many more ways which has to be modified or rediscovered in this area of research, which has been neglected so far.

  12. Moisture can be the dominant environmental parameter governing cadaver decomposition in soil.

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    Carter, David O; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2010-07-15

    Forensic taphonomy involves the use of decomposition to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) or locate clandestine graves. Yet, cadaver decomposition remains poorly understood, particularly following burial in soil. Presently, we do not know how most edaphic and environmental parameters, including soil moisture, influence the breakdown of cadavers following burial and alter the processes that are used to estimate PMI and locate clandestine graves. To address this, we buried juvenile rat (Rattus rattus) cadavers (approximately 18 g wet weight) in three contrasting soils from tropical savanna ecosystems located in Pallarenda (sand), Wambiana (medium clay), or Yabulu (loamy sand), Queensland, Australia. These soils were sieved (2mm), weighed (500 g dry weight), calibrated to a matric potential of -0.01 megapascals (MPa), -0.05 MPa, or -0.3 MPa (wettest to driest) and incubated at 22 degrees C. Measurements of cadaver decomposition included cadaver mass loss, carbon dioxide-carbon (CO(2)-C) evolution, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), protease activity, phosphodiesterase activity, ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen (NRN) and soil pH. Cadaver burial resulted in a significant increase in CO(2)-C evolution, MBC, enzyme activities, NRN and soil pH. Cadaver decomposition in loamy sand and sandy soil was greater at lower matric potentials (wetter soil). However, optimal matric potential for cadaver decomposition in medium clay was exceeded, which resulted in a slower rate of cadaver decomposition in the wettest soil. Slower cadaver decomposition was also observed at high matric potential (-0.3 MPa). Furthermore, wet sandy soil was associated with greater cadaver decomposition than wet fine-textured soil. We conclude that gravesoil moisture content can modify the relationship between temperature and cadaver decomposition and that soil microorganisms can play a significant role in cadaver breakdown. We also conclude that soil NRN is a more reliable indicator of gravesoil than soil p

  13. ATTITUDE OF FIRST YEAR INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS TOWARDS CADAVER DISSECTION

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    Vinay Kumar V

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cadaveric dissection is routinely practiced for teaching anatomy for medical students. Anatomy is one of the most important subjects offered during the first year MBBS course. Dissection is very important in learning anatomy, so the first year students will encounter, most likely for the first time, a dead human body. This experience, even though emotionally stressful, provides essential knowledge and skills for their future studies. Methods: A total of 150 newly admitted first-year medical students emotional and physical reactions to cadaveric dissection were assessed by using a questionnaire. The questionnaires were given just before, after a week and 2 months after the initiation of dissection classes. Results: Most of the students experienced negative physical symptoms, such as eye irritation (63.33%, headache (10%, decrease in appetite (12%, nausea (3.3%, sweating (35.33% giddiness (2.66%, shivering (4.66% and desire to leave dissection hall (9.33% in the first encounter with a cadaver in the dissection hall. They also experienced adverse emotional responses such as fear (61.33%, depression (14.66%. However, most of these reactions decreased significantly 2 months later, except for eye irritation and their interest has increased on subsequent visit to dissection classes. A majority (95.5% considered the cadaver dissection to be the most helpful tool in learning anatomy and it increased their skills. Conclusion: The initial encounters with a cadaver caused emotional and physical stress to students, but most students adapted gradually to the stressful learning environment. The amount of stress can be greatly reduced if they are properly counselled before the dissection classes. Majority of students preferred dissection as the most useful tool to learn anatomy than any other method.

  14. The Wider Importance of Cadavers: Educational and Research Diversity from a Body Bequest Program

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    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The debate surrounding the use of cadavers in teaching anatomy has focused almost exclusively on the pedagogic role of cadaver dissection in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the wider aspects of a body bequest program for teaching and research into gross anatomy in a University setting. A retrospective audit was undertaken…

  15. An Economical Approach to Teaching Cadaver Anatomy: A 10-Year Retrospective

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    Simpson, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    Because of shrinking budgets and computerized virtual dissection programs, many large and small institutions are closing the door on traditional and expensive cadaver dissection classes. However, many health-care educators would argue there is still a place for cadaver dissection in higher education, so the continuing challenge is to provide the…

  16. Veterinary science student preferences for the source of dog cadavers used in anatomy teaching.

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    Tiplady, Catherine; Lloyd, Shan; Morton, John

    2011-10-01

    Live animals and cadavers are integral to veterinary education. In the year of this survey (2008), and in at least the five preceding years, cadavers obtained by euthanasia of healthy pound dogs and ex-racing greyhounds were dissected by students, during their veterinary anatomy classes at the University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science. Students may have ethical concerns about this. An alternative approach was to use donated dog cadavers. These are owned pet dogs that have died of natural causes or have been euthanised for medical reasons, and have been donated by their owners for the purposes of veterinary education. Veterinary students at the School were surveyed in 2008, in order to determine their preferences for cadaver source. Data from 406 questionnaires were analysed. Third-year and fifth-year veterinary students were more likely than first-year students to prefer pound-dog/greyhound cadavers over donated cadavers for anatomy dissection (p ≤ 0.002). Between 32% and 45% of the students had no preference for either source of cadaver. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that veterinary students become more accepting of the euthanasia of unwanted healthy animals for education as they progress through the veterinary programme, in contexts such as the current study. This could occur due to increased acceptance of the euthanasia of healthy animals generally, a decline in moral development, desensitisation, and/or the belief that healthy animal cadavers offer a superior learning experience. PMID:22103939

  17. Medical Students' Reactions to Anatomic Dissection and the Phenomenon of Cadaver Naming

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    Williams, Austin D.; Greenwald, Emily E.; Soricelli, Rhonda L.; DePace, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body…

  18. The use of lower formalin-containing embalming solution for anatomy cadaver preparation

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    Viskasari P. Kalanjati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We used cadaver embalming technique with a high concentration of formaldehyde (37% formaldehyde. However, it gives toxic effects which can endanger the technicians, lecturers and students. For that reason, the effective, efficient and safer embalming process is needed; in this article we describe the use of low formalin solution (5-7.5% formaldehyde to achieve prior purposes.Methods: Cadaver is embalmed by actively pumping low formalin-containing solution (5-7.5% via femoral arteries. Further methods are detailed in this manuscript.Results: Paler cadaver with more intact and easier to dissect specimen (drier and still moist with no fungal growth was resulted by using this low formalin technique.Conclusion: The use of low formalin-containing solution in cadaver embalming gave good quality results for anatomy teaching. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:203-7Keywords: Anatomy specimen, cadaver preparation, low formaldehyde solution

  19. Cadaver renal transplant outcome in recipients with autolymphocytotoxic antibodies.

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    Ettenger, R B; Jordan, S C; Fine, R N

    1983-05-01

    The major impact of autolymphocytotoxic antibodies (ALCA) on renal transplantation has been in the interpretation of the pretransplant crossmatch as a cause of false-positive results. Less attention has been paid to the direct affects of ALCA on renal allografts. We have examined the sera of 38 recipients of 41 cadaver renal allografts for the presence of ALCA. There were 9 patients with ALCA who received 10 allografts. In these allografts with ALCA, actuarial graft survival was significantly improved (P less than 0.05) over that of 31 transplants without ALCA. In recipients with ALCA, graft survival was 90% at six months and 60% at one and two years; in recipients without ALCA, graft survival was 48% at six months, 35% at one year and 24% at two years. ALCA may be exerting graft-enhancing properties by means of an autoregulatory effect upon the recipient's immunologic system.

  20. Levels of formaldehyde vapor released from embalmed cadavers in each dissection stage.

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    Sugata, Yota; Miyaso, Hidenobu; Odaka, Yoko; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Noboru; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2016-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an aldehyde used in antiseptics and adhesives. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other institutes have linked FA to sick building syndrome and allergic diseases. Recent studies have reported that cadavers embalmed using formalin and ethanol-based preservative solutions release FA vapor during dissection and that FA vapor may adversely affect students and lecturers in gross anatomy laboratories. However, few details have been reported correlating dissection stage with increased FA vapor release. In this study, we evaluated the vapor level of FA released in each dissection stage. Six cadavers for which consent was given for use in anatomy research and education were examined in this study. Using an active sampling method, FA vapor was collected above the thoracoabdominal region of each dissected cadaver. FA was eluted from each sampler using acetonitrile and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Our data show that FA levels significantly increase after skin incision and that the vapor level of FA released differs between male and female cadavers. We also found that subcutaneous adipose tissues of the thoracoabdominal-region release FA vapor and that female cadavers release significantly higher levels of FA per kilogram of subcutaneous adipose tissue than do male cadavers. Based on these data, we propose the methods be developed to prevent exposure to FA vapors released from cadavers. PMID:27151243

  1. "Detached concern" of medical students in a cadaver dissection course: A phenomenological study.

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    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes-specifically characterized as "detached concern"-in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was performed with semi-structured, focus group interviews among 12 third-year medical students from a Taiwanese medical school to reveal their perceptions and learning experiences regarding human cadaver dissection. Based on these interviews, four relevant categories of perspectives were delineated: (1) initial emotional impact, (2) human referents, (3) coping strategies, and (4) ways of perceiving cadavers. Students were divided into two groups based on these categories. Students in Group 1 developed mechanisms described as "detachment" to cope with their initial emotional reactions to cadaveric dissection, which was noted to have disruptive effects on their learning. They considered human referents to be learning obstacles and avoided contact with or thinking about the human referents while performing dissections. Some of them faced a conflict between perceiving the cadaver as a learning tool versus as a human being. This impasse could be resolved if they latently adopted a "perspective switch" between the concept of a learning tool (rational aspect) and a human being (sensitive aspect). The students in Group 2 had no obvious initial emotional reaction. For them, the human referents functioned as learning supports, and the cadavers were consistently perceived as humans. These students held the notion that "cadaver dissection is an act of love"; therefore, they did not experience any need to detach themselves from their feelings during dissection. This alternative attitude revealed that detached concern alone is not sufficient to describe the entire range of medical students' attitudes toward cadaver dissection. Anat Sci

  2. "Detached concern" of medical students in a cadaver dissection course: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes-specifically characterized as "detached concern"-in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was performed with semi-structured, focus group interviews among 12 third-year medical students from a Taiwanese medical school to reveal their perceptions and learning experiences regarding human cadaver dissection. Based on these interviews, four relevant categories of perspectives were delineated: (1) initial emotional impact, (2) human referents, (3) coping strategies, and (4) ways of perceiving cadavers. Students were divided into two groups based on these categories. Students in Group 1 developed mechanisms described as "detachment" to cope with their initial emotional reactions to cadaveric dissection, which was noted to have disruptive effects on their learning. They considered human referents to be learning obstacles and avoided contact with or thinking about the human referents while performing dissections. Some of them faced a conflict between perceiving the cadaver as a learning tool versus as a human being. This impasse could be resolved if they latently adopted a "perspective switch" between the concept of a learning tool (rational aspect) and a human being (sensitive aspect). The students in Group 2 had no obvious initial emotional reaction. For them, the human referents functioned as learning supports, and the cadavers were consistently perceived as humans. These students held the notion that "cadaver dissection is an act of love"; therefore, they did not experience any need to detach themselves from their feelings during dissection. This alternative attitude revealed that detached concern alone is not sufficient to describe the entire range of medical students' attitudes toward cadaver dissection. Anat Sci

  3. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  4. Dynamic biaxial tissue properties of the human cadaver aorta.

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    Shah, Chirag S; Hardy, Warren N; Mason, Matthew J; Yang, King H; Van Ee, Chris A; Morgan, Richard; Digges, Kennerly

    2006-11-01

    This study focuses on the biaxial mechanical properties of planar aorta tissue at strain rates likely to be experienced during automotive crashes. It also examines the structural response of the whole aorta to longitudinal tension. Twenty-six tissue-level tests were conducted using twelve thoracic aortas harvested from human cadavers. Cruciate samples were excised from the ascending, peri-isthmic, and descending regions. The samples were subjected to equibiaxial stretch at two nominal speed levels using a new biaxial tissue-testing device. Inertia-compensated loads were measured to facilitate calculation of true stress. High-speed videography and regional correlation analysis were used to track ink dots marked on the center of each sample to obtain strain. In a series of component-level tests, the response of the intact thoracic aorta to longitudinal stretch was obtained using seven aorta specimens. The aorta fails within the peri-isthmic region. The aorta fails in the transverse direction, and the intima fails before the media or adventitia. The aorta tissue exhibits nonlinear behavior. The aorta as complete structure can transect completely from 92 N axial load and 0.221 axial strain. Complete transection can be accompanied by intimal tears. These results have application to finite element modeling and the better understanding of traumatic rupture of the aorta. PMID:17311166

  5. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

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    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  6. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

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    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh R. Aghera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial circumflex femoral artery is an important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an important artery in supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur, the adductor muscles and form anastomosis around head of femur. So study of variation of medial circumflex femoral artery great value for surgeon and orthopaedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedure for under graduate and post graduate students in the department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, KBN Medical college and H K E Homeopathic College, Gulbarga (India during 2011-2014.The study was done by dissection method as per Cunningham’s manual of practical Anatomy. Result: In present study, we found that 25 extremities (25.49% medial circumflex femoral artery was originated directly from femoral artery. In 10 extremities (9.80% a common trunk was observed form medial circumflex femoral with femoral artery. Normal study was observed in 66 extremities (64.70%. Conclusion: In present study and other past studies we conclude that knowledge of variation in this artery is very important to preventing injury to vessels during surgical procedures around hip joint and also has important value in plastic surgery operations as the vascular pedicle of grafts such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG flap, medial thigh flap and medial circumflex femoral (gracilis perforator free flap. During case of selective arteriography in ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head to know the arterial supply of the femoral head it is used.

  8. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Sasaki Imakuma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. Materials and Methods and Results: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. Conclusion: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy.

  9. Friendly Skulls, Mechanical Bodies: Encounters with Cadavers in a Medical School in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy and cadavers trigger fear and produce contradictory responses. In these circumstances, allegedly Western models of learning and the exposure to death have to be appropriated to become viable. Furthermore, references to the religious and cultural backgrounds of students shape their responses. According to students, death is an event when the deceased acquires supernatural powers; thus, they take shield in religion to ward off potential dangers caused by spirits. The exposure to the interior of the body also produces heightened feelings of religiosity and perceiving the body as a miracle. Befriending skulls and body parts and giving them names are strategies to humanize dead bodies and render them familiar. However, in order to legitimize working with cadavers and the dissection of bodies, students tend to dehumanize cadavers and observe them as mechanical objects. PMID:26222437

  10. Neuroanatomy and cadaver dissection in Italy: History, medicolegal issues, and neurosurgical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Frati, Alessandro; Salvati, Maurizio; Marinozzi, Silvia; Frati, Riccardo; Angeletti, Luciana Rita; Piccirilli, Manolo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2006-11-01

    Despite the significant Italian tradition of important anatomical studies, an outdated law historically influenced by the Catholic church restricts the use of cadavers for teaching and scientific purposes. The object of the present paper was to trace the historical evolution of the Italian anatomical tradition, particularly neuroanatomical studies, in relation to the juridical regulations on the use of cadavers today. Special attention was paid to the opportunities offered to neurosurgery by using cadavers and to the scientific and social issues in neurosurgical training in the twenty-first century. Considering the new Common European Constitution, the authors advocate a political solution from the European community to improve the quality of training in the disciplines with a social impact such as neurosurgery.

  11. Single-port unilateral transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy: A survival animal and cadaver feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Neubarth Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-port unilateral axillary thyroidectomy has great potential to become a valid alternative technique for thyroid surgery. We tested the technique in a study on live animals and cadavers to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board (IRB approval was obtained in our university by the Council of Ethics for the study in surviving animals and cadavers. Subtotal thyroidectomy using unilateral axillary single port was performed in five dogs and five cadavers. Performing incision in the axillary fossa, a disposable single port was inserted. The dissection progressed for creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the subplatysmal region; after opening the platysma muscle and separation of the strap muscles, the thyroid gland was identified. After key anatomical landmarks were identified, the dissection was started at the upper pole towards the bottom, and to the isthmus. Specimens were extracted intact through the tunnel. Clinical and laboratorial observations of the experimental study in a 15-day follow-up and intraoperative data were documented. Results: All surgeries were performed in five animals which survived 15 days without postoperative complications. In the surgeries successfully performed in five cadavers, anatomical landmarks were recognised and intraoperative dissection of recurrent nerves and parathyroid glands was performed. Mean operative time was 64 min (46-85 min in animals and 123 min (110-140 min in cadavers, with a good cosmetic outcome since the incision was situated in the axillary fold. Conclusion: The technique of single-port axillary unilateral thyroidectomy was feasible and reproducible in the cadavers and animal survival study, suggesting the procedure as an alternative to minimally invasive surgery of the neck.

  12. [The forensic expertise of cadavers of females suspected to be victims of sexually motivated homicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, O A

    2004-01-01

    According to the author's independent observations, the criminal, as a rule, strangles his victim in sex-related murders. In cases of suspected sex-related murders of women, the female urogenital system needs to be examined as an anatomically whole preparation. It was proven that the spermatozoid structure (in the cadaveric vagina, whose condition was optimal) began to change from week 2 with almost all their heads being destroyed by the end of week 6. When cadavers are found in 1.5-2 months after the event, there is no reason to give up examinations of the sperm from cadaver.

  13. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Jensen, Bente Rona; Kirpensteijn, Jolle;

    2013-01-01

    . Animals-12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers. Procedures-CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral...... and applied criteria. The TT-TG offset distance has potential as an objective assessment of alignment of the distal portion of the quadriceps mechanism; its use as an aid in case selection for corrective femoral osteotomy among dogs with medial patellar luxation warrants investigation....

  14. A Technique to Perfuse Cadavers that Extends the Useful Life of Fresh Tissues: The Duke Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Caroline; Kellogg, Ryan T.; Zhang, Yixin; Baiak, Andresa; Leiweke, Clinton; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Levin, L. Scott; Zenn, Michael R.; Erdmann, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    The demand for laboratory-based teaching and training is increasing worldwide as medical training and education confront the pressures of shorter training time and rising costs. This article presents a cost-effective perfusion technique that extends the useful life of fresh tissue. Refrigerated cadavers are preserved in their natural state for up…

  15. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of gallstone disease in an Iranian population:a study on cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaail Farzaneh; Hassan Toifghi Zavvareh; Jaber Gharadaghi; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The prevalence of gallstones is low in Asians. In Iran, many factors inlfuence the prevalence of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gallbladder stones and their chemical characteristics in a population by the study of cadavers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, autopsies were performed on 253 cadavers of more than 13 years old. The cadavers were studied to determine the number, location of stone formation, chemical composition, dry weight, and mean diameter of stones in the gallbladder and common bile duct. RESULTS:The prevalence of gallstone disease in these cadavers was 6.3% (men 4.7%, women 8.6%, not signiifcantly different, P=0.216). There was a positive relationship between the age and prevalence of gallstone disease (P=0.033). The most common stone compositions were cholesterol and oxalate. The mean diameter (P=0.0058) and dry weight (P CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of gallstones differed among age groups. Diameter and dry weight of gallstones were dependent on location of stone formation and chemical composition.

  17. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  18. Precise and feasible measurements of lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies by radiostereometric analysis in cadaver feet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinkevich, P; Rahbek, Ole; Møller-Madsen, B;

    2015-01-01

    osteotomy (LCLO). METHODS: LCLO was performed in six fixed adult cadaver feet. Tantalum markers were inserted on each side of the osteotomy and in the cuboideum. Lengthening was done with a plexiglas wedge. A total of 24 radiological double examinations were obtained. Two feet were excluded due to loose...

  19. Gliding resistance of flexor tendon associated with carpal tunnel pressure: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.; Ettema, A.M.; Berglund, L.J.; An, K.N.; Amadio, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of carpal tunnel pressure on the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel. Eight fresh human cadaver wrists and hands were used. A balloon was inserted into the carpal tunnel to elevate the pressure. The mean gliding r

  20. In vitro study of foot kinematics using a dynamic walking cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, C J; Liu, A M; Ward, E; Howard, D; Cocheba, J; Derrick, T; Patterson, P

    2007-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on navicular, cuboid, cuneiform and metatarsal kinematics during walking and our objective was to study the kinematic contributions these bones might make to foot function. A dynamic cadaver model of walking was used to apply forces to cadaver feet and mobilise them in a manner similar to in vivo. Kinematic data were recorded from 13 cadaver feet. Given limitations to the simulation, the data describe what the cadaver feet were capable of in response to the forces applied, rather than exactly how they performed in vivo. The talonavicular joint was more mobile than the calcaneocuboid joint. The range of motion between cuneiforms and navicular was similar to that between talus and navicular. Metatarsals four and five were more mobile relative to the cuboid than metatarsals one, two and three relative to the cuneiforms. This work has confirmed the complexity of rear, mid and forefoot kinematics. The data demonstrate the potential for often-ignored foot joints to contribute significantly to the overall kinematic function of the foot. Previous emphasis on the ankle and sub talar joints as the principal articulating components of the foot has neglected more distal articulations. The results also demonstrate the extent to which the rigid segment assumptions of previous foot kinematics research have over simplified the foot.

  1. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO System: A Cadaver Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxin Fan

    Full Text Available Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence.This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO system in puncture reduction of PTED.Cadaver study.Comparative groups.HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A. Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B. On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C.At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P0.05. There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05.Small-sample preclinical study.HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127.

  2. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  3. Anomalous azygos venous system in a south Indian cadaver: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros, Lydia S; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Guru, Anitha; Pulakunta, Thejodhar; Ray, Biswabina; D'Silva, Suhani Sumalatha; Sequeira, Sylvia; Thomas, Huban

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The posterior thoracic wall, an area drained by the azygos venous system, is a common site for surgical intervention. Since the venous part of the cardiovascular system is subject to most common variation, abnormalities in the azygos venous system are often reported. Case presentation During routine dissection classes for undergraduate medical students, we encountered a variation in the azygos venous system in a 65 years old south Indian male cadaver. We observed that there was n...

  4. Arthrographic study of the Wiberg's CE angle in cadavers of children under 3 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty hip arthrographies in cadavers of children under 3 years of age are presented. The articular relationships of the hip through the definition of the morphology of the proximal femoral epyphysis are evaluated. The location of point 'C' and the evaluation of 'CE' angle in this age group are related. The results of the arthrographic 'CE' osseous angle are compared with Salvati's method and with Massie and Howorth's method. (M.A.C.)

  5. Accuracy of Needle Placement in Cadavers: Non-Guided Versus Ultrasound-Guided

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Jae Sung; Chung, Min Jae; Kim, Hae Rim; So, Jae In; Park, Jung Eun; Oh, Hyun Mi; Lee, Jong In

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy rates of non-guided vs. ultrasound-guided needle placement in four lower limb muscles (tibialis posterior, peroneus longus, and short and long heads of the biceps femoris). Methods Two electromyographers examined the four muscles in each of eight lower limbs from four fresh frozen cadavers. Each electromyographer injected an assigned dye into each targeted muscle in a lower limb twice (once without guidance, another under ultrasound guidance). Therefore, four...

  6. Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon Tension during Finger Manipulation: A Study in Human Cadaver Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Tatsuro; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E.; An, Kai-Nan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the tension in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon in zone II and the digit angle during joint manipulations that replicate rehabilitation protocols. Eight FDP tendons from eight human cadavers were used in this study. The dynamic tension in zone II of the tendon and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint angle were measured in various wrist and digit positions. Tension in the FDP tendon increased with MCP joint extension. There was no tension with th...

  7. Mapping the lateral extent of human cadaver decomposition with soil chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A; Owings, C G; Alexander, M B; Larison, N; Bytheway, J A

    2012-03-10

    Soil below decomposing cadavers may have a different lateral spatial extent depending upon whether scavengers have access to the human cadaver or not. We examined the lateral spatial extent of decomposition products to a depth of 7cm of soils beneath two decomposing corpses, one in which the subject was autopsied, unclothed and placed under a wire cage to restrict scavenger access and one in which the subject was not autopsied, unclothed and exposed to scavengers. The two bodies had accumulated degree days (ADD) of 5799 and 5469 and post mortem interval (PMI) of 288 and 248d, respectively. The spatial extent for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic nitrogen (DON) for both bodies was large but similar suggesting some movement off site for both compounds. Mean DOC was 1087±727 and 1484±1236μgg(-1) dry soil under the two corpses relative to 150±68μgg(-1) in upslope control soils. Sulfate tended to have 'hot spots' of lower values relative to the control soils indicative of anaerobic respiration. pH was lower and electrical conductivity was higher in the soil under both decomposing cadavers relative to control soils. Some of the nutrients examined downslope of the human remains were significantly higher than control soils upslope suggesting movement of decomposition products off-site which could be an important factor when using human remains detector dogs.

  8. Measurement of the tendon of the biceps brachii after tenotomy: study on cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Cunha Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of elbow and forearm range of motion on the distal excursion of the long head of the biceps (LHB. METHODS: The distal excursion of the LHB after tenotomy of the shoulders of eight cadavers was ascertained by measuring the distance between a point marked out on the LHB, 3 cm from the anterolateral border of the acromion, and its position at different degrees of elbow flexion, using a digital pachymeter. The measurements at elbow flexion of 135°, 90°, 45° and 0° were noted: these angles were established using a goniometer. The measurements were made with the forearm in neutral, supination and pronation positions. RESULTS: Differences between the mean measurements of the distal excursion of the LHB (total sample were observed between the degrees of elbow flexion ( p< 0.01. However, no statistical differences were observed between the different forearm positions, between the sides, genders and ages of the cadavers studied. CONCLUSION: Progressive extension of the elbow caused progressive distal excursion of the LHB, but without interference in the forearm position, gender, side or age of the cadavers studied.

  9. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection. PMID:27511051

  10. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection.

  11. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

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    Yongsheng You

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR. The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5% and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%. The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele.

  12. Gastric femoral hernia in a male cadaver with gastroptosis: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, K; Apostolidis, S; Papadopoulou, A L; Vlasis, K; Totlis, T; Skandalakis, P

    2008-04-01

    The shape and the position of the stomach and its anatomic relations to the round viscera vary from individual to individual, but they also vary in the same subject depending on many factors. The downward displacement of the stomach is called gastroptosis. In the literature, there are only five case reports where the stomach constituted the content of a femoral hernia. The current study presents a case of a gastric femoral hernia in a cadaver along with a review of the relevant literature. During routine dissection of a 67-year-old male cadaver with a very large stomach and gastroptosis, a femoral hernia containing a part of the great curvature of the stomach was found. The length of the hernia sac was 5 cm, and its width was 3.5 cm. There was a disposition of the intestinal coils to the posterior wall and the lesser pelvis. The cadaver's former medical history and skin observation before dissection excluded any previous abdominal surgery. This is the second case of stomach herniation through the femoral ring in a male subject ever reported. The symptoms in this pathology vary from complete absence to symptoms due to high stenosis of the digestive tract, stomach strangulation and stomach wall necrosis.

  13. Self-Reported Emergency Medicine Residency Applicant Attitudes Towards a Procedural Cadaver Laboratory Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman, Lance

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Residency applicants consider a variety of factors when ranking emergency medicine (EM programs for their NRMP match list. A human cadaver emergency procedure lab curriculum is uncommon. We hypothesized that the presence this curriculum would positively impact the ranking of an EM residency program.METHODS: The EM residency at Nebraska Medical Center is an urban, university-based program with a PGY I-III format. Residency applicants during the interview for a position in the PGY I class of 2006 were surveyed by three weekly electronic mailings. The survey was distributed in March 2006 after the final NRMP match results were released. The survey explored learner preferences and methodological commonality of models of emergency procedural training, as well as the impact of a procedural cadaver lab curriculum on residency ranking. ANOVA of ranks was used to compare responses to ranking questions.RESULTS: Of the 73 potential subjects, 54 (74% completed the survey. Respondents ranked methods of procedural instruction from 1 (most preferred or most common technique to 4 (least preferred or least common technique. Response averages and 95% confidence intervals for the preferred means of learning a new procedure are as follows: textbook (3.69; 3.51-3.87, mannequin (2.83; 2.64-3.02, human cadaver (1.93; 1.72-2.14, and living patient (1.56; 1.33-1.79. Response averages for the commonality of means used to teach a new procedure are as follows: human cadaver (3.63; 3.46-3.80, mannequin (2.70; 2.50-2.90, living patient (2.09; 1.85-2.33, and textbook (1.57; 1.32-1.82. When asked if the University of Nebraska Medical Center residency ranked higher in the individual's match list because of its procedural cadaver lab, 14.8% strongly disagreed, 14.8% disagreed, 40.7% were neutral, 14.8% agreed, and 14.8% strongly agreed.CONCLUSION: We conclude that, although cadaveric procedural training is viewed by senior medical student learners as a desirable means

  14. Self-guided clinical cases for medical students based on postmortem CT scans of cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael; Francois, Webster; Gest, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    In the summer of 2009, we began full body computed tomography (CT) scanning of the pre-embalmed cadavers in the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) dissection lab. We theorized that implementing web-based, self-guided clinical cases based on postmortem CT (PMCT) scans would result in increased student appreciation for the clinical relevance of anatomy, increased knowledge of cross-sectional anatomy, and increased ability to identify common pathologies on CT scans. The PMCT scan of each cadaver was produced as a DICOM dataset, and then converted into a Quicktime movie file using Osirix software. Clinical cases were researched and written by the authors, and consist of at least one Quicktime movie of a PMCT scan surrounded by a novel navigation interface. To assess the value of these clinical cases we surveyed medical students at UMMS who are currently using the clinical cases in their coursework. Students felt the clinical cases increased the clinical relevance of anatomy (mean response 7.77/10), increased their confidence finding anatomical structures on CT (7.00/10), and increased their confidence recognizing common pathologies on CT (6.17/10). Students also felt these clinical cases helped them synthesize material from numerous courses into an overall picture of a given disease process (7.01/10). These results support the conclusion that our clinical cases help to show students why the anatomy they are learning is foundational to their other coursework. We would recommend the use of similar clinical cases to any medical school utilizing cadaver dissection as a primary teaching method in anatomy education.

  15. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Cobaugh

    Full Text Available The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death. Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem, respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%, with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%. Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem, respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9% and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional

  16. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doomernik, D E; Kruse, R R; Reijnen, M M P J; Kozicz, T L; Kooloos, J G M

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and limitations of each substance was given, and a comparison of vascular infusion procedures in both preservation methods was made. A literature search was performed in order to identify the most commonly used vascular injection products. Acrylic paint, latex, gelatin, silicone, Araldite F and Batson's No. 17 were selected for the study. One fresh-frozen and one embalmed cadaver forearm were infused with each injection product according to a uniform protocol. The curing time, skin- and subcutaneous tissue penetration, degree of filling of the arterial tree, extravasations, consistency of the injected vessels during dissection, and the costs of each injection fluid were noted. There was a large variation between the injection fluids in processing- and curing time, colour intensity, flexibility, fragility, elasticity, strength, toxicity and costs. All fluids were suitable for infusion. The penetration of injection fluid into the skin and subcutaneous tissue was significantly better in fresh-frozen specimens (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively), with significantly smaller branches casted (P = 0.004). Vascular infusion of fresh-frozen cadaver specimens results in a significantly better filled coloured arterial tree, enabling more detail to be achieved and smaller branches casted. The biomechanical properties of fresh-frozen soft tissues are less affected compared with formalin fixation. All the injection fluids studied are suitable for vascular infusion, but their different properties ensure that certain products and procedures are more suitable for specific study purposes. PMID:27329696

  17. Response of forest soil euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Cercozoa) to pig cadavers assessed by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppey, Christophe V W; Fournier, Bertrand; Szelecz, Ildikò; Singer, David; Mitchell, Edward A D; Lara, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Decomposing cadavers modify the soil environment, but the effect on soil organisms and especially on soil protists is still poorly documented. We conducted a 35-month experiment in a deciduous forest where soil samples were taken under pig cadavers, control plots and fake pigs (bags of similar volume as the pigs). We extracted total soil DNA, amplified the SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V9 region and sequenced it by Illumina technology and analysed the data for euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida), a common group of protozoa known to respond to micro-environmental changes. We found 51 euglyphid operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 45 of which did not match any known sequence. Most OTUs decreased in abundance underneath cadavers between days 0 and 309, but some responded positively after a time lag. We sequenced the full-length SSU rRNA gene of two common OTUs that responded positively to cadavers; a phylogenetic analysis showed that they did not belong to any known euglyphid family. This study confirmed the existence of an unknown diversity of euglyphids and that they react to cadavers. Results suggest that metabarcoding of soil euglyphids could be used as a forensic tool to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) particularly for long-term (>2 months) PMI, for which no reliable tool exists. PMID:25874666

  18. Femtosecond laser subsurface scleral treatment in cadaver human sclera and evaluation using two-photon and confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yan, Ying; Lian, Fuqiang; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial-thickness drainage channels can be created with femtosecond laser in the translucent sclera for the potential treatment of glaucoma. We demonstrate the creation of partial-thickness subsurface drainage channels with the femtosecond laser in the cadaver human eyeballs and describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. A femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm was scanned along a rectangular raster pattern to create the partial thickness subsurface drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such partial thickness subsurface scleral channels. Our studies suggest that the confocal and two-photon microscopy can be used to investigate femtosecond-laser created partial-thickness drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes.

  19. Formaldehyde Concentration in the Air and in Cadavers at the Gross Anatomy Laboratory in Hiroshima University

    OpenAIRE

    Kurose, Tomoyuki; Kodera, Haruto; Aoyama, Hirohiko; Kawamata, Seiichi

    2004-01-01

    The formaldehyde concentration in the air and in various tissues of 35 human cadavers were measured during a gross anatomy course held at the Faculty of Medicine of Hiroshima University in the 2003 educational year. Atmospheric formaldehyde levels were 0.25-0.55 ppm and thus less than the upper limit of the guideline for formaldehyde exposure (0.5 ppm) set by the Japan Society for Occupational Health (1988) except for one out of 10 measurements. The formaldehyde concentrations in tissues were...

  20. Anxiety of first cadaver demonstration in medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculty students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bati, Ayse Hilal; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Govsa, Figen; Pinar, Yelda

    2013-07-01

    Anatomy is the fundamental of medical and health professional education. Anatomic dissection enables the examination of the organs in the human cadavers systematically and topographically. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the first cadaver demonstration and the anxiety of medical, dental and pharmacy students. A questionnaire was distributed to 486 students in the same academic year (2009-2010) at Ege University. The review of anxiety reveals the circumstances such as exhaustion, stress, depression, anxiety, destructive life, deterioration of mental or physical quality or asthenia (over-fatigue), professionally having a serious effect on the students. 486 (85.3 %) students in total participated in this research carried out as based on voluntariness as 338 (93.9 %) students from the medical faculty, 78 (70.9 %) students from the faculty of dentistry and 70 (70 %) students from the faculty of pharmacy.A medium level of anxiety was detected in the students in their first encounter with the cadaver. The state anxiety score (SAS) average taken by all the students who took part in the research is 42.6 ± 5.60 and trait anxiety score average is 46.6 ± 5.0. No discrepancy was detected among the faculties with respect to anxiety score. While the SASs of the male students were higher than the girls, the trait anxiety scores of the girl students were detected to be higher than male students. While the characteristics and the cultural life of our society force the male students into stronger behavioral patterns, they may actually increase their anxiety level in distressed conditions. The fact that trait anxiety is high in both sexes, particularly in female students can be explained by the patient responsibility and the work load undertaken in the professions in the medical field as early as the period of education.Before the students' applied lessons with the cadavers start, a preparatory session must be planned for this education to decrease the

  1. Rare anatomic variation of left gastric artery and right hepatic artery in a female cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupis, Theodore; Chatzikokolis, Stamatis; Zachariadis, Michael; Troupis, George; Anagnostopoulou, Sofia; Skandalakis, Panayiotis

    2008-05-01

    The present report describes a rare case in which the left gastric artery arises directly from the abdominal aorta and the right hepatic artery from the superior mesenteric artery, as observed during the dissection of a female cadaver. The left gastric artery usually rises as one of the three branches of the celiac trunk, which was originally described by Haller in 1756, whereas the right hepatic artery usually originates from the proper hepatic artery. The knowledge of the typical anatomy of the abdominal arteries, and their variations, is especially important due to the numerous interventions performed in the abdominal area.

  2. A radiological evaluation of allografts (ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone and autografts in anterior cervical fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Serial roentgenograms of 40 patients who had 70 cervical intervertebral spaces grafted with ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone and 28 patients who received 44 iliac crest auto grafts for anterior cervical spine fusion, were studied. The radiological evaluation was made on the basis of settlement of intervertebral spaces, fusion rate, delayed union, non-union, graft collapse and extrusion of the graft. Indigenous methodologies were designed for the assessment of settlement of grafted intervertebral spaces in percentage. Disc space settlement was more common in autografts (93% cases than in allografts (80% cases. The average percentage of settlement of intervertebral disc space (S% was 22 in autografts and 28 in allografts during the first four months. By the end of eight months, allograft disc spaces settle more. No significant difference was noted in fusion rate at the end of one year viz. allografts (90% cases and autografts (93% cases. Autograft and allograft (ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone are equally useful in anterior cervical spine fusions.

  3. Acoustic monitoring (RFM of total hip arthroplasty results of a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger AC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction At present there are no reliable non-traumatic and non-invasive methods to analyse the healing process and loosening status after total hip replacement. Therefore early as well as late loosening of prosthesis and interface component problems are difficult to be found or diagnosed at any time. Methods In a cadaver study the potential application of Resonance Frequency Monitoring (RFM will be evaluated as a non-invasive and non-traumatic method to monitor loosening and interface problems in hip replacement. In a 65 year old female cadaver different stability scenarios for a total hip replacement (shaft, head/modular head and cup, ESKA, Luebeck, Germany are simulated in cemented and cement less prosthesis and then analysed with RFM. The types of stability vary from secure/press-fit to interface-shaft disruption. Results The RFM shows in cemented as well as cement less prosthesis significant intra-individual differences in the spectral measurements with a high dynamic (20 dB difference corresponding to the factor 100 (10000%, regarding the simulated status of stability in the prosthesis system. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate RFM as a highly sensitive non-invasive and non-traumatic method to support the application of RFM as a hip prosthesis monitoring procedure. The data obtained shows the possibility to use RFM for osteointegration surveillance and early detection of interface problems, but will require further evaluation in clinical and experimental studies.

  4. Comparison of reliability of five patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in pelvic limbs obtained from cadavers of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James E; Nielsen, Dorte H; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    2012-01-01

    To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.......To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use....

  5. Use of RAPD analysis for in situ identification of Ascosphaera aggregata and Ascosphaera larvis in larval cadavers of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R; Goerzen, D W; Rank, G H

    1996-07-01

    Chalkbrood of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is caused by the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for the in situ identification of A. aggregata and a related species, Ascosphaera larvis, in larval cadavers of M. rotundata. A simple DNA extraction method was developed to preferentially isolate DNA from fungal spores on the cadaver surface, or from ascocysts beneath the cuticle. Similar banding patterns were obtained in A. aggregata-infected larval cadavers from different sources and geographic areas. The RAPD banding pattern of cadavers infected with A. aggregata differed from that of healthy leafcutting bee prepupae. RAPD analyses of cadavers infected with A. aggregata and A. larvis resulted in similar banding profiles as those obtained from corresponding pure fungal cultures of the two species. This suggests that the RAPD bands of infected cadavers were amplified from fungal DNA, rather than from other DNA associated with the leafcutting bee cadaver. The banding patterns of "sporulating" and "non-sporulating" chalkbrood cadavers exhibited no differences; this provides the first definitive evidence that both forms of the disease result from infection with A. aggregata. PMID:8683161

  6. A Qualitative Assessment of Human Cadavers Embalmed by Thiel's Method Used in Laparoscopic Training for Renal Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Tang, Benjie; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W.; Wen, Haitao; Nabi, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Human cadaveric tissue is the fundamental substrate for basic anatomic and surgical skills training. A qualitative assessment of the use of human cadavers preserved by Thiel's method for a British Association of Urological Surgeons--approved, advanced laparoscopic renal resection skills training course is described in the present study. Four…

  7. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2010-05-20

    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  8. Alignment of the femoral component in a mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty : A study in 10 cadaver femora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, N. P.; van Raay, J. J. A. M.; Thomassen, B. J. W.

    2007-01-01

    Use of an intramedullary rod is advised for the alignment of the femoral component of an Oxford phase-III prosthesis. There are users moving toward extramedullary alignment, which is merely an indicator of frustration with accuracy of intramedullary alignment. The results of our study with 10 cadave

  9. Hamstring tendon harvesting--Effect of harvester on tendon characteristics and soft tissue disruption; cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, C P; Alvi, F; Phaltankar, P; Gagey, O

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the type of hamstring tendon harvester used can influence harvested tendon characteristics and soft tissue disruption. We compared two different types of tendon harvesters with regard to the length of tendon obtained and soft tissue disruption during hamstring tendon harvesting. Thirty six semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were harvested using either a closed stripper or a blade harvester in 18 paired knees from nine human fresh cadavers. Use of the blade harvester gave longer lengths of usable tendon whilst minimising the stripping of muscle and of any non-usable tendon. Our results suggest that the type of harvester per se can influence the length of tendon harvested as well as soft tissue disruption. Requesting such data from the industry prior to deciding which harvester to use seems desirable.

  10. Effect of histologic processing on dimensions of skin samples obtained from cat cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Sakthila; Smith, Annette N; Schleis, Stephanie E; Cattley, Russell C; Tillson, D Michael; Henderson, Ralph A

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine changes in dimensions of feline skin samples as a result of histologic processing and to identify factors that contributed to changes in dimensions of skin samples after sample collection. SAMPLE Cadavers of 12 clinically normal cats. PROCEDURES Skin samples were obtained bilaterally from 3 locations (neck, thorax, and tibia) of each cadaver; half of the thoracic samples included underlying muscle. Length, width, and depth were measured at 5 time points (before excision, after excision, after application of ink to mark tissue margins, after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 36 hours, and after completion of histologic processing and staining with H&E stain). Measurements obtained after sample collection were compared with measurements obtained before excision. RESULTS At the final time point, tissue samples had decreased in length (mean decrease, 32.40%) and width (mean decrease, 34.21%) and increased in depth (mean increase, 54.95%). Tissue from the tibia had the most shrinkage in length and width and that from the neck had the least shrinkage. Inclusion of underlying muscle on thoracic skin samples did not affect the degree of change in dimensions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, each step during processing from excision to formalin fixation and histologic processing induced changes in tissue dimensions, which were manifested principally as shrinkage in length and width and increase in depth. Most of the changes occured during histologic processing. Inclusion of muscle did not affect thoracic skin shrinkage. Shrinkage should be a consideration when interpreting surgical margins in clinical cases. 945). PMID:26512538

  11. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy with central neck dissection:experimental studies on human cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Peiyi; Tang Zhiping; Ding Zihai; Chu Guoliang; Yao Huosheng; Pan Tao; Wang Huaqiao

    2014-01-01

    Background With the development of natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery,studies on transoral video-assisted thymidectomy in preclinical experiments (e.g.,human anatomy and animal trials) were progressing gradually.From 2009 to 2011,embalmed human cadavers were dissected to define the anatomical location,surgical planes,and related neural and vascular structures to create a safe transoral access to the front cervical spaces.Recently,experimental transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy was performed to verify the feasibility of this approach on 15 fresh specimens.Methods Fifteen specimens were placed in the supine position with slight neck extension.Endoscopic incision was made on the midline between the Wharton's duct papillae and two other incisions were made on mandibular first premolar buccal mucosa.Sublingual combined bilateral vestibular tunnels were created from oral cavity to the cervical region.The neck subplatysmal working space was insufflated with CO2 at 6-8 mmHg.The bilateral thyroid lobes and central lymph nodes were dissected under craniocaudal view.Results Three incisions were made in the oral cavity without any incisions on the body surfaces.The distance from the oral cavity to front neck region was the shortest.Bilateral thyroid lobes and central neck region were fully resected via transoral approach.This approach provided a craniocaudal view,in which retrosternal thyroid gland and lymph nodes were easily accessible.The recurrent laryngeal nerve could be identified safely on the inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage.The only structure at risk was the mental nerve.Camera motion was somewhat limited by the maxillary dentition.The volume of harvested thyroid nodule through sublingual tunnel in the fifteen human cadavers was (40±15) cm3.Conclusion The transoral procedure is progressive and innovative which not only gives the best cosmetic result and minimal access trauma but also provides a craniocaudal view.

  12. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE’s Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. Objective This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE’s Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Study design Cadaver study. Setting Comparative groups. Methods HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). Results At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (PHELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A and Group C whatever at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). Limitations Small-sample preclinical study. Conclusion HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127) PMID:26674640

  13. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Hoermann Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C, being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1 Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2 During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex

  14. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Liu, Tianyu; Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling

  15. An anatomical comparison of two minimally invasive pelvic reconstructive surgeries using fresh female cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenyan; Zhu Lan; Wei Bing; Lang Jinghe

    2014-01-01

    Background During the past decade,graft materials have been widespread used in the vagina in order to correct pelvic organ prolapse.The aim of this study was to describe and compare the exact anatomical position of the puncture devices and their relations to the relevant anatomical structures in the ProliftTM and a modified pelvic reconstructive surgery with mesh.Methods Twelve fresh cadavers were allocated randomly to either the ProliftTM or the modified pelvic reconstructive surgery group.Each group had six fresh cadavers.Relevant distances between the puncture devices and anatomical structures were recorded in both minimally invasive puncture surgeries.Results The mean distances from the posterior puncture points of the obturator membrane to the posterior branch of obturator arteries were shorter ((0.60±0.36) cm and (0.78±0.10) cm) when compared with the distances to the anterior branch of obturator arteries ((1.53±0.46) cm and (1.86±0.51) cm) for the reconstruction of the anterior compartment in both surgeries (all P <0.05).The distance from the puncture points of the pelvic floor through the ischiorectal fossa to the coccygeal and inferior gluteal arteries in the ProliftTM technique ((0.88±0.10) cm) and ((1.59±0.36) cm)) were much shorter than that in the modified pelvic reconstructive surgery ((2.95±0.09) cm) and ((3.40±0.36) cm)) for the reconstruction of the middle and posterior compartments (all P <0.05).Conclusions Compared with the ProliftTM technique,the modified pelvic reconstructive surgery with mesh would be safer not to cause great damage to the inferior gluteal arteries and the coccygeal arteries.The posterior branch of obturator arteries would be easier to be injured than the anterior branch of obturator arteries during anterior compartment reconstruction in both surgeries.

  16. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging–anatomic correlation in cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Florian M; Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A. C.; Haghighi, Parviz; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Material and methods Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the c...

  17. Alfuzosin hydrochloride transdermal films: evaluation of physicochemical, in vitro human cadaver skin permeation and thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayan Pattnaik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the investigation was to develop a transdermal therapeutic system for alfuzosin hydrochloride and to study the effects of polymeric system and loading dose on the in vitro skin permeation pattern. Materials and methods: Principles of experimental design have been exploited to develop the dosage form. Ratio of ethyl cellulose (EC and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and loading dose were selected as independent variables and their influence on the cumulative amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride permeated per cm2 of human cadaver skin at 24 h (Q24, permeation flux (J and steady state permeability coefficient (P SS were studied using experimental design. Various physicochemical parameters of the transdermal films were also evaluated. Activation energy for in vitro transdermal permeation has been estimated. Results: Ratio of EC and PVP was found to be the main influential factor for all the dependent variables studied. Drug loading dose was also found to influence the dependent variables but to a lesser extent. Physicochemical parameters of the prepared films were evaluated and found satisfactory. Activation energy for alfuzosin permeation has also been estimated and reported. Conclusion: The therapeutic system was found to be dermatologically non-irritant and hence, a therapeutically effective amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride can be delivered via a transdermal route.

  18. Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Buarque de Gusmão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study shows how the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath occurs through the axillary infraclavicular space and hence proves the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. CONCLUSIONS: The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when it was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency.

  19. A CASE REPORT OF MULTIPLE ARTERIAL ANOMALIES IN A CADAVE R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbumani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection in our department, multiple arterial variations were observed in a cadaver. The following arterial variations are present. They are, superficial brachioulnar artery, which originated at the level of junction of upper and middle th ird of arm. It runs a superficial course anterior to median nerve in the arm and terminates in the formation of superficial palmar arch. The brachial artery terminated as radial and common interosseous artery. Subscapular artery and circumflex humeral arte ry arose as a common trunk from the third part of axillary artery. The circumflex humeral artery later divides into anterior circumflex humeral and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. The right common carotid artery bifurcated into internal carotid arte ry anteromedially and external carotid artery posterolaterally at the level of upper lamin a of th yroid cartilage. A proper knowledge of variations in the arterial pattern is a must for a good treatment outcome, especially in the fields like vascular surge ry, reconstructive surgery, cardiac surgery, angiogram, arterial cannulation, arterio - venous fistula for renal dialysis. etc.

  20. Precise and feasible measurements of lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies by radiostereometric analysis in cadaver feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkevich, P.; Rahbek, O.; Møller-Madsen, B.; Søballe, K.; Stilling, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lengthening osteotomies of the calcaneus in children are in general grafted with bone from the iliac crest. Artificial bone grafts have been introduced, however, their structural and clinical durability has not been documented. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a very accurate and precise method for measurements of rigid body movements including the evaluation of joint implant and fracture stability, however, RSA has not previously been used in clinical studies of calcaneal osteotomies. We assessed the precision of RSA as a measurement tool in a lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomy (LCLO). Methods LCLO was performed in six fixed adult cadaver feet. Tantalum markers were inserted on each side of the osteotomy and in the cuboideum. Lengthening was done with a plexiglas wedge. A total of 24 radiological double examinations were obtained. Two feet were excluded due to loose and poorly dispersed markers. Precision was assessed as systematic bias and 95% repeatability limits. Results Systematic bias was generally below 0.10 mm for translations. Precision of migration measurements was below 0.2 mm for translations in the osteotomy. Conclusion RSA is a precise tool for the evaluation of stability in LCLO. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:78–83. PMID:25957380

  1. Soil fungal community shift evaluation as a potential cadaver decomposition indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimutsa, Monica; Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim J U; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    Fungi metabolise organic matter in situ and so alter both the bio-/physico-chemical properties and microbial community structure of the ecosystem. In particular, they are responsible reportedly for specific stages of decomposition. Therefore, this study aimed to extend previous bacteria-based forensic ecogenomics research by investigating soil fungal community and cadaver decomposition interactions in microcosms with garden soil (20 kg, fresh weight) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcass (5 kg, leg). Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm on days 3, 28 and 77 in the absence (control -Pg) and presence (experimental +Pg) of Sus scrofa domesticus and used for total DNA extraction and nested polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling of the 18S rRNA gene. The Shannon-Wiener (H') community diversity indices were 1.25±0.21 and 1.49±0.30 for the control and experimental microcosms, respectively, while comparable Simpson species dominance (S) values were 0.65±0.109 and 0.75±0.015. Generally, and in contrast to parallel studies of the bacterial 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA profiles, statistical analysis (t-test) of the 18S dynamics showed no mathematically significant shifts in fungal community diversity (H'; p=0.142) and dominance (S; p=0.392) during carcass decomposition, necessitating further investigations.

  2. Dynamic tensile failure mechanics of the musculoskeletal neck using a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yliniemi, Eno M; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Doczy, Erica J; Nuckley, David J; Perry, Chris E; Ching, Randal P

    2009-05-01

    Although the catapult phase of pilot ejections has been well characterized in terms of human response to compressive forces, the effect of the forces on the human body during the ensuing ejection phases (including windblast and parachute opening shock) has not been thoroughly investigated. Both windblast and parachute opening shock have been shown to induce dynamic tensile forces in the human cervical spine. However, the human tolerance to such loading is not well known. Therefore, the main objective of this research project was to measure human tensile neck failure mechanics to provide data for computational modeling, anthropometric test device development, and improved tensile injury criteria. Twelve human cadaver specimens, including four females and eight males with a mean age of 50.1+/-9 years, were subjected to dynamic tensile loading through the musculoskeletal neck until failure occurred. Failure load, failure strain, and tensile stiffness were measured and correlated with injury type and location. The mean failure load for the 12 specimens was 3100+/-645 N, mean failure strain was 16.7+/-5.4%, and mean tensile stiffness was 172+/-54.5 N/mm. The majority of injuries (8) occurred in the upper cervical spine (Oc-C3), and none took place in the midcervical region (C3-C5). The results of this study assist in filling the existing void in dynamic tensile injury data and will aid in developing improved neck injury prevention strategies. PMID:19388771

  3. Structure and per-rectal ultrasonography of prostatic disease using cadaver specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Griffiths, G J; Parkinson, M C; Evans, K T; Roberts, E E; Davies, R L; Harrison, T J; Peeling, W B

    1989-12-01

    One hundred cadaver prostates were examined by per-rectal ultrasound and the findings correlated with the microradiographic and histopathological features of whole sections taken at the levels of scanning. The normal gland consists of both periurethral muscle and glands. The periurethral muscle has little structure on microradiography and is therefore hypoechoic (low amplitude echoes) on ultrasound scanning. The gland itself, both central and peripheral zones, has a lattice appearance on microradiography (reticular structure) and therefore produces mid-range amplitude echoes on ultrasound. Benign hypertrophy develops at the edge of the periurethral muscle and is microadenomatous in structure. This produces mid-range amplitude echoes which are coarser than in the normal gland. Associated calcification has a characteristic distribution around the adenomas. Cancer produces an amorphous structure resulting in loss of ultrasonic echoes (hypoechoic). In a few cancers irregular calcification is present, resulting in high echoes in the ultrasound scan (hyperechoic) which are not in the typical benign distribution. The internal structure of the prostate was therefore demonstrated in its histopathological states by the technique of microradiography and seen to relate to its representation by ultrasound.

  4. Unilateral Absence of Plantaris muscle in Ethiopian Cadavers – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafte Assefa Beyene

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plantaris is the largest muscle in mammals other than primates. It runs alongside the gastrosoleus complex, and continues along the medial aspect of the Achilles tendon (AT before inserting onto the greater tuberosity of the calcaneus. The plantaris muscle is vestigial in human beings and has much clinical importance. It is known to present several anatomical variations in terms of its occurrence, origin, course, relation with surrounding neurovascular structures and insertion. It may be absent unilaterally or bilaterally. The plantaris muscle is absent in 7–10% of the human population. Two such variations were observed unilaterally in the present report in which absence of the right plantaris muscle were seen in the right lower limb of the two cadavers. Despite its vestigial nature, injury to plantaris muscle can present a diagnostic challenge among clinicians and radiologists. Surgical importance of the muscle lies in successful use of its tendon for reconstructive surgery. Therefore, Knowledge of anatomical variations of the plantaris muscle is important for physiotherapists, plastic surgeons performing tendon transfer operations, clinicians diagnosing muscle tears and radiologists interpreting MRI scans.

  5. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Rodrigo [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Fleury Medical Center, Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, Rodrigo; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  6. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J C W; Verdonschot, Nico [Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, Henk Jan [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kooloos, Jan G [Department of Anatomy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huizenga, Henk [Department of Radiotherapy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.tanck@orthop.umcn.nl

    2010-01-21

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients. (note)

  7. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  8. BILATERAL PRESENTATION OF TENSOR FASCIA SURALIS MUSCLE IN A MALE CADAVER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Rajendra Gandhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tensor fascia suralis muscle is an anomalous muscle located in popliteal fossa. The muscle may arise from any of the hamstring muscles and is inserted into the crural fascia or tendoclacaneus. We found tensor fascia suralis muscle in a male cadaver taking origin from medial side of tendon of biceps femoris muscle. The tendinous origin was then transformed into a well defined fusiform belly in the roof of popliteal fossa. After traversing downwards and medially the muscle again became tendinous to get inserted into deep fascia of leg. Bilateral presentation of the anomalous muscle is not yet documented in literature. The anatomical relation of the muscle explains its great clinical importance. The tendinous origin was anteriorly related to sciatic nerve and the muscle belly to the tibial nerve. Sural nerve and short saphenous vein were in lateral relation to the muscle. Contraction of muscle in the roof of popliteal fossa may lead to sciatic, tibial or sural nerve neuropathy. The muscle can confuse the physician of a soft tissue mass or an aberrant vessel. Hence, the bilateral presence of tensor fascia suralis muscle is documented for further references. Clinical Significance: The precise knowledge of anatomy of popliteal region is mandatory for the surgeons to perform safe and uncomplicated surgery in and around popliteal fossa and also for radiologist for correct radiographic interpretations.

  9. Ultrasound-guided surgical treatment for ulnar nerve entrapment: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujade, T; Hanouz, N; Lecoq, B; Hulet, C; Collon, S

    2014-09-01

    Several open and endoscopic techniques for the surgical treatment of ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (cubital tunnel syndrome) have been described that provide decompression with or without anterior transposition. Based on our experience with US-guided decompression for carpal tunnel syndrome in our department, we developed a similar surgical technique for the decompression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. Using sixteen cadaver upper limbs, we performed decompression of all the structures possibly responsible for ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. The structures involved were Struthers' arcade, the cubital tunnel retinaculum, Osborne's fascia and Amadio-Beckenbaugh's arcade. The procedure was followed by anatomical dissection to confirm complete sectioning of the compressive structures, absence of iatrogenic vascular or nervous injuries and absence of nerve dislocation or instability. There were no remaining compressive structures after the release procedure. There was no iatrogenic damage to the nerves and no nerve dislocation was observed during elbow flexion or extension. In 3.4% cases, a thin superficial layer of one or more of the identified structures remained but these did not appear to compress the nerve based on US imaging. Using ultrasonographic visualization of the nerve and compressive structures is easy. Each procedure can be tailored according to the nerve compression sites. Our cadaveric study shows the feasibility of an US-guided percutaneous surgical release for ulnar nerve entrapment. PMID:24981578

  10. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed.

  11. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  12. ANALYSIS OF FIBULARIS TERTIUS IN TERMS OF FREQUENCY, MORPHOLOGY, MORPHOMETRYAND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN NORTH INDIAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Verma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The fibularis tertius muscle has always enjoyed the distinction of being an exclusively human structure and as such it has helped to separate man from the lower animals. Myocutaneous flaps have been progressively used in surgical reconstruction in the lower limb injuries requiring the use of muscles which result in less functional damage as flaps. Aim: Our study is aimed to evaluate frequency, morphology, morphometry and use of the fibularis tertius muscle as flaps in lower limb injuries. Materials and Methods: Sixty lower limbs from formalin preserved cadavers (28 male and 2 female were dissected and evaluated for the following parameters: origin of muscle, distal insertion, nerve supply, frequency, morphology, morphometry and any variation regarding this muscle. Results: The fibularis tertius muscle was detected in all the cases(60 limbs. Origin of allthe cases were found at the interosseous membrane, anterior border of the fibula, and anterior intermuscular septum. Most distal insertions were found at the medial and dorsal sides of base of the 5th metatarsal bone(98.34%. Mean value of muscle belly length was 21 cm and width was 1.9 cm. The mean length of the distal tendon with no muscle fibers up to insertion was 6 cm, and the mean width was 0.5 cm. Conclusions: The fibularis tertius muscle is frequent and has a distinct morphology, making it a feasible option for use as graft. Knowledge of these variations may have useful clinical applications in cases of leg or foot trauma requiring tendoplasty or tendon transfer operations.

  13. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  14. Anatomic variations of superficial peroneal nerve: clinical implications of a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash; Bhardwaj, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Deepak Kumar; Rajini, T; Jayanthi, V; Singh, Gajendra

    2010-01-01

    Superficial peroneal nerve and its branches are frequently at risk for iatrogenic damage. Although different studies on anatomical variations of superficial peroneal nerve are available in the medical literature, such reports are rare from India. Hence the present study was undertaken on Indian population. A total of 60 specimens of inferior extremities from 30 properly embalmed and formalin fixed cadavers were dissected and examined for the location and course of the superficial peroneal nerve including number, level, course and distributions of branches. The superficial peroneal nerve in 28.3% specimens was located in the anterior compartment of the leg. In 8.3% specimens the superficial peroneal nerve branched before piercing between the peroneus longus and extensor digitorum longus muscle whereas in 11.7% specimens it branched after piercing the aforementioned muscles and before piercing the deep fascia. In 41 out of 60 specimens the sensory division of superficial peroneal nerve branched into the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve and intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve distal to its emergence from the deep fascia and proximal to its relation to the extensor retinaculum. In 20 out of 60 specimens the accessory deep peroneal nerve, an additional branch from the sensory division of superficial peroneal nerve, through its course in the anterior compartment of the leg passed deep to the extensor retinaculum and supplied the ankle and the dorsum of foot. Hopefully the present study will help in minimizing iatrogenic damage to the superficial peroneal nerve and its branches while performing arthroscopy, local anesthetic block, surgical approach to the fibula, open reduction and internal fixation of lateral malleolar fractures, application of external fixators, elevation of a fasciocutaneous or fibular flaps for grafting, surgical decompression of neurovascular structures, or miscellaneous surgery on leg, foot and ankle.

  15. Soil fungal community shift evaluation as a potential cadaver decomposition indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimutsa, Monica; Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim J U; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    Fungi metabolise organic matter in situ and so alter both the bio-/physico-chemical properties and microbial community structure of the ecosystem. In particular, they are responsible reportedly for specific stages of decomposition. Therefore, this study aimed to extend previous bacteria-based forensic ecogenomics research by investigating soil fungal community and cadaver decomposition interactions in microcosms with garden soil (20 kg, fresh weight) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcass (5 kg, leg). Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm on days 3, 28 and 77 in the absence (control -Pg) and presence (experimental +Pg) of Sus scrofa domesticus and used for total DNA extraction and nested polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling of the 18S rRNA gene. The Shannon-Wiener (H') community diversity indices were 1.25±0.21 and 1.49±0.30 for the control and experimental microcosms, respectively, while comparable Simpson species dominance (S) values were 0.65±0.109 and 0.75±0.015. Generally, and in contrast to parallel studies of the bacterial 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA profiles, statistical analysis (t-test) of the 18S dynamics showed no mathematically significant shifts in fungal community diversity (H'; p=0.142) and dominance (S; p=0.392) during carcass decomposition, necessitating further investigations. PMID:26322496

  16. Feasibility of arthroscopic placement of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis grafts in the cadaver hip joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Thorey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assortment of clinical trials have been done presenting the effectiveness of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC for the regeneration of chondral leasions. The purpose of the study was to underline the accessability of the acetabulum and the femoral head through the known portals and prove i the feasibility of placing the AMIC in the different zones of the hip joint and ii check for dislocation after joint movement. Six human cadavers underwent hip arthroscopy on both hips. Two chondral lesions were set on each femoral head and two in the acetabulum to evaluate a total of 48 defects. After microfracturing an autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis graft was placed on these lesions arthroscopically. After repeated joint movement the dislocation of the graft was checked. It was possible to place the AMIC graft in all 48 chondral lesions. The time needed for placing the graft was 8±2.9 minutes. A trend of time reduction could be detected throughout this study as the surgeon gained more experience. For the femoral head, after twenty cycles of joint movement 18/24 spots showed no displacement, 4/24 showed minor displacement (<3 mm and 2/24 showed major displacement (>3 mm. None showed total displacement. For the acetabulum 22/24 spots showed no displacement and 2/24 showed minor displacement. A combined microfracturing and placing of an AMIC graft of focal chondral lesions of the hip joint can be done arthroscopically. Prospective randomized in vivo studies should compare the results of arthroscopilally placed AMIC grafts with microfracturing and microfracturing alone.

  17. Some anatomical variation of paranasal sinuses using sinus endoscopic approach on "cadaver" in Isfahan, Iran

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    Nezamoddin Berjis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the anatomical variations of the paranasal sinuses and its great importance in sinus surgery, as this area is in very close proximity to vital structures including the optic nerve, carotid artery, and skull base, anatomical knowledge of this area is of high importance. The purpose of this study is defining a full and clear impression of paranasal sinus anatomy and its variations as a model for the human population of the country. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 cadavers in Isfahan forensic Medicine center during 2010 to 2011. Nasal and paranasal sinuses endoscopic dissection was done with (zero and 30 o lenses (Olympus. The methods of performed dissection were via the Stamberger technique. Results: This study showed that 88.9% (40 cases of middle turbinates were in a typical form, while 6.7% (3 cases were in medial and only 4.4% (2 cases were in the lateral form. We also observed 88.9% (40 cases with Agger nasi cells, 37.8% (17 cases with Onodi cells, 28.9% cases with accessory Ostia of maxillary sinus (13 cases, and 15.6% of the cases (7 cases with concha bullosa. The position of the maxillary sinus ostium was as follows. The inferior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 38 (84.5%, superior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 4 (4.4%, middle 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 5 (11.1%. The sphenoid ostia in 53.3% (24 cases were slit shape, 28.9% (13 cases oval, and 17.8% (18 cases were round shape. Conclusion : Our survey showed that the distance between anterior nasal spine and anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus was within 7.6 ± 0.2 cm SD.

  18. Prevalence of anatomical variations of cystic artery in South Indian cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejaswi HL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge of variations in the origin and course of cystic artery is important for the surgeons as uncontrolled bleeding from the cystic artery and its branches can be fatal during cholecystectomy. Intra operative bleeding can result in an increase in the risk of intra operative injury to vital vascular and biliary structures. Keeping in view the clinical significance and applied importance of the cystic artery anatomy and to add some more knowledge to the existing ones, the present study was undertaken, to know in detail the level of origin, length, and variations in the course and relation of the cystic artery. Methods: The present study was performed on 100 human liver specimens with intact gallbladder and extrahepatic duct system, obtained after dissection from the cadavers in the Department of Anatomy and from post-mortem cases from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore, over a period of 18 months. Results: Most common source of origin of the cystic artery was the right hepatic artery in 92 cases (92% followed by aberrant right hepatic artery in 4 cases (4% and the least common sources observed were the left hepatic artery in 1 case (1% and the gastroduodenal artery in 1 case (1%.Mean length of the cystic artery was 17.6 mm and ranged between 3.7 mm to 42 mm. Out of the 100 dissected specimens, in 65 (65% the cystic artery was found inside the Calot’s triangle and in 35 (35% outside the triangle. Conclusion: This study provides details of the normal as well as the variant anatomy of the cystic artery, knowledge of which is very essential for the surgeons to minimize the risk of injury to the blood vessels and the biliary apparatus during cholecystectomy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 424-428

  19. How does a cadaver model work for testing ultrasound diagnostic capability for rheumatic-like tendon damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janta, Iustina; Morán, Julio; Naredo, Esperanza; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Uson, Jacqueline; Möller, Ingrid; Bong, David; Bruyn, George A W; D Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Filippucci, Emilio; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Terslev, Lene; González, Jorge Murillo; Mérida, José Ramón; Carreño, Luis

    2016-06-01

    To establish whether a cadaver model can serve as an effective surrogate for the detection of tendon damage characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, we evaluated intraobserver and interobserver agreement in the grading of RA-like tendon tears shown by US, as well as the concordance between the US findings and the surgically induced lesions in the cadaver model. RA-like tendon damage was surgically induced in the tibialis anterior tendon (TAT) and tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) of ten ankle/foot fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens. Of the 20 tendons examined, six were randomly assigned a surgically induced partial tear; six a complete tear; and eight left undamaged. Three rheumatologists, experts in musculoskeletal US, assessed from 1 to 5 the quality of US imaging of the cadaveric models on a Likert scale. Tendons were then categorized as having either no damage, (0); partial tear, (1); or complete tear (2). All 20 tendons were blindly and independently evaluated twice, over two rounds, by each of the three observers. Overall, technical performance was satisfactory for all items in the two rounds (all values over 2.9 in a Likert scale 1-5). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for US grading of tendon damage was good (mean κ values 0.62 and 0.71, respectively), with greater reliability found in the TAT than the TPT. Concordance between US findings and experimental tendon lesions was acceptable (70-100 %), again greater for the TAT than for the TPT. A cadaver model with surgically created tendon damage can be useful in evaluating US metric properties of RA tendon lesions. PMID:26995000

  20. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058

  1. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen.

  2. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    OpenAIRE

    Schotsmans, E. M.; Denton, J.; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, T.; Leentjes, S.; Janaway, R. C.; A. S. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6months of burial. Observations from th...

  3. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  4. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90 deg. spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 deg. C, or T > 70 deg. C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t43) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to

  5. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nau, William H; Diederich, Chris J; Shu, Richard [Thermal Therapy Research Group, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2005-06-21

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90 deg. spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 deg. C, or T > 70 deg. C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t{sub 43}) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to

  6. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, William H.; Diederich, Chris J.; Shu, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90° spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 °C, or T > 70 °C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t43) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to produce more

  7. Inversion injury biomechanics in functional ankle instability: a cadaver study of simulated gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradsen, Lars; Voigt, Michael

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test pathogenetic models for the "unprovoked" ankle inversion injuries seen in functional ankle unstable subjects. The consequence of spatial mal-alignment of the ankle/foot complex on the risk of producing an ankle inversion torque at heel-strike and during swing-phase follow through was analyzed in cadaver simulations. Heel-strike was simulated using a 5 degrees of freedom rig in a material testing machine. A set-up capable of accelerating lower limb specimens towards a support surface simulated swing-phase follow through. Joint excursions were monitored with flexible wire goniometers. The unloaded ankle/foot complex was placed in increasing positions of talar and subtalar joint excursions. The consequences of these settings on the behavior of the ankle/foot complex at heel-strike and when the lateral part of the foot "caught" the ground during swing-phase follow through were monitored. An inversion torque at heel-strike was first seen when the unloaded foot was set in positions exceeding 30 degrees of inversion combined with full plantar flexion and 10 degrees of internal tibial rotation. A collision between the lateral border of a 20 degrees inverted, but otherwise neutral ankle/foot complex and the ground surface during swing-phase follow through forced the foot into the full limit of inversion, plantar flexion and internal tibial rotation measurable in this set-up. Clinical consequence: The study showed that the foot/ankle complex exhibits a high degree of intrinsic stability at heel-strike. The foot will thus stabilize itself and move into normal eversion at the beginning of the stance-phase even though it is set to the ground in a substantial degree of mal-alignment. In contrast, the swing-phase collision model provides a link that can connect the small deficits in inversion angle awareness measured in chronic functional ankle unstable subjects with an increased risk in this group of sustaining ankle inversion injuries. PMID

  8. A STUDY OF ANGLES BETWEEN MAJOR HEPATIC VEINS IN HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: “A good knowledge of the anatomy is a prerequisite for modern surgery of the liver.”(1 Liver resections were first described centuries ago, but until the latter half of the 20th century, the majority of such resections were performed for management of either injuries or infections. (2 Today, these procedures are performed not only for treatment of acute emergencies (e.g., traumatic injuries or abscesses but also as potentially curative therapy for a variety of benign and malignant hepatic lesions. As a result, the number of hepatic transplant centers, have increased dramatically. In spite of the remarkable standardization of the technique involved in this procedure, the operation remains a formidable technical challenge. (3 An attempt has been undertaken to study the relations of major hepatic veins, so that accurate mapping of major veins could be done, which is essential in graft retrieval. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 60 specimens of liver from well embalmed cadavers in the department of Anatomy of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab and of Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda, Punjab. Study was conducted by using Barium sulfate as contrast. X-rays were taken followed by dissection. RESULTS: The present study showed that in majority of cases, the angles were acute. Only in one liver the angle, between right and middle hepatic veins was 130 degrees. The measurement was not possible in one liver, as the alignment of the veins was such that they were overlapped. DISCUSSION: Preoperative mapping of hepatic vasculature is of paramount importance in dealing with life-saving surgeries like transplantations, tumours and trauma related hepatic injuries. The minimization of blood loss is the main objective during hepatic resection to minimize perioperative mortality and morbidity. (4Therefore, in depth knowledge of liver anatomy is required. This knowledge is then built on

  9. Morphological observation of the horseshoe kidney with special reference to the vascular system in 2 Japanese cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoichi; Yi, Shuang-Qin; Iimura, Akira; Terayama, Hayato; Naito, Munekazu; Itoh, Masahiro

    2005-11-01

    Two cases of the horseshoe kidney in Japanese cadaver were reported in this paper. The kidneys and their associated vessels in the retroperitoneal cavity were carefully examined, and the histological examination of the isthmus was performed. In Case 1, four arteries arose from the abdominal aorta. One right and two left renal arteries were distributed to the apical, upper, middle and posterior regions of the kidney, respectively, and the artery of isthmus entered the lower segments and the isthmus. In Case 2, six arteries arose from the abdominal aorta. Among three arteries arose from the inferior end of the aorta and entered the lower segments and the isthmus. Histological study revealed that the isthmuses consisted of collecting tubes, glomeruli and urinary tubules and fibrous connective tissue. The incidence of the horseshoe kidney during the dissecting practice at Tokyo Medical University in a period of 24 years from 1980 to 2003 was estimated to be 0.16% (2 out of the 1,219 cadavers). The anatomical and embryological significance of this anomaly and its associated vascular system were discussed. And the histology of the parenchymal structure of the isthmus in the horseshoe kidney containing either fibrous connective tissue or renal parenchyma was also analyzed in this report.

  10. Primer registro de artropodofauna cadavérica en sustratos humanos y animales en San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H. ABALLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los artrópodos carroñeros que acudieron a cadáveres de vertebrados al aire libre en la provincia de San Juan, Argentina. El objetivo fue inventariar la composición específica de la artropodofauna cadavérica, asociada a diferentes sustratos de vertebrados en descomposición. Se colectaron muestras de artrópodos sobre restos animales y humanos en condiciones de campo y sobre cadáveres de cerdos domésticos colocados al aire libre bajo condiciones controladas. Se registraron, por primera vez para la provincia de San Juan, 40 especies de artropodofauna tanatológica incluidas en cuatro órdenes y 15 familias. Se incorpora, como primera cita para la fauna forense argentina, un necrófago: Megelenophorus americanus Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, y tres necrófilas: Polybia ruficeps Schrottky (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Pheidole bergi Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae y Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae. Se citan 18 especies necrófagas, 18 necrófilas, una omnívora y seis oportunistas sobre siete diferentes sustratos cadavéricos de vertebrados. Se brindan nuevos registros de distribución de 18 especies de insectos. Se confirma la estacionalidad invernal de Callíphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

  11. A methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission signals to identify fracture timing from human cadaver spine impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mike W J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    While studies have used acoustic sensors to determine fracture initiation time in biomechanical studies, a systematic procedure is not established to process acoustic signals. The objective of the study was to develop a methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission data using signal processing techniques to identify fracture initiation time. The methodology was developed from testing a human cadaver lumbar spine column. Acoustic sensors were glued to all vertebrae, high-rate impact loading was applied, load-time histories were recorded (load cell), and fracture was documented using CT. Compression fracture occurred to L1 while other vertebrae were intact. FFT of raw voltage-time traces were used to determine an optimum frequency range associated with high decibel levels. Signals were bandpass filtered in this range. Bursting pattern was found in the fractured vertebra while signals from other vertebrae were silent. Bursting time was associated with time of fracture initiation. Force at fracture was determined using this time and force-time data. The methodology is independent of selecting parameters a priori such as fixing a voltage level(s), bandpass frequency and/or using force-time signal, and allows determination of force based on time identified during signal processing. The methodology can be used for different body regions in cadaver experiments.

  12. Stress examination of flexor tendon pulley rupture in the crimp grip position: a 1.5-Tesla MRI cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Thomas; Janka, Rolf [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fries, Simon [Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Orthopaedic Department, Wolhusen (Switzerland); Schweizer, Andreas [University of Zurich, Department of Orthopaedics, Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoeffl, Isabelle [Klinikum Bamberg, Department of Pediatrics, Bamberg (Germany); Bongartz, Georg [University Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    The objectives of this study were the evaluation of flexor tendon pulley rupture of the fingers in the crimp grip position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the comparison of the results with MRI in the neutral position in a cadaver study. MRI in the crimp grip position and in the neutral position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (combined pulley rupture, n = 14; single pulley rupture, n = 7). Measurement of the distance between the tendon and bone was performed. Images were evaluated by two readers, first independently and in cases of discrepancy in consensus. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley ruptures were calculated. Tendon bone distances were significantly higher in the crimp grip position than in the neutral position. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley rupture were 92.86 % and 100 % respectively in the crimp grip position and 78.57 % and 85.71 % respectively in the neutral position. Kappa values for interobserver reliability were 0.87 in the crimp grip position and 0.59 in the neutral position. MRI examination in the crimp grip position results in higher tendon bone distances by subjecting the pulleys to a higher strain, which facilitates image evaluation with higher interobserver reliability, higher sensitivity, and higher specificity for combined pulley rupture compared with examination in the neutral position. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of finger A3 pulley rupture in the crimp grip position - a magnetic resonance imaging cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Thomas; Uder, Michael; Janka, Rolf [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Adler, Werner [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Schweizer, Andreas [Balgrist, University of Zurich, Department of Orthopaedics, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoeffl, Isabelle [Klinikum Bamberg, Department of Pediatrics, Bamberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The correct diagnosis of an A3 pulley rupture is challenging for musculoskeletal radiologists. An A3 pulley rupture should in theory influence the shape of the proximal interphalangeal joint volar plate (VP) and the amount of bowstringing at level of the VP during finger flexion. The purpose of this study was to perform MRI with metric analysis of the VP configuration and VP bowstringing in cadaver fingers in the crimp grip position and to determine cut points for A3 pulley rupture. MRI in the crimp grip position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (fingers with A3 pulley rupture n = 16, fingers without A3 pulley rupture n = 5). The distances of the translation of the VP relative to the middle phalanx base, the distances between the flexor tendons and the VP body, and the distances between the flexor tendon and bone (TB) were measured. Statistical analysis showed significantly lower VP translation distances and significantly higher VP tendon distances if the A3 pulley was ruptured. A2 TB and A4 TB distances did not differ significantly in specimens with and without A3 pulley rupture. The optimal cut points for A3 pulley rupture were a VP translation distance <2.8 mm and a VP tendon distance >1.4 mm. Reduction of the VP translation distance and augmentation of the VP tendon distance are suitable indirect signs of A3 pulley rupture. (orig.)

  14. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embriette R Hyde

    Full Text Available Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition.

  15. The association between healed skeletal fractures indicative of interpersonal violence and alcoholic liver disease in a cadaver cohort from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie H; Alblas, Amanda; Greyling, Linda M; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) and heavy alcohol consumption are major problems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Cranio-maxillofacial fractures, particularly nasal and zygomatic bone fractures, as well as isolated radial fractures (Colles fractures) and ulnar shaft fractures (parry fractures), are indicative of IPV, while alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the consequence of chronic alcohol abuse. We therefore aim to investigate whether a significant association exists between the prevalence of cranio-maxillofacial fractures and parry fractures and ALD in a Western Cape population. Embalmed cadavers (n = 124) used for medical students' anatomy training at the Division of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University were studied. The cadavers were dissected according to departmental protocol. The liver of each cadaver was investigated for macroscopic pathology lesions. Tissue samples were removed, processed to wax, and sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). All soft tissue was removed from the skulls, radii, and ulnae, which were then investigated for healed skeletal trauma. The results showed 37/124 (29.8%) cadavers had healed cranio-maxillofacial fractures and 24/124 (19.4%) cadavers had morphologic features of ALD. A total of 12/124 (9.7%) cadavers showed signs of both ALD and healed cranio-maxillofacial trauma. More males were affected than females, and left-sided facial fractures were statistically more common compared to the right side. This study illustrated a significant trend between alcohol abuse and cranio-maxillofacial fractures in individuals from communities with a low socio-economic status (SES) where IPV is a major problem. PMID:27139236

  16. Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, Maria G; Tedders, Walker L

    2010-02-01

    An alternative approach to applying entomopathogenic nematodes entails the distribution of nematodes in their infected insect hosts. Protection of the infected host from rupturing, and improving ease of handling, may be necessary to facilitate application. In this study our objective was to test the potential of a new method of formulating the infected hosts, i.e., enclosing the infected host in masking tape. Tenebrio molitor L. cadavers infected with Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David or Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) were wrapped in tape using an automatic packaging machine; the machine was developed to reduce labor and to standardize the final product. The effects of the tape formulation on the ability to protect the cadavers from mechanical damage, nematode yield, and pest control efficacy were tested. After exposure to mechanical agitation at 7-d-post-infection, S. carpocapsae cadavers in tape were more resistant to rupture than cadavers without tape, yet H. indica cadavers 7-d-post-infection were not affected by mechanical agitation (with or without tape), nor was either nematode affected when 4-d-old cadavers were tested. Experiments indicated that infective juvenile yield was not affected by the tape formulation. Laboratory experiments were conducted measuring survival of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), or the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, after the application of two H. indica-infected hosts with or without tape per 15 cm pot (filled with soil). A greenhouse experiment was also conducted in a similar manner measuring survival of D. abbreviatus. In all experiments, both the tape and no-tape treatments caused significant reductions in insect survival relative to the control, and no differences were detected between the nematode treatments. Fifteen days post-application, the infected host treatments caused up to 78% control in A. tumida, 91% control in D. abbreviatus in the lab, and 75% in the greenhouse. These

  17. Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, Maria G; Tedders, Walker L

    2010-02-01

    An alternative approach to applying entomopathogenic nematodes entails the distribution of nematodes in their infected insect hosts. Protection of the infected host from rupturing, and improving ease of handling, may be necessary to facilitate application. In this study our objective was to test the potential of a new method of formulating the infected hosts, i.e., enclosing the infected host in masking tape. Tenebrio molitor L. cadavers infected with Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David or Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) were wrapped in tape using an automatic packaging machine; the machine was developed to reduce labor and to standardize the final product. The effects of the tape formulation on the ability to protect the cadavers from mechanical damage, nematode yield, and pest control efficacy were tested. After exposure to mechanical agitation at 7-d-post-infection, S. carpocapsae cadavers in tape were more resistant to rupture than cadavers without tape, yet H. indica cadavers 7-d-post-infection were not affected by mechanical agitation (with or without tape), nor was either nematode affected when 4-d-old cadavers were tested. Experiments indicated that infective juvenile yield was not affected by the tape formulation. Laboratory experiments were conducted measuring survival of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), or the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, after the application of two H. indica-infected hosts with or without tape per 15 cm pot (filled with soil). A greenhouse experiment was also conducted in a similar manner measuring survival of D. abbreviatus. In all experiments, both the tape and no-tape treatments caused significant reductions in insect survival relative to the control, and no differences were detected between the nematode treatments. Fifteen days post-application, the infected host treatments caused up to 78% control in A. tumida, 91% control in D. abbreviatus in the lab, and 75% in the greenhouse. These

  18. Displacement of the medial meniscus within the passive motion characteristics of the human knee joint: an RSA study in human cadaver knees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienen, T.G. van; Buma, P.; Scholten, J.G.; Kampen, A. van; Veth, R.P.H.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an in vitro human cadaver knee-joint model for the evaluation of the meniscal movement during knee-joint flexion. The question was whether our model showed comparable meniscal displacements to those found in earlier meniscal movement studies in vivo. Furth

  19. [Approach to the jugular foramen and related structures - an analysis of the surgical technique based on cadaver simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladziński, Piotr; Maliszewski, Mariusz; Kaspera, Wojciech; Szczygieł, Majchrzak; Tymowski, Michał

    2011-01-01

    This study presents consecutive stages of the approach to the jugular foramen and related structures. Eleven simulations of the approach were performed on non-fixed human cadavers without any known pathologies in the head and neck. The consecutive stages of the procedure were documented with photographs and schematic diagrams. The starting point for the discussed approach is removal of the mastoid and petrosal parts of the temporal bone, as well as the jugular process and the jugular tuberculum. It allows penetration of the jugular foramen from the back. Widening of the approach enables penetration of the jugular foramen from above and the front. Approach to the jugular foramen is a reproducible technique, which provides surgical penetration of this foramen and related structures. This approach is particularly useful in the surgical treatment of tumours expanding in the petrous pyramid, surroundings of the petrosal part of the internal carotid artery, cerebellopontine angle, subtemporal fossa and nervous-vascular bundle of the neck. PMID:21866483

  20. Changes in elongation of falx cerebri during craniosacral therapy techniques applied on the skull of an embalmed cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, D C; Keramidas, G

    1992-01-01

    Craniosacral therapy supports that light forces applied to the skull may be transmitted to the dura membrane having a therapeutic effect to the cranial system. This study examines the changes in elongation of falx cerebri during the application of some of the craniosacral therapy techniques to the skull of an embalmed cadaver. The study demonstrates that the relative elongation of the falx cerebri changes as follows: for the frontal lift, 1.44 mm; for the parietal lift, 1.08 mm; for the sphenobasilar compression, -0.33 mm; for the sphenobasilar decompression, 0.28 mm; and for the ear pull, inconclusive results. The present study offers validation for the scientific basis of craniosacral therapy and the contention for cranial suture mobility. PMID:1302656

  1. A method for ultrasonographic visualization and injection of the superior laryngeal nerve: volunteer study and cadaver simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balvindar; Tang, Raymond; Sawka, Andrew; Krebs, Claudia; Vaghadia, Himat

    2012-11-01

    Superior laryngeal nerve block is a valuable technique for provision of upper airway anesthesia. In bilateral scans of 20 volunteers, we developed a technique for ultrasonographic visualization of the superior laryngeal nerve and key anatomical structures using a hockey stick-shaped 8 to 15 MHz transducer (HST15 to 8/20 linear probe, Ultrasonix, Richmond, BC, Canada). Subsequently, we simulated superior laryngeal nerve scanning and injection in bilateral injections in 2 cadavers. Ultrasound-guided in-plane advancement of a needle toward the superior laryngeal nerve and injection of 1 mL of green dye was achieved in all 4 attempts and confirmed by a postprocedural dissection performed by an anatomist. We conclude that ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve block in humans may be feasible. PMID:22822197

  2. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization

  3. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimethylamine-nitrogen in Cadaver Tissues for the Estimation of Late Postmortem Interval: A Pilot Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian LIU; Xiangyang CAI; Yan LIU; Lan ZHOU; Shaohua YI; Liang LIU

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between the late postmortem interval (PMI) and trimethylamine-nitrogen (TMA-N) in postmortem tissues of cadaver, TMA-N in muscles, livers and kidneys of rats was measured at different postmortem intervals (PMD by using a modified spectrophotometric method. The results indicated that the detection sensitivity of TMA-N was 1 mg/L, and there was a good linear correlation between the value of absorbance (A value) and TMA-N at the concentration of 1-10 mg/L (R2 =0.9991). Although TMA variation in muscles was different from that in inner organs during the time since death, TMA-N changes in cadaver tissues was positively correlated with PMI. During 2 to 7 d since death, the best correlation between PMI and TMA-N concentration was found in muscles.With PMI as an independent variable, the cubic polynomial regression equation was y= --0.457x3+6.519x2-24.574x+27.207 (R2=0.969). During 3 to 8 days since death, PMI was best correlated with TMA-N concentration in inner organs. With PMI as the independent variable, the cubic polynomial regression equation was y=0.509x3-9.153x2+55.727x-95.819 (R2=0.953). It was concluded that TMA-N in tissues could be used as a new estimator for late PMI. The method used in this study offered advantages such as accuracy, sensitivity, little samples required and wide PMI estimation.

  4. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  5. Heating produced by therapeutic ultrasound in the presence of a metal plate in the femur of canine cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Andrades

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the heat generated by a therapeutic ultrasound (TUS in a metal bone plate and adjacent structures after fixation to the femur of canine cadavers. Ten pairs of hind limbs were used, and they were equally distributed between groups that were subjected to 1- and 3-MHz frequencies, with each frequency testing 1- and 2-W/cm² intensities. The right hind limb was defined as the control group (absence of the metal plate, and the left hind limb was the test group (presence of the metal plate. Therefore, the control groups (CG were denominated CGI, using TUS with 1-MHz frequency and 1-W/cm² intensity; CGII, using 1-MHz frequency and 2-W/cm² intensity; CGIII, using 3-MHz frequency and 1-W/cm² intensity; and CGIV, using 3-MHz frequency and 2-W/cm² intensity. For each control group, its respective test group (TG was denominated TGI, TGII, TGIII and TGIV. The TUS was applied to the lateral aspect of the thigh using the continuous mode and a 3.5-cm² transducer in a 6.25-cm² area for 2 minutes. Sensors were coupled to digital thermometers that measured the temperature in different sites before (t0 and after (t1 of the TUS application. The temperatures in t1 were higher in all tested groups. The intramuscular temperature was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the groups used to test the 3-MHz frequency in the presence of the metal plate. The therapeutic ultrasound in the continuous mode using frequencies of 1 and 3 MHz and intensities of 1 and 2 W/cm2 for 2 minutes caused heating of the metal plate and adjacent structures after fixation to the femur of canine cadavers.

  6. August Hirt and "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery" to anatomical institutes in National Socialism: a murderous change in paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Hans-Joachim

    2013-10-01

    German anatomical institutes always had problems obtaining sufficient cadavers for research and training. In the National Socialist (NS) period this changed. Universities could count on "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery." Most frequently tacitly, many bodies were those of victims of NS crimes. Scientists increasingly exploited the exceptional political situation to systematically supplement their institutional collections. Their endeavors to fill the, in their terms, "lamentable gaps" in their collections took on truly bizarre forms. In Austria, Jewish cemeteries were plundered for racial-political expansion of anatomical collections. A change in paradigm was merely the next step: intentional murder for the benefit of NS-oriented science. In December of 1942, anatomists meeting in Tübingen discussed plans for "material acquisition." August Hirt, director of the anatomical institute at the Reichsuniversität in Strasbourg, was to develop guidelines. There was express reference to "Auftrag Beger," which had already been conceived although not yet realized: at the behest of Hirt and the SS-scientific organization, "Ahnenerbe," the anthropologists Bruno Beger and Hans Fleischhacker selected 86 Jewish prisoners in Auschwitz in June of 1943 and deported them to the concentration camp at Struthof near Natzweiler, where they were murdered. The bodies were delivered to the anatomy department in Strasbourg for preparation and used as anatomical specimens. The Reichsuniversität Strasbourg was considered a center of excellence for Nazi ideology. For modern scientists, the elucidation of these criminal acts is not exhausted in the search for an answer to the questions of perpetrator, place, modus operandi or motive. A suitable memorial to the victims must go beyond mere quantification.

  7. Relationship between morphological characteristics of hyoid bone and mandible in Japanese cadavers using three-dimensional computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichijo, Yoshifumi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Mahito; Marushita, Yoichi; Sato, Toshio; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Shogo; Itoh, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tsuneo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain a quantitative anatomical description of the hyoid bone and mandible using three-dimensional computed tomography. Hyoid bones were obtained from a total of 101 cadavers varying in age from 67 to 102 years. The percentage of symmetrical U-type and asymmetrical-type hyoid bones was low compared with symmetrical V type (14.9, 15.8, and 69.3 %, respectively), and no significant sex difference was observed. We found bilateral nonfusion in cadavers of advanced age at a rate of 22.7 % and bilateral complete fusion at a rate of 51.5 %. There were significant differences in metric variables (length and width) between males and females, but no significant differences in width among the different fusion types. There was no significant interaction effect of sex and degree of fusion. Strong significant associations were observed between size (length and width) of the hyoid bone and mandible in the nonfusion group, while the complete fusion group revealed a moderate correlation. We also investigated the hypothesis that the junction between the hyoid body and greater horn plays an important role in the movement of bones that have not yet ossified. However, no statistical difference was observed in the width between the two greater horns. The degree of fusion of the greater horn with the hyoid body may also affect relations of interdependencies between the hyoid bone and mandible, an important component to consider when assessing risk factors in the development of masticatory and swallowing function. PMID:26543038

  8. Occipital artery anatomy in 15 cadavers%15具人尸枕动脉解剖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永刚; 高亦深; 孙明阳; 佟小光

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the anatomical features of occipital arteries in 15 cadavers, and to discuss how to obtain the occipital artery effectively in the posterior circulation vascular bypass operation by using occipital artery as the bridge vessel .Methods Using craniotomy to dissect 30 occipital arteries in 15 cadaveric heads in the far lateral ap-proach, and we observed the origin , course branches and adjacent structures .The diameter of the occipital artery segments and vertebral artery , and the distance from the adjacent structures were measured .Results The occipital artery at the two abdominal ventral posterior inferior originated from external carotid artery wall or the outer wall , and accompanied by greater occipital nerve , continued to uplink to the scalp in the superficial fascia , and separated one or two terminal or distal bran-ches distributing on the scalp .The diameter of starting point of the occipital artery was (2.3 ±0.3) mm, the length of the occipital artery which paralleled to the superior border of transverse process and crossed the superior nuchal line was (93.2 ±2.6) mm, and the outer diameter of vertebral artery which paralleled to the superior border of transverse process was (1.9 ±0.4) mm, the outer diameter of vertebral artery which crossed the superior nuchal was (1.8 ±0.3) mm.The mid-point diameter of V3 segment of vertebral artery was (3.2 ±1.4) mm, the distance from occipital artery to the external oc-cipital protuberance was (21.4 ±0.9) mm, and the maximal distance from OA to SNL is (23.7 ±1.2) mm.Conclusion In the intra-extra posterior circulation bypass surgery , the occipital artery could be safely and accurately obtained by u-sing lateral 25 mm from the external occipital protuberance , within 30 mm bellow SNL , the mastoid process and transverse process of the atlas as the markers .%目的:观察15具人尸的枕动脉解剖特点,探讨以枕动脉作为颅内—颅外后循环搭桥术的桥血管时,如何

  9. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hahn

    Full Text Available Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field.Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm.The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5. A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation shows that the accuracy of this system is

  10. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Heikenfeld, Roderich; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field. Material and Method Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm. Results The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5). A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation) shows that the accuracy of

  11. Medical Student Dissection of CadaversImproves Performance on Practical Exams, but not Dissection-Relevant Questions in the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Final Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sargent Jones

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only, and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was learned from the partner-prosected cadavers. Performance for each student on the exams was then assessed as a function of the regions those students actually dissected. While the results indicated a small performance advantage for MIs answering questions on material they had dissected on the NBME Subject Exam questions relevant to dissection (78-88% of total exam, the results were not statistically significant. However, a similar, small performance advantage on the course practical exams was highly significant.

  12. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  13. Medical Student Dissection of CadaversImproves Performance on Practical Exams, but not Dissection-Relevant Questions in the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Final Exam

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Sargent Jones

    2001-01-01

    We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs) affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only), and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was ...

  14. Automatic radiographic quantification of hand osteoarthritis; accuracy and sensitivity to change in joint space width in a phantom and cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetink, Kasper; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Klooster, Ronald van' t; Reiber, Johan H.C.; Stoel, Berend C. [Leiden University Medical Center, Division of Image Processing, Leiden (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kaptein, Bart L.; Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    To validate a newly developed quantification method that automatically detects and quantifies the joint space width (JSW) in hand radiographs. Repeatability, accuracy and sensitivity to changes in JSW were determined. The influence of joint location and joint shape on the measurements was tested. A mechanical micrometer set-up was developed to define and adjust the true JSW in an acrylic phantom joint and in human cadaver-derived phalangeal joints. Radiographic measurements of the JSW were compared to the true JSW. Repeatability, systematic error (accuracy) and sensitivity (defined as the smallest detectable difference (SDD)) were determined. The influence of joint position on the JSW measurement was assessed by varying the location of the acrylic phantom on the X-ray detector with respect to the X-ray beam and the influence of joint shape was determined by using morphologically different human cadaver joints. The mean systematic error was 0.052 mm in the phantom joint and 0.210 mm in the cadaver experiment. In the phantom experiments, the repeatability was high (SDD=0.028 mm), but differed slightly between joint locations (p=0.046), and a change in JSW of 0.037 mm could be detected. Dependent of the joint shape in the cadaver hand, a change in JSW between 0.018 and 0.047 mm could be detected. The automatic quantification method is sensitive to small changes in JSW. Considering the published data of JSW decline in the normal and osteoarthritic population, the first signs of OA progression with this method can be detected within 1 or 2 years. (orig.)

  15. Comparison by using torsional forces of different fixation techniques in the supracondylar fracture of humerus (An anatomic and biomechanical study in the cadaver model)

    OpenAIRE

    Olcay, Ercan; Gulmez, Turgut; Kara, Ayhan Nedim; Aksoy, Bulent; Ozturk, Adnan; Vehit, Suphi

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we performed supracondylar fractures of humerus using adult human cadaver and measured distal fragment resistance to torsional forces by applying five different fixation techniques. These fixation configurations respectively medial and lateral crossed kirschner wires, two lateral parallel in addition third crossed medial kirschner wires, two lateral parallel kirschner wires, three lateral kirschner (two of them parallel), two lateral crossed kirschner wires designed. There afte...

  16. Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Liermann, Dieter; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2 mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ≥2 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%]) were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator's mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system. PMID:25759814

  17. Detrimental role of donor-recipient HLA-DQ5 and -DQ6 disparities on cadaver kidney graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereerstraeten, P; Andrien, M; Dupont, E; Abramowicz, D; de Pauw, L; Goldman, M; Kinnaert, P

    1992-01-01

    Donor-recipient incompatibility (D + R -) for HLA-DQ1, but not for -DQ2 or -DQ3, is associated with an adverse effect on cadaver kidney graft survival. Until now, however, DQ1 recipients of DQ1-negative kidneys (D - R +) have not been differentiated from DQ1-identical donor-recipient pairs (D + R +) and splits of DQ1, DQ5 and DQ6, have not been studied in that respect. From our data (480 transplantations performed from January 1980 to December 1990), three donor-recipient DQ combinations (D + R +, D - R +, D + R -) were formed for each of four DQ specificities (DQ2, DQ3, DQ5, DQ6). As DR-DQ linkage disequilibrium is well conserved in caucasoid individuals, DQ specificities were inferred from the associated DR specificities. Graft survival rate (%) was significantly lower for the DQ5 D + R - and the DQ6 D - R + combinations when compared with the other corresponding DQ combinations, whereas no significant difference was observed between the DQ2 and DQ3 combinations. In conclusion, if DQ1 plays a prominent role in kidney graft survival, the effects of its splits appear dissociated: DQ5 could be a marker of high antigenicity and DQ6 a marker of high responsiveness. PMID:14621758

  18. Intrathecal Spread of Injectate Following an Ultrasound-Guided Selective C5 Nerve Root Injection in a Human Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falyar, Christian R; Abercrombie, Caroline; Becker, Robert; Biddle, Chuck

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root blocks have been described in several case reports as a safe and effective means to anesthetize the distal clavicle while maintaining innervation of the upper extremity and preserving diaphragmatic function. In this study, cadavers were injected with 5 mL of 0.5% methylene blue dye under ultrasound guidance to investigate possible proximal and distal spread of injectate along the brachial plexus, if any. Following the injections, the specimens were dissected and examined to determine the distribution of dye and the structures affected. One injection revealed dye extended proximally into the epidural space, which penetrated the dura mater and was present on the spinal cord and brainstem. Dye was noted distally to the divisions in 3 injections. The anterior scalene muscle and phrenic nerve were stained in all 4 injections. It appears unlikely that local anesthetic spread is limited to the nerve root following an ultrasound-guided selective C5 nerve root injection. Under certain conditions, intrathecal spread also appears possible, which has major patient safety implications. Additional safety measures, such as injection pressure monitoring, should be incorporated into this block, or approaches that are more distal should be considered for the acute pain management of distal clavicle fractures.

  19. Stretching positions for the coracohumeral ligament: Strain measurement during passive motion using fresh/frozen cadaver shoulders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Tomoki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contracture of the coracohumeral ligament is reported to restrict external rotation of the shoulder with arm at the side and restrict posterior-inferior shift of the humeral head. The contracture is supposed to restrict range of motion of the glenohumeral joint. Methods To obtain stretching position of the coracohumeral ligament, strain on the ligament was measured at the superficial fibers of the ligament using 9 fresh/frozen cadaver shoulders. By sequential measurement using a strain gauge, the ligament strain was measured from reference length (L0. Shoulder positions were determined using a 3 Space Tracker System. Through a combination of previously reported coracohumeral stretching positions and those observed in preliminary measurement, ligament strain were measured by passive external rotation from 10° internal rotation, by adding each 10° external rotation, to maximal external rotation. Results Stretching positions in which significantly larger strain were obtained compared to the L0 values were 0° elevation in scapula plane with 40°, 50° and maximum external rotation (5.68%, 7.2%, 7.87%, 30° extension with 50°, maximum external rotation (4.20%, 4.79%, and 30° extension + adduction with 30°, 40°, 50° and maximum external rotation (4.09%, 4.67%, 4.78%, 5.05%(P Conclusions Significant strain of the coracohumeral ligament will be achieved by passive external rotation at lower shoulder elevations, extension, and extension with adduction.

  20. Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2 mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ≥2 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%] were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator’s mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system.

  1. Intra-op measurement of the mechanical axis deviation: an evaluation study on 19 human cadaver legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lejing; Fallavollita, Pascal; Brand, Alexander; Erat, Okan; Weidert, Simon; Thaller, Peter-Helmut; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of the lower limb in high tibial osteotomy (HTO) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) must be determined intraoperatively. One way to do so is to deform the mechanical axis deviation (MAD), for which a tolerance measurement of 10 mm is widely accepted. Many techniques are proposed in clinical practice such as visual inspection, cable method, grid with lead impregnated reference lines, or more recently, navigation systems. Each has their disadvantages including reliability of the MAD measurement, excess radiation, prolonged operation time, complicated setup and high cost. To alleviate such shortcomings, we propose a novel clinical protocol that allows quick and accurate intraoperative calculation of MAD. This is achieved by an X-ray stitching method requiring only three X-ray images placed into a panoramic image frame during the entire procedure. The method has been systematically analyzed in a simulation framework in order to investigate its accuracy and robustness. Furthermore, we validated our protocol via a preclinical study comprising 19 human cadaver legs. Four surgeons determined MAD measurements using our X-ray panorama and compared these values to a gold-standard CT-based technique. The maximum average MAD error was 3.5mm which shows great potential for the technique.

  2. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, Tatiana; Leentjes, Sarah; Janaway, Rob C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2012-04-10

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6 months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6 months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams. PMID:22030481

  3. Study of the Artroscopic Anatomy of the Knee in Canine Cadavers Using 2.4 Mm Diameter Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oswaldo Alonso Cuéllar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mainly by a limited access to new techniques and technologies, veterinary medicine in developing countries, has been far behind from the human medicine. One of the causes is the limited access to technology and specific techniques. Moreover, it is clear that many new technologies have proven their benefits in the two disciplines, making necessary and almost mandatory their massive implementation in humans and animals. The possibility to use human elements for veterinary techniques would improve the technology access and veterinarians training, at lower costs. The purpose of this study is to verify the feasibility to perform a knee arthroscopy in dogs with small human joints arthroscopic lenses. Under protocols established in veterinary 12 knee arthroscopies were performed in canine cadaver, using a wrist and ankle arthroscope human of 2.4 mm in diameter and 30° of angulation. All the structures reported in the literature were possible to visualize using a 2.4 mm arthroscope. In this sense, it is possible to develop training activities and subsequent implementation of endoscopic techniques in canine femorotibiopatellar joint, using a lens of small joints of human medicine.

  4. 浅谈遗体、器官捐献理论的建立%Theory Establishment of Cadaver and Organ Donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银勇

    2011-01-01

    Autopsy is the basis of medical sciences, and organ transplantation is an important way to save lives or restore patient's labor capacity. In China, the imperfect cadaver and organ donation system and poor awareness of public donations lead to the shortage of cadaver and organ source, and restricts the development of related disciplines for a long time. Therefore, it is an important and urgent issue to strengthen the work of cadaver and organ donation. Cadaver and organ donation theory focuses on ideological and theoretical problems about this issue, tries to establish a set of theoretical system to gradually change the traditional concept on cadaver donation suited for Chinese national conditions via summarizing the experiences from past and present , at home and abroad. The theory is composed of establishing a scientific view of life and death, life value by carrying out death education, and strengthening the education of selfless dedication and benevolence spirit.%尸体解剖是医学科学研究发展的基础,器官移植是拯救生命、恢复健康的重要方法.在我国,因相关体制不健全和民众捐献意识淡薄,遗体和器官来源匮乏,长期制约着相关学科的发展.如何加强遗体、器官捐献工作成为亟待解决的重要问题.遗体、器官捐献理论系统科学地阐述民众在该项工作中的思想理论、意识形态所存在的问题,通过对古今、中外相关理论的总结研究,建立一套适合国情、深入浅出的理论体系,利用科学理论逐步改变传统观念对人们思想的束缚.该理论主要包括开展死亡教育,建立科学生死现、生命价值观.

  5. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC TipTM Device Versus Traditional Airway Suction in a Cadaver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demis N. Lipe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC TipTM with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. Methods: This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit, using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. Results: The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54. In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70. There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion: CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations. [West J Emerg Med

  6. Harmonic scalpel versus flexible CO2 laser for tongue resection: A histopathological analysis of thermal damage in human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tamir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monopolar cautery is the most commonly used surgical cutting and hemostatic tool for head and neck surgery. There are newer technologies that are being utilized with the goal of precise cutting, decreasing blood loss, reducing thermal damage, and allowing faster wound healing. Our study compares thermal damage caused by Harmonic scalpel and CO2 laser to cadaveric tongue. Methods Two fresh human cadaver heads were enrolled for the study. Oral tongue was exposed and incisions were made in the tongue akin to a tongue tumor resection using the harmonic scalpel and flexible C02 laser fiber at various settings recommended for surgery. The margins of resection were sampled, labeled, and sent for pathological analysis to assess depth of thermal damage calculated in millimeters. The pathologist was blinded to the surgical tool used. Control tongue tissue was also sent for comparison as a baseline for comparison. Results Three tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by harmonic scalpel. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.69 (range, 0.51 - 0.82. Five tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by CO2 laser. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.3 (range, 0.22 to 0.43. As expected, control samples showed 0 mm of thermal damage. There was a statistically significant difference between the depth of thermal injury to tongue resection margins by harmonic scalpel as compared to CO2 laser, (p = 0.003. Conclusion In a cadaveric model, flexible CO2 laser fiber causes less depth of thermal damage when compared with harmonic scalpel at settings utilized in our study. However, the relevance of this information in terms of wound healing, hemostasis, safety, cost-effectiveness, and surgical outcomes needs to be further studied in clinical settings.

  7. Septic arthritis of the knee: Presentation of a novel irrigation-suction system tested in a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Kuno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The established treatment for bacterial arthritis of the knee joint is arthroscopic surgery with irrigation and debridement. The aim of this article is to summarize the relevant data in treating bacterial arthritis of the knee joint, and based on these findings to present a novel irrigation suction system, tested in a cadaver study, as an additional tool in the postoperative treatment phase of arthroscopic surgery for knee joint infections. Method The novel automated irrigation-suction system presented here was compared to conventional continuous suction irrigation in a total of six knee joints. All knee joints were filled with 80 ml methylene blue stain and rinsed by two different methods. Fluid specimens were taken after ten and twenty minutes to be compared by photometric extinction measurement at a wave length of 500 nm. Results After ten minutes, the average extinction was e1C = 0.8 for the continuous suction irrigation and e1N = 0.4 for the novel irrigation-suction system. After twenty minutes, we recorded an average extinction of e2C = 0.3 for continuous suction irrigation and e2N = 0.001 for the novel irrigation-suction system. The students t-test revealed superior results after ten and twenty minutes of washing out the knee joints with a p Conclusion A novel irrigation-suction system may be an effective tool for postoperative knee joint irrigation in arthroscopic therapy for bacterial arthritis of the knee. Further animal studies are needed to verify the effects in vivo.

  8. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obert Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH and radiological (X-rays, CT scans outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160, forward flexion was 108° (70–160, external rotation (elbow at body was 34° (0–55, the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59, the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75, and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109. Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible.

  9. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging-anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zurich (Switzerland); Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). (orig.)

  10. Short-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    Contradictions and misconceptions regarding the effect of lime on the decay of human remains have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition. This study follows previous research by the authors who have investigated the effect of lime on the decomposition of human remains in burial environments. A further three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were observed and monitored for 78 days without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and with quicklime (CaO) in the taphonomy laboratory at the University of Bradford. The results showed that in the early stages of decay, the unlimed and hydrated lime cadavers follow a similar pattern of changes. In contrast, the application of quicklime instigated an initial acceleration of decay. Microbial investigation demonstrated that the presence of lime does not eliminate all aerobic bacteria. The experiment also suggested that lime functions as a sink, buffering the carbon dioxide evolution. This study complements the field observations. It has implications for the investigation of time since death of limed remains. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes is of interest to forensic pathologists, archaeologists, humanitarian organisations and those concerned with disposal of animal carcasses or human remains in mass disasters. PMID:24513401

  11. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms. (paper)

  12. The ethics and sensibilities in cadaver donating%无偿捐献遗体中的伦理及情感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿佐发; 汤桂成

    2001-01-01

    In the article we discussed the problem of traditional ethics and civil code influencing cadaver donating.author believed that this condition can be improved by educating the prople.The donors's noble thoughts and sensibilities for the medical education and research were exhibited in this paper%讨论了传统的伦理道德观及法典对无偿捐献遗体的影响,认为这种影响可以通过宣传教育加以改进和提高;文中展现了捐献者群体的崇高道德情操以及他们为医学教育和科学研究甘愿奉献一切的情感。

  13. Methods to learn human anatomy: perceptions of medical students in paraclinical and clinical phases regarding cadaver dissection and other learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitreyee Mutalik

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Perception of knowledge by an individual student is different based on the individual primary mental abilities. Therefore, some individuals may show better learning by particular methods. Hence a blend of different methodologies to teach a subject is helpful for majority of the students. In the teaching of human gross anatomy too, a combination of different methods has been in use. However, in the era of decrease in course duration, high and ldquo;student:cadaver ratio and rdquo;, and easy availability of newer technologies, there is a need to review the priorities and preferences of the methods or to find out different ways to use the existing methods to increase their effectiveness. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2536-2541

  14. Displacement of the medial meniscus within the passive motion characteristics of the human knee joint: an RSA study in human cadaver knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienen, T G; Buma, P; Scholten, J G F; van Kampen, A; Veth, R P H; Verdonschot, N

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an in vitro human cadaver knee-joint model for the evaluation of the meniscal movement during knee-joint flexion. The question was whether our model showed comparable meniscal displacements to those found in earlier meniscal movement studies in vivo. Furthermore, we determined the influence of tibial torque on the meniscal displacement during knee-joint flexion. Three tantalum beads were inserted in the medial meniscus of six human-cadaver joints. The knee joints were placed and loaded in a loading apparatus, and the movements of the beads were determined by means of RSA during knee-joint flexion and extension with and without internal tibial (IT) and external tibial (ET) torque. During flexion without tibial torque, all menisci moved in posterior and lateral direction. The anterior horn showed significantly greater excursions than the posterior horn in both posterior and lateral direction. Internal tibial torque caused an anterior displacement of the pathway on the tibial plateau. External tibial torque caused a posterior displacement of the pathway. External tibial torque restricted the meniscal displacement during the first 30 degrees of knee-joint flexion. The displacements of the meniscus in this experiment were similar to the displacements described in the in vivo MRI studies. Furthermore, the application of tibial torque confirmed the relative immobility of the posterior horn of the meniscus. During external tibial torque, the posterior displacement of the pathway on the tibial plateau during the first 30 degrees of flexion might be restricted by the attached knee-joint capsule or the femoral condyle. This model revealed representative meniscal displacements during simple knee-joint flexion and also during the outer limits of passive knee-joint motion.

  15. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  16. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:21282022

  17. Study on internal structure of zygomatic bone using micro-finite element analysis model. Differences between dentulous and edentulous dentition in Japanese cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the internal structure of zygomatic bone using a micro-finite element analysis model (μFEA) and compare angular orientation of trabeculae against compressive force in edentulous and dentulous jaws. Twenty zygomatic bones from dentulous jaws and 20 zygomatic bones from edentulous jaws harvested from Japanese male cadavers were used. From 2-dimensional slice images, we reconstructed 3-dimensional (3D) structure by the volume rendering method using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). To analyze mechanical properties, all voxels were converted to μFEA models. The angle between the strongest direction of trabecular bone and the axial loading direction (angle α) was then determined using the μFEA models. In the 3-D reconstruction images, trabecular density in dentulous jaws was higher than that in edentulous jaws at all loci. Trabeculae in dentulous jaws showed a plate-like structure. The μFEA modeling revealed that the angle of the trabeculae at the Jugale in edentulous jaws was lower than that in dentulous jaws. This suggests that the internal structure of trabeculae is influenced by occlusal force in zygomatic bone from edentulous jaws. (author)

  18. Accuracy of thoracolumbar transpedicular and vertebral body percutaneous screw placement: coupling the Rosa® Spine robot with intraoperative flat-panel CT guidance--a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, M; Peltier, J

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of a new robotic device when coupled with intraoperative flat-panel CT guidance. Screws (D8-S1) were implanted during two separate cadaver sessions by coupling the Rosa(®) Spine robot with the flat-panel CT device. Of 38 implanted screws, 37 (97.4 %) were fully contained within the pedicle. One screw breached the lateral cortical of one pedicle by <1 mm. The mean ± SD accuracy (relative to pre-operative planning) was 2.05 ± 1.2 mm for the screw head, 1.65 ± 1.11 for the middle of the pedicle and 1.57 ± 1.01 for the screw tip. When coupled with intraoperative flat-panel CT guidance, the Rosa(®) Spine robot appears to be accurate in placing pedicle screws within both pedicles and the vertebral body. Large clinical studies are mandatory to confirm this preliminary cadaveric report. PMID:26530846

  19. Hoffa's fat pad injuries and their relationship with anterior cruciate ligament tears: new observations based on MR imaging in patients and MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the normal anatomic relationships of Hoffa's fat pad with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and with the frequency of Hoffa's fat pad abnormalities in ACL-deficient knees. Retrospective clinical study on patients and observational anatomic study on cadavers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. MR imaging studies of the knees of 100 patients (21-48 years old) with or without arthroscopically proven tears of the ACL, performed at a single institution, were reviewed by two readers for abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad. Ten cadaveric knee specimens were studied with MR imaging and Faxitron radiographs, and by inspection of sections and histology. Alterations in Hoffa's fat pad on MR imaging were present in 64% (32/50) of patients with torn ACLs, and in 24% (12/50) of patients without a tear of the ACL (P < 0.05). Hoffa's fat pad inserted into the intercondylar notch in 50% (5/10) of cadaveric specimens, four in conjunction with the ligamentum mucosum and in one in an isolated fashion. Histological study demonstrated the composition of the ligamentum mucosum and Hoffa's fat pad and their course and insertion sites in the intercondylar notch. Abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad, such as focal and diffuse edema, tears, scars and synovial proliferation, are more common in knees with torn ACLs than in knees with intact ACLs. (orig.)

  20. Increased signal intensity at the proximal patellar tendon: correlation between MR imaging and histology in eight cadavers and clinical MR imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Seong Jong; Jin, Wook; Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong-Koo [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gou Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We set out to investigate the cause of persistently increased signal intensity (SI) in the posterior portion of the proximal patellar tendon (pPT) on T1-weighted images (T1WI). MR imaging was performed in eight cadavers, followed by gross histological examination. In addition, 84 patients without trauma history or anterior knee pain were included to compare the SI of the PTs. The patients were divided according to their age, sex, and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades. The length and thickness of the increased SI portion in the pPT and whole PT (wPT) on T1WI were recorded. Histological specimens demonstrated that the adipose tissue, vessels, and perivascular connective tissue invaginated into the posterior portion of the pPT. This histological anatomy corresponded to the pPT signal change on MR imaging. There was linear and interdigitating increased SI of the pPT in all of the 84 patients (100 %). There were no differences in the lengths and thicknesses of the increased SI portion of pPTs and wPTs according to age, sex, and KL grade (all p > 0.05). The increased SI of the pPT on T1WI and fluid-sensitive MR images results from invaginating fat, vessels, and perivascular connective tissue. It is not pathological, but a normal and common finding. (orig.)

  1. Long-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Denton, John; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    An increased number of police enquiries involving human remains buried with lime have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effects of lime on the decay of human remains in laboratory conditions and 6 months of field experiments. Six pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were buried without lime with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy-loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 17 and 42 months of burial. Analysis of the soil, lime and carcasses included entomology, pH, moisture content, microbial activity, histology and lime carbonation. The results of this study demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, the extent of decomposition is slowed down by burial with both hydrated lime and quicklime. The more advanced the decay process, the more similar the degree of liquefaction between the limed and unlimed remains. The end result for each mode of burial will ultimately result in skeletonisation. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials, for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials and potentially for the interpretation of mass graves and management of mass disasters by humanitarian organisation and DVI teams. PMID:24513400

  2. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  3. Estudo anatômico do ligamento patelofemoral lateral em joelho de cadáveres Anatomical study of the lateral patellofemoral ligament in cadaver knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schmidt Navarro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o ligamento patelofemoral lateral (LPFL por meio de dissecação anatômica de joelhos de cadáveres frescos. Na literatura existe particular interesse pelo LPFL. Essa especial atenção é dada pela sua importância anatômica, biomecânica e pela necessidade da sua reconstrução nos casos de instabilidade medial da patela. MÉTODOS: O LPFL foi estudado em 20 joelhos de 20 cadáveres frescos por meio de dissecações anatômicas. As dissecações foram padronizadas e os dados anotados enviados para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O LPFL apresentou em média 16,05mm de largura (desvio-padrão: 2,48, 42,10mm de comprimento (desvio-padrão: 8,84. Sua inserção femoral mostrou-se no epicôndilo femoral lateral e com expansão em forma de leque das suas fibras, predominantemente na região posterior e proximal ao epicôndilo lateral. Na patela a inserção encontrada foi na região súpero-lateral (na metade do terço superior no plano coronal, também com expansão das fibras, mas com menor intensidade. No plano sagital, o ligamento situava-se na metade posterior da borda da patela. O LPFL foi isolado na segunda camada retinacular lateral, o retináculo transverso profundo. CONCLUSÃO: O LPFL situa-se na camada retinacular transversa profunda, com a presença de uma expansão das suas fibras em forma de leque, tanto na inserção femoral quanto na patelar. No epicôndilo femoral a inserção encontra-se mais posterior e proximalmente e na patela está na metade posterior da borda patelar (plano sagital e no aspecto súpero-lateral.OBJECTIVES: To describe the lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL after anatomical dissection of fresh cadaver knees. The literature shows a particular interest for the LPFL. Such special attention is due to its anatomical and biomechanical importance, and also due to the need to reconstruct the ligament in the cases of medial patellar instability. METHODS: The LPFL was studied in 20 knees of 20

  4. Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries.

  5. Evaluación de técnicas de procesamiento y almacenamiento de piel cadavérica para bancos de tejidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Calvo-Castro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se reproducen y analizan algunas de las técnicas más comunes a nivel internacional para el manejo de piel cadavérica para bancos de tejidos. Para ello, se llevó a cabo la ablación, el procesamiento, la desinfección y el almacenamiento de piel utilizando un modelo animal (cerdo, Sus scrofa domesticus. Para verificar la calidad microbiológica del tejido se compararon dos diferentes métodos de desinfección (antibióticos y desinfección química con cloro. Además, se evaluó el efecto de dos tratamientos para el almacenamiento y conservación de la piel: inmersión en glicerol a bajas temperaturas (4 °C y criopreservación (-70 °C. Finalmente, se analizó un método de esterilización utilizando irradiación con haz de electrones (25 kGy. La estructura general del tejido se analizó mediante tinciones histológicas. Los resultados demostraron la esterilización completa de las muestras, tanto de los tejidos irradiados como en la piel glicerolada desinfectada químicamente (solución de Dakins. Por otro lado, la comparación histológica de las muestras reveló que el tejido glicerolado fue el que mostró la mejor calidad en términos estructurales.

  6. Pelvic Floor Support Defect in Apical Anterior Vaginal Prolapse with Cervical Hypertrophy. Review with Case Report in a 20-year-old Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Kalpana

    2015-10-01

    Apical anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP) with central defect is uncommon in young non hysterectomized patients causing considerable mortality after the fourth decade of life. Its high propensity to recurrence poses the greatest challenge to pelvic reconstructive surgeons. Approximately 40% of women with prolapse have hypertrophic cervical elongation and the extent of elongation increases with greater degrees of prolapse. Women with prolapse either have inherent hypertrophic elongation of the cervix which predisposes them to prolapse or the downward traction in prolapse leads to cervical elongation. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) examination includes measurement of the location of the posterior fornix (point D) with the assumption that this measurement is associated with cervical elongation. Multifocal site involvement with apical and perineal descent primarily afflicts elderly, postmenopausal women after the fourth decade while cervical hypertrophic elongation with prolapse is observed in younger women less than 40 years of age. A review of the anatomical implication of the association of cervical hypertrophy in prolapse is carried out in this article. We observed a combination of distension type anterior vaginal prolapse with apical descent and cervical hypertrophy in a 20-year-old cadaver during routine dissection for undergraduate medical students at Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences in 2013. Distension type anterior vaginal prolapse with central defect is rarer as most reported cases are of the displacement type, paravaginal defect. Hypertrophic cervical elongation is either the cause or consequence of prolapse and its identification before reconstructive surgery is paramount as uterine suspension in the face of cervical elongation is contraindicated. Inappropriate identification of all support defects and breaking of tissues is the primary cause of failure of laparoscopic pelvic reconstructive surgery. PMID:26557506

  7. Differences between radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist in the study of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments: magnetic resonance imaging and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheno, Ramon; Buck, Florian M.; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To demonstrate how radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist can affect the visualization of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers. The detectability of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments of ten fresh human wrists was analyzed in coronal, axial and sagittal images in the neutral position and in radial and ulnar deviation with MR imaging and MR arthrography. The findings were then correlated with gross anatomic inspection. Additionally, quantitative measurements including the radiocarpal distances and capitate angles were performed. Differences were noted in the visual conspicuity of only the intercarpal ligaments of the proximal carpal row with different techniques and wrist positions. The average width of the radiocarpal joint was 0.62 mm, 1.55 mm and 2.0 mm (radial side) and 3.78 mm, 2.25 mm and 1.16 mm (ulnar side) in radial deviation, neutral position, and ulnar deviation of the wrist, respectively. Statistically, these maneuvers produced significant opening in the ulnar side during radial deviation (Student's t-test; P = 0.0005) and in the radial side in ulnar deviation (P = 0.007). Significant differences in the width of the radiocarpal joint were observed during radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, influencing the visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, mainly the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments. The use of MR arthrography with radial and/or ulnar deviation has the potential to improve diagnosis in clinical cases in which injury to one or both of these ligaments is suggested. (orig.)

  8. Lesiones post mortales por fauna cadavérica: La acción de las hormigas sobre el cadáver Post-mortal injuries by cadaveric fauna: The action of the ants on human corpses

    OpenAIRE

    P.M. Garamendi; M. López-Alcaraz; A. Mazón; Rodríguez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Los animales pueden actuar como predadores de los restos humanos y las lesiones postmortales que infligen en los cadáveres pueden dar lugar a errores de interpretación de los hallazgos en las autopsias forenses. Entre la fauna cadavérica, las hormigas constituyen un caso excepcional al ser los únicos insectos que pueden iniciar su actividad predadora antes de instaurarse la putrefacción. Las hormigas suelen producir lesiones que por su asiento y morfología resultan típicas. Se presenta un cas...

  9. 足月孕妇腹盆部的矢状断层影像解剖学研究%Sectional and imaging sagittal anatomical research in abdominal and pelvic part of a pregnant woman cadaver in third trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡镇; 赵冬梅; 王晓静; 金昌洙; 李振平; 刘树伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide sagittal sectional anatomic data for guidance in B- ultrasound and MRI diagnosis in abdominal and pelvic parts of pregnant women in the third trimester. Method After MR1 scanning in abdominal and pelvic part of a pregnant woman cadaver in third trimester, the abdominal and pelvic parts was sectioned into serial sagittal 10-millimeter thick sections with equal intervals using a dynamoelectric beltsaw. Result The anatomic structures in sagittal sectional imaging and MRI in abdominal and pelvic parts of the cadaver with full term pregnance were well displayed,and the spatial relationship of the location of the placenta and fetal main organs to the materal vertebrae in sagittal sections of the specimen and the MR images was relatively constant. Conclusion The analytic results of the MR and serial sagittal sectional images of the cadaver can provide normal and useful anatomic guidance for B- ultrasound and MRI diagnosis in abdominal and pelvic parts of the pregnant women in the third trimester.%目的 为给围产期孕妇腹、盆部B超、MR诊断提供矢状断面解剖学基础.方法 将1例足月妊娠尸体做腹盆部MR扫描,获取图像数据.用电动带锯按等距法制成与正中矢状面平行的腹、盆部连续矢状断层标本,并获取连续矢状断层标本图像数据.结果 足月孕妇腹盆部矢状断面的解剖结构在标本和MR图像上均得到了很好地显示;胎盘和宫内胎儿主要脏器显示层面与母体椎骨之间的有较为固定的对应关系.结论 足月孕妇连续矢状断层标本、MR图像分析结果能够为围产期孕妇腹、盆部B超、MR诊断提供正常的形态学资料.

  10. Nuevo simulador híbrido cadavérico/sintético para la enseñanza de técnicas intervencionistas para tratamiento del dolor refractario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Flores

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un nuevo simulador para el entrenamiento y evaluación de técnicas intervencionistas bajo visión fluoroscópica en medicina del dolor que permite realizar los procedimientos más utilizados a nivel de cabeza y cuello, tronco, región lumbosacra y pelvis. En el trabajo se desarrolló una inclusión de material óseo cadavérico en material sintético versión no transparente color piel y transparente para entrenamiento en bloqueos bajo visión ecográfica y fluoroscópica combinados. El Nuevo Simulador Híbrido se basó en la inclusión artesanal de material óseo cadavérico dentro de un tejido de material sintético emulando, con elevado realismo, el modelo humano. En la experiencia de los educandos que realizaron los talleres durante el año 2014 expresaron alta satisfacción comparando a pacientes reales, cadáveres frescos y simuladores sintéticos. Este desarrollo permite, como características principales: a repetir cada procedimiento las veces necesarias para que cada educando alcance un estándar mínimo exigible y disminuya el número y tipo de errores posibles propios de cada técnica; b entrenar adecuadamente para los procesos de certificación; c facilitar evaluar la eficacia de entrenar con estos modelos frente al entrenamiento en pacientes reales u otras formas de entrenamiento (simuladores o cadáveres frescos; d mejorar la accesibilidad por su bajo costo evitando la complejidad de la preservación de tejidos, y e permitir, en opinión del autor, reducir la curva de aprendizaje en un medio seguro para paciente, educando, docente y el sistema de salud y universitario.

  11. Cadaver as an experimental model to study the effect of muscle advancement on the waistline Cadáver como modelo experimental para avaliar o efeito do avanço muscular na cintura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Xerfan Nahas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of cadaver as an experimental model to evaluate the waistline after correction of rectus diastasis and the advancement of the external oblique muscles in cadavers were described on this article. Two parameters were used: the measurement of the abdominal circumference and the overlap of the two skin flaps formed by a xypho-pubic incision. With a previously marked area of undermining of the aponeurotic layer, measurements of the overlapped flaps were made in the following stages of dissection: 1 with the myo-aponeurotic layer intact; 2 after the correction of rectus diastasis; and 3 after the advancement of the external oblique muscle. The experimental model described showed to be feasible to demonstrate the effects of the correction of rectus diastasis and of the advancement of external oblique muscles on the waistline.O uso de cadáver como modelo experimental para avaliar a cintura após a correção da diástase de retos e o avanço dos músculos oblíquo externos é descrito neste estudo. Dois parâmetros foram utilizados: a medida da circunferência abdominal e a sobreposição de dois retalhos dermogordurosos formados por uma incisão xifo-púbica. Após a definição da área de descolamento supra-aponeurótico, a medida da sobreposição dos retalhos foi realizada nas seguintes fases de dissecção: 1 com o plano mio-aponeurótico íntegro; 2 após a correção da diástase de retos; e 3 após o avanço dos músculos oblíquos externos. O modelo experimental descrito mostrou-se viável para demonstrar os efeitos da correção da diástase de retos e no avanço dos músculos oblíquo externos na cintura.

  12. Carcinoma hepatocelular: impacto do tempo em lista e das formas de tratamento pré-operatório na sobrevida do transplante de fígado cadavérico na era pré-MELD em um centro no Brasil Hepatocellular carcinoma: impact of waiting list and pre-operative treatment strategies on survival of cadaveric liver transplantation in pre-MELD era in one center in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas; Mônica Beatriz Parolin; Lucinei Stadnik; Júlio Cezar Uili Coelho

    2007-01-01

    RACIONAL: Atualmente, o transplante hepático é a principal opção terapêutica para doentes com cirrose hepática associada a carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de pacientes com e sem carcinoma hepatocelular submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná no período entre 5 de janeiro de 2001 e 17 de fe...

  13. Estudio de la rigidez cadavérica que presenta la Síndone de Turín Study of the cadaveric rigidity presenting in the Shroud of Turin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Villalaín

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio médico forense de la imagen sindónica llama la atención la intensa rigidez que se aprecia en la imagen corporal del Hombre de la Síndone. En este trabajo se estudia este fenómeno cadavérico y los posibles factores condicionantes que han podido modificar su normal evolución. Por otro lado, aprovechando la circunstancia de que esta rigidez se rompió y recuperó en hombros y brazos, se trata de determinar cronológicamente en que momento de la muerte se pudo producir tan sorprendente imagen.In the forensic study of the sindonic image it is necessary to pay attention to the intense rigidity that is observed in the corporal image of the Man of the Shroud. In this paper, this cadaveric phenomenon is analyzed and the possible conditioning factors which could have modified its normal evolution. Furthermore, taking into account the circumstance that this rigidity was broken and then recovered in shoulders and arms, we try to determine chronologically in which moment of the death this surprising image could be produced.

  14. Lesiones post mortales por fauna cadavérica: La acción de las hormigas sobre el cadáver Post-mortal injuries by cadaveric fauna: The action of the ants on human corpses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Garamendi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Los animales pueden actuar como predadores de los restos humanos y las lesiones postmortales que infligen en los cadáveres pueden dar lugar a errores de interpretación de los hallazgos en las autopsias forenses. Entre la fauna cadavérica, las hormigas constituyen un caso excepcional al ser los únicos insectos que pueden iniciar su actividad predadora antes de instaurarse la putrefacción. Las hormigas suelen producir lesiones que por su asiento y morfología resultan típicas. Se presenta un caso en el que se evidencia la presencia de lesiones de morfología típica por la acción lesiva postmortal de hormigas, pero con una extensión y localización inhabituales.Post-mortem animal predation can lead to errors when interpreting forensic autopsy findings. Ants are the only insects that can attack human corpses after death and before decomposition process starts. Ants produce post mortal injuries in the skin that have a distinct location and morphology. We present a forensic case in which post mortal injuries produced by ants in a human corpse had a typical morphology; however their location and extension were unusual.

  15. Hoffa's fat pad injuries and their relationship with anterior cruciate ligament tears: new observations based on MR imaging in patients and MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Marcelo R. [University of California San Diego, VA Health Care System, San Diego, CA (United States); Chung, Christine B.; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, VA Health Care System, San Diego, CA (United States); Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    To determine the normal anatomic relationships of Hoffa's fat pad with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and with the frequency of Hoffa's fat pad abnormalities in ACL-deficient knees. Retrospective clinical study on patients and observational anatomic study on cadavers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. MR imaging studies of the knees of 100 patients (21-48 years old) with or without arthroscopically proven tears of the ACL, performed at a single institution, were reviewed by two readers for abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad. Ten cadaveric knee specimens were studied with MR imaging and Faxitron radiographs, and by inspection of sections and histology. Alterations in Hoffa's fat pad on MR imaging were present in 64% (32/50) of patients with torn ACLs, and in 24% (12/50) of patients without a tear of the ACL (P < 0.05). Hoffa's fat pad inserted into the intercondylar notch in 50% (5/10) of cadaveric specimens, four in conjunction with the ligamentum mucosum and in one in an isolated fashion. Histological study demonstrated the composition of the ligamentum mucosum and Hoffa's fat pad and their course and insertion sites in the intercondylar notch. Abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad, such as focal and diffuse edema, tears, scars and synovial proliferation, are more common in knees with torn ACLs than in knees with intact ACLs. (orig.)

  16. Discectomia lombar transforaminal: estudo quantitativo em cadáveres Discectomía lumbar transforaminal: estudio cuantitativo en cadáveres Transforaminal lumbar discectomy: quantitative study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Neves Vialle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficácia da discectomia lombar por via transforaminal, de modo quantitativo, em estudo experimental com cadáveres. MÉTODOS: este estudo utilizou cinco cadáveres humanos frescos, submetidos à discectomia pela via de acesso póstero-lateral nos níveis L3-L4 e L4-L5, visando remover a maior quantidade de material discal possível. Uma abordagem anterior complementar, expondo os mesmos discos intervertebrais, permitiu a remoção do material discal remanescente, para posterior comparação. RESULTADOS: em L3-L4, a remoção transforaminal do disco obteve, em média, 48% do volume total, e em L4-L5, cerca de 38%. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de segura e de fácil realização, a via transforaminal não é tão eficaz quanto à via anterior na remoção do disco intervertebral.OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la discectomía lumbar por vía transforaminal, de modo cuantitativo, en un estudio experimental con cadáveres. MÉTODOS: este estudio utilizó cinco cadáveres humanos frescos, sometidos à discectomía por vía de acceso posterolateral en los niveles L3-L4 y L4-L5, visando remover la mayor cantidad de material discal posible. Un abordaje anterior complementar, exponiendo los mismos discos intervertebrales, permitió la remoción del material discal remanente, para posterior comparación. RESULTADOS: en L3-L4, la remoción transforaminal del disco obtuvo en promedio 48% del volumen total y en L4-L5, cerca del 38%. CONCLUSIÓN: aunque segura y de fácil realización, la vía transforaminal no es tan eficaz como la vía anterior en la remoción del disco intervertebral.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the quantitative efficacy of transforaminal lumbar discectomy, through a cadaver study. METHODS: this study used five fresh human cadavers, that underwent L3-L4 and L4-L5 posterolateral discectomy, aiming to remove as much disc material as possible. After that, the remaining disc material was removed through an anterior approach, for further

  17. Applied anatomy of endoscopic decompression and anterior transposition for cubital tunnel syndrome in cadavers%内窥镜辅助下肘管减压尺神经前置术的应用解剖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁健; 高伟阳; 郑鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的 在尸体上模拟内窥镜辅助下肘管减压及尺神经前置术,探讨该术式的注意事项.方法 在8具上肢标本上模拟内窥镜辅助下肘管减压及尺神经前置术,再对尸体进行解剖,观察尺神经松解、前置效果及有无前臂内侧皮神经损伤.结果 8侧标本均顺利去除肘部尺神经卡压的因素,前置尺神经充分,固定牢靠,未形成继发卡压.在肘管减压及尺神经松解过程中前臂内侧皮神经后支均未损伤.皮下筋膜与屈肌旋前圆肌肌膜缝合固定法缝扎前臂内侧皮神经后支2例,筋膜瓣法固定未对前臂内侧皮神经造成损伤.结论 在内窥镜辅助下能切除肘部尺神经卡压的常见因素,前置尺神经充分,并能有效降低前臂内侧皮神经后支的损伤,但需注意皮下筋膜与屈肌旋前圆肌肌膜缝合固定法易缝扎前臂内侧皮神经后支,而筋膜瓣法固定相对安全.%Objective To simulate endoscopic decompression and anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve for treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome in cadavers and explore the technical details of this approach.Methods Simulation of endoscopic decompression of the cubital tunnel and anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve was carried out in 8 upper limb cadaver specimens.The cubital tunnel was then opened to explore the effectiveness of decompression and transposition and any signs of medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) damage.Results Nerve decompression was sufficient with all the constrictions released.The ulnar nerve was properly anterior transposed and secured.There was no sign of secondary compression to the ulnar nerve.There was no MACN injury during cubital tunnel release and ulnar nerve decompression.MACN posterior branch was caught in 2 specimens when the superficial fascia and pronator teres sarcolemma were sutured together to make transposition tunnel.Creating a fascia tunnel did not cause MACN injury.Conclusion Endoscopic release can

  18. [Impression traces from firearms on cadaver skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püschel, K; Koops, E; Kulle, K J

    1996-01-01

    Guns may occasionally leave traces on human skin, for example by compression/impression of the tissue (esp. in the area of livores), by contact-transfer of dirt, oil, and rust, or by forming the pattern of blood-smears. The case of a 31-year-old drug-addict is presented in detail: The man committed suicide by shooting himself (entrance hole under the chin). When the dead body was found there was no weapon at the scene. By careful securing of evidence and analyzing the pattern of metallisations (identified as rust from the old pistol) it was reconstructed that the suicident held the pistol (identified as Russian Tokarew TT33-7.62 mm) in his hand for many hours postmortem until it was removed by an unknown thief.

  19. [Suspicious circumstances on discovery of the cadaver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sven; Stein, Sylvia; Reinhardt, Andreas; Tsokos, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The authors report on three autopsy cases in which the findings at the death scene gave rise to the suspect of non-natural, in two cases even violent causes of death. The medico-legal and criminalistic investigations led to surprising results: Death was due to acute intoxication with narcotics, supposed delirium tremens and a suicide attempt in the presence of bronchopneumonia. External force was ruled out in all three fatalities by cooperative work of police investigators and forensic medicine. PMID:12043435

  20. [Impression traces from firearms on cadaver skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püschel, K; Koops, E; Kulle, K J

    1996-01-01

    Guns may occasionally leave traces on human skin, for example by compression/impression of the tissue (esp. in the area of livores), by contact-transfer of dirt, oil, and rust, or by forming the pattern of blood-smears. The case of a 31-year-old drug-addict is presented in detail: The man committed suicide by shooting himself (entrance hole under the chin). When the dead body was found there was no weapon at the scene. By careful securing of evidence and analyzing the pattern of metallisations (identified as rust from the old pistol) it was reconstructed that the suicident held the pistol (identified as Russian Tokarew TT33-7.62 mm) in his hand for many hours postmortem until it was removed by an unknown thief. PMID:8687278

  1. Validação técnica da drenagem pulmonar como tratamento do enfisema pulmonar avançado: estudo anatômico em cadáveres Technical validation of pulmonary drainage for the treatment of severe pulmonary emphysema: a cadaver-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Mott Ancona Lopez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a técnica operatória da drenagem pulmonar através do estudo anatômico em cadáveres, determinar se o local definido para a drenagem pulmonar é adequado e seguro, e determinar a relação anatômica do tubo de drenagem com a parede torácica, pulmões, grandes vasos e mediastino. MÉTODOS: Foram dissecados 30 cadáveres de ambos os sexos, fornecidos pelo Necrotério do Hospital Central da Santa Casa de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP no período entre maio e novembro de 2011. Foi inserido um dreno de aço de 7,5 cm com 24 F de diâmetro no segundo espaço intercostal, na linha médio-clavicular, bilateralmente, e foi medida a distância do dreno com as seguintes estruturas: brônquios principais, brônquios dos lobos superiores, vasos subclávios, artérias pulmonares, artérias pulmonares do lobo superior, veia pulmonar superior, veia ázigos e aorta. Foram realizadas medições de peso, altura, diâmetro laterolateral do tórax, diâmetro posteroanterior do tórax e espessura da parede torácica de cada cadáver. RESULTADOS: Dos 30 cadáveres dissecados, 20 e 10 eram do sexo masculino e feminino, respectivamente. A média da extremidade distal do dreno com os brônquios principais direito e esquerdo foi de 7,2 cm. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização de um dreno torácico de tamanho fixo na posição preconizada é factível e segura, independentemente das características antropométricas do paciente.OBJECTIVE: A cadaver-based study was carried out in order to describe the pulmonary drainage surgical technique, to determine whether the site for the insertion of the chest tube is appropriate and safe, and to determine the anatomical relationship of the chest tube with the chest wall, lungs, large blood vessels, and mediastinum. METHODS: Between May and November of 2011, 30 cadavers of both genders were dissected. The cadavers were provided by the Santa Casa de São Paulo Central Hospital Mortuary, located in the city of São Paulo

  2. 早期移植肾功能异常的相关因素及其预后%Correlation factors for early graft dysfunction and prognosis after cadaver renal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季曙明; 尹广; 殷立平; 陈劲松; 沙国柱; 黎磊石

    1999-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation factors for early graft dysfunction after kidney transplantation,and the effects on long-term graft survival.Methods 251 recipients of first cadaver renal graft were divided into 4 groups according to the history of acute rejection(AR)and the concentration of serum creatinine(SCr)in 6 months after transplantation:Groups A and B,having no history of AR with SCr levels at 6th month of<130μmol/L in the former and≥130 μmol/L in the latter,and groups C and D having the history of AR with SCr levels at 6 th month of<130 μmol/L in the former and≥130μmol/L in the latter.All groups had the sanle immunosuppressive protocol.Results SCr level at 10th day after operation in groups A and C maintained normal,while the SCr levels in groups B and D were obviously elevated,which was correlated with acute tubular necrosis(ATN),IgA nephritis,donors' age,postoperative hypotension,AR times and the dosage of cyclosporine A.The one-and three-year survival rate of renal graft in groups D was significantly lower than in groups A,B and C.Conclusion ATN was the commonest cause for early renal graft dysfunction after renal transplantation.The damage to the kidney in the process of renal removal,reperfusion and high dose of cyclospofine A at early stage might affect the recovery of the early renal function.The dysfunction of early renal dysfunction after operation would affect the renal graft long-term survival in the patients having AR in 6 months after operation.%目的 探讨早期移植肾功能异常的相关因素及其对移植肾长期存活的影响.方法 根据术后6个月内有无发生急性排斥反应和6个月时的血肌酐水平(SCr6月n),将251例肾移植患者分为4组:A、B组未发生急性排斥反应,前者SCr6月<130 ìmol/L,后者SCr6月≥130 ìmol/L;C、D组发生急性排斥反应,前者SCr6月<130 ìmol/L,后者SCr6月≥130 ìmol/L.术后各组的免疫抑制方案相同.结果 4个组在冷缺血及热缺

  3. Insertion of lower cervical spine anterior pedicle screw in 18 cadavers%下颈椎前路椎弓根螺钉置入的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远政; 刘洋; 邓忠良

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨下颈椎前路椎弓根螺钉置入技术的可行性.方法 取18具成人尸体正常颈椎标本,剔除其周围软组织至清楚显露椎体前壁.CT扫描后,用Mimics软件重建三维模型,并测量C3~C7个体化置钉参数,包括进钉点(即椎弓根中轴线在椎体前壁投影点)、置钉方向(螺钉在横断面和矢状面上的倾斜角度)以及螺钉长度.严格按照测量结果,直视下置入椎弓根螺钉.术后作CT扫描,评价置钉效果.结果 进针点:C3、C4位于置钉椎弓根对侧,正中矢状面旁2~3 mm,距上终板6~7 mm;C5~ C7与置钉椎弓根同侧,其中C5位于正中矢状面旁1~2 mm,距上终板7.0~7.5 mm,C6、C7则为4~5 mm和7.5 ~8.5 mm.置钉方向:理想角度在C3、C4为外倾角46°~47°,头倾角-11°~-7°;在C5外倾角约48°,头倾角接近0°;C6、C7为36°~40°和8~13°.螺钉长度:可选择28、30、32 mm,其直径为3.5 mm.本组共置钉144枚.术后CT示,全部螺钉均经椎体前方置入椎弓根内抵达侧块.其中,有16枚胀破椎弓根外侧皮质,3枚穿破外侧皮质(均发生在C3、C4节段).结论 下颈椎前路椎弓根螺钉置入技术是可行的.%Objective To study the feasibility of lower cervical spine anterior pedicle screw ( APS) insertion and provide basis for its clinical application according to the preoperative APS related technological parameters. Methods Normal cervical spine specimens of 18 cadavers were carefully dissected to resect the surrounding tissue and to clearly expose the centrum antetheca. Following the CT scans, three dimensional model was reconstructed by Mimics software. The imaging data to measured key parameters of anterior transpedicular screw fixation were also produced by Mimics software. The individual screw insertion parameters including intersection point (projective point of pedicle central axis on the centrum antetheca) , insertion angle (the inclined angle of screws in cross-sectional and sagittal

  4. Análise comparativa das alterações nos fluxos de tensão do joelho nas próteses totais e unicompartimentais cimentadas: estudo experimental em dez cadáveres humanos Comparative analisys of changes in knee strain transfer flow in total and unicompartmental cemented prostheses: a trial in ten human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Pécora

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Análise comparativa das alterações nos fluxos de tensão do joelho nas próteses totais e unicompartimentais cimentadas. Estudo experimental em dez cadáveres humanos. Os autores comparam as alterações nos fluxos de tensão do fêmur distal e da tíbia proximal provocadas pelas próteses total e unicompartimental cimentadas do joelho, por meio de extensometria elétrica em 10 cadáveres humanos. Utilizam um dispositivo mecânico para adaptação das peças anatômicas à máquina de ensaios mecânicos Kratos 5002. Concluem: 1 A prótese total do joelho mantém o padrão de distribuição das cargas no terço distal do fêmur; 2 A prótese unicompartimental aumenta as tensões de compressão na cortical medial e as tensões de tração na cortical lateral do terço distal do fêmur; 3 Os componentes tibiais (parcial medial e total aumentam, da mesma forma, as tensões de compressão na cortical póstero-medial da tíbia.Load transfer changes on cemented total and unicompartmental knee prosthesis. Experimental study on ten human cadavers. The authors compare the load transfer changes on the distal femur and proximal tibia due to cemented total and unicompartmental knee prosthesis under compressive load-bearing on ten human cadavers employing strain gauges and a Kratos 5002 stress-testing system. The conclusions were: 1 The Total knee prosthesis does not alter the load transfer on the distal femur; 2 The unicompartmental knee prosthesis increases the compression load on the femoral medial cortex and increases the strain tension loads on the femoral lateral cortex; 3 The tibial components (partial medial and total increase the compression strain tension on the postero-medial cortex of the tibia.

  5. Estudo das propriedades mecânicas do ligamento cruzado posterior e do ligamento patelar de cadáveres de seres humanos após utilização de radiofreqüência Study of the mechanical properties of the posterior cruciate ligament and patellar tendon on fresh human cadavers after radiofrequency shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fazzolari Dota

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou estudar os efeitos da radiofreqüência sobre os ligamentos patelares (LP e ligamentos cruzados posteriores (LCP de cadáveres, levando em conta as características de rigidez e deformação máxima. Foram utilizados 11 LCP e 14 LP, sendo feitas as aferições com o aparelho Kratos® K5002 . Foi realizada a termoabrasão das estruturas, com encurtamento obtido entre 15 e 20% do comprimento inicial. Observou-se que essas deformações (encurtamento não se mantiveram no ensaio pós RF. Conclusão: A radiofreqüência permite o encurtamento do LP e LCP. O encurtamento obtido não se mantém completamente quando os ligamentos são submetidos a cargas tensionais padronizadas neste ensaio biomecânico. O uso de radiofrequência causa redução da rigidez do tecido (LP e LCP.This study intended to examine the effects of radiofrequency shrinkage (RF on patellar ligament (PL and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL of fresh human cadavers, measuring stiffness and maximum deformation. Eleven PCLs and 14 PLs were studied with traction tests being performed with the aid of a Kratos® K5002 machine. The structures were reduced by 15-20%, after the shrinkage. However, this reduction was partially lost after the traction test. Conclusion: RF was successful in reducing the length of the structures studied, in spite of the statistically significant stiffness loss. Then, RF was not fully successful in maintaining the reduction of ligament length under the traction forces of the test.

  6. Elongamento do enxerto de tendões do músculo grácial e semitendinoso humanos: estudo realizado em cadáveres de adultos jovens Graft semitendinosus and gracilis human muscle tendons elongation: a study carried out on young adult human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rocha Piedade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Na cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho, os enxertos de tendões autólogos são a principal opção como substitutos ligamentares. Entretanto, uma das razões da falha da reconstrução ligamentar com tecidos moles é o estiramento ou elongamento do enxerto com o tempo. Neste trabalho, foram ensaiados oito tendões do músculo grácil e oito do músculo semitendinoso humanos, obtidos de quatro cadáveres do sexo masculino, com idade média de 24,5 anos. Cada tendão foi submetido a uma deformação relativa constante de 2,5% durante 600 s, com registro contínuo do relaxamento de força. A seguir, o tendão retornava ao seu comprimento inicial e era mantido num período de repouso de 300 s. Após este intervalo, um segundo ensaio, semelhante ao primeiro, era realizado. A velocidade de carregamento empregada foi de 10% do comprimento inicial do corpo de prova por segundo. Foram obtidos valores de força inicial, com 300 s e 600 s nos dois ensaios. A análise estatística sugere um comportamento mecânico mais uniforme para o tendão do músculo semitendinoso quando comparado ao tendão do músculo grácil.In the anterior cruciate ligament knee surgery reconstruction, autologous tendons graft remains as a main option as substitutive ligaments. However time effect on graft elongation is the main reason of ligament reconstruction failure. Traction tests have been performed on eight gracilis as well as on eight semitendinosus human muscles tendons obtained from four male cadavers at an average of 24.5 years. Each tendon specimen has been submitted to a deformation of 2.5% of its initial length for a time interval of 600 s with continuous recording of the corresponding force relaxation. The tendon specimen was then kept at rest for 300 s as soon as it returned to its initial length. The same specimen was then submitted to a similar test. Deformation rate for both tests was 10% of its initial length per second. Initial

  7. What My Cadaver Dog Taught Me about Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty eager to transform their teaching often have a difficult time understanding the learning literature and then integrating it into their teaching, in part because neuroeducation concepts such as constructivism, transfer, misconceptions, and metacognition are not part of their existing knowledge. Examples of these concepts in the literature…

  8. [A gas chromatographic method for determining acetaldehyde in cadaver blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savich, V I; Valladares, Kh A; Gusakov, Iu A; Skachko, Z M

    1990-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic method of acetaldehyde detection in blood of subjects who died of alcoholic intoxication is suggested. Method is simple, does not require additional expenses, can be readily used in medicolegal practice and in difficult cases it may help the expert to make an objective conclusion on the cause of death. PMID:2087747

  9. [Identification and preservation of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António; Carvalho, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: É indispensável ter um conhecimento profundo da morfologia da glândula tiróide e das estruturas com ela relacionadas no compartimento anterior do pescoço, para minimizar a morbilidade decorrente da cirurgia da tiróide, nomeadamente a lesão das glândulas paratiróides e dos nervos laríngeos. Este estudo pretendeu identificar glândulas paratiróides em peças de cadáver, confirmando-as histologicamente.Material e Métodos: Foram usadas 20 peças de cadáver para simular tiroidectomias. Durante a dissecção, foram isoladas as glândulas tiróides e eventuais glândulas paratiróides, que foram submetidas a estudo histológico.Discussão: Foram dissecadas 20 peças de cadáver (regiões cervicais anteriores), sendo isolados 48 fragmentos que correspondiam a eventuais glândulas paratiróides, dos quais 35 foram confirmados histologicamente como sendo efectivamente paratiróides. Os 20 casos foram, então, divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o número de paratiróides confirmadas histologicamente. No primeiro grupo, constituído por 11 casos, todas as eventuais paratiróides foram confirmadas. No segundo grupo, constituído por seis casos, apenas algumas paratiróides foram confirmadas. No terceiro grupo, constituído por três casos, nenhuma das eventuais paratiróides isoladas era efectivamente paratiróide. Em sete das 20 glândulas tiróides isoladas, foram identificadas oito paratiróides no estudo histológico: quatro sub-capsulares; três extra-capsulares e uma intra-tiróideia. As dimensões das paratiróides não tinham relação estatisticamente significativa.Conclusão: O conhecimento da anatomia das estruturas do compartimento central do pescoço e das suas variações mais frequentes diminui, mas não elimina a morbilidade da cirurgia da tiróide, nomeadamente a excisão iatrogénica das paratiróides, cuja dificuldade de identificação foi evidenciada nas peças dissecadas.

  10. "Living cadavers" in Bangladesh: bioviolence in the human organ bazaar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Monir

    2012-03-01

    The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs--mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas--has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain.

  11. The apoptotic thanatotranscriptome associated with the liver of cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, Gulnaz T; Can, Ismail; Finley, Sheree J; Soni, Shivani

    2015-12-01

    Gene expression investigations are well-established components of ante mortem studies with broad applications ranging from elucidating basic mechanisms responsible for normal physiological processes to discovering therapeutic targets in pathophysiological conditions. However, gene expression studies and their application in the medico-legal field are still in their infancy. Therefore, the present study focuses on RNA using PCR array in the analysis of gene expression associated with tissues taken from actual criminal cases. RNA was extracted from the liver tissues of bodies with PMIs between 6 and 48 h. The results demonstrated that mRNA was stable up to 48 h postmortem. Further, as cell death is an indispensable and necessary part of the biological life cycle, apoptotic gene expression profiles were investigated. The gene expression related to the programmed cell death found in body tissues after death is defined as the apoptotic thanatotranscriptome (thanatos-, Greek for death). On comparison of control and decaying tissues, the results show that with time, pro-apoptotic genes such as caspases are up-regulated and the expression of genes responsible for anti-apoptosis such as BCL2 and BAG3 were down-regulated. Thus, this current work gives a unique perspective of the apoptotic thanatotranscriptome that is affected after death. Up to the present time, gene expression in bodies from criminal cases has not been reported in literature using PCR array techniques. Thus, this thanatotranscriptome study provides insight into postmortem gene activity with potential applications in medico-legal investigations. PMID:26318598

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF WORMIAN BONES IN CADAVER SKULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi; Adinarayana; Pujitha

    2015-01-01

    Wormian bones are accessory bones are not normally present in skull . They may or may not be associated with clinical abnormalities . In the present study a significant number of wormian bones were identified at the Department of Anatomy , Andhra Medical College , Visakhapatnam . Their incidence with other population were done in the presen t study

  13. Effects of two different deep digital flexor tenotomy techniques on distal articular angles of equine cadaver forelimbs Efeito de duas técnicas de tenotomia do flexor digital profundo sobre os ângulos articulares distais dos membros anteriores de equinos: estudo post-mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cezar de Oliveira Dearo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deep digital flexor (DDF tenotomy is a technique employed for years to treat selected disorders of the musculoskeletal system in horses. Although two different surgical approaches (i.e. mid-metacarpal and pastern have been described for performing the procedure, in vitro quantitative data regarding the modifications induced by either technique on the distal articular angles is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the viability of a proposed biomechanical system of induced-traction used to compare the two DDF tenotomy techniques by measuring the distal articular angles of equine cadaver forelimbs. Ten pairs of forelimbs were collected and mounted to a biomechanical system developed to apply traction at the toe level. Dorsal articular angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP, proximal interphalangeal (PIP and distal interphalangeal (DIP joints were determined by geometric lines on radiographs taken before and after performing each technique. Comparisons between each tenotomy group and its own control, for each joint, and between the two tenotomy groups using as variable the difference between the tenotomy and control groups were tested. Despite the lack of statistical significance, the DDF tenotomy technique at the pastern level produced extension, to a lesser and greater extent, of the PIP and DIP joints, respectively when compared to the mid-metacarpal level. No remarkable differences could be observed for the MP joint. The developed traction-induced biomechanical construct seemed to be effective in producing valuable quantitative estimations of the distal articular angles of equine cadaver forelimbs subjected to different DDF tenotomy techniques.A tenotomia do flexor digital profundo (FDP é uma das técnicas cirúrgicas empregadas para o tratamento de algumas anormalidades osteomusculares, como as deformidades flexurais e a laminite em equinos. Embora diferentes acessos cirúrgicos (i.e. terço médio do

  14. Qual a melhor incidência radiográfica para avaliar o desvio das fraturas tipo die-punch? Estudo em cadáver What is the best radiographic view for "die punch" distal radius fractures? A cadaver model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Figueira Falcochio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar qual a melhor incidência radiográfica para diagnosticar os desvios da fratura tipo die-punch da extremidade distal do rádio. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se um rádio do Banco de Tecidos Salvador Arena. Após limpeza e retirada de partes moles, realizou-se osteotomia da região dorsoulnar da superfície articular com microsserra, osteótomo e martelo. Fixou-se o fragmento distal com fita adesiva, nos degraus articulares de 1, 2, 3 e 5mm. A peça foi submetida a radiografias nas incidências frente, perfil, oblíqua semipronada, oblíqua semissupinada e tangencial (75º com o plano da mesa. Em uma segunda etapa, avaliou-se o desvio da fratura em cada radiografia, com auxílio do software AutoCAD 2010®. RESULTADOS: A incidência tangencial foi a melhor para identificar os desvios de 1 e 3mm e a segunda melhor nos desvios de 2 e 5mm. No desvio de 2mm a melhor incidência foi a oblíqua semipronada e no de 5mm a oblíqua semissupinada, sendo que não se consegue identificar os desvios de 1 e 2mm na oblíqua semissupinada. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência tangencial foi superior na avaliação do degrau articular de 1mm e 3mm e a segunda melhor quando houve degrau de 2mm e 5mm.OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. METHODS: There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. RESULTS: The tangencial view was the best one

  15. Coordinación y logística del trasplante de tejidos de donantes de cadáver intra y extra-hospitalarios. "Modelo Pamplona": Cadena de actuación 1992-2006 Transplant coordination and logistics of intra and extra-hospital cadaver donor tissue. "The Pamplona Model": Sequence of tasks performed from 1992-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maraví-Poma

    2006-08-01

    , referred to as tissue donors (TD, who have died from cardiac arrest. Objective. Is this paper it descripte the model for coordination and donation of intra and extra-hospital TD in the Autonomous Community of Navarra. It creats a program for detection, donation and extractions called the Pamplona Model, from 1992-2006. Material and methods. In 1990, a transplant team was created by an Intensive Medicine Physician of HVC, INML and SOS-Navarra. In 1996, VCH Transplant Coordination is defined as a reference centre for the Tissue Transplant Programme in the Autonomous Community of Navarra. Results. Consensus protocols for "intra and extra-hospital detection" of persons having died from cardiac arrest are developed: - Alerts from NHS-O hospitals, SOS-Navarra; judges and INML forensic pathologists. - Criteria for selection, search and contacts with relatives. - Alert serology, extraction and transport teams. - Logistics and distribution of tissue. - Agreed incentives: Economic, administrative and relevant regulations. Conclusions. The Pamplona Model, with the Virgen Del Camino hospital has made important contributions and is unique in the world. Intra and extra-hospital coordination of cadaver donor from a referred hospital, it is a scientific and organizational advance to have in it counts for the creation of extraction and transplant tissues teams.

  16. The origin of the inferior phrenic artery: a study in 32 South Indian cadavers with a review of the literature Origem da artéria frênica inferior: estudo em 32 cadáveres da Índia do Sul com revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thejodhar Pulakunta

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considering the paucity of information presently available concerning inferior phrenic arteries, a more definitive study seemed appropriate and necessary, both for its potential clinical applications and to provide additional data to contemporary anatomical literature. OBJECTIVE: Most anatomical textbooks of gross anatomy offer very little information concerning the anatomy and distribution of the inferior phrenic artery (IPA. For that reason, the origin of the IPA has been studied and the available literature has been reviewed. METHODS: Thirty-two human adult cadavers preserved in formalin obtained from the departments of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal and Mangalore were dissected and the origin of the IPA was studied. RESULTS: The IPA had its usual origin from the abdominal aorta in 28 cases but in the remaining four cases, two were arising from the celiac trunk, one from the left gastric artery and one from the right renal artery. CONCLUSION: The IPA usually originates from the aorta or celiac artery, and less frequently from the renal, hepatic or left gastric arteries. The IPA is a major source of collateral or parasitized arterial supply to hepatocellular carcinoma, second only to the hepatic artery. Literature on the IPA origin and clinical implications of variation in its origin have been reviewed in this article.CONTEXTO: Considerando a escassez de informações atualmente disponíveis sobre artérias frênicas inferiores, umestudo mais definitivo nos pareceu apropriado e necessário, tanto por suas potenciais aplicações clínicas quanto para fornecer dados adicionais à literatura anatômica contemporânea. OBJETIVO: A maioria dos livros-texto de anatomia oferece muito poucas informações referentes à anatomia e distribuição da artéria frênica inferior (AFI. Por este motivo, a origem da AFI foi investigada e a literatura disponível foi revisada. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois cadáveres humanos adultos

  17. Variações do sistema arterial hepático e sua aplicabilidade na bipartição do fígado: estudo anatômico em cadáveres Hepatic artery system variations correlated to split-liver surgery: anatomic study in cadavers

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    Pedro Luiz BERTEVELLO

    2002-04-01

    .Background - The liver donor shortage and the higher demand on liver transplantation led to advanced liver surgery techniques in order to better utilization of the cadaveric liver donors. That is why the split-liver technique had been applicated in liver transplantation where the liver after been divided into two lobes would be implanted in two recipients. Aims - This paper has the goal of study both the extra-hepatic arterial distribuition and anatomie of the liver with application on the split-liver transplantation separating the liver in right and left hepatic lobe. Patients and Methods - The authors studied 60 livers from fresh cadaver looking at hepatic artery and its main anatomic variations correlating with split-liver surgery. The liver was split into two portions, right and left lobe. Results - The total liver weight was 1536 ± 361,8 g, right hepatic lobe 890,3 ± 230,9 g and left hepatic lobe 649,3 ± 172,6 g. Common hepatic trunk was found in one (1,6% case and came from superior mesenteric artery and in another one (1,6%, both left hepatic artery and left gastric artery came from the abdominal aorta. The right hepatic artery raised from celiac trunk in 44 (73,3% cases, and in 15 (25% from superior mesenteric artery it was acessory in 11 (18,3% cases and dominant in 4 (6,6%. The left hepatic artery was acessory of left gastric artery in 2 (3,3% cases. Hepatic artery trifurcation was found in 9 (15% cases out of this 6 (10% to segment IV, 2 (3,3% to segment III and 1 (1,6% to segment II. Also we found 2 (3,3% medium hepatic artery to segment IV. Conclusion - Hepatic artery variations allowed liver section into right and left hepatic lobe.

  18. Carcinoma hepatocelular: impacto do tempo em lista e das formas de tratamento pré-operatório na sobrevida do transplante de fígado cadavérico na era pré-MELD em um centro no Brasil Hepatocellular carcinoma: impact of waiting list and pre-operative treatment strategies on survival of cadaveric liver transplantation in pre-MELD era in one center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Atualmente, o transplante hepático é a principal opção terapêutica para doentes com cirrose hepática associada a carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de pacientes com e sem carcinoma hepatocelular submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná no período entre 5 de janeiro de 2001 e 17 de fevereiro de 2006. Os pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos - acometidos e não-acometidos de carcinoma hepatocelular - e analisados em relação à sobrevida em 3 meses e em 1 ano. Também foram comparados em relação ao sexo e à idade do doador e do receptor, a causa da cirrose, a classificação de Child-Pugh e o escore do MELD no momento do transplante, o tempo de isquemia morna e isquemia fria, o número de unidades de concentrado de hemácias transfundidas durante o transplante, o tempo de permanência na UTI e o tempo de internação. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 146 casos de transplante hepático: 75 foram excluídos devido a dados incompletos no prontuário e 71 foram incluídos no estudo. A sobrevida geral em 3 meses e 1 ano foi de 77,4% e 74,6%, respectivamente. Os acometidos por carcinoma hepatocelular (n = 12 apresentaram sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de 100%, significantemente maior que os não-acometidos (n = 59; 72,8% e 69,49%, respectivamente. O índice médio do MELD, da classificação de Child-Pugh e o número médio de concentrado de hemácias transfundidas foram significantemente maiores nos pacientes não-acometidos. Também foi observada maior percentagem de pacientes classificados como Child-Pugh B e C e de pacientes com diagnóstico de cirrose por outras causas nos pacientes não acometidos pela neoplasia. Nos doentes com carcinoma hepatocelular foi observada maior percentagem de indivíduos classificados como Child

  19. "… the cadaver can be placed at your disposition here." - Legal, administrative basis of the transfer of cadavers in the Third Reich, its traces in archival sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebig, Michael

    2012-06-01

    For more than 15 years, the memorial site "Roter Ochse (Red Ox)" in Halle/Saale, Germany, has studied documents of special and military courts in Mitteldeutschland (central Germany). Hundreds of death sentences have been executed during the last years of the war in the former state prison of Halle. The resulting dead bodies were used in biomedical research and teaching. The number of executions was marginal before 1933 but increased steadily after the Nazis seized power. The judiciary delivered an increasing number of death sentences against political opponents and persons who were to be eradicated from the "Volksgemeinschaft" (national community) according to racist ideology. However, the dead bodies were not distributed evenly to each of the anatomical institutes. The distribution depended on factors such as the distance of the institute to an execution place, the court responsible for the sentence, and whether the state or relatives had the right to dispose of the bodies. At the beginning of the year 1939, the Reichsjustizministerium (department of justice) issued a decree that changed the distribution process of dead bodies. As a rule, after the responsible ministry informed the anatomical institute of a pending execution, the institute confirmed the pick-up day of the body. Details of the actual delivery of bodies can be found in execution protocols, reports by execution overseers, receipts of body deliveries, body registers of the institutes, etc. This paper will review the historical progression of ministerial decisions and demonstrate how administrative documents can be used as a point of departure for current research projects. PMID:22436607

  20. Brachial Plexus Root Injection in a Human Cadaver Model Injectate Distribution and Effects on the Neuraxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orebaugh, Steven L.; Mukalel, Jessen J.; Krediet, Annalot C.; Weimer, Jonathan; Filip, Patrick; McFadden, Kathryn; Bigeleisen, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The potential for injection into the brachial plexus root at cervical levels must be considered during interscalene block or chronic pain interventions in the neck, but this phenomenon has not been well studied. In this investigation, we performed injections into the brachial plexus root

  1. Facial Nerve in Foetal Cadavers: An Anatomical Study with Clinical Relevance

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    Kotian SR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Facial nerve paralysis is a major complication of parotid surgery and is widely reported. Little attention is paid to the facial nerve trunk in children. The facial nerve trunk in children and infants can be easily injured since they lie close to the surface. The present study therefore intends to describe the variability in the facial nerve trunk and its branching pattern in foetuses. Methods: The study was done bilaterally in 30 formalin-fixed foetuses (15 females, 15 males, age ranging from 21.0 to 35.5 weeks of gestation. The length of the facial nerve trunk was measured and bifurcation and trifurcation of the trunk was examined. Variability in the branching pattern was also noted. Results: The most common facial nerve trunk branching type was bifurcation (53.33%, followed by trifurcation (33.33%. Multiple branching of the facial nerve was also observed in 13.34% of the cases. Other variations related to the facial nerve were also noted. The mean length of the facial nerve trunk was 7.15 ± 2.12 mm. There was no significant difference between the right and left sides and in case of males and female foetuses. Conclusion: Facial nerve injury during parotid surgery is a main cause of paediatric facial paralysis. The length of the facial nerve trunk therefore must be accurately known in any surgical procedure planned in the area. The main furcation of the facial nerve should also receive special attention.

  2. Clinical evaluation of lumbar CT assisted discography in comparison with human cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shigehiko

    1988-04-01

    In order to estimate the clinical value of lumbar CT assisted discography (CTD), results obtained by this method were compared with histological findings of the cross section of the spine in fresh human cadavera. Based on these findings, preoperative CTD of lumbar disc herniation was investigated. In the discs of human cadavera, the contrast medium mainly invaded the fissures of nucleus pulposus and the ruptures of annulus fibrosus and then diffused to the surrounding tissues. These ruptures were classified into two categories: radial and circumferential. This indentification was possible only in CTD and was obscure in the usual discogram. Not all the ruptures could be dyed in a severe degenerative disc, and a rupture which was not communicated with nucleus pulposus was not dyed in a mild degenerative disc. In the preoperative CTD of lumbar disc herniation, the posterior radial ruptures representing the route of herniated nuclei were characteristic and the circumferential ruptures were found complicated.

  3. The effect of burning on the following insect colonization of the cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Klimešová, Vanda

    2014-01-01

    This thesis are focused on forensic entomology and its potential use in the case of thermally altered objects. The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of this scientific discipline and to inform about possiblilities of its use on even burnt remains using field experiment. Forensic entomology is the science discipline, that uses knowledge of the laws of development of insects to solve forensic cases. With the help of this knowledge we can determine individuals time of death - the pos...

  4. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period.

  5. An unusual MR signal reduction artefact in an incompletely thawed cadaver spine specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurmis, Andrew P. [Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Division of Tissue Pathology, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and Hanson Institute, South Australia (Australia); School of Medicine, Flinders University, South Australia (Australia)], E-mail: andrew.kurmis@flinders.edu.au; Slavotinek, John P. [Department of Medical Imaging, Flinders Medical Centre, South Australia (Australia); Barber, Christine; Smith, Lachlan [Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Division of Tissue Pathology, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and Hanson Institute, South Australia (Australia); Fazzalari, Nicola L. [Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Division of Tissue Pathology, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and Hanson Institute, South Australia (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: Within the contemporary constraints associated with in vivo use for research purposes, preservation of macroscopic human tissue specimens is of critical importance. Simple sub-zero freezing remains the method-of-choice for medium-term storage of such material. Despite widespread use, few papers have described the effects of this preservation method on resultant images, or the impact of inadequate tissue thawing. Materials and methods: A series of post-mortem-harvested human lumbar spine specimens were undergoing conventional MR imaging as part of a larger project exploring non-invasive hydration status assessment of the intervertebral disc. Results: A complex central signal reduction artefact was noted during scanning of one specimen, resembling an isotherm distribution. Subtle inadequacies in core specimen thawing lead to an initially confusing pattern of central signal dampening. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the impact of sub-optimal specimen preparation on image signal characteristics and highlight the importance of appropriate thawing methods of frozen tissue specimens prior to imaging.

  6. Variant insertion of extensor carpi radialis longus in a South Indian cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetti R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of muscular variations in the antebrachial region is clinically significant in certain operative procedures like tendon transfer, correction of hand deformities. Extensor carpi radialis accessorius and extensor carpi radialis intermedius were reported variations of extensor region. We present a rare variation of extensor carpi radialis longus, which was inserted into the fibrous flexor sheath of middle, ring, and little fingers on the palmar aspect. The present variation will influence the biomechanics of wrist joint.

  7. Insects feeding on cadavers as an alternative source of human genetic material

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    Rafał Skowronek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In some criminal cases, the use of classical sources of human genetic material is difficult or even impossible. One solution may be the use of insects, especially blowfly larvae which feed on corpses. A recent review of case reports and experimental studies available in biomedical databases has shown that insects can be a valuable source of human mitochondrial and genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, allowing for an effective analysis of hypervariable region (HVR sequences and short tandem repeat (STR profiles, respectively. The optimal source of human DNA is the crop (a part of the gut of active third-instar blowfly larvae. Pupae and insect faeces can be also used in forensic genetic practice instead of the contents of the alimentary tract.

  8. Histopathologic Evaluations of the Lingual Artery in Healthy Tongue of Adult Cadaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Mi Jin; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Byung-Joo; Lee, Jin-Choon; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Jung, Sung Hoon; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To clarify the anatomical distribution of the lingual artery in normal adult subjects through histopathologic evaluations. Methods. Eighteen healthy cadaveric tongues were used to produce 8 paraffin-embedded tissue sections each. Length from midline raphe, depth from dorsum of tongue and the whole transverse length tongue were measured. The lateral distance, depth, and proportion of lateral distance of deep lingual artery were determined from tip to base of tongue gradually. Lateral distance is length from median raphe to the center of deep lingual artery lumen. Depth is vertical distance from dorsal surface of tongue to the center of deep lingual artery. Proportion of lateral distance is obtained by dividing lateral distance with transverse length from median raphe to lateral border of tongue. The degree of symmetry between right and left sides and the difference between selected spots were evaluated. Results. Right and left sides of the lingual artery were symmetric. The lingual artery was lateralized as it run posterior. The lingual artery runs gradually deeper from the surface as it goes near the base of tongue. Both length and depth of the lingual artery gradually increased between 0%–75% of the mobile tongue, but 75%–100% zone of the lingual artery showed no significant difference. There was no anastomosis between right and left side of the lingual arteries. The lingual artery was located within 50% of the transverse length of tongue from median raphe. Conclusion. The present study reveals 3-dimensional information on the anatomical distributions of the lingual artery in normal adult subjects. These findings gives us beneficial information about the handling of the lingual artery during oral and base of tongue-related surgery. PMID:27334510

  9. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: a human cadaver study: part II: navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Dubois; R. Schreurs; J. Jansen; T.J.J. Maal; H. Essig; P.J.J. Gooris; A.G. Becking

    2015-01-01

    Preformed orbital reconstruction plates are useful for treating orbital defects. However, intraoperative errors can lead to misplaced implants and poor outcomes. Navigation-assisted surgery may help optimize orbital reconstruction. We aimed to explore whether navigation-assisted surgery is more pred

  10. Predictability in orbital reconstruction: A human cadaver study. Part II: Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.; Schreurs, R.; Jansen, J; Maal, T.J.J.; Essig, H.; Gooris, P.J.; Becking, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Preformed orbital reconstruction plates are useful for treating orbital defects. However, intraoperative errors can lead to misplaced implants and poor outcomes. Navigation-assisted surgery may help optimize orbital reconstruction. We aimed to explore whether navigation-assisted surgery is more pred

  11. Carpal bone cysts: MRI, gross pathology, and histology correlation in cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Chen, Lina; Haghighi, Parviz; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Intraosseous cysts of carpal bones are frequently observed on routine imaging examinations of the wrist. There is controversy regarding the underlying pathogenesis of these cysts. In this study, we aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of intracarpal bone cysts in correlation with histologic analysis, using cadaveric wrists. METHODS Five freshly frozen cadaveric wrist specimens (from three women and two men; mean age at death, 80 years) were studied. Imaging was performed with T1-weighted fast spin-echo, and proton density-weighted fast spin-echo with and without fat-suppression. The existence of cysts was confirmed by comparing MRI and histology findings. Hematoxylin and eosin stain was performed on tissue slices of 3 mm thickness to analyze the structure of cysts and their communication with the joint cavity. RESULTS Ten cysts were observed. In all cases, cysts were eccentrically located either in the subchondral bone or beneath the cortex. On histologic examination, there were regions of fat necrosis without inflammation or increased vascularity, surrounded by fibrous walls. There were no giant cells, cholesterol granules, or a true synovial lining. Mucoid change was rare. Fibrous component of cysts varied from small fibrous septa to well-formed walls. Some cysts communicated with the joint cavity. Two cysts were adjacent to ligamentous attachments. Those cysts with fibrous tissue demonstrated variable hypointensity on T2. CONCLUSION In contrast to previous reports that described a mucoid composition of intracarpal bone cysts with occasional foamy macrophages, our observations support the concept that these lesions reflect a spectrum of fat necrosis and fibrous changes, without inflammation or hypervascularity. These cysts are typically surrounded by fibrous walls without a true synovial lining. PMID:25205027

  12. Eversion during external rotation of the human cadaver foot produces high ankle sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Post, Joel M; Braman, Jerrod E; Meyer, Eric G; Powell, John W; Haut, Roger C

    2012-09-01

    While high ankle sprains are often clinically ascribed to excessive external foot rotation, no experimental study documents isolated anterior tibiofibular ligament (ATiFL) injury under this loading. We hypothesized that external rotation of a highly everted foot would generate ATiFL injury, in contrast to deltoid ligament injury from external rotation of a neutral foot. Twelve (six pairs) male cadaveric lower extremity limbs underwent external foot rotation until gross failure. All limbs were positioned in 20° of dorsiflexion and restrained with elastic athletic tape. Right limbs were in neutral while left limbs were everted 20°. Talus motion relative to the tibia was measured using motion capture. Rotation at failure for everted limbs (46.8 ± 6.1°) was significantly greater than for neutral limbs (37.7 ± 5.4°). Everted limbs showed ATiFL injury only, while neutral limbs mostly demonstrated deltoid ligament failure. This is the first biomechanical study to produce isolated ATiFL injury under external foot rotation. Eversion of the axially loaded foot predisposes the ATiFL to injury, forming a basis for high ankle sprain. The study helps clarify a mechanism of high ankle sprain and may heighten clinical awareness of isolated ATiFL injury in cases of foot eversion prior to external rotation. It may also provide guidance to investigate the effect of prophylactic measures for this injury. PMID:22328337

  13. Novel metallic implantation technique for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome. A cadaver study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.A. van Bergen; M. Zengerink; L. Blankevoort; M.N. van Sterkenburg; J. van Oldenrijk; C.N. van Dijk

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A metallic inlay implant (HemiCAP) with 15 offset sizes has been developed for the treatment of localized osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome. The aim of this study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) a matching offset size is available for each talus, (2) th

  14. Effect of a biplanar osteotomy on primary stability following high tibial osteotomy: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Dietrich; Lorbach, Olaf; Schmitz, Christian; Busch, Lüder C; Van Giffen, Nicolien; Seil, Romain; Kohn, Dieter M

    2010-02-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of varus gonarthrosis in the active patient. The various implants used in HTO differ with regard to its design, the fixation stability and osteotomy technique. It is assumed that the combination of a plate fixator with a biplanar, v-shaped osteotomy supports bone healing. So far, there are no biomechanical studies that quantify the stabilizing effect of a biplanar versus uniplanar osteotomy. We hypothesized that a significant increase in primary stability of bone-implant constructs is achieved when using a biplanar as opposed to a uniplanar osteotomy. Twenty-four fresh-frozen human tibiae were mounted in a metal cylinder, and open-wedge osteotomy (12 mm wedge size) was performed in a standardized fashion. Proximal and distal tibial segments were marked with tantalum markers of 0.8 mm diameter. Two different plates with locking screws were used for fixation: a short spacer plate (group 1, n = 12) and a plate fixator (group 2, n = 12). In six specimens of each group, a biplanar V-shaped osteotomy with a 110 degrees angulated anterior cut behind the tuberosity parallel to the ventral tibial shaft axis was performed. In the remaining six specimens of each group, a simple uniplanar osteotomy was performed in an oblique fashion. Axial compression of the tibiae was performed using a material testing machine under standardized alignment of the loading axis. Load-controlled cyclical staircase loading tests were performed. The specimens were radiographed simultaneously in two planes together with a biplanar calibration cage in front of a film plane with and without load after each subcycle. Radiostereometry allowed for serial quantification of plastic and elastic micromotion at the osteotomy site reflecting the stability provided by the combination of implant and osteotomy technique. No significant additional stabilizing effect of a biplanar osteotomy in craniocaudal and mediolateral plane was found. However, additional stability was achieved in anteroposterior (AP) and all rotational planes in those specimens fixated with a short spacer plate. In this biomechanical set-up with axial load, the additional stabilizing effect of a biplanar osteotomy did not come into effect in the presence of a long and rigid plate fixator. However, biplanar osteotomy increased the fixation stability significantly in AP and rotational planes when a short spacer plate was used. Clinically, the biplanar osteotomy promotes bone healing regardless of the implant used. Biomechanically, biplanar osteotomy is advantageous for shorter plate designs to increase primary stability of the bone-implant construct.

  15. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41% had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5% and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%. In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  16. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse; Primera donacion de piel humana obtenida de cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  17. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the LockDown synthetic implant: a study with cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranu, R; Rushton, P R P; Serrano-Pedraza, I; Holder, L; Wallace, W A; Candal-Couto, J J

    2015-12-01

    Dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint is a relatively common injury and a number of surgical interventions have been described for its treatment. Recently, a synthetic ligament device has become available and been successfully used, however, like other non-native solutions, a compromise must be reached when choosing non-anatomical locations for their placement. This cadaveric study aimed to assess the effect of different clavicular anchorage points for the Lockdown device on the reduction of acromioclavicular joint dislocations, and suggest an optimal location. We also assessed whether further stability is provided using a coracoacromial ligament transfer (a modified Neviaser technique). The acromioclavicular joint was exposed on seven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders. The joint was reconstructed using the Lockdown implant using four different clavicular anchorage points and reduction was measured. The coracoacromial ligament was then transferred to the lateral end of the clavicle, and the joint re-assessed. If the Lockdown ligament was secured at the level of the conoid tubercle, the acromioclavicular joint could be reduced anatomically in all cases. If placed medial or 2 cm lateral, the joint was irreducible. If the Lockdown was placed 1 cm lateral to the conoid tubercle, the joint could be reduced with difficulty in four cases. Correct placement of the Lockdown device is crucial to allow anatomical joint reduction. Even when the Lockdown was placed over the conoid tubercle, anterior clavicle displacement remained but this could be controlled using a coracoacromial ligament transfer. PMID:26637681

  18. Morphological variations of the lungs: a study conducted on Indian cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    Bincy M George; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Marpalli, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of anatomical variations in lungs is essential during segmental or lobar resections of lungs. We studied the variations of fissures, lobes and hilar structures in 65 right and 73 left isolated lungs from the dissection hall. Horizontal fissure was absent in 3.07% and incomplete in 35.38% of right lungs. Four point six one percentage of right lungs had 3 fissures and 4 lobes. Three point zero seven percentage of right lungs had 3 arteries, 67.69% had 2 arteries, and 29.23% had only o...

  19. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  20. Morphology of the human internal vertebral venous plexus : a cadaver study after intravenous Araldite CY 221 injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Groenewegen, H J; van Alphen, H A; Hoogland, P V

    1997-01-01

    Reviewing the literature on the vascular anatomy of the spinal epidural space, it appeared that the knowledge of the internal vertebral venous plexus is limited. Injection studies of the entire internal vertebral venous plexus after application of modern techniques, to the best of our knowledge, hav

  1. Influence of donor-recipient HLA-DR mismatches and OKT3 prophylaxis on cadaver kidney graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereerstraeten, P; Dupont, E; Andrien, M; De Pauw, L; Abramowicz, D; Goldman, M; Kinnaert, P

    1995-08-15

    Previous studies from our center have shown that donor-recipient HLA-DR mismatches (MM), characterized by the presence of the DR antigen in the donor but not in the recipient or vice versa, are associated with differential effects on graft survival (GS): some of them are beneficial (BEN) with results similar to those of HLA-DR identical or compatible pairs (85% 18 months GS) and some are detrimental (DET) (64% 18 months GS), whereas the other MM, neither BEN nor DET (neutral [NEU]) yield intermediate results (78% 18 months GS). The aim of the present study was to update the results at a longer follow-up time and to assess whether they are influenced or not by prophylactic administration of anti-CD3 mAb (OKT3). The analysis of 234 transplantations performed from 1980 to 1994 with only 1 HLA-DR MM confirmed the BEN effects of HLA-DR5 in either the donor or the recipient and the DET effects of HLA-DR1 or -DR2 in the donor and of HLA-DR2 or -DRW6 in the recipient. These effects were independent of those exerted by other, HLA-DR not related, prognostic factors. The transplants with 1 HLA-DR MM were then compared with those with zero HLA-DR MM (n = 378) and 4 groups were formed according to 2 levels of HLA-DR MM (zero or BEN MM vs. NEU or DET MM) and immunosuppression (with vs. without OKT3 prophylaxis). GS at 5 years was 63% in the group with either zero or BEN MM as compared with 41% in the group with either NEU or DET MM in the absence of OKT3 prophylaxis (P < 0.02); in comparison, with OKT3 prophylaxis, GS at 5 years was 73% in the group with either zero or BEN MM as compared with 58% in the group with either NEU or DET MM (P = 0.07). We conclude that the differential effects of HLA-DR MM on GS are still observed under OKT3 prophylaxis, that the effects of HLA-DR and immunosuppression on graft outcome are additive, and that OKT3 induction therapy is superior to therapy without OKT3. These observations could have important implications for the allocation policy and management of renal transplants. PMID:7645038

  2. [Realization of an adaptive method of simulating the process of temperature change of a cadaver on a microcomputer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shved, E F; Novikov, P I; Vlasov, A Iu

    1989-01-01

    Programme based on mathematical model of the process of dead body temperature changing was developed for estimation of postmortem interval. Automatic retrieval of problem solution was performed on programmable microcalculators of "Electronica MK-61" type using adaptive approach. Diagnostical accuracy in case of dead body being preserved in permanent cooling conditions is +/- 3%.

  3. "Lupara Bianca" a way to hide cadavers after Mafia homicides. A cemetery of Italian Mafia. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Gianpaolo, Di Peri; Monica, Salerno; Maglietta, Francesca; Sessa, Francesco; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    The Gargano, also known as the 'Spur of Italy', is a sub-region of Italy which is located in North of Puglia, in the Province of Foggia. A ravine located in this area was used as a dumping ground in past. During a clearing operation, a team of speleologists discovered human skeletal remains, which led to an official investigation by the local prosecutor's office. The prosecutor called a team of forensic specialist for a scene investigation to recover and identify the human skeletal remains. Four different human skeletal remains located at four different levels of depth underground were found and were in different conditions. A complete forensic investigation was initiated and comprised of radiological imaging with DNA profiling. Three of the four human skeletal remains that were found were identified as those belonging to men who vanished mysteriously in the nineties. The studies conducted have demonstrated that the victims found were murdered and the murders were attributed to the "Mafia of Gargano". The Mafia of Gargano was officially recognized as a criminal organization dating back to 2009 and their criminal activities included the smuggling of firearms and cigarettes, human trafficking, and smuggling of undocumented immigrants. Murders in which corpses are made to disappear is common practice in criminal activities including that of the Italian Mafia. The "Lupara Bianca" is a colloquial term commonly used in Sicily to refer to concealed murders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study describing the discovery of one of the locations used extensively by the local Mafia as a "cemetery" for victims of "Lupara Bianca" homicides. Based on evidences collected at the site, an explanation of this homicidal modality will be provided. PMID:25579982

  4. Tissues from equine cadaver ligaments up to 72 hours of post-mortem: a promising reservoir of stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir; Gabriel, Annick; Piret, Joëlle; Waroux, Olivier; Tonus, Céline; Connan, Delphine; Antoine, Nadine; Baise, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) harvested from cadaveric tissues represent a promising approach for regenerative medicine. To date, no study has investigated whether viable MSCs could survive in cadaveric tissues from tendon or ligament up to 72 hours of post-mortem. The purpose of the present work was to find out if viable MSCs could survive in cadaveric tissues from adult equine ligaments up to 72 hours of post-mortem, and to assess their ability (i) to remain in an undifferentiate...

  5. High origin of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament: MR arthrography with anatomic and histologic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Ruiz, Francisco Alejandro [University of California and VA healthcare system, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California and VA healthcare system, San Diego, CA (United States); Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe, Departamento de Radiologia, Medellin (Colombia); Baranski Kaniak, Beatriz Cristina; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald L. [University of California and VA healthcare system, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [University of California and VA healthcare system, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California San Diego, VA Healthcare System Dan Diego, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament has been described to arise from the anteroinferior labrum, but we have observed that in some persons its origin is from the anterior or anterosuperior labrum, creating diagnostic difficulties. Ten fresh unembalmed cadaveric shoulders underwent magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) using a posterior approach with a 1.5 T GE magnet, with the following sequences: T1-weighted fast spin-echo in axial, coronal and sagittal planes, and T1 fat-suppressed spin-echo in the axial plane (TR/TE 600/20, section thickness 2.5 mm, 0.5 mm interslice space, number of signals acquired, two, field of view 12 x 12 cm, and matrix 512 x 256 pixels). Following imaging, the shoulders were frozen and later sectioned using a band saw into 3-mm sections corresponding to the axial imaging plane. Histological analysis was also performed to determine the origin of the anterior band. Four of the ten shoulders had an origin of the anterior band above or at the 3 o'clock position: one at the 1 o'clock position, two at the 2 o'clock position, and one at the 3 o'clock position. In another shoulder, the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament originated from the middle glenohumeral ligament, and in five other shoulders, the anterior band originated from the anteroinferior labrum as has been described in the literature. This finding is of clinical significance as a high origin of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament leads to MR arthrographic finding that can simulate those of labral tears or detachments. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of the AT and the CCD angle of macerated cadaver femora: a comparative study between CT and MRI measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare measurements of the real AT (femoral antetorsion) and CCD (caput-scollum-diaphysis) angle by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hip specimen using direct measurements as reference standard, and to show that measurements by MRI can replace CT measurements and ma help avoiding X-ray exposition. Materials and methods: CT and MRI measurements were obtained on 25 in water-arrested macerated human femora. Postprocessing was done by 4 independent readers on a workstation using a dedicated 3D-software. Direct measurements of the real AT and the CCD angle were used as reference standard. The analysis included Student's test for paired values, interobserver variability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), maximum and middle divergence of the angles, and Bland-Altman plots. Results: For determining AT and the CCD angle with CT and MRI, good correlation was found between the 4 readers and with measurements using the reference standard. ICCs were 0.97 and 0.90 for measuring AT and CCD angle with CT, and 0.95 and 0.71 for measurements with MRI, respectively. Mean divergence between CT measurements and those of the reference standard was 0.8 for AT and 0.7 for the CDD-angle. Mean divergence between MRI measurements and those of the reference standard was 0.3 for AT and -0.4 for the CCD-angle. Mean divergences between CT and MRI measurements of AT and CCD-angle were 0.5 . Neither systematic errors nor dependences on the qualitative size of the reference data were evident in the divergences of measurements. (orig.)

  7. Age and gender as determinants of the bone quality of the greater tuberosity: A HR-pQCT cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchhoff Chlodwig

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-dependent trabecular changes of the humeral head might weaken the fixation of suture anchors used for rotator cuff (RC repair. This might lead to suture anchor loosening and thus compromise the integrity of the repair. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the trabecular microstructure within the RC footprint is influenced by age, gender or handedness. Methods Axial HR-pQCT scans (Scanco Medical of 64 freshly frozen cadaveric human humeral head specimens (age 72.3 ± 17.4 years were analyzed to determine the bone volume-to-total volume ratio (BV/TV, trabecular thickness (Trab Th, trabecular number (Trab N and connectivity density (Conn Dens. Within the RC footprint, 2 volumes of interest (VOI, posteromedial (PM and anterolateral (AL and one control VOI in the subarticular bone (SC were set. Results The highest BV/TV was found in SC: 0.22 ± 0.06% vs. PM: 0.04 ± 0.05% vs. AL: 0.02 ± 0.04%; p  Conclusions The presented microarchitectural data allow for future subtle biomechanical testing comprising knowledge on age- and sex-related changes of the tuberosities of the humeral head. Furthermore, the insights on the trabecular structure of the humeral head of the elderly may lead to the development of new fixation materials in bone with inferior bone quality.

  8. Co-presentation of unilateral femoral and bilateral sciatic nerve variants in one cadaver: A case report with clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battaglia Patrick J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present a group of anatomical findings that may have clinical significance. Design This study is an anatomical case report of combined lumbo-pelvic peripheral nerve and muscular variants. Setting University anatomy laboratory. Participants One cadaveric specimen. Methods During routine cadaveric dissection for a graduate teaching program, unilateral femoral and bilateral sciatic nerve variants were observed in relation to the iliacus and piriformis muscle, respectively. Further dissection of both the femoral nerve and accessory slip of iliacus muscle was performed to fully expose their anatomy. Results Piercing of the femoral nerve by an accessory iliacus muscle combined with wide variations in sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle presentations may have clinical significance. Conclusions Combined femoral and sciatic nerve variants should be considered when treatment for a lumbar disc herniation is refractory to care despite positive orthopedic testing.

  9. Use of Bratwurst Sausage as a Model Cadaver in Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences Lab Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, David

    2015-01-01

    The general physics course that is taught in most departments as a service course for pre-med or pre-health students is undergoing a large shift in course content to better appeal to this group of learners. This revision also extends to the laboratory component, where more emphasis is being placed on teaching physics through biological examples.…

  10. Asymmetric varus and valgus stability of the anatomic cadaver knee and the load sharing between collateral ligaments and bearing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Malik, Aamer; Bartel, Donald L; Wickiewicz, Thomas L; Wright, Timothy

    2014-08-01

    Knee joint stability is important in maintaining normal joint motion during activities of daily living. Joint instability not only disrupts normal motion but also plays a crucial role in the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. Our goal was to examine knee joint coronal plane stability under varus or valgus loading and to understand the relative contributions of the mechanisms that act to stabilize the knee in response to varus-valgus moments, namely, load distribution between the medial and lateral condyles and the ligaments. A robot testing system was used to determine joint stability in human cadaveric knees as described by the moment versus angular rotation behavior under varus and valgus loads at extension and at 30 deg and 90 deg of flexion. The anatomic knee joint was more stable in response to valgus than varus moments, and stability decreased with flexion angle. The primary mechanism for providing varus-valgus stability was the redistribution of the contact force on the articular surfaces from both condyles to a single condyle. Stretching of the collateral ligaments provided a secondary stabilizing mechanism after the lift-off of a condyle occurred. Compressive loads applied across the knee joint, such as would occur with the application of muscle forces, enhanced the ability of the articular surface to provide varus-valgus moment, and thus, helped stabilize the joint in the coronal plane. Coupled internal/external rotations and anteroposterior and medial-lateral translations were variable and in the case of the rotations were often as large as the varus-valgus rotations created by the applied moment.

  11. The MAVID heart holder: a demonstration device to anchor cadaver hearts for surgical simulation and practical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Idriss, Rachid; Klaus, Kristen E

    2015-12-01

    Performing open heart surgery involves learning challenging techniques and a need for realistic training models to achieve and maintain a high level of surgical skills. The MAVID heart holder is an organ holder primarily designed to hold the heart in its anatomic position for the purpose of surgical simulation and education, thereby closing the gap between surgical performance in the laboratory and in the operating room. The device is simple to use, can be adjusted to organ size, and has the necessary instrumentation to be used with any solid organ. The MAVID heart holder also provides a platform for presentation and assists in advancing the research sphere. The advantage over other existing models is that the MAVID heart holder uses real tissue and does not distort the organ at the attachment sites. Further, it offers superior stability as well as the ability to manipulate the organ during presentation and dissection. Training with the MAVID heart holder has the potential to shorten training time to acquire surgical skills and proficiency before performing these techniques in the operating room and in so doing enhance patient safety.

  12. C-arm flat-panel CT arthrography of the wrist and elbow: first experiences in human cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggenberger, Roman; Morsbach, Fabian; Alkadhi, Hatem; Pfammatter, Thomas; Hodler, Juerg; Andreisek, Gustav [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Vich, Magdalena [University Zurich, Institute of Anatomy, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    To determine the optimal intra-articular iodine concentration for C-arm flat-panel computed tomography (FPCT) arthrography using advanced joint phantoms and to evaluate its application in human cadaveric wrists and elbows. Multi-detector (MD) CT served as the standard of reference. Joint phantoms and 10 human cadaveric wrist and elbow joints were scanned with C-arm FPCT (5-s, 8-s, and 20-s runs) and standard MDCT using different and optimal concentrations of iodinated contrast material. CT numbers of contrast material, tissue, and noise were measured and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) calculated for quantitative analysis. Image and depiction of cartilage, bone, and soft tissues were rated. Radiation doses were compared. In FPCT, iodine concentrations positively correlated with CT numbers and noise of contrast material and with radiation dose (r = 0.713-0.996, p < 0.05 each). At an iodine concentration of 45 mg/ml, CNR of cartilage and soft tissues were highest for all FPCT acquisitions and higher than in MDCT. The 20-s FPCT run performed best for image quality and depiction of anatomical structures and was rated overall equal to MDCT (p = 0.857). The optimal iodine concentration for C-arm FPCT arthrography in this study is 45 mg/ml, leading to superior CNR and image quality for an optimal FPCT protocol compared with standard MDCT arthrography in human cadaveric joints. (orig.)

  13. [Divine cadavers: gender, medical discourse, and anatomical collections in the legend of Pedro González de Velasco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo, Alba

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the public image of Pedro Gonzólez de Velasco (1815-1882), famous for his anatomical collections and his Anthropological Museum, founded in 1875 in Madrid, and the popular legend related to the death, embalming and exhumation of his daughter Concepción. The doctor who is committed to the nation becomes a mad scientist, and his official biography is transformed into an urban legend. Beyond the merely anecdotal, I show how the aesthetics associated with female corpses and artificial women organize cultural imaginaries, bringing together medical discourses and literary and artistic representations. PMID:27363245

  14. The MAVID heart holder: a demonstration device to anchor cadaver hearts for surgical simulation and practical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Idriss, Rachid; Klaus, Kristen E

    2015-12-01

    Performing open heart surgery involves learning challenging techniques and a need for realistic training models to achieve and maintain a high level of surgical skills. The MAVID heart holder is an organ holder primarily designed to hold the heart in its anatomic position for the purpose of surgical simulation and education, thereby closing the gap between surgical performance in the laboratory and in the operating room. The device is simple to use, can be adjusted to organ size, and has the necessary instrumentation to be used with any solid organ. The MAVID heart holder also provides a platform for presentation and assists in advancing the research sphere. The advantage over other existing models is that the MAVID heart holder uses real tissue and does not distort the organ at the attachment sites. Further, it offers superior stability as well as the ability to manipulate the organ during presentation and dissection. Training with the MAVID heart holder has the potential to shorten training time to acquire surgical skills and proficiency before performing these techniques in the operating room and in so doing enhance patient safety. PMID:26675615

  15. The long-term effects of prophylactic OKT3 monoclonal antibody in cadaver kidney transplantation--a single-center, prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, D; Goldman, M; De Pauw, L; Vanherweghem, J L; Kinnaert, P; Vereerstraeten, P

    1992-09-01

    We conducted a randomized, prospective study to determine the long-term effects of prophylactic OKT3 in cadaveric renal transplantation. In the first group of patients (n = 56) OKT3 (5 mg/day) was administered for the first 14 postoperative days in association with azathioprine (AZA) and low-dose steroids, cyclosporine (CsA) being introduced on day 11. The other group of patients (n = 52) received CsA from the first POD, together with AZA and steroids. Both protocols were identical from POD 14 on. The total number of infections was higher in OKT3 patients (124/1455 patient-months [P-M] vs. 68/1320 in CsA patients, P less than 0.001) without impact on patient survival (94.5% in OKT3 vs. 93% in CsA patients). OKT3 patients experienced a lower number of rejection episodes (61 per 1455 P-M of risk exposure vs. 81/1320 in CsA patients, P less than 0.05). In addition, the frequency of corticoresistant rejection episodes was lower in OKT3 patients (9 out of 61 vs. 24 out of 81 in CsA patients, P less than 0.05). This resulted in a trend toward improved overall graft survival (83% vs. 75%, P = 0.12) and in a significant increase in immunological graft survival (92% vs. 79%, P = 0.02) in OKT3 patients at 3 years. Taken together, these data suggest that prophylactic OKT3 therapy might have long-term beneficial effects in cadaveric renal transplantation. PMID:1412723

  16. Just Say No to NOTA: Why the Prohibition of Compensation for Human Transplant Organs in NOTA Should Be Repealed and a Regulated Market for Cadaver Organs Instituted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristy Lynn; Finley, Marisa; Rohack, J James

    2014-01-01

    The United States faces a shortage of organs for transplantation; thousands of individuals die each year while waiting for organs. The organ donation system relies on altruism because the National Organ Transplantation Act (NOTA) prohibits donors from receiving valuable consideration for organs to be used for transplantation. This paper contains a proposal for a regulated market for cadaveric organs as a mechanism to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. A regulated market for cadaveric organs is appropriate in the United States for the following reasons: (1) it is consistent with the numerous ways in which bodies. are currently treated as commodities; (2) it is unlikely to further disadvantage the poor; (3) it would not expose organ recipients to undue harm; (4) in the current organ transplantation system, everyone except the organ donor, benefits financially; (5) the prohibition in NOTA is inconsistent with laws permitting next of kin to recover for damage to the body of a deceased family member; (6) the protection of the dignitary interests of organs for donation is inconsistent with the current protections of the dignitary interests of human specimens; and (7) permitting a market for organs promotes the American values of autonomy and liberty.

  17. Cadaver study of the topography of the musculotendinous junction of the finger extensor muscles: applicability to tendon rupture following closed wrist trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, D; Tatu, L; Loisel, F; Vuillier, F; Parratte, B

    2015-09-01

    Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon in the wrist is a delayed complication that can occur after wrist injury. Several etiology-related hypotheses have been made to explain these ruptures. The one most commonly accepted is necrosis at the musculotendinous junction of the EPL, which is compressed between the extensor retinaculum and dorsal aspect of the radius. To confirm this hypothesis, we performed an anatomical study to show the close relationship between the extensor retinaculum and the musculotendinous junction of the EPL muscle. We calculated the distance between the musculotendinous junction of the various finger extensor muscles and the proximal edge of the extensor retinaculum. We were able to show that this junction is located under the extensor retinaculum for the extensor indicis (EI) and EPL muscles, but the latter is in the third extensor compartment, which is a tight, confined space. Any pressure increase in this space following trauma, for example, can bring about compartment syndrome at this musculotendinous junction, which some authors have found to be poorly vascularized. PMID:25577541

  18. Development of a computational framework to adjust the pre-impact spine posture of a whole-body model based on cadaver tests data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Donlon, John-Paul; Kent, Richard W

    2015-02-26

    A method was developed to adjust the posture of a human numerical model to match the pre-impact posture of a human subject. The method involves pulling cables to prescribe the position and orientation of the head, spine and pelvis during a simulation. Six postured models matching the pre-impact posture measured on subjects tested in previous studies were created from a human numerical model. Posture scalars were measured on pre- and after applying the method to evaluate its efficiency. The lateral leaning angle θL defined between T1 and the pelvis in the coronal plane was found to be significantly improved after application with an average difference of 0.1±0.1° with the PMHS (4.6±2.7° before application). This method will be applied in further studies to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact posture on impact response using human numerical models.

  19. Understanding how pre-impact posture can affect injury outcome in side impact sled tests using a new tool for visualization of cadaver kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlon, John Paul; Poulard, David; Lessley, David; Riley, Patrick; Subit, Damien

    2015-02-01

    The effect of posture and subject-specific factors on injury outcome is an active field of research in injury biomechanics, in particular in automotive safety research where post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) are used as surrogates. Current PMHS tests routinely include acquisition of the subjects׳ geometry and kinematics. However, combining these two datasets to better understand the injury mechanism is still a challenge. This study investigated the connection between pre-impact posture and resulting injuries in six previously published side impact sled tests (three with a rigid wall and three with an airbag) by creating three-dimensional kinematic animations (3DKA) of the tests. The 3DKA allow qualitative assessment of parameters related to posture and their possible effect on injury outcome. The orientation of the struck scapula and the lateral leaning of the torso were identified as potentially significant parameters. The ranges of variation in these parameters were quantified and compared to the number of rib fractures for each subject: the data suggested a correlation, but there was insufficient data for a probabilistic analysis. The 3DKA were published with this study and are freely available.

  20. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser–assisted access osteotomy for maxillary sinus elevation: a human and animal cadaver study

    OpenAIRE

    Stübinger, S; Nuss, Katja M; Sebesteny, T; Saldamli, B; Sader, R; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usability of a variable square pulse (VSP) erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser for a lateral access osteotomy to the maxillary sinus in the course of a sinus elevation procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In six formalin-fixed human heads and six fresh sheep heads, a VSP Er:YAG laser was used to perform a bilateral maxillary access osteotomy. For the osteotomies, the Er:YAG laser was applied with a pulse energy of 1000 mJ, a pulse duration of 300 mu...

  1. Can osseous landmarks in the distal medial humerus be used to identify the attachment sites of ligaments and tendons: paleopathologic-anatomic imaging study in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Uniklinik Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Zoner, Cristiane S.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Randall, Tori D. [San Diego Museum of Man, Physical Anthropology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To describe osseous landmarks that allow identification of the attachments of the ligaments and tendons in the distal medial aspect of the humerus. Reliable osseous landmarks in the distal medial aspect of the humerus were identified in 34 well-preserved specimens from a paleopathologic collection. These osseous landmarks were then sought in magnetic resonance (MR) images of ten cadaveric elbow specimens so that the ease of their visualization and optimal imaging plane could be assessed. To assign these osseous landmarks to specific attachments of the tendons and ligaments in the distal medial humerus, we cut the specimens in slices and photographed and examined them. Subsequently, the prevalence of these osseous landmarks as well as the attachment sites of the tendons and ligaments in this location was determined. We determined ten reliable osseous landmarks in the distal medial aspect of the humerus, their prevalence and ease of identification, and their relationship to the attachments of the tendons and ligaments at the medial distal humerus. It is possible to use osseous landmarks at the distal medial humerus to facilitate identification of the different attachments of tendons and ligaments when MR images of the elbow are assessed. (orig.)

  2. Ultrasonographic evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint: Correlation of findings with gross anatomy and MR arthrography in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M., E-mail: florian.buck@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Nico, Marcelo A.C., E-mail: nico.marcelo@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Gheno, Ramon, E-mail: ramon.gheno@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Trudell, Debra J., E-mail: debtrudell@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Resnick, Donald, E-mail: dresnick@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in the evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Methods and materials: Ten cadaveric specimens were obtained. US evaluation of cartilage degeneration and thickness was performed by two independent and blinded readers (R1 and R2). Gross anatomy and MR arthrography evaluated by two readers in consensus served as the reference standard. The joint surface not accessible to US was measured. Results: US interreader agreement was non-existent for cartilage thickness measurements and moderate for cartilage degeneration grading (weighted kappa = 0.41). Comparing US and MR imaging evaluation, there was no correlation between US R1 and MR imaging (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.352) and a moderate correlation between US R2 and MR imaging (PCC = 0.570) concerning cartilage thickness measurements. Concerning cartilage degeneration grading, there was a moderate to strong (R1 Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC] = 0.729)/R2 SCC = 0.767) correlation concerning cartilage degeneration grading. Comparing US and gross anatomic evaluation, there was no correlation for US R1 (PCC = 0.220) and a strong correlation for US R2 (PCC = 0.922) concerning cartilage thickness measurements, and a strong to moderate correlation (R1 SCC = 0.808/R2 SCC = 0.597) concerning cartilage degeneration grading. The mean sector of the articular surface of the ulna head not accessible to US was 13{sup o}. Conclusion: In conclusion the DRUJ is accessible to US except in the central 13{sup o} sector of the joint surface. US was approved to be sufficient in demonstrating advanced stages of cartilage degeneration. Thus, US of the DRUJ is recommended in patients suffering from ulnar-sided wrist pain.

  3. Implant augmentation: adding bone cement to improve the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures: a biomechanical study using human cadaver bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wähnert, Dirk; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Richards, R Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Raschke, Michael J; Windolf, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The increasing problems in the field of osteoporotic fracture fixation results in specialized implants as well as new operation methods, for example, implant augmentation with bone cement. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical impact of augmentation in the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures.Seven pairs of osteoporotic fresh frozen distal femora were randomly assigned to either an augmented or nonaugmented group. In both groups, an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 33 A3 fractures was fixed using the locking compression plate distal femur and cannulated and perforated screws. In the augmented group, additionally, 1 mL of polymethylmethacrylate cement was injected through the screw. Prior to mechanical testing, bone mineral density (BMD) and local bone strength were determined. Mechanical testing was performed by cyclic axial loading (100 N to 750 N + 0.05N/cycle) using a servo-hydraulic testing machine.As a result, the BMD as well as the axial stiffness did not significantly differ between the groups. The number of cycles to failure was significantly higher in the augmented group with the BMD as a significant covariate.In conclusion, cement augmentation can significantly improve implant anchorage in plating of osteoporotic distal femur fractures. PMID:25415673

  4. Biomechanical analysis of the percutaneous compression plate and sliding hip screw in intracapsular hip fractures: experimental assessment using synthetic and cadaver bones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, E.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Vugt, A.B. van; Kampen, A. van

    2006-01-01

    We compared the mechanical behaviour of osteosynthesis with the percutaneous compression plate (PCCP) compared with the standard osteosynthesis sliding hip screw (SHS) in intracapsular hip fractures. We created 10 stable and 10 unstable intracapsular hip fractures in 20 synthetic femurs. Each fractu

  5. Insectos asociados a fenómenos de descomposición cadavérica en cerdo blanco ( Sus scrofa en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ospina Fonseca María Fernanda

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objeto iniciar la investigación de los insectos asociados a fenómenos dedescomposición en una zona alta, específicamente en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundina-marca. Para lograrlo se usó como biomodelo cerdo blanco (Sus scrofa por su similitud conlos humanos, éste se sacrificó y se dejó al aire libre durante ocho meses. El proceso de des-composición se dividió en cinco fases: fresco (2 días, hinchado (13 días, descomposiciónactiva (15 días, descomposición avanzada (31 días y restos secos (160 días. Durante esteperiodo se recogieron 3.539 individuos, el 86.69% pertenecientes a Diptera y el 8.36% aColeoptera. Las familias más numerosas de Diptera fueron Muscidae (62.08% y Calliphoridae(14.44%, mientras que en Coleoptera fueron Silphidae (68.58% y Staphylinidae (14.86%.Se pudo observar la participación de los géneros Calliphora, Paralucilia y Chloroprocta, estosgéneros no aparecen en zonas bajas y podrían ser propios de zonas altas. No se presentarongrupos exclusivos para cada fase del proceso, aunque la presencia y abundancia de Diptera fuemayor al inicio de la descomposición, mientras que Coleoptera (exceptuando Silphidae fuemás abundante y activo al final del proceso. La lluvia ocasionó una "regresión" en la sucesiónde insectos. El presente trabajo no constituye una herramienta de carácter legal pero es elprimer trabajo sobre entomología forense realizado en la Sabana de Bogotá y es base paratrabajos posteriores en la zona.

  6. The Translucent Cadaver: An Evaluation of the Use of Full Body Digital X-Ray Images and Drawings in Surface Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Sanet Henriet; Mole, Calvin Gerald; Greyling, Linda Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    It has been noted by staff at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University that medical students neglect the study of surface anatomy during dissection. This study reports on the novel use of Lodox[R] Statscan[R] images in anatomical education, particularly the teaching of surface anatomy. Full body digital X-ray images (Lodox Statscan)…

  7. The significance of sutura zygomaticosphenoidalis in malar bone fracture reduction:cadaver study%颧蝶缝在颧骨骨折复位中的作用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓清; 李文刚; 马建军; 王艳冉; 徐晓楠; 李磊

    2010-01-01

    目的:评价颧蝶缝在颧骨骨折复位中的意义,寻找颧蝶缝的暴露方法.方法:以尸头为研究对象,人为造成颧骨骨折后,先后采用常规复位方法及以颧蝶缝为复位标准方法进行复位同定,比较复位效果.分别采用口内及口外2种方法暴露颧蝶缝.结果:暴露颧蝶缝并直视下复位颧蝶缝再复位其他可见骨折线,能使颧骨骨折达到解剖复位,口内法仅能触摸到不能直视该缝,口外法可直视该缝全部.结论:颧蝶缝可作为颧骨复位的可靠标准,口外法为暴露颧蝶缝的可靠方法.

  8. 肾移植术后存活影响因素分析%Cadaver renal transplantation and multivariate analysis for graft survival: a clinical review of 2 016 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐隽; 闵志廉; 朱有华; 刘玉杉; 陆健; 王立明; 王亚伟; 任吉忠; 郑军华; 徐丹枫; 周梅生; 姚亚成; 高轶

    2002-01-01

    Objective To review kidney transplantation in the center and analyze the risk factors affecting long-term allograft survival.Methods Thirty-two relative variables were analyzed with SAS statistical software. Using Log-rank method, we investigated influence of these variables on short-and long-term survival of grafts. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-years graft survival rates and half-life. Proportional hazards regression analysis (Cox model) was used to assess and rank the relative risk of potential variables.Results The 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-years graft survival rates were 83%, 75%, 66% and 48%. After excluding the patients died with functioning grafts, the 1-,3-,5-,10 years grafts survival rate increased to 89%, 82%, 75% and 69%, respectively. The mean half-life was 8.78±0.14 and 14.09±0.20 years, respectively. By Log-rank analysis, factors affecting short- and long-term graft survival were identified as: renal function, duration of graft function became normal, cold-ischemia time, presence of acute rejection, delayed graft function, immunosuppressive regimen, complication, infection, anti-rejection therapy. Cox model multivariate analysis showed that there were 18 factors affecting graft survival.Conclusions New immunosuppressive agents not only significantly increase short-term graft survival, but also have the better long-term outcome tendency. Making assurance to get high quality donor organ and minimizing the death with graft function may be the most feasible way to prolong graft survival at present.%目的分析影响肾移植存活的因素,以提高肾移植术后长期存活率. 方法采用SAS软件,统计2 016例(2 105次)肾移植受者群体中的33个相关变量.用Kaplan-Meier曲线计算1、3、5、10年移植肾存活率及移植肾半生存期,用Log-rank方法进行单变量分析,采用COX模型多元回归计算相对危险度. 结果移植肾1、3、5、10年存活率分别为83%(1 543/1 859)、75%(1 125/1 500)、66%(800/1 212)、48%(291/607),剔除有移植肾功能死亡的病例后,存活率则为89%(1 655/1 859)、82%(1 230/1 500)、75%(909/1 212)、69%(419/607),两者的移植肾半生存期分别为(8.78±0.14)年和(14.09±0.20)年.与肾移植长期存活关系密切的单变量有:供肾缺血时间,移植次数,免疫抑制药(ISA)种类和组合,排斥,移植肾功能恢复正常时间及术后肌酐水平,急性肾小管坏死(ATN),移植肾功能延迟恢复(DGF),急性排斥的治疗方法,感染并发症等因素. 结论免疫抑制剂的改进提高了肾移植短期存活率,也显示出长期存活的趋势.提高供肾质量,降低带有移植肾功能的患者的死亡率是现阶段提高移植肾长期存活率的一个最有可能实现的途径.

  9. Yüz ve Boynun Önemli Vasküler Anomalileri-Klinik Önemleriyle Birlikte Bir Kadavra Çalışması

    OpenAIRE

    Vollala, Venkata Ramana; BOLLA, Sreenivasa Rao; PAMİDİ, Narendra

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out vascular variations in the face and neck region. Materials and Methods: 75 cadavers of both sexes have been used in the current study. Head and neck dissections of these cadavers were done in the department of anatomy, Kasturba Medical College and Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal. Results: Out of 75 cadavers, we observed five variations in four different cadavers, the findings include; facial vein continuing as external jugular ...

  10. An Ethical Solution to the Challenges in Teaching Anatomy with Dissection in the Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luqing; Wang, Yunfeng; Xiao, Ming; Han, Qunying; Ding, Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Universities and medical schools in China are faced with an ongoing shortage of cadavers for education and research because of insufficient numbers of cadaver donations. This article will examine the main obstacles to cadaver donation in the Chinese culture. These include superstitious traditional views about the body, a lack of legislation…

  11. Fatal attraction: Male spider mites prefer females killed by the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandem, Nina; Bhattarai, Upendra Raj; Westrum, Karin; Knudsen, Geir Kjølberg; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2015-06-01

    Exploring prospective mates can be risky. Males of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae approach and guard immobile (quiescent) female nymphs to increase their chances of fathering offspring, this being a first-male sperm priority species. We investigated the behaviour of male T. urticae towards females killed by the mite pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana, letting them choose between a fungal killed and a healthy quiescent female. The dead female (called cadaver) was in one of three stages: (1) non-sporulating; (2) sporulating with primary conidia (non-infective); (3) surrounded/partly covered by secondary capilliconidia (infective). When the cadaver was in stage 1 or 2, males were significantly more often observed near the cadaver than near the healthy female. When the cadaver was in stage 3 (infective capilliconidia), males preferred the vicinity of healthy females. The frequency of two male behaviours, touching and guarding, was also recorded. Touching the cadaver tended to decrease as cadaver developed, whereas touching the healthy females increased. Guarding of non-sporulating cadavers and healthy females was equally common, while guarding of sporulating cadavers was only observed once (stage 2) or not at all (stage 3). To differentiate between the effect of fungal infection and sex, we also let males choose between a non-sporulating cadaver of each sex. Males then preferred to approach the female cadaver. Touching behaviour followed the same pattern, and guarding of male cadavers was not observed. Our results indicate that T. urticae males are more attracted to non-infective female cadavers than to healthy females, only detecting their mistake when very close. Moreover, males approach and explore cadavers surrounded by infective conidia. Whether the results of host manipulation by the pathogen or just sensory constraints in the host, this inability to detect unsuitable and indeed infective mates promotes transmission of the pathogen.

  12. Reduction of formaldehyde concentrations in the air and cadaveric tissues by ammonium carbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamata, Seiichi; Kodera, Haruo

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of formaldehyde by ammonium carbonate was examined in cadavers and in vitro. Formaldehyde concentrations in the air (10 cm above human cadavers) and in various cadaveric tissues were measured with or without perfusion of ammonium carbonate solution into formaldehyde-fixed cadavers. Air samples were monitored using Kitagawa gas detector tubes. For measurement of formaldehyde in tissues, muscles and organs were cut into small pieces and tissue fluids were separated out by centrifu...

  13. An ethical solution to the challenges in teaching anatomy with dissection in the Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luqing; Wang, Yunfeng; Xiao, Ming; Han, Qunying; Ding, Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Universities and medical schools in China are faced with an ongoing shortage of cadavers for education and research because of insufficient numbers of cadaver donations. This article will examine the main obstacles to cadaver donation in the Chinese culture. These include superstitious traditional views about the body, a lack of legislation regulating donations, and a deficiency of effective channels for cadaver donations. Cadaver dissection has always been the most important method of teaching anatomy to medical students. Today, ethics courses have also become essential to a complete medical education. Contemporary physicians need to be equipped to navigate the myriad of moral and ethical issues inherent to modern medicine. In China, cadaver donations lag behind those in other countries, threatening to create valid disadvantages in medical education. New legislation and public education are necessary to remove cultural barriers and change Chinese views on cadaver donation. For this reason, the Department of Human Anatomy at Nanjing Medical University has established the "Educational Center for Medical Ethics." The goal of the Center is to promote proper respect for cadavers used for medical research and education, cherish the human lives the cadavers represent, and gain the trust of potential donors. PMID:19177382

  14. A Comparison of Novel Entomopathogenic Nematode Application Methods for Control of the Chive Gnat, Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guang-Ying; Xu, Hua; Fu, Ya-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Shen, Guang-Shuang; Ma, Hai-Kun; Feng, Xiaoling; Pan, Jie; Gu, Xi-Shu; Guo, Yong-Ze; Ruan, Wei-Bin; Shapiro-Ilan, David I

    2016-10-01

    Bradysia odoriphaga Yang & Zhang (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the most serious pest of Chinese chive, Allium tuberosum Chemical pesticide application has become a necessary step to control B. odoriphaga after each of the four to six harvests during the growing season. We compared the effects of application type (nematode-infected cadaver, aqueous nematode suspension, and mixture of cadaver and aqueous suspension) and nematode species (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora vs. Steinernema carpocapsae) on B. odoriphaga control. Nematode species combinations and the use of the cadaver method has only been tested in a relatively few studies, and has not been tested for this target pest, B. odoriphaga. Furthermore, this is the first report of combining application methods (aqueous and cadaver). Results indicated that the cadaver treatment produced higher mortality of B. odoriphaga than the aqueous treatment, and H. bacteriophora caused higher mortality of B. odoriphaga than S. carpocapsae. The mortality of B. odoriphaga was 96.7% in H. bacteriophora cadaver treatment and only 27.5% in control treatment without nematode addition. Cadaver treatments caused higher biomass of A. tuberosum than that of aqueous treatment. The plant biomass in H. bacteriophora cadaver treatment was 10 folds as much as that in the control treatment. The mixed aqueous suspension of H. bacteriophora and S. carpocapsae did not increase the mortality in pot trial. Our findings indicate that entomopathogenic nematodes applied as cadavers might be a potential alternative biological agent in the integrated management of B. odoriphaga for Chinese chive production. PMID:27480971

  15. Estudio de la función del rodete acetabular en la biomecánica de la cadera: estudio cadavérico de la repercusión de la lesión y la reparación del rodete acetabular en la cinética articular de la cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Tey Pons, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Trabajo experimental en espécimen de cadera para valorar la repercusión de la lesión labral, parcial o completa, en la distribución de cargas de la superficie acetabular, así como el papel de la reconstrucción labral por reanclaje al reborde acetabular en la misma. Este trabajo implica el diseño y desarrollo previo de una bancada de prueba, el uso de tecnología de sensores piezoeléctricos para medir la presión intraarticular y la medición dinámica de las mismas en cinco especímenes anatómi...

  16. Validação técnica da drenagem pulmonar como tratamento do enfisema pulmonar avançado: estudo anatômico em cadáveres Technical validation of pulmonary drainage for the treatment of severe pulmonary emphysema: a cadaver-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio Mott Ancona Lopez; Roberto Saad Jr.; Vicente Dorgan Neto; Marcio Botter; Roberto Gonçalves; Jorge Henrique Rivaben

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a técnica operatória da drenagem pulmonar através do estudo anatômico em cadáveres, determinar se o local definido para a drenagem pulmonar é adequado e seguro, e determinar a relação anatômica do tubo de drenagem com a parede torácica, pulmões, grandes vasos e mediastino. MÉTODOS: Foram dissecados 30 cadáveres de ambos os sexos, fornecidos pelo Necrotério do Hospital Central da Santa Casa de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP) no período entre maio e novembro de 2011. Foi inseri...

  17. Measurement of the AT and the CCD angle of macerated cadaver femora: a comparative study between CT and MRI measurements; Die Bestimmung des AT- und CCD-Winkels am mazerierten Leichenfemur - Eine Vergleichsstudie zwischen CT- und MRT-Messung und Direktmessung am Praeparat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, V.; Herber, S.; Kreitner, K.-F.; Thelen, M. [Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Kuellmer, K. [Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany). Klinik fuer Orthopaedie

    2003-10-01

    Purpose: To compare measurements of the real AT (femoral antetorsion) and CCD (caput-scollum-diaphysis) angle by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hip specimen using direct measurements as reference standard, and to show that measurements by MRI can replace CT measurements and ma help avoiding X-ray exposition. Materials and methods: CT and MRI measurements were obtained on 25 in water-arrested macerated human femora. Postprocessing was done by 4 independent readers on a workstation using a dedicated 3D-software. Direct measurements of the real AT and the CCD angle were used as reference standard. The analysis included Student's test for paired values, interobserver variability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), maximum and middle divergence of the angles, and Bland-Altman plots. Results: For determining AT and the CCD angle with CT and MRI, good correlation was found between the 4 readers and with measurements using the reference standard. ICCs were 0.97 and 0.90 for measuring AT and CCD angle with CT, and 0.95 and 0.71 for measurements with MRI, respectively. Mean divergence between CT measurements and those of the reference standard was 0.8 for AT and 0.7 for the CDD-angle. Mean divergence between MRI measurements and those of the reference standard was 0.3 for AT and -0.4 for the CCD-angle. Mean divergences between CT and MRI measurements of AT and CCD-angle were 0.5 . Neither systematic errors nor dependences on the qualitative size of the reference data were evident in the divergences of measurements. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Messung des reellen Femurantetorsions (AT)- und Caput-Collum-Diaphysenwinkels (CCD-Winkels) im computer (CT)- und magnetresonanz (MR)-tomographischen Bild sowie Direktmessungen am Praeparat im Vergleich. Es soll gezeigt werden, dass die mit einer Strahlenexposition verbundene computertomographische durch die roentgenstrahlenfreie MR-tomographische Messung ersetzt werden kann. Material und Methoden: Die computer- und MR-tomographischen Bilder wurden von 25 im Wasserbad gelagerten mazerierten Leichenfemora angefertigt und anschliessend an einer Workstation ueber ein 3D-Programm von 4 Auswertern unabhaengig voneinander ausgewertet. Des Weiteren erfolgte eine Direktmessung der Winkel am Praeparat, welche als Referenzstandard diente. Ergebnisse: Es ergaben sich gute Uebereinstimmungen der 4 Auswerter bei den computer- und MR-tomographischen Messungen des AT- und CCD-Winkels, ebenso im Vergleich zur Referenzmethode. Als Mass fuer die Interobserverreliabilitaet der CT-Messungen ergab sich ein ICC (Intra-Class-Korrelationskoeffizient) fuer die AT-Winkel von 0,97 und fuer die CCD-Winkel von 0,90, bei den MRT-Messungen fuer den AT-Winkel von 0,95 und fuer die CCD-Winkel von 0,71. Die mittlere Abweichung von den Werten gemessen am Praeparat betrug 0,8 , bei den CCD-Winkeln 0,7 . Die mittlere Abweichung aller MR-tomographisch bestimmten AT-Winkel von den Winkeln gemessen am Praeparat betrug 03 , bei den CCD-Winkeln -0,4 . Die mittlere Abweichung aller in der CT bestimmten AT-Winkel von den Winkeln gemessen in der MR-Tomographie betrug 0,5 , bei den CCD-Winkeln ebenfalls. Die durchgefuehrten Messungen zeigten keinen Anhalt fuer systematische Messfehler und/oder Abhaengigkeiten von der quantitativen Groesse der Referenzwerte. (orig.)

  18. Biomechanical comparison of expansive pedicle screw and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae, a cadaver study%骨质疏松尸体腰椎中膨胀式椎弓根螺钉与骨水泥强化椎弓根螺钉固定稳定性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达; 伍红桦; 郑伟; 龚凯; 蒋凯; 廖冬发; 雷伟; 潘显明

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the biomechanical characteristics of expansive pedicle screw (EPS) and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw(PMMA-PS) in osteoporotic cadaveric lumbar vertebrae. Meth-ods: A total of sixteen vertebrae (L1-L4) was obtained from four fresh-frozen human cadaveric spines with a mean of 63 years(range, 51 to 78 years). There were 3 females and 1 male specimens. Anterior-posterior and lateral radiographs of each vertebra were obtained to exclude vertebral fracture, deformity and osteolysis result-ing from malignancy. One markedly deformed vertebra was excluded from this study. After the measurement of bone mineral density(BMD) of all vertebral bodies, fifteen vertebrae were randomly divided into three groups. After the preparation of pilot hole by using the same method, the conventional pedicle screw(CPS) was inserted in CPS group, the pilot hole was filled with PMMA followed by CPS insertion in PMMA-PS group, and EPS was inserted in EPS group. Twenty four hours later, X-ray and CT scan were performed to exam the posi-tions of screws and distribution of PMMA. Then, all vertebrae were tightly fixed on MTS 858, each screw was pulled at a constant speed of 10mm/min until the failure of the pedicle screw, and the maximum pullout strength(Fmax) and energy absorbed value(EAV) were measured. Results: There was no significant difference in BMD among three groups (P>0.05). According to World Health Organization definition, vertebrae in three groups were osteoporotic with all BMD values less than 0.8g/cm2 and T values was between -3.5 and -2.5. No malposition of screw was detected in all groups and no cement leakage was detected in PMMA-PS group under X-ray and CT examination. In CPS group, screw was surrounded with bone tissue directly. In PMMA-PS group, screw was wrapped up by PMMA and PMMA existed in bone tissue around the CPS which shaped like a spindle-shaped structure in vertebral body. In EPS group, anterior part of EPS presented an obvious expansion in vertebral body and formed a clawlike structure. Fmax in CPS group, PMMA-PS group and EPS group was 751.50±251.37N, 1521.70±513.27N and 1175.20±396.51N, respectively. Fmax in PMMA-PS group and EPS group was significantly higher than that in CPS group (P0.05)。 X 线检查和CT 重建显示各组螺钉位置均良好,PMMA-PS 组中未见PMMA渗漏现象;CPS组螺钉被周围的骨质直接包绕;PMMA-PS组螺钉被PMMA所包裹,PMMA存在于螺钉周围的骨质中,在椎体内形成了“纺锤样”结构;EPS组螺钉的前端在椎体内明显膨胀,形成了“爪状”结构。 CPS组、PMMA-PS 组和EPS 组的Fmax 分别为751.50±251.37N、1521.70±513.27N 和1175.20±396.51N,PMMA-PS组和EPS组均显著高于CPS 组(P<0.001,P=0.026),而PMMA-PS 组和EPS 组之间的差异无统计学意义(P=0.064)。 CPS 组、PMMA-PS 组和EPS 组的EAV 分别为1.47±0.51J、3.09±0.93J 和2.46±0.69J,PMMA-PS 组和EPS组均显著高于CPS组(P<0.001,P=0.005),而PMMA-PS组和EPS组之间的差异无统计学意义(P=0.067)。结论:EPS可显著提高骨质疏松腰椎内椎弓根螺钉的稳定性,达到了与传统PMMA强化椎弓根螺钉接近的固定强度,具有良好的临床应用前景。

  19. The Vesalius Project: Interactive Computers in Anatomical Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Thomas O.; Spurgeon, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a high-resolution, interactive 3-D atlas of human/animal anatomy that students will use to learn the structure of the body and to understand their own bodies in health and disease. This system can be used to reinforce cadaver study or to serve as a substitute for institutions where it is not practical to use cadavers. (KR)

  20. Should We Be “Nudging” for Cadaveric Organ Donations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2012-01-01

    Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?......Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?...

  1. Composite bone models in orthopaedic surgery research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfar, John; Menorca, Ron Martin Garcia; Reed, Jeffrey Douglas; Stanbury, Spencer

    2014-02-01

    Composite bone models are increasingly used in orthopaedic biomechanics research and surgical education-applications that traditionally relied on cadavers. Cadaver bones are suboptimal for many reasons, including issues of cost, availability, preservation, and inconsistency between specimens. Further, cadaver samples disproportionately represent the elderly, whose bone quality may not be representative of the greater orthopaedic population. The current fourth-generation composite bone models provide an accurate reproduction of the biomechanical properties of human bone when placed under bending, axial, and torsional loads. The combination of glass fiber and epoxy resin components into a single phase has enabled manufacturing by injection molding. The high level of anatomic fidelity of the cadaver-based molds and negligible shrinkage properties of the epoxy resin results in a process that allows for excellent definition of anatomic detail in the cortical wall and optimized consistency of features between models. Recent biomechanical studies of composites have validated their use as a suitable substitute for cadaver specimens. PMID:24486757

  2. A historical perspective: infection from cadaveric dissection from the 18th to 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Benninger, Brion; Agutter, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-03-01

    Today, the study of human anatomy utilizing the ultimate study guide, the cadaver, is relatively safe. In the past, however, human dissection was dangerous. Prior to the germ theory, antibiotics, and the use of gloves, cadavers were often life threatening to dissectors including both the teacher and the student. Medical students who graduated in the United States before 1880 were unlikely to practice antisepsis in the dissecting room. In the present article, we review human cadaveric dissection in Europe and the United States primarily from the 1700s to the early 1900s in regard to its potential for transmission of infection to the dissector. A brief account of the infectious hazards of human cadavers in general and those of cadavers used for dissection in particular is given.

  3. Amyand's hernia: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Dimitrios Dimitroulis; Theodore G Troupis; Maria Allamani; Alexandros Paraschos; Antonios Mazarakis; Nikolaos I Nikiteas; Alkiviadis Kostakis

    2006-01-01

    The presence of vermiform appendix in inguinal hernia is rare and is known as Amyand's hernia. We report an Amyand's hernia, where the appendix was found in a right inguinal hernia in one male cadaver aged ninety two years.

  4. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  5. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... important because there’s been some literature suggesting otherwise. Well as I explain, Roger, that literature comes from the cadaver, where everything has to be forced and the tissues are not normal. So ...

  6. Experimental Study on Stress Relaxation and Creep Properties of Human Thoracolumbar Vertebral Bodies and Intervertebral Discs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Underwater shock can produce extremely high accelerations, resulting in severe human injuries on shipboard, and human thoraco lumbar spines are prone to suffer from injuries by ship shock motion. To observe the viscoelasticity of thoracolumbar of young fresh cadavers, and to provide biomechanical parameters for both research and clinical practice. Materials and Methods:5 fresh young male cadavers (aged 22 to 31 years) were provided, and 15 thoracolumbar spinal anatomies of 5 samples were harvested...

  7. Feasibility of Ultrasound Guided Atlanto-occipital Joint Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Sun Jae; Lee, U-Young; Cho, Sei Un; Rhee, Won Ihl

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of ultrasound guided atlanto-occipital joint injection. Method Six atlanto-occipital joints of three cadavers were examined. Cadavers were placed in prone position with their head slightly rotated towards the contra-lateral side. The atlanto-occipital joint was initially identified with a longitudinal ultrasound scan at the midline between occipital protuberance and mastoid process. Contrast media 0.5cc was injected into the atlanto-occipital joint using ...

  8. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    OpenAIRE

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabdi...

  9. [The use of a method of sequential mathematical analysis for the differential diagnosis of trauma from a fall from a height and of trauma due to the collision of a moving automobile with a pedestrian by the chest injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solokhin, A A; Gaĭvoronskaia, V I; Baranov, Iu I

    1997-01-01

    Fifty cadavers of subjects dead after falling from height and 50 cadavers of subjects dead as a result of collisions between moving cars and pedestrians were examined. Under study were injuries to soft tissues of the chest, thoracic bones and viscera, and combinations thereof. Mathematical probability successive analysis after Gubler (1978) helped distinguish 64 highly informative injuries-signs which permit determining the type of injury. Diagnostic coefficients and informative value of these signs are presented in the differential diagnostic table.

  10. PREEXISTING PATHOLOGY IN ZERO BIOPSIES DONOR KIDNEYS AND IN ONE-HOUR BIOPSIES OF KIDNEY ALLOGRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper we present thedetailed analisys of data available in the literature concerning the «zero» byopsies of donor kidneys and «hour» byopsies of kidney allografts. With attention we take a look on a previous existed pathology of cadaver kidneys discovered through byopsies. We trying to define the role of preexisting pathology in the following results of transplantation. Moreover we describe the histologic criteria of suitability of cadaver kidneys for transplantation 

  11. PREEXISTING PATHOLOGY IN ZERO BIOPSIES DONOR KIDNEYS AND IN ONE-HOUR BIOPSIES OF KIDNEY ALLOGRAFTS

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Arefjev; M. G. Minina; I. M. Iljinsky

    2011-01-01

    In the following paper we present thedetailed analisys of data available in the literature concerning the «zero» byopsies of donor kidneys and «hour» byopsies of kidney allografts. With attention we take a look on a previous existed pathology of cadaver kidneys discovered through byopsies. We trying to define the role of preexisting pathology in the following results of transplantation. Moreover we describe the histologic criteria of suitability of cadaver kidneys for transplantation 

  12. Morphology of plantar interdigital neuroma: a comparative cadaveric study of elderly Finnish and Japanese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shinichi; Nakao, Tadashi; Yamane, Shigeki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Santti, Risto; Murakami, Gen

    2013-01-01

    To examine morphological differences in Morton's interdigital neuroma between two elderly human populations, we conducted comparative study using 40 Japanese (27 males, 13 females; mean age, 81.2 years) and 21 Finnish (6 males, 15 females; mean age, 80.5 years) cadavers. We defined the neuroma as a thickening of the nerve of at least two-fold relative to the non-pathological proximal part. The incidence of this neuroma was 25% (10/40) in the Japanese and 33.3% (7/21) in the Finnish cadavers. Moderate or severe hallux valgus (with an angle of more than 20 degrees) was seen in half of the 40 Japanese cadavers (7 males, 13 females), but was absent in the Finnish cadavers. Such hallux valgus was present in 7 (5 males, 2 females) of the 10 Japanese cadavers with neuroma. Moreover, in 2 Japanese cadavers, a paper-like, specialized type of neuroma was associated with the deformity. Pathogenesis of Morton's neuroma might be different between human populations with or without hallux valgus. PMID:23883772

  13. Distinctive thanatomicrobiome signatures found in the blood and internal organs of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ismail; Javan, Gulnaz T; Pozhitkov, Alexander E; Noble, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    According to the Human Microbiome Project, 90% of the cells in a healthy adult body are microorganisms. What happens to these cells after human host death, defined here as the thanatomicrobiome (i.e., thanatos-, Greek defn., death), is not clear. To fill the void, we examined the thanatomicrobiome of the spleen, liver, brain, heart and blood of human cadavers. These organs are thought to be devoid of microorganisms in a healthy adult host. We report that the thanatomicrobiome was highly similar among organ tissues from the same cadaver but very different among the cadavers possibly due to differences in the elapsed time since death and/or environmental factors. Isolation of microbial DNA from cadavers is known to be a challenge. We compared the effectiveness of two methods by amplifying the 16S rRNA genes and sequencing the amplicons from four cadavers. Paired comparisons revealed that the conventional DNA extraction method (bead-beating in phenol/chloroform/bead-beating followed by ethanol precipitation) yielded more 16S rRNA amplicons (28 of 30 amplicons) than a second method (repeated cycles of heating/cooling followed by centrifugation to remove cellular debris) (19 of 30 amplicons). Shannon diversity index of the 16S rRNA genes revealed no significant difference by extraction method. The present report provides a proof of principle that the thanatomicrobiome may be an efficient biomarker to study postmortem transformations of cadavers. PMID:25091187

  14. Evaluation of the PAR corneal topography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Prateek; Cheung, Susan; Pirouzian, Amir; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the raster photogrammetry based Corneal Topography System by determining: inter-operator variability, reproducibility of images, effects of defocused and decentered images, and the precision of data at different optical zones. 4 human cadaver eyes were used to study the inter-operator variability. To study the reproducibility of images, 3 human cadaver eyes and a test surface doped with flourescine (provided by PAR Vision Systems Corporation) were focused and their images taken four successive times. Defocused and decentered images were taken of 4 human cadaver eyes and four times of the test surface mentioned above. The precision of defocused/decentered cadaver eyes was evaluated at the following optical zones: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. All human cadaver eyes used in the above experiments had their epithelial layer removed before imaging. Average inter-operator variability was 0.06 D. In reproducibility attempts, there was an average deviation of 0.28 D for the human cadaver eyes and 0.04 D for the test surface. The defocused and decentered test surface gave an average deviation of 0.09 D. Defocused and decentered cadaver eyes resulted in an average deviation of 0.52 D, 0.37 D, 0.24 D, and 0.22 D at optical zones of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. The imaging method employed by PAR Vision Systems Corporation virtually eliminates inter-operator variability. The PAR Corneal Topography System's clinical usefulness, however, could be improved by improving the reproducibility of images, decreasing the sensitivity to spatial alignment, and increasing accuracy over smaller optical zones.

  15. Body shape changes in the elderly and the influence of density assumptions on segment inertia parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert K.; Fletcher, P.; Abraham, C.

    1991-04-01

    The segment mass mass proportions and moments of inertia of a sample of twelve females and seven males with mean ages of 67. 4 and 69. 5 years were estimated using textbook proportions based on cadaver studies. These were then compared with the parameters calculated using a mathematical model the zone method. The methodology of the model was fully evaluated for accuracy and precision and judged to be adequate. The results of the comparisons show that for some segments female parameters are quite different from male parameters and inadequately predicted by the cadaver proportions. The largest discrepancies were for the thigh and the trunk. The cadaver predictions were generally less than satisfactory although the common variance for some segments was moderately high. The use ofnon-linear regression and segment anthropometry was illustrated for the thigh moments of inertia and appears to be appropriate. However the predictions from cadaver data need to be examined fully. These results are dependent on the changes in mass and density distribution which occur with aging and the changes which occur with cadaver samples prior to and following death.

  16. Nitrite pickling salt as an alternative to formaldehyde for embalming in veterinary anatomy--A study based on histo- and microbiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczyk, Pawel; Weigner, Janet; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Kaessmeyer, Sabine; Plendl, Johanna

    2011-02-20

    Formaldehyde, the traditional embalming agent has negative health effects. Nitrite pickling salt has been reported to be a good and inexpensive alternative when supplemented with antioxidants, but the antioxidants caused yellowish colouration of cadavers, and damaged corrosion-resistant steel tables and stone floors. Here, nitrite pickling salt was supplemented with ethanol and Pluriol(®) and tested for effectiveness as an embalming agent of twenty dog cadavers: 10 with open, and 10 with closed abdominal cavity. The texture of the tissue was monitored intermittently for 12 months throughout the course of an anatomical dissection class. Histological and microbiological analysis of samples from muscles, lungs, duodenum and colon were performed. Dogs with an open abdomen remained suitable for dissection purposes during the entire course. The abdominal organs of the closed cadavers lost their natural features, without histological signs of autolysis. Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp. and Clostridium perfringens were recorded after 24 weeks. The open cadavers underwent additional maintenance via renewed treatment with ethanol and Pluriol(®) after each dissection. After 30 weeks, C. perfringens was massively reduced in the colon of the open cadavers. The tested solution successfully embalms open bodies, carries no health risks and is environmentally friendly and cost effective. PMID:20829010

  17. Clinical implications of the surgical anatomy of the sural nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coert, J H; Dellon, A L

    1994-11-01

    The exact anatomy of the sural nerve remains important for many clinical situations. To better understand this anatomy, 25 embalmed and 10 fresh cadaver pairs were studied. The origin of the common sural nerve in relation to the fibular head and its medial and lateral sural components were investigated. The lateral sural nerve was absent in 4 percent of the embalmed cadavers. The lateral and medial sural nerves united in the popliteal fossa in 12 percent and in the lower third of the leg in 84 percent of the cadavers. A site was identified where the lateral sural and lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf pierced the deep fascia. This site was centered about the fibular head and may be viewed as a potential site of nerve compression. There is application of these findings to nerve grafting, neuroma prevention and treatment, and sural nerve biopsy.

  18. Temporal bone dissection skill: A necessity for life otologic surgeries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anatomy of the temporal bone is complex and not easily learned. Hours of study in the temporal bone laboratory are required for a good grasp by the intending otologic surgeon in order to avoid predictable complications. Aim and Objective: This study aims at highlighting the steps involved toward acquiring the necessary skills and understanding this complex anatomy before embarking on life otological surgeries (temporal bones surgeries and cochlear implant in our center. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of cadaver temporal bone dissection conducted over a period of 3 months. A total of 10 dry, formalin-fixed cadavers were used for the dissection. A team of doctors headed by a consultant otolaryngologist carried out the dissections on the cadavers. The landmark of importance for the dissections was the McEwen′s triangle. From this starting point, various otologic surgeries were performed hands-on on the cadavers using the appropriate burs and their sizes. Anatomic features encountered during the dissection were noted and recorded. Results: The 10 cadavers (100% were all adult males. The youngest and oldest cadavers were aged 25 and 45 years, respectively, with an overall mean age of 38.9 years. The interval between death and embalmment varied from 5 to 79 days. The suprameatal crest, dural plate, aditus and antrum were all present in the 20 temporal bones dissected. Cribrifossae and wide marrow mastoid cavity were noted in 17 (85% temporal bones each, highly pneumatized mastoid, herald air cells and incus were seen in 14 (70% each, tympanic remnant was seen in 13 (65% and stapes in 6 (30%. Conclusion: Temporal bone dissection provides an avenue in understanding the anatomic features and the variations that may pose a challenge in cochlear implant and other otologic surgeries and it enhances the dexterity of the otologic surgeon.

  19. Does obturator nerve block always occur in 3-1 block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tekdemir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the femoral “3-in-1 block”, obturator nerve block is routinely unsuccessful. Anatomical studies are not available to explain why blockade of obturator nerve or lumbar plexus does not occur. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of femoral “3-in-1 block” obturator nerve block on a cadaver model.Materials and methods: Totally, 12 mature adult human cadavers were selected. Methylene blue dye (30 ml was injected under the fascia iliaca in eight cadavers and into the femoral nerve sheath in four cadavers. Careful bilateral dissections were performed following dye injections.Results: It was seen that the dye did not spread to the medial part of the psoas major muscle and the obturator nerve was not stained with the dye in eight cadavers in whom dye was injected laterally into the femoral sheat. In four cadavers in whom dye was injected into the femoral nerve sheat, metylene blue spread through fascial layers in the plane under the psoas muscle and stained the obturator nerve just before emerging medially from the fascia psoas. At this point, the obturator nerve pierced the psoas fascia and extended extrafascially in the medial and deep borders of the psoas muscle. In this area, the upper section of the obturator nerve was found also to be stained with the dye.Conclusion: We concluded that the cause of an unsuccessful obturator nerve block might be the fascial anatomy of this region. The lateral cutaneous femoral nerve and the femoral nerve easily can be blocked in the fascia iliaca compartment, but the obturator nerve block fails because of its being extrafascial in this region. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:149-51

  20. Unraveling the intraguild competition between Oscheius spp. nematodes and entomopathogenic nematodes: Implications for their natural distribution in Swiss agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Půža, Vladimir; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Blanco-Pérez, Rubén; Čepulytė-Rakauskienė, Rasa; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-11-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are excellent biological control agents to fight soil-dwelling insect pests. In a previous survey of agricultural soils of Switzerland, we found mixtures of free-living nematodes (FLN) in the genus Oscheius, which appeared to be in intense competition with EPN. As this may have important implications for the long-term persistence of EPN, we studied this intraguild competition in detail. We hypothesized that (i) Oscheius spp. isolates act as scavengers rather than entomopathogens, and (ii) cadavers with relatively small numbers of EPN are highly suitable resources for Oscheius spp. reproduction. To study this, we identified Oscheius spp. isolated from Swiss soils, quantified the outcome of EPN/Oscheius competition in laboratory experiments, developed species-specific primers and probe for quantitative real-time PCR, and evaluated their relative occurrence in the field in the context of the soil food web. Molecular analysis (ITS/D2D3) identified MG-67/MG-69 as Oscheius onirici and MG-68 as O. tipulae (Dolichura-group). Oscheius spp. indeed behaved as scavengers, reproducing in ∼64% of frozen-killed cadavers from controlled experiments. Mixed infection in the laboratory by Oscheius spp. with low (3 IJs) or high (20 IJs) initial EPN numbers revealed simultaneous reproduction in double-exposed cadavers which resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of EPN progeny from the cadaver. This effect depended on the number of EPN in the initial inoculum and differed by EPN species; Heterorhabditis megidis was better at overcoming competition. This study reveals Oscheius spp. as facultative kleptoparasites that compete with EPN for insect cadavers. Using real-time qPCR, we were able to accurately quantify this strong competition between FLN and EPN in cadavers that were recovered after soil baiting (∼86% cadavers with >50% FLN production). The severe competition within the host cadavers and the intense management of the soils in

  1. HEAVEN: The Frankenstein effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavero, Sergio; Ren, XiaoPing; Kim, C Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The HEAVEN head transplant initiative needs human data concerning the acute restoration of motor transmission after application of fusogens to the severed cord in man. Data from two centuries ago prove that a fresh cadaver, after hanging or decapitation, can be mobilized by electrical stimulation for up to 3 hours. By administering spinal cord stimulation by applied paddles to the cord or transcranial magnetic stimulation to M1 and recording motor evoked potentials, it should be possible to test fusogens in fresh cadavers. Delayed neuronal death might be the neuropathological reason.

  2. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C S; Fassuliotis, G

    1985-04-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  3. Preparing for Emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchiors, Jacob; Todsen, Tobias; Nilsson, Philip;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Emergency cricothyrodotomy (EC) is a lifesaving procedure. Evidence-based assessment of training effects and competency levels is relevant to all departments involved in emergency airway management. As most training uses low-fidelity models, the predictive value of good performance...... on such a model becomes relevant with regard to performance on a high-fidelity model (cadaver). This requires a valid assessment tool for EC performance. STUDY DESIGN: Psychometric study on low-fidelity models and human cadavers. SETTING: University hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An assessment tool was created...

  4. An Integrated Teaching Method of Gross Anatomy and Computed Tomography Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tohru; Tajika, Yuki; Ueno, Hitoshi; Awata, Sachiko; Hirasawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Maki; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Tsushima, Yoshito; Endo, Keigo; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to learn and comprehend human anatomy in three dimensions (3D). With this in mind, a new system was designed in order to integrate anatomical dissections with diagnostic computed tomography (CT) radiology. Cadavers were scanned by CT scanners, and students then consulted the postmortem CT images during cadaver…

  5. Accuracy and reliability of facial soft tissue depth measurements using cone beam computer tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Pieter; Ren, Yijin

    2010-01-01

    It is important to have accurate and reliable measurements of soft tissue thickness for specific landmarks of the face and scalp when producing a facial reconstruction. In the past several methods have been created to measure facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) in cadavers and in the living. The con

  6. Accuracy and repeatability of anthropometric facial measurements using cone beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Peter O.; Ren, Yijin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and repeatability of linear anthropometric measurements on the soft tissue surface model generated from cone beam computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of seven cadaver heads. The accuracy and r

  7. Accuracy of implant placement based on pre-surgical planning of three-dimensional cone-beam images: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, N. Van; Steenberghe, D van; Guerrero, M.E.; Hirsch, E.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Quirynen, M.; Jacobs, R.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the precision of transfer of a computer-based three-dimensional (3D) planning, using re-formatted cone-beam images, for oral implant placement in partially edentulous jaws. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four formalin-fixed cadaver jaws were imaged in a 3D Accuitomo FPD cone-beam computed to

  8. Telemedicine, virtual reality, and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormack, Percival D.; Charles, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Two types of synthetic experience are covered: virtual reality (VR) and surgery, and telemedicine. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: geometric models; physiological sensors; surgical applications; virtual cadaver; VR surgical simulation; telesurgery; VR Surgical Trainer; abdominal surgery pilot study; advanced abdominal simulator; examples of telemedicine; and telemedicine spacebridge.

  9. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  10. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. PMID:26779962

  11. Greater Omental Pancake Tumour due to Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer – A Cadaveric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhusari, Prashant A.; Khairnar, Karan B.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of ovary is the one of the common of all gynecological tumors and is the leading cause of death among women. A unique attempt is made to trace masses & its causes found in an abdomen of female cadaver during routine anatomy dissection.

  12. Two-Dimensional Sectioned Images and Three-Dimensional Surface Models for Learning the Anatomy of the Female Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Hwang, Sung Bae; Har, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Young Lae; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic…

  13. Twist and its effect on ACL graft forces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, M.P.; Blankevoort, L.; Ham, A. ten; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Kampen, A. van

    2004-01-01

    Graft tension is a controversial topic in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Evidence suggests a narrow range of graft tensions, which allow the graft to remodel to a stable and mature neoligament. In previous cadaver experiments, we showed that twisting the graft could modulate the graft for

  14. Estimation of postmortem interval using the blowfly Phaenicia (Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ado-Baba Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Estimated time between death and discovery of corpse (PMI based on the period of insect activity (PIA may be a better alternative in some situations because it eliminate taking multiple temperature measurements at the crime scene, at the carcass as well in the maggot masses on the cadaver. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3417-3420

  15. Building a Low-Cost Gross Anatomy Laboratory: A Big Step for a Small University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates details of the planning, building, and improvement phases of a cost-efficient, full-dissection gross anatomy laboratory on a campus of an historically design-centric university. Special considerations were given throughout the project to the nature of hosting cadavers in a building shared amongst all undergraduate majors.…

  16. MR imaging and ultrasonographic findings of tensor fasciae suralis muscle: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keun Ho; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The tensor fasciae suralis muscle is a very rare anomalous muscle located in the popliteal region. This anatomic variation has been reported often through cadaver studies. However, there are only a few radiologic reports of this entity. We presented a case of tensor fasciae suralis muscle detected as an incidental finding in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound.

  17. Anatomical study of terminal peroneal artery perforators and their clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peroneal artery gives off plenty of perforators that pass through fascial septum to supply skin and tenosynovium of peroneal muscles. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomical basis of perforators from terminal part of peroneal artery axiality and to make use of this knowledge in reconstructing defects of posterior heel with the advantage of reducing the morbidity of conventional flaps. Materials and Methods: Our study was conducted at Department of Plastic surgery, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, India. We have carried out eleven cadaver dissections (from six cadavers-four fresh cadavers and two preserved cadavers and delineated all septocutaneous and septosynovial perforators of distal peroneal axis and studied their relation with short saphenous vein (SSV and sural nerve. Using this anatomical knowledge we have fashioned perforator based flaps in 13 patients (three propeller, four V-Y advancement, six tenosynovial flaps for reconstruction of defects over tendo achilles and pericalcaneal region . Results: In all cases, SSV and sural nerve were preserved and donor site was closed primarily. No total flap loss was noted. Conclusion: Perforator based flaps from distal most part of peroneal artery provide a good and reliable method for reconstruction of pericalcaneal and tendo achilles region defects with preservation of SSV and sural nerve. It also avoids contour deformity of the grafted donor site of the classical lateral calcaneal artery axial flap.

  18. 42 CFR 412.100 - Special treatment: Renal transplantation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recipient with a kidney transplant registry; (7) Surgeons' fees for excising cadaver kidneys; (8....2170 and 405.2171 of this chapter) to remove the estimated net expenses associated with kidney acquisition. (2) Kidney acquisition costs are treated apart from the prospective payment rate for...

  19. The 'relics of Joan of Arc'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlier, P.; Poupon, J.; Eb, A.;

    2010-01-01

    such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists, zoologist and archaeologist. Materials, methods and results of this study are presented here. This study aims to offer an exploitable methodology for the modern...

  20. Pelvic orientation and assessment of hip dysplasia in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Lund, B;

    2004-01-01

    : Wiberg's CE angle, Sharp's angle, the x-coordinate of Goodman's Cartesian coordinate system, and the acetabular depth ratio were significantly affected by varying rotation and inclination/reclination of the cadaver pelvises. Femoral head extrusion index was not significantly affected within the applied...

  1. THE RECTUS-ABDOMINIS CARDIOMYOPLASTIC PROCEDURE - PRELIMINARY-RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJNBERG, DS; HENSEN, AG; GRANDJEAN, PA; SCHREUDER, JAH; ROBINSON, PH; EBELS, T

    1994-01-01

    The rectus abdominis myofascial flap (RAMF) was investigated as a viable alternative to the latissimus dorsi flap for dynamic cardiomyoplasty. In human and animal cadaver experiments and live sheep, it was possible to use the RAMF for innervated intrathoracic use. The RAMF was stimulated by a specia

  2. Reduction of Mental Distress in the Dissection Course by Introducing the Body Donor Experience through Anatomical Demonstrations of Organ Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Baader, Christoph; Fassnacht, Ulrich Kai; Ochsner, Wolfgang; Bockers, Tobias Maria

    2012-01-01

    The practice of dissection teaches students not only the foundations of anatomical knowledge but also encourages the development of professional competencies. Yet, the dissection of cadavers in the gross anatomy course can be a stress factor for medical students. There are a minor proportion of students who demonstrate strong emotional reactions…

  3. Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, James J.; Andrews, Samantha N.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    To introduce students to an application of chemical engineering directly related to human health, we developed an experiment for the unit operations laboratory at Georgia Tech examining diffusion across cadaver skin in the context of transdermal drug delivery. In this laboratory module, students prepare mouse skin samples, set up diffusion cells…

  4. Teaching Bovine Abdominal Anatomy: Use of a Haptic Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Forrest, Neil David; Frean, Stephen Philip; Baillie, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods of teaching anatomy to undergraduate medical and veterinary students are being challenged and need to adapt to modern concerns and requirements. There is a move away from the use of cadavers to new technologies as a way of complementing the traditional approaches and addressing resource and ethical problems. Haptic (touch)…

  5. Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Goold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Goold1, Hirohiko Kakizaki1,2,3, Raman Malhotra3, Dinesh Selva11South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 3Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, West Sussex, United KingdomAbstract: Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population.Keywords: lateral palpebral raphe, orbicularis oculi muscle, Caucasian, cadavers

  6. Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative disorder in the United States : Young Caucasian males are at highest risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dharnidharka, VR; Tejani, AH; Ho, PL; Harmon, WE

    2002-01-01

    We have previously documented Caucasian race and cadaver donor source as risk factors for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) development in recipients registered in the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS). We analyzed data from the Scientific Regist

  7. Hallux Valgus and the First Tarsometatarsal Joint: Clinical and Biomechanical Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W.M. Faber (Frank)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a series of cadaver, experimental, radiographic and clinical studies on the relation between a hallux valgus deformity and mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Hypermobility of stiffnes of the joint was determined by Doppler imaging of vibrations and by radi

  8. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  9. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  10. Failure load of patellar tendon grafts at the femoral side: 10- versus 20-mm-bone blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan); M.J.N. Niggebrugge (Marnix); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the study was to investigate whether use of short bone blocks is safe in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Our hypothesis was that the smaller 10-mm-length bone blocks will fail at lower loads than 20-mm-bone blocks. Ten paired human cadaver knees were randomly

  11. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  12. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crovetto, M., E-mail: macdlt@telefonica.net [Otolaryngology Department, Hospital de Basurto, University of the Basque Country, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain); Whyte, J., E-mail: jwhite@unizar.es [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Mirall s/n, Zaragoza (Spain); Rodriguez, O.M., E-mail: OLIVIAMARIA.RODRIGUEZSANVICENT@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Cruces, Baracaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Lecumberri, I., E-mail: INIGO.LECUMBERRICORTES@osakidetza.net [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida Montevideo 18, Bilbao 498013 (Spain); Martinez, C., E-mail: claudiorayosx@yahoo.es [Hospital General de la Defensa, Via Iberica s/n Zaragoza (Spain); Elexpuru, J., E-mail: jelexpuru@mac.com [Hospital de Basurto, Avenida de Montevideo 18, Bilbao 48013, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani. Material and methods: Temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan on patients and direct observation on cadaver specimen, respectively. Results: 604 ears and 160 cadaver temporal bones have been investigated by means of CT scan and direct observation, respectively. 3.6% and 0.3% of the studied ears had SSCD and PSCD, respectively, on CT scan. Only 0.6% of the cadaver specimen ears did have anatomical SSCD. Degree of pneumatization of the mastoid bone is related to the mean thickness of bone overlying the Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal. Radiological absence of Tegmen Tympani is more frequent in ears that also have radiologic SSCD. Conclusion: CT scanning gives higher incidence figures of SSCD than anatomical studies, 3.6% vs. 0.6%. We also found a 0.6% incidence of radiological PSCD in the studied ears. There is a direct relation between the degree of ossification of Superior and Posterior Semicircular Canal and certain temporal bone anatomic features: temporal bone pneumatization and absence/presence of Tegmen Tympani or Antri.

  13. Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

  14. Twist and its effect on ACL graft forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP; Blankevoort, L; ten Ham, A; Verdonschot, N; van Kampen, A

    2004-01-01

    Graft tension is a controversial topic in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Evidence suggests a narrow range of graft tensions, which allow the graft to remodel to a stable and mature neoligament. In previous cadaver experiments, we showed that twisting the graft could modulate the graft for

  15. Privileged Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Norma E.; Romero-O'Connell, Josina M.

    2009-01-01

    Students often attain memorable experiences from cadaver dissections through reflective writing. For many, facing a dissection for the first time elicits a wide range of emotions. These may include thoughts of their own mortality to the sheer admiration of knowing that someone cared enough to help others learn about the body, even in death. Poems…

  16. 40 CFR 799.5115 - Chemical testing requirements for certain chemicals of interest to the Occupational Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... description of the skin preparation method, including measurements of the skin membrane thickness. (C) A... measurements for these tests, samples of human cadaver skin must be obtained from the abdominal region of human... give an undepletable reservoir on the surface of the skin depends on the rate of penetration of...

  17. Clay Modeling versus Written Modules as Effective Interventions in Understanding Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareither, Mary Lou; Arbel, Vered; Growe, Meghan; Muszczynski, Emily; Rudd, Adam; Marone, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of clay modeling to written modules is examined to determine the degree of improvement in learning and retention of anatomical 3D relationships among students with different learning preferences. Thirty-nine undergraduate students enrolled in a cadaver dissection course completed a pre-assessment examination and the VARK…

  18. Background Music in the Dissection Laboratory: Impact on Stress Associated with the Dissection Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2015-01-01

    Notable challenges, such as mental distress, boredom, negative moods, and attitudes, have been associated with learning in the cadaver dissection laboratory (CDL). The ability of background music (BM) to enhance the cognitive abilities of students is well documented. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of BM in the CDL and on…

  19. Flexor digitorum profundus tendon anatomy in the forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoman Dogan

    2012-04-01

    Methods: We used 11 forearms belonging to cadavers and fixed with formaldehyde. The forearms numbered 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 11 were the left and right arms of the same cadavers. Those numbered 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 belonged to different cadavers. Dissections were made by using the atraumatic surgical technique. The tendons were studied to identify the structure and number of the fibers forming them. Results: The presence of a large common tendon was found in 10 of the 11 forearms. In 4 of these, the common tendon included the tendons of all four fingers. While the common tendon included 3 fingers in four forearms, it only included tendons belonging to 2 fingers in two forearms. It was not possible in one forearm to separate the common tendon into its fibers. In another forearm, tendons belonging to each digit were separate and independent starting at the muscle-tendon junction to the attachment points. Conclusion: The majority of the cadaver forearms used in the study displayed a single large FDP tendon in the zone between the muscle-tendon joint to the carpal tunnel entry prior to being distributed into each index. This anatomical feature should be considered in choosing materials and surgical technique for Zone V FDP tendon injuries, as well as in planning the rehabilitation process. [Hand Microsurg 2012; 1(1.000: 25-29

  20. A finite element lower extremity and pelvis model for predicting bone injuries due to knee bolster loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Hoof, J. van; Barbir, A.; Made, R. van der; Slaats, P.M.A.; McCann, M.J.; Ridella, S.A.; Rupp, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Injuries to the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex in frontal motor vehicle crashes are of substantial concern because of their frequency and potential to result in long-term disability. Current frontal impact Anthropometric Test Dummies (ATDs) have been shown to respond differently than human cadavers un

  1. On a Frozen Fellow and Melding Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes an art project that constructed a realistic model of a frozen prehistoric cadaver including its clothing and tool kit. Originally conceived as a way to introduce students to art materials, ancient history, and different cultures, the project grew to include a traveling exhibit and instructional puppet shows. (MJP)

  2. Accuracy and initial stability of open- and closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy: a cadaveric RSA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, R.D.A.; Welsing, R.T.C.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Rijnberg, W.J.; Loon, C.J.M. van; Kampen, A. van

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the difference in angle-correction accuracy and initial stability between open-wedge (OWO) and closed-wedge tibial valgus osteotomy (CWO). Five fresh-frozen pairs of human cadaver lower limbs were used; their bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with DEXA and a planned 7 degrees valgu

  3. Variation in brachial plexus formation, branching pattern and relation with major vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Anwer Khan

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The present study carried out on adult human cadavers revealed some rare variations in the formation, branching pattern and relations of the brachial plexus. These variations are of clinical significance for the surgeons, radiologists and the anesthesiologists. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1591-1594

  4. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially th

  5. Influence of scan setting selections on root canal visibility with cone beam CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A. Hassan; J. Payam; B. Juyanda; P. van der Stelt; P.R. Wesselink

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the influence of scan setting selection, including field of view (FOV) ranging from small to large, number of projections and scan modes on the visibility of the root canal with cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods One human mandible cadaver was scanned with CB

  6. Accuracy of bone surface size and cortical layer thickness measurements using cone beam computerized tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, N.L.; Meijer, G.J.; Borstlap, W.A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Berge, S.J.; Maal, T.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) reconstructions in displaying bone surface size and cortical layer thickness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two fresh frozen cadaver heads were scanned using a CBCT (i-CAT() 3D Imaging System; Im

  7. 3T magnetic resonance neurography of pudendal nerve with cadaveric dissection correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; McKenna, Courtney A; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thawait, Gaurav K; Carrino, John A; Lees, Gary P; Dellon, A Lee

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the pudendal nerve segments that could be identified on magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) before and after surgical marking of different nerve segments. METHODS The hypothesis for this study was that pudendal nerve and its branches would be more easily seen after the surgical nerve marking. Institutional board approval was obtained. One male and one female cadaver pelvis were obtained from the anatomy board and were scanned using 3 Tesla MRI scanner using MR neurography sequences. All possible pudendal nerve branches were identified. The cadavers were then sent to the autopsy lab and were surgically dissected by a peripheral nerve surgeon and an anatomist to identify the pudendal nerve branches. Radiological markers were placed along the course of the pudendal nerve and its branches. The cadavers were then closed and rescanned using the same MRN protocol as the pre-marking scan. The remaining pudendal nerve branches were attempted to be identified using the radiological markers. All scans were read by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. RESULTS The pre-marking MR Neurography scans clearly showed the pudendal nerve at its exit from the lumbosacral plexus in the sciatic notch, at the level of the ischial spine and in the Alcock’s Canal in both cadavers. Additionally, the right hemorrhoidal branch could be identified in the male pelvis cadaver. The perineal and distal genital branches could not be identified. On post-marking scans, the markers were used as identifiable structures. The location of the perineal branch, the hemorroidal branch and the dorsal nerve to penis (in male cadaver)/clitoris (in female cadaver) could be seen. However, the visualization of these branches was suboptimal. The contralateral corresponding nerves were poorly seen despite marking on the surgical side. The nerve was best seen on axial T1W and T2W SPAIR images. The proximal segment could be seen well on 3D DW PSIF sequence. T2W SPACE was not very useful in

  8. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  9. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  10. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. PMID:26585723

  11. Can Sonography Distinguish a Supraorbital Notch From a Foramen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravi K; Lee, Kenneth S; Kohn, Sarah C; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Afifi, Ahmed M

    2015-11-01

    Diagnostic tools for evaluating the supraorbital rim in preparation for nerve decompression surgery in patients with chronic headaches are currently limited. We evaluated the use of sonography to diagnose the presence of a supraorbital notch or foramen in 11 cadaver orbits. Sonographic findings were assessed by dissecting cadaver orbits to determine whether a notch or foramen was present. Sonography correctly diagnosed the presence of a supraorbital notch in 7 of 7 cases and correctly diagnosed a supraorbital foramen in 4 of 4 cases. We found that sonography had 100% sensitivity in diagnosing a supraorbital notch and foramen. This tool may therefore be helpful in characterizing the supraorbital rim preoperatively and may influence the decision to use a transpalpebral or endoscopic approach for supraorbital nerve decompression as well as the decision to use local or general anesthesia.

  12. Penetration of tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes and liposomes across human skin: a comparative study with confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra K; Suresh, Preeti K; Rudrapal, Mithun; Verma, Vinod K

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ethosomal and liposomal formulations containing tamoxifen citrate were prepared and evaluated for their penetration properties in human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cell and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The results clearly revealed that ethosomal vesicles showed a better drug permeation profile than that of liposomal vesicles. In addition, low fluorescence intensity in CLSM was recorded with liposomes as compared to ethosomes, indicating lower cumulative amount of drug permeation from liposomal vesicles. Furthermore, CLSM showed uniform fluorescence intensity across the entire depth of skin in ethosomal treatment, indicating high penetrability of ethosomal vesicles through human cadaver skin. In contrast, low penetrability of conventional liposomal vesicles was recorded as penetration was limited to the 7(th) section (i.e. upper epidermis layer) of skin as evident from visualization of intact liposomal vesicles in CLSM. PMID:24428443

  13. Gunther von Hagens' BODY WORLDS: selling beautiful education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawrence

    2007-04-01

    In the BODY WORLDS exhibitions currently touring the United States, Gunther von Hagens displays human cadavers preserved through plastination. Whole bodies are playfully posed and exposed to educate the public. However, the educational aims are ambiguous, and some aspects of the exhibit violate human dignity. In particular, the signature cards attached to the whole-body plastinates that bear the title, the signature of Gunther von Hagens, and the date of creation mark the plastinates as artwork and von Hagens as the artist in a gesture that strips the personal dignity from the donors. I conclude that the educational use of cadavers is compatible with respect for dignity if: 1) the utility of such use is great enough; 2) there are no other ways of achieving these ends; and 3) every effort is made to honor the dignity of the donors. PMID:17454986

  14. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  15. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed.

  16. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver.

  17. Reflections on dissection: leave no student behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E

    2008-01-01

    Dissection is being reduced--and even removed--from the medical curriculum in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and the United States. Dissection's contribution to the curriculum is too important to be diminished. To understand the human body, students must dissect. To avoid anatomical complications, future surgeons need the knowledge they can gain from dissection. Cadavers reveal the uniqueness of each body and the body's strength and fragility, which cannot be learned from books or computers. Cadavers offer surgical skill-building opportunities and confrontation with death. For all its strengths, however, dissection alone does not teach everything the student needs to know. Other educational tools (books, CT and MRI, animation of developmental processes) successfully fill in gaps of knowledge. Surgeons and educators must recognize the threat that decreased dissection poses to our students and patients. They must take steps to support dissection in the medical curriculum or, if it has disappeared, to bring it back.

  18. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2004-01-01

    ) to investigate the relationship between minimal JSW and self reported hip pain of the cohort. METHODS: (1) Cadaver pelves and proximal femora of one male and one female donor were mounted in holding devices permitting independent rotation (total arc of 42 degrees), and inclination/reclination (total arc of 24...... degrees). At each 3 degrees increment an anteroposterior radiograph was recorded. Measurements of JSW were performed. (2) Self reported recurrent pain in or around the hip joint during 12 months prior to baseline examinations, and minimum JSW in pelvic radiographs of the cohort were registered....... Relationships between minimum JSW and self reported pain were investigated. RESULTS: (1) Measurements of hip JSW in cadaver radiographs were not influenced significantly by rotation. Measurements of JSW were inconclusively influenced by varying inclination/reclination. (2) Minimum JSW

  19. MR imaging of the most commonly injured and diseased structures of the elbow and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen elbows and 23 ankles of cadavers, normal volunteers, and patients with various disorders were examined by MR imaging. The cadaver specimens were sectioned for direct image correlation. The exhibit illustrates (1) the ability of MR imaging to identify all of the commonly injured or diseased structures about the elbow and ankle, (2) the optimum imaging plane and positioning for each structure, (3) the value of T1- and T2-weighted images in identifying and specifically localizing the disruption, edema, hemorrhage, or effusion that occurs in pathologic processes such as ankle ligament injury and tendinitis at the elbow, and (4) the ability of serial axial sections to follow the ulnar, median, radial, and tibial nerves and their associated vessels through their common entrapment sites

  20. Optimization of MR imaging of the most commonly injured structures of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR images of the ankles of seven cadavers, nine healthy volunteers, and seven injured patients were correlated with cadaver dissections and cryosections to determine the optimum imaging plane and foot position for demonstrating each ligament's injury parameters. Axial images of the neutral-positioned foot allowed full-length visualization of the anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments, while the calcaneofibular ligament was paraxially imaged in 400 of plantar flexion. Coronal images allowed paraaxial visualization of major parts of the deltoid ligament: the tibionavicular ligament in 400 of plantar flexion and the tibospring and posterior tibiotalar ligaments in 150 of plantar flexion. Acute ligament rupture was well delineated on T2-weighted images by the high signal intensity of the overlying subcutaneous edema and hemorrhage and the underlying joint effusion. In chronically unstable ankles, ligament rupture, thinning, and lengthening were best demonstrated by placing that ligament in its stress position

  1. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery.

  2. Penetration of tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes and liposomes across human skin: a comparative study with confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra K; Suresh, Preeti K; Rudrapal, Mithun; Verma, Vinod K

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ethosomal and liposomal formulations containing tamoxifen citrate were prepared and evaluated for their penetration properties in human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cell and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The results clearly revealed that ethosomal vesicles showed a better drug permeation profile than that of liposomal vesicles. In addition, low fluorescence intensity in CLSM was recorded with liposomes as compared to ethosomes, indicating lower cumulative amount of drug permeation from liposomal vesicles. Furthermore, CLSM showed uniform fluorescence intensity across the entire depth of skin in ethosomal treatment, indicating high penetrability of ethosomal vesicles through human cadaver skin. In contrast, low penetrability of conventional liposomal vesicles was recorded as penetration was limited to the 7(th) section (i.e. upper epidermis layer) of skin as evident from visualization of intact liposomal vesicles in CLSM.

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium spp. in the soil environment of an agroecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinwender, Bernhardt Michael

    several sympatric species and genotypes. The isolated species and their genotypes were evaluated for ecological traits including UVB tolerance, temperature dependent in vitro growth, virulence and conidia production on infected cadavers, and mycelial growth from insect cadavers into the surrounding soil......Species of the entomopathogenic fungal genus Metarhizium are found worldwide predominantly in the soil environment where they infect a broad spectrum of insects, but also associate with plant roots. To increase performance of Metarhizium as biological control agents against pests, fundamental...... samples with “insect baits” and from the roots of several crop plants using selective media. The resulting isolates were separated into genotypes by applying microsatellite markers and DNA regions of these genotypes were sequenced. The study showed a highly complex Metarhizium community that comprised...

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars;

    guide surgical treatment. The TTTG measures tibial tuberosity position relative to the axis of the femoral trochlea. A preliminary investigation of TTTG measurement was performed using the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers as a morphologically similar and homogenous substitute for dog cadavers. CT......Reliable, validated objective criteria for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of medial patellar luxation in the dog are lacking. The tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG) is a sensitive, reliable CT or MRI measurement of distal quadriceps mechanism alignment in humans that can...... the typical TTTG in normal and patellar luxation affected dogs, and identify the optimal position for CT scanning. TTTG measurement, if refined, may prove useful in patient selection for procedures such as distal femoral osteotomy in management of medial patellar luxation in large breed dogs....

  5. Body donation in India: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Rokade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of anatomy is inseparable from cadaveric dissection. However scarcity of cadavers is felt all over the world. Body donation is the preferred and major source of cadavers worldwide. It is defined as an informed and free act of giving one’s whole body after death for medical education and research. This article gives a brief review of history of body donation. It reveals the details about who can donate and who can accept the body along with procedure followed to donate body in India. It discusses the donors’ attitude behind body donation and factors preventing people from body donation. It deals with approach of various religions towards body donation. It discusses some important ways to overcome the scarcity of bodies in India and the world. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 173-177

  6. How to do it: importance of left atrial side retraction in robotic and minimally invasive mitral valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Sun, You Su; Nifong, L Wiley; Watanabe, Go; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2008-01-01

    A customized transthoracic atrial retractor was previously developed for robotic and minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, but it has sometimes failed to provide sufficient exposure of the mitral valve because some atrial tissues push away the operative field from the right side. This report describes 3 new atrial side retractors (the foldaway retractor, the spoon retractor, and the wired retractor) and their use in performing robotic mitral valve repair in fresh frozen human cadavers. These retractors provided exceptional and consistent exposure of the left atrium in robotic and minimally invasive mitral valve surgery in human cadavers without causing traumatic injury, and these retractors should be useful in live patients because they will be used in arrested hearts.

  7. [Anatomic danger of percutaneous section of the inter-metatarsal ligament for the treatment of Morton's neuroma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabié, F; Accadbled, F; Tricoire, J-L; Puget, J

    2007-11-01

    Certain authors have proposed percutaneous neurolysis of Morton's neuroma. We conducted a human anatomy study to assess the reliability and the iatrogenic effect of percutaneous section of the ligament. Percutaneous section of the inter-metatarsal ligament was performed on 16 fresh cadaver specimens via a dorsal approach. The plantar dissection demonstrated that the section was not complete, without associated lesion, in only six cases. Analyzing these failures, we determined the necessary procedure for correct section. PMID:18065883

  8. A novel suture method to place and adjust peripheral nerve catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, C.; Steen-Hansen, C.; Madsen, M. H.;

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a peripheral nerve catheter, attached to a needle, which works like an adjustable suture. We used in-plane ultrasound guidance to place 45 catheters close to the femoral, saphenous, sciatic and distal tibial nerves in cadaver legs. We displaced catheters after their initial plac...... successful and 42/43 secondary placements successful by ultrasound, confirmed in 10/10 cases by magnetic resonance imaging....

  9. MEDIAN NERVE AS A NERVE OF ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF ARM WITH ITS VARIANT FORMATION: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charushila D. Shinde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Absence of Musculocutaneous nerve and unusual formation and innervation of Median nerve were noted in left upper limb during anatomical dissection of 60 yr old female cadaver. Median nerve normally does not give any branch in arm but in this case it innervates all the muscles of anterior compartment of arm in place of Musculocutaneous nerve. Here we discussed its embryology. It is important to be aware of such possible anatomical variations in routine clinical practice.

  10. Basic Plastic Surgery Skills Training Program on Inanimate Bench Models during Medical Graduation

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Denadai; Andréia Padilha Toledo; Luis Ricardo Martinhão Souto

    2012-01-01

    Due to ethical and medical-legal drawbacks, high costs, and difficulties of accessibility that are inherent to the practice of basic surgical skills on living patients, fresh human cadaver, and live animals, the search for alternative forms of training is needed. In this study, the teaching and learning process of basic surgical skills pertinent to plastic surgery during medical education on different inanimate bench models as a form of alternative and complementary training to the teaching p...

  11. Circumaortic Left Renal Vein Associated with Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Koji; Taniguchi, Shinichiro; Ariyoshi, Tsuneo; Hisata, Yoichi; Tanigawa, Kazuyoshi; Miura, Takashi; Sumi, Mizuki; Eishi, Kiyoyuki

    2013-01-01

    The patient was an 82-year-old man who was found to have a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by a circumaortic left renal vein (CLRV). During dissection of the proximal anastomosis site the CLRV was injured, but was successfully repaired. A graft implantation was performed below the renal arteries. The incidence of CLRV is thought to be rare, however it is found in 7% of cadavers donated for anatomy. CLRV may cause unexpected bleeding by inadvertent dissection of the abdominal ...

  12. Sensory disturbances of buccal and lingual nerve by muscle compression: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Alvira González, Joaquín; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies on cadavers dissection have shown that collateral branches of the trigeminal nerve cross muscle bundles on their way, being a possible etiological factor of some nerve disturbances. Case Report A 45-year-old man attended to the Temporomandibular Joint and Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology in Hospital Odontològic of Barcelona University, referring tingling in the left hemifacial región and ipsilateral lingual side for one year, with...

  13. Area and Personal Exposure Levels to Formaldehyde and Its Variation among Undergraduate Students during Gross Anatomy Laboratory Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Pensri Watchalayann; Adul Tapyai; Kajorn Lakchayapakorn

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde emitted from the cadavers in Gross Anatomy Laboratory may fluctuate leading to a variation in exposure level of the participants during practice. This study aimed to evaluate the variation of formaldehyde levels and to determine the relationship between area and personal exposure concentration. Formaldehyde levels were measured in six sampling areas repeatedly during three types of study sessions; thoracic, abdominal, and brain and nerve study session. The highest formaldehyde le...

  14. Segmentation of Cerebral Gyri in the Sectioned Images by Referring to Volume Model

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jin Seo; Chung, Min Suk; Chi, Je-Geun; Park, Hyo Seok; Shin, Dong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Authors had prepared the high-quality sectioned images of a cadaver head. For the delineation of each cerebral gyrus, three-dimensional model of the same brain was required. The purpose of this study was to develop the segmentation protocol of cerebral gyri by referring to the three-dimensional model on the personal computer. From the 114 sectioned images (intervals, 1 mm), a cerebral hemisphere was outlined. On MRIcro software, sectioned images including only the cerebral hemisphere were vol...

  15. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Zeichner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  16. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Zeichner; Baruch Glattstein

    2002-01-01

    A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  17. Tissue quality assessment using a novel direct elasticity assessment device (the E-finger: a cadaveric study of prostatectomy dissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Good

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP (robotic and laparoscopic, have brought improvements in the outcomes of RP due to improved views and increased degrees of freedom of surgical devices. Robotic and laparoscopic surgeries do not incorporate haptic feedback, which may result in complications secondary to inadequate tissue dissection (causing positive surgical margins, rhabdosphincter damage, etc. We developed a micro-engineered device (6 mm2 sized [E-finger] capable of quantitative elasticity assessment, with amplitude ratio, mean ratio and phase lag representing this. The aim was to assess the utility of the device in differentiating peri-prostatic tissue types in order to guide prostate dissection.Two embalmed and 2 fresh frozen cadavers were used in the study. Baseline elasticity values were assessed in bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter of pre-dissected embalmed cadavers using the micro-engineered device. A measurement grid was created to span from the bladder, across the prostate and onto the rhabdosphincter of fresh frozen cadavers to enable a systematic quantitative elasticity assessment of the entire area by 2 independent assessors. Tissue was sectioned along each row of elasticity measurement points, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. Image analysis was performed with Image Pro Premier to determine the histology at each measurement point.Statistically significant differences in elasticity were identified between bladder, prostate and sphincter in both embalmed and fresh frozen cadavers (p = < 0.001. Intra-class correlation (ICC reliability tests showed good reliability (average ICC = 0.851. Sensitivity and specificity for tissue identification was 77% and 70% respectively to a resolution of 6 mm2.This cadaveric study has evaluated the ability of our elasticity assessment device to differentiate bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter to a resolution of 6 mm2. The results provide useful data for which to continue to

  18. Emerging options in growth hormone therapy: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp SF; Frindik JP

    2011-01-01

    Stephen F Kemp, J Paul FrindikUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USAAbstract: Growth hormone (GH) was first used to treat a patient in 1958. For the next 25 years it was available only from cadaver sources, which was of concern because of safety considerations and short supply. In 1985, GH produced by recombinant DNA techniques became available, expanding its possible uses. Since that time there have been three indications appro...

  19. Managing infertility with the follitropin alfa prefilled pen injector – patient considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler K

    2015-01-01

    Klaus Bühler Centre for Gynaecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Stuttgart, Germany Abstract: Gonadotropin treatment has been used in fertility treatment since the 1930s. First, preparations coming from animals were injected, then, gonadotropins prepared from the pituitary glands of human cadavers. A great step was achieved with the introduction of human menopausal gonadotropin extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. When cases of Creutzfeld-Jacob disease w...

  20. Surrogate Head Forms for the Evaluation of Head Injury Risk

    OpenAIRE

    MacAlister, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the use of surrogate head forms in biomechanical research pertaining to head injury and, more specifically, mild traumatic brain injury. Because cadavers are limited and controlled studies of brain injury using live human subjects would be unethical, surrogate head forms are used to study the response of the human head to impact. Different head forms have been developed and optimized for different purposes. The Hybrid III 50th percentile male crash test dummy was develop...

  1. Accuracy of radiographs in assessment of displacement in lateral humeral condyle fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Ashleen; Avoian, Tigran; Borkowski, Sean L.; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Zionts, Lewis E.; Sangiorgio, Sophia N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Determining the magnitude of displacement in pediatric lateral humeral condyle fractures can be difficult. The purpose of this study was to (1) assess the effect of forearm rotation on true fracture displacement using a cadaver model and to (2) determine the accuracy of radiographic measurements of the fracture gap. Methods A non-displaced fracture was created in three human cadaveric arms. The specimens were mounted on a custom apparatus allowing forearm rotation with the humerus fix...

  2. Allograft AlloDerm® tissue for laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal groin hernia repair: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Amirlak, Bardia; Gerdes, Jodi; Puri, Varun; Fitzgibbons, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Synthetic mesh is the prosthetic material used for most inguinal hernioplasties. However, when left in contact with intra-abdominal viscera, it often becomes associated with infection and migration, particularly in irradiated tissues, contaminated fields, immunosuppressed individuals, and patients with intestinal obstruction or fistula. AlloDerm® Regenerative Tissue Matrix (LifeCell Corporation, Branchburg, NJ) is derived from human cadaver skin and may be associated with fewer v...

  3. Arthroscopic Fixation of Cell Free Polymer-Based Cartilage Implants with a Bioinspired Polymer Surface on the Hip Joint: A Cadaveric Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lahner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the adhesion capacity of a polyglycolic acid- (PGA- hyaluronan scaffold with a structural modification based on a planar polymer (PM surface in a cadaver cartilage defect model. Two cadaver specimens were used to serially test multiple chondral matrices. In a cadaver hip model, cell free polymer-based cartilage implants with a planar bioinspired PM surface (PGA-PM-scaffolds were implanted arthroscopically on 10 mm × 15 mm full-thickness femoral hip cartilage lesions. Unprocessed cartilage implants without a bioinspired PM surface were used as control group. The cartilage implants were fixed without and with the use of fibrin glue on femoral hip cartilage defects. After 50 movement cycles and removal of the distraction, a rearthroscopy was performed to assess the outline attachment and integrity of the scaffold. The fixation techniques without and with fibrin fixation showed marginal differences for outline attachment, area coverage, scaffold integrity, and endpoint fixation after 50 cycles. The PGA-PM-scaffolds with fibrin fixation achieved a higher score in terms of the attachment, integrity, and endpoint fixation than the PGA-scaffold on the cartilage defect. Relating to the outline attachment, area coverage, scaffold integrity, and endpoint fixation, the fixation with PGA-PM-scaffolds accomplished significantly better results compared to the PGA-scaffolds (P=0.03752, P=0.03078, P=0.00512, P=0.00512. PGA-PM-scaffolds demonstrate increased observed initial fixation strength in cadaver femoral head defects relative to PGA-scaffold, particularly when fibrin glue is used for fixation.

  4. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Saffar; Amit Kumar; Ankur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015) and presence...

  5. [Autopsy practised in modern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L

    1994-01-01

    It's very difficult for autopsy to develop in modern China. Two autopsy rules issued by Ministry of Internal Affairs were of epochal significance. Although Society on Anatomy had been set up by western medical workers, and there were four people willing to offer their own remains after death for autopsy, it was still very difficult to obtain a cadaver for autopsy actually. The main barrier still lay in the feudal morality. Moreover, incomplete law also contributed a factor. PMID:11639350

  6. Murdering Mothers: Infanticide, Madness, and the Law, Rio de Janeiro, 1890-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Cassia

    2015-01-01

    In 1923, the Rio de Janeiro public prosecutor charged twentyfive- year-old Portuguese immigrant Maria de Jesus for the crimes of both abortion and infanticide.1 Maria stated that she had miscarried a five-month-old fetus at the Eunice Hotel where she worked as a maid. She then disposed of the cadaver by cutting off its head, flushing the body down the toilet, and throwing the head into the backy...

  7. Femtosecond Laser Micro-structuring Of Transparent Materials And Its Ophthalmologic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, Andrey A.; Kozhushko, Svetlana E.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Seleznev, Leonid V.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry V.; Zakharov, Stanislav D.; Alekhin, Alexander I.; Kourylyova, Irina M.; Kuz'min, Kirill K.; Likhvantseva, Vera G.; Samoylov, Michail V.

    2010-10-01

    We have successfully fabricated in vitro femtosecond laser micro-incisions inside cornea and—for the first time—inside sclera mildly pre-cleared by a biocompatible and clinically safe (non-toxic) natural agent (replacive refractive index-matching 40%-glucose solution in water), with the tissues taken as fresh cool cuts of human cadaver eyes, and reported on basic operational conditions of the micro-surgical procedures.

  8. 肩関節石灰沈着性腱板炎の病態に関する研究 ―特に石灰化結晶の微細構造について―

    OpenAIRE

    石川, 正志

    1984-01-01

    Calcified substances from lesions of calcified tendinitis of the shoulder (CTS) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarized light microscopy. The substances were also analysed by infra-red spectrography. The rotator cuffs of the shoulder in 9 cadavers were observed by light microscopy. In the histological study of the rotator cuffs, various degenerative changes, such as separation and irregular arrangement of the collagen bundles and hyalinization at the attachment of the...

  9. The effects of dissection-room experiences and related coping strategies among Hungarian medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Sándor, Imola; Birkás, Emma; Győrffy, Zsuzsa

    2015-01-01

    Background Students get their first experiences of dissecting human cadavers in the practical classes of anatomy and pathology courses, core components of medical education. These experiences form an important part of the process of becoming a doctor, but bring with them a special set of problems. Methods Quantitative, national survey (n = 733) among medical students, measured reactions to dissection experiences and used a new measuring instrument to determine the possible factors of coping. ...

  10. Effects of knee joint angle on global and local strains within human triceps surae muscle: MRI analysis indicating in vivo myofascial force transmission between synergistic muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Huijing, Peter A.; Yaman, Alper; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Yucesoy, Can A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mechanical interactions between muscles have been shown for in situ conditions. In vivo data for humans is unavailable. Global and local length changes of calf muscles were studied to test the hypothesis that local strains may occur also within muscle for which global strain equals zero. Methods For determination of globally induced strain in m. gastrocnemius in dissected human cadavers several knee joint angles were imposed, while keeping ankle joint angle constant and measuring its ...

  11. [The conflict between obturator nerve and ovary: a cadaveric and radioanatomic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejewski, F; Peltier, J; Havet, E; Page, C; Foulon, P; Gondry, J; Le Gars, D

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relationships between the ovary and the obturator nerve in its intrapelvic portion. Seven embalmed cadavers were dissected; 20 MRIs were then analyzed. The main distance between the lateral pole of the ovary and the obturator nerve was 29 mm. The authors describe various etiologies responsible for obturator neuralgia. An underdiagnosed cause is gonadal hypertrophy. PMID:23796698

  12. Microscopic fungi isolated from the Domica Cave system (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia). A review

    OpenAIRE

    Novakova Alena

    2009-01-01

    A broad spectrum, total of 195 microfungal taxa, were isolated from various cave substrates (cave air, cave sediments, bat droppingsand/or guano, earthworm casts, isopods and diplopods faeces, mammalian dung, cadavers, vermiculations, insect bodies, plantmaterial, etc.) from the cave system of the Domica Cave (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia) using dilution, direct and gravitysettling culture plate methods and several isolation media. Penicillium glandicola, Trichoderma polysporum, Oidio...

  13. The Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System of the Face: A Model Explored

    OpenAIRE

    Broughton, M.; G. M. Fyfe

    2013-01-01

    Regional differences in the integument of the body are explained, at least in part, by differences in fascial arrangements. In the face, where the skin is more mobile due to the action of the underlying facial muscles, fascial organisation is important for support and separation of muscle groups. This study used bequeathed cadaver material to investigate a current model of the SMAS proposed by Macchi et al., the original boundaries of which w...

  14. Organ Culture Bioreactors – Platforms to Study Human Intervertebral Disc Degeneration and Regenerative Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gantenbein, Benjamin; Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Chan, Samantha CW; Walser, Jochen; Haglund, Lisbet; Ferguson, Stephen J; Iatridis, James C.; Grad, Sibylle

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades the application of bioreactors has revolutionized the concept of culturing tissues and organs that require mechanical loading. In intervertebral disc (IVD) research, collaborative efforts of biomedical engineering, biology and mechatronics have led to the innovation of new loading devices that can maintain viable IVD organ explants from large animals and human cadavers in precisely defined nutritional and mechanical environments over extended culture periods. Particularly in...

  15. Zur Legitimation der Verwendung menschlicher Leichen in der heutigen Anatomie

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  16. Pure endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy: anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Andrea; Bruno, Maria Carmela; Decq, Philippe; Coste, Andre; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Divittis, Enrico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Tschabitscher, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Different disorders may produce irreducible atlanto-axial dislocation with compression of the ventral spinal cord. Among the surgical approaches available for a such condition, the transoral resection of the odontoid process is the most often used. The aim of this anatomical study is to demonstrate the possibility of an anterior cervico-medullary decompression through an endoscopic endonasal approach. Three fresh cadaver heads were used. A modified endonasal endoscopic approach was made in al...

  17. Angular vessels as a new vascular pedicle of an island nasal chondromucosal flap: Anatomical study and clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    HOU, DIANJU; Fang, Lin; Zhao, Zhenmin; ZHOU, CHUANDE; YANG, MINGYONG

    2012-01-01

    Successful eyelid reconstructions have been reported when using an axial nasal chondromucosal flap based on the dorsal nasal artery. The present study aimed to present a detailed anatomical description of the blood supply of the lateral nasal region and the angular artery, in order to propose the angular vessels as a new vascular pedicle for the island nasal chondromucosal flap. A total of 11 cadavers (22 hemi-faces) were examined. Observations with regard to the origin, course and distributi...

  18. Les restes osseux du gisement d'Urdanarre

    OpenAIRE

    Henri Duday

    1993-01-01

    En el enterramiento se identifican restos óseos humanos que corresponden a dos individuos. En uno de los casos, perteneciente a un adulto de edad madura, el cadaver habría sido incinerado. El otro, mejor representado, se trata de un subadulto que habría sido inhumado. En este caso la superficie de los huesos está muy afectada por la erosión que han experimentado en el lugar de inhumación.

  19. Access to organs for transplantation: overcoming “rejection”

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Recent success in overcoming rejection of transplanted organs has led to a much greater demand for organs from donors and to a reconsideration of mechanisms for increasing the availability of organs from cadavers. In the latter respect the two basic systems are "contracting-in" and "contracting-out". Each system has different benefits and harms, and it is a value judgement that should be adopted. However, both systems raise legal, ethical and practical issues that must be addressed if organs ...

  20. Can evidence-based health policy from high-income countries be applied to lower-income countries: considering barriers and facilitators to an organ donor registry in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Diana K. Vania; Randall, Glen E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Organ transplantation has become an effective means to extend lives; however, a major obstacle is the lack of availability of cadaveric organs. India has one of the lowest cadaver organ donation rates in the world. If India could increase the donor rate, the demand for many organs could be met. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that an organ donor registry can be a valuable tool for increasing donor rates. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the implementat...

  1. Organ donor problems and their management

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Veena; Bhosale G

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, transplantation has assumed an important role in the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure. With the passage of Transplantation of Human Organ Act by the Indian parliament, transplantation of organs from brain dead donors has become a reality. Although there are many issues in success of cadaver programme, intensivists can play a crucial role by converting a potential donor into an actual donor. This article reviews the identification of potential organ donor and...

  2. The Interspinous Spacer: A Clinicoanatomical Investigation Using Plastination

    OpenAIRE

    Juergen Koebke; Rolf Sobottke; Peer Eysel; Jutta Knifka; Gregor Stein; Kourosh Zarghooni; Thomas Kaulhausen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The relatively new and less-invasive therapeutic alternative “interspinous process decompression device (IPD)” is expected to result in improved symptoms of neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) caused by lumbar spinal stenosis. The aim of the study was to analyze IPD position particularly regarding damage originating from surgical implantation. Methods. Anatomic assessments were performed on a fresh human cadaver. For the anatomic examination, the lumbar spine was plastinated a...

  3. UTILIZATION OF FORMALIN EMBALMED SPECIMENS UNDER ECO-FRIENDLY CONDITIONS BY ADVANCED PLASTINATION TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Menaka; Chaurasia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of anatomical models and teaching aids is a challenging task in the medical, veterinary and paramedical sciences as like as life form. The successful preservation of conventional methods by embalmed cadavers/ corpse’s are routinely practiced for educational/research purposes. The existing form of preservation technique is not promising to meet the current challenges in the teaching and learning of human/veterinary anatomy. The embalming fluid causes potential health hazards with c...

  4. Plastination of decalcified bone by a new resin technique

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Rabiei; Ebrahim Esfandiary; Morteza Hajian; Atefe Shamosi; Mohammad Mardani; Bahman Rashidi; Mohsen Setayeshmehr

    2014-01-01

    Background: The scope of this study was to preserve whole detailed structure of dissected and decalcified bones, taken from used cadavers, by a new plastination technique. Materials and Methods: Specimens we used in this study were sheep femurs and human bones including pelvis, femur, tibia, and fibula. Bones, at first, fixed with 5% formalin and were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, and then were fixed again and washed under the tap water. The resulted flexible bones were dehydrated in -...

  5. Biomechanical Evaluation of Knee Kinematics after ACL Reconstructions in Anatomic SB and DB - Technique with Additional Medial Meniscus Suture

    OpenAIRE

    Lorbach, Olaf; Herbort, Mirco; Engelhardt, Martin; Kieb, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Biomechanical evaluation of knee laxity after single- and double-bundle ACL reconstruction with additional medial meniscus suture. Methods: Kinematics of the intact knee were determined in 12 human cadaver specimens in response to a 134-N anterior tibial load (aTT) and a combined rotatory load of 10 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial rotation using a robotic/universal force moment sensor testing system. Subsequently, the ACL was resected following the creation of a bucket-handle t...

  6. Hallux Valgus and the First Tarsometatarsal Joint: Clinical and Biomechanical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Frank

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a series of cadaver, experimental, radiographic and clinical studies on the relation between a hallux valgus deformity and mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Hypermobility of stiffnes of the joint was determined by Doppler imaging of vibrations and by radiographic stress measurement. With neither method a sharp distinction between hypermobility and non-hypermobility of the joint could be made. Comparison of the Hohmann surgical procedure with the La...

  7. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F

    2000-01-01

    In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associate...... in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients....

  8. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Chad W Stratilo; Crichton, Melissa K. F.; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in ...

  9. Synergistic iontophoretic drug delivery of risedronate sodium in combination with electroporation and chemical penetration enhancer: In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Swaroop R Lahoti; Shardul Dalal

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation iontophoretic permeation of risedronate sodium (RS) through optimized gel based formulation was evaluated with respect to various electrical parameters like Current density and type of current. The study also involved enhancement the iontophoretic permeation of RS in combination with electroporation and chemical penetration enhancers with its in-vivo Pharmacokinetic evaluation. The permeation studies were carried through the human cadaver skin by using modified Fr...

  10. The characteristics of the mechanoreceptors of the hip with arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Miguel R B; Cavalcante, Maria L C; Leite, José A D; Macedo, José N; Sampaio, Marianna L B; Jamacaru, Vagnaldo F; Santana, Mariana G

    2011-11-16

    Mechanoreceptors have been extensively studied in different joints and distinct signals that convey proprioceptive information to the cortex. Several clinical reports have established a link between the number of mechanoreceptors and a deficient proprioceptive system; however, little or no literature suggest concentration of mechanoreceptors might be affected by hip arthrosis. The purpose of this study is first to determine the existence of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings in the hip joint and to distinguish between their conditions: those with arthrosis and without arthrosis. Samples of 45 male hips were analyzed: 30 taken from patients with arthrosis that were submitted to total arthroplasty and 15 taken from male cadavers without arthrosis. The patients' ages ranged from 38 to75 years (average 56.5) and the cadavers' ages ranged from 21 to 50 years (average 35.5). The capsule, labrum, and femoral head ligament tissues were obtained during the arthroplasty procedure from 30 patients with arthrosis and from 15 male cadavers. The tissue was cut into fragments of around 3 mm. Each fragment was then immediately stained with gold chloride 1% solution and divided into sections of 6 μm thickness. The Mann-Whitney test was used for two groups and the ANOVA, Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests for more than two groups. Results show the mechanoreceptors (Pacini, Ruffini and Golgi corpuscles) and free nerve endings are present in the capsule, femoral head ligament, and labrum of the hip joint. When all the densities of the nerve endings were examined with regard to those with arthrosis and those without arthrosis, the mechanoreceptors of cadavers without arthrosis were found to be more pronounced and an increase in free nerve endings could be observed (p = 0.0082). Further studies, especially electrophysiological studies, need to be carried out to clarify the functions of the mechanoreceptors in the joints.

  11. A decision support system for forensic entomology

    OpenAIRE

    Morvan, Gildas; Jolly, Daniel; Dupont, Daniel; Kubiak, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    International audience This paper presents a multiagent-based model of insect development on a dead body and a three layers Decision Support System architecture able to perform retrodictive (abductive) reasoning from multiagent-based models or more generally, complex systems models. This architecture is used in order to compute post-mortem intervals from entomological data sampled on cadavers. Knowing the exact time of a death is fundamental in criminal investigations. Thus, it is necessar...

  12. [Polish forensic entomology--the past, present and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Forensic medicine increasingly more often benefits from the achievements of other biological sciences, which may be used in post mortem investigation. One of them is forensic entomology--the science based on the knowledge about biology of insects preying on cadavers. The objective of this article is to present the history of Polish forensic entomology, its present state and possibilities and directions of further development.

  13. Transdermal delivery of ethosomes as a novel vesicular carrier for paroxetine hydrochloride: In vitro evaluation and In vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    PATHAN, Inayat Bashir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop, characterisation of stable ethosomal formulation as a carrier for transdermal delivery of paroxetine hydrochloride. To prepare this ethosome different concentration of soya lecithin and ethanol was taken. Vesicular size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment effiency was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy and ultracentrifugation techniques. The in vitro permeation study across human cadaver skin was done. Stability study was do...

  14. Anatomical description and clinical significance of unilateral triheaded sternocleidomastoid muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Goswami; Yogesh Yadav; Chakradhar V

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this report is to observe and report unusual pattern of origin of sternal and clavicular heads of Sternocleidomastoid (SCM). An embryological insight into the possible causes for present anomaly is elucidated. The neck region of an adult male cadaver during gross anatomy teaching program. An abnormal Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) was observed while dissecting the neck region of an adult. Additional clavicular head of SCM muscle were found on the right side. The accessory clavicular h...

  15. Lateral Mass Fixation in Subaxial Cervical Spine: Anatomic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Elrahmany; Ihab, Zidan; Moaz, Anwar; Ayman, Nabawi; Haitham, Abo-elw

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The cervical spine is a highly mobile segment of the spinal column, liable to a variety of diseases and susceptible to trauma. It is a complex region where many vital structures lie in close proximity. Lateral mass screw fixation has become the method of choice in stabilizing subaxial cervical spine among other posterior cervical fixation techniques whenever the posterior elements are absent or compromised. Objective This study examined cervical specimens of cadavers and cervical...

  16. Split-liver transplantation – an alternative to increase the number of liver transplantation recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lupaşcu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Split-liver transplantation (SLT is a procedure in which one cadaver donor liver is divided to provide grafts for two recipients. SLT has been performed for over a decade after the initial reports from Europe and USA. Despite the potential for increased organ supply, the practice proves that SLT is seldom performed, accounting for less than 2% of total liver transplant procedures. Difficulties to widespread application of SLT include technical and logistical issues pertaining to both donors and recipients.

  17. Split-liver transplantation – an alternative to increase the number of liver transplantation recipients

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lupaşcu; Lerut, J.

    2013-01-01

    Split-liver transplantation (SLT) is a procedure in which one cadaver donor liver is divided to provide grafts for two recipients. SLT has been performed for over a decade after the initial reports from Europe and USA. Despite the potential for increased organ supply, the practice proves that SLT is seldom performed, accounting for less than 2% of total liver transplant procedures. Difficulties to widespread application of SLT include technical and logistical issues pertaining to both donors ...

  18. OSSIFIED CARTILAGO THYREOIDEA AND ITS CLINICAL INSIGHT: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuri Kalyan Chakravarthi*, Nelluri Venumadhav and Huban Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The three major cartilages of the larynx - thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoids are all hyaline cartilage. They may undergo calcification or endochondral ossification (or both), such calcified or ossified cartilage may compress the neuro vascular structures around it. Accordingly the present study was undertaken to observe the incidence of the ossified thyroid cartilages (Cartilago Thyreoidea) in the human cadavers, discuss its clinical implications and to review the literature regarding these an...

  19. Variant Branching Pattern of Axillary Artery: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy Ravindra Shantakumar; Mohandas Rao, K. G.

    2012-01-01

    During routine dissection of an approximately 50-year-old male cadaver for the undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, we came across a variation in branching pattern of right axillary artery. The second part of axillary artery gave rise to a common trunk which divided into the subscapular and lateral thoracic arteries. The third part of right axillary artery gave rise to anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. Variations in t...

  20. Bilateral Additional Slips of Triceps Brachii Forming Osseo-Musculo-Fibrous Tunnels for Ulnar Nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy, RS; Rao, MKG; Somayaji, SN; Raghu, J; Pamidi, N

    2013-01-01

    Rare additional slips of triceps brachii muscle was found bilaterally in a sixty two year old South Indian male cadaver during routine dissection of upper limb for undergraduate students at Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India. On left side, the variant additional muscle slip took origin from the lower part of the medial intermuscular septum about 4 cm proximal to the medial humeral epicondyle. From its origin, the muscle fibres were passing over the ulnar nerve ...

  1. The Challenges in Autopsy Cases Exposed to Animal Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Tokdemir, Murat Bülent; Çetin, Gürsel; Şam, Bülent; Özer, Erdal; Yıldırım, Ali; Bütün, Celal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Discrimination between antemortem and postmortem lesions inflicted by animals from other traumas, and contribution of these injuries to the cause of death which is often encountered in forensic autopsies may cause some difficulties. Detailed identification, and, evaluation of bite marks which has the depth and shape of the teeth and jaw of the animal interfering to the cadaver, tissue losses, paw and tooth marks nd vital signs must be performed during autopsy. Current autopsy reports...

  2. Compared to X-ray, three-dimensional computed tomography measurement is a reproducible radiographic method for normal proximal humerus

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Xiaoyang; Chen, Yanxi; QIANG, MINFEI; Zhang, Kun; Li, Haobo; Jiang, Yuchen; Zhang, Yijie

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate comprehension of the normal humeral morphology is crucial for anatomical reconstruction in shoulder arthroplasty. However, traditional morphological measurements for humerus were mainly based on cadaver and radiography. The purpose of this study was to provide a series of precise and repeatable parameters of the normal proximal humerus for arthroplasty, based on the three-dimensional (3-D) measurements. Methods Radiographic and 3-D computed tomography (CT) measurements of ...

  3. Potential sources of quantification error when retrospectively assessing metacarpal bone loss from historical radiographs by using digital X-ray radiogrammetry : an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kälvesten, Johan; Brismar, Torkel B.; Persson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 yr, digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) has been used to measure metacarpal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is often measured in existing cohorts where X-ray images were not acquired in accordance with the DXR imaging protocol (DIP). The purpose of the present study was to analyze how deviations from DIP in historical radiographs may affect the reproducibility of DXR-BMD measurements. Cadaver hand phantoms were used to conduct repeat measurements of deviations from DIP with ...

  4. Variant position of the medial plantar nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Astik RB; Dave UH; Gajendra KS

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of variation of position of the medial plantar nerve is important for the forefoot surgeon for plantar reconstruction, local injection therapy and an excision of interdigital neuroma. During routine dissection of 50-year-old female cadaver, we found the medial plantar nerve and vessels variably located between plantar aponeurosis and the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the right foot. Due to this variant position, the medial plantar nerve and vessels lose their protection ...

  5. Limbal stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Merle; Sangwan Virender; Rao Srinivas; Basti Surendra; Sridhar Mittanamalli; Bansal Aashish; Dua Harminder

    2004-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in limbal stem cell transplantation. In addition to harvesting stem cells from a cadaver or a live related donor, it is now possible to cultivate limbal stem cells in vitro and then transplant them onto the recipient bed. A clear understanding of the basic disease pathology and a correct assessment of the extent of stem cell deficiency are essential. A holistic approach towards management of limbal stem cell deficiency is needed. This ...

  6. Fat herniation through the canal of Schwalbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, A; Abel, N; Tubbs, R S; Loukas, M

    2014-11-01

    The authors report a case of fat herniation through the canal of Schwalbe noted in a female cadaver during abdominopelvic dissection. Perineal hernias are rare hernias, and herniations through the hiatus of Schwalbe represent a rare posterior lateral perineal hernia. While these hernias are extremely rare, anatomists and surgeons should be aware of them, and the clinical significance and manifestations which may occur with these hernias. PMID:25448911

  7. IN THE GROSS ANATOMY LABORATORY: A REVIEW OF THE EMBRYOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS OF THE ABERRANT RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY. EN EL LABORATORIO DE ANATOMÍA MACROSCÓPICA: REVISIÓN DE LA EMBRIOLOGÍA Y GENÉTICA MOLECULAR DE LA ARTERIA SUBCLAVIA DERECHA ABERRANTE

    OpenAIRE

    Todd M. Chappell; Prakash N. Panchani; James Barksdale; Astrin, Kenneth H.; Anthony C. DiLandro; D’Antoni, Anthony V.

    2013-01-01

    Dissection of a 66-year-old female embalmed cadaver by medical students in a first-year gross anatomy course revealed the presence of an aberrant (retroesophageal) right subclavian artery (ARSA). The prevalence of an ARSA is between 0.2-2.0% in the normal population. ARSA has been reported to have an association with various congenital deformities, such as Down syndrome, Kommerell diverticulum, and various other anomalies. Clinical symptoms are usually not associated with ARSAs but when prese...

  8. Anterior cerebral artery aneurysm associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms and abdominal aorta aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yunghwan; Min, Hyung Ki; Yoon, Sang Pil

    2013-01-01

    We found multiple aneurysms in the intracranial arteries and abdominal aorta of an 87-year-old Korean female cadaver, whose cause of death was reported as "cholangiocarcinoma." An abdominal aortic aneurysm was observed in the infrarenal aorta, where the inferior mesenteric artery arose. The intracranial aneurysms were found in the A3 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and at the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. This case provides an example of the very rare association of perip...

  9. Variable Origin of the Superior Laryngeal Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Soubhagya R. Nayak1*, Ashwin Krishnamurthy2, Latha V. Prabhu2, Bhagath Kumar Potu3, Ishwar B. Bagoji4, Jiji PJ2 and Ganesh Kumar Chettiar2

    2011-01-01

    The superior laryngeal artery (SLA) is the dominant arterial supply of the laryngeal muscles, mucosa and glands. The purpose of the present study was to document the variable origin of the SLA in the carotid triangle. Although the variation in the SLA origin and morphology is important during the partial laryngectomy and reconstruction surgery of the larynx, the description of the SLA in modern literature is vague. The anatomy of SLA was studied in 37 adult South Indian preserved cadavers age...

  10. Identificación personal mediante el estudio de los senos frontales: A propósito de un caso Personal identification through the study of frontal sinuses: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lamas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de los cadáveres se realiza, en ocasiones, recurriendo a técnicas radiológicas cuando no existen otros métodos disponibles como ocurre en situaciones de esqueletización, carbonización o restos cadavéricos. Si existen registros radiológicos ante mortem (AM de la posible víctima, se puede realizar la identificación mediante el estudio comparativo con una radiografía post mortem (PM. Presentamos el caso de la identificación de un cadáver que apareció en un estado de esqueletización total y con pérdida de muchos huesos, mediante la comparación de las radiografías AM y PM del cráneo, donde eran visibles los senos frontales. Las características morfológicas individuales de estas estructuras permitieron la plena identificación del cadáver.Corpse identification is sometimes achieved by x-ray when other possible methods of identification are not applicable, e.g. skeletisation, charred or cadaver remains. If ante mortem (AM x-ray records are available, it is possible to obtain the identification by the comparison with a post mortem (PM x-ray. In this paper we present a personal identification, performed in a cadaver where only the skeleton was preserved and some bones were missing, by comparison of AM and PM x-ray analysis of the skull, where the frontal sinuses were visible. The morphological individualistic characteristics of these structures enabled us to identify the cadaver completely.

  11. In vitro studies on rice bran wax as skin moisturizer

    OpenAIRE

    Sabale Vidya; Sabale P; Lakhotiya C

    2007-01-01

    Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present study aims to investigate possible use of rice bran wax as occlusive moisturizer. The rice bran wax obtained was purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. In vitro studies were carried out to determine trans epidermal water loss through stratum corneum and water holding capacity of stratum corneum of human cadaver...

  12. Inguinal Abnormalities in Male Patients with Acetabular Fractures Treated Using an Ilioinguinal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Firoozabadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Surgeons performing an ilioinguinal exposure for acetabular fracture surgery need to be aware of aberrant findings such as inguinal hernias and spermatic cord lesions. The purpose of this study is to report these occurrences in a clinical series of adult males undergoing acetabular fracture fixation and a series of adult male cadavers. The secondary aim is to characterize these abnormalities to aid surgeons in detecting these abnormalities preoperatively and coordinating a surgical plan with a general surgeon.Methods: Clinical study- Retrospective review of treated acetabular fractures through an ilioinguinal approach. Incidence of inguinal canal and spermatic cord abnormalities requiring general surgery consultation were identified. Corresponding CT scans were reviewed and radiographic characteristics of the spermatic cord abnormalities and/or hernias were noted.Cadaveric study- 18 male cadavers dissected bilaterally using an ilioinguinal exposure. The inguinal canal and the contents of the spermatic cord were identified and characterized.Results: Clinical Study- 5.7% (5/87 of patients had spermatic cord lesion and/or inguinal hernia requiring general surgical intervention. Preoperative pelvic CT scan review identified abnormalities noted intraoperatively in four of the five patients. Cord lipomas visualized as enlargements of the spermatic cord with homogeneous density. Hernias visualized as enlarged spermatic cords with heterogeneous density. Cadaver Study- 31% (11/36 of cadavers studied had spermatic cord and/or inguinal canal abnormalities. Average cord diameter in those with abnormalities was 24.9 mm (15-28 compared to 16 mm (11-22 in normal cords, which was statistically significant.Conclusion: The clinical and cadaveric findings emphasize the importance of understanding inguinal abnormalities and the value of detecting them preoperatively. The preoperative pelvic CT scans were highly sensitive in detecting inguinal abnormalities.

  13. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Tao; ZHAO, CHANGFU; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transpl...

  14. Comparison of Mandibular Surgical Techniques for Accessing Cranial Base Vascular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, Michael A.; Hoffmann, Keith D.; Johnson, Walter D.

    2003-01-01

    This study compared mandibular distraction and vertical ramus osteotomy in terms of their effectiveness at increasing access to the cranial base and distal internal carotid artery. Five fresh–frozen cadavers were used to obtain a total of ten cranial base exposures. The following two techniques were evaluated on each of the ten exposures: (1) anterior distraction of the mandible without violation of the temporomandibular joint capsule, and (2) vertical ramus osteotomy of the mandible with dis...

  15. Transverse Carpal Ligament and Forearm Fascia Release for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Change the Entrance Angle of Flexor Tendons to the A1 Pulley: The Relationship between Carpal Tunnel Surgery and Trigger Finger Occurence

    OpenAIRE

    Nazım Karalezli; Harun Kütahya; Ali Güleç; Serdar Toker; Hakan Karabörk; Ogun, Tunc C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The appearance of trigger finger after decompression of the carpal tunnel without a preexisting symptom has been reported in a few articles. Although, the cause is not clear yet, the loss of pulley action of the transverse carpal ligament has been accused mostly. In this study, we planned a biomechanical approach to fresh cadavers. Methods. The study was performed on 10 fresh amputees of the arm. The angles were measured with (1) the transverse carpal ligament and the distal forearm ...

  16. Variations in the quality of uncalcified fibrocartilage at the insertions of the extrinsic calf muscles in the foot.

    OpenAIRE

    Frowen, P; Benjamin, M

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that fibrocartilage at entheses (tendon-bone junctions) prevents collagen fibres bending at the hard tissue interface. We have investigated this function by exploring the relationship between the presence or amount of fibrocartilage at the attachments of the major extrinsic muscles in the foot, and the extent to which these tendons bend near their entheses during movement. The tendons were taken from each of 5 formalin-fixed dissecting room cadavers and prepared for rout...

  17. Fasciocutaneous flaps of the lower leg: Anatomic study and clinical significance

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Goran; Đorđević Boban; Daković Marija; Trenkić Srbobran; Stojiljković Danilo; Jeremić Slavica; Paravina Jadranka; Janković Irena; Golubović Zoran; Smiljković Igor

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim. Soft tissue defects of the lower leg, especially in its distal third, still remain a challenging problem in reconstructive surgery. The aim of this study was to examine septocutaneous system of lower leg vascularization, quantitatively and qualitatively, which is the basis of fasciocutaneous and neurocutaneous flaps. Methods. Septocutaneous systems a. tibialis posterior and a. peroneae were examined by anatomical suprafascial lower leg microdissection of 40 fresh cadavers. Sep...

  18. Sustantial Observation on Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in Human Lower Limb from a Anatomical Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung-Sik Park

    2009-01-01

    Objective : This study was carried to identify the anatomical component of FTMM(Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle) in human lower limb, and further to help the accurate application to real acupuncture. Methods : FTM at the surface of the lower limb was labelled with latex. And cadaver was stripped off to demonstrate muscles, nerves and the others and to display the internal structures of FTMM, being divided into outer, middle, and inner layer. Results : FTMM in human lower limb is composed o...

  19. Segmental Motion of Forefoot and Hindfoot as a Diagnostic Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Okita, Nori; Meyers, Steven A.; Challis, John H.; Sharkey, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Segmental motions derived from non-invasive motion analysis are being used to investigate the intrinsic functional behavior of the foot and ankle in health and disease. The goal of this research was to examine the ability of a generic segmented model of the foot to capture and differentiate changes in internal skeletal kinematics due to neuromuscular disease and/or trauma. A robotic apparatus that reproduces the kinematics and kinetics of gait in cadaver lower extremities was employed to prod...

  20. Nasolacrimal Duct Orifice: A Cadaveric Study in Relation to Important Anatomical Landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Ankolekar, Vrinda Hari; Hosapatna, Mamatha; Das M, Aswin; Supriya, Supriya; Anne D Souza; Antony Sylvan D Souza

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThe nasolacrimal apparatus is intimately associated with the lateral nasal wall and may be approached using an endoscopic technique. This study was undertaken to describe in detail the gross anatomy of the nasolacrimal duct orifice in relation to various landmarks of the lateral nasal wall to improve the safety and efficiency of endoscopic surgical procedures. The study was conducted on 25 sagittal sections of adult cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mani...

  1. BODIES DO MATTER: RETHINKING ANATOMICAL PEDAGOGY, FROM THE SCALPEL TO THE MOUSE: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Subhra Mandal; Amrita Gupta; Manjari Chatterjee; Prabir Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy and dissection have long been considered a cornerstone in medical education, irrespective of nation, racial background or medical school. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Anatomy teaching methodology has been revolutionized in the 2Ist century, due to time constraints, less availability of cadavers, stress on computer aided learning, scarcity of ...

  2. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Arefjev; M. G. Minina; N. P. Mogeiko; I. M. Iljinsky

    2011-01-01

    There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor ...

  3. Plastination in Anatomy Learning: An Experience at Cambridge University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Rafael; Bainbridge, David; Tavernor, Angie; López Albors, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of objective data, the benefits of using plastination in combination with wet dissection in teaching gross anatomy are unknown. The aim of this study was to obtain objective evidence from students regarding the effectiveness of combining plastinated specimens (PS) with an established gross anatomy education program at Cambridge University that uses wet cadaver dissection and small-group tutorials. For a complete academic year, a total of 135 PS were used alongside wet cadaver dissections. The PS were also available for small-group tutorials. An anonymous closed questionnaire, using a 5-point numerical-estimation Likert scale, was used to gather information relating to the effectiveness of the PS. The level of student satisfaction with the combined use of wet dissections and PS was high, although higher (p<.05) for second-year students (98.4%) than for first-year students (95.5%). Students felt the specimens allowed them to see details that were often more difficult to identify in their dissections, for instance nerves. Voluntary use of PS was higher (p<.01) for second-year students (96.9%), who had previously experienced anatomy teaching with cadaver dissection alone, than for first-year students (77.7%). Overall, 97.7% of all students thought that the PS helped them understand and learn anatomy. All students surveyed (100%) recommended the use of PS in the future. Students considered the use of PS in the dissection room combined with wet cadaver dissection to be beneficial when learning anatomy, particularly when combined with their use during small-group tutorials.

  4. Peroneal tendons well vascularized: results from a cadaveric study

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Pim A. D.; Madirolas, F. Xavier; Carrera Burgaya, Ana; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Reina de la Torre, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peroneal tendon tears are relatively common injuries that seem to have a poor healing tendency. The discussion goes that peroneal tendons have avascular zones, contributing to the poor healing of those tears. The purpose of this study was to provide evidence on the vascularization pattern of the peroneal tendons. Methods Ten adult fresh-frozen cadavers were obtained from a university-affiliated body donation programme. The femoral artery was injected with natural coloured latex at the...

  5. Biomechanical comparison of the human cadaveric pelvis with a fourth generation composite model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Brandon L; Attia, Tarik; Backstein, David; Safir, Oleg; Willett, Thomas L; Kuzyk, Paul R T

    2016-02-29

    The use of cadavers for orthopaedic biomechanics research is well established, but presents difficulties to researchers in terms of cost, biosafety, availability, and ease of use. High fidelity composite models of human bone have been developed for use in biomechanical studies. While several studies have utilized composite models of the human pelvis for testing orthopaedic reconstruction techniques, few biomechanical comparisons of the properties of cadaveric and composite pelves exist. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of cadaveric pelves to those of the 4th generation composite model. An Instron ElectroPuls E10000 mechanical testing machine was used to load specimens with orientation, boundary conditions and degrees of freedom that approximated those occurring during the single legged phase of walking, including hip abductor force. Each specimen was instrumented with strain gauge rosettes. Overall specimen stiffness and principal strains were calculated from the test data. Composite specimens showed significantly higher overall stiffness and slightly less overall variability between specimens (composite K=1448±54N/m, cadaver K=832±62N/m; pcomposite models and cadavers were similar (but did differ) only when the applied load was scaled to overall construct stiffness. This finding regarding strain distribution and the difference in overall stiffness must be accounted for when using these composite models for biomechanics research. Altering the cortical wall thickness or tuning the elastic moduli of the composite material may improve future generations of the composite model.

  6. Gross morphological features of plexus brachialis in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cevik-Demirkan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the detailed features of the morphological structure and the innervation areas of the plexus brachialis in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera. The animals (5 female and 5 male were euthanased with ketamine hydrocloride and xylazine hydrocloride combination, 60 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, respectively. Skin, muscles and nerves were dissected under a stereo-microscope. The brachial plexus of the chinchilla is formed by rami ventrales of C5-C8, T1 and T2, and possesses a single truncus. The subscapular nerve is formed by the rami of the spinal nerves originating from C6 (one thin ramus and C7 (one thick and 2 thin rami. These nerves innervate the subscapular and teres minor muscles. The long thoracic nerve, before joining with the brachial plexus, obtains branches from C6 and C7 in 5 cadavers (3 male, 2 female, from C7 in 4 cadavers (2 male, 2 female and from C6-C8 in only 1 female cadaver. These nerves disperse in variable combinations to form the extrinsic and intrinstic named, nerves of the thoracic limb. An undefined nerve branch originates from the rami ventrales of C7, C8 and T1 spinal nerves enter the coracobrachial muscle.

  7. Measurement of the tendon of the biceps brachii after tenotomy: study on cadavers☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Anderson Cunha; Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Martins, Samuel Machado; Brasil-Filho, Rômulo; Tenor-Junior, Antonio Carlos; da Costa, Miguel Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of elbow and forearm range of motion on the distal excursion of the long head of the biceps (LHB). Methods The distal excursion of the LHB after tenotomy of the shoulders of eight cadavers was ascertained by measuring the distance between a point marked out on the LHB, 3 cm from the anterolateral border of the acromion, and its position at different degrees of elbow flexion, using a digital pachymeter. The measurements at elbow flexion of 135°, 90°, 45° and 0° were noted: these angles were established using a goniometer. The measurements were made with the forearm in neutral, supination and pronation positions. Results Differences between the mean measurements of the distal excursion of the LHB (total sample) were observed between the degrees of elbow flexion (p < 0.01). However, no statistical differences were observed between the different forearm positions, between the sides, genders and ages of the cadavers studied. Conclusion Progressive extension of the elbow caused progressive distal excursion of the LHB, but without interference in the forearm position, gender, side or age of the cadavers studied. PMID:26401503

  8. The functional anatomy of the iliotibial band during flexion and extension of the knee: implications for understanding iliotibial band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, John; Hayashi, Koji; Toumi, Hechmi; Lyons, Kathleen; Bydder, Graeme; Phillips, Nicola; Best, Thomas M; Benjamin, Mike

    2006-03-01

    Iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome is a common overuse injury in runners and cyclists. It is regarded as a friction syndrome where the ITB rubs against (and 'rolls over') the lateral femoral epicondyle. Here, we re-evaluate the clinical anatomy of the region to challenge the view that the ITB moves antero-posteriorly over the epicondyle. Gross anatomical and microscopical studies were conducted on the distal portion of the ITB in 15 cadavers. This was complemented by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of six asymptomatic volunteers and studies of two athletes with acute ITB syndrome. In all cadavers, the ITB was anchored to the distal femur by fibrous strands, associated with a layer of richly innervated and vascularized fat. In no cadaver, volunteer or patient was a bursa seen. The MR scans showed that the ITB was compressed against the epicondyle at 30 degrees of knee flexion as a consequence of tibial internal rotation, but moved laterally in extension. MR signal changes in the patients with ITB syndrome were present in the region occupied by fat, deep to the ITB. The ITB is prevented from rolling over the epicondyle by its femoral anchorage and because it is a part of the fascia lata. We suggest that it creates the illusion of movement, because of changing tension in its anterior and posterior fibres during knee flexion. Thus, on anatomical grounds, ITB overuse injuries may be more likely to be associated with fat compression beneath the tract, rather than with repetitive friction as the knee flexes and extends.

  9. The superficial temporal fat pad and its ramifications for temporalis muscle construction in facial approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carl N; Devine, Matthew

    2009-10-30

    The construction of the facial muscles (particularly those of mastication) is generally thought to enhance the accuracy of facial approximation methods because they increase attention paid to face anatomy. However, the lack of consideration for non-muscular structures of the face when using these "anatomical" methods ironically forces one of the two large masticatory muscles to be exaggerated beyond reality. To demonstrate and resolve this issue the temporal region of nineteen caucasoid human cadavers (10 females, 9 males; mean age=84 years, s=9 years, range=58-97 years) were investigated. Soft tissue depths were measured at regular intervals across the temporal fossa in 10 cadavers, and the thickness of the muscle and fat components quantified in nine other cadavers. The measurements indicated that the temporalis muscle generally accounts for curve of the temporalis muscle as currently undertaken in facial approximation methods. New metric-based facial approximation guidelines are presented to facilitate accurate construction of the STFP and the temporalis muscle for future facial approximation casework. This study warrants further investigations of the temporalis muscle and the STFP in younger age groups and demonstrates that untested facial approximation guidelines, including those propounded to be anatomical, should be cautiously regarded. PMID:19632798

  10. Using augmented reality as a clinical support tool to assist combat medics in the treatment of tension pneumothoraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenneth L; Doswell, Jayfus T; Fashola, Olatokunbo S; Debeatham, Wayne; Darko, Nii; Walker, Travelyan M; Danner, Omar K; Matthews, Leslie R; Weaver, William L

    2013-09-01

    This study was to extrapolate potential roles of augmented reality goggles as a clinical support tool assisting in the reduction of preventable causes of death on the battlefield. Our pilot study was designed to improve medic performance in accurately placing a large bore catheter to release tension pneumothorax (prehospital setting) while using augmented reality goggles. Thirty-four preclinical medical students recruited from Morehouse School of Medicine performed needle decompressions on human cadaver models after hearing a brief training lecture on tension pneumothorax management. Clinical vignettes identifying cadavers as having life-threatening tension pneumothoraces as a consequence of improvised explosive device attacks were used. Study group (n = 13) performed needle decompression using augmented reality goggles whereas the control group (n = 21) relied solely on memory from the lecture. The two groups were compared according to their ability to accurately complete the steps required to decompress a tension pneumothorax. The medical students using augmented reality goggle support were able to treat the tension pneumothorax on the human cadaver models more accurately than the students relying on their memory (p augmented reality group required more time to complete the needle decompression intervention (p = 0.0684), this did not reach statistical significance.

  11. Preclinical evaluation of intraoperative low-energy photon radiotherapy using sphericalapplicators in locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François eBuge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy is standard care for locally advanced prostatecancer (stage pT3R1. Intraoperative low-energy photon radiotherapy offers several advantages overexternal beam radiotherapy, and several systems are now available for its delivery, using sphericalapplicators which require only limited shielding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibilityof this technique for the prostate bed.Materials & Methods: Applicators were assessed using MRI image data and cadavericdissection. In cadavers, targeted tissues, defined as a urethral section, both neurovascular bundlesections, the bladder neck and the beds of the seminal vesicles, were marked with metallic surgicalclips. Distances between clips and applicator were measured using CT. A dosimetric study of theapplication of 12 Gy at 5mm depth was performed using CT images of prostatectomized cadavers.Results: Using MRI images from 34 prostate cancer patients, we showed that the ideal applicatordiameter ranges from 45 to 70 mm. Using applicators of different sizes to encompass the prostate bedin nine cadavers, we showed that the distance between target tissues and applicator was less than 2mm for all target tissues except the upper extremity of the seminal vesicles (19 mm. Dosimetric studyshowed a good dose distribution in all target tissues in contact with the applicator, with a lowprobability of rectum and bladder complication.Conclusions: Intraoperative radiotherapy of the prostate bed is feasible, with good coverage oftargeted tissues. Clinical study of safety and efficacy is now required.

  12. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  13. Biomechanical evaluation of immediate stability with rectangular versus cylindrical interbody cages in stabilization of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb John K

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent cadaver studies show stability against axial rotation with a cylindrical cage is marginally superior to a rectangular cage. The purpose of this biomechanical study in cadaver spine was to evaluate the stability of a new rectangular titanium cage design, which has teeth similar to the threads of cylindrical cages to engage the endplates. Methods Ten motion segments (five L2-3, five L4-5 were tested. From each cadaver spine, one motion segment was fixed with a pair of cylindrical cages (BAK, Sulzer Medica and the other with paired rectangular cages (Rotafix, Corin Spinal. Each specimen was tested in an unconstrained state, after cage introduction and after additional posterior translaminar screw fixation. The range of motion (ROM in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and rotation was tested in a materials testing machine, with +/- 5 Nm cyclical load over 10 sec per cycle; data from the third cycle was captured for analysis. Results ROM in all directions was significantly reduced (p Conclusions There was no significant difference in immediate stability in any direction between the threaded cylindrical cage and the new design of the rectangular cage with endplate teeth.

  14. Preliminary experimental results of radiofrequency-cement-augmented and cannulated pedicle screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goost H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of cut-out of a pedicle screw is high in the presence of osteoporotic bone. In cadaver studies it was found that cement augmentation of pedicle screws markedly increases pullout forces. However, the use of conventional low viscosity vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty cement is associated with the risk of cement extravasation. The risk might be reduced by using high viscosity, radiofrequency-activated bone cement. After performing DEXA scans, six fresh-frozen vertebral bodies of different bone densities were obtained from cadavers. Two pedicle screws (WSI Expertise-Inject, Peter Brehm, Germany were placed in the pedicles. About 3 ml of radiofrequency-activated, ultra-high viscosity cement (ER2 Bone Cement, DFine Europe GmbH, Germany was injected through the right pedicle. The left pedicle screw was left uncemented and served as control. Axial pullout tests were performed using a material testing device (Zwick/Roell Zmartpro, Ulm, Germany. The tests revealed that cementaugmented pedicle screws were able to withstand markedly higher pullout forces. Extravasation of cement did not occur. The value of the study is limited by the fact that only six samples were investigated. Further cadaver studies and clinical evaluation will be needed in the future. However, this pilot study showed that combining cannulated pedicle screws with ultra-high viscosity bone cement is a successful approach. Revision due to cut-out and complications secondary to cement extravasation can be reduced by this method.

  15. Importance of the different posterolateral knee static stabilizers: biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Campos Pace Lasmar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the different static stabilizers of the posterolateral corner of the knee in cadavers. METHODS: Tests were performed with the application of a varus and external rotation force to the knee in extension at 30 and 60 degrees of flexion using 10 cadaver knees. The forces were applied initially to an intact knee and then repeated after a selective sectioning of the ligaments into the following: section of the lateral collateral ligament; section of the lateral collateral ligament and the popliteofibular complex; and section of the lateral collateral ligament, the popliteofibular complex and the posterolateral capsule. The parameters studied were the angular deformity and stiffness when the knees were submitted to a 15 Newton-meter varus torque and a 6 Newton-meter external tibial torque. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA (Analysis of Variance and Tukey's tests. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that the lateral collateral ligament was important in varus stability at 0, 30 and 60 degrees. The popliteofibular complex was the most important structure for external rotation stability at all angles of flexion and was also important for varus stability at 30 and 60 degrees. The posterolateral capsule was important for varus stability at 0 and 30 degrees and for external rotation stability in extension. Level of evidence: Level IV (cadaver study.

  16. Age related changes in histomorphology of medium sized muscular artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of histomorphometric changes which are associated with increasing age in local population, with the experience obtained in the dissection on cadavers. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the department of Anatomy, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with Forensic departments of various medical institutes where cadavers were brought for autopsy, spanning from 15 Feb 2010 to 15 Aug 2010. Material and Methods: A total of forty cadavers from local population (Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) were dissected and specimen (Common hepatic artery) (CHA) were obtained. Two age groups, one below the age of forty years (1 to 39 years) and the other above the age of forty years (40 to 70 years) were made. The specimen were processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Using a microscope with 10 X objective, micrometry was done and data of intima thickness (IT), media thickness (MT) and intima media thickness (IMT) was noted. Results: After comparing the two age groups, statistically significant difference was found between the IT (p value <0.01). The mean values of media failed to attain any statistical difference. No statistically significant difference was found in the IMT of the two age groups. Conclusion: Increase in intima thickness was found while MT and IMT did not show any statistical difference. (author)

  17. The Realistic Significance and Humanistic Reflection of Body Donation%遗体捐献的现实意义和人文反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹东; 王金德; 李雪涛; 段艳萍; 曹珍珍; 罗文东; 邹华

    2011-01-01

    尸体对于人体解刹学教学具有无法替代的作用,而现今全国各医学院校都面临尸体来源短缺的棘手问题,作为社会文明进步象征之一的遗体捐献应当成为教学用尸体的主要来源.结合现状,呼吁认真反思遗体捐献中的医学伦理问题,完善相关法律法规,使遗体捐献被越来越多的人接受和赞同.%The cadavers play an irreplaceable role in anatomical teaching. It is a thorny problem that how all medical colleges and schools across our country solve the shortage of cadaver's source. As one of significant symbols of social civilization and progress, the bodies for donation should be a major cadavers' source for medical education. At present, in order to make more and more people accept and endorse body donation, we must reflect on medical ethnics and legislate for it.

  18. A new device to noninvasively estimate the intraocular pressure produced during ocular compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenfeld MS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd., 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University, Washington, MO, USA; 3Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: To describe a noninvasive instrument that estimates intraocular pressure during episodes of external globe compression and to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this device by comparing it to the intraocular pressures simultaneously and manometrically measured in cannulated eyes. Methods: A thin fluid-filled bladder was constructed from flexible and inelastic plastic sheeting and was connected to a pressure transducer with high pressure tubing. The output of the pressure transducer was sent to an amplifier and recorded. This device was validated by measuring induced pressure in the fluid-filled bladder while digital pressure was applied to one surface, and the other surface was placed directly against a human cadaver eye or in vivo pig eye. The human cadaver and in vivo pig eyes were each cannulated to provide a manometric intraocular pressure control. Results: The measurements obtained with the newly described device were within ~5% of simultaneously measured manometric intraocular pressures in both a human cadaver and in vivo pig eye model for a pressure range of ~15–100 mmHg. Conclusion: This novel noninvasive device is useful for estimating the intraocular pressure transients induced during any form of external globe compression; this is a clinical setting where no other devices can be used to estimate intraocular pressure. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, tonometer, ocular compression

  19. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilheux, Hassina Z; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad A; Nichols, Trent L; Bilheux, Jean C; Donnell, Robert L; Finochiarro, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in forensic research is to objectively determine the post-mortem interval (PMI). The accuracy of PMI is critical for determining the timeline of events surrounding a death. Most PMI techniques rely on gross morphological changes of cadavers that are highly sensitive to taphonomic factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that even exhumed individuals exposed to the same environmental conditions with similar PMIs can present different stages of decomposition. After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. Hydrogen (H) is the primary contributor to neutron radiography (NR) contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatters thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determine small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Neutron radiography of decaying canine tissues was performed to evaluate the PMI by measuring the changes in H content. In this study, dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings, at the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decompositional stages of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the decay time of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen were brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron

  20. A Novel Augmented Reality Navigation System for Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery: A Feasibility Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    Full Text Available To verify the reliability and clinical feasibility of a self-developed navigation system based on an augmented reality technique for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery.In this study we performed a head phantom and cadaver experiment to determine the display effect and accuracy of our navigational system. We compared cadaver head-based simulated operations, the target registration error, operation time, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores of our navigation system to conventional navigation systems.The navigation system developed in this study has a novel display mode capable of fusing endoscopic images to three-dimensional (3-D virtual images. In the cadaver head experiment, the target registration error was 1.28 ± 0.45 mm, which met the accepted standards of a navigation system used for nasal endoscopic surgery. Compared with conventional navigation systems, the new system was more effective in terms of operation time and the mental workload of surgeons, which is especially important for less experienced surgeons.The self-developed augmented reality navigation system for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery appears to have advantages that outweigh those of conventional navigation systems. We conclude that this navigational system will provide rhinologists with more intuitive and more detailed imaging information, thus reducing the judgment time and mental workload of surgeons when performing complex sinus and skull base surgeries. Ultimately, this new navigational system has potential to increase the quality of surgeries. In addition, the augmented reality navigational system could be of interest to junior doctors being trained in endoscopic techniques because it could speed up their learning. However, it should be noted that the navigation system serves as an adjunct to a surgeon's skills and knowledge, not as a substitute.

  1. Acquisition, preprocessing, and reconstruction of ultralow dose volumetric CT scout for organ-based CT scan planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhye, E-mail: yin@ge.com; De Man, Bruno [Image Reconstruction Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Yao, Yangyang; Wu, Mingye [X-ray and CT Laboratory, GE Global Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Montillo, Albert [Biomedical Image Processing Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Edic, Peter M. [CT, X-ray and Functional Imaging, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Kalra, Mannudeep [Thoracic and Cardiac Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Traditionally, 2D radiographic preparatory scan images (scout scans) are used to plan diagnostic CT scans. However, a 3D CT volume with a full 3D organ segmentation map could provide superior information for customized scan planning and other purposes. A practical challenge is to design the volumetric scout acquisition and processing steps to provide good image quality (at least good enough to enable 3D organ segmentation) while delivering a radiation dose similar to that of the conventional 2D scout. Methods: The authors explored various acquisition methods, scan parameters, postprocessing methods, and reconstruction methods through simulation and cadaver data studies to achieve an ultralow dose 3D scout while simultaneously reducing the noise and maintaining the edge strength around the target organ. Results: In a simulation study, the 3D scout with the proposed acquisition, preprocessing, and reconstruction strategy provided a similar level of organ segmentation capability as a traditional 240 mAs diagnostic scan, based on noise and normalized edge strength metrics. At the same time, the proposed approach delivers only 1.25% of the dose of a traditional scan. In a cadaver study, the authors’ pictorial-structures based organ localization algorithm successfully located the major abdominal-thoracic organs from the ultralow dose 3D scout obtained with the proposed strategy. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that images with a similar degree of segmentation capability (interpretability) as conventional dose CT scans can be achieved with an ultralow dose 3D scout acquisition and suitable postprocessing. Furthermore, the authors applied these techniques to real cadaver CT scans with a CTDI dose level of less than 0.1 mGy and successfully generated a 3D organ localization map.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzato Tommaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be

  3. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana) , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any

  4. Development/global validation of a 6-month-old pediatric head finite element model and application in investigation of drop-induced infant head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2013-12-01

    Drop is a frequent cause for infant head injury. To date, finite element (FE) modeling was gradually used to investigate child head dynamic response under drop impact conditions, however, two shortages still exist on this topic: (1) due to ethical reasons, none of developed 6-month-old (6MO) head FE model was found to be quantitatively validated against child cadaver tests at similar age group; (2) drop height and impact surface stiffness effects on infant head responses were not comprehensively investigated. In this study, motivated by the recently published material properties of soft tissues (skull and suture, etc.) and reported pediatric head global cadaver tests, a 6MO child head FE model was developed and simulated results compared with the child cadaver experimental data under compression and drop conditions. Comparison of results indicated that the FE model showed a fairly good biofidelic behavior in most dynamic responses. The validated FE model was further used to investigate effects of different drop heights and impact surface stiffness on the head dynamic responses. Numerical results show that the pediatric head mechanical parameters (peak acceleration, HIC, maximal vonMises stress and maximal first principal strain of skull) keep increasing with the increase in drop height, and exhibit "logarithmic function" shapes at "fast-slow" trends with increase in impact surface stiffness. Based on above analysis, the regressions were conducted to describe the relationship between drop height and impact surface stiffness and head global injury predictors (head peak acceleration, HIC, etc.). This paper provides a fundamental study of child head injury mechanism and protection under drop conditions. PMID:24008251

  5. CT and MRI Determination of Intermuscular Space within Lumbar Paraspinal Muscles at Different Intervertebral Disc Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Deng

    Full Text Available Recognition of the intermuscular spaces within lumbar paraspinal muscles is critically important for using the paramedian muscle-splitting approach to the lumbar spine. As such, it is important to determine the intermuscular spaces within the lumbar paraspinal muscles by utilizing modern medical imaging such as computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.A total of 30 adult cadavers were studied by sectional anatomic dissection, and 60 patients were examined using CT (16 slices, 3-mm thickness, 3-mm intersection gap, n = 30 and MRI (3.0T, T2-WI, 5-mm thickness, 1-mm intersection gap, n = 30. The distances between the midline and the superficial points of the intermuscular spaces at different intervertebral disc levels were measured.Based on study of our cadavers, the mean distances from the midline to the intermuscular space between multifidus and longissimus, from intervertebral disc levels L1-L2 to L5-S1, were 0.9, 1.1, 1.7, 3.0, and 3.5 cm, respectively. Compared with the upper levels (L1-L3, the superficial location at the lower level (L4-S1 is more laterally to the midline (P<0.05. The intermuscular space between sacrospinalis and quadratus lumborum, and that between longissimus and iliocostalis did not exist at L4-S1. The intermuscular spaces in patients also varied at different levels of the lumbar spine showing a low discontinuous density in CT and a high signal in MRI. There were no significant differences between the observations in cadavers and those made using CT and MRI.The intermuscular spaces within the paraspinal muscles vary at different intervertebral disc levels. Preoperative CT and MRI can facilitate selection of the muscle-splitting approach to the lumbar spine. This paper demonstrates the efficacy of medical imaging techniques in surgical planning.

  6. A randomised controlled trial comparing meat-based with human cadaveric models for teaching ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, A; Lim, Y C; Aneja, H; Duce, N A; Appleyard, R; Forrest, K; Royse, C F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this prospective, blinded, randomised controlled study was to compare novices' acquisition of the technical skills of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia using either a meat phantom model or fresh-frozen human cadavers. The primary outcome was the time taken to successfully perform an ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve block on a cadaver; secondary outcomes were the cumulative score of errors, and best image quality of the sciatic nerve achieved. After training, the median (IQR [range]) time taken to perform the block was 311(164-390 [68-600]) s in the meat model trained group and 210 (174-354 [85-600]) s in the fresh-frozen cadaver trained group (p = 0.24). Participants made a median (IQR [range]) of 18 (14-33 [8-55]) and 15 (12-22 [8-44]) errors in the two groups respectively (p = 0.39). The image quality score was also not different, with a median (IQR [range]) of 62.5 (59.4-65.6 [25.0-100.0])% vs 62.5 (62.5-75.0 [25.0-87.5])% respectively (p = 0.58). The training and deliberate feedback improved all participants' block performance, the median (IQR [range]) times being 310 (206-532 [110-600]) s before and 240 (174-354 [85-600]) s after training (p = 0.02). We conclude that novices taught ultrasound scanning and needle guidance skills using an inexpensive and easily constructed meat model perform similarly to those trained on a cadaveric model. PMID:26993374

  7. A new technique of bladder neck reconstruction during radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Tolkach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate continence after radical prostatectomy in prostate cancer patients, in whom a new method of the bladder neck reconstruction (BNR using deep dorsal stitch was implemented (deep single stitch through all bladder layers directly dorsal to the bladder opening after “tennis racket” reconstruction and to provide justification for its use by means of anatomical study in cadavers.Material and Methods:Open radical retropubic prostatectomy was performed in 84 patients: 39 patients with a new BNR method used to improve continence and control group of 45 patients with standard “tennis racket” BNR. Median follow-up was 14 months in control group and 12 months in study group. Continence recovery was accessed early postoperatively and every 3 months thereafter. Anatomical study was performed on 2 male fresh cadavers reproducing two different BNR techniques to clarify any underlying continence related mechanisms.Results:Patients with new BNR achieved full continence significantly faster (p=0.041, but the continence rates after 12 months were similar between groups. The severity of incontinence up to month 9 was significantly reduced in BNR group. The anastomotic stricture rate was not affected. Applying new BNR to the cadaver model revealed effects on early continence, namely presence of proximal passive closure mechanism in area of bladder neck.Conclusions:Continence in patients with the new BNR method using deep dorsal stitch recovered significantly faster. Moreover, a reduced grade of residual incontinence was documented. The effect was non-significant at month 12 of follow-up, meaning that only early effect was present.

  8. Optimization of computed tomography (CT) arthrography of hip for the visualization of cartilage: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, Paolo; Leyder, Pierre-Philippe; Malchair, Francoise; Marechal, Carole; Alvarez Miezentseva, Victoria [CHU de Liege, Diagnostic Imaging Department, MSK Imaging, Liege (Belgium); Albert, Adelin [CHU de Liege, Biostatistics Department, Liege (Belgium); Scarciolla, Laura; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno [Campus Bio-Medico University, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Rome (Italy); Gillet, Philippe [CHU de Liege, Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    We sought to optimize the kilovoltage, tube current, and the radiation dose of computed tomographic arthrography of the hip joint using in vitro methods. A phantom was prepared using a left femoral head harvested from a patient undergoing total hip arthroplasty and packed in a condom filled with iodinated contrast. The right hip joint of a cadaver was also injected with iodinated contrast. The phantom and the cadaver were scanned using different values of peak kilovoltage (kVp) and tube current (milliamp seconds, mAs). Three different regions of interest (ROI) were drawn in the cartilage, subchondral bone plate, and intraarticular contrast. The attenuation values, contrast/noise ratio (CNR), and effective dose were calculated. Two independent observers classified the quality of the contrast-cartilage interface and the cartilage-subchondral bone plate interface as (1) diagnostic quality or (2) nondiagnostic quality. Contrast, cartilage, and subchondral bone plate attenuation values decreased at higher kVp. CNR increased with both kVp and mAs. The qualitative analysis showed that in both phantom and cadaver, at 120 kVp and 50 mAs, the contrast-cartilage and cartilage-subchondral bone plate interfaces were of diagnostic quality, with an effective dose decreased to 0.5 MSv. The absolute effective dose is not directly related to the quality of images but to the specific combination of kVp and mAs used for image acquisition. The combination of 120 kVp and 50 mAs can be suggested to decrease the dose without adversely affect the visibility of cartilage and subchondral bone plate. (orig.)

  9. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  10. Semblance analysis to assess GPR data from a five-year forensic study of simulated clandestine graves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Adam D.; Pringle, Jamie K.

    2016-02-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have proven useful for locating clandestine graves in a number of forensic searches. There has been extensive research into the geophysical monitoring of simulated clandestine graves in different burial scenarios and ground conditions. Whilst these studies have been used to suggest optimum dominant radar frequencies, the data themselves have not been quantitatively analysed to-date. This study uses a common-offset configuration of semblance analysis, both to characterise velocity trends from GPR diffraction hyperbolae and, since the magnitude of a semblance response is proportional to signal-to-noise ratio, to quantify the strength of a forensic GPR response. 2D GPR profiles were acquired over a simulated clandestine burial, with a wrapped-pig cadaver monitored at three-month intervals between 2008 and 2013 with GPR antennas of three different centre-frequencies (110, 225 and 450 MHz). The GPR response to the cadaver was a strong diffraction hyperbola. Results show, in contrast to resistivity surveys, that semblance analysis have little sensitivity to changes attributable to decomposition, and only a subtle influence from seasonality: velocity increases (0.01-0.02 m/ns) were observed in summer, associated with a decrease (5-10%) in peak semblance magnitude, SM, and potentially in the reflectivity of the cadaver. The lowest-frequency antennas consistently gave the highest signal-to-noise ratio although the grave was nonetheless detectable by all frequencies trialled. These observations suggest that forensic GPR surveys could be undertaken with little seasonal hindrance. Whilst GPR analysis cannot currently provide a quantitative diagnostic proxy for time-since-burial, the consistency of responses suggests that graves will remain detectable beyond the five years shown here.

  11. Topographic study of the sphenomandibular muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulino Naves Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal muscle is housed in the fossa of the bone bearing its name – the temporal bone. Its origin, body, and insertion have been well studied, and it has been described as a muscle consisting of three bundles and responsible for various functions. The advancement of technology has allowed the observation of yet another muscle next to this bundle of fi bers and above the temporal muscle, namely the sphenomandibular muscle. The present study was designed to study the topography of the sphenomandibular muscle. Ten anatomical sets (fi ve cadavers were dissected with the intention of displaying the topography of the temporal and sphenomandibular muscles using the techniques of cutting and folding and conventional cross cuts. The folding of the structures and mapping of the muscles was carried out on four cadavers, analyzing their origins and describing their bodies and insertions. On another cadaver, cross-sectional (horizontal, 2 mm-thick slices were made in a sequential manner. We observed the topography of the muscle and its relationship with adjacent structures. The sphenomandibular muscle was found to be independent of the temporal muscle, for its origin is in the zygomatic-frontal complex, lateral to the orbit and overlaying the fi ber of the anterior bundle of the temporal muscle. Its body is separated from the body of the temporal muscle by a thin fascia and is inserted on an oblique line external to the mandible presenting, therefore, its origin, body, and insertion independent of the origin, body, and insertion of the temporal muscle.

  12. A STUDY ON THE PATTERNS OF CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chitra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Many different patterns have been described to classify the origins of circumflex femoral arteries by many authors since from 1860.The aim of the present study was to classify the circumflex femoral arteries in 100 lower limbs of adult cadavers of both sexes following the recent classification and to compare with the previous studies. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 lower limbs of 50 embalmed human adult cadavers (Male: 37, Female: 13 were dissected and observed for the origins of circumflex femoral arteries in femoral triangle in routine educational dissection in the period of 2005-2009 Results: The medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries have been classified into three different patterns based on the levels of their origin. Pattern I: Both arteries arose from the profunda femoris artery (56%. Type Ia, medial circumflex femoral artery origin was proximal to the lateral circumflex femoral artery origin (69%; Type Ib, lateral circumflex femoral artery origin was proximal to medial circumflex femoral artery origin (16 %; Type Ic, both arteries arose from a common trunk or at same level (14%. Pattern II: One of the arteries arose from the femoral artery and the other from the profunda femoris artery (36%. Type IIa, the medial circumflex femoral artery arose from the femoral artery (75% and Type IIb, the lateral circumflex femoral artery arose from the femoral artery (25%.Pattern III: Both arteries arose from the femoral artery (7%. The medial circumflex femoral artery was absent in a female cadaver on right side. Conclusion: In every pattern or type, there was significantly unilateral higher occurrence than bilateral occurrence. A precise knowledge of the circumflex femoral arteries in relation to the profunda femoris artery is important in surgical interventions of the hip region

  13. An anomalous case of the left gastric artery, the splenic artery and hepato-mesenteric trunk independently arising from the abdominal aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Tsuyoshi; Hirao, Takeshi; Kitashima, Sadaharu; Watanabe, Koh-Ichi; Nohno, Mariko; Araki, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Seiji; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of an arterial anomaly in the celiaco-mesenteric region, encountered in a Japanese female cadaver for dissection at the gross anatomy laboratory of Kurume University School of Medicine in 2003. The usual celiac trunk was not identified, and the left gastric artery, the splenic artery and the hepato-mesenteric trunk independently arose from the abdominal aorta. Moreover, the hepatic artery arising from the hepato-mesenteric trunk ran behind the portal vein. The classification for this type of arterial anomaly is a Type II' of Morita's classification and Type II of Higashi and Hirai's classification, not belong to the Adachi's. PMID:16119612

  14. Preferential effectiveness of cyclosporin in patients receiving kidney transplants after glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats, S; Terasaki, P I; Perdue, S; Mickey, M R

    1985-03-01

    Glomerulonephritis patients transplanted with cadaver kidneys had a significantly higher one-year graft survival when immunosuppressed with cyclosporin rather than standard therapy (80% versus 59%, p less than 10(-5]. For nephrosclerosis patients the corresponding rates were 70% and 59% (p greater than 0.05); and in those with antecedent diabetes mellitus, polycystic kidney, and pyelonephritis the differences were negligible. In glomerulonephritis patients, but not in the other groups, cyclosporin was additive to the effect of transfusions and of HLA-A, B and HLA-Dr matching. PMID:2857855

  15. Mechanism of endotracheal tube movement with change of head position in the neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donn, S.M.; Kuhns, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of alteration of endotracheal tube position with movement of the head and neck in the neonate was studied in a term new-born cadaver. The infant was intubated and serial radiographs were obtained with the head and neck in different positions. We propose that the skull acts as a lever arm from the anterior end of the maxilla to the first cervical vertebra. The fulcrum for movement of this lever arm is the upper cervical spine. Movement of the endotracheal tube in the trachea is directed by the maxillocervical lever arm when the skull and upper cervical spine are flexed, extended, or rotated.

  16. Basic Plastic Surgery Skills Training Program on Inanimate Bench Models during Medical Graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Denadai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to ethical and medical-legal drawbacks, high costs, and difficulties of accessibility that are inherent to the practice of basic surgical skills on living patients, fresh human cadaver, and live animals, the search for alternative forms of training is needed. In this study, the teaching and learning process of basic surgical skills pertinent to plastic surgery during medical education on different inanimate bench models as a form of alternative and complementary training to the teaching programs already established is proposed.

  17. Normal MR imaging findings of the midhand and fingers with anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present article, we correlate MR imaging studies of cadavers, volunteers and patients with cadaveric dissection and sectioning. First anatomy at wrist level is discussed. In a next section, we address the midhand with the flexor and extensor tendons, and interosseous and lumbricalis muscles. The dorsal hood at the level of the metacarpophalangeal joint is also addressed. An overview of the anatomy of the thenar is provided. Finally, the flexor system of the fingers with pulleys and volar plates, as well as the central and distal insertion of the finger extensor tendons is discussed

  18. Practical classes: a platform for deep learning? Overall context in the first-year veterinary curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Marion T; Baird, Alan W; Mulholland, Clive W; Irwin, Jane A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the many practical formats that support the first-year veterinary curriculum. These practical classes are diverse in content and style. They include laboratory-based formats, classes involving live animals and cadavers, classes conducted using computer-aided learning tools, study groups, and information technology training. This preliminary study examines ratings for these practical classes, but also relates these ratings to students' approaches to study with the aim of understanding how a deep learning approach manifests itself in the practical setting. The diverse behaviors and attitudes to practical classes are also evaluated in the light of the approaches to study. A questionnaire that evaluated (1) a total of 24 practical classes, (2) the 52-item Approaches to Study Inventory, and (3) 13 behaviors within and attitudes to practical classes was distributed to 69 first-year veterinary students in their final term. Practical classes that involved live animals and cadavers were rated most positively by this group of students. These ratings, however, did not correlate significantly with the deep or surface learning score. The majority of practical classes where the ratings were found to be associated with deep and surface learning were laboratory-based, although overall these practical classes tended to be rated lower than those involving animals. Ratings did not correlate significantly with the strategic approach. A number of behaviors and attitudes to practical classes were also found to be positively and significantly (p=0.0001) associated with the deep learning approach. This preliminary study indicates that this cohort of veterinary students has an overall positive perception of practical classes that permit contact with live animals or cadavers. Although the perception of laboratory-type practical classes was lower overall, the ratings for these practical classes appeared to be influenced by their deep and surface learning

  19. Autopsy imaging for cardiac tamponade in a Thoroughbred foal

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIGUCHI, Tohru; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conventional necropsy are considered to complement each other. The cause of death was determined to be traumatic cardiac tamponade. In conclusion, Ai is an additional option for determining cause of death. PMID:27703406

  20. Gamma-N activation of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy gamma radiation (8 to 30 MeV) is gaining acceptance for radiation therapy of patients with deep cancers. This radiation is of sufficient energy to induce photonuclear activation of the elements in the human body. Our results of measurements of nitrogen and phosphorus in an anthropomorphic phantom, a cadaver, and a cancer patient with bremsstrahlung radiation from 15 MeV electrons demonstrate the feasibility of a method to monitor these two elements in the human body in vivo by measuring the radioactivity induced in these targets by photonuclear reactions. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Viscoelastic evaluation of fetal umbilical vein for reconstruction of middle cerebral artery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dongyuan; Xu, Donghui; Li, Peng; Wei, Jun; Yang, Kun; Zhao, Conghai

    2013-01-01

    The transplantation of artificial blood vessels with < 6 mm inner diameter as substitutes for human arterioles or veins has not achieved satisfactory results. Umbilical vein has been substituted for ar-tery in vascular transplantation, but it remains unclear whether the stress relaxation and creep tween these vessels are consistent. In this study, we used the fetal umbilical vein and middle cere-bral artery from adult male cadavers to make specimens 15 mm in length, 0.196–0.268 mm in nica med...

  2. Five Roots Pattern of Median Nerve Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Natsis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual combination of median nerve’s variations has been encountered in a male cadaver during routine educational dissection. In particular, the median nerve was formed by five roots; three roots originated from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus joined individually the median nerve’s medial root. The latter (fourth root was united with the lateral (fifth root of the median nerve forming the median nerve distally in the upper arm and not the axilla as usually. In addition, the median nerve was situated medial to the brachial artery. We review comprehensively the relevant variants, their embryologic development and their potential clinical applications.

  3. The embalming of John of Lancaster, first Duke of Bedford (1435 AD): A forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P; Poupon, J; Jeannel, G F; Favier, D; Popescu, S M; Augias, A; Huynh-Charlier, I; Laquay, L; Boudouma, O; Dorion-Peyronnet, C

    2016-04-01

    During the Middle Ages and Renaissance, embalming the cadaver of the elite was common practice, being a highly technical treatment mixing vegetal and mineral substances. To assess the exact kind of embalming reserved for the dead body (with the practical necessities of desiccation and good odour), we performed a full biomedical analysis of the mummified remains of John Plantagenet of Lancaster, first Duke of Bedford, regent of France for his nephew, the English King Henri VI (died 1435 AD). Here, we show, among other aspects, that the body was embalmed using substances whose origins were in apothecary and botany: mercury, myrtle, mint, frankincense, lime and, possibly, cinnamon and copper. PMID:26130751

  4. Stereoscopic Three-Dimensional Images of an Anatomical Dissection of the Eyeball and Orbit for Educational Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Takeda, Yoshimasa; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a series of stereoscopic anatomical images of the eye and orbit for use in the curricula of medical schools and residency programs in ophthalmology and other specialties. Layer-by-layer dissection of the eyelid, eyeball, and orbit of a cadaver was performed by an ophthalmologist. A stereoscopic camera system was used to capture a series of anatomical views that were scanned in a panoramic three-dimensional manner around the center of the lid fissure. T...

  5. Some historical notes on the diagnosis of death--the emergence of the brain death concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaert, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that discussions about the diagnosis of death and the meaning of states of suspended animation existed long before the publication of the Harvard criteria in 1968. The surgeons who started retrieving kidneys from heart beating cadavers have been accused to redefine death in order to obtain high quality organs. In fact, they were not aware of modifying a definition. They did not view death as a philosophical concept but considered that it was a biological phenomenon of which brain death was merely a new expression resulting from the development of resuscitation and intensive care procedures. PMID:19943608

  6. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2) to...... significantly associated to self reported pain in or around the hip joint in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Measurements of minimum hip JSW did not seem to be significantly influenced by varying spatial orientation of the pelvis during X-ray recordings. An inclusion criteria of minimum JSW< or =2.0 mm designating...

  7. An unusual communication between the mylohyoid and lingual nerves in man: Its significance in lingual nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potu Bhagath

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mylohyoid nerve is the branch of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN which arises above the mandibular foramen. An abnormal communication between the mylohyoid nerve and lingual nerve (LN was noted during the routine dissection of a male cadaver. Communicating branches between IAN and LN have been identified as a possible explanation for the inefficiency of mandibular anesthesia. The communication between mylohyoid and lingual nerve was found in this case after the LN passes in close relation to third molar tooth, which makes it more susceptible to injury during third molar extractions.

  8. A precise radiographic method to determine the location of the inferior alveolar canal in the posterior edentulous mandible: implications for dental implants. Part 1: Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J P; Tharanon, W

    1990-01-01

    In severely atrophic or osteoporotic mandibles, the location of the inferior alveolar nerve may vary considerably, both superoinferiorly and mediolaterally. A clinician's ability to reliably locate this nerve within the mandible would permit the surgical planning of implant placement in the posterior edentulous mandible. Eight edentulous cadaver mandibles were studied. A technique that precisely locates the inferior alveolar nerve within the mandible is described. The technique will aid the surgeon in planning a surgical approach to the posterior mandible with reduced risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. PMID:2391135

  9. Applicability of 3D-CT facial reconstruction for forensic individual identification Aplicabilidade da reconstrução facial em 3D-TC para identificação individual forense

    OpenAIRE

    Sara dos Santos Rocha; Dalton Luiz de Paula Ramos; Marcelo Gusmão Paraíso Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used in several clinical dentistry applications even by axial slices and two and three-dimensional reconstructed images (2D-CT and 3D-CT). The purpose of the current study is to assess the precision of linear measurements made in 3D-CT using craniometric patterns for individual identification in Forensic Dentistry. Five cadaver heads were submitted to a spiral computed tomography using axial slices, and 3D-CT reconstructions were obtained by volume rendering techni...

  10. Chloroform and trichloroethylene uptake from water into human skin in vitro: Kinetics and risk implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model recently proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) predicts that short-term dermal uptakes of organic environmental water contaminants are proportional to the square root of exposure time. The model appears to underestimate dermal uptake, based on very limited in vivo uptake data obtained primarily using human subjects. To further assess this model, we examined in vitro dermal uptake kinetics for aqueous organic chemicals using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Specifically, we examined the kinetics of in vitro dermal uptake of 14C-labeled chloroform and trichloroethylene from dilute (5-ppb) aqueous solutions using full-thickness human cadaver skin exposed for (≤1 hr)

  11. Applicability of 3D-CT facial reconstruction for forensic individual identification

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Sara dos Santos; Ramos Dalton Luiz de Paula; Cavalcanti Marcelo de Gusmão Paraíso

    2003-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is used in several clinical dentistry applications even by axial slices and two and three-dimensional reconstructed images (2D-CT and 3D-CT). The purpose of the current study is to assess the precision of linear measurements made in 3D-CT using craniometric patterns for individual identification in Forensic Dentistry. Five cadaver heads were submitted to a spiral computed tomography using axial slices, and 3D-CT reconstructions were obtained by volume rendering techni...

  12. Superficial Ulnar Artery: A Case Report of its Unusual Course

    OpenAIRE

    QUADROS, Lydia Shobha; BHAT, Nandini; D'SOUZA, Antony Sylvan

    2015-01-01

    After arising from the brachial artery in the cubital fossa the ulnar artery usually passes deep into the superficial flexor muscles of the forearm. In the lower two-thirds, it typically follows a sub-fascial course. In the present case, during a routine undergraduate course dissection of a cadaver, it was found that the ulnar artery arose normally as a terminal branch of the brachial artery in the cubital fossa, followed a sub-fascial course by lying superficial to the flexor muscles then co...

  13. Microanatomy and Histological Features of Central Myelin in the Root Exit Zone of Facial Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Gi-Taek; Yoo, Chan-Jong; Han, Seong-Rok; Choi, Chan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the microanatomy and histological features of the central myelin in the root exit zone of facial nerve. Methods Forty facial nerves with brain stem were obtained from 20 formalin fixed cadavers. Among them 17 facial nerves were ruined during preparation and 23 root entry zone (REZ) of facial nerves could be examined. The length of medial REZ, from detach point of facial nerve at the brain stem to transitional area, and the thickness of glial mem...

  14. A Comprehensive Review of Serious Games in Health Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ricciardi

    2014-01-01

    learner oriented approach and providing a stealth mode of teaching. In some fields it represents an ideal instrument for continuous health professions education also in terms of costs because it is cheaper than traditional training methods that use cadavers or mannequins. In this paper we make a scoping review of serious games developed for health professions and health related fields in order to understand if they are useful tools for health related fields training. Many papers confirmed that serious gaming is a useful technology that improves learning and skills development for health professionals.

  15. Les restes osseux du gisement d'Urdanarre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Duday

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available En el enterramiento se identifican restos óseos humanos que corresponden a dos individuos. En uno de los casos, perteneciente a un adulto de edad madura, el cadaver habría sido incinerado. El otro, mejor representado, se trata de un subadulto que habría sido inhumado. En este caso la superficie de los huesos está muy afectada por la erosión que han experimentado en el lugar de inhumación.

  16. Central tarsal bone fracture in the border collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliard, M

    2007-07-01

    Fracture of the plantar process of the central tarsal bone together with a dorsomedial displacement of the body of the bone was seen in six border collies. All injuries occurred during free exercise, with no extrinsic trauma. Three dogs had concomitant tarsal fractures. Primary treatment was by lag screwing the central tarsal bone to the fourth tarsal bone. All cases eventually made an excellent recovery. The superficial radiographic appearance was of a luxation of the bone as reported in a previous series, but appraisal of the radiographs showed evidence of fracture in all cases. A cadaver study to assess the mechanism of luxation showed that it is unlikely to occur naturally. PMID:17490445

  17. Anatomical investigations and their ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D Gareth

    2007-04-01

    The multi-faceted nature of modern anatomy comes as a surprise to many, especially when confronted by such seemingly different topics as cadavers and human embryo research. However, even these disparate facets of anatomy are linked by common underlying ethical considerations. This article traces historical views of anatomy and places them alongside the more contemporary dimensions of whole-body plastination, use of human material obtained under unethical circumstances, and human embryo research. These dimensions introduce issues of respect, human dignity, consent, scientific integrity, and societal expectations. PMID:17072864

  18. Distributed Data Acquisition For Biomechanics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, J.; Geisler, M.; Prieto, T.; Weiss, R.

    1987-01-01

    Biomechanics research at the Medical College of Wisconsin is directed to the determination of the mechanisms of head and spine injury and the evaluation of surgical treatments for these injuries. This work involves mechanical testing of components of the spine (disks, vertebral bodies, and ligaments) as well as testing of composite spines and in situ evaluation of intact human cadavers (1,3). Other studies utilize experimental animals to measure neurologic and physiologic effects due to injury producing loads and accelerations (2). An integrated system has been developed to facilitate the acquisition and analysis of the diverse types of data from these experiments.

  19. Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Wagner

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. One ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. Right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. Differences from other avian species and unique features of the ostrich are briefly discussed.

  20. Hollow-glass waveguide delivery of an infrared free-electron laser for microsurgical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to deliver free-electron-laser (FEL) pulses for intraocular microsurgery. The FEL at Vanderbilt University is tunable from 1.8 to 10.8 μm. To deliver the FEl beam we used a metallic-coated hollow-glass waveguide of 530-μm inner diameter. A 20-gauge cannula with a miniature CaF2 window shielded the waveguide from water. Open-sky retinotomy was performed on cadaver eyes. The system delivered as much as 6x105 W of FEL peak power to the intraocular tissues without damage to the waveguide or to the surgical probe

  1. The effect of scan parameters on cone beam CT trabecular bone microstructural measurements of the human mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, N; Parsa, A.; Hassan, B.; van der Stelt, P; Aartman, I.H.A.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different cone beam CT scan parameters on trabecular bone microstructure measurements. A human mandibular cadaver was scanned using a cone beam CT (3D Accuitomo 170; J.Morita, Kyota, Japan). 20 cone beam CT images were obtained using 5 different fields of view (4X4 cm, 6x6 cm, 8X8 cm, 10x10 cm and 10X5 cm), 2 types of rotation steps (180 degrees and 360 degrees) and 2 scanning resolutions (standard and high). Image analysis software...

  2. Low-dose allopurinol plus azathioprine/cyclosporin/prednisolone, a novel immunosuppressive regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocair, P; Duley, J; Simmonds, H A; Cameron, J S; Ianhez, L; Arap, S; Sabbaga, E

    1993-07-10

    Early rejection can still complicate renal transplantation even with cyclosporin. We added low-dose allopurinol (25 mg on alternative days) to "triple" immunosuppression with cyclosporin, prednisolone, and azathioprine for twelve recipients of cadaver renal grafts. The controls were fifteen patients on triple therapy alone. Only one rejection episode occurred among the allopurinol-treated patients, whereas eleven controls had rejections (seven with more than one episode). Allopurinol may be toxic when combined with azathioprine, yet the bone marrow tolerated the new regimen well. As expected, reduction of the azathioprine dose was necessary in the treated group. PMID:8100914

  3. Six perspectives on the ethics of access to health care: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Michael B

    1981-12-01

    A brief overview of six articles which address ethical considerations in the allocation of medical resources: N. Daniels on the obligation of physicians in the distribution of health care; D. Ozar on the right to health care; J. Humber on the involuntary commitment and treatment of the mentally ill; N. Bell on triage and the allocation of scarce medical resources; C. Kaufmann on health policy in the U.S., Great Britain, and the U.S.S.R.; and C. Perry on the right of public access to cadaver organs. PMID:11649357

  4. [Advances of forensic entomology in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng

    2006-12-01

    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  5. Irradiation Of Prostatic Carcinoma By Neodymium-YAG-Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowering, R.; Hofstetter, A.; Keiditsch, E.; Frank, F.

    1980-05-01

    Human Cadaver prostate tumors and canine prostate glands in vivo were irradiated by Nd:YAG laser with different power levels and pulse durations. Temperature measurements were carried out by an arrangement of micro thermo couple, digital volt meter and computer in different layers of the prostate and the rectum. The temporal and spatial temperature measurements showed a good correlation with the histological findings. Endoscopic laser irradiation of prostatic carcinoma in man was performed after TUR. There was a large penetration depth resulting a deep necrosis, but no perforation and no changes in the rectum were to be found also after high power laser irradiation.

  6. Superficial Ulnar Artery Associated with Anomalous Origin of the Common Interosseous and Ulnar Recurrent Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamidi, Narendra; Nayak, Satheesha B; Jetti, Raghu; Thangarajan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of vascular variations in the upper limb is not uncommon and is well described in the medical literature. However, occurrence of superficial ulnar artery associated with unusual origin of the common interosseous and ulnar recurrent arteries is seldom reported in the literature. In the present case, we report the anomalous origin of common trunk of common interosseous, anterior and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries from the radial artery, in a male cadaver. Further, ulnar artery had presented superficial course. Knowledge of anomalous arterial pattern in the cubital fossa reported here is clinically important during the angiographic procedures and plastic surgeries. PMID:27437201

  7. The Reliability of the Symax Method of Measuring the Radiographic Femoral Varus Angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allpass, Maja; Miles, James Edward; Schmökel, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the practicability of curved osteotomy to correct femoral varus in small breed dogs, and to assess the reliability of the Symax method of measuring the radiographic femoral varus angle (FVA). Methods: Eleven cadaveric femora plus one clinical case were included in this study....... The FVA was measured using the Symax method on craniocaudal femoral radiographs. CORA principles were used to plan the curved osteotomy. Following osteotomy and planned correction of the FVA to 0º, the femur was stabilized with a 2.4 mm locking plate and screws (cadavers) or 2.0mm SOP plate (patient...

  8. Insulin and C-peptide in human brain neurons (insulin/C-peptide/brain peptides/immunohistochemistry/radioimmunoassay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regional distribution and cellular localization of insulin and C-peptide immunoreactivities were studied in human cadaver brains using the indirect immunofluorescence method, the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, and radioimmunoassay. Products of the immune reactions to both polypeptides were observed in most nerve cells in all areas of the brain examined. Immunostaining was mainly restricted to the cell soma and proximal dendrites. Radioimmunoassay revealed that human brain contains insulin and C-peptide in concentrations much higher than the blood, the highest being in the hypothalamus. These findings support the hypothesis that the 'brain insulin' is - at least in part - produced in the CNS. (author)

  9. Variant position of the medial plantar nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astik RB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variation of position of the medial plantar nerve is important for the forefoot surgeon for plantar reconstruction, local injection therapy and an excision of interdigital neuroma. During routine dissection of 50-year-old female cadaver, we found the medial plantar nerve and vessels variably located between plantar aponeurosis and the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the right foot. Due to this variant position, the medial plantar nerve and vessels lose their protection from the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the foot and became vulnerable for compression.

  10. CONGENITAL CRYPTORCHIDISM - ITS ANATOMICAL ASPECTS, EMBRYOGENESIS AND CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    The testes are a pair of male reproductive organs. The testicular variations are unusual and can result in multiple clinical conditions. Congenital cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both the testes have not passed down the scrotal sac. During a routine cadaveric dissection of a middle aged male cadaver, in the left side of the pelvic part of the abdomen an unusual undescended testis was noted near the deep inguinal ring. Additional to this we also noted a thick band of ligament co...

  11. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajkta A Thete

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm and conservative or radical renal surgery

  12. Disease dynamics in a specialized parasite of ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C.;

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade......-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests...

  13. Transoral robotic surgery of the central skull base: preclinical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Nogueras, F J J; Katati, M J; Arraez Sanchez, M A; Molina Martinez, M; Sanchez Carrion, M

    2014-06-01

    In this study we explored possible applications of the da Vinci system in approaching the skull base at optic chiasm level on two cryopreserved cadavers, using an entirely transoral robotic technique (TORS). We used a standard 12 mm endoscopy and 8 mm terminals. Bone drilling was performed manually. The da Vinci system is equipped with very good illumination and 3D viewing, thus providing excellent vision and great maneuverability even in the less accessible areas of the skull. Our experience demonstrates that an entirely transoral skull base robotic approach to this complex anatomical region has many advantages as compared to traditional techniques. PMID:24077869

  14. Entrapment of the Martin-Gruber branch of median nerve in the forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Vinod Ranade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a dual neuro-vascular variation, which was observed in the right extremity of male cadaver. About an inch inferior to the elbow joint, three branches arose from the median nerve. These were the anterior interosseous branch, a Martin-Gruber branch (MGB and a muscular branch. The MGB coursed infero-medially to join with the ulnar nerve by running posterior to the ulnar artery. It was surprising to observe that the MGB passed between the ulnar artery and its venae comitantes. There was an acute angulation of the MGB here, suggesting entrapment at this site.

  15. Entrapment of the Martin-Gruber branch of median nerve in the forearm

    OpenAIRE

    Anu Vinod Ranade; Bukkambudhi Virupakshamurthy Murlimanju; Rajalakshmi Rai; Mohamed Ahmed Eladl

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of a dual neuro-vascular variation, which was observed in the right extremity of male cadaver. About an inch inferior to the elbow joint, three branches arose from the median nerve. These were the anterior interosseous branch, a Martin-Gruber branch (MGB) and a muscular branch. The MGB coursed infero-medially to join with the ulnar nerve by running posterior to the ulnar artery. It was surprising to observe that the MGB passed between the ulnar artery and its venae comit...

  16. A CASE REPORT OF BILATERAL SUBCLAVIUS POSTICUS MUSC LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: During routine dissection of an adult male cadaver, in the neck region an aberrant muscle subclavius posticus was found on both sides. The muscle had a tendinous attachment anteriorly on the 1 st costal cartilage along with the subclavius. Long t hin belly of this aberrant muscle was superficial to brachial plexus and subclav ian artery and was attached posteriorly on to the scapula. Clinical significance of this muscle has been recognized as a possible cause of thoracic outlet syndrome or it may mimic as a mass on radiological investigation in this region. Radiologists and breast surgeons should be aware of this anomaly in scapular region

  17. Acceleration experienced by thermal converter implanted in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine acceleration levels experienced by the ERDA thermal converter unit implanted abdominally in a calf. A full-scale weighted mock-up of the thermal converter was fabricated containing a triaxial accelerometer. The mock-up was implanted in calf cadavers which were subjected to falls from an operating table. Highest acceleration recorded was 34 g. The mock-up was implanted in living animals and acceleration measurements made under various maneuvers including walking, standing from a laying position, walking up and down stairs, jumping, and falling from a standing position. Maximum acceleration recorded was 8 g and occurred in the falling maneuver

  18. Stabilizing effects of ankle bracing under a combination of inversion and axial compression loading

    OpenAIRE

    Tohyama, Harukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Renstrom, Per A.

    2006-01-01

    The combined effects of bracing, axial compression and inversion rotation on the ankle-subtalar complexes were evaluated. Ex vivo tests under the load-controlled condition were performed on six cadaver ankle specimens using a six degree-of-freedom fixture. Inversion rotation was measured while subjecting the ankle-subtalar complex to a 2.5 N-m inversion moment and a combination of the testing variables (brace type, no brace, 178 N axial compression load, no compression load, 0° and 20° of pla...

  19. Participación del odontólogo en la determinación del diagnóstico de la causa de muerte y del intervalo post - mortem

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Molano Osorio; Maria del Pilar Mejía; Carlos Martín Ardila Medina

    2009-01-01

    Resumen: La serie de conocimientos teórico - prácticos de las ciencias básicas forenses que confluyen sobre el odontólogo forense, incitan para que por medio de sus peritajes y/o experticia, tenga como fin último servir a la justicia. Este artículo pretende realzar las capacidades de auxilio que puede desempeñar el odontólogo forense dado la magnitud de su campo de acción y debido a que es un profesional altamente capacitado para poner de manifiesto la importancia de los fenómenos cadavéricos...

  20. Isolamento, caracterização, ativação e diferenciação em linhagens mesenquimais de pericitos cardíacos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    de Aguiar, Alessandra Melo

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Células residentes teciduais são atualmente identificadas como populações de células progenitoras promissoras para terapias celulares. Neste trabalho, foi realizado o isolamento de células cardíacas humanas que expressam a enzima fosfatase alcalina, e estas células apresentaram características de célula-tronco mesenquimais (CTM). Foram utilizadas amostras de 24 doadores cadavéricos provenientes do Banco de Homoenxertos Humanos da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba. O tempo médio d...