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Sample records for cactus pear opuntia

  1. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cultivar and Harvest Month Influence the Nutrient Content of Opuntia spp. Cactus Pear Cladode Mucilage Extracts

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    Alba du Toit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10.2 kJ/g were low. The mineral content was high (ash 17.7/100 g, particularly calcium (3.0 g/100 g and phosphorous (109.5 mg/kg. Low insoluble acid-detergent fibre (1.4 g/kg and neutral-detergent fibre (2.1 g/kg values indicated that mucilage was mostly soluble fibre. Calcium oxalate crystals were not detected in dried mucilage. Opuntia robusta powders had higher protein, extractable fat and potassium content, while Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage powders had higher polyunsaturated (Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid fat content. O. robusta Robusta mucilage, harvested after the fruit harvest (February had the lowest energy content and the highest mineral and protein content. Mucilage powders were highly soluble, low-kilojoule and mineral-rich. This is a functional ingredient that is produced from an easily cultivated crop, as cactus pears grow in areas with poor soil, extremely high daytime temperatures and limited water supplies.

  3. Cultivar and Harvest Month Influence the Nutrient Content of Opuntia spp. Cactus Pear Cladode Mucilage Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Alba; de Wit, Maryna; Hugo, Arno

    2018-04-16

    Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo) and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta) cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10.2 kJ/g) were low. The mineral content was high (ash 17.7/100 g), particularly calcium (3.0 g/100 g) and phosphorous (109.5 mg/kg). Low insoluble acid-detergent fibre (1.4 g/kg) and neutral-detergent fibre (2.1 g/kg) values indicated that mucilage was mostly soluble fibre. Calcium oxalate crystals were not detected in dried mucilage. Opuntia robusta powders had higher protein, extractable fat and potassium content, while Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage powders had higher polyunsaturated (Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid) fat content. O. robusta Robusta mucilage, harvested after the fruit harvest (February) had the lowest energy content and the highest mineral and protein content. Mucilage powders were highly soluble, low-kilojoule and mineral-rich. This is a functional ingredient that is produced from an easily cultivated crop, as cactus pears grow in areas with poor soil, extremely high daytime temperatures and limited water supplies.

  4. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  5. 10406 EFFICACY OF CACTUS PEAR (Opuntia ficus-indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bdu

    Tigray, a region in north Ethiopia, is a semi-arid area with limited agricultural potential ..... ficus-indica recorded in South Africa by Hugh Mciteka [31]. Younger ... camel and equines feed on cactus varieties most, compared to goats and sheep.

  6. Agrobiodiversity of cactus pear (Opuntia, Cactaceae in the Meridional Highlands Plateau of Mexico

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    Juan Antonio Reyes-Agüero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is characterized by a remarkable richness of Opuntia, mostly at the Meridional Highlands Plateau; it is also here where the greatest richness of Opuntia variants occurs. Most of these variants have been maintained in homegardens; however, the gathering process which originated these homegardens has been disrupted over the past decades, as a result of social change and the destruction of large wild nopaleras. If the variants still surviving in homegardens are lost, these will be hard to recover, that is, the millenary cultural heritage from the human groups that populated the Mexican Meridional Highland Plateau will be lost forever. This situation motivated the preparation of a catalogue that records the diversity of wild and cultivated Opuntia variants living in the meridional Highlands Plateau. To this end, 379 samples were obtained in 29 localities, between 1998 and 2003. The information was processed through Twinspan. All specimens were identified and preserved in herbaria. Botanical keys and descriptions were elaborated. The catalogue includes information on 126 variants comprising 18 species. There were species with only one variant (Opuntia atropes, O. cochinera, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. rzedowskii and O. velutina, two (O. durangensis, O. lindheimeri, O. phaeacantha and O. robusta, five (O. joconostle and O. lasiacantha, seven (O. chavena, 12 (O. hyptiacantha and O. streptacantha, 15 (O. ficus-indica, 22 (O. albicarpa, and up to 34 (O. megacantha. Additionally, 267 common cactus pear names were related to those variants.

  7. In Vitro Propagation of Three Moroccan Prickly Pear Cactus Opuntia and Plant Establishment in Soil

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    Aissam EL FINTI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia is one of the most widespread cacti, primarily due to their edible fruit and vegetable mass used as feed. The high demand for young plants of Opuntia made it necessary to find a rapid method of multiplication of the cactus, the safest method consisting in vitro micropropagation of species belonging to this genus. With aim of large production of plant material, a propagation system of three important prickly pear cactus cultivar (Opuntia ficus-indica in Morocco was developed. Segments of healthy young cladode (containing one areole were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS containing adenine sulfate (40 mg/1, monosodium phosphate (50 mg/l, sucrose (50 g/l, phytagel (0.3% and benzyladenine (BA at 22.2 μM, to start the process of micropropagation. In vitro-developed shoots from areoles were used as secondary explants to induce shoot development in the MS medium with 5 mg/l of BA. All of the three studied cultivars showed an important multiplication rate in this medium. ‘Sidi Ifni M’ (‘Moussa’ cultivar shows the greatest number of shoots followed by ‘Sidi Ifni A’ (‘Aissa’ and ‘Delahia’ 17.26, 14.12 and 12.13 respectively. Rooting of in vitro-generated shoots was achieved most efficiently on half-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA or IAA. Rooting frequencies were in the range from 95 to 100% and the highest mean number of root (19.1 was obtained with IBA for ‘Delahia’ cultivar. All micropropagated plants were transferred to greenhouse and all of them survived acclimatization process and showed good overall growth.

  8. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy Genotypes

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    Clara Albano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Betacyanin (betanin, total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy. In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity, betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health.

  10. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  11. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.

  12. Revalorization of cactus pear (Opuntia spp. wastes as a source of antioxidants

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    Anaberta Cardador-Martínez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an increased interest in antioxidant activity and health-improving capacity of cactus pear has been registered. The antioxidant capacity of the pulp of cactus-pear fruits has been previously assessed. In this work, total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins of peel and seeds of four cactus pear cultivars were examined as well as their antioxidant capacity. Tannins were the major phenolics in cactus pear seeds accounting for almost fifty percent for all cultivars. Analysis of variance revealed that ripeness, cultivar, and its interaction had highly significant effect on the total phenolics, tannin, and flavonoid contents of cactus pear peel. With regard to the seeds, only the stage of ripeness and interaction (ripeness stage x cultivar were significant on total phenolics and tannins contents. The flavonoid content in seeds was not affected by any of the factors or their interactions. The antioxidant capacity was higher in the peel than in the seeds. Generally, fruits with light-green or yellow-brown peel have higher antiradical activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values compared with those with red-purple peel. Cactus pear by-products can indeed be exploited as a good and cheap source of natural antioxidants.

  13. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Red Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Encapsulated Powder to Pigment Extruded Cereal

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    Martha G. Ruiz-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear is a potential natural dye for the food industry and a known antioxidant. Although the use of this powder is possible, it is not clear how it alters food properties, thus ensuing commercial acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear on the physicochemical properties of extruded cereals. The powder was mixed (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% w/w with maize grits and extruded (mix moisture 22%, temperature 100°C, and screw speed 325 rpm. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of the extruded cereal were evaluated; extruded cereal without encapsulated powder was used as a control. All cereal extrudates pigmented with the encapsulated powder showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in expansion, water absorption, color, density, and texture compared to the control. The encapsulated powder had a positive effect on expansion and water absorption indices, as well as color parameters, but a negative effect on density and texture. Extruded cereal properties were significantly (P<0.05 correlated. Sensorially, consumers accepted the extruded cereal with a lower red cactus pear powder content (2.5% w/w, because this presented characteristics similar to extruded cereal lacking pigment.

  15. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wet faeces produced by sheep fed dried spineless cactus pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactus pear cladodes in ruminant diets are characterized by the production of wet faeces and assumed to be diarrhoea. Incremental levels of sun-dried and coarsely ground spineless cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Algerian) cladodes were used to substitute part of the lucerne hay in balanced sheep diets. Feed and ...

  17. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  18. Modeling the effects of temperature and relative humidity on gas exchange of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara-Arauza, J.C.; Yahia, E.M.; Cedeno, L.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    A model to estimate gas profile of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) prickly pear cactus stems was developed and calibrated. The model describes the transient gas exchange taking in consideration the effect of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on film permeability (FPgas), respiration rate

  19. Antioxidant betalains from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) inhibit endothelial ICAM-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, C; Tesoriere, L; Allegra, M; Livrea, M A; D'Alessio, P

    2004-12-01

    It has been suggested that some pigments would have antioxidant properties and that their presence in dietary constituents would contribute to reduce the risk of oxidative stress-correlated diseases. Among others, inflammatory response depends on redox status and may implicate oxidative stress. Vascular endothelial cells are a direct target of oxidative stress in inflammation. We have tested the impact of the free radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of betalains from the prickle pear in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. Here we show the capacity of betalains to protect endothelium from cytokine-induced redox state alteration, through ICAM-1 inhibition.

  20. Drying of prickly pear cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica) in a forced convection tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.; de Ita, A.; Vaca, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, DePt. de Energia, Area de Termofluidos, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, Del. Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02200, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this work we evaluated the kinetics of drying of Opuntia's cladodes observing two conditions: complete cladode with the protective cuticle of the intact product and with reduced cuticle (partially removed), using a drying tunnel with forced flow. The temperature of the air was set at 35, 45, and 60 C with velocities of 1.5 and 3.0 m/s. The conditions of the environment were controlled and maintained at 22 C and 30% of relative humidity. The results show that the drying time was considerably reduced when approximately 30% of the cuticle that protects the product was removed. Additionally, the temperature had greater influence than the velocity of the air. The numerical model that best describes the behavior of the drying process is the double logarithmic one, with the imposed restrictions of r close to the unit, the lowest possible {chi}{sup 2} and the RSEM tending to zero. The characteristic drying function of the product resulted in a third-grade exponential curve, where r and SD were the corresponding selection criteria. (author)

  1. Drying of prickly pear cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica) in a forced convection tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Ita, A. de; Vaca, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the kinetics of drying of Opuntia's cladodes observing two conditions: complete cladode with the protective cuticle of the intact product and with reduced cuticle (partially removed), using a drying tunnel with forced flow. The temperature of the air was set at 35, 45, and 60 deg. C with velocities of 1.5 and 3.0 m/s. The conditions of the environment were controlled and maintained at 22 deg. C and 30% of relative humidity. The results show that the drying time was considerably reduced when approximately 30% of the cuticle that protects the product was removed. Additionally, the temperature had greater influence than the velocity of the air. The numerical model that best describes the behavior of the drying process is the double logarithmic one, with the imposed restrictions of r close to the unit, the lowest possible χ 2 and the RSEM tending to zero. The characteristic drying function of the product resulted in a third-grade exponential curve, where r and SD were the corresponding selection criteria.

  2. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. = Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma Orelhade-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergenteácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto comalimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que aeficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioralobservations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time spent with

  3. Protein enrichment of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus - indica Mill using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

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    Lúcia de Fátima Araújo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbial protein bioconversion of cactus pear by yeast in solid medium was studied. Three cultivation variables used were: inoculum's concentrations (5, 10 and 15 %, substrate layer thickness (2, 4 and 6 cm and temperature (30, 34 and 38 ºC. The rate of dry matter production and total protein were determined. Results obtained were variance analysis, gross energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The maximum protein amount achieved for the conditions studied in the present work was higher than 26 %, which was compatible or greater than those of conventional concentrates of protein supplements used for animal feed. The protein concentrate of cactus pear had a higher in vitro digestibility index (95.8 % and did not show any changes in the gross energy value when compared to that of the cactus pear in natura.A bioconversão da proteína microbiana através da levedura em meio sólido, foi estudada em palma forrageira cultivada em condições laboratoriais, sob três níveis de concentração do inóculo (5, 10 e 15%, espessuras distintas das camadas dos substratos (2, 4 e 6cm e temperaturas (30, 34 e 38ºC. Foram analisadas as taxas de produção de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, cujos resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, energia bruta (EB e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O valor máximo de teor protéico, alcançado nas condições estudadas nesse trabalho, foi superior a 26%, sendo esse teor compatível ou maior do que os concentrados convencionais utilizados como suplemento protéico para a ração animal. O concentrado protéico da palma obteve um alto índice de digestibilidade in vitro (95,8% e não apresentou grande alteração no valor da energia bruta se comparada com a palma in natura.

  4. Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz

    2014-08-15

    Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of protective effect of cactus pear seed oil (Opuntia ficus-indica L. MILL.) against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abderrahim, Ziyyat; Hassane, Mekhfi; Abdelkhaleq, Legssyer; Mohammed, Aziz; Mohamed, Bnouham

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antioxidant power of cactus pear seed oil [Opuntia ficus-indica L. MILL. (CPSO)] and its protective effect against chemically induced diabetes mellitus in mice. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPSO was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The preventive effect was conducted on Swiss albino mice treated with CPSO (2 mL/kg, per os), before and after a single intraperitoneal alloxan administration (100 mg/kg). Survival rate, body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured and histopathological analysis of pancreas was performed to evaluate alloxan-induced tissue injuries. CPSO exhibited an antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging assay. Moreover, the administration of CPSO (2 mL/kg) significantly attenuated alloxan-induced death and hyperglycemia (P < 0.001) in treated mice. Morphometric study of pancreas revealed that CPSO significantly protected islets of langerhans against alloxan induced-tissue alterations. Based on theses results, CPSO can prevente alloxan-induced-diabetes by quenching free radicals produced by alloxan and inhibiting tissue injuries in pancreatic β-cells. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25 min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25 min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15 min (6.83 and 6.72 MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32 MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43 logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25 min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54 logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82 UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18 mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6 mg VCEAC/100 mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1 μmol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14 days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25 min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of different film packaging on microbial growth in minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A; Mangia, N P; Fadda, A; Barberis, A; Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are natural contaminants of fresh produce and minimally processed products, and contamination arises from a number of sources, including the environment, postharvest handling and processing. Fresh-cut products are particularly susceptible to microbial contaminations because of the changes occurring in the tissues during processing. In package gas composition of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in combination with low storage temperatures besides reducing physiological activity of packaged produce, can also delay pathogen growth. Present study investigated on the effect of MAPs, achieved with different plastic films, on microbial growth of minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntio ficus-indica) fruit. Five different plastic materials were used for packaging the manually peeled fruit. That is: a) polypropylene film (Termoplast MY 40 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 300 cc/m2/24h); b) polyethylene film (Bolphane BHE, 11 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 19000 cc/m2/24h); c) polypropylene laser-perforated films (Mach Packaging) with 8, 16 or 32 100-micron holes. Total aerobic psychrophilic, mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast, mould populations and in-package CO2, O2 and C2H4 were determined at each storage time. Different final gas compositions, ranging from 7.8 KPa to 17.1 KPa O2, and 12.7 KPa to 2.6 KPa CO2, were achieved with MY and micro perforated films, respectively. Differences were detected in the mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and yeast loads, while no difference was detected in psychrophilic microorganisms. At the end of storage, microbial load in fruits sealed with MY film was significantly lower than in those sealed with BHE and micro perforated films. Furthermore, fruits packed with micro-perforated films showed the highest microbial load. This occurrence may in part be related to in-package gas composition and in part to a continuous contamination of microorganisms through micro-holes.

  8. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of cladodes of the two varieties of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica grown in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, young cladodes corresponding to two (thorn-less and thorn-containing varieties of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica from four different areas of Tigray region, Ethiopia, were investigated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Quantitative estimation of total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in the cladodes was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. A 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging assay was used for the determination of the antioxidant activities, while Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, aluminum chloride and protein (albumin precipitation methods were used for the determination of total polyphenol, flavonoid and tannin contents, respectively. The cladodes were found to be rich in polyphenols, with values in the range 18.0-71.4 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g of dry weight (DW. The predominant part of the polyphenols is represented by tannins, 9.00-41.2 mg GAE/g of DW, followed by flavonoids, 6.40-25.0 mg catchin equivalent (CE/g of DW. The cladodes showed strong antioxidant activities, 59.3-85.8% inhibition compared to ascorbic acid. Application of paired t-test on the overall mean total polyphenol contents of samples collected from the different areas revealed the presence of significant variation between the thorn-less (31.6 GAE/g of DW and thorn-containing (47.7 GAE/g of DW varieties. One-way ANOVA also revealed that there are significant variations among samples from the same variety but collected from different areas.

  9. The effect of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; O'Sullivan, Jack; Heneghan, Carl J

    2015-05-01

    Hundreds of dietary supplements are currently marketed as weight loss supplements. However, the advertised health claims of effectiveness for most of these have not been proven. The aim of this study was to critically appraise and evaluate the evidence for effectiveness of cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI), using data from published randomized clinical trials. We conducted electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library. No restrictions on age, time, or language were imposed. The risk for bias in the studies included was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of included studies, assessed reporting quality, and extracted data. We identified seven eligible studies, of which five were included. The studies varied in design and reporting quality. Meta-analysis revealed a nonsignificant difference in body weight between OFI and controls (mean difference = -0.83 kg; 95% confidence interval, -2.49 to 0.83; I(2) = 93%). Significant reductions in body mass index, percentage body fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and total cholesterol were observed. Adverse events included gastric intolerance and flu symptoms. The evidence from randomized clinical trials does not indicate that supplementation with OFI generates statistically significant effects on body weight. Consumption of OFI can cause significant reductions in percentage body fat, blood pressure, and total cholesterol. Few clinical trials evaluating the effects of OFI have been published. They vary in design and methodology, and are characterized by inconsistent quality of reporting. Further clinical trials evaluating the effects of OFI on body composition and metabolic parameters are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684 Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill e palma Orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente ácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto com alimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que a eficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time

  11. Optimization of Ultrasound Extraction of Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus indica Seed Oil Based on Antioxidant Activity and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Ortega-Ortega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the optimal ultrasound conditions (amplitude level and time for the extraction of cactus pear seed oil with the highest antioxidant activity using a closed system. Seed oil was analyzed for yield, antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH, and antimicrobial activity. Conventional extraction methods were assessed for comparison. Amplitude level significantly affected antioxidant activity in linear terms (p < 0.0001 DPPH and p < 0.001 ABTS, resp. so, at lower amplitudes, the higher antioxidant activity was achieved. The optimum ultrasound extraction conditions were of 78% amplitude for 10 min and yielded antioxidant activity values of 66.25 mg AAE/100 g and 289 µmol TE/100 g for ABTS and DPPH, respectively. Compared with conventional extraction methods, ultrasound exhibited lower oil yield and antioxidant activity but had the potential to achieve comparable results if multiple ultrasound extractions are performed in the time needed by conventional methods. Seed oils showed similar antimicrobial activity despite the extraction method and were more effective against Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that ultrasound can be an alternative extraction method of seed oils from fruits such as cactus pear.

  12. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Camacho, R; Roman-Ramos, R

    1979-01-01

    Nopal (Opuntia sp.) has been traditionally used by the Mexican population for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this work is to describe effects produced by directly liquified nopal and extracts from this plant in healthy and pancreatectomized rabbits. Preliminary results allow us to conclude that Opuntia streptacantha, Lemaire, has hypoglycemic properties when orally administered, in animals with experimentally induced diabetes as well as in healthy ones with physiologic hyperglycemia.

  13. Biology, Flowering and Fruiting of the Cactus Opuntia spp.: A Review and Some Observations on Three Varieties in Morocco

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    Mohamed Arba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cactus is a succulent plant resistant to droughts. According to the recently reviewed classification, cacti belong to the family of Opuntiaceae Desv. (synon. Cactaceae Juss. with Opuntia Mill. as the typical genus. This genus is economically the most important in the family, as it includes a group of cactus pear plants which play an important role in the agricultural systems of arid and semi-arid regions. Flowering of the cactus pear fruit is an important determinant of the fruit harvesting period. The goal of this paper is to present the physiology of the cactus pear and to explain in detail the biology of its flowering and fruiting processes. This study is also enriched by our observations on the flowering and fruiting of three varieties of cactus pear that we followed for two successive years in southern Morocco.

  14. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karym El-Mostafa; Youssef El Kharrassi; Asmaa Badreddine; Pierre Andreoletti; Joseph Vamecq; M'Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj; Norbert Latruffe; Gérard Lizard; Boubker Nasser; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vit...

  15. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) fruit juice protects against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HICHEM

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... A putative beneficial effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear ... peroxidation levels were also increased in animals given ethanol compared to the controls. ..... mechanisms are suggested in this study to explain the.

  16. The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noé, Aguilar Cristóbal

    2013-06-01

    To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries.

  17. Effect of air flow rate on the polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of convective dried cactus pear cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Infante, José-Alberto; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria-Elizabeth; González-Laredo, Ruben-Francisco; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Medina-Torres, Luis; Cervantes-Cardozo, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    The interest in nopal has encouraged the use of dehydration; there are few studies about the effect of process parameters on the nopal polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of air-drying flow rates on the amount and antioxidant capacity of extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes. Nopal was dried at 45 degrees C and air flow rates of 3 and 5 m/sec. Samples were analyzed for moisture, total polyphenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents, chain-breaking activity, inhibition of low-density lipoprotein and deoxyribose oxidation. Nopal drying at an air flow rate of 3 m/sec showed higher values of phenols, flavonoids and flavonols. The best value of low-density lipoprotein inhibition and deoxyribose was found at 1,000 microg/ml. The air flow rate affected the amount of polyphenols and the OH( . ) radical scavenging, but did not modify the chain-breaking activity and the low-density lipoprotein inhibition activity.

  18. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Filannino, Pasquale; Cavoski, Ivana; Thlien, Nadia; Vincentini, Olimpia; De Angelis, Maria; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary s...

  19. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  20. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-09-17

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  2. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karym El-Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  3. Response of cactus pear genotypes to different crop densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Aroaldo Dantas Cavalcante

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of cactus pear as an alimentary alternative for the herd of cattle of the Brazilian semiarid region and the effect of crop spacing among plants, this study aimed to evaluate the morphometry, yield and chemical-bromatological composition of cactus pear genotypes, under different cropping densities. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, in a 3x4 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of a combination of three cactus pear genotypes (Gigante, Redonda and Miúda and four cropping densities (10,000 plants ha-1; 20,000 plants ha-1; 40,000 plants ha-1; and 80,000 plants ha-1, with three replications. The cactus pear genotypes reacted differently, regarding morphometry, yield and chemical-bromatological composition, and, regardless of the species, the denser planting increased yield (tons ha-1. The Miúda palm presented the highest dry matter yield and consequently the greater accumulation of total digestible nutrients, raw protein and water per hectare, as well as the highest in vitro dry matter digestibility.

  4. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

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    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  5. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Toxqui-López, Santa; Padilla-Velasco, Ana L.

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm). We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  6. Dietary indicaxanthin from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill) fruit prevents eryptosis induced by oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion and adhesion of human erythrocytes to endothelial cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriere, Luisa; Attanzio, Alessandro; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2015-08-14

    Toxic oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion cause suicidal death of human erythrocytes or eryptosis. This process proceeds through early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of prostaglandin (PGE2) and opening of PGE2-dependent Ca channels, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, and cell shrinkage. The present study was the first to reveal that a bioavailable phytochemical, indicaxanthin (Ind) from cactus pear fruit, in a concentration range (1.0-5.0 μM) consistent with its plasma level after a fruit meal, prevents PS externalisation and cell shrinkage in a dose-dependent manner when incubated with isolated healthy human erythrocytes exposed to an oxysterol mixture for 48 h. Dietary Ind inhibited ROS production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, PGE2 release and Ca2+ entry. Ind alone did not modify the erythrocyte redox environment or affect other parameters. Ex vivo spiking of normal human blood with the oxysterol mixture for 48 h induced eryptosis, resulting in the production of ROS and decreased levels of GSH, which was prevented by concurrent exposure to 5 μm-Ind. The adherence of eryptotic erythrocytes to the endothelium causes vascular tissue injury. Erythrocytes isolated from blood incubated with the oxysterol mixture plus 5 μm-Ind did not adhere to endothelial cell monolayers. Eryptotic erythrocytes may contribute to thrombotic complications in hypercholesterolaemia. Our findings suggest the positive effects of diets containing Ind on erythrocytes in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

  7. REPEATABILITY OF FRUIT QUALITY TRAITS OF CACTUS PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALTÂNIA XAVIER NUNES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Repeatability analysis has been used to study traits in several crops, assisting in the definition of the minimum number needed to evaluate genotypes more efficiently and with less time and resource consumption. So far, however, no repeatability studies on cactus pear have been found in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the coefficient of repeatability for cactus pear fruits traits and the minimum number of evaluations (fruit that can provide acceptable accuracy for the prediction of the true value. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Institute of Bahia/Campus Guanambi, with 150 fruits collected from three municipalities in the state of Bahia. The coefficients of repeatability were estimated by the methods of analysis of variance, principal components based on the covariance (PCCV and correlation (PCC matrices, and structural analysis based on the correlation matrix (SA. The analysis of variance showed that, except for fruit diameter, the effect of the production site (municipality was significant for all traits evaluated. The PCCV method was proven the most suitable for studying the repeatability of quality traits of cactus pear fruits. Seven fruits were required to determine, with 90% confidence, the traits length, diameter, fruit firmness, skin thickness, number of seeds, fruit mass, bark mass, pulp mass, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/AT ratio, and pulp yield.

  8. EFFECTS OF PLANTING DENSITYAND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION DOSES ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY OF CACTUS PEAR

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    NALÍGIA GOMES DE MIRANDA E SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cactus is crucial for the livestock of semi - arid regions in Brazil. This plant has shown the high productivity of forage, which is influenced by several management factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic fertilization doses (20, 40 and 80 t/ ha of bovine manure/ha/two years and planting densities (20, 40, 80 and 160 thousand plants/ha on the productivity of cactus pear Clone IPA - 20 ( Opuntia ficus - indica Mill. At the Experimental Station of Caruaru at the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco, IPA has conducted the experiment. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with split plot arrangements. Higher shoot productivity was observed with increased population density and the application of manure at 80 t ha - 1two years - 1 with values of 61, 90, 117 and 139 t DM ha - 1 two years - 1 at densities of 20, 40, 80 and 160,000 plants ha - 1. The planting density influenced the productivity of cladode - plant and root dry weight, showing exponential responses, with higher cladode - plant and roots weight by area observed with increased plant density. The efficiency of organic fertilization decreased with the increase in manure doses. For increase cactus productivity, 40 t of bovine manure ha - 1 two years - 1 for plantations with 160,000 plants/ha is recommended.

  9. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

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    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpectedly high both in absolute and in specific terms. The unique cellulose-arabinan composite structure of cactus spines, together with high cellulose crystallinity, may explain this finding.

  10. Cactus (Opuntia dillenii Grahm) stem: a new source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, V.K. (Dept. of Applied Physics, V.R.C.E., Nagpur (India)); Joshi, A.M. (Dept. of Applied Physics, V.R.C.E., Nagpur (India))

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has been fabricated using cactus stem as an electrolyte. The electrolyte was a stem (phylloclade) of Opuntia dillenii from the family Cactaceae. A thin slice (1 x 1 x 0.5 cm) of the stem was cut and sandwiched between copper and zinc electrodes. A study of the discharge characteristics reveals that, at a current drain of 100 [mu]A, the cell gives an optimum energy density of 175 mWh kg[sup -1]. The power generated by these cells is sufficient to run piezoelectric buzzer and a LCD calculator for a few hours. This work opens up a new interdisciplinary area for physicists, botanists and electrochemists. (orig.)

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY OF IRRIGATED CACTUS PEAR UNDER DIFFERENT CUTTING INTENSITIES

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    GUILHERME FERREIRA DA COSTA LIMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different cutting intensities and years of harvesting on the morphological characteristics and production of fresh (FMP and dry matter (DMP of cactus pear cv. Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill under conditions of irrigation, high planting density and fertilization, with 12 months of regrowth. The experimental was completely randomized in a factorial design (3 × 2 with 12 replicates. The treatments were three cutting intensities (preserving the mother cladode (PMC, primary cladodes (PPC, or secondary cladodes (PSC, and two years of harvesting. The soil was classified as Cambisol Haplicum and the irrigation water was classified as C4S1 (EC 5.25 dS.m-1 density of 50,000 plants ha-1. The research evaluated plant height, number of cladodes per plant (NCP, length, width, perimeter and thickness of the cladodes, cladode area (CA, cladode area index (CAI, FMP and DMP. There was no significant interaction between treatments (P > 0.05 for the variables plant height, NCP, CAI and FMP. The variables related to cladode morphology showed a significant interaction (P < 0.05. The treatment PSC resulted in a greater DMP (P < 0.05 with a mean of 27.17 Mg ha-1 yr-1, compared to PPC (18.58 Mg ha-1 yr-1 or PMC (11.78 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The treatment PSC promoted greater NCP and forage productivity at harvest and can be considered as a management practice for the sustainability of cactus pear cv. Gigante under irrigation. The more important morphological characteristics were also influenced by the lower cutting intensities.

  12. Stability of cactus-pear powder during storage

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    Plúvia O. Galdino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The stability of cactus-pear powder, obtained by the process of spray drying for 40 days, was evaluated under controlled conditions of relative air humidity (83% and temperature (25 and 40 °C. The whole pulp was characterized with regard to its physico-chemical parameters: pH, total titratable acidity, soluble solids, water content, total solids, ashes, reducing sugars, total sugars, non-reducing sugars, luminosity, redness, yellowness and water activity. The stored samples in powder were evaluated every 10 days for water content, water activity, total titratable acidity and color (luminosity, redness and yellowness. The whole pulp was slightly acidic and perishable, due to the high water content. During storage, the packages did not prevent water absorption, thus increasing water content and, consequently, water activity. Yellowness oscillated along the storage time, but the predominance of the yellow color was not affected.

  13. Socio-ecological impacts of invasive alien cactus (Opuntia) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-ecological impacts of invasive alien cactus (Opuntia) in the rangelands of Narok County, Kenya. ... Chopping was the preferred method of management but was combined with other mechanical and chemical methods in order to be more effective. Appropriate interventions are suggested to mitigate the negative ...

  14. Microbial protein synthesis and concentration of urea in dairy heifers fed diets with cactus forage Opuntia

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    Maria do Socorro Mercês Aguiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the influence of increasing levels of forage cactus Opuntia in the diet on the nitrogen balance, the concentrations of urea in urine and plasma and microbial protein synthesis in dairy heifers ¾ Holstein-zebu confined. twenty four heifers were used with initial body weight of 163.00 ± 18 kg, with 8 months old and distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replications. It was used sorghum silage, concentrate and increasing levels of forage cactus Opuntia in the diet (0, 200, 400 and 600 g kg-1. The nitrogen intake, feces and urine, digested and retained with the addition of forage cactus in the diet showed decreasing linear effect. Nitrogen balance was influenced by the inclusion of forage cactus in the diet of dairy heifers through the values observed for the digested and retained nitrogen, which can be related to similar effects found for the consumption of nitrogen and the nitrogen excretion in feces and urine. Nitrogen digested percentage of intake and nitrogen retention as a percentage of ingested and digested showed no difference with the inclusion of forage cactus in the diet. The concentration of urea nitrogen in the urine of heifers had a quadratic effect point of maximum excretion level of 275.80 g kg-1 of forage cactus in the diet. Consequently, the excretion of urea nitrogen and urea excretion showed similar effect with maximum points excretion levels of 293.75 and 319.00 g kg-1 of forage in the diet. The concentration of ureic nitrogen in plasma showed no difference, with an average value of 13.19 mg dL-1. Synthesis of nitrogen and microbial crude protein adjusted to the quadratic model. The microbial efficiency was not influenced by the inclusion of forage cactus in replacement of sorghum silage and concentrate. The urine volume similar to the treatments, with an average of 5.90 liters of urine per day, proving that the creatinine excretion in urine was not influenced

  15. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of cooking process on nutritional composition and antioxidants of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santiago, Elsy; Domínguez-Fernández, Maite; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2018-02-01

    The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0g/100g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio than in soybean oil. Flavonoids accounted for 80% of total (poly)phenolic compounds, being isorhamnetin the most abundant. Heat treatment, particularly griddling and microwaving, increased every flavonoid and phenolic acid up to 3.2-fold higher than in raw samples, and consequently their antioxidant capacity. Even boiling induced losses in total (poly)phenols and antioxidant capacity by leaching into water, the main compounds were maintained. Principal Component Analysis distributed heat treated cactus cladodes according to their distinctive polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clarification of purple cactus pear juice using microfiltration membranes to obtain a solution of betalain pigments

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    Cristina VERGARA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary Betalains are fruit pigments possessing health-giving properties. To isolate the pigments, the juice must be separated from the fruit matrix, which contains biopolymers. The aim of this study was to clarify cactus pear juice by microfiltration to obtain a clarified juice containing betalains. For this purpose, two 0.2 µm pore size microfiltration membranes (ceramic and polymeric were tested. The permeates were clear, free of turbidity and high in betalains (20%, also containing polyphenols and antioxidant activity, whereas the retained fractions were high in mucilage. The best separation was obtained using the ceramic membrane.

  19. Etude physico-chimique, biochimique et stabilité d’un nouveau produit : jus de cladode du figuier de Barbarie marocain (Opuntia ficus-indica et Opuntia megacantha).

    OpenAIRE

    Boutakiout , Amale

    2015-01-01

    The orientations of the Moroccan agricultural policy concerning the Green Morocco Plan, promote the development of the arid zones and the development of crops that adapt to global warming. The prickly pear cactus is a plant which is adapted to the arid climate and still untapped in Morocco. Prickly pear cladodes contain bioactive components that have beneficial health effects. The juice extracted from cladodes of both species Opuntia ficus-indica(spineless) and Opuntia megacantha(spiny) was t...

  20. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  2. Characterization of carotenoid profile of Spanish Sanguinos and Verdal prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, spp.) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, M P; Gómez-Maqueo, A; García-Cayuela, T; Welti-Chanes, J

    2017-12-15

    Carotenoid profiles of different tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit) of Spanish Sanguinos (red) and Verdal (orange) prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica spp.) have been characterized in detail and quantified for the first time. Carotenoids were determined by HPLC-PDA-MS (APCI + ), using a reverse phase C 30 column. A total of 9 xantophylls and 4 hydrocarbon carotenes were identified. Also, minor amounts of chlorophyll a, a' and b can be observed in Opuntia peel extracts. All carotenoids were found to be present in their free form (no carotenoid esters were detected). The RAE was highest in Opuntia peels, showing values from 19.20 to 16.48µg/100g fresh weigth, for Sanguinos and Verdal Opuntia fruits, respectively. The main carotenoid in Opuntia peel extracts was (all-E)-lutein with 1132.51 and 767.98µg/100g fresh weigth, followed by (all-E)-β-carotene with 200.40 and 173.50µg/100g fresh weigth for Sanguinos and Verdal varieties of Opuntia fruits, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill): anatomy, physiology and chemical composition with emphasis on its biofunctional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Aguilar, Rosa Isela; Bosquez-Molina, Elsa; Bautista-Baños, Silvia; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) is native to Mesoamerica and marketed in different forms such as fresh, frozen or pre-cooked. Worldwide, this vegetable is recognized for its pharmaceutical actions, including its antioxidant, diuretic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties, as well as their antiviral and antispermatogenic effects. However, not all of these properties have been associated with its chemical composition; therefore, this review aims to present and integrate information available on the physiology and anatomy of cactus stem and its chemical composition, focusing on some of the many factors that determine its biofunctionality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Bio-cultural anchorage of the prickly pear cactus in Tlalnepantla (Morelos, Mexico

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    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The prickly pear cactus is a source of food with strong bio-cultural anchorage in Mexico. This is due to at least three factors: 1 the nature and heritage of cacti; 2 cultural heritage; and 3 the socio-cultural relationships with historical and symbolic roots that have facilitated knowledge of how to cultivate it and how to use it. The aim of this article is to put factors of territorial anchorage and its historical transformation in context by examining the case of the municipality of Tlalnepantla in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This community has experienced accelerated change due to the exchange of traditional crops for the prickly pear cactus and the integration of farming, commercialization and agro-transformation. Our hypothesis is that the market, internal conflicts and a lack of socio-institutional coordination have put social organization into crisis, favoring the territorial spread of the prickly pear cactus and making the Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS of Tlalnepantla less competitive. The conclusions highlight important economic and social advances whose roots lie in the strengthening and anchorage of the territory-product. However, circumstances both internal and external to the community persist, such as intra-community conflicts, the international market and cultural paradigm shifts that affect the producers and put consolidation of the LAFS at risk.El nopal es un alimento con un fuerte anclaje bio-cultural en México, propiciado por al menos tres factores: 1 la naturaleza y el patrimonio de cactáceas; 2 el patrimonio cultural; y, 3 las relaciones socio-culturales que han permitido un “saber hacer” y un “saber utilizar” con raíces históricas y simbólicas. El objetivo es situar los factores de anclaje territorial y su transformación histórica tomando como caso el municipio de Tlalnepantla, en el estado de Morelos, México. Esta comunidad ha experimentado un acelerado cambio por la reconversión de los cultivos

  5. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Cavoski, Ivana; Thlien, Nadia; Vincentini, Olimpia; De Angelis, Maria; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of γ-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05) on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin) were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1β, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05) of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition of IL-8, TNFα and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The highest

  6. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Filannino

    Full Text Available Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of γ-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05 on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1β, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05 of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05 higher inhibition of IL-8, TNFα and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The

  7. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A total of 108 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the gen...

  8. Probable hypoglycemic adverse drug reaction associated with prickly pear cactus, glipizide, and metformin in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieraj, Diana M; Freyer, Craig W

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of an adverse drug reaction (ADR) in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking prickly pear cactus (PPC), glipizide, and metformin. A 58-year-old Mexican male with type 2 diabetes mellitus being treated with metformin 1000 mg twice daily and extended-release glipizide 10 mg daily was referred to the pharmacist for medication education. He denied taking herbal supplements or experiencing hypoglycemia. Two hemoglobin A(1c) values (6.8% and 6.7%) obtained over the past year demonstrated glycemic control, which was supported by his reported fasting blood glucose readings of 113-132 mg/dL. One month later, the patient reported 4 hypoglycemic events with blood glucose readings of 49-68 mg/dL, which resulted in discontinuation of glipizide. One month later, the patient denied any further hypoglycemia. During medication reconciliation he reported consuming crude PPC pads daily for 2 months for glucose control. Literature suggests that PPC has an effect on lowering blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, although few identified data describe ADRs from combining PPC with other agents used in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. A literature search of MEDLINE (through December 2009) using the search terms diabetes mellitus, prickly pear cactus, nopal, opuntia, metformin, glipizide, glyburide, glimepiride, and sulfonylurea revealed no case reports of the described ADR. One case report describing the blood glucose-lowering effect of PPC in a patient concurrently taking oral antihyperglycemics documented an episode of hypoglycemia, although the Naranjo probability scale was not applied. One patient survey discovered the most common drug-herbal interaction in the given population to be between PPC and antihyperglycemic agents, resulting in hypoglycemia. In our case, use of the Naranjo probability scale suggests the ADR to be probable. The mechanism may be due to the additive glucose lowering of the 3 agents consumed concurrently by the

  9. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  10. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of different media on the in vitro growth of cactus (Opuntia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... The effect of media composition on the growth of cactus explants was investigated. Two media designated A and B were used in this study. Medium A contained basal Murashige Skoog salt (MS salt) and vitamins supplemented with 5% sucrose and 1% BAP (benzyl amino purines) and media B containing ...

  12. The fatty acid profile of fat depots from Santa Inês sheep fed spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto G; Almeida, Michelly DA; Cruz, George Rodrigo B; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo M; Ribeiro, Neila L; Madruga, Marta S; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Re

    2017-10-01

    Fat is the tissue that varies most in animals from both a quantitative and distribution perspective. It plays a fundamental biological role as energy storage during food scarcity. Renal, pelvic and internal fat are deposited first. These fats are used to identify fatty acid profiles that may be considered beneficial or unhealthy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fatty acid profile of fat depots in Santa Inês sheep finished in confinement with spineless cactus in their diets. The treatments included increasing levels of spineless cactus (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill.): T1 = 0%, T2 = 30%, T3 = 50%, and T4 = 70%. The diets significantly affected the adipose depots. The orthogonal contrast between the diet with no cactus (control) and the other diets indicates that the quantity of saturated fatty acids decreased and that the levels of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in animals fed spineless cactus. The use of spineless cactus in the diets of Santa Inês sheep affects the lipid profile of their fat depots, reducing the quantity of saturated fatty acids and increasing the quantity of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid profile of the fat depots indicates that these fats can be used to formulate meat products and add economic and nutritional value to such products, which increases sheep farmers' incomes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Caracterización nutricional del cactus nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica bajo diferentes tratamientos de fertilización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez-M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro planeta se enfrenta actualmente a grandes cambios en su ambiente natural, no sólo como consecuencia de su evolución, sino también del acelerado proceso de degradación antrópica. Dentro de este contexto se origina la necesidad de buscar soluciones que mitiguen el bajo nivel de vida del campesino, dadas las precarias condiciones de muchos de los actuales ecosistemas, que no permiten implementar los modelos tradicionales de explotación desmesurada de los recursos. El cactus nopal  (Opuntia ficus-indica ofrece ventajas en la producción animal, presentándose como una alternativa agroecológica, fácil de implementar en zonas semiáridas bajo condiciones adversas y con un mínimo de insumosagropecuarios. El  objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el desempeño nutricional del cactus nopal bajo cuatro tipos de fertilización, mediante el análisis proximal de alimentos, implementado en el laboratorio de nutrición animal de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, UPTC sede Tunja, en los especímenes de cactus nopal existentes en el jardín botánico de la misma. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos de tratamientos para la fertilización: 1.Químico, 2.Orgánico, 3. Químico + Orgánico y 4.Testigo, aplicados en intervalos de veinte (20 días, por tres veces, aplicando también agua en un riego semanal; tiempo al cabo del cual se realizó la valoraciónnutricional, en donde el Tratamiento 2 (Orgánico fue el de mejor desempeño, seguido por el Tratamiento 3, luego el tratamiento 1 y, por último, el tratamiento 4 (testigo.

  14. Bioactives in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) stems possess potent antioxidant and pro-apoptotic activities through COX-2 involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Soh, Soon Yil; Shin, Juha; Cho, Chi-Woung; Choi, Young Hee; Nam, Sang-Yong

    2015-10-01

    Bioactives extracted from cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) stems were investigated for their chemopreventive activities using human cancer cells in vitro. The bioactives present in crude extracts were detected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among all the extracts, such as hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH), and MeOH:water (80:20), the MeOH extract had the highest amount of polyphenolic compounds and the acetone extract exhibited the most potent effect at scavenging the 2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(•+) ) radical. In addition, most of the extracts, with the exception of hexane, exhibited significant cytotoxicity in human SW480 colon and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Overall, the SW480 cells were more sensitive than the MCF7 cells to the cytotoxic effect of the O. ficus-indica extracts (OFEs). Cell death by OFE treatment caused significant inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in both SW480 and MCF7 cell lines. However, degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was significantly increased by OFE only in the MCF7 cells, thereby inducing apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the health-benefit roles, including anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative activities as well as pro-apoptotic effects, of bioactive compounds in OFEs, suggesting a chemopreventive role in human cancer cells. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Enrichment of rice-based extrudates with Cactus Opuntia dillenii seed powder: a novel source of fiber and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmed M; Morsy, Noha E; Youssef, Khaled M

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adding the powder of cactus Opuntia dillenii ( O. dillenii ) seeds on the functional properties, fiber, antioxidants and acceptability of rice-based extrudates. The control blend consisting basically of rice flour was replaced with O. dillenii seed powder at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20% then extruded at the optimum processing conditions. The extruded products were evaluated for their chemical composition, functional properties, color attributes, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics. The results revealed that adding O. dillenii seeds powder enhanced the fiber, phenolics, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of extrudates. Expansion, bulk density and breaking strength were significantly decreased, while water absorption index, water solubility index and oil absorption index were significantly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the mean scores of sensory evaluation indicated clear improvements in all tested sensory attributes, which significantly increased by increasing the level of O. dillenii seed powder up to 15%. The results confirmed that O. dillenii seed powder could be incorporated in rice to develop snack products of acceptable functional, nutritional and sensory properties.

  16. Rehabilitation of Degraded Rangeland in Drylands by Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Plantations: Effect on Soil and Spontaneous Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Neffar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid lands, the spiny prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica is an outstanding plant for soil conservation and restoration. To determine the role of Opuntia ficus-indica on vegetation recovery process in desertified areas of Southern Tebessa (Northeast Algeria, we investigated the effect of prickly pear plantation age and some soil properties (grain size, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and CaCO3 equivalents on native plant community. Vegetation cover and plant diversity were assessed by calculating the number of individual plants (N, species richness (S, their ratio (N/S, Shannon index, and Evenness in prickly pear plantation plots of different ages (control, 5 and 20 years. Even if surveyed soil parameters did not differ significantly among O. ficus-indica plantations, results of ANOVA testing the effect of Opuntia plantations on native vegetation traits revealed significant variation for plant abundance (P < 0.0001, N/S ratio (P = 0.003 and vegetation cover (P < 0.0001. Vegetation cover differed significantly with both prickly-pear plantation age (P = 0.031 and seasons (P = 0.019. Tukey's tests revealed that all vegetation traits were significantly higher on prickly pear plantations than in control plots. Multiple comparisons also showed that plant abundance, N/S ratio and vegetation cover were significantly different between both young and old plantations and the controls. Prickly pear cultures facilitated the colonization and development of herbaceous species by ameliorating the severe environmental conditions. In conclusion, the facilitative effect of O. ficus-indica has been clearly demonstrated for both abundance and cover of native vegetation.

  17. Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestra, Giovanna; Parker, Mary L; Bennett, Richard N; Robertson, Jim; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2009-11-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes represent the green stem of the plant and are generally used as animal feed or disposed of in landfills. The present work investigated the anatomical and chemical composition of Opuntia cladodes, which form the basis of their pharmacological effects. Glucose and galacturonic acid were the main sugars of Opuntia cladodes, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of mainly kaempherol and isorhamnetin glycosides (glucoside and rhamnoside). The presence of high amounts of calcium oxalate crystals was demonstrated by light microscopy on fresh and lyophilized cladodes. No antimicrobial activity was observed even after enzymatic treatment. O. ficus-indica cladodes may retain material tightly associated with cell-wall components, and this property will have the potential to greatly reduce the bioavailability of bioactive compounds.

  18. Optimized Monitoring of Production of Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal Cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Vieyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs has grown significantly because they are useful for a wide range of applications. Additional advantage in their design requires that they meet the following characteristics: nontoxicity, abundance, sustainability, renewability, and low cost. To address these requirements, nanowhiskers were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica (nopal cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Monitoring the process of CNWs preparation is necessary to ensure maximum yield and purity of the end product. In this study, the cellulose preparation was monitored by analyzing microscopic morphology by SEM; the purity degree was determined by fluorescence microscopy as a novel and rapid technique, and FTIR spectroscopy was used for confirmation. The additional parameters that monitored the process were the crystallinity index by X-ray diffraction and the size of the particle by dynamic light scattering (DLS. Nopal cellulose was found to be comparable to commercial microcrystalline cellulose. The use of Opuntia ficus-indica is a viable alternative for the production of highly pure CNWs and the strategy to supervise the preparation process was rapid.

  19. Equilíbrio higroscópico da palma forrageira: relação com a umidade ótima para fermentação sólida Hygroscopic equilibrium of the cactus pear: relation with the optimum moisture for the solid fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de F. Araújo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available No estudo do processo de enriquecimento protéico da palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill através da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae em meio semi-sólido, a atividade de água é uma das variáveis que mais afetam não apenas o processo fermentativo mas, também, o armazenamento desse enriquecido; desta forma, o presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de se obter isotermas de dessorção da cactácea palma forrageira, nas temperaturas usuais dos processos das fermentações, 30, 35 e 40 oC, de modo a correlacionar atividade de água e umidade. As isotermas obtidas foram analisadas mediante os modelos de GAB e BET sendo que, em geral, o modelo de GAB foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados experimentais. A partir das isotermas obtidas, encontraram-se as faixas de umidades adequadas para obtenção das atividades de água recomendadas para o processo fermentativo e durante o armazenamento do enriquecido.In the study of the protein enrichment process of the cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill through the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in semi-solid state fermentation, the water activity is one of the variables that most affects the fermentation process as well as the storage. The present work had the objective of obtaining isotherms of sorption of the cactus pear, in the usual temperatures of the fermentations processes, 30, 35 and 40 oC, in order to correlate water activity and moisture content. The obtained isotherms were analyzed by the GAB and BET models, the GAB model being, in general, the one that adjusted better to the experimental data. The isotherms allowed to find appropriate moisture content to obtain the water activities recommended for the fermentation process as well as during the storage of this enriched product.

  20. Water Relations, Diurnal Acidity Changes, and Productivity of a Cultivated Cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Edmundo; Badilla, Ignacio; Nobel, Park S.

    1983-01-01

    Physiological responses of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) were studied on a commercial plantation in central Chile. Young cladodes (flattened stems) and flower buds exhibited daytime stomatal opening, whereas mature cladodes and fruit exhibited the nocturnal stomatal opening characteristic of CAM plants. Severe water stress suppressed the nocturnal stomatal opening by mature cladodes, but their high water vapor conductance occurring near dawn was not affected. Nocturnal acidity increases were not as sensitive to water stress as was the nocturnal stomatal opening. The magnitude of the nocturnal acidity increases depended on the total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), being 90% PAR-saturated at 27 moles per square meter per day for a mean nighttime air temperature of 5°C and at 20 moles per square meter per day for 18°C. Inasmuch as the PAR received on unshaded vertical surfaces averaged about 21 moles per square meter per day, nocturnal acidity increases by the cladodes were on the verge of being PAR-limited in the field. The net assimilation rate, which was positive throughout the year, annually averaged 3.4 grams per square meter per day for 1.0- and 2.0-year-old plants. Plants that were 5.4 years old had 7.2 square meters of cladode surface area (both sides) and an annual dry weight productivity of 13 megagrams (metric tons) per hectare per year when their ground cover was 32%. This substantial productivity for a CAM plant was accompanied by the highest nocturnal acidity increase so far observed in the field, 0.78 mole H+ per square meter. PMID:16663084

  1. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M.; Mahrouz, M.

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures

  2. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M. E-mail: kouhila@hotmail.com; Mahrouz, M

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures.

  3. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mansour Hédi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which

  4. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahsasni, Siham; Kouhila, Mohammed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Idlimam, Ali; Jamali, Abdelkrim

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 deg. C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 deg. C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m 3 /s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m 2 of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square (χ 2 ) of 4.6572 10 -5

  5. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Mahrouz, M. [Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire (LCOA), Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); Kouhila, M.; Idlimam, A.; Jamali, A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Lab. d' Energie Solaire et Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 {sup o} C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 {sup o}C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m{sup 2} of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 4.6572 10{sup -5}. (Author)

  6. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  7. [Importance of accurate assessment of capillary blood glucose level in diagnosis: misleading results in handlers of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Pantoja, José; Landróguez Salinas, Sergio; Barrero Luque, Susana; Pérez Pérez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycemia can cause symptoms of neuroglycopenia that can be easily confused with symptoms of greater clinical importance such as stroke. Appropriate differential diagnosis between these 2 processes will be essential for guiding the treatment approach. We report a case in which stroke was initially suspected because hypoglycemia was masked by the incorrect capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement technique used in treating an itinerant vendor of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica). We studied the effects of prickly pear handling on the CBG levels in 11 vendors before and after they handled the fruit. CBG levels were noticeably higher after the fruit was handled in all cases. Our observations reveal the need to measure both capillary and venous blood glucose levels to rule out hypoglycemia in patients with acute neurological symptoms.

  8. Indicaxanthin from cactus pear fruit exerts anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenin-induced rat pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Mario; Ianaro, Angela; Tersigni, Mariaroberta; Panza, Elisabetta; Tesoriere, Luisa; Livrea, Maria Antonia

    2014-02-01

    Nutritional research has shifted recently from alleviating nutrient deficiencies to chronic disease prevention. We investigated the activity of indicaxanthin, a bioavailable phytochemical of the betalain class from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Miller) in a rat model of acute inflammation. Rat pleurisy was achieved by injection of 0.2 mL of λ-carrageenin in the pleural cavity, and rats were killed 4, 24, and 48 h later; exudates were collected to analyze inflammatory parameters, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); cells recruited in pleura were analyzed for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation. Indicaxanthin (0.5, 1, or 2 μmol/kg), given orally before carrageenin, time- and dose-dependently, reduced the exudate volume (up to 70%) and the number of leukocytes recruited in the pleural cavity (up to 95%) at 24 h. Pretreatment with indicaxanthin at 2 μmol/kg inhibited the carrageenin-induced release of PGE(2) (91.4%), NO (67.7%), IL-1β (53.6%), and TNF-α (71.1%), and caused a decrease of IL-1β (34.5%), TNF-α (81.6%), iNOS (75.2%), and COX2 (87.7%) mRNA, as well as iNOS (71.9%) and COX-2 (65.9%) protein expression, in the recruited leukocytes. Indicaxanthin inhibited time- and dose- dependently the activation of NF-κB, a key transcription factor in the whole inflammatory cascade. A pharmacokinetic study with a single 2 μmol/kg oral administration showed a maximum 0.22 ± 0.02 μmol/L (n = 15) plasma concentration of indicaxanthin, with a half-life of 1.15 ± 0.11 h. When considering the high bioavailability of indicaxanthin in humans, our findings suggest that this dietary pigment has the potential to improve health and prevent inflammation-based disorders.

  9. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. 125 I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids

  10. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuelos, Gary S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Walse, Spencer S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Freeman, John L.

    2011-07-01

    The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused x-ray fluorescence elemental and chemical mapping ({micro}XRF), Se K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). {micro}XRF showed Se concentrated inside small conic, vestigial leaves (cladode tips), the cladode vasculature, and the seed embryos. Se K-edge XANES demonstrated that approximately 96% of total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is carbon-Se-carbon (C-Se-C). Micro and bulk XANES analysis showed that cladode tips contained both selenate and C-Se-C forms. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry quantification of Se in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions followed by LC-MS structural identification showed selenocystathionine-to-selenomethionine (SeMet) ratios of 75:25, 71:29, and 32:68, respectively in cladode, fruit, and seed. Enzymatic digestions and subsequent analysis confirmed that Se was mainly present in a 'free' nonproteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, while in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids. {micro}XRF chemical mapping illuminated the specific location of Se reduction and assimilation from selenate accumulated in the cladode tips into the two LC-MS-identified C-Se-C forms before they were transported into the cladode mesophyll. We conclude that Opuntia is a secondary Se-accumulating plant whose fruit and cladode contain mostly free selenocystathionine and SeMet, while seeds contain mainly SeMet in protein. When eaten, the organic Se forms in Opuntia fruit, cladode, and seed may improve health, increase Se mineral nutrition, and help prevent multiple human cancers.

  11. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, Gary S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Walse, Spencer S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Freeman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused x-ray fluorescence elemental and chemical mapping (μXRF), Se K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). μXRF showed Se concentrated inside small conic, vestigial leaves (cladode tips), the cladode vasculature, and the seed embryos. Se K-edge XANES demonstrated that approximately 96% of total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is carbon-Se-carbon (C-Se-C). Micro and bulk XANES analysis showed that cladode tips contained both selenate and C-Se-C forms. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry quantification of Se in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions followed by LC-MS structural identification showed selenocystathionine-to-selenomethionine (SeMet) ratios of 75:25, 71:29, and 32:68, respectively in cladode, fruit, and seed. Enzymatic digestions and subsequent analysis confirmed that Se was mainly present in a “free” nonproteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, while in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids. μXRF chemical mapping illuminated the specific location of Se reduction and assimilation from selenate accumulated in the cladode tips into the two LC-MS-identified C-Se-C forms before they were transported into the cladode mesophyll. We conclude that Opuntia is a secondary Se-accumulating plant whose fruit and cladode contain mostly free selenocystathionine and SeMet, while seeds contain mainly SeMet in protein. When eaten, the organic Se forms in Opuntia fruit, cladode, and seed may improve health, increase Se mineral nutrition, and help prevent multiple human cancers. PMID:21059825

  12. Exploitation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains to improve shelf life, rheological, sensory and functional features of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) fruit puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Vincentini, Olimpia; Lanera, Alessia; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified from raw prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.). Five autochthonous strains were selected based on the kinetics of growth and acidification on prickly pear fruit juice, and the capacity to synthesize exo-polysaccharides. All selected Leuc. mesenteroides strains showed an in vitro mucilage-degrading capability. A protocol for processing and storage of fermented prickly pear fruit puree (FP) was set up. Unstarted FP and chemically acidified FP were used as the controls. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Contaminating Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were found only in the controls. Viscosity and serum separation distinguished started FP compared to the controls. Colour parameters, browning index, sensory attributes, antimicrobial activity, vitamin C and betalains levels were positively affected by lactic acid fermentation. Increase of free radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate soluble extract suggested an effect of selected strains on phenolic profiles. Started FP markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells, and also contributed to maintaining the integrity of tight junctions. Started FP scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 on Caco-2 cells. All selected strain variously affected the immunomodulatory activity towards anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytochemical characterization of different prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) cultivars and botanical parts: UHPLC-ESI-MSn metabolomics profiles and their chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Legua, Pilar; Del Rio, Daniele; Hernández, Francisca

    2018-06-01

    Prickly pear is an important source of bioactive compounds. However, a comprehensive characterization of the phytochemical profile of its aerial botanical parts, considering genotypic differences, has not been conducted. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of four botanical parts (fruit pulp and skin, and young and adult cladodes) of six cultivars. Analysis was carried out by using two non-targeted UHPLC-ESI-MS n experimental conditions and assisted with multivariate analysis to facilitate data interpretation. Up to 41 compounds, mainly (poly)phenolic molecules, were identified and quantified, 23 compounds being reported for the first time in Opuntia ficus-indica. Phenolic composition varied significantly depending on the part of the plant. Betalains were detected only in the fruit of a red cultivar. This study provided novel insights in terms of identification of bioactives and thorough characterization of botanical parts of prickly pears. This information may be used for the development of prickly pear-derived products with high levels of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Digestibility of (Poly)phenols and Antioxidant Activity in Raw and Cooked Cactus Cladodes ( Opuntia ficus-indica).

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    De Santiago, Elsy; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2018-05-29

    This study aims to investigate whether heat treatment applied to cactus cladodes influences the bioaccessibility of their (poly)phenolic compounds after simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. A total of 45 (poly)phenols were identified and quantified in raw and cooked cactus cladodes by ultra high performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detector high resolution mass spectrometry. Both flavonoids (60-68% total), mainly isorhamnetin derivatives, and phenolic acids (32-40%) with eucomic acids as the predominant ones significantly ( p < 0.05) increased with microwaving and griddling processes. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, 55-64% of the total (poly)phenols of cooked cactus cladodes remained bioaccessible versus 44% in raw samples. Furthermore, digestive conditions and enzymes degraded or retained more flavonoids (37-63% bioaccessibility) than phenolic acids (56-87% bioaccessibility). Microwaved cactus cladodes contributed the highest amount of (poy)phenols (143.54 mg/g dm) after gastrointestinal process, followed by griddled samples (133.98 mg/g dm), showing the highest antioxidant capacity. Additionally, gastrointestinal digestion induced isomerizations among the three stereoisomeric forms of piscidic and eucomic acids.

  15. Occurrence and identification of the etiologic agents of plant diseases in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. in the semi-arid region of Paraiba

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    Anne Evelyne Franco de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cactus forage (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill., intensely cultivated in dry regions of northeast Brazil, although well adapted to the harsh semi-arid climate is affected by major problems such as pests and diseases, responsible for significant losses in production. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of the etiologic agents of diseases of cactus cultivated in 38 municipalities in the semi-arid region of Paraiba. The analyses were conducted and processed at the Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia - PB. Starting from sick cladodes isolations, multiplications and identifications of the found microorganisms were made. The identification of the microorganisms was achieved through observations of the macro and micromorphological characteristics of the cultures and tests of Gram and pathogenicity. Great incidence and diversity of microorganisms was verified in the cacti researched, but the highest occurrence was mainly that of fungus. The fungi of widest occurrence were: Scytallidium lignicola, Alternate tenuis, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. opuntiarum, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger, Nigrospora sphaerica, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Exserohilum turcicum, Pestalotia pitospora, Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaceloma protearum. A bacterium was also detected that was suspected to belong to the Erwinia sp. strain. Satisfaction of the Postulates of Koch proved the infectious nature of the detected microorganisms. High occurrence of the fungus S. lignicola, an agent of scale rot disease in 100% of the places researched, was observed. This fact is of great concern, since the progression of the disease can cause significant losses in production.

  16. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

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    Anouar ben Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days. Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  17. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Anouar Ben; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  18. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncib, Sana

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect. PMID:29376078

  19. Use of green chemistry methods in the extraction of dietary fibers from cactus rackets (Opuntia ficus indica): Structural and microstructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh Rouhou, Marwa; Abdelmoumen, Souhir; Thomas, Sabu; Attia, Hamadi; Ghorbel, Dorra

    2018-05-23

    This work aims to compare the development of three green chemistry methods in the extraction of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) dietary fibers. The influence of extraction conditions (solvent nature: water, lemon juice and ethanol; extraction process: maceration and steam explosion; extraction time: 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 5 h) on the chemical and structural composition was studied. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy proved that all treatments do not affect the cellulose structure and could induce the reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin content. The steam treatment with lemon juice was the best treatment in term of quality of the fibers extracted. Through X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, it was demonstrated that this treatment contributed to the destruction of the amorphous phase with preservation of the crystalline phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the microstructure of the sample surface was uniform and contains arranged fibers. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed fibers with 80 nm of diameter. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Extraction and determination of polyphenols and betalain pigments in the Moroccan Prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica

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    Omar Khatabi

    2016-09-01

    This study has permitted us equally to value betalain pigments extracted from fruity juice. These are the betalains present in the epidermis and the pulp of the prickly pear confers on it its color varying from yellow to purple. Results show that yellow and red prickly pears contain imported strengths in betalains. Our work shows that the red prickly pear contains betaxanthin pigments in excess of the indicaxanthin that permits to valorize human’s potential spring of genuine colorings. Betalains and polyphenols are antioxidants that contribute to nutritional prickly pears’ quality and to their products of transformation.

  1. EVALUACIÓN DEL USO DE ENZIMAS Y FILTRACIÓN POR GRAVEDAD PARA LA CLARIFICACIÓN DE UNA MEZCLA DILUIDA DE PULPA DE FRUTOS DE CACTUS (OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII BRITTON & ROSE, JUGOS DE NARANJA Y TORONJA EVALUATION OF THE USE OF ENZYMES AND GRAVITY FILTRATION FOR CLARIFICATION OF DILUTED MIXTURE OF CACTUS (OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII BRITTON & ROSE FRUITS PULP, ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT JUICES

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    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela los frutos de cactus (Opuntia boldinguii son de escasa utilidad comercial. Para su aprovechamiento se evaluó el efecto del uso combinado de enzimas fibrolíticas y filtración por gravedad en la clarificación de una mezcla diluida de pulpa de frutos de cactus, jugos de naranja y toronja. Se compararon los valores de las curvas de flujo de filtrado de las mezclas hidrolizada y sin hidrolizar mediante la prueba t de Welch. La concentración óptima de enzimas fue 0,76% (v/v. La hidrólisis enzimática previa a la pasteurización no afectó el color de la mezcla. Durante los ensayos de pasteurización (62 ± 1 ºC por 30 min hubo grandes cambios de coloración, solo en la mezcla hidrolizada, por degradación de las betalaínas y la adición de ácido ascórbico (0,5% p/v permitió preservar el color. Hubo diferencias altamente significativas entre los valores de las curvas de flujo de filtrado (PIn Venezuela the fruits of cactus (Opuntia boldinguii are of scarce commercial usefulness. For its utilization the effect of combined use of fibrolytic enzymes and gravity filtration for clarification of diluted mixture of cactus fruits pulp, orange and grapefruit juices was evaluated. The values of filtered-flow curves of hydrolyzed and not hydrolyzed mixtures were compared by means of Welch’s t-test. The optimal enzymes concentration was 0.76% (v/v. The prior enzymatic hydrolysis to the pasteurization does not affect the color of the mixture. During the pasteurization assays (62 ± 1 ºC for 30 min there were large changes of coloring, only in the hydrolyzed mixture, by betalains degradation and the addition of ascorbic acid (0.5% w/v permitted to preserve the color. There were highly significant differences between the filtered-flow curves values (P<0.01. The filtered-flow of the hydrolyzed mixture elapsed 110 min (0.159 mL·min-1 was greater to the not hydrolyzed mixture (control flow to the 8 min (0.100 mL·min-1. The juice production

  2. Fenologia da figueira-da-índia em Selvíria - MS Phenology of cactus pear in Selvíria - MS State, Brazil

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    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A figueira-da-índia é uma cactácea de origem mexicana, com grande potencial produtivo para as condições edafoclimáticas do Brasil, porém a falta de conhecimento faz com que a cultura seja pouco cultivada. Com o objetivo de avaliar a fenologia da figueira-da-índia, o presente trabalho foi realizado em plantas com 4 anos de idade, no espaçamento de 1,0 x 2,5 m, na área experimental da Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão da Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira - UNESP, localizada no município de Selvíria - MS, de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições, com uma planta por parcela experimental, ocasião em que foram avaliados a fenologia e o crescimento dos frutos. O período de emissão das gemas concentrou-se nos meses de setembro e outubro. O florescimento, ocorreu 30 dias após a emissão da gema florífera. Os frutos atingiram a maturidade fisiológica (ponto de colheita aos 66 dias após o florescimento e aos 72 dias apresentavam-se maduros, aptos para o consumo. O período de desenvolvimento dos frutos, desde a emissão da gema florífera até a maturidade fisiológica, foi de 96 dias. A curva de crescimento dos frutos foi do tipo quadrática. A cultura da figueira-da-índia pode tornar-se uma alternativa principalmente para pequenos produtores, visto que não exige grandes investimentos para sua implantação e condução, além de se adaptar bem às condições ambientais de nosso País. Seus frutos possuem excelentes preços tanto no mercado nacional como no internacional, e o aproveitamento na forma de doces e geleias pode incrementar a renda dos produtores.The cactus pear is a cactaceous with Mexican origin and great productive potential for the edaphoclimatic conditions in Brazil, but for lack of knowledge, the culture is still little cultivated. With the objective to evaluate the phenology of cactus pear, the present research was

  3. Conserved and divergent rhythms of crassulacean acid metabolism-related and core clock gene expression in the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica.

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    Mallona, Izaskun; Egea-Cortines, Marcos; Weiss, Julia

    2011-08-01

    The cactus Opuntia ficus-indica is a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Current knowledge of CAM metabolism suggests that the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PPCK) is circadian regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) are posttranslationally controlled. As little transcriptomic data are available from obligate CAM plants, we created an expressed sequence tag database derived from different organs and developmental stages. Sequences were assembled, compared with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant database for identification of putative orthologs, and mapped using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology and Gene Ontology. We identified genes involved in circadian regulation and CAM metabolism for transcriptomic analysis in plants grown in long days. We identified stable reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that OfiSAND, like its counterpart in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and OfiTUB are generally appropriate standards for use in the quantification of gene expression in O. ficus-indica. Three kinds of expression profiles were found: transcripts of OfiPPCK oscillated with a 24-h periodicity; transcripts of the light-active OfiNADP-ME and OfiPPDK genes adapted to 12-h cycles, while transcript accumulation patterns of OfiPEPC and OfiMDH were arrhythmic. Expression of the circadian clock gene OfiTOC1, similar to Arabidopsis, oscillated with a 24-h periodicity, peaking at night. Expression of OfiCCA1 and OfiPRR9, unlike in Arabidopsis, adapted best to a 12-h rhythm, suggesting that circadian clock gene interactions differ from those of Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that the evolution of CAM metabolism could be the result of modified circadian regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional

  4. Conserved and Divergent Rhythms of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism-Related and Core Clock Gene Expression in the Cactus Opuntia ficus-indica1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallona, Izaskun; Egea-Cortines, Marcos; Weiss, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The cactus Opuntia ficus-indica is a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Current knowledge of CAM metabolism suggests that the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PPCK) is circadian regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) are posttranslationally controlled. As little transcriptomic data are available from obligate CAM plants, we created an expressed sequence tag database derived from different organs and developmental stages. Sequences were assembled, compared with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant database for identification of putative orthologs, and mapped using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology and Gene Ontology. We identified genes involved in circadian regulation and CAM metabolism for transcriptomic analysis in plants grown in long days. We identified stable reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that OfiSAND, like its counterpart in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and OfiTUB are generally appropriate standards for use in the quantification of gene expression in O. ficus-indica. Three kinds of expression profiles were found: transcripts of OfiPPCK oscillated with a 24-h periodicity; transcripts of the light-active OfiNADP-ME and OfiPPDK genes adapted to 12-h cycles, while transcript accumulation patterns of OfiPEPC and OfiMDH were arrhythmic. Expression of the circadian clock gene OfiTOC1, similar to Arabidopsis, oscillated with a 24-h periodicity, peaking at night. Expression of OfiCCA1 and OfiPRR9, unlike in Arabidopsis, adapted best to a 12-h rhythm, suggesting that circadian clock gene interactions differ from those of Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that the evolution of CAM metabolism could be the result of modified circadian regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional

  5. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Carvalho, Camila R; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-06-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A hundred-eight endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the genera Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Biscogniauxia, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Paraconiothyrium, Pestalotiopsis and Phoma. The most frequent species associated with O. humifusa were Alternaria sp. 3, Aureobasidium pullulans and Diaporthe sp. The fungal community of O. humifusa had a high richness and diversity; additionally, the species richness obtained indicates that the sample effort was enough to recover the diversity pattern obtained. Six extracts of endophytes showed antifungal properties and (1)H NMR analyses of the extracts of Alternaria sp. 5 Ohu 8B2, Alternaria sp. 3 Ohu 30A, Cladosporium funiculosum Ohu 17C1 and Paraconiothyrium sp. Ohu 17A indicated the presence of functional groups associated with unsaturated fatty-acid olefinic protons and fatty acid methylene and methyl protons. GC-FID analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of a mixture of different fatty acids. The (1)H NMR analyses of Biscogniauxia mediterranea Ohu 19B extracts showed the presence of aromatic compounds. From the extract of B. mediterranea we isolated the compound 5-methylmellein that displayed moderate antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Phomopsis obscurans. Our results suggest that native medicinal cacti of the United States can live symbiotically with rich and diverse endophytic communities and may be a source of bioactive molecules, including those able to inhibit or control plant disease pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  7. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  8. Biolistic-mediated transient gene expression in shoot apical meristems of the prickly-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica

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    Romulo Marino Llamoca-Zárate

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the transient expression of the GUS gene in cells of the meristematic apical dome of Opuntia ficus-indica. DNA delivery into the cells was achieved using a biolistic PDS-1000He instrument from Bio-Rad Laboratories. The transforming DNA was coated in tungsten particles with diameter of 1.3 m m and the distance between the flying disk and the target tissue was 7.5cm and the shooting pressure was adjusted to 1200 psi. This is the first demonstration that the biolistic transformation system can be used to express a transgene in a member of the Cactaceae.Nós demonstramos a expressão transiente do gene GUS nas células do meristema apical de Opuntia ficus-indica. A introdução do DNA nas células foi realizada através de um sistema de biolística PDS-1000He da Bio-Rad Laboratories. Para transformação, partículas de tungstenio com diâmetro de 1,3 µm foram cobertas com DNA e a distância entre o disco das partículas e o tecido alvo foi de 7,5cm, a pressão de tiro foi 1200 psi. Esta é a primeira demonstração que o sistema de biolística de transformação pode ser usado para a expressão de transgenes nas cactáceas.

  9. An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus.

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    Park, E H; Kahng, J H; Lee, S H; Shin, K H

    2001-03-01

    In previous studies, the ethanol extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) showed potent anti-inflammatory action. In the present study, following fractionation of the methanol extract of cactus stems guided by adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation model in mice, an active anti-inflammatory principle has been isolated and identified as beta-sitosterol.

  10. Use of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for dairy goats and growing kids: impacts on milk production, kid's growth, and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahouachi, M; Atti, N; Hajji, H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600 g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130 g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260 g CP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485 ml for Control group and 407 ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones.

  11. Changes in physiological and some nutritional, nutraceuticals, chemical-physical, microbiological and sensory quality of minimally processed cactus pears cvs 'Bianca', 'Gialla' and 'Rossa' stored under passive modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Amedeo; Continella, Alberto; La Malfa, Stefano; D'Aquino, Salvatore

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the overall quality changes of minimally processed cactus pears cvs 'Bianca', Gialla' and 'Rossa' stored at 4 °C for 10 days. Periodically in-package CO 2 , O 2 and C 2 H 4 were determined and fruit were assessed for overall quality changes (pH, acidity, sugars, phenolics, betacyanins and betaxanthines, antioxidant capacity, colour, firmness, microbiological population and sensory attributes). In a preliminary study three different polymeric films were tested to select the most suitable to design a package with a short lag time to achieve steady-state conditions. Results showed marked differences between measured in-package CO 2 and O 2 values and those calculated based on respiration of peeled fruit and film permeance to CO 2 and O 2 provided by manufactures. The sensory evaluation of packed fruit indicated in film BBT-Bolphane, which created a steady-state in-package partial pressure for CO 2 of 4.3-4.8 kPa and for O 2 of 4.8-5.5 kPa, as the best film. Results of in-package gas composition with the three cultivars were similar to those achieved in cv. 'Gialla' with the preliminary test. All measured qualitative parameters changed slightly over the storage period for all cultivars and followed the same trend, despite significant differences existing among cultivars. This study clearly showed a similar physiological behavior of minimally processed 'Bianca', 'Gialla' and 'Rossa' cactus pears. Storage conditions optimal for one cultivar fit well for the others; thus mixing fruit of different cultivars in a package designed for one specific cultivar does not lead to relevant deviation from expected results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  13. Effect of spineless cactus intake (Opuntia ficus-indica) on blood glucose levels in lactating sows and its impact on feed intake, body weight loss, and weaning-estrus interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Ochoa, Gerardo; Juárez-Caratachea, Aureliano; Pérez-Sánchez, Rosa Elena; Román-Bravo, Rafael María; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Ruy

    2017-06-01

    The effect of spineless cactus intake (Opuntia ficus-indica) on blood glucose (BG) levels in lactating sows and its impact on daily and total feed intake (dFI -1 and TFI, respectively), body weight loss (BWL), and weaning-estrus interval length (WEI) were evaluated. Thirty-four hybrid (Yorkshire × Landrace × Pietrain) sows in lactation phase were used. Sows were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 17) where they received commercial feed and G2 (n = 17) provided with commercial feed plus an average of 2.0 ± 0.5 kg spineless cactus, based on a sow's body weight. The variables evaluated were BG, dFI -1 , TFI, BWL, and WEI. Statistical analysis was performed by using a fixed and mixed model methodology, under a repeated measurements experiment. Group effects were found on all analyzed variables (P < 0.05). The BG was lower in G2 (55.2 and 64.5 mg/dL pre- and post-prandial, respectively), compared to that in G1 (70.9 and 80.1 mg/dL pre- and post-prandial, respectively) (P < 0.05). G2 showed better performance than G1 for dFI -1 , BWL, and WEI (P < 0.05) whose averages were 5.5 ± 1.8 kg, 7.4 ± 4.5%, and 5.3 ± 1.2 days, respectively. Averages for these variables in G1 were 4.7 ± 1.5 kg, 16.8 ± 4.6%, and 6.1 ± 1.6 days, respectively. Intake of spineless cactus reduced BG levels in lactating sows, generating greater dFI -1 , lower BWL at the end of lactation, and a lower WEI.

  14. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells using Aloe Vera and Cladode of Cactus extracts as natural sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, D.; Jara, J.; Villanueva, R.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) from natural plant-based dyes, extracted from the Cladode (nopal) of the Thornless Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), the gel of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis miller), and the combination of Cladode and Aloe Vera extracts on side-by-side configuration. Optical properties were analyzed using UV-Vis Absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Open circuit voltages (Voc) varied from 0.440 to 0.676 V, fill factors (FF) were greater than 40%, short-circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc) ranged from 0.112 to 0.290 mA/cm2 and highest conversion efficiency of 0.740% was reported for the Cladode DSSC.

  16. Palma Forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em Substituição à Silagem de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench na Alimentação de Vacas Leiteiras Replacement of Forage Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill for Sorghum Silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in the Dairy Cows Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmir Lima Wanderley

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. Foram utilizadas oito vacas distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4x4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 21 dias, sendo 14 destinados à adaptação dos animais às rações e sete para coleta. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, em kg/dia, % de PV e em relação ao peso metabólico (g/kg0,75, e matéria orgânica e carboidratos totais, expressos em kg/dia, não foram influenciados pela adição de palma na ração, apresentando valores médios de 20,18; 3,41; 167,80; 18,86; e 14,85, respectivamente. O consumo de carboidratos não-fibrosos, em kg/dia, aumentou, e os de fibra em detergente neutro, em kg/dia e % de PV, fibra em detergente ácido; proteína bruta e extrato etéreo, expressos em kg/dia, diminuíram linearmente com a inclusão de palma na ração. O consumo de sódio não foi influenciado pela adição de palma na ração, com valor médio de 29,45g/dia. Os consumos de potássio e magnésio aumentaram e o de fósforo diminuiu linearmente com a adição de palma na ração. Não houve efeito da inclusão de palma sobre a produção de leite com e sem correção para 3,5% de gordura, cujos valores médios foram de 25,01 e 26,97kg/dia, respectivamente. O teor de gordura do leite foi influenciado de forma quadrática, sendo o teor máximo estimado em 4,08%, com 20,51% de palma na ração. A conversão alimentar aumentou linearmente com a inclusão de palma.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of lactating Holstein cows fed diet with different replacement levels (0, 12, 24 and 36% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill for sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. Eight cows were assigned to a two 4x4 latin

  17. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kharrassi, Youssef [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat (Morocco); Samadi, Mohammad [LCPMC-A2, ICPM, Department of Chemistry, Université de Lorraine, Metz (France); Lopez, Tatiana [CRINSERM 866, Dijon (France); Nury, Thomas [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); El Kebbaj, Riad [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat (Morocco); Andreoletti, Pierre; El Hajj, Hammam I. [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); Vamecq, Joseph [INSERM and HMNO, CBP, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Moustaid, Khadija [Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat (Morocco); Latruffe, Norbert [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); El Kebbaj, M’Hammed Saïd [Laboratoire de recherche sur les Lipoprotéines et l’Athérosclérose, Faculté des Sciences Ben M’sik, Avenue Cdt Driss El Harti BP. 7955, Université Hassan II-Mohammedia-Casablanca (Morocco); Masson, David [CRINSERM 866, Dijon (France); and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Sterol composition in argan oil and in cactus seed oil. • Chemical synthesis of two sterols: Schottenol and Spinasterol. • Sterols from argan oil or from cactus seed oil show no toxicity on BV2 cells. • Schottenol and Spinasterol modulate the activation and the expression of two nuclear receptors, LXRα and LXRβ. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  18. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kharrassi, Youssef; Samadi, Mohammad; Lopez, Tatiana; Nury, Thomas; El Kebbaj, Riad; Andreoletti, Pierre; El Hajj, Hammam I.; Vamecq, Joseph; Moustaid, Khadija; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M’Hammed Saïd; Masson, David

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sterol composition in argan oil and in cactus seed oil. • Chemical synthesis of two sterols: Schottenol and Spinasterol. • Sterols from argan oil or from cactus seed oil show no toxicity on BV2 cells. • Schottenol and Spinasterol modulate the activation and the expression of two nuclear receptors, LXRα and LXRβ. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism

  19. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Hernández-Ceruelos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS. The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP, in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg, a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg, and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE. The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment.

  20. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.

  1. Estimation of the nopal cactus (Opuntia cochenillifera for color removal in drinking water Evaluación de la tuna (Opuntia cochenillifera para la remoción del color en agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Jiménez Antillón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of nopal cactus to remove color in river and artificial waters for human consumption was evaluated. The performance of nopal was compared with that of aluminum sulfate coagulant and a cationic flocculant.The river water was cha- racterized by high color, low turbidity, alkalinity and hardness, and a high percentage of dissolved oxygen. The cactus leaves showed no activity as unique coa- gulant to be evaluated only in river water. In artificial water, as a sole treatment (45 mg/l, an efficiency of 94% in color removal was observed, slightly higher than that of the conventional treatment (20 mg/l Al2 (SO43 and 2 mg/l of cationic flocculant with a removal of 89%. However, water treated with nopal left a residual COD value doubled (21 mg/l compared to con- ventional treatment. In the treatment of artificial water, nopal as a flocculant showed a color removal of 92% and a residual COD of 31.5 mg /l applied at a dose of 22.5 mg/l and 7 mg/l of Al2 (SO43. The nopal was not very effective to remove the color produced by humic substances in waters of low turbidity and alkalinity, but its applicability as a coagulant/flocculant in waters of high turbidity and alkalinity is promising. It is recommended to extract the active ingredients of natural products to reduce the organic load of treated water and prevent the formation of disin- fection byproducts.El estudio evaluó la eficiencia del cactus de la tuna para remover el color en agua de río y agua artificial para el consumo humano. Se comparó su desem- peño con el coagulante sulfato de aluminio y un floculante catiónico. El agua fluvial se caracterizó por presentar alto color, baja turbidez, alcalinidad y dureza y alto porcentaje de oxígeno disuelto. Las hojas de tuna no mostraron actividad como coagulante único al ser evaluadas en agua de río. Se observó una eficiencia de remoción de color del 94% en agua artificial, cuando se aplicó como tratamiento único (45 mg/l, poco

  2. The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Verde, Gabriella; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2011-09-01

    The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the "scozzolatura" practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to 10 orders were collected in May-June, while only five species of Hymenoptera Apoidea were collected in July. The quality of fruits arising from the second bloom showed that Hymenoptera alone were able to guarantee effective pollination. To verify the role of insects in pollination in 1996 (during only the second bloom), and in 1997 and 2009 (during both blooms), 60 single flowers were marked during each bloom; 30 of them covered with paper sleeves (which prevented natural pollination), while the others were not covered. After withering, fruits produced by marked flowers were analyzed in laboratory: in all years and blooms, the total number of seeds, the number of developed seeds, and the weight and the percentage of pulp were significantly lower for covered flowers than for non-covered flowers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that native insects effectively carry out the pollination of cactus pear flowers.

  3. The influence of baboon predation and time in water on germination and early establishment of Opuntia stricta (Australian pest pear in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Lotter

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alien invader weed, Opuntia stricta Haw (family Cactaceae, is seriously threatening biodiversity in veld habitats of the Kruger National Park. Basic biological and ecological information on the establishment, growth and reproduction of the species is necessary for the development of effective strategies for its control. The rapid spread of the plant is apparently mainly due to seed dispersal by baboon (Papio ursinus. Sixty percent of seed taken from baboon faeces resulted in seedlings that established. Although palatability criteria for ripe fruit were more favourable than for unripe or medium-ripe fruit, seed from fruit at all three degrees of ripeness germinated equally well, and seedling establishment was similar. Despite their lower acidity, as well as higher total soluble sugar content and pH, cladodes are not subject to herbivory to near the extent that ripe fruit are. Freshly collected seed kept in Sabie River water showed significantly better germination/emergence after seven days submersion (83 than at 14 or 28 days (52 and 66 , respectively. Results suggest that seed dispersal of the species by animals, principally baboon, is an important cause of rapidly expanding infestations, and that dissipation in water will intensify the problem. Current findings should contribute toward the development of long-term weed management strategies aimed at con- tainment/eradication of the weed.

  4. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  5. Effect of three pretreatment techniques on the chemical composition and on the methane yields of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, P S; Catalán, E; Folino, A; Sánchez, A; Komilis, D

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is an emerging biomass that has the potential to be used as substrate in anaerobic digestion. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of three pretreatment techniques (thermal, alkaline, acidic) on the chemical composition and the methane yield of OFI biomass. A composite experimental design with three factors and two to three levels was implemented, and regression modelling was employed using a total of 10 biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The measured methane yields ranged from 289 to 604 NmL/gVS added ; according to the results, only the acidic pretreatment (HCl) was found to significantly increase methane generation. However, as the experimental values were quite high with regards to the theoretical methane yield of the substrate, this effect still needs to be confirmed via further research. The alkaline pretreatment (NaOH) did not noticeably affect methane yields (an average reduction of 8% was recorded), despite the fact that it did significantly reduce the lignin content. Thermal pretreatment had no effect on the methane yields or the chemical composition. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed changes in the chemical structure after the addition of NaOH and HCl. Modelling of the cumulated methane production by the Gompertz modified equation was successful and aided in understanding kinetic advantages linked to some of the pretreatments. For example, the alkaline treatment (at the 20% dosage) at room temperature resulted to a μ max (maximum specific methane production rate [NmLCH 4 /(gVS added ·d)]) equal to 36.3 against 18.6 for the control.

  6. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.

  7. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract improves endoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... The UPR pathway is triggered by sensors located at the ER membrane. Here, we analyzed a ... the same time to enhance protein folding capacity in the ..... construction to visualize the activation of the UPR during the stress ...

  8. The cactus webworm, Loxomorpha flavidissimalis (Grote, 1878) (Pyraloidea, Crambidae): its distribution and a potential pest in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report Loxomorpha flavidissimalis, the cactus webworm, for the first time from Tamaulipas, Mexico, as an herbivore of the cultivated cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica. We observed larvae over a four year period (2010-2014) during the months of March to November and found young cladode losses attributa...

  9. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  10. Differences in Tolerance to Host Cactus Alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ignacio M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M.; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  11. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine. PMID:28491239

  12. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  13. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica , the domesticated O . species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated ( O. ficus-indica ) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia -enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  14. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  15. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation.

  16. Effects of cooking methods on phenolic compounds in xoconostle (Opuntia joconostle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-García, Rosa María; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Zepeda-Vallejo, Luis Gerardo; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2015-03-01

    Xoconostle, the acidic cactus pear fruit of Opuntia joconostle of the Cactaceae family, is the source of several phytochemicals, such as betalain pigments and numerous phenolic compounds. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of four cooking procedures (i.e., boiling, grilling, steaming and microwaving) on the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (measured by ABTS, DPPH, reducing power, and BCBA) of xoconostle. In addition, HPLC-DAD analyses were performed to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. After microwaving and steaming xoconostle, the TPC remained the same that in fresh samples, whereas both grilling and boiling produced a significant, 20% reduction (p ≤ 0.05). Total flavonoids remained unchanged in boiled and grilled xoconostle, but steaming and microwaving increased the flavonoid content by 13 and 20%, respectively. Steaming and microwaving did not produce significant changes in the antioxidant activity of xoconostle, whereas boiling and grilling result in significant decreases. The phenolic acids identified in xoconostle fruits were gallic, vanillic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids; the flavonoids identified were epicatechin, catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol. Based on the results, steaming and microwaving are the most suitable methods for retaining the highest level of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in xoconostle.

  17. Identifikasi Molekuler Fitoplasma yang Berasosiasi dengan Tanaman Kaktus Hias Opuntia sp.

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    Ariny Prasetya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cactus species (Opuntia sp. is a popular ornamental succulent plant. Some ornamental cactus species in Indonesia showing proliferation and green mosaic pattern symptoms have been reported to be associated with phytoplasma infection. However, further molecular identification for accurate classification of the causal phytoplasma has not been done.  This study aimed to diagnose phytoplasma associated with Opuntia sp. based on molecular methods involving PCR standard combined with nested-PCR, cloning and DNA sequencing. Standard PCR was carried out using P1/P7 primers followed by nested-PCR using R16F2n/R16R2 or fU5/rU3 primer pairs which amplify the 16S rRNA gene targets of 1.2 kb and 880 bp, respectively. Amplified fragment of nested-PCR using R16F2n/R16R2 primers was chosen to be cloned and sequenced for further identification and classification of phytoplasma.  BLASTn analysis showed that the phytoplasma from Opuntia sp. was closely related to 16SrII group. Phylogenetic analysis and in silico RFLP indicated that phytoplasma strain infecting Opuntia sp. was a member of subgroup 16SrII-C (cactus witches’ broom phytoplasma. This is a newly report of cactus witches’ broom phytoplasma on Opuntia sp. in Indonesia.   

  18. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerra, Ezequiel; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Del Real, Alicia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rodríguez-García, Mario; Rubio, Efraín; Quintero-García, Michelle; Rojas-Molina, Isela

    2017-02-04

    Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively) and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively) for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet). The failure load of femurs was significantly lower ( p ≤ 0.05) in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.05) than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  19. Response of vegetable pads of two cactus cultivars to the presence of Salmonella strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tender cactus pads (cladodes) or nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L) are an important vegetable in Mexico. They are often pre-trimmed, cut and packaged, and while usually consumed cooked, they may also be eaten raw in salads. Salmonella is an enteropathogenic bacterium that can adapt to adverse envir...

  20. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Hernández-Becerra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet. The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05 than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  1. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G

    2015-03-30

    The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilized l-arabinose and d-galactose more completely than C. utilis, its biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus-indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton (Cynodon spp em dietas de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação. 1. Digestibilidade = Forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill and urea in replacement of tifton hay (Cynodon spp in lactating Holstein cows diet. 1. Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Valéria de Araújo Cavalcanti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0%; 12,5%; 25%; 37,5%; e 50% de palma forrageira e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica(DAMO, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da proteína bruta (DAPB, dos carboidratos totais (DACHOT e dos carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas, com peso médio de 480 kg e produção média de leite de 20 kg/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5x5. As DAMS, DAMO, DACHOT e DACNF aumentaram, aDAFDN diminuiu linearmente e a DAPB não foi influenciada com o aumento dos níveis de palma e uréia na dieta. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais de mantença, a energia digestível de lactação, energia metabolizável de lactação e energia líquida de lactação aumentaram à medida que eram incluídas palma e uréia na dieta.The effect of five levels forage cactus and urea (0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% in replacement of tifton hay in lactating Holstein cows diets, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, crude protein (ADCP, total carbohydrates (ADTC and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC were evaluated. Five Holstein cows weighing on average 480 kg and with an average milk yield of 20 kg of milk/day were used in a 5x5 Latin square design. The DM, OM, TC and NFC apparent digestibility increased while NDF apparent digestibility decreased linearly and the CP apparent digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of forage cactus and urea. The total digestible nutrients of maintenance,digestible energy of lactation, metabolizing energy of lactation and liquid energy of lactation increased as the forage cactus and urea levels increased.

  3. Efeito da adubação e do uso de nematicida na composição química da palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill Fertilization and nematicide effects on the chemical composition of cactus forage cv. "Gigante"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Maria Teles

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFRPE, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação e de nematicida na composição da palma forrageira cv. gigante, com sintoma de amarelecimento. Para o plantio utilizaram-se cladódios de cor amarela de palma (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill. Cv. Gigante provenientes da Estação Experimental de Caruaru - IPA, onde foi observado o amarelecimento das plantas. Os tratamentos constaram da presença e ausência de macronutrientes, micronutrientes e de nematicida, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para teores de matéria seca, de K, de Ca e de Mg. Para teores de N, de P e de S, a análise de variância revelou diferença significativa. A média geral para teores de MS, N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S foi de 7,29; 1,19; 0,17; 3,31; 1,84; 0,59 e 0,17%, respectivamente. A adição de micronutrientes e de nematicida não influenciou os resultados obtidos para teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Os teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio foram superiores nos cladódios mais jovens da planta. Os nutrientes nitrogênio, fósforo e enxofre foram os únicos que influenciaram a composição química.This experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Animal Science Department/UFRPE and aimed to evaluate the fertilization and nematicide effects on the chemical composition of cactus forage cv. "Gigante" suffering chlorotic symptoms. Chlorotic cladodes of Cactus forage cv. "Gigante" were used as planting material and they were collected at the Caruaru Experimental Station/IPA in the same location where those symptoms were previously observed. The treatments tested the presence or absence of macronutrients, micronutrients, and nematicide. A completely randomized block design was used and the treatments were replicated four times. No significant differences were found for dry matter

  4. Enriquecimento protéico da palma forrageira com Saccharomyces cerevisiae para alimentação de ruminantes Protein enrichment of cactus pear with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Araújo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o processo de enriquecimento protéico da palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill com levedura Sacharomyces cerevisiae em cultivo semi-sólido, visando melhorar o valor nutritivo da palma para ser utilizada na alimentação de ruminantes. A levedura foi utilizada nas concentrações de 1, 2 e 3% em base úmida no substrato formado pela palma forrageira, incubada em biorreatores durante 6, 12, 24 e 36 horas de fermentação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. O conteúdo de proteína bruta quando se utilizou concentração de 3% de inóculo, no período de seis horas, aumentou de 4,4% na forma in natura para 10,4% após o processamento. Os teores protéicos na concentração de 1% do inóculo foram de 6,1, 8,1, 8,1 e 9,2%; na concentração de 2%, 9,6, 9,7, 9,8 e 9,8% e na concentração de 3%, 10,4, 10,4 7,9 e 7,9%, nos períodos de 6, 12, 24 e 36 horas de fermentação, respectivamente. Uma fonte alternativa para arraçoamento de ruminantes, pode ser obtida pela bioconversão da palma forrageira.The process of protein enrichment of the forage palm (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in a semi-solid culture to improve the nutritional value of forage palm for ruminants feeding was evaluated. The yeast concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% (wet basis in the forage palm substrate were used. The periods of incubation were of 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours. A complete randomized experimental design in a split plot arrangement with four replicates was used. The crude protein content increased from 4.4% (in natura to 10.4% when 3% of inoculums were used and the processing period was of 6 hours. The observed protein contents for 1% of the inoculum, used for the fermentation periods of 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours were 6.1, 8.1, 8.1, and 9.2%, respectively. These values were 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, and 9.8% for 2% of the inoculum, and 10.4, 10.4, 7.9, and 7

  5. Extracción y caracterización química y reológica de hidrocoloide de opuntia spinulifera con perspectivas de aditivo en la industria de alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Rodríguez, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    The hydrocolloid at cladodes of Opuntia, is a molecule of secondary metabolism, it´s little known about their physical and chemical properties. The study developed in this work contributes to reassess the genus Opuntia (prickly pear) as a source for obtaining from additive at the food industry. In this work were established a methodology of extraction, which involved the optimization of several parameters of the raw material stage to extract. The Opuntia spinulifera was selected due to their ...

  6. Environmental variables influencing the expression of morphological characteristics in clones of the forage cactus

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    Marcela Lúcia Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The environmental factors that affect the morphological characteristics of different genera of cacti are little known. The aim of this study therefore was to analyse the contribution of environmental variables to growth in cladodes and plant of forage cactus clones of the genera Nopalea and Opuntia. The data used in this study were obtained from an experiment conducted in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2012 and 2013, where the clones 'IPA Sertânia' (Nopalea, 'Miúda' (Nopalea and 'Orelha de Elefante Mexicana' (Opuntia were submitted to different irrigation depths (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mm and fixed irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 28 days. Morphological characteristics of the cladodes and plants and weather variables were obtained over time. Pearson's correlation, followed by multicollinearity, canonical and path analysis were applied. The minimum temperature, maximum and minimum relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation were the variables that most affected growth in the cactus. The genus Opuntia showed less sensitivity to variations in air temperature compared to the genus Nopalea. The higher intensities of global solar radiation affected clones of the genus Nopalea more than the genus Opuntia. It can be concluded that there are different environmental requirements between forage cacti of the genera Nopalea and Opuntia.

  7. Growth and predicted productivity of Opuntia ficus-indica for current and elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Garcia de Cortazar, V. (Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., a prickly pear cactus cultivated worldwide for its fruits and stem segments, can have an annual dry weight productivity exceeding that of many crops. Using a recent introduced environmental productivity index (EPI), the influences of water status, temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on its productivity can be predicted. This investigation calculated the water index, the temperature index, and the PAR index, whose product equals EPI, for 169 sites distributed approximately uniformly across the contiguous USA for present climatic conditions as well as for those associated with an elevated CO{sub 2} concentration of 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on growth of O. ficus-indica was directly measured, and low temperature limitations on productivity were considered. The dry weight gain of O. ficus-indica during 6 mo in an environmental growth chamber was 23% greater at 650 compared with 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} and increased as the duration of the wet period increased. For closely spaced plants that lead to a high productivity per unit ground area, EPI averaged about 0.10, except in desert regions where the water index lowered EPI, in the far North or South and at high elevations where the temperature index lowered EPI, and in the Northeast and Northwest where the PAR index lowered EPI. The predicted annual dry weight productivity for O. ficus-indica was 12.8 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under current conditions, and 16.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under those associated with 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}.

  8. Determination of the folate content in cladodes of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) by microbiological assay utilizing Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Escobar, Tania Breshkovskaya; Valverde-González, Maria Elena; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2010-05-26

    Prickly pear cactus has been an important food source in Mexico since ancient times due to its economical and ecological benefits and potential nutraceutical value. Nevertheless, studies on the nutritional aspects and health benefits have been scarce. The purpose of this study was to assess, apparently for the first time, the folate contents of cladodes of nopal by a microbiological assay, using Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) in extracts that were enzymatically treated to release the bound vitamin, employing single, dual, and trienzymatic procedures, and using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We used Opuntia cladodes of different length sizes. The microbiological assay showed some differences among enzyme treatments and sizes of nopal; the trienzyme treatment (alpha-amylase-protease-conjugase) was more efficient in determining the folate content in nopal, giving 5.0 ng/g in the small size cladodes at 54 h of testing time, while ELISA showed no significant differences in the folate content among sizes of cladodes (5.5-5.62 ng/g at 0 min testing time). Both techniques may be used for the assessment of folate content in cladodes, but ELISA is more rapid and reliable.

  9. Efeitos da Adubação e de Nematicida no Crescimento e na Produção da Palma Forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv. Gigante Effects of Nematicide and Fertilization on the Forage Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv. "Gigante" Growth and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Maria Teles

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em telado do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFRPE, objetivando medir o efeito da adubação e de nematicida no crescimento e produção da palma, com sintoma de amarelecimento. Os tratamentos experimentais constaram da adição ou não de macronutrientes, micronutrientes e de nematicida em um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados. Para número de cladódios primários, a análise de variância demonstrou efeito não significativo pelo teste F. Para número total de cladódios, número de cladódios secundários, área de cladódio, índice de área de cladódios e produção de matéria seca, a análise de variância revelou efeito significativo. Não houve efeito dos micronutrientes e de nematicida no grupo dos tratamentos de Solução de Macronutrientes Completa para número de cladódios primários, número de cladódios secundários, área de cladódio, índice de área de cladódios e produção de matéria seca, sendo a média geral 1,56; 0,84; 811,11 cm²; 1,15 e 42,73 g/vaso, respectivamente.The experiment was performed in a green house at the Animal Science Department of the Pernambuco Federal Rural University (UFRPE and aimed to study the nematicide and fertilization effects on the forage cactus cv. "Gigante" growth and production using propagative materials with clorotic symptom. The experimental treatments tested the addition or no of macronutrients, micronutrients and nematicide. It was used a complete randomized block design. Considering the primary cladode's number, no differences were found by F test. Significative differences were found to the total number of cladodes, secondary cladode number, cladode area, cladode area index and dry matter yield. The addition of micronutrients and nematicide did not influence the primary and secondary cladode number, cladode area, cladode area index and dry matter yield, and the mean values obtained were 1.56, 0.84, 811.11 cm², 1.15 and 42.73 g

  10. Studies on the pharmacological action of cactus: identification of its anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E H; Kahng, J H; Paek, E A

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica fructus (EEOF) and Opuntia ficus-indica stem (EEOS) were prepared and used to evaluate the pharmacological effects of cactus. Both the extracts inhibited the writhing syndrome induced by acetic acid, indicating that they contains analgesic effect. The oral administrations of EEOF and EEOS suppressed carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and also showed potent inhibition in the leukocyte migration of CMC-pouch model in rats. Moreover, the extracts suppressed the release of beta-glucuronidase, a lysosomal enzyme in rat neutrophils. It was also noted that the extracts showed the protective effect on gastric mucosal layers. From the results it is suggested that the cactus extracts contain anti-inflammatory action having protective effect against gastric lesions.

  11. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of whole extract and isolated indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica associated with re-activation of the onco-suppressor p16{sup INK4a} gene in human colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naselli, Flores; Tesoriere, Luisa; Caradonna, Fabio; Bellavia, Daniele; Attanzio, Alessandro; Gentile, Carla; Livrea, Maria A., E-mail: maria.livrea@unipa.it

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Cactus pear fruit extract and indicaxanthin cause apoptosis of colon cancer cells. • Indicaxanthin does not cause ROS formation, but affects epigenoma in Caco-2 cells. • Indicaxanthin reverses methylation of oncosuppressor p16{sup INK4a} gene in Caco-2 cells. • Indicaxanthin reactivates retinoblastoma in Caco-2 cells. • Bioavailable indicaxanthin may have chemopreventive activity in colon cancer. - Abstract: Phytochemicals may exert chemo-preventive effects on cells of the gastro-intestinal tract by modulating epigenome-regulated gene expression. The effect of the aqueous extract from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI extract), and of its betalain pigment indicaxanthin (Ind), on proliferation of human colon cancer Caco-2 cells has been investigated. Whole extract and Ind caused a dose-dependent apoptosis of proliferating cells at nutritionally relevant amounts, with IC{sub 50} 400 ± 25 mg fresh pulp equivalents/mL, and 115 ± 15 μM (n = 9), respectively, without toxicity for post-confluent differentiated cells. Ind accounted for ∼80% of the effect of the whole extract. Ind did not cause oxidative stress in proliferating Caco-2 cells. Epigenomic activity of Ind was evident as de-methylation of the tumor suppressor p16{sup INK4a} gene promoter, reactivation of the silenced mRNA expression and accumulation of p16{sup INK4a}, a major controller of cell cycle. As a consequence, decrease of hyper-phosphorylated, in favor of the hypo-phosphorylated retinoblastoma was observed, with unaltered level of the cycline-dependent kinase CDK4. Cell cycle showed arrest in the G2/M-phase. Dietary cactus pear fruit and Ind may have chemo-preventive potential in intestinal cells.

  12. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of whole extract and isolated indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica associated with re-activation of the onco-suppressor p16INK4a gene in human colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naselli, Flores; Tesoriere, Luisa; Caradonna, Fabio; Bellavia, Daniele; Attanzio, Alessandro; Gentile, Carla; Livrea, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cactus pear fruit extract and indicaxanthin cause apoptosis of colon cancer cells. • Indicaxanthin does not cause ROS formation, but affects epigenoma in Caco-2 cells. • Indicaxanthin reverses methylation of oncosuppressor p16 INK4a gene in Caco-2 cells. • Indicaxanthin reactivates retinoblastoma in Caco-2 cells. • Bioavailable indicaxanthin may have chemopreventive activity in colon cancer. - Abstract: Phytochemicals may exert chemo-preventive effects on cells of the gastro-intestinal tract by modulating epigenome-regulated gene expression. The effect of the aqueous extract from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI extract), and of its betalain pigment indicaxanthin (Ind), on proliferation of human colon cancer Caco-2 cells has been investigated. Whole extract and Ind caused a dose-dependent apoptosis of proliferating cells at nutritionally relevant amounts, with IC 50 400 ± 25 mg fresh pulp equivalents/mL, and 115 ± 15 μM (n = 9), respectively, without toxicity for post-confluent differentiated cells. Ind accounted for ∼80% of the effect of the whole extract. Ind did not cause oxidative stress in proliferating Caco-2 cells. Epigenomic activity of Ind was evident as de-methylation of the tumor suppressor p16 INK4a gene promoter, reactivation of the silenced mRNA expression and accumulation of p16 INK4a , a major controller of cell cycle. As a consequence, decrease of hyper-phosphorylated, in favor of the hypo-phosphorylated retinoblastoma was observed, with unaltered level of the cycline-dependent kinase CDK4. Cell cycle showed arrest in the G2/M-phase. Dietary cactus pear fruit and Ind may have chemo-preventive potential in intestinal cells

  13. Zoochoric and hydrochoric maritime dispersal of the Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Martins Fraga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary adaptations in the morphology and physiology of cactus species have been associated to their mechanisms of dispersal and colonization. The dispersal mechanisms and modes of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae were characterized in two beaches in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. A marsupial from the genus Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae was the only frugivorous and, thus, disperser of fruits, presenting specific eating places. The maritime hydrochory was due to the overwash on restinga vegetation, it is characterized by the dispersal of cladodes and fruits at various times of the year. It is here firstly described the sea action as a potential disperser for a cactus species.

  14. Inclusão de cama de frango em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill para vacas mestiças em lactação: 1. Consumo e produção Broiler litter in forage cactus based diets (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill for lactating crossbred cows: 1. Nutrients intake and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla dos Santos Magalhães

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis de cama de frango (aproximadamente 0; 10; 20 e 30% na matéria seca (MS de dietas contendo palma forrageira, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura, uréia e farelo de algodão, fornecidas na forma de ração completa, sobre o consumo de nutrientes e a produção de leite de vacas mestiças e verificar o tempo necessário para adaptação dos animais às dietas. Foram utilizadas oito vacas 5/8 Holandês-Gir, após pico de lactação, com produção média de 15 kg de leite/dia e 420 kg de peso vivo, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4 simultâneos, com quatro períodos, quatro animais e quatro níveis de cama de frango na ração. Os consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibras em detergente neutro e ácido, carboidratos totais e não-fibrosos e matéria orgânica apresentaram comportamento quadrático significativo, enquanto os consumos de matéria mineral e extrato etéreo aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão de cama de frango nas dietas. A produção de leite, com e sem correção para 4% de gordura, o teor e a produção de gordura e a eficiência alimentar não foram influenciadas pelo incremento de cama de frango nas dietas. O período de adaptação dos animais às dietas pode ser reduzido para sete dias.This work was carried to evaluate the effect of diferents of broiler litter inclusion (approximately 0, 10, 20 and 30%, in dry matter base with 45% forage cactus associaded to sugar cane bagasse, urea and cotonsead meal, in total diet form, on nutrient intake and milk yield and to evaluate the time necessary to adaptation of the animals to diets. Eigth lactating 5/8 crossbred Holstein/Gir cows with 420 kg of LW and production of 15 kg/day, were assigned to tratament sequences in a replicated 4X4 latin square with four periods, four animals and four levels of broiler chiken in the ration. The intakes of dry matter, neutral

  15. Inclusão de cama de frango em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill para vacas mestiças em lactação: 2. Digestibilidade aparente Inclusion of broiler litter in forage cactus based diets (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill for lactating crossbred cows: 2. Apparent digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla dos Santos Magalhães

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de matéria seca (DAMS, de matéria orgânica (DAMO, de proteína bruta (DAPB, de extrato etéreo (DAEE, de carboidratos totais (DACHOT e não-fibrosos (DACNF e de fibras em detergente neutro (DAFDN e ácido (DAFDA foram determinados para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de cama de frango (0; 10; 20 e 30% na base da matéria seca, associados à 45% de palma forrageira, bagaço de cana de açúcar in natura, uréia e farelo de algodão, utilizando-se a fibra indigestível em detergente ácido (FDAi como indicador interno para estimar a produção de matéria seca fecal. O valor energético observado para as dietas foi comparado com o predito segundo equações propostas pelo NRC (2001. Foram utilizadas oito vacas 5/8 holando-zebu com produção média de 15 kg de leite/dia e 420kg de peso vivo, após pico de lactação, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4 simultâneos, com quatro períodos, quatro animais e quatro níveis de cama de frango na ração. Não foi observado efeito significativo do aumento do nível de cama de frango na dieta sobre DAMS, DAMO, DAEE, DACHOT e DAFDN. Entretanto, a DAPB e a DACNF diminuíram linearmente. As equações propostas pelo NRC (2001 para estimativa dos teores de nutrientes digestíveis totais das dietas superestimaram os valores observados.The coeficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, ether extract (ADEE, total carboidrates (ADTCHO, nonfiber carboidrates (ADNFC, neutral (ADNDF and acid detergent fiber (ADADF, were determined to evaluate the effect of diferents inclusions of broiler litter (0, 10, 20 and 30% in dry matter basis, with 45% forage cactus associaded to sugar cane bagasse, urea and cottonsead meal, using the method of indigestible acid detergent fiber as intern indicator to estimate fecal dry matter production. The dietary observed energy value were compared to the

  16. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure-function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies.

  17. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure–function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies. PMID:23212376

  18. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etre, A.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions

  19. Vegetation Resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    SUCCULENTS Opuntia polyacantha Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae Table 4 .(cont’d.) Scientific Name Common Name Family Name Yucca glauca Spanish Bayonet Agavaceae...Lycium halimitolium Matrim~ony Bush Solanceae Salix exigua Coyote Willow Salicaceae CACTI AND SUCCULENTS Coryphantha vivipara Ball Cactus Cactaceae ...Qpuntia compressa Prickly Pear Cactus Cactaceae Opuntia polyacantha Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae Yucca glauca Spanish Bayonet Agavaceae cq Nl Nl Co~ V c0

  20. Damage caused by Tetranychus Merganser Bondreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae on Nopal Verdura Opuntia Ficus-Indica (L. Miller during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima-Espíndola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus merganser occurs in some crops in Mexico and USA. This mite could be considered a potential pest in countries like Japan. In this work we recorded the damages that T. merganser causes to the nopal verdura (prickly pear vegetable crop in one of the principal cactus crop regions of Mexico.

  1. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP. Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP (18.97% ± 0.58%. The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb. Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  2. Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Saih, Fatima-Ezzahra; Andreoletti, Pierre; Mandard, Stéphane; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia ficus-indica cactus cladode extracts in microglia BV-2 cells. Inflammation associated with microglia activation in neuronal injury can be achieved by LPS exposure. Using four different structurally and biologically well-characterized LPS serotypes, we revealed a structure-related differential effect of LPS on fatty acid β-oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in peroxisomes: Esc...

  3. Modelagem matemática da desidratação osmo-convectiva da palma forrageira (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill utilizando soluções mistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se nesse estudo avaliar a influência de pré-tratamentos osmóticos utilizando secagem convectiva complementar no processo de perda de água, ganho de sólidos e nos parâmetros de qualidade (cor, atividade de água e textura de cladódios de palma forrageira. O Cladódio foi submetido à desidratação osmótica utilizando soluções mistas contendo 5% de NaCl e concentrações de sacarose de 50 e 60 °Brix, em diferentes proporções palma/solução (1:1, 1:4 e 1:10 a 40°C. Posteriormente foi realizada secagem convectiva a 50 e 60 °C. Foram utilizados, para ajuste aos dados experimentais da secagem, os modelos matemáticos de Page, Henderson & Pabis, Cavancanti Mata, Exponencial de Dois Termos e Midilli. O cladódio de palma in natura e desidratado foi caracterizado quanto aos parâmetros de cor, atividade de água e textura. O aumento da perda de massa foi proporcional ao aumento da proporção cladódio/solução utilizada na desidratação osmótica e o ganho de sólidos foi maior para a concentração de 50 °Brix. O modelo matemático de Midilli foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados experimentais. Os parâmetros de cor, atividade de água e textura foram modificados pelas condições de desidratação osmótica e de secagem as quais o cladódio de palma foi submetido. O cladódio desidratado a 50 °C apresentou melhor preservação da cor, maior resistência ao corte e menor atividade de água.  Mathematical modeling of osmo-convective dehydration of the cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill using mixed solutionsAbstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of osmotic pre-treatments with complementary convective drying in the water loss process and solids gain of cactus pear cladodes, to obtain palm for human consumption. The cladode was subjected to osmotic dehydration using mixed solutions containing 5% NaCl and sugar concentrations of 50 and 60 °Brix in different proportions palm/solution (1:1, 1

  4. A preliminary study of opuntia stricta as a coagulant for turbidity removal in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural polymers, extracted from plants, can be used as coagulants for water treatment in addition to metal salts and synthetic polymers. Natural materials may offer benefits such as local production, lesser health hazards and affordability for developing world. Opuntia stricta plant, a cactus specie native to Mexico, has been explored in this study for its efficacy as coagulant. Efficiency of Opuntia stricta was assessed on the basis of turbidity removal from lab prepared and surface water samples. The effect of water pH on its performance was also analyzed. The study results revealed that removal efficiency of Opuntia stricta for turbidity removal remains consistent within a wide pH range (pH 5 to 10), in contrast to other coagulants which are pH dependent. Furthermore, pH of the water remains constant during coagulation and pH adjustment may not be required for subsequent treatment processes, which is often needed in case metal coagulants are used. Residual turbidity below 20 NTU is conveniently achieved by using Opuntia stricta even when it is used at very low doses. Formation of exceptionally large flocs and their linear configuration reveals the possibility that mechanism of coagulation by Opuntia stricta is adsorption and inter-particle bridging. (author)

  5. Phytochemical study of prickly pear from southern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bouzoubaâ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the phytochemical study of the prickly pear pulp’s fruits of two opuntia cultivars; Achefri and Amouslem widely present in two regions of southern Morocco; Arbaa Sahel and Asgherkis that are different in their altitude and annual rainfall. The results of the phytochemical study show that the levels of antioxidants have a non-significant difference between the fruits of the two sites (comparing Amouslem and Achefri in the same site, on the one hand, for the differences due to the variety or cultivar, on the other hand between Amouslem and Achefri from the two sites to show the site effect.

  6. Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saih, Fatima-Ezzahra; Andreoletti, Pierre; Mandard, Stéphane; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2017-01-07

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia ficus-indica cactus cladode extracts in microglia BV-2 cells. Inflammation associated with microglia activation in neuronal injury can be achieved by LPS exposure. Using four different structurally and biologically well-characterized LPS serotypes, we revealed a structure-related differential effect of LPS on fatty acid β-oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in peroxisomes: Escherichia coli -LPS decreased ACOX1 activity while Salmonella minnesota -LPS reduced only catalase activity. Different cactus cladode extracts showed an antioxidant effect through microglial catalase activity activation and an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing nitric oxide (NO) LPS-dependent production. These results suggest that cactus extracts may possess a neuroprotective activity through the induction of peroxisomal antioxidant activity and the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells.

  7. Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima-Ezzahra Saih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia ficus-indica cactus cladode extracts in microglia BV-2 cells. Inflammation associated with microglia activation in neuronal injury can be achieved by LPS exposure. Using four different structurally and biologically well-characterized LPS serotypes, we revealed a structure-related differential effect of LPS on fatty acid β-oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in peroxisomes: Escherichia coli-LPS decreased ACOX1 activity while Salmonella minnesota-LPS reduced only catalase activity. Different cactus cladode extracts showed an antioxidant effect through microglial catalase activity activation and an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing nitric oxide (NO LPS-dependent production. These results suggest that cactus extracts may possess a neuroprotective activity through the induction of peroxisomal antioxidant activity and the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells.

  8. Indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier and Modulates Neuronal Bioelectric Activity in Rat Hippocampus at Dietary-Consistent Amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Mario; Carletti, Fabio; Gambino, Giuditta; Tutone, Marco; Attanzio, Alessandro; Tesoriere, Luisa; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Sardo, Pierangelo; Almerico, Anna Maria; Livrea, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-26

    Indicaxanthin is a bioactive and bioavailable betalain pigment from the Opuntia ficus-indica fruits. In this in vivo study, kinetic measurements showed that indicaxanthin is revealed in the rat brain within 1 h from oral administration of 2 μmol/kg, an amount compatible with a dietary consumption of cactus pear fruits in humans. A peak (20 ± 2.4 ng of indicaxanthin per whole brain) was measured after 2.5 h; thereafter the molecule disappeared with first order kinetics within 4 h. The potential of indicaxanthin to affect neural activities was in vivo investigated by a microiontophoretic approach. Indicaxanthin, administered in a range between 0.085 ng and 0.34 ng per neuron, dose-dependently modulated the rate of discharge of spontaneously active neurons of the hippocampus, with reduction of the discharge and related changes of latency and duration of the effect. Indicaxanthin (0.34 ng/neuron) showed inhibitory effects on glutamate-induced excitation, indicating activity at the level of glutamatergic synapses. A molecular target of indicaxanthin is suggested by in silico molecular modeling of indicaxanthin with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the most represented of the glutamate receptor family in hippocampus. Therefore, at nutritionally compatible amounts indicaxanthin (i) crosses the rat BBB and accumulates in brain; (ii) can affect the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons locally treated with amounts comparable with those measured in the brain; and (iii) modulates glutamate-induced neuronal excitation. The potential of dietary indicaxanthin as a natural neuromodulatory agent deserves further mechanistic and neurophysiologic investigation.

  9. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of whole extract and isolated indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica associated with re-activation of the onco-suppressor p16(INK4a) gene in human colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naselli, Flores; Tesoriere, Luisa; Caradonna, Fabio; Bellavia, Daniele; Attanzio, Alessandro; Gentile, Carla; Livrea, Maria A

    2014-07-18

    Phytochemicals may exert chemo-preventive effects on cells of the gastro-intestinal tract by modulating epigenome-regulated gene expression. The effect of the aqueous extract from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI extract), and of its betalain pigment indicaxanthin (Ind), on proliferation of human colon cancer Caco-2 cells has been investigated. Whole extract and Ind caused a dose-dependent apoptosis of proliferating cells at nutritionally relevant amounts, with IC50 400±25 mg fresh pulp equivalents/mL, and 115±15 μM (n=9), respectively, without toxicity for post-confluent differentiated cells. Ind accounted for ∼80% of the effect of the whole extract. Ind did not cause oxidative stress in proliferating Caco-2 cells. Epigenomic activity of Ind was evident as de-methylation of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) gene promoter, reactivation of the silenced mRNA expression and accumulation of p16(INK4a), a major controller of cell cycle. As a consequence, decrease of hyper-phosphorylated, in favor of the hypo-phosphorylated retinoblastoma was observed, with unaltered level of the cycline-dependent kinase CDK4. Cell cycle showed arrest in the G2/M-phase. Dietary cactus pear fruit and Ind may have chemo-preventive potential in intestinal cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CO2 uptake of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. whole trees and single cladodes, in relation to plant water status and cladode age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Liguori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of net photosynthesis determinations in Opuntia ficus-indica come from measurements on individual cladodes. However, they have limitations when used to scale up to whole canopy gas exchange, because a large variability of carbon assimilation may occur within the canopy, due to, among others, differences in cladode age and intercepted radiation or individual cladode response to abiotic stresses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of open gas exchange chambers, simultaneously applied around the whole canopy, to measure net CO2 uptake, continuously over a 24 h period, in single Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. potted trees and in relation with their water status. Net CO2 uptake was also measured for single cladodes differentiated by age. O. ficus-indica trees continued their photosynthetic activity 60 days after the irrigation was stopped, when soil water content was lower than 5%. At this stage, current-year and 1-year-old cladodes had become flaccid but still the daily net CO2 uptake of non-irrigated trees kept the same rate than at the beginning of the experiment, while watered trees had doubled their net CO2 uptake. The highest instantaneous rates and total daily net CO2 uptake for both well-watered and non-irrigated trees occurred 60 days after the onset of the dry period, when maximal instantaneous rates were 11.1 in well-watered trees and 8.4 mol m–2 s–1 in non-irrigated trees. During the drought period, the chlorenchyma fresh weight decreased by 45% and 30%, in 1- and 2-yearold drought cladodes respectively, and marginally increased in currentyear ones (+20%. Net CO2 uptake for 1-year-old and 2-year-old cladodes changed only at highest photosynthetic photon flux density and temperatures, and average seasonal net CO2 uptake of 2-year-old cladodes was 15% lower than for 1-year-old ones. Whole-tree gas exchange measurements applied for the first time to O. ficus-indica indicated that whole cactus pear trees maintain

  11. Digestibilidade e absorção aparentes em vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench Apparent digestibility and absorption od holstein cows fed diets with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica mill in replacement of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciene Karla Bezerra de Andrade

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira em substituição à silagem de sorgo, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação, sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica (DAMO, da proteína bruta (DAPB, do extrato etéreo (DAEE, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA, dos carboidratos totais (DACHT e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (DACNF, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e os coeficientes de absorção aparente de cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, potássio (K e sódio (Na. Foram utilizadas oito vacas, com peso médio de 590 kg e produção média de leite de 27 kg/dia, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos simultâneos (4x4, sendo quatro animais, quatro períodos e quatro níveis de inclusão de palma na ração. A inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta influenciou a digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes, sendo descrito por função quadrática. Foi possível estimar por intermédio desta função um teor máximo de NDT de 77,43% para utilização de 16,51% de palma na dieta. O aumento nos teores de CNF e a redução da FDN das rações foram responsáveis pelo comportamento quadrático na digestibilidade dos nutrientes. As absorções aparentes de Ca, P e Na foram influenciadas quadraticamente com o aumento dos níveis de palma na ração, enquanto o K aumentou linearmente. A relação Ca:P que proporcionou a melhor absorção desses elementos minerais foi de 1,9:1.It was evaluated the effect of four levels forage cactus in replacement of sorghum silage, in diets of lactating Holstein cows, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, ether extract (ADEE, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF and acid (ADADF, total carbohydrates (ADTCH and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC, content of total digestible nutrients (TDN and apparent absorption of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P

  12. Studies on modulatory effect of Opuntia elatior extract in Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poonia, Kavita; Sharma, Jaimala

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia elatior is succulent shrub and is widely grown in warmer parts of the world. Opuntia spp. have shown a variety of medicinal properties such as antiviral, antihyper-lipidemic, antioxidative, antiulcerous, immunomodulatory etc. Objective of the study was to explore radioprotective potential of this wild cactus. The cladodes of Opuntia elatior were collected and cleaned and shade-dried and powdered then hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by refluxing for 36 hrs at 40 °C then liquid extract was cooled and concentrated by evaporating its liquid contents. Mice selected for this study were divided into 5 groups of 5 animals each and administered Opuntia elatior extract dissolved in double distilled water orally with the 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 (mg./kg. body weight/day) for 30 minutes and then animals were exposed whole-body to 8 Gy gamma radiation. After irradiation, these doses were given for 30 consecutive days. Two doses 5 and 10 (mg./kg. body weight/day) were found tolerable when observed for weight, sign of sickness, morbidity, behavioral and mortality till 30 days. The optimum dose was chosen as 10 (mg./kg body weight/day) on the basis of radiation sickness and survival of mice. It will lay the foundation for the development of New, more effective and non toxic radiomodulators drugs from natural sources. (author)

  13. Toward understanding the efficacy and mechanism of Opuntia spp. as a natural coagulant for potential application in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah M; Fugate, Ezekiel J; Craver, Vinka Oyanedel; Smith, James A; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2008-06-15

    Historically, there is evidence to suggest that communities in the developing world have used plant-based materials as one strategy for purifying drinking water. In this study, the coagulant properties of Opuntia spp., a species of cactus, are quantitatively evaluated for the first time. Opuntia spp. was evaluated for turbidity removal from synthetic water samples, and steps were made toward elucidating the underlying coagulation mechanism. In model turbid water using kaolin clay particles at pH 10, Opuntia spp. reduced turbidity by 98% for a range of initial turbidities. This is similar to the observed coagulation activities previously described for Moringa oleifera, a widely studied natural coagulant. Although it has been reported that Moringa oleifera predominantly operates through charge neutralization, comparison of zeta potential measurements and transmission electron microscopy images of flocs formed by Opuntia spp. suggest that these natural coagulants operate through different mechanisms. It is suggested that Opuntia spp. operates predominantly through a bridging coagulation mechanism. Once optimized, application of these readily available plants as a part of point-of-use water treatment technology may offer a practical, inexpensive, and appropriate solution for producing potable water in some developing communities.

  14. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  15. The use of a natural coagulant (Opuntia ficus-indica) in the removal for organic materials of textile effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Ambrosio, Elizangela; de Almeida, Cibele Andrade; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoli; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; Garcia, Juliana Carla

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the activity of the coagulant extracted from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) in the process of coagulation/flocculation of textile effluents. Preliminary tests of a kaolinite suspension achieved maximum turbidity removal of 95 % using an NaCl extraction solution. Optimization assays were conducted with actual effluents using the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken experimental design. The responses of the variables FeCl3, dosage, cactus dosage, and pH in the removal of COD and turbidity from both effluents were investigated. The optimum conditions determined for jeans washing laundry effluent were the following: FeCl3 160 mg L(-1), cactus dosage 2.60 mg L(-1), and pH 5.0. For the fabric dyeing effluent, the optimum conditions were the following: FeCl3 640 mg L(-1), cactus dosage 160 mg L(-1), and pH 6.0. Investigation of the effects of the storage time and temperature of the cactus O. ficus-indica showed that coagulation efficiency was not significantly affected for storage at room temperature for up to 4 days.

  16. State of the Art on Cactus Additions in Alkaline Media as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Torres-Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research in progress includes results on the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel in alkaline media when two different dehydrated cacti (Opuntia ficus-indica—Nopal—and Aloe Vera were used as additions in pH 12.5 and 13.3 solutions and in concrete. The dehydrated cactus addition was mixed at different concentrations by either solution or cement mass (0.10%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%. Half-cell potentials and LPR measurements were performed at different time periods to characterize the possible corrosion inhibiting effect of the cactus additions tested in such alkaline media. Results showed good corrosion inhibiting effect of dehydrated Nopal on reinforcing steel, in all tested solutions, when chloride ions are present. Aloe Vera did show also corrosion inhibiting improvements in some extent. The addition of such cactus led to an apparent formation of a denser and more packed oxide/hydroxide surface layer on the steel surface that decreased corrosion activity. This oxide/hydroxide layer growth was confirmed by microscopic evaluation of the metal surface layer performed at the end of the research program. The preliminary findings suggest that adding Nopal at concentrations between 1% and 2%, by mass, might be suitable for durability enhancing applications in alkaline media, especially in concrete structures.

  17. PEAR code review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, R.; Jamieson, T.; Lord, M.; Lafortune, J.F.

    1997-07-01

    As a necessary component in the continuous improvement and refinement of methodologies employed in the nuclear industry, regulatory agencies need to periodically evaluate these processes to improve confidence in results and ensure appropriate levels of safety are being achieved. The independent and objective review of industry-standard computer codes forms an essential part of this program. To this end, this work undertakes an in-depth review of the computer code PEAR (Public Exposures from Accidental Releases), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to assess accidental releases from CANDU reactors. PEAR is based largely on the models contained in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) N288.2-M91. This report presents the results of a detailed technical review of the PEAR code to identify any variations from the CSA standard and other supporting documentation, verify the source code, assess the quality of numerical models and results, and identify general strengths and weaknesses of the code. The version of the code employed in this review is the one which AECL intends to use for CANDU 9 safety analyses. (author)

  18. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  19. Chemical thinning of 'Conference' pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.; Kanne, H.J.; Steeg, van der P.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing difference in the market value of small and larger sized ‘Conference’ pears (>65 mm) and the high labour costs for hand thinning, makes it interesting for growers to find a cheaper and reliable method for thinning pear trees. In 2007, 2008 and 2009 trials were carried out to test

  20. Supplementing with Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and Dioscorea nipponica Makino extracts synergistically attenuates menopausal symptoms in estrogen-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2014-08-08

    Prickly pear cactus grown in Korea (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill, KC) and Buchema (Dioscorea nipponica Makino, B) have been traditionally used in East Asia and South America to treat various metabolic diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the extracts of KC, B, and KC+B can prevent the impairments of energy, glucose, lipid and bone homeostasis in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats and to explore their mechanisms. OVX rats were divided into 4 groups and fed high fat diets supplemented with either 3% dextrin (control), 3% KC, 3% B or 1.5% KC+1.5% B. Sham rats were fed 3% dextrin. After 12 weeks of diet consumption, energy, lipid, glucose and bone metabolisms were analyzed and Wnt signaling in the femur and hepatic signaling were determined. OVX impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism and decreased uterine and bone masses. B and KC+B prevented the decrease in energy expenditure, especially from fat oxidation, in OVX rats, but did not affect food intake. KC+B and B reduced body weight and visceral fat levels, as compared to the OVX-control, by decreasing fat synthesis and inhibiting FAS and SREBP-1c expression. KC+B and B prevented the increases in serum lipid levels and insulin resistance by improving hepatic insulin signaling (pIRS→pAkt→pGSK-3β). KC and KC+B also prevented decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) in the femur and lumbar spine in OVX rats. This was related to decreased expressions of bone turnover markers such as serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone-specific ALP levels, and increased serum P levels. KC and KC+B upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and β-catenin in OVX rats, but suppressed the expression of dickkopf-related protein 1. B alone improved energy, lipid and glucose homeostasis, but not bone loss, whereas KC alone enhanced BMD, but not energy, lipid or glucose homeostasis. KC+B synergistically attenuated impairments of bone, energy, lipid and glucose

  1. Demographic monitoring of Wright fishhook cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Kass

    2001-01-01

    Wright fishhook cactus (Sclerocactus wrightiae Benson) is a small barrel cactus endemic to the San Rafael Swell in south-central Utah. It was listed as an endangered species in 1979 due to its small population size, threats of over-collecting, and development associated with oil and gas. Demographic monitoring was initiated in 1993 with the following objectives: to...

  2. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  3. CACTUS technology programme. Yearbook 1998; CACTUS teknologiaohjelman vuosikirja 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E [ed.

    1999-12-31

    In the future, the paper industry must be prepared for more environmentally friendly. The main challenge is to develop technologies capable of lowering emissions to air and water and at the same time reducing the formation of waste. To achieve a significant reduction in water consumption at paper mills it will be necessary to develop and to introduce new processes and products. The requirements are better paper quality and runnability and better process management. To assess the process alternatives a technology programme was established in 1996. The goal of this four year programme is to create knowledge that can be used at paper mills to achieve substantial reductions in raw water consumption without jeopardizing paper quality and runnability, increasing the consumption chemicals and impairing the energy efficiency. The costs of the programme are evaluated to be FIM 140-160 million, of which Tekes will supply FIM 70-80 million. The rest of funding is covered by participating companies from paper and chemical industry and from equipment producers. At present, the CACTUS Programme is focused on four research areas, (1) separation techniques and treatment methods, (2) measurements and process chemistry, (3) process modelling and simulation and (4) final placement of concentrates. The total cost of research projects within these areas in 1998 is about FIM 14 million. This yearbook summarises the main research results and future plans of the CACTUS projects. There are 26 research projects and 15 industrial joint projects going on in 1997- 1998. (orig.)

  4. CACTUS technology programme. Yearbook 1998; CACTUS teknologiaohjelman vuosikirja 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    In the future, the paper industry must be prepared for more environmentally friendly. The main challenge is to develop technologies capable of lowering emissions to air and water and at the same time reducing the formation of waste. To achieve a significant reduction in water consumption at paper mills it will be necessary to develop and to introduce new processes and products. The requirements are better paper quality and runnability and better process management. To assess the process alternatives a technology programme was established in 1996. The goal of this four year programme is to create knowledge that can be used at paper mills to achieve substantial reductions in raw water consumption without jeopardizing paper quality and runnability, increasing the consumption chemicals and impairing the energy efficiency. The costs of the programme are evaluated to be FIM 140-160 million, of which Tekes will supply FIM 70-80 million. The rest of funding is covered by participating companies from paper and chemical industry and from equipment producers. At present, the CACTUS Programme is focused on four research areas, (1) separation techniques and treatment methods, (2) measurements and process chemistry, (3) process modelling and simulation and (4) final placement of concentrates. The total cost of research projects within these areas in 1998 is about FIM 14 million. This yearbook summarises the main research results and future plans of the CACTUS projects. There are 26 research projects and 15 industrial joint projects going on in 1997- 1998. (orig.)

  5. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60 Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  6. UJI EFEK ANALGETIKA EKSTRAK BUAH KAKTUS (Opuntia elatior Mill. PADA MENCIT (Mus musculus YANG DIINDUKSI ASAM ASETAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissa Amellia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a mechanism of body defense. One way to allay or decreasing the pain is using medicines that have analgetic effect. The aim of this study is determine the analgetic effect of cactus fruits (Opuntia elatior Mill. extract and the most effective dose to giving analgetic effect. This study used writhing method by the injection acetic acid 1% as induced. Group I as a negative control used natrium carboxy methylcellulose 1%, group II as a positive control used aspirin suspension which dosage was 1,3 mg/20g BB, group III as a extract of cactus fruits give to dose 50 mg/kg BB, group IV dose 100 mg/kg BB, and group V dose 150 mg/kg BB. The result shows that cactus fruits extract to giving analgetic effect judging from the reduction strength writhing reflex to protection percentage at dose 50 mg/kg BB (11,26%, 100 mg/kg BB (42,10%, 150 mg/kg BB(60,14% and the positif control (75,34%, at the positif control shows that higher protection percentage. Effectiveness percentage analgetic extract of cactus fruits at dose of 50 mg/kg BB (14,4%, 100 mg/kg BB (55,36%, 150 mg/kg BB (79,95% and positif control (100%. The data which is got from the calculation later is analyzed by Kruskal Wallis. The result showed that at dose of 150 mg/kg BB is p: 0,016 (p<0,05 when compared with the positive control. So that is different significantly between dose 150 mg/kg BB and the positive control. The extract showed a optimal analgetic effect characterized by a significant reduction in the number of writhes or abdominal stretches in mice with dose 150 mg/kg BB body weight used when compared to the cactus fruits extract dose 50 and 100 mg/kg BB

  7. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton (Cynodon spp em dietas de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação. 1. Digestibilidade - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.638 Forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill and urea in replacement of tifton hay (Cynodon spp in lactating Holstein cows diet. 1. Digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.638

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Veras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0; 12,5; 25; 37,5; e 50% de palma forrageira e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica (DAMO, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da proteína bruta (DAPB, dos carboidratos totais (DACHOT e dos carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas, com peso médio de 480 kg e produção média de leite de 20 kg/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5x5. As DAMS, DAMO, DACHOT e DACNF aumentaram, a DAFDN diminuiu linearmente e a DAPB não foi influenciada com o aumento dos níveis de palma e uréia na dieta. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais de mantença, a energia digestível de lactação, energia metabolizável de lactação e energia líquida de lactação aumentaram à medida que eram incluídas palma e uréia na dieta.The effect of five levels forage cactus and urea (0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% in replacement of tifton hay in lactating Holstein cows diets, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, crude protein (ADCP, total carbohydrates (ADTC and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC were evaluated. Five Holstein cows weighing on average 480 kg and with an average milk yield of 20 kg of milk/day were used in a 5x5 Latin square design. The DM, OM, TC and NFC apparent digestibility increased while NDF apparent digestibility decreased linearly and the CP apparent digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of forage cactus and urea. The total digestible nutrients of maintenance, digestible energy of lactation, metabolizing energy of lactation and liquid energy of lactation increased as the forage cactus and urea levels increased.

  8. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Uranium adsorption by non-treated and chemically modified cactus fibres in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melpomeni Prodromou; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption efficiency of Opuntia ficus indica fibres regarding the removal of hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] from aqueous solutions has been investigated prior and after the chemical treatment (e.g. phosphorylation and MnO 2 -coating) of the biomass. The separation/removal efficiency has been studied as a function of pH, uranium concentration, adsorbent mass, ionic strength, temperature and contact time. Evaluation of the experimental data shows that biosorption is strongly pH-depended and that the MnO 2 -coated product presents the highest adsorption capacity followed by the phosphorylated and non-treated material. Experiments with varying ionic strength/salinity don't show any significant effect on the adsorption efficiency, indicating the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes. The adsorption reactions are in all cases exothermic and relatively fast, particularly regarding the adsorption on the MnO 2 -coated product. The results of the present study indicate that adsorption of uranium from waters is very effective by cactus fibres and particularly the modified treated fibres. The increased adsorption efficiency of the cactus fibres is attributed to their primary and secondary fibrillar structure, which result in a relative relative high specific surface available for sorption. (author)

  10. 76 FR 54075 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... production research and market development, $6,355,000 for promotion and paid advertising for winter pears, and $1,260,000 for promotion and paid advertising for summer/ fall pears. In comparison, major... advertising for winter pears, and $1,410,000 for promotion and paid advertising for summer/fall pears. The...

  11. Micropropagation of pear (Pyrus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Barbara M; Denoma, Jeanine; Wada, Sugae; Postman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Elements of micropropagation include establishment of shoot tip cultures, proliferation, rooting, and acclimatization of the resulting plantlets. The wide genetic variation in Pyrus makes micropropagation challenging for many genotypes. Initiation of shoots is most successful from forced dormant shoots or from scions grafted onto seedling rootstocks to impose juvenility. Clean shoots are recovered after testing for contaminants at the initiation stage on ½ strength Murashige and Skoog 1962 medium (MS), at pH 6.9 for 1 week or by streaking on nutrient agar. Although pear species and cultivars are cultured on several well-known media, MS is the most commonly used. Our studies showed that multiplication and growth of shoots are best on Pear Medium with higher concentrations of calcium chloride, potassium phosphate, and magnesium sulfate than MS medium and 4.4 μM N(6) benzyladenine. Pear shoots are often recalcitrant to rooting; however, a 5 s dip in 10 mM indole-3-butyric acid or naphthalene acetic acid before planting on basal medium without plant growth regulators is effective for many genotypes. Pear shoots store well at 1-4°C, and can hold for as long as 4 years without reculture. Cryopreservation protocols are available for long-term storage of pear shoot tips. Acclimation of in vitro-rooted or micrografted shoots in a mist bed follows standard procedures.

  12. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  13. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herson Antonio González-Ponce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP-induced acute liver failure (ALF is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800mg/kg/day, orally were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20mmol/LAPAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF.

  15. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  16. 77 FR 72197 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Agricultural Statistics Service, the total farm-gate value of summer/fall processed pears grown in Oregon and... introductory text and paragraph (a) are revised to read as follows: Sec. 927.237 Processed pear assessment rate...

  17. Opposite Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice Depending on Fruit Maturity Stage on Gastrointestinal Physiological Parameters in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtibi, Kais; Selmi, Slimen; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2018-06-01

    The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α- 2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α- 2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), and loperamide (5 mg kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). In vivo reverse effect of juice on GI physiological parameters was investigated using a charcoal meal test, phenol-red colorimetric method, loperamide-induced acute constipation, and castor oil-caused small-bowel hypersecretion. However, the opposite in vitro influence of juice on intestinal permeability homeostasis was assessed by the Ussing chamber system. Mature prickly pear juice administration stimulated significantly and dose dependently the GI transit (GIT; 8-26%) and gastric emptying (0.9-11%) in a rat model. Conversely, the immature prickly pear juice reduced gastric emptying (7-23%), GIT (10-28%), and diarrhea (59-88%). Moreover, the standard drugs have produced their antagonistic effects on GI physiological functions. The permeability of the isolated perfused rat small-intestine has a paradoxical response flowing prickly pear juices administration at diverse doses and maturity grade. Most importantly, the quantitative phytochemical analyses of both juices showed a different composition depending on the degree of maturity. In conclusion, the prickly pear juice at two distinct phases of maturity has different phytochemical characteristics and opposite effects on GI physiological actions in rat.

  18. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 μs/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 μs/50 Hz, 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed

  19. Identification of functional groups of Opuntia ficus-indica involved in coagulation process after its active part extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaouine, Omar; Bourven, Isabelle; Khalil, Fouad; Baudu, Michel

    2018-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica that belongs to the Cactaceae family and is a member of Opuntia kind has received increasing research interest for wastewater treatment by flocculation. The objectives of this study were (i) to provide more information regarding the active constituents of Opuntia spp. and (ii) to improve the extracting and using conditions of the flocculant molecules for water treatment. A classic approach by jar test experiments was used with raw and extracted material by solubilization and precipitation. The surface properties of solid material were characterized by FTIR, SEM, zeta potential measurement, and surface titration. The splitting based on the solubility of the material with pH and the titration of functional groups completed the method. The optimal pH value for a coagulation-flocculation process using cactus solid material (CSM) was 10.0 and a processing rate of 35 mg L -1 . The alkaline pH of flocculation suggests an adsorption mechanism with bridging effect between particles by water-soluble extracted molecules. To validate this mechanism, an extraction water was carried out at pH = 10 (optimum of flocculation) and the solution was acidified (pH = 7) to allow precipitation of so considered active flocculant molecules. The strong flocculant property of this extract was verified, and titration of this solution showed at least one specific pKa of 9.0 ± 0.6. This pKa corresponds to phenol groups, which could be assigned to lignin and tannin.

  20. COMPORTAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE PALMA (Opuntia ficus-indica l. SUBMETIDAS À FERMENTAÇÃO E SECAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Marie Macedo Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The forage cactus is cultivated of extensive form as a producing species of fruits and fodder plant in many countries. The extensive culture if bases on the vegetative propagation, that is preferred, had its easiness. The propagation for seeds can come to be a useful tool for ends of genetic improvement, then, in this work forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica L. seeds were submitted to different fermentation periods (0; 24; 48; 72 and 96 hours and were dried or not, before sowing. It was evaluated the physiological quality of the seeds through the determination of the moisture content, emergence percentage and speed of seedling emergency. It was used an entirely randomized experimental design 5x2 (period of fermentation and drying. The practical one of the fermentation is efficient in the elimination of the sarcotesta in palm seeds, occurring bigger vigor in the seeds without drying and submitted the 55 hours of fermentation, as well as, the drying of the seeds, after the first periods of fermentation promotes reduction of the physiological quality, with reflected right-handers in the vigor.

  1. 21 CFR 145.175 - Canned pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.175 Canned pears. (a.... The lower end of the rod is a plane surface to which the vertical axis of the rod is perpendicular...

  2. MX Siting Investigation. DTN/OBTS Field Surveys. Volume III. Biological Resources Nevada and Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    Tumble mustard F MYCW Lepidium fremontii Desert pepperweed F CW,W CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii Hedgehog cactus S MY Ferocactus acant’,jodes...Lepidium sp. Pepperweed F MS Sisymbrium altissimum Tumble mustard F Js Sisymbrium sp. Tumble mustard F BS CACTACEAE Echinocereus engelmannii Engelmannii...Streptanthella F BS,W lorostris StetnhlaTwist flower F PJ cordatus CACTACEAE Echinocereus Hedgehog cactus S BIS triglochidiatus Opuntia erinacea Prickly pear S PJ

  3. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Power, Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Betacyanins of the Peel and Pulp of Three Tunisian Opuntia Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila K.; Guyot, Sylvain; Sotin, Hélène; Ayadi, Malika T.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta have been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica, while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulp, and the thornless variety has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg·g−1; thornless: 77.03 μg·g−1) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg·g−1). PMID:26787622

  4. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  5. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Ponce, Herson Antonio; Consolacion Martinez-Saldana, Maria; Rosa Rincon-Sanchez, Ana; Teresa Sumaya-Martinez, Maria; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juarez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients

  6. Fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus in diets for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Felipe Just de Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of partial or total replacement of Tifton 85 hay with fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus on performance and body weight components of sheep. Thirty hair lambs, with 19 kg ± 0.35 kg initial weight, were randomly divided into five treatments, namely: Tifton 85 Hay (HA; Tifton 85 Hay + fresh spineless cactus (HAFC; Tifton 85 Hay + dehydrated spineless cactus (HADC; fresh spineless cactus (FC; dehydrated spineless cactus (DC. In addition to the spineless cactus and hay, the complete mixture contained soybean meal, mineral salt and limestone in all treatments. Animals were confined for 75 days and then slaughtered. The weight of body components was recorded. Dry matter intake, total digestible nutrients intake and voluntary water intake were higher (p 0.05 by treatments. The cold carcass weight, rib eye area, weight and yield of the skin, liver, kidney and large intestine were higher (p < 0.05 for the DC and HADC treatments. Partial or total replacement of Tifton 85 hay with fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus, in complete diets for sheep, increases the weight of the cold carcass and non-carcass components.

  7. Traceability of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller by ICP-MS multi-element profile and chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottese, Antonio Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Vadalà, Rossella; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Rando, Rossana; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller fruits, particularly 'Ficodindia dell'Etna' of Biancavilla (POD), 'Fico d'india tradizionale di Roccapalumba' with protected brand and samples from an experimental field in Pezzolo (Sicily) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in order to determine the multi-element profile. A multivariate chemometric approach, specifically principal component analysis (PCA), was applied to individuate how mineral elements may represent a marker of geographic origin, which would be useful for traceability. PCA has allowed us to verify that the geographical origin of prickly pear fruits is significantly influenced by trace element content, and the results found in Biancavilla PDO samples were linked to the geological composition of this volcanic areas. It was observed that two principal components accounted for 72.03% of the total variance in the data and, in more detail, PC1 explains 45.51% and PC2 26.52%, respectively. This study demonstrated that PCA is an integrated tool for the traceability of food products and, at the same time, a useful method of authentication of typical local fruits such as prickly pear. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Hypnotic Effect and GC-MS Analysis of Seeds Extracts From Algerian Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Kenza BENATTIA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sleep disorders are a frequent symptom that requires prior to any prescription medication, an etiological check to eliminate any organic or psychiatric pathology that is under other treatments and that could worsen under hypnotics.The phytochemical study of Nopal affirm to be an excellent source of natural oligoelements which may improve human health and nutrition Aims: The objective of this work is to extract and analyze the lipid fraction of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus–indica. L, and to determine their hypnotic activity in order to achieve a primary pharmacological screening contained in these extracts (aqueous, hydro-ethanol. Methods: GC-MS analysis of seed oil extracted by soxhlet method, and the pharmacology experiment was performed on white mice from a Swiss race Balb/cby calculating the sleep time. Results: The oil of seeds is rich in fatty-acids poly-unsaturates, Main fatty acids identified were linoleic (C18:2, oleic (C18:1, and palmitic (C16:0, palmitoleic (C16:1 acids with respective contents 81.25%, 3.70%, and 15.03%. The extract hydro-ethanolic at the 500mg / kg dose has a moderate hypnotic effect Conclusion: This study proves that the food quality of prickly pear seeds is very important and its natural source of edible oil containing of the essential fatty-acids, and can be a base for a promising work to highlight the bioactive moleculeswithhypnotic effects, myorelaxant and tranquillizing.

  9. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND... means pears that have been certified by an organic certification organization currently registered with... under the National Organic Program. Communications ...

  10. Effects of a natural fire on a Kuenzler's hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri) and nylon hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus viridiflorus) population in Southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Sivinski

    2007-01-01

    During the summer of 1992, a natural wildfire burned 250 acres of juniper savanna on Rawhide Ridge in the Guadalupe Mountains of southeastern New Mexico. This fire burned through the center of a Kuenzler's hedgehog cactus population. This threatened cactus is locally sympatric with the more abundant nylon hedgehog cactus, which has similar growth form and stature...

  11. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Kenneth R; Jones, Anthony E; Belmont, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera ( Aloe barbadensis ) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min -1 . Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min -1 . These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe.

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-39 - Fragrant pears from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fragrant pears from China. 319.56-39 Section 319.56-39... pears from China. Fragrant pears may be imported into the United States from China only under the... China. (2) All propagative material introduced into a registered production site must be certified free...

  13. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There are exempted from the provisions of the order any and all pears which, in individual gift packages, are shipped...

  14. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of cactus cladodes extract against lithium-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Anouar; Dalel, Brahmi; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Smida, Amani; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-12-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Castaceae) (cactus) is used in Tunisian medicine for the treatment of various diseases. This study determines phytochemical composition of cactus cladode extract (CCE). It also investigates antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of CCE against lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 )-induced liver injury in rats. Twenty-four Wistar male rats were divided into four groups of six each: a control group given distilled water (0.5 mL/100 g b.w.; i.p.), a group injected with Li 2 CO 3 (25 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.; corresponding to 30% of the LD 50 ) twice daily for 30 days, a group receiving only CCE at 100 mg/kg of b.w. for 60 days and then injected with distilled water during the last 30 days of CCE treatment, and a group receiving CCE and then injected with Li 2 CO 3 during the last 30 days of CCE treatment. The bioactive components containing the CCE were identified using chemical assays. Treatment with Li 2 CO 3 caused a significant change of some haematological parameters including red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular volume (VCM) compared to the control group. Moreover, significant increases in the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were observed in the blood of Li 2 CO 3 -treated rats. Furthermore, exposure to Li 2 CO 3 significantly increased the LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hepatic tissues. CCE possesses a significant hepatoprotective effect.

  15. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  16. Extraction, stability, and separation of betalains from Opuntia joconostle cv. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Noe; Jaime-Fonseca, Monica R; San Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Zepeda, L Gerardo

    2013-12-11

    Betalains were extracted and analyzed from Opuntia joconostle (the prickly pear known as xoconostle in Mexico). For the extraction, two solvent systems were used, methanol/water and ethanol/water. A three-variable Box-Behnken statistical design was used for extraction: solvent concentration (0-80%, v/v), temperature (5-30 °C), and treatment time (10-30 min). The extraction and stability of betalains from xoconostle were studied using response surface methodology (RSM). Techniques such as UV-vis, column chromatography, and HPLC were employed for the separation and analysis of the main pigments present in the extracts. Maximum pigment concentration (92 mg/100 g of fruit) was obtained at a temperature of 15 °C and a time of 10 min for methanol/water (20:80), whereas maximum stability of the pigment was observed at pH 5 and a temperature of 25 °C. HPLC chromatograms showed the main betalains of the xoconostle characterized were betalain, betanidin, and isobetalain.

  17. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Kanimozhi, K; Kavitha, L

    2015-04-15

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Predation of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae by Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a sand bank area of Santa Catarina island, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Opuntia is worldwide known for its ecological, ornamental and agronomic importance. Some species became pests in the countries in which they where introduced, and as biological control, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae, originary from Argentina, were used. However, the effect of the attack of this piralid on native cactus has yet not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to detect and to quantify the predation of C. cactorum on Opuntia monacantha. The study was carried out from September to November of 2004, along pre-defined tracks, on a sand bank vegetation area, between the Mole and Galheta beaches in the Santa Catarina island (27º35’83.1’’S e 48º25’70.6’’W. All the studied plants (n = 20 presented some damage caused by C. cactorum. The proportion of unpredated cladodes (68% and fruits (85% was higher than the predated ones. Terminal cladodes were highly predated structures and presented the highest number of larvae inside. Seed loss in the predated fruits was high. The remaining areole of the predated cladodes and fruits differentiated into sprouts and routs and formed new plants. O. monacantha, despite of being predated by C. cactorum larvae, apparently possess defense mechanisms which assure the maintenance of its populations.

  19. Assessment of the invasive status of newly recorded cactus species in the central Tugela River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cheek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current distribution information on cacti in the Tugela River basin in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is scant. Accordingly, surveys in this region substantially improve our understanding of regional invasions by this succulent group. The identification of new or extended invasions requires (reassessments of their invasion status and consideration of possible management interventions. Objectives: To identify and collect cacti either not previously recorded or poorly known in the central Tugela River basin, and to assess their invasion status. Method: A 40 km section of tertiary road was travelled through the topocadastral square 2830 CC, from the R74 main road northward across the Bloukrans River towards the Tugela River. Herbarium specimens were collected to vouch for new instances of naturalisation of cacti, the colony sizes of which were estimated and invasion stages determined. An applicable weed risk assessment model was used to determine the threat status of one cactus species not previously evaluated for South Africa. Based on the South African Plant Invaders Atlas database records and field observations, management recommendations were suggested for six cacti species. Results: The first naturalised population of Opuntia microdasys in KwaZulu-Natal was detected, as was the first confirmed South African record of Echinopsis oxygona. Four populations of Peniocereus serpentinus were also found, ranging in size from several square metres to 0.4 ha. Echinopsis oxygona generated a score that falls into the reject category of the risk assessment model used. Conclusion: It is recommended that E. oxygona be added to the Species Under Surveillance for Possible Eradication or Containment Targeting list to investigate whether this species requires formal legal listing and the development of a specific eradication plan. Immediate action from local authorities is recommended for the manual removal of P. serpentinus and O. microdasys

  20. Physicochemical Properties of Avocado Pear (Persea americana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil from edible avocado pear (Persea americana) was extracted using the Soxhlet extraction method and characterized for specific gravity, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value, acid value and biofuel potential using standard methods. The percent oil content in the fruit pulp was determined.

  1. (Persea americana) and African pear (Dacryodes edulis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... The percent oil content in the fruit pulp was determined. The oil content of avocado pear .... isomerisation processes which usually lead to loss of unsaturation. The low ... The role of fats and oils in cosmetics. JAOCS 49(71):.

  2. Ohmic Heating Assisted Lye Peeling of Pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarvesh; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2018-05-01

    Currently, high concentrations (15% to 18%) of lye (sodium hydroxide) are used in peeling pears, constituting a wastewater handling and disposal problem for fruit processors. In this study, the effect of ohmic heating on lye peeling of pears was investigated. Pears were peeled using 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3% NaOH under different electric field strengths at two run times and their peeled yields were compared to that obtained at 2% and 18% NaOH with conventional heating. Results revealed that ohmic heating results in greater than 95% peeled yields and the best peel quality at much lower concentrations of lye (2% NaOH at 532 V/m and 3% NaOH at 426 and 479 V/m) than those obtained under conventional heating conditions. Treatment times of 30 and 60 s showed no significant differences. Within the studied range, the effects of increasing field strength yielded no significant additional benefits. These results confirm that the concentration of lye can be significantly lowered in the presence of ohmic heating to achieve high peeled yields and quality. Our work shows that lye concentrations can be greatly reduced while peeling pears, resulting in significant savings in use of caustic chemicals, reduced costs for effluent treatment and waste disposal. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Biomimetic "Cactus Spine" with Hierarchical Groove Structure for Efficient Fog Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Wu, Juntao; Gong, Guangming; Guo, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A biomimetic "cactus spine" with hierarchical groove structure is designed and fabricated using simple electrospinning. This novel artificial cactus spine possesses excellent fog collection and water transportation ability. A model cactus equipped with artificial spines also shows a great water storage capacity. The results can be helpful in the development of water collectors and may make a contribution to the world water crisis.

  4. Desempenho de ovelhas nativas em confinamento recebendo palma-forrageira na dieta na região do semiárido nordestino Performance of native ewes under feedlot system receiving spineless cactus in diet in Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicília Maria Silva de Souza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o ganho de peso, o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dieta à base de palma forrageira em ovelhas nativas confinadas na região do semiárido nordestino. Foram testadas duas formas de oferecimento da palma-forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica: separada da mistura feno de capim-tifton + concentrado e junto da mistura feno + concentrado. Utilizaram-se 40 fêmeas das raças nativas Barriga-preta, Cara-curta, Cariri e Morada Nova, com peso inicial médio de 36,76 kg, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 × 2, com quatro raças e duas estratégias de alimentação. Os genótipos e as estratégias de alimentação influenciaram os consumos médios de fibra em detergente neutro e nutrientes digestíveis totais e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da fibra em detergente neutro. O genótipo influencia o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar em ovelhas alimentadas com palma forrageira na dieta, uma vez que animais das raças Cariri e Cara-curta apresentam maiores ganhos de peso.The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the weight gain, intake of nutrients, and the apparent digestibility of diets based on spineless cactus in native ewes in feedlot system in Brazilian semiarid region. Two spineless cactus feeding strategies were evaluated: spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica separated from the Tifton hay + concentrated mixture, and with Tifton hay mixture + concentrate. It was used forty native breed ewes (Barriga Preta, Cara Curta, Cariri and Morada Nova, with average initial body weight of 36.76 kg, distributed in a complete randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme (four breed and two feeding strategies. The genotypes and feeding strategies neutral fiber detergent had effect on the average intake of neutral fiber detergent and total digestible nutrient, and on the coefficients of neutral fiber detergent

  5. Study of the antioxidant properties of extracts obtained from nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes after convective drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, Luis; Vernon-Carter, E Jaime; Gallegos-Infante, J Alberto; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria E; Herrera-Valencia, E E; Calderas, Fausto; Jiménez-Alvarado, Rubén

    2011-04-01

    The process of convective drying was evaluated in terms of the bioactive compounds contained in nopal samples before and after dehydration. Total polyphenol, flavonoid, flavonol, carotene and ascorbic acid contents were determined in undehydrated and dehydrated samples. Two drying temperatures (45 and 65 °C) and two air flow rates (3 and 5 m s(-1) ) were evaluated. The rheology of samples under the best drying conditions was also studied, since it provides important information regarding processing (mixing, flow processing) as well as the sensory attributes (texture) of rehydrated samples. Non-Newtonian shear-thinning behaviour was observed for samples dried at 45 °C, while samples dried at 65 °C showed shear-thickening behaviour, possibly caused by thermal chain scission of high-molecular-weight components. The best conditions for bioactive compound preservation were a drying temperature of 45 °C and an air flow rate of 3 m s(-1) , resulting in 40.97 g phenols, 23.41 g flavonoids, 0.543 g β-carotene and 0.2815 g ascorbic acid kg(-1) sample as shown in table 3. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Application of Opuntia ficus-indica in bioremediation of wastewaters. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-15

    Heavy metal ion, pesticide and dye wastewaters cause severe ecological contamination with conventional treatment methods proving inadequate, unsuccessful or expensive to apply. Several biomaterials have recently been explored for the biosorption and biocoagulation-flocculation of pollutants from wastewaters. In the past 10 years, there has been an extensive research output on the use of biological materials such as agricultural wastes, chitosan, Moringa Oleifera, Eichhornia crassipes, bacteria, algae, Cactus plants etc. in environmental remediation. The present paper reviews the scattered information about the green technology involving Opuntia ficus-indica derived biomaterials in wastewater decontamination. Its characterization, physicochemical compositions, its application in biosorption and flocculation of dyes, pesticides and metallic species focussing on equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic properties are reviewed. The main results obtained in the depollution of a variety of contaminated wastewaters using cladodes, fruit pulp and peels mucilage and electrolytes show very high and promising pollutant maximum sorption capacities and removal percentages in the range -125.4-1000 mg/g and 0.31-2251.56 mg/g for the biosorption of dyes and metallic species respectively and removal % ranges of 50-98.7%, 11-93.62% and 17-100% for turbidity, chemical oxygen demand and heavy metals respectively by coagulation-flocculation process. The biomaterials proved to be efficient in pollutant removal that there is need to explore the scaling up of the study from the laboratory scale to community pilot plants and eventually to industrial levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species.

  8. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action

  9. Compositional, thermal and microstructural characterization of the Nopal (opuntia ficus indica), for addition in commercial cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Carrillo, C. G.; Gómez-Cuaspud, J. A.; E Martínez Suarez, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Nopal (opuntia ficus indica) from remote times has contributed like food and additive product in prehispanic constructions; although it grows in all the Colombian territory is very little used and its contribution in mixtures of Colombian cement is unknown. In order to evaluate the hydration characteristics of Nopal, several Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were performed to evaluate the optimal temperature of dehydration. Initially, the results show that around 175°C the weight loss is approximately 95%, this mass loss corresponds to the process of physical removal, suggesting that at least a remaining amount of 5% (w/w) has the ability to retain large amounts of water which is stored in the micro-structural deposits of Nopal. The evaluation by means Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), confirm that the whole cactus structure enables the water storage at cellular level. The results of infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis allowed the qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluation of the presence of functional groups and elemental chemical composition of Nopal respectively, mainly related with polysaccharide functional groups, which corresponds to 85% of the total composition. Other functional groups, are related with protein and mineral components. This found characteristics are relevant for the water retention in process that require the decrease of water consumption and the reinforcing of mechanical properties and durability, due to ability of Nopal mucilage to restore its hydration characteristics.

  10. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  11. Italian Opuntia ficus-indica Cladodes as Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds with Health-Promoting Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Gabriele; Pellizzoni, Marco; Montesano, Domenico; Lucini, Luigi

    2018-02-18

    Natural by-products, especially phenolic compounds, are in great demand by the nutra-pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. An analytical study was performed to investigate, for the first time, the presence of antioxidant constituents and the corresponding in vitro antioxidant activity in the extract of cladodes from Ficodindia di San Cono ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) protected designation of origin (PDO). The cladode extracts were analysed for target determination of selected constituents, i.e. β-polysaccharides and total phenolic content. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts was assessed by means of two different methods: α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. An untargeted UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS profiling approach was used to depict the phenolic profile of hydro-alcoholic cladode extracts. Interestingly, over 2 g/kg of polyphenols were detected in this matrix, and these compounds were mainly responsible for the antioxidant properties, as shown by the strong correlation between phenolic classes and antioxidant scores. Finally, this study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant activities in cladode extracts from cactus that might recommend their novel applications at the industrial level in the field of nutraceutical products.

  12. Recent upgrades and performance of the CACTUS detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Bergholt, L.; Guttormsen, M.

    1998-03-01

    The SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron laboratory, including the Oslo Cyclotron, has been in operation since 1980. The main auxiliary equipment consists of the multi-detector system CACTUS. During the last years, new, high efficiency Ge(HP) detectors were purchased and integrated in the CACTUS detector array. In this connection, the electronical setup was revised and altered. Several drawbacks of the old setup could be pointed out and eliminated. A test of the performance of all detector array elements was made with high accuracy. 27 refs

  13. Identification, characterization, and function analysis of the Cactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozheng Li

    Full Text Available The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. IκB is the main cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB. In this study, we identified the LvCactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the first cloned IκB homologue in subphylum Crustacea. LvCactus contains six predicted ankyrin repeats, which show similarities to those of Cactus proteins from insects. LvCactus localizes in cytoplasm and interacts with LvDorsal, an L. vannamei homologue to Drosophila melanogaster Dorsal belonging to class II NF-κB family, to prevent its nuclear translocation. Contrary to that of LvDorsal, over-expression of LvCactus down-regulates the activities of shrimp antimicrobial peptides promoters, suggesting LvCactus is an inhibitor of LvDorsal. The promoter of LvCactus was predicted to contain five putative NF-κB binding motifs, among which four were proved to be bound by LvDorsal by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Dual-luciferase reporter assays also showed that transcription of LvCactus was promoted by LvDorsal but inhibited by LvCactus itself, indicating a feedback regulatory pathway between LvCactus and LvDorsal. Expression of LvCactus was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus injections, suggesting an activation response of LvCactus to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Differently, the LvCactus expression levels obviously decreased during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection, indicating the feedback regulatory pathway of LvCactus/LvDorsal could be modified by WSSV.

  14. Effect of fiber fractions of prickly pear cactus (nopal) on quality and sensory properties of wheat bread rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Arauza, Juan Carlos; Bárcenas, Diego Guadalupe; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Martínez, Jaime David Pérez; Hernández, Jaime Reyes; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this study the addition of total fiber (TF), insoluble fiber (IF), and soluble fiber (SF) from nopal to wheat flour used to make bread rolls was assessed. The rheological properties of dough as well as quality, texture, sensorial and physical characteristics of the crumb rolls produced were evaluated. The storage (23.50 MPa) and loss modulus (11.95 MPa) for SF-dough were the lowest indicating that a less visco-elastic behavior was obtained. Polarized light microscopy showed that a more homogeneous size and a better distribution of starch granules were developed into SF-dough. Crumb hardness (3.25-4.78 N) and chewiness (0.31-0.81 N) of SF-rolls were lower than the control experiment (3.99-5.81 N and 0.35-1.01 N respectively). Springiness for all treatments was constant (1.0) compared with the control (1.02-0.87) for 2 days of storage. The lowest cohesiveness values (0.24-014) were computed by IF treatment for a similar storage time. The specific crumb volume increased by 12.46, 9.03 and 1.10 % by the addition of SF, TF and IF respectively. The lowest rate of staling was shown by SF-rolls (0.199) and it was followed by TF (0.296), IF (0.381) and control (0.458) treatments. As a result, the highest scores on quality (9.3 out of 10) and sensorial attributes (from 8.9 up to 9.7) were assigned to SF-rolls.

  15. Palma forrageira em substituição ao feno de capim-elefante: efeito sobre consumo, digestibilidade e características de fermentação ruminal em ovinos Spineless cactus in replacement of elephantgrass hay: effect on intake, apparent digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristics in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safira Valença Bispo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, como fonte de forragem, sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e das características ruminais de carneiros. Cinco dietas isoproteícas foram formuladas, em que a palma forrageira substituiu 0, 14, 28, 42 e 56% do feno de capim elefante na dieta. Cinco ovinos machos não-castrados foram distribuídos em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5 x 5 (cinco períodos, cinco níveis de palma e cinco repetiç��es. Cada período experimental teve duração de 13 dias - sete para adaptação e seis dias para coleta de dados e amostras. Os consumos de MS, MO, EE, PB, CT, CNF e NDT aumentaram linearmente com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. O consumo de água diminuiu linearmente e o de FDN apresentou efeito quadrático com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de EE, PB, CNF e FDN não foram influenciados, enquanto os de MS, MO e CT aumentaram linearmente com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. O pH e a concentração de NH3 ruminal decresceram linearmente com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. A substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta melhora a ingestão e o aproveitamento dos nutrientes.A study was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant-grass by spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill as a forage source on intake, apparent digestibility of the nutrients and of ruminal fermentation characteristics of sheep. Five iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated where spineless cactus replaced 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56% of elephantgrass in the diet. Five non-castrated male sheep were allotted to a 5 x 5 Latin square design

  16. Effect of hormone treatments on deformed fruit development in pear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    erica

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... of plant growth regulators applications and endogenous hormones on deformed pear fruit to clarify the relation- ship between shape and hormones in the fruit. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The experiments were conducted in 2008 using pear trees growing fruit demonstration farm in Jianning County.

  17. 76 FR 78168 - Importation of Chinese Sand Pears From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... require the sand pears to be packed in cartons that are labeled with the identity of the place of... of China. (5) The pears must be packed in cartons that are labeled with the identity of the place of... registration of places of production and packinghouses, sourcing of pest-free propagative material, inspection...

  18. Changes in endogenous hormone contents of pear stock ( Pyrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, changes in endogenous hormone contents of pear stock seeds during cold stratification were investigated. Abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased with increase in the periods of stratification of pear stock seeds. However, gibberellic acid (GA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents of Pyrus betulaefolia and ...

  19. Detection of pear thrips damage using satellite imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Vogelmann; Barrett N. Rock

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential of measuring, mapping and monitoring sugar maple damage caused by pear thrips in southern Vermont and northwestern Massachusetts using satellite imagery data. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were obtained during a major thrips infestation in June 1988, and were compared with satellite data acquired during June 1984 (before pear...

  20. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternating or mixed pattern. Marketable. Pear production acceptable for processing or other human consumption... irrigation water supply, if caused by an insured peril that occurs during the insurance period. (b) In... provisions of the Basic Provisions are not applicable. 13. Pear Quality Adjustment Endorsement (a) This...

  1. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pear Regulation 12. 917.461 Section 917.461 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of flower...

  2. Quality characteristics and phenolic compounds of European pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pear fruits are an important source of plant secondary metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolic compounds. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the individual phenolic compounds and some quality characteristics of the flesh and peel of the fruit in four pear ...

  3. Establishment of callus from Opuntia robusta Wendl., a wild and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coco santos

    2013-04-22

    Apr 22, 2013 ... plants produce tender cladodes, consumed as vegetable and fruits (prickly pear) .... The highest callus amount was obtained in media supplemented ... CO2 during carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions, improves the ...

  4. Pear distillates from pear juice concentrate: effect of lees in the aromatic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llobodanin, L; Achaerandio, I; Ferrando, M; Güell, C; López, F

    2007-05-02

    Pear juice obtained from pear concentrate was fermented at room temperature using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BDX, ENOFERM, France) as the fermentation microorganism. During the fermentation process, total sugars were measured. High performance liquid chromatography analyses were used to monitor the fermentation process and to characterize the pear wine. The pear wine obtained was distilled with its lees using three different equipments: a glass alembic (a glass pot still coupled to a glass column), a copper alembic, and a glass alembic with the addition of 5 g/L of copper shavings to the pot still. The same distillations were repeated with the wine without its lees (separated by decanting). Several distillation fractions were collected, up to a total of 500 mL of distillate. Gas chromatography was used to identify and quantify the volatile compounds in each fraction, and the methanol and ethanol contents. Based on these results, the heart fraction was defined. ANOVA tests were performed on the heart fractions to determine quantitative differences between some volatile compounds depending on the equipment used and the presence or absence of the wine lees. From this series of ANOVA tests, it can be concluded that the concentrations of the compounds that are considered to have a negative effect on the quality of the distillates (methanol, ethyl acetate, furfural) decrease or do not change when they are distilled in the presence of lees and in the copper alembic. In addition, the concentrations of the positive compounds (ethyl decanoate and ethyl-2-trans-4-cis-decadienoate) increase in the presence of lees for all of the equipment tested. So, it can be assumed that the distillation of pear wine with its lees in copper alembic leads to a better quality product.

  5. Adsorption isotherms of pear at several temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrevski Vangelče; Lutovska Monika; Mijakovski Vladimir; Pavkov Ivan S.; Babić Mirko M.; Radojčin Milivoje T.

    2015-01-01

    The moisture adsorption isotherms of pear were determined at 15ºC, 30ºC and 45ºC using the standard static gravimetric method over a range of water activity from 0.112 to 0.920. The experimental data were fitted with isotherm equations recommended in ASAE Standard D245.5. In order to find which equation gives the best results, large number of numerical experiments were performed. After that, several statistical criteria proposed in scientific literature for...

  6. Pear transformed with a lytic peptide gene for disease control affects nontarget organism, pear psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterka, Gary J; Bocchetti, Chris; Dang, Phat; Bell, R L; Scorza, Ralph

    2002-08-01

    The biology and behavior of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster, on a transgenic clone of 'Bartlett' pear, Pyrus communis L., containing a synthetic antimicrobial gene, D5C1, was compared with that of a nontransgenic parental clone to determine whether there were any nontarget effects. The gene construct also contained the marker gene nptII (aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase II) that encodes for antibiotic resistance to identify transformed plants. The purpose of the original transformation was to enhance pear resistance to the bacterial disease fireblight caused by Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al. The biology and behavior of pear psylla on a transgenic clone were compared with a nontransgenic parental pear clone in short- (crops.

  7. Extraction/export of nutrients in Opuntia ficus-indica under different spacings and chemical fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate extraction/ export of nutrients and dry matter production in the 'Gigante' cactus pear, grown in different spacings and fertilizations 620 days after planting. Twelve combination of treatments were used consisting of: three spacings - 1.00 x 0.50; 2.00 x 0.25; and 3.00 x 1.00 x 0.25 m, and four fertilizations - 000-000-000; 000-150-000; 200-150-000; and 200-150-100, kg ha-1, of N, P2O5 and K2O, in a 3 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design, with three replicates. Extraction/export of N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Mn, Zn, Na and Cu were determined and the means were 304.35; 18.81; 421.04; 62.35; 464.63; 215.77; 0.39; 0.81; 23.74; 1.11; 0.62 and 0.08 kg ha-1, besides the mean dry matter production of 17.11 Mg ha-1. There were significant interactions for extraction/export of Mg and dry matter production. The fertilizations used were insufficient to meet the demand of N, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients. Fertilization increased the extraction of nutrients, particularly N, P and S at the spacing of 1.00 x 0.50 m, and increased dry matter production. The decreasing order of extraction/export was Ca, K, N, Mg, S and P for macronutrients and Mn, Zn, Fe, Na, B and Cu for micronutrients.

  8. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Total ...

  9. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  10. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bjerke, B.; Messelt, S.; Olsen, E.A.; Ramsoey, T.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.; Wikne, J.C.; Kownacki, J.

    1989-06-01

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90 o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  11. Cactus Nurseries and Conservation in a Biosphere Reserve in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Pulido

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Documenting how socio-ecosystem conservation knowledge and practice arise and are modified are issues of ethnobiological interest. In the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve (RBBM, plant nurseries, some of which were created as Environmental Management Units (UMAs, have been established to grow and conserve cacti. This paper describes these nurseries, their role in cactus conservation, and the benefits and limitations for the people managing them. The nurseries have helped decrease illegal traffic in cacti and have enabled ex situ conservation of 22 cacti species. Cactus management has changed from extraction to cultivation, as a result of the knowledge and actions of multiple actors. The main limitation is marketing, a recurring problem for non-timber forest products (NTFP. Greater coordination among stakeholders is recommended, such as involvement by non-governmental organizations to improve their probability of success, as well as learning from the experience of other cactus UMAs. Improving the market for cacti is an issue that needs an immediate solution; otherwise conservation efforts could relapse.

  12. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  13. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  14. Subject in Tractatus according to David Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjectivism is viewed as one of the most fundamental underpinnings of modern philosophy. In modern philosophy, subject takes up a new position in human knowledge. The formation of the concept of subject is a decisive turn with which the modern philosophy starts. Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.

  15. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry.

  16. Aerial spray trials for pear thrips management fall 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Brenton Teillon; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The defoliation from pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), in 1988 caused a great deal of public concern throughout the entire State of Vermont and the New England region (Parker et al. 1988).

  17. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  18. The genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Zebin; Zhang, Shu; Ming, Ray; Zhu, Shilin; Khan, M Awais; Tao, Shutian; Korban, Schuyler S; Wang, Hao; Chen, Nancy J; Nishio, Takeshi; Xu, Xun; Cong, Lin; Qi, Kaijie; Huang, Xiaosan; Wang, Yingtao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Juyou; Deng, Cao; Gou, Caiyun; Zhou, Weili; Yin, Hao; Qin, Gaihua; Sha, Yuhui; Tao, Ye; Chen, Hui; Yang, Yanan; Song, Yue; Zhan, Dongliang; Wang, Juan; Li, Leiting; Dai, Meisong; Gu, Chao; Wang, Yuezhi; Shi, Daihu; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Huping; Zeng, Liang; Zheng, Danman; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Maoshan; Wang, Guangbiao; Xie, Lin; Sovero, Valpuri; Sha, Shoufeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhang, Shujun; Zhang, Mingyue; Sun, Jiangmei; Xu, Linlin; Li, Yuan; Liu, Xing; Li, Qingsong; Shen, Jiahui; Wang, Junyi; Paull, Robert E; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-02-01

    The draft genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) using a combination of BAC-by-BAC and next-generation sequencing is reported. A 512.0-Mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled with 194× coverage. High-density genetic maps comprising 2005 SNP markers anchored 75.5% of the sequence to all 17 chromosomes. The pear genome encodes 42,812 protein-coding genes, and of these, ~28.5% encode multiple isoforms. Repetitive sequences of 271.9 Mb in length, accounting for 53.1% of the pear genome, are identified. Simulation of eudicots to the ancestor of Rosaceae has reconstructed nine ancestral chromosomes. Pear and apple diverged from each other ~5.4-21.5 million years ago, and a recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) event must have occurred 30-45 MYA prior to their divergence, but following divergence from strawberry. When compared with the apple genome sequence, size differences between the apple and pear genomes are confirmed mainly due to the presence of repetitive sequences predominantly contributed by transposable elements (TEs), while genic regions are similar in both species. Genes critical for self-incompatibility, lignified stone cells (a unique feature of pear fruit), sorbitol metabolism, and volatile compounds of fruit have also been identified. Multiple candidate SFB genes appear as tandem repeats in the S-locus region of pear; while lignin synthesis-related gene family expansion and highly expressed gene families of HCT, C3'H, and CCOMT contribute to high accumulation of both G-lignin and S-lignin. Moreover, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism is a key pathway for aroma in pear fruit.

  19. Carbon footprint of apple and pear : orchards, storage and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, F.; Castanheira, E.G.; Feliciano, M.; Rodrigues, M.A.; Peres, A.; Maia, F.; Ramos, A.; Carneiro, J.P.; Coroama, V.C.; Freire, F.

    2013-01-01

    Apple and pear represent 51% of fresh fruit orchards in Portugal. This paper presents a life-cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment (so-called carbon footprint) of 3 apple and 1 pear Portuguese production systems. An LC model and inventory were implemented, encompassing the farm stage (cultivation of fruit trees in orchards), storage and distribution (transport to retail). The functional unit considered in this study was 1 kg of distributed fruit (at retail). Four different LC inventories...

  20. A tale of two cacti-the complex relationship between peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and endangered star cactus (Astrophytum asterias)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Terry; D. Price; J. Poole

    2007-01-01

    Astrophytum asterias, commonly called star cactus, is a federally listed endangered cactus endemic to the Tamaulipan thornscrub ecoregion of extreme southern Texas, USA, and Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Only three metapopulations totaling less than 4000 plants are presently known in Texas. Star cactus, known locally as “star peyote”, is highly...

  1. Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock, This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico.When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic...

  2. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosph...

  3. Plasma Emission Spectra of Opuntia Nopalea Obtained with Microsecond Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, L.; Flores, T.; Arronte, A.; Flores, A.

    2008-01-01

    Laser-induced Plasma Spectroscopy was performed during the spines ablation of Opuntia by using Nd:YAG microsecond laser pulses. The results show strong absorption in Glochids that causes the intense electronic noise on the spectra. This process is consider suitable for practical elimination of spines in alimentary products like opuntia

  4. Antioxidant Opuntia ficus-indica Extract Activates AHR-NRF2 Signaling and Upregulates Filaggrin and Loricrin Expression in Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Takeshi; Mitoma, Chikage; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Takahara, Masakazu; Tsuji, Gaku; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Xianghong; Hachisuka, Junichi; Chiba, Takahito; Esaki, Hitokazu; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-10-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a cactus species widely used as an anti-inflammatory, antilipidemic, and hypoglycemic agent. It has been shown that OFI extract (OFIE) inhibits oxidative stress in animal models of diabetes and hepatic disease; however, its antioxidant mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that OFIE exhibited potent antioxidant activity through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and the downstream antioxidant enzyme quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes challenged with tumor necrosis factor α or benzo[α]pyrene. The antioxidant capacity of OFIE was canceled in NRF2 knockdown keratinocytes. OFIE exerted this NRF2-NQO1 upregulation through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Moreover, the ligation of AHR by OFIE upregulated the expression of epidermal barrier proteins: filaggrin and loricrin. OFIE also prevented TH2 cytokine-mediated downregulation of filaggrin and loricrin expression in an AHR-dependent manner because it was canceled in AHR knockdown keratinocytes. Antioxidant OFIE is a potent activator of AHR-NRF2-NQO1 signaling and may be beneficial in treating barrier-disrupted skin disorders.

  5. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  6. Dispersal of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae, a biological control agent of Opuntia stricta (Haworth. Haworth. (Cactaceae in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Foxcroft

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control efforts, the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum and attempted releases of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell into the expanding infestation of Opuntia stricta in the Skukuza region of the Kruger National Park (KNP have had limited suc- cess in preventing the spread and densification of 0. stricta. To boost the biological control component, a new strain of D. opuntiae was introduced into KNP during 1997. The new strain established readily and has destroyed large clumps of plants in the vicin- ity of the release site. A large-scale redistribution programme with D. opuntiae is now needed to exploit this biological control agent to the full. In order to match the frequency of manual releases with the natural rates of spread of the insects, surveys were conducted under field conditions to determine the dispersal abilities ofD. opuntiae, with regard to rate and direction of movement. Dispersal of D. opuntiae was found to be slow and restricted and that the insects need to be redistributed by placing them onto plants at approximately 10 m intervals to ensure that they become quickly and evenly distributed on the weed. This information will be crucial in the revision of the integrated management plan for 0. stricta in the KNP, in integrating the cochineal and other control mechanisms.

  7. Adsorption isotherms of pear at several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrevski Vangelče

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The moisture adsorption isotherms of pear were determined at 15ºC, 30ºC and 45ºC using the standard static gravimetric method over a range of water activity from 0.112 to 0.920. The experimental data were fitted with isotherm equations recommended in ASAE Standard D245.5. In order to find which equation gives the best results, large number of numerical experiments were performed. After that, several statistical criteria proposed in scientific literature for estimation and selection of the best sorption isotherm equations were used. For each equation and experimental data set, the average performance index was calculated and models were ranked afterwards. After that, some statistical rejection criteria were checked (D’Agostino-Pearson test of normality, single-sample run test and significance and precision of the model parameters. The performed statistical analysis shows that the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB equation has the highest value of average performance index, but higher correlation between pair of parameters leads to lower precision of estimated parameters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31058

  8. Genetic linkage maps of Japanese and European pears aligned to the apple consensus map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamamoto, T.; Kimura, T.; Saito, T.; Kotobuki, K.; Matsuta, N.; Liebhard, R.; Gessler, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Hayashi, T.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps of the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar `Housui¿ and the European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar `Bartlett¿ were constructed based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers (AFLPs), Simple Sequence Repeat markers (SSRs) (from pear, apple and Prunus),

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in accordance...

  10. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a functional ingredient: bioactive compounds profile and their effect on antioxidant quality of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaddak, Lotfi; Abdelhedi, Ola; Kridene, Amani; Rateb, Mostafa; Belbahri, Lassaâd; Ammar, Emna; Nasri, Moncef; Zouari, Nacim

    2017-02-07

    In the context of a balanced diet, the antioxidant-rich food consumption is a preventive way of many degenerative diseases. Consequently, improving the nutraceutical quality of traditional foods such as bakery products is an interesting approach. Considering the present consumer's demand, cladodes from prickly pear that were traditionally used as a valuable food as well as in folk medicine for the treatment of several chronic diseases were investigated for their use in bread production to improve its functionality. Bioactive substances were determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-HRESIMS) analysis. Dough rheological properties were characterized by alveographic measurements. Bread antioxidant quality was evaluated by total phenolics content, DPPH• radical-scavenging, metal (Fe 2+ ) chelating and Fe 3+ reducing power determinations. LC-HRESIMS analysis of the cladodes extract allowed the identification of 9 flavonoids, 2 phenolics, 1 alkaloid and 1 terpenoid compounds. Cladodes powder enrichment induced important modifications on the dough rheological parameters in terms of the extensibility (L) and deformation energy (W) decrease. Moreover, cladodes powder addition to bread resulted in a decrease in both crust and crumb colour parameters (L*, a* and b*). A 5% supplementation resulted in an increase of the bread yield and bread specific volume by 8.9 and 25%, respectively. Interestingly, Bread containing cladodes powder showed enhanced total phenolics content and antioxidant potential as compared to the control. Substitution of wheat flour by the cladodes powder at 5% level was optimal for improving the total phenolics content and the antioxidant potential of bread without having any negative effect on its sensory acceptability. Cladodes from Opuntia ficus-indica could be considered as a potential health-promoting functional ingredient in bakery products.

  11. Origin, Domestication, and Dispersing of Pear (Pyrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pear (Pyrus communis L. is a typical fruit of temperate regions, having its origin and domestication at two different points, China and Asia Minor until the Middle East. It is the fifth most widely produced fruit in the world, being produced mainly in China, Europe, and the United States. Pear belongs to rosaceous family, being a close “cousin” of the apple, but with some particularities that make this fruit special with a delicate flavor. Thus, it deserves a special attention and a meticulous review of all the history involved, and the recent research devoted to it, because of the economic and cultural importance of this fruit in a range of countries and cultures. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to approach the history of the origin, domestication, and dispersal of pears, as well as reporting their botany, their current scenario in the world, and their breeding and conservation.

  12. Dietary cladode powder from wild type and domesticated Opuntia species reduces atherogenesis in apoE knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoby-Salom, Sandra; Guéraud, Françoise; Camaré, Caroline; de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina Barba; Rossignol, Michel; Santos Díaz, María del Socorro; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intake of Opuntia species may prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to characterize the biological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia species and to investigate whether Opuntia cladodes prevent the development of atherosclerosis in vivo, in apoE(-)KO mice. The effects of the two Opuntia species, the wild Opuntia streptacantha and the domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, were tested on the generation of intra- and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and kinetics of the LDL oxidation by murine CRL2181 endothelial cells and on the subsequent inflammatory signaling leading to the adhesion of monocytes on the activated endothelium and the formation of foam cells. Opuntia species blocked the extracellular ROS (superoxide anion) generation and LDL oxidation by CRL2181, as well as the intracellular ROS rise and signaling evoked by the oxidized LDL, including the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFκB, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules, and the adhesion of monocytes to CRL2181. In vivo, Opuntia significantly reduced the formation of atherosclerotic lesions and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in the vascular wall of apoE-KO mice, indicating that Opuntia cladodes prevent lipid oxidation in the vascular wall. In conclusion, wild and domesticated Opuntia species exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties which emphasize their nutritional benefit for preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    OpenAIRE

    Giovambattista Sorrenti; Maurizio Quartieri; Silvia Salvi; Moreno Toselli

    2017-01-01

    Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1), pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1) an...

  14. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  15. Elaboração e caracterização físico-química e microbiológica da farinha da palma (Opuntia fícusindica Mill em diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Severo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Palma forrageira (Opuntia fícusindica Mill é uma cactácea originária do México, porém bastante cultivada na região semiárida do nordeste. Na alimentação humana, geralmente, são usados em preparações culinárias os brotos de palma, os frutos in natura ou processados. Uma das maneiras de diversificar o uso da palma forrageira seriam a secagem e sua transformação em farinhas para incorporação em diversos produtos. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade físico-química e microbiológica da farinha. As amostras foram coletadas na zona rural e transportadas para o laboratório do Centro Vocacional e Tecnológico /UFCG – Campus Pombal – PB, as mesmas foram desidratadas até a total retirada da umidade em estufa de circulação de ar nas seguintes temperaturas: 70, 80 e 90 °C, posteriormente passaram por um liquidificador industrial, em seguida por um moinho de facas para a obtenção da farinha. Após a obtenção foram realizadas as análises microbiológicas e analises físico-químicas. O emprego na alimentação humana, a palma forrageira é um grande potencial produtivo do Semiárido com alternativas sustentadas de desenvolvimento.Preparation and physical chemistry and microbiological characterization of flour palm ( Opuntia fícusindica Mill at different temperaturesAbstract: The Spineless cactus ( Opuntia fícusindica Mill is a cactaceous originally from Mexico, but rather grown in semi-arid region of the northeast. For human consumption, generally, they are used in culinary preparations the palm shoots, os frutos in natura ou processados. One way to diversify the use of cactus would be drying and processing into meal for incorporation into various products. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical - chemical and microbiological quality of the flour. The samples were collected in the countryside and transported to the laboratory and Technological Vocational Center / UFCG - Campus

  16. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno de capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação: consumo e digestibilidade Total replacement of corn and partial of tifton hay by forage cactus in diets for lactating dairy cows: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação do consumo e da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dietas contendo diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição total ao milho (Zea mays L. e parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp, foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, distribuídas em quadrado latino 5 × 5. No início do experimento, os animais apresentavam 583 ± 7,07 kg de peso corporal (PC e período de lactação em torno de 110 dias. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias, dez dias para adaptação dos animais à dieta e sete dias para coleta de dados. O consumo de MS (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 e os consumos de MO, EE, PB, carboidratos totais (CT, FDN, FDA e NDT (kg/dia diminuíram linearmente conforme aumentaram os níveis de palma forrageira na dieta. O consumo de CNF, no entanto, aumentou com a inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, EE, PB, CT e CNF não foram influenciados pela inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. Entretanto, o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da FDN reduziu linearmente com a inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. A inclusão da palma forrageira nas dietas influenciou negativamente no consumo dos nutrientes e no coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients in diets containing different levels (0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0, and 51.0% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill in total replacement of corn (Zea mays L. and partial of Tifton hay (Cynodon spp. Five Holstein cows were assigned to a 5x5 latin square. The animals showed an average of 583 ± 7,07 kg BW and lactation period around 110 days. Each experimental period lasted 17 days, 10 days for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 7 days for data collecting. The DM intake (kg/day, %BW and g/kg0.75, and the intakes of OM, EE, CP, total

  17. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  18. The membrane may be an important factor in browning of fresh-cut pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenghong; Zhang, Yuxing; Ge, Huibo

    2017-09-01

    Surface browning is an important cause of deterioration of fresh-cut fruit during postharvest handling. In this paper, four pear cultivars with different extents of natural browning were selected to analyse the factors involved in browning. The main results are as follows: the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of 'Mantianhong' and 'Yali' pears was higher accompanied by a stronger degree of browning, while the LOX activity in 'Xueqing' and 'Xinli 7' pears was lower, with less browning. A higher unsaturated fatty acid ratio of pear resulted in reduced browning. The cell membranes disappeared 30min after being cut in 'Mantianhong' pear, which browns easily; however, the cell membranes were still intact 30min after being cut in 'Xueqing' pear, which does not brown easily. Therefore, it can be assumed that the stability of the cell membrane plays an important role in inhibiting browning of fresh-cut pears. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Interfacing the Paramesh Computational Libraries to the Cactus Computational Framework, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will design and implement an interface between the Paramesh computational libraries, developed and used by groups at NASA GSFC, and the Cactus computational...

  20. Partial replacement of corn by forage cactus in the diets of lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Santiago Silva Goveia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of corn by forage cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck in the diets of lactating goats on the nutrient intake, milk production and composition and ingestive behavior. Five crossbreed Saanen x Pardo Alpina goats with body weights of 47 ± 3.3 kg were used in the study. The design was 5x5 Latin square design, in which the treatments were as follows: 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% of girl cactus included in the diet as a partial replacement of corn, with 0, 18, 36, 54 and 72% of the added the cactus comprising of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq Walp as roughage in all treatments. Treatment did not affect (P > 0.05 the dry matter intake, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients with the increasing levels of cactus in the diet, presenting means of 1.64, 0.26, 0.82, 0.54 and 1.17 kg day-1, respectively. In the same way, no influence was observed on the daily milk production and levels of fat, protein, lactose and total solids of milk, which averaged 1.18 kg day-1; 3.74, 3.34, 5.06 and 13.56%, respectively. The inclusion of cactus also had no influence (P > 0.05 on the ingestion behavior. The treatment with 35% cactus showed a lower impairment of food intake (31%. The partial replacement of the corn by the girl cactus in the diets of dairy goats can be accomplished because it does not alter the intake, milk yield and composition and feeding behavior. The replacement of up to 54% corn by the cactus is recommended to reduce producer costs for food.

  1. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Lauriano, E R; Pergolizzi, S; Faggio, C

    2017-08-14

    Plants with beneficial properties are known in traditional medicine. Nowadays, in spite of widespread availability of synthetic compounds, the search goes towards natural compounds to lower cost and few side effects. The increasing interest in preventive medicine encourages use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values. Among the medicinal plants, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Family Cactaceae, subfamily Opuntiodeae, Genus Opuntia, subgenus Platyopuntia, species Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) is widely known for its beneficial properties. The aim of the present review is to stress the major classes of Opuntia components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefits and therapeutic impacts on fish and mammals.

  2. Some chemical and physico-mechanical properties of pear cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... carried out at the Biological Material Laboratory in Agricultural. Machinery Department and Fruit Science Laboratory in Horticulture. Department of Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. Chemical analysis. All chemical properties of the pear cultivars were investigated on randomly selected fifty fruit samples.

  3. Microorganisms associated with the spoilage of avocado pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microorganisms associated with the spoilage of Avocado pear, Persea americana fruits, purchased fresh from various markets in Benin City were investigated. The pour plate method was used for the isolation. A total of nine species of microorganisms were isolated and identified in this study. They comprise of seven ...

  4. Potential causes of the pear thrips outbreak in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack C. Schultz

    1991-01-01

    No one knows what caused the 1988 outbreak of pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), in sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh., in the northeastern United States. As an entomologist and ecologist who knows even less about this insect than most of the authors of this volume, I cannot presume to understand the causes of this...

  5. Cereus peruvianus (Koubo new cactus fruit for the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several different species of the columnar cacti of the genera Stenocereus and Pachycereus, were introduced into different semi-arid ecozones in Israel and most of these efforts were of disappointing outcomes, the only exception being the Cereus peruvianus (L. Miller,which bore plenty of fruits, some of them of good taste. The original seeds of this plant were obtained from the late Mr. Amram (Ron Kodish, who collected seeds from various private gardens in Southern California which bore fruits of reasonable qualities. The initial success of this species led us to initiate an intensive research study, and today it is already fruit-crop, marketed mainly in Israel under the name " Koubo" . This paper will describe our work of domestication of this new cactus fruit crop in Israel.

  6. Husimi-cactus approximation study on the diluted spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Hiromi; Okabe, Yutaka; Nefedev, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    We investigate dilution effects on the classical spin-ice materials such as Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 . In particular, we derive a formula of the thermodynamic quantities as functions of the temperature and a nonmagnetic ion concentration based on a Husimi-cactus approximation. We find that the formula predicts a dilution-induced crossover from the cooperative to the conventional paramagnets in a ground state, and that it also reproduces the "generalized Pauling's entropy" given by Ke et al. To verify the formula from a numerical viewpoint, we compare these results with Monte Carlo simulation calculation data, and then find good agreement for all parameter values.

  7. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  8. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  9. 78 FR 24033 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... March 2012 by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, the total 2011 farm-gate value of all pears...: 7 U.S.C. 601-674. 0 2. In Sec. 927.236, the introductory text and paragraphs (a) and (b) are revised...

  10. 78 FR 34 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Agricultural Statistics Service, the total 2011 farm-gate value of all pears grown in Oregon and Washington is... follows: Authority: 7 U.S.C. 601-674. 0 2. In Sec. 927.236, the introductory text and paragraphs (a) and...

  11. Tissue localization of betacyanins in cactus stems Localización de betacianinas en tejido del tallo de cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mosco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Betalains are soluble pigments found only in the suborder Chenopodiniae, while in all other Angiospermae they are replaced by anthocyanins. The convergent evolution of the presence of anthocyanins and betalains in vegetative tissues supports the hypothesis of a similar function, based on the absorption properties of these pigments. The screening effect of anthocyanins results in the reduction of the amount of photoinhibition. betalains, being the anthocyanin counterpart in most families of Caryophyllales, were also suggested to have a screening role. This study is aimed at identifying in which Cactaceae stem tissues betacyanins, reddish to violet betalain pigments, accumulate. Stem accumulation of betacyanins was observed in cacti both in their natural habitat and in cultivation. The localization of betacyanins was assessed by light microscope studies on tubercle transverse sections. During 2 field trips in distinct years to the Mexican plateau in March, many cactus species, belonging to different genera, were observed displaying a reddish stem. Light microscope studies on cultivated plants showed that betacyanins accumulate in the hypodermis and in the outer layers of the chlorenchyma, where they may act as a screen, thus protecting the photosystems present in the underlying chlorenchyma, and have a possible antioxidant function in the cortex.Las betalaínas son pigmentos solubles que se encuentran sólo en el suborden Chenopodiniae, mientras que en el resto de Angiospermae, lo que existe son antocianinas. La evolución convergente de la presencia de antocianinas y betalaínas en tejidos vegetativos apoya la hipótesis de una función similar, que se basa en las propiedades de absorción de estos pigmentos. El efecto pantalla de las antocianinas resulta en la reducción de fotoinhibición. Siendo las betalaínas la contraparte antocianítica en la mayoría de las familias de Caryophyllales, se sugirió también un papel de pantalla de estos

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group buds during the dormancy by RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guoqin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bud dormancy is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms regulating bud dormancy in this species are unknown. Because genomic information for pear is currently unavailable, transcriptome and digital gene expression data for this species would be valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating its bud dormancy. Results We performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE profiling analyses of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group using the Illumina RNA-seq system. RNA-Seq generated approximately 100 M high-quality reads that were assembled into 69,393 unigenes (mean length = 853 bp, including 14,531 clusters and 34,194 singletons. A total of 51,448 (74.1% unigenes were annotated using public protein databases with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. We mainly compared gene expression levels at four time-points during bud dormancy. Between Nov. 15 and Dec. 15, Dec. 15 and Jan. 15, and Jan. 15 and Feb. 15, 1,978, 1,024, and 3,468 genes were differentially expressed, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis arranged 190 significantly differentially-expressed genes into seven groups. Seven genes were randomly selected to confirm their expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions The new transcriptomes offer comprehensive sequence and DGE profiling data for a dynamic view of transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in pear. These data provided a basis for future studies of metabolism during bud dormancy in non-model but economically-important perennial species.

  13. FIRE BLIGHT SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME PEAR VARIETIES (ERWINIA AMYLOVORA, BURILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Jakab- Ilyefalv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At Bistriţa Fruit Research and Development Station, in a pear collection, planted with 44 varieties, there has been studied the susceptibility to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora,Burill. During the vegetation period, phytosanitary treatments to control the disease have been applied using copper based products (copper sulfate, Champion, Funguran, Kocide. Erwinia amylovora infections have been influenced by the rainfall registered in April (70.9 mm and May (104.7 mm and the temperature fluctuations in April-May. The field observations on Erwinia amylvora attack demonstrate that the pear varieties have a different susceptibility to this dangerous bacterium. Evaluation of attack level in the pear collection was done using an evaluation scale with 9 scores using a reference resistance scale for : ‘Highly resistant’ , ‘Moderately resistant’, ‘Susceptible’, ‘Very susceptible’ cultivars . The most sensitive pear varieties in the collection were: ‘De Noiembrie’, ‘Abatele Fetel’, ’Daciana’, ’Triumf’, ’Williams Boway’, ’Margareta Marillat’, ’Beauty Tomme’, ‘Williams rosu’, ’Aromata de Bistrita’, ’Jeanne d`Arc’, ’Aramiu de Somes’, ’Belle des Arbres’, ’Zorka’ representing 13.64% of the total pear varieties. In several cultivars there have been observed increased symptoms, a very high susceptibility of infections leading to complete scorching of trees: Jeanne d`Arc’, Williams rosu’, ‘Triumf’, ‘Aromata de Bistrita’, ‘Zorka’. Strong attack symtoms were observed at the pear cultivars ‘Cure’, ‘Euras, ’Ciuda’ ‘Highland’, ‘Precoce Morettini’, ’Monica’, ’Cadillac’, ’Juliana’, ’Somesan’, ’Beurré Hardenpont’ these cultivars being susceptible to Erwinia amylovora , representing 40.91 % of total genotypes . Cultivars ‘Untoasa Geoagiu’, ‘Beurre Hardy’, ‘Trivale’ manifested a certain tolerance to Erwinia amylovora , no attack symptoms being

  14. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of wild and domesticated Opuntia spp. species shows a metabolic adaptation through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichereaux, Carole; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E; Santos-Diaz, Maria Del Socorro; Reyes-Agüero, Antonio; Astello-García, Marizel; Guéraud, Françoise; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Schiltz, Odile; Rossignol, Michel; Barba de la Rosa, Ana Paulina

    2016-06-30

    The Opuntia genus is widely distributed in America, but the highest richness of wild species are found in Mexico, as well as the most domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, which is the most domesticated species and an important crop in agricultural economies of arid and semiarid areas worldwide. During domestication process, the Opuntia morphological characteristics were favored, such as less and smaller spines in cladodes and less seeds in fruits, but changes at molecular level are almost unknown. To obtain more insights about the Opuntia molecular changes through domestication, a shotgun proteomic analysis and database-dependent searches by homology was carried out. >1000 protein species were identified and by using a label-free quantitation method, the Opuntia proteomes were compared in order to identify differentially accumulated proteins among wild and domesticated species. Most of the changes were observed in glucose, secondary, and 1C metabolism, which correlate with the observed protein, fiber and phenolic compounds accumulation in Opuntia cladodes. Regulatory proteins, ribosomal proteins, and proteins related with response to stress were also observed in differential accumulation. These results provide new valuable data that will help to the understanding of the molecular changes of Opuntia species through domestication. Opuntia species are well adapted to dry and warm conditions in arid and semiarid regions worldwide, and they are highly productive plants showing considerable promises as an alternative food source. However, there is a gap regarding Opuntia molecular mechanisms that enable them to grow in extreme environmental conditions and how the domestication processes has changed them. In the present study, a shotgun analysis was carried out to characterize the proteomes of five Opuntia species selected by its domestication degree. Our results will help to a better understanding of proteomic features underlying the selection and specialization under

  15. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Environment-Friendly Control of Pear Scab and Rust Using Lime Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hoon Cha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pear scab and rust are the major diseases causing severe epidemics in organic cultivation of pear trees. Incidences of pear scab and rust were compared in organically managed plots and conventionally managed plots to obtain optimum application schedule of environment-friendly control agents in organically managed plots. Organically cultural practice with 10 time-applications of lime sulfur and Bordeaux mixture showed higher than 40% of control efficacies of pear scab and rust compared to conventionally cultural practice. Organically cultural practice with 8 time-applications of lime sulfur considering weather condition showed higher than 30% of control efficacies of pear scab compared to conventionally cultural practice. The results suggest that proper application of environment-friendly control agents such as lime sulfur considering weather condition will enable effective control of the major diseases for organic cultivation of pear.

  17. Opuntia in Mexico: identifying priority areas for conserving biodiversity in a multi-use landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Illoldi-Rangel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi-criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi-criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one-third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. CONCLUSIONS: Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as

  18. Studies on Perspectives and Marketing Strategies of Pear Farming in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    竹内, 幹雄; 佐藤, 豊信; 目瀬, 守男

    1992-01-01

    As the economic situations surrounding pear farms are changing rapidly, a new management is required to cope with them. This paper is to study the past and present conditions of pear marketing in Tottori and to suggest a future strategy. At present pears have been marketed primarily through individual cooperative with some coordinations and supports by Tottori Fruit Growers Cooperative Association. But recently the consummers needs have been changing for higher quality fruit, the improvemen...

  19. Industrialization Development of Korla Fragrant Pear in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, China

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Qiong; Li, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the natural and geographic conditions in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang(Bazhou), development status of Korla Fragrant Pear is introduced from the two aspects of the production status and the storage and processing status of Korla Fragrant Pear. Among them, production status of Korla Fragrant Pear is analyzed from the aspects of the rapid growth of planting area and the stable growth of output. And the storage and processing status of Korla Fra...

  20. Phytotoxic effects of phenylmercuric compounds upon certain pear varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, A H.M.; Bennett, M

    1963-01-01

    In trials at East Malling Research Station, extending over the years 1952 to 1959, chlorotic spotting, associated with loss of chlorophyll, and distortion of leaves occurred following post-blossom application to four pear varieties of phenylmercuric salts at 0.003% elemental mercury concentration. In the light of rainfall and temperature conditions recorded on the days following each post-blossom application in each year, crop loss must be expected following post-blossom application of sufficient organomercurial for scab control in any season on Conference and Doyenne du Comice; on Conference, reduction of fruit-bud formation may also occur. Although pear leaves are obviously damaged by phenylmercuric salts, it is likely that the effects on cropping are largely due to direct absorption and/or translocation of some form of mercury into fruit-buds and fruitlets.

  1. Bioecology of pear thrips: distribution in forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Skinner; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The vertical and horizontal distribution of pear thrips in Vermont sugar maple forest soils was investigated. In the fall, about 86% of the thrips were found in the upper 10 cm of soil, though a few were found as deep as 20 cm. No thrips were found in the leaf litter. Soil sampling tools to determine thrips populations within an entire forest were tested and a standard...

  2. Abscission Layer Formation as a Resistance Response of Peruvian Apple Cactus Against Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang-Hyung

    2002-09-01

    ABSTRACT Stem disks from 2-year-old cacti Cereus tetragonus (susceptible) and C. peruvianus (resistant) were inoculated in the center (pith) with Glomerella cingulata isolated from Colletotrichum stem rot in three-angled cacti. The susceptible cactus became extensively colonized, whereas colonization was limited to a small area in the resistant cactus. The resistant cactus formed prominent abscission layers (ALs) in parenchyma internal to the inoculation site. Ethanol extracts of the fungal culture also stimulated AL formation in the resistant cactus. Initial cell division followed at 2 to 4 days after treatment, and layering of multiple cells at 7 days after treatment. After 10 days, the outer layers were sometimes sloughed from the inner layers. No AL formation was induced in susceptible C. tetragonus treated with ethanol extract or in untreated control cacti. Light and electron microscopy revealed that initial cell division occurred by cell wall formation, and that an additional cell wall was layered in pre-existing parenchyma cells without ordinary cell division. Later, separation layers formed in ALs where inner cell walls appeared to be thickened secondarily, and the cell walls and middle lamella within the layer dissolved. These results suggest that AL formation in the resistant cactus is induced by fungal metabolites, and that it serves as a histological barrier against anthracnose pathogens.

  3. ALTERNATIVE FOR REDUCING PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN ‘BARTLETT’ PEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISES ZUCOLOTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘Bartlett’ pears from different harvest dates were assessed regarding to cold storage potential and reduction of physiological disorder incidence. Three harvests, the first (HD1, second (HD2, and third (HD3, were carried out at weekly intervals. The pears were assessed after the harvest, with no exposition to the temperature conditioning, after 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 days at 0 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH and after three and six days at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C. Fruit from the early harvest (HD1 showed the smallest incidence of physiological disorder during both cold and room temperature storage. The disorder symptoms became apparent in HD1 fruit after 20 days at cold storage followed by three days at 20 °C, whereas HD2 and HD3 fruit showed the symptoms before being kept in a cold room. ‘Bartlett’ pears harvested at 70.75 N flesh firmness can be stored at 0 ± 1 °C for up to 40 days and preferably commercialized within three days, when they reach the firmness for eating. The extension of cold storage as well as the trade period can result in higher physiological disorder incidence and loss of sensorial quality.

  4. Bounds on the 2-domination number in cactus graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Chellali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A \\(2\\-dominating set of a graph \\(G\\ is a set \\(D\\ of vertices of \\(G\\ such that every vertex not in \\(S\\ is dominated at least twice. The minimum cardinality of a \\(2\\-dominating set of \\(G\\ is the \\(2\\-domination number \\(\\gamma_{2}(G\\. We show that if \\(G\\ is a nontrivial connected cactus graph with \\(k(G\\ even cycles (\\(k(G\\geq 0\\, then \\(\\gamma_{2}(G\\geq\\gamma_{t}(G-k(G\\, and if \\(G\\ is a graph of order \\(n\\ with at most one cycle, then \\(\\gamma_{2}(G\\geqslant(n+\\ell-s/2\\ improving Fink and Jacobson's lower bound for trees with \\(\\ell>s\\, where \\(\\gamma_{t}(G\\, \\(\\ell\\ and \\(s\\ are the total domination number, the number of leaves and support vertices of \\(G\\, respectively. We also show that if \\(T\\ is a tree of order \\(n\\geqslant 3\\, then \\(\\gamma_{2}(T\\leqslant\\beta(T+s-1\\, where \\(\\beta(T\\ is the independence number of \\(T\\.

  5. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  6. Komposisi Nutrisi Rumput Laut Calcareous Halimeda opuntia pada Lingkungan Perairan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Halimeda opuntia merupakan rumput laut Chlorophyta berkapur yang memiliki kandungan nutrisi untuk pangan fungsional. Namun, pergeseran komposisi nutrisi dapat terjadi akibat perubahan lingkungan akibat limpasan nutrien dan bahan organik lainnya yang umum terjadi di perairan pesisir Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi pergeseran kandungan nutrisi H. opuntia yang tumbuh di zona intertidal agar dapat digunakan sebagai dasar pemilihan lokasi pengambilan bahan baku H. opuntia untuk produk fungsional. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan di empat lokasi perairan di Indonesia, yaitu perairan Binuangeun (Banten, Lampung Selatan, Lombok Timur (Nusa Tenggara Barat dan Konawe Selatan (Sulawesi Tenggara. Karakteristik nutrisi dari rumput laut target meliputi kadar air, abu, protein, lemak, karbohidrat, dan serat kasar. Informasi lingkungan dari habitat sampel ditunjukkan melalui variabel kimia air yaitu DO, pH, salinitas, pCO2, kalsium aragonit, nitrogen anorganik terlarut, serta fosfat anorganik terlarut. Hasil analisis menunjukkan kondisi lingkungan eutrofik berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap komposisi nutrisi H. opuntia. pH dan salinitas menjadi faktor determinan positif (R2 = 0,75 pada p<0,05 terhadap kadar karbohidrat, sementara nitrogen anorganik terlarut menjadi faktor determinan negatif terhadap kadar protein dan lemak (R2= 0,81 dan 0,61 pada p<0,05. Berdasarkan kandungan nutrisinya, maka H. opuntia yang diperoleh dari habitat alamiah merupakan bahan baku produk fungsional yang  lebih baik dibandingkan dengan biota selaras dari perairan eutrofik.

  7. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  8. Evaluation of Design & Analysis Code, CACTUS, for Predicting Crossflow Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosnik, Martin [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Center for Ocean Renewable Energy; Bachant, Pete [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Center for Ocean Renewable Energy; Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murphy, Andrew W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    CACTUS, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is an open-source code for the design and analysis of wind and hydrokinetic turbines. While it has undergone extensive validation for both vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines, and it has been demonstrated to accurately predict the performance of horizontal (axial-flow) hydrokinetic turbines, its ability to predict the performance of crossflow hydrokinetic turbines has yet to be tested. The present study addresses this problem by comparing the predicted performance curves derived from CACTUS simulations of the U.S. Department of Energy’s 1:6 scale reference model crossflow turbine to those derived by experimental measurements in a tow tank using the same model turbine at the University of New Hampshire. It shows that CACTUS cannot accurately predict the performance of this crossflow turbine, raising concerns on its application to crossflow hydrokinetic turbines generally. The lack of quality data on NACA 0021 foil aerodynamic (hydrodynamic) characteristics over the wide range of angles of attack (AoA) and Reynolds numbers is identified as the main cause for poor model prediction. A comparison of several different NACA 0021 foil data sources, derived using both physical and numerical modeling experiments, indicates significant discrepancies at the high AoA experienced by foils on crossflow turbines. Users of CACTUS for crossflow hydrokinetic turbines are, therefore, advised to limit its application to higher tip speed ratios (lower AoA), and to carefully verify the reliability and accuracy of their foil data. Accurate empirical data on the aerodynamic characteristics of the foil is the greatest limitation to predicting performance for crossflow turbines with semi-empirical models like CACTUS. Future improvements of CACTUS for crossflow turbine performance prediction will require the development of accurate foil aerodynamic characteristic data sets within the appropriate ranges of Reynolds numbers and AoA.

  9. Caracterización de la opuntia ficus-indica para su uso como coagulante natural

    OpenAIRE

    Villabona Ortíz, Angel; Paz, Isabel Cristina; Martínez García, Jasser

    2013-01-01

    Título en inglés: Characterization of Opuntia ficus-indica for using as a natural coagulantTítulo corto: Caracterización de Opuntia ficus-indica para coagulante naturalResumenActualmente municipios de la Costa Atlántica Colombiana no cuentan con suministro de agua potable. La aplicación artesanal de la Tuna (Opuntia ficus-indica)  como coagulante es una práctica tradicional en comunidades rurales. En esta investigación se realiza la caracterización del tallo de la Tuna que crece de manera sil...

  10. Cactus pear and cochineal in Cochabamba: the development of a cross-epistemological management toolkit for interactive design of farm innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekelenburg, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this book, the local research and development process of the small-farmers (campesino) union of Huancarani (Cochabamba region in Bolivia) is discussed. Research activities were carried out by farmers themselves as well as by facilitators and scientists, but the farmers union kept control

  11. Strategies to control tree vigour and optimise fruit production in 'Conference' pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    The ban on the use of chlormequat (CCC) in pear orchards in 2001 forced Dutch pear growers to look for alternative methods to control tree vigour and stimulate flower bud development and fruit production. Root pruning and trunk notching have become the major growth retarding methods. In addition to

  12. Classification of Korean native pear based on a standard set of microsatellite loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    After analysis with 12 microsatellite loci previously selected for use by ECPGR, 34 Korean pear accessions were classified into 3 groups. Group I included 4 Korean pea pears and one accession of P. calleryana. Group II contained 12 cultivars including 7 accessions presumed to belong to P. pyrifolia....

  13. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  14. Application of exogenous ethylene inhibits postharvest peel browning of ‘Huangguan’ pear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of ‘Huangguan’ pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0' was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene effectively inhibited ...

  15. 76 FR 27848 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow Additional Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... marketing order for Oregon-Washington pears that provides for the sale of fresh pears directly to consumers...' markets. These consumer-direct sales are exempt from the marketing order's assessment, reporting, handling... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0072...

  16. The relationship between measures of tree vigor and pear thrips damage in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen Smith; Christina M. Petersen; Roy Van Driesche; Charles Burnham

    1991-01-01

    In this presentation I will address three points associated with pear thrips damage and sugar maple. First, I will describe the impact of pear thrips on sugar maple in Massachusetts, in both the sugarbush and the natural forest stand, based on root starch assays that were completed this fall (1988). Secondly, I will discuss the relationship between tree health and...

  17. The life cycle of pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel) in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Skinner; Bruce L. Parker; Sandra H. Wilmot

    1991-01-01

    Life history information has been collected for pear thrips in orchard habitats in California and British Columbia (Cameron & Treherne 1918, Bailey 1944). However such information is not available for this insect in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem in the eastern United States. Research is currently underway at the University of Vermont to determine the pear...

  18. 75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... that time, the pear industry has been regulated by a State marketing order. If the results of the pear... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 [Doc. No. AMS-FV... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referenda order. SUMMARY: This document directs...

  19. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain (PLS229) isolated from pear cultivar Hengshan (Pyrus pyrifolia) in Taiwan is reported. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,733,013 bp with a G+C content of 53.1%. The PLS229 strain genome was annotated to have 3,259 open readin...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319.56-22 Section 319.56-22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The...

  1. Constitutive and herbivore-induced volatiles in pear, alder and hawthorn trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scutareanu, P.; Bruin, de J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Drukker, B.

    2003-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative differences among pear cultivars were found in constitutive and Cacopsylla-induced volatiles, depending on experimental treatment of the trees (i.e., uninfested and partly or completely infested by psyllids). Blend differences were also found between pear cultivars and

  2. Prickly pear induces upregulation of liver LDL binding in familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, B.; Palumbo, R.; Efthimiou, Y.; Stamatopoulos, J.; Sinzinger, H.; Oguogho, A.; Budinsky, A.; Sinzinger, H.

    2003-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of prickly pear is well known by native local Indian population since a long time. Beside the beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, oxidation injury and platelet function has been claimed in experimental animals. We recently found an upregulation of apo-B/E receptor. We therefore examined 10 patients with isolated heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) being enrolled in a dietary run-in phase of 6 weeks after dietary counselling and a further 6 weeks of prickly pear addition. Uptake of autologous 123 I-radiolabeled LDL was determined at entry as well as after 6 weeks of daily prickly pear ingestion. We found a significant (p 176.4 mg/dl; p 123 I-LDL binding by prickly pear in FH-patients in vivo and indicate that prickly pear exerts a significant hypolipidemic action via receptor upregulation. (author)

  3. Tourists’ perceptions and willingness to pay for the control of Opuntia stricta invasion in protected areas: A case study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Nikodinoska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien plants have a long history of establishment in the national parks of South Africa.In particular, Opuntia stricta (sour prickly pear has invaded several protected areas in thecountry, threatening the biodiversity conservation mandate of these conservation areas. Thisarticle focuses on the economic estimation of O. stricta’s negative impacts in protected areas byusing Contingent Valuation surveys conducted amongst a sample of tourists in the PilanesbergNational Park (North West Parks and Tourism Board, South Africa. Tourists’ familiarity andawareness of selected invasive alien plants and their willingness to pay for the implementationof a control programme for O. stricta were assessed. The results show that many tourists arefamiliar with invasive alien plants and their (positive and negative impacts and, in particular,perceived the presence of O. stricta to be negative, due to the impacts on aesthetics and recreation.Socio-demographic characteristics, as well as individual attitudes and biocentric beliefs, have aninfluence on the willingness to contribute financially to a control programme for O. stricta. Theindividual willingness to pay assessment found that the majority of respondents (78% werewilling to pay a higher entrance fee (an additional R57.30 or $7.00 per day for a hypotheticalprogramme to control the invasion of O. stricta in the Pilanesberg National Park. Conservation implications: The willingness of tourists to pay for O. stricta managementprovides useful insights in the decision-making process of park management. The resultsare encouraging, since, in general, tourists are aware of the problem and are in support ofproviding additional economic input for preventing future alien plant invasions.

  4. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1, pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1 and cherry (AlexTM/Gisela 6®; density of 40,000 trees ha–1 trees from a commercial nursery. Trees were divided into roots (below the root collar, rootstock (above-ground wood between root collar and grafting point and variety (1-year-old wood above the grafting point. For each organ we determined biomass, macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and micro- (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B nutrient concentration. Pear trees were the most developed (650 g (dw tree–1, equal to 1.75 and 2.78 folds than apple and cherry trees, respectively whereas, independently of the species, variety mostly contributed (>50% to the total tree biomass, followed by roots and then above-ground rootstock. However, the dry biomass and nutrient amount measured in rootstocks (including roots represent the cumulative amount of 2 and 3 seasons, for Gisela® 6 (tissue culture and pome fruit species (generated by mound layering, respectively. Macro and micronutrients were mostly concentrated in roots, followed by variety and rootstock, irrespective of the species. Independently of the tissue, macronutrients concentration hierarchy was N>Ca>K> P>Mg>S. Removed N by whole tree accounted for 6.58, 3.53 and 2.49 g tree–1 for pear, apple and cherry, respectively, corresponding to almost 200, 107 and 100 kg N ha–1, respectively. High amounts of K and Ca were used by pear (130-140 kg ha–1 and apple trees (~50 and 130 kg ha–1 of K and Ca, respectively, while ~25 kg K ha–1 and 55 kg Ca ha–1 were

  5. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R

    1988-01-01

    To assess the hypoglycemic effect of the nopal Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire (O. streptacantha Lem.), three groups of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied. Group one (16 patients) ingested 500 g of broiled nopal stems. Group 2 (10 patients) received only 400 ml of water as a control test. Three tests were performed on group 3 (6 patients): one with nopal, a second with water, and a third with ingestion of 500 g broiled squash. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120, and 180 min. After the intake of O. streptacantha Lem., serum glucose and serum insulin levels decreased significantly in groups 1 and 3, whereas no similar changes were noticed in group 2. The mean reduction of glucose reached 17.6 +/- 2.2% of basal values at 180 min in group 1 and 16.2 +/- 1.8% in group 3; the reduction of serum insulin at 180 min reached 50.2 +/- 8.0% in group 1 and 40.3 +/- 12.4% in group 3. This study shows that the stems of O. streptacantha Lem. cause a hypoglycemic effect in patients with NIDDM. The mechanism of this effect is unknown, but an increased insulin sensitivity is suggested.

  6. Historical biogeography of longhorn cactus beetles: the influence of Pleistocene climate changes on American desert communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Irwin Smith; Brian Dorsey Farrell

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial sequence data from three species of flightless cactus beetles, Moneilema gigas, M. armatum, and M. appressum, were analyzed. The coalescent models implemented in the program FLUCTUATE were used to test the hypothesis that these species experienced range changes following the end of the last glacial...

  7. Knowlton's cactus (Pediocactus knowltonii): Eighteen years of monitoring and recovery actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Sivinski; Charlie McDonald

    2007-01-01

    Pediocactus knowltonii is a rare, endemic cactus that is presently known to occur on a single 10-hectare hill in northwestern New Mexico near the Colorado border. It was listed as federally endangered in 1979. Population monitoring and recovery actions were initiated when the Recovery Plan was adopted in 1985. The land at the type locality has been...

  8. Survival of the endangered Pima pineapple cactus: Does clearing before prescribed fire alter survival postfire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Jarchow, Christopher; Crawford, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Federal land managers and ranchers often use prescribed fire as a tool to reduce invading woody plants within desert grasslands of the arid southwestern United States. Managers must evaluate the threat of the burn toward the health and survival of plants of concern including how preemptive clearing before prescribed fire might benefit these species. One example is the endangered Pima pineapple cactus (Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina), a small hemispheric cactus of desert scrublands and grasslands of south-central Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico. In 2014, we examined survival of Pima pineapple cactus documented in 2009 or 2010 within grasslands of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona. Of the 72 sites observed, 35 had no burn after documentation and 37 experienced prescribed fire. Refuge staff removed vegetation between 0.3 and 3.0 m from the cactus preburn. We found that Pima pineapple cacti in areas subjected to prescribed fire and with preemptive clearing had the same survival statistically as cacti from sites that were not burned.

  9. Ecology and conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Deborah M. Finch

    2000-01-01

    This report is the result of a cooperative effort by the Rocky Mountain Research Station and the USDA Forest Service Region 3, with participation by the Arizona Game and Fish Department and the Bureau of Land Management. It assesses the state of knowledge related to the conservation status of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona. The population decline of this...

  10. Chapter 6: Research needs for the conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; W. Scott Richardson; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper

    2000-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe research needs for the conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) in Arizona. Estimates of population size, structure, and dynamics, as well as demographic data, are needed for the recovery team to formulate sound population objectives. Habitat loss due to residential development...

  11. Characterization of a male reproductive transcriptome for Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Kordonowy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodents of the genus Peromyscus have become increasingly utilized models for investigations into adaptive biology. This genus is particularly powerful for research linking genetics with adaptive physiology or behaviors, and recent research has capitalized on the unique opportunities afforded by the ecological diversity of these rodents. Well characterized genomic and transcriptomic data is intrinsic to explorations of the genetic architecture responsible for ecological adaptations. Therefore, this study characterizes the transcriptome of three male reproductive tissues (testes, epididymis and vas deferens of Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse, a desert specialist. The transcriptome assembly process was optimized in order to produce a high quality and substantially complete annotated transcriptome. This composite transcriptome was generated to characterize the expressed transcripts in the male reproductive tract of P. eremicus, which will serve as a crucial resource for future research investigating our hypothesis that the male Cactus mouse possesses an adaptive reproductive phenotype to mitigate water-loss from ejaculate. This study reports genes under positive selection in the male Cactus mouse reproductive transcriptome relative to transcriptomes from Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse and Mus musculus. Thus, this study expands upon existing genetic research in this species, and we provide a high quality transcriptome to enable further explorations of our proposed hypothesis for male Cactus mouse reproductive adaptations to minimize seminal fluid loss.

  12. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  13. Extensive profiling of three varieties of Opuntia spp. fruit for innovative food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, Bruno; Pereira, Eliana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Garcia-Castello, Esperanza M; Rodriguez-Lopez, Antonio D; Sokovic, Marina; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-11-01

    Consumer interest in the use of natural ingredients is creating a growing trend in the food industry, leading to research into the development of natural products such as colorants, antimicrobials and antioxidant compounds. This work involves an extensive morphological (using physico-chemical assays), chemical (antioxidant activity assays) and microbiological (Gram-positive and negative strains) characterization of prickly peras (Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) var. sanguigna, gialla and Opuntia engelmannii) fruits. Through chromatographic assays, these species have shown interesting contents of hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and betalains) and lipophilic (tocopherols and fatty acids) compounds. While Opuntia engelmannii exhibited higher content of betacyanins and mucilage, OFI varieties sanguigna and gialla displayed greater organic acid content. The sanguigna variety also showed the highest α-tocopherol content. All this compounds could be the responsible of enhancing the bioactivity of this variety, which can be observed in its antimicrobial potential, tested in the studied strains too. Results revealed that Opuntia spp. could be used as a nutraceutical and/or food additive, maintaining and promoting health and life quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Invasion of Opuntia humifusa and O. phaeacantha (Cactaceae into plant communities of the Karadag Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Fateryga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of Opuntia humifusa and O. phaeacantha naturalised in the Karadag Nature Reserve (southeastern part of the Crimean Peninsula are presented. There, the largest coenopopulations of Opuntia plants are confined to the «biostation» territory (bordering with the park, administrative buildings and housing estate. Twelve localities were described in the Karadag Reserve. These differ by phytocoenotic characteristics, area and floristic composition. Seven localities include only O. humifusa plants; four ones include only O. phaeacantha individuals; and both the species are present on the twelfth locality. The total number of individuals of each species and ontogenetic structure of the population were studied in each locality. The total number of O. humifusa individuals in the Karadag Reserve is more than 600 plants within the «biostation» territory, while the total number of O. phaeacantha plants is about 400 individuals. Studying of the plant communities has been carried out according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Opuntia plants form derivate communities within degraded steppes, phryganoid-steppes, and semi-desert badland phytocoenoses almost at all studied localities. A significant number of synanthropic species (including alien plants was found within these communities. Opuntia plants are able to self-reproduce predominantly vegetatively. Self-seeding reproduction occurs less frequently. Both species can be considered as invasive plants because they have a high adaptive capacity.

  15. Quality of Opuntia robusta and its use in development of mayonnaise-like product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino-Nicanor, Aurea; Hinojosa-Hernández, Emma Noemí; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo Simitrio; Montañez-Soto, José Luis; Ramírez-Ortiz, María Eugenia; González-Cruz, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Opuntia robusta parenchyma and mucilage as foodstuffs. Solute absorption of Opuntia robusta parenchyma was studied, mucilage was used to develop a mayonnaise-like product as substitute emulsifier alternative to egg yolk and oil substitute. Shelf life of mayonnaise-like product was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that oxalate calcium crystal were present in the Opuntia robusta parenchyma and mucilage with druses morphology; whereas that in the mayonnaise-like product were not observed calcium oxalate crystals, due probably to the product pH is acidic. The heat treatment of parenchyma at 50 °C, 65°Brix, had highest influence on the solute absorption (about 35 %). Results revealed that best mixture was the formulated with 26.79 % oil, 62.50 % mucilage and 10.71 % whey protein. Mucilage was the component showing the highest effect on all textural characteristics of mayonnaise-like product. The storage temperature had highest effect on the textural characteristics of mayonnaise-like product than storage time. With the right combination of mucilage of Opuntia, oil and whey protein, it is possible to develop a low-fat mayonnaise with functional properties similar to those of commercial mayonnaise.

  16. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett, and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties during 30 days of storage at room temperature. Coated pears coded as T13 (candelilla wax 3%, gum arabic 4%, jojoba oil 0.15%, and pomegranate polyphenols 0.015% extended and improved their shelf life quality due to the minimization of the physic-chemical changes and sensorial properties. Therefore, the results indicated that the formulated edible coating has potential to extend the shelf life and maintain quality of pears. It was probed that coated pears were accepted for consumers as a good product. Edible coating application represents a good alternative to keep pears freshness for longer periods.

  17. Studies of pear-shaped nuclei using accelerated radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, L P; Scheck, M; Hayes, A B; Wenander, F; Albers, M; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bonig, S; Bree, N; Cederkall, J; Chupp, T; Cline, D; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; DeWitte, H; Diriken, J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D G; Joss, D T; Kesteloot, N; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kroll, Th; Kwan, E; Lutter, R; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Reynders, K; Rigby, S V; Robledo, L M; Rudigier, M; Sambi, S; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Stora, T; Thoele, P; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M J; von Schmid, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wimmer, K; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Wu, C Y; Zielinska, M

    2013-01-01

    There is strong circumstantial evidence that certain heavy, unstable atomic nuclei are ‘octupole deformed’, that is, distorted into a pear shape. This contrasts with the more prevalent rugby-ball shape of nuclei with reflection-symmetric, quadrupole deformations. The elusive octupole deformed nuclei are of importance for nuclear structure theory, and also in searches for physics beyond the standard model; any measurable electric-dipole moment (a signature of the latter) is expected to be amplified in such nuclei. Here we determine electric octupole transition strengths (a direct measure of octupole correlations) for short-lived isotopes of radon and radium. Coulomb excitation experiments were performed using accelerated beams of heavy, radioactive ions. Our data on and $^{224}$Ra show clear evidence for stronger octupole deformation in the latter. The results enable discrimination between differing theoretical approaches to octupole correlations, and help to constrain suitable candidates for experimental...

  18. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Preservation ® and “ rapid recovery of cellular activity post stress ” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from ICP Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Malta, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... substantiation of a health claim related to Preservation® and “rapid recovery of cellular activity post stress”. The Panel considers that Preservation®, which contains an extract of prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “rapid recovery of cellular activity...

  19. Refillable and magnetically actuated drug delivery system using pear-shaped viscoelastic membrane

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun; Seo, Young Ho; Pisano, Albert P.

    2014-01-01

    We report a refillable and valveless drug delivery device actuated by an external magnetic field for on-demand drug release to treat localized diseases. The device features a pear-shaped viscoelastic magnetic membrane inducing asymmetrical

  20. Empirical models in the description of prickly pear shoot (Nopal drying kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel M. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe the technological process involved in the drying kinetics of fresh-cut prickly pear shoots through numerical and analytical solutions. Shoots of two different prickly pear species were used, ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’. Drying was performed at different temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C and weighing procedures were made continuously. The experimental data were expressed as moisture ratio. The Page model showed the best fit to the drying kinetics of minimally processed ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots, with the best coefficients of determination and Chi-square. Peleg and Wang & Singh models can not be used to simulate the drying of ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots within the evaluated range of temperatures, showing an incoherent graphic pattern.

  1. Aromatically enhanced pear distillates from blanquilla and conference varieties using a packed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Yanine; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López-Vázquez, Cristina; Orriols, Ignacio; López, Francisco

    2013-05-22

    Pear distillates are generally produced from the Bartlett variety because of its rich aroma. In this study, a chemical and sensorial comparative examination of pear distillates from the three main varieties grown in Spain (Bartlett, Blanquilla, and Conference) using two distillation systems (copper Charentais alembic and packed column) was undertaken. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography to differentiate the spirits according to pear variety and distillation method. The Bartlett distillates from both distillation systems possessed higher ethyl ester and acetate and lower cis-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol concentrations. Despite these differences, a sensory analysis panel could distinguish only the Bartlett alembic distillate from the alembic distillates of the other varieties. In contrast, the panel rated the packed-column distillates equally. Therefore, less aromatic pear varieties can be used to produce distillates with aromatic characteristics similar to those of the Bartlett variety if a suitable distillation process is used.

  2. 76 FR 4202 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow Additional Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... orchards, packing facilities, roadside stands, or farmers' markets without regard to the marketing order's... of pears sold at orchards, packing facilities, roadside stands, and farmers' markets should also be... directly to consumers from their [[Page 4203

  3. Mathematical modelling of thin layer drying of pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovska Monika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a thin - layer drying of pear slices as a function of drying conditions were examined. The experimental data set of thin - layer drying kinetics at five drying air temperatures 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70°C, and three drying air velocities 1, 1.5 and 2 m s-1 were obtained on the experimental setup, designed to imitate industrial convective dryer. Five well known thin - layer drying models from scientific literature were used to approximate the experimental data in terms of moisture ratio. In order to find which model gives the best results, numerical experiments were made. For each model and data set, the statistical performance index, (φ, and chi-squared, (χ2, value were calculated and models were ranked afterwards. The performed statistical analysis shows that the model of Midilli gives the best statistical results. Because the effect of drying air temperature and drying air velocity on the empirical parameters was not included in the base Midilli model, in this study the generalized form of this model was developed. With this model, the drying kinetic data of pear slices can be approximated with high accuracy. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick’s second laws. The obtained values of the effective moisture diffusivity, (Deff, during drying ranged between 6.49 x 10-9 and 3.29 x 10-8 m2 s-1, while the values of activation energy (E0 varied between 28.15 to 30.51 kJ mol-1.

  4. In-vitro neoformation of woody plants (apple, pear, Weigela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevreau, E.; Dufour, M.; Duron, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Adventitious bud neoformation may induce variability in two ways: somaclonal variation, if the explant has undergone undifferentiated growth (callus); induced mutations, if a physical or chemical mutagen has been applied to the explant prior to the regeneration. Three apple scion cultivars ('Gala', 'Granny Smith', 'Golden Delicious') and four apple rootstock cultivars ('Mark', 'Novole', 'Lancep', 'Cepiland') were grown on basal apple multiplication medium. Leaves, internodes and roots were used for callogenesis and/or regeneration experiments. Scion varieties were more responsive than rootstocks. 1000 'Gala' neoformations will be planted in the field to investigate somaclonal variation. In pear, shoot regeneration was obtained from in-vitro leaves of 3 varieties of Pyrus communis ('Seckel', 'Louise Bonne', 'Comice') and one variety of Pyrus bretschneideri ('Crystal Pear'). It was observed that regeneration is still possible from leaves irradiated with up to 40 Gy of γ rays, or treated with 5mM ENU for one hour. In Weigela, stem segments (0.5 cm) from rooted in vitro plants of 5 cultivars were used in experiments to induce adventitious buds. On the cultivar 'Eva Rathke' the adventitious buds were detected as early as 10 to 15 days after the beginning of the culture. A mutagenic treatment was carried out by immersing explants of 'Bristol Ruby' in a suspension of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Among 400 plants regenerated from treated explants, 5 mutants were detected after 5 years of field observation. Two of them seem to be solid mutants. Apparently in Weigela both homogeneous mutants and chimeras are produced by adventitious regeneration from mutagenised explants. (author)

  5. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Fruits of Asian Pear Tree Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Park, Yeong Seob

    2007-01-01

    Anthracnose symptoms often occurred on fruits of Asian pear trees grown in Anseong, Naju, Seonghwan and Pyeongtaek in Korea during the harvesting period from 2000 to 2005. A total of 28 isolates of Colletotrichum sp. were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms. All the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of the fungus were tested for pathogenicity to fruits of Asian pear tree by artificial inoculation. Al...

  6. Development and Characterization of 10 Microsatellite Loci in the Giant Cardon Cactus, Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Gutiérrez Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the cardon, a giant columnar cactus (Pachycereus pringlei of the Sonoran Desert, to investigate intraspecific genetic patterns of diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Using 454 GS-FLX technology and bioinformatics tools, microsatellite primers were successfully identified on 282 reads, including di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotides. A set of 10 primers were characterized on 80 individuals collected in two areas of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. All 10 loci were polymorphic, with a mean of 6.3 alleles per locus and overall levels of observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.41 to 0.59 and from 0.40 to 0.57, respectively. Alleles per individual plant ranged from one to four, suggesting a polyploidal genome. Conclusions: These loci should be useful for future investigations of population structure, genetic diversity, and gene flow in the cardon cactus.

  7. Cell-Specific PEAR1 Methylation Studies Reveal a Locus that Coordinates Expression of Multiple Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Izzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal interactions connect distant enhancers and promoters on the same chromosome, activating or repressing gene expression. PEAR1 encodes the Platelet-Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1, a contact receptor involved in platelet function and megakaryocyte and endothelial cell proliferation. PEAR1 expression during megakaryocyte differentiation is controlled by DNA methylation at its first CpG island. We identified a PEAR1 cell-specific methylation sensitive region in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes that showed strong chromosomal interactions with ISGL20L2, RRNAD1, MRLP24, HDGF and PRCC, using available promoter capture Hi-C datasets. These genes are involved in ribosome processing, protein synthesis, cell cycle and cell proliferation. We next studied the methylation and expression profile of these five genes in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs and megakaryocyte precursors. While cell-specific PEAR1 methylation corresponded to variability in expression for four out of five genes, no methylation change was observed in their promoter regions across cell types. Our data suggest that PEAR1 cell-type specific methylation changes may control long distance interactions with other genes. Further studies are needed to show whether such interaction data might be relevant for the genome-wide association data that showed a role for non-coding PEAR1 variants in the same region and platelet function, platelet count and cardiovascular risk.

  8. Transferability of Newly Developed Pear SSR Markers to Other Rosaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; Zhang, M-Y; Liu, Q-Z; Li, L-T; Song, Y; Wang, L-F; Zhang, S-L; Wu, J

    2013-01-01

    A set of 120 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) was developed from the newly assembled pear sequence and evaluated for polymorphisms in seven genotypes of pear from different genetic backgrounds. Of these, 67 (55.8 %) primer pairs produced polymorphic amplifications. Together, the 67 SSRs detected 277 alleles with an average of 4.13 per locus. Sequencing of the amplification products from randomly picked loci NAUPy31a and NAUpy53a verified the presence of the SSR loci. When the 67 primer pairs were tested on 96 individual members of eight species in the Rosaceae family, 61.2 % (41/67) of the tested SSRs successfully amplified a PCR product in at least one of the Rosaceae genera. The transferability from pear to different species varied from 58.2 % (apple) to 11.9 % (cherry). The ratio of transferability also reflected the closer relationships within Maloideae over Prunoideae. Two pear SSR markers, NAUpy43c and NAUpy55k, could distinguish the 20 different apple genotypes thoroughly, and UPGMA cluster analysis grouped them into three groups at the similarity level of 0.56. The high level of polymorphism and good transferability of pear SSRs to Rosaceae species indicate their promise for application to future molecular screening, map construction, and comparative genomic studies among pears and other Rosaceae species.

  9. PEAR: a fast and accurate Illumina Paired-End reAd mergeR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajie; Kobert, Kassian; Flouri, Tomáš; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2014-03-01

    The Illumina paired-end sequencing technology can generate reads from both ends of target DNA fragments, which can subsequently be merged to increase the overall read length. There already exist tools for merging these paired-end reads when the target fragments are equally long. However, when fragment lengths vary and, in particular, when either the fragment size is shorter than a single-end read, or longer than twice the size of a single-end read, most state-of-the-art mergers fail to generate reliable results. Therefore, a robust tool is needed to merge paired-end reads that exhibit varying overlap lengths because of varying target fragment lengths. We present the PEAR software for merging raw Illumina paired-end reads from target fragments of varying length. The program evaluates all possible paired-end read overlaps and does not require the target fragment size as input. It also implements a statistical test for minimizing false-positive results. Tests on simulated and empirical data show that PEAR consistently generates highly accurate merged paired-end reads. A highly optimized implementation allows for merging millions of paired-end reads within a few minutes on a standard desktop computer. On multi-core architectures, the parallel version of PEAR shows linear speedups compared with the sequential version of PEAR. PEAR is implemented in C and uses POSIX threads. It is freely available at http://www.exelixis-lab.org/web/software/pear.

  10. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus as a replacement for sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Juliana Paula Felipe; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Alves, Adryanne Marjorie Souza Vitor; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira; de Andrade, Ida Barbosa; Urbano, Stela Antas; Suassuna, Juraci Marcos Alves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Barros Melo, Tobias Tobit

    2018-04-01

    Fresh sugarcane has been a new roughage source for ruminant's in semiarid regions, a function of the decline of sugar and alcohol industry in recent years. However, there is little data published regarding lambs fed sugarcane associated with spineless cactus. This study evaluated the effect of sugarcane replacement with spineless cactus (0%, 33%, 66%, and 100%) in the diet of Santa Inês lambs on carcass characteristics. Thirty-six non-castrated Santa Ines lambs at four months of age and an initial body weight of 22±2.3 kg were assigned in a randomized block design and slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. The effects of spineless cactus as a replacement for sugarcane in the diet of the lambs on the carcass characteristics, commercial cut weight and yield, leg tissue composition, and carcass measurements were studied. The study revealed quadratic behavior in slaughter body weight, and hot and cold carcass weight, with maximum values of 38.60, 18.60, and 18.11 kg and replacement levels of 40.18%, 44.42%, and 43.14%, respectively. The cold carcass yield presented an increasing linear behavior. The compactness index of carcass and leg presented a quadratic effect, with estimated maximal values of 0.28 and 0.57 kg/cm and replacement levels of 43.37% and 45.5%, respectively. The weights of commercial cuts of leg, loin, shoulder, and breast showed quadratic behavior, with maximum values of 2.79, 0.852, 1.46, and 1.30 kg and replacement levels of 49.5, 45.32, 39.0, and 40.7, respectively. For tissue composition, quadratic behavior was verified for leg weight, subcutaneous fat, and total fat. The replacement of sugarcane by spineless cactus at level 44% is recommended for finishing lambs considering that this level improved most of the carcass characteristics, weights, and yields of commercial cuts and leg tissue composition.

  11. A user's guide to the WIMS-E module W-CACTUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1983-11-01

    CACTUS is a code that solves the multigroup neutron transport equations using a characteristics method. This is a numerical approach in which the differential form of the Boltzmann equation is integrated along explicit tracks through the geometry and the neutron flux is obtained by a summation of the contributions made by a selected sample of such tracks. This report describes the theory very briefly, and concentrates on providing the information required to use the program. (author)

  12. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Kelly R; Kus, Barbara E; Preston, Kristine L; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy G

    2015-05-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Unusual presentation of cactus spines in the flank of an elderly man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Splinters and spines of plant matter are common foreign bodies in skin wounds of the extremities, and often present embedded in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue. Vegetative foreign bodies are highly inflammatory and, if not completely removed, can cause infection, toxic reactions, or granuloma formation. Older patients are at increased risk for infection from untreated plant foreign bodies. The most common error in plant splinter and spine management is failure to detect their presence. Case presentation Here we report a case of cactus spines in an 84-year-old Caucasian man presenting on the right flank as multiple, red papules with spiny extensions. This presentation was unusual both in location and the spinous character of the lesions, and only after punch biopsy analysis was a diagnosis of cactus matter spines made. Conclusions Our patient presented with an unusual case of cactus spines that required histopathology for identification. Skin lesions with neglected foreign bodies are a common cause of malpractice claims. If not removed, foreign bodies of the skin, particularly in elderly individuals, can result in inflammatory and infectious sequela. This report underscores the importance of thoroughly evaluating penetrating skin lesions for the presence of foreign bodies, such as splinters and spines.

  14. Bacteria associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae larvae and their cactus host Isolatocereus dumortieri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Martínez-Falcón

    Full Text Available We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri. We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31,079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity.

  15. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Flores-Hernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia de partenogénesis en hembras. La duración de los estadios biológicos depende del sexo del insecto; el adulto hembra permaneció durante 38.4 días y 4.2 días para machos, los primeros estadios ninfales fueron similares en duración (18.1-19.8 días. El ciclo biológico de las hembras fue de 77 días mientras que el de los machos fue de 43 días. Para las hembras se estimó un periodo de preoviposición de 18.8 días, manteniéndose en oviposición durante 21 días con un promedio de 131 insectos por hembra. La proporción sexual hembras: machos fue 1:1. El tipo de reproducción fue predominantemente sexual, aunque hubo hembras partenogénicas. Este es el primer reporte de Dactylopius opuntiae como cochinilla silvestre asociada a la zona árida del noreste de México, específicamente en el Bolsón de Mapimí, Durango, México.Wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. To characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north oh Mexico, using as a host organism Opuntia megacantha Salm dick. The results indicate that the wild specie is Dactylopius opuntiae. The presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. The duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. The adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males, the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days. The complete

  16. Phenolic Profiles, Phytchemicals and Mineral Content of Decoction and Infusion of Opuntia ficus-indica Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imene; Ennouri, Monia; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ben Amira, Amal; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-12-01

    Opuntia flowers are a natural source of biologically active compounds and they have been used as medicinal plant for a long time. Despite the various uses reported for the decoction and infusion of these flowers, their characterization has been discarded. In this study, the decoction and infusion prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica were analyzed with respect to their content in minerals and phytochemicals in order to evaluate its nutritional characteristics. The obtained data proved that these preparations are a rich source of minerals mainly K and Ca. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed that they have important polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents with the infusion that presented the highest polyphenol levels. LC-MS analyses of decoction and infusion allowed the characterization of 20 phenolic compounds. It is mainly identified by the presence of flavonols glycosides.

  17. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D’Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid ...

  18. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Guti?rrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Mart?nez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Sald?var, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on d...

  19. Mutant of Japanese pear resistant to Black Spot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Nijisseike is one of the leading cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotinea Rehd.), but susceptible to black spot disease. Farmers try to prevent this disease by wrapping the fruit with a paper bag and by repeated spraying of fungicides. The disease is caused by a Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene. In 1962, grafted trees of this cultivar were planted at a distance between 53 and 93 m from the 60 Co source in the gamma-field (daily dose 15-4 rad). One branch on a tree planted at 53 m was detected as resistant in 1981. Under field conditions, black spots were observed on many fruits and leaves of the original trees by natural infection in early July, however, they were not observed on the mutant. To examine the resistance of the mutant, artificial inoculations were made using spores of the pathogen and the host specific toxin produced by germinating spores. When some drops of the spore suspension are placed on leaves, the formation of black spots depends upon the leaf age. In a resistant cv. as Chojuro, black spot symptoms are formed only when inoculated on young leaves. An intermediate reaction was observed in the mutant, whereas the original Nijisseiki showed severe symptoms. When inoculation was made on matured fruit skins, no black spot was formed on the mutant just like on the resistant cv. Chojuro, while many small black spots were formed and grew into large spots overlapping each other on the susceptible cv. Nijisseiki. In case of the crude toxin inoculation (4-0.04 ppm) of cv. Nijisseiki black spots were formed on the surface of the susceptible fruit skin, and necrotic lesions at the cut end of detached small pieces of leaves, although reaction on fruit skins was weaker compared with inoculation by spores. However, no symptoms were observed from the toxin application on the mutant and the resistant cv. Chojuro. That the resistance of the mutant is classified as

  20. Manejo de colheita e espaçamento da palma-forrageira, em consórcio com sorgo granífero, no Agreste de Pernambuco Harvest managing and plant spacing of spinelles fodder cactus, under grain sorghum intercropping at the semi-arid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDERVAL FARIAS

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na zona semi-árida de Pernambuco e teve como objetivo investigar o efeito de espaçamento, e a freqüência e intensidade de colheitas da palma-forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. consorciada com sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, sendo os espaçamentos alocados nas parcelas principais, e as freqüências e intensidades de colheitas, nas subparcelas. Os resultados são de um período de 12 anos, e as produções de matéria seca de palma, de grãos e restolhos de sorgo foram: 5,23, 1,65 e 2,07; 4,51, 1,30 e 2,10; 2,75, 1,97 e 3,51 t/ha/ano, em espaçamentos de 2,0 m x 1,0 m; 3,0 m x 1,0 m x 0,50 m e 7,0 m x 1,0 m x 0,50 m, respectivamente. A produção de matéria seca foi diferente entre as freqüências de corte, quando foram conservados os artículos primários: 4,08 t/ha/ano na freqüência de quatro anos, e de 3,43 t/ha/ano na freqüência de dois anos. A produção de palma aumentou com o período de crescimento da planta, nas duas intensidades de corte estudadas. A composição química dos artículos de palma e dos restolhos de sorgo foi pouco afetada pelos tratamentos.This trial was carried out in the semi-arid region of Pernambuco, aiming to study plant spacing and harvest frequencies and intensities of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.. An experimental design in a split plot design was applied, in which plant spacing were used as the main plots and harvest frequencies and intensities as the subplots. Results presented in this work are related to a twelve-year period. The dry matter yields of forage cactus, sorghum grains and stover were: 5.23, 1.65 and 2.07; 4.51, 1.30 and 2.10; 2.75, 1.97 and 3.5 ton/ha/year, for plant spacing 2.0 m x 1.0 m; 3.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.50 m and 7.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.50 m, respectively. Dry matter yield was different between harvest frequencies, when primary articles were conserved: 4

  1. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  2. A novel function for the IκB inhibitor Cactus in promoting Dorsal nuclear localization and activity in the Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Maira Arruda; Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Araujo, Helena Marcolla

    2017-08-15

    The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo, Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here, we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and on Dorsal target genes. Quantitative analysis using a series of loss- and gain-of-function conditions shows that the ventral and lateral aspects of the Dorsal gradient can behave differently with respect to Cactus fluctuations. In lateral and dorsal embryo domains, loss of Cactus allows more Dorsal to translocate to the nucleus. Unexpectedly, cactus loss-of-function alleles decrease Dorsal nuclear localization ventrally, where Toll signals are high. Overexpression analysis suggests that this ability of Cactus to enhance Toll stems from the mobilization of a free Cactus pool induced by the Calpain A protease. These results indicate that Cactus acts to bolster Dorsal activation, in addition to its role as a NFκB inhibitor, ensuring a correct response to Toll signals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Uebelhack, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.

  4. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple

  5. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting,

  6. Proteomic analysis of 'Zaosu' pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its early-maturing bud sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueting; Zhai, Rui; Feng, Wenting; Zhang, Shiwei; Wang, Zhigang; Qiu, Zonghao; Zhang, Junke; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2014-07-01

    Maturation of fruits involves a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes that eventually make fleshy fruits attractive, palatable, and nutritional. In order to understand the mature mechanism of the early-maturing bud sport of 'Zaosu' pear, we analyzed the differences of proteome expression between the both pears in different mature stages by the methods of a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Seventy-five differential expressed protein spots (psport, but only sixty-eight were demonstratively identified in the database of NCBI and uniprot. The majority of proteins were linked to metabolism, energy, stress response/defense and cell structure. Additionally, our data confirmed an increase of proteins related to cell-wall modification, oxidative stress and pentose phosphate metabolism and a decrease of proteins related to photosynthesis and glycolysis during the development process of both pears, but all these proteins increased or decreased faster in the early-maturing bud sport. This comparative analysis between both pears showed that these proteins were closely associated with maturation and could provide more detailed characteristics of the maturation process of both pears. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Apomixis and the problem of obtaining haploids and homozygote diploids in pear (Pyrus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. О. Долматов

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights results of research over simulative apomixes in pear and its utilization for obtaining haploids and homozygote diploids. It has been established that over 50% pear varieties with failed remote hybridization are capable of generating seeds of apomictic origin producing diploid plants. Genotypes displaying maximal inclination to apomixes have been singled out. Apomictic pear seedlings obtained from foreign pollination within the limits of the same combination are inherent in profound morphological diversity. Fruit-bearing apomicts originated from one and the same maternal plant differ to the same extent as hybrid seedlings of the same family. Genetic markers have enabled to establish that these are embryo sacs in which meiosis has completed that give rise to apomictic seeds. In vitro method as used for the purpose of increasing apomictic plants output has been illustrated. The greatest induction of apomictic shoots in vitro has been reached by alternation of BAP cytokinin at concentration of 1mg/l and 2 mg/l on the background of GA3 amounting to 1,5 mg/l. Grafting with shoots in vitro on non-sterile rootstocks of pear (Pyrus communis has increased the output of plants up to 80%. A cytological assessment of 9 apomictic samples is provided. The cytological analysis of samples of apomictic forms has certified the presence of simulative haploid parthenogenesis in pear.

  8. Seasonal resource value and male size influence male aggressive interactions in the leaf footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Zachary J; Allen, Pablo E; Miller, Christine W

    2017-05-01

    In animal contests, resource value (the quality of a given resource) and resource holding potential (a male's absolute fighting ability) are two important factors determining the level of engagement and outcome of contests. Few studies have tested these factors simultaneously. Here, we investigated whether natural, seasonal differences in cactus phenology (fruit quality) influence interactions between males in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). We also considered whether males were more likely to interact when they were similar in size, as predicted by theory. Finally, we examined if male size relative to the size of an opponent predicted competitive success. We found that males have more interactions on cactus with high value ripe fruit, as we predicted. Further, we found that males that were closer in size were more likely to interact, and larger males were more likely to become dominant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential larval settlement responses of Porites astreoides and Acropora palmata in the presence of the green alga Halimeda opuntia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K.; Sneed, J. M.; Paul, V. J.

    2016-06-01

    Settlement is critical to maintaining coral cover on reefs, yet interspecific responses of coral planulae to common benthic macroalgae are not well characterized. Larval survival and settlement of two Caribbean reef-building corals, the broadcast-spawner Acropora palmata and the planulae-brooder Porites astreoides, were quantified following exposure to plastic algae controls and the green macroalga Halimeda opuntia. Survival and settlement rates were not significantly affected by the presence of H. opuntia in either species. However, ~10 % of P. astreoides larvae settled on the surface of the macroalga, whereas larvae of A. palmata did not. It is unlikely that corals that settle on macroalgae will survive post-settlement; therefore, H. opuntia may reduce the number of P. astreoides and other non-discriminatory larvae that survive to adulthood. Our results suggest that the presence of macroalgae on impacted reefs can have unexpected repercussions for coral recruitment and highlight discrepancies in settlement specificity between corals with distinct life history strategies.

  10. First Report of Cadophora luteo-olivacea Causing Side Rot on ‘Conference’ Pears in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Astrid; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Haas, de B.H.; Köhl, J.

    2016-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. Symptoms of side rot disease of pear fruits were first observed in 2008 on cv. Conference in storage in the Netherlands. Typical round to oval, dark-brown, and slightly sunken spots (size 0.5 to 1.0 cm in diameter) appeared after

  11. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus in sugarcane-based diets for steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela da Conceição

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% in sugar cane-based diets on the intake of nutrients, feeding behavior, and rumen digestibility of steers was assessed using digested samples collected from the omasum. Five crossbred steers (1/2 Holstein-Zebu were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and then assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Samples of omasal digesta were collected for three days. Rumen was evacuated via the rumen cannula to determine the rumen pool of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, indigestible NDF (iNDF, intake (ki, passage (kp and degradation (NDF rates, and the passage of iNDF (kpi. Nutrient intake displayed a quadratic effect, with maximum intakes of DM (5.73 kg d−1, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, 4.63 kg d−1, and digestible organic matter (DOM, 3.45 kg d−1 estimated at the replacement levels of 54.63, 60.00, and 43.17%, respectively. The replacement levels showed no effect on feeding, rumination, or idle times. There was a linear increase in the total apparent and ruminal digestibility of CP as the spineless cactus content in the diet was increased. There was no effect on total and partial digestibilities of OM and NDF or on intestinal digestibility of CP. No effect was observed on the rumen pool of DM, NDF, or iNDF. Furthermore, ki, kp, NDF degradation, and iNDF passage rates displayed a quadratic effect, with higher concentrations estimated for replacement levels of 56.07, 56.12, 59.00, and 55.20%, respectively. Replacing 55% wheat bran with spineless cactus in sugar cane-based diets is recommended.

  12. Bleogens: Cactus-Derived Anti-Candida Cysteine-Rich Peptides with Three Different Precursor Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shining Loo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs play important host-defense roles in plants. However, information concerning CRPs in the Cactaceae (cactus family is limited, with only a single cactus-derived CRP described to date. Here, we report the identification of 15 novel CRPs with three different precursor architectures, bleogens pB1-15 from Pereskia bleo of the Cactaceae family. By combining proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we showed that the prototype, bleogen pB1, contained 36 amino acid residues, a six-cysteine motif typical of the six-cysteine-hevein-like peptide (6C-HLP family, and a type I two-domain precursor consisting of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER and a mature domain. In contrast, the precursors of the other 14 bleogens contained a type II three-domain architecture with a propeptide domain inserted between the ER and the mature bleogen domain. Four of these 14 bleogens display a third type of architecture with a tandemly repeating bleogen domain. A search of the Onekp database revealed that <1% plant species possess three different precursor architectures for the biosynthesis of 6C-HLPs, including Lophophora williamsii, Pereskia aculeate, Portulaca cryptopetala, Portulaca oleracea, Portulaca suffruticosa, and Talinum sp. NMR analysis confirmed that bleogen pB1 has cystine-knot disulfide connectivity as well as a two-beta-sheet and a four-loop structural fold that is similar to other 6C-HLPs. Sequence analysis, structural studies, and in silico modeling revealed that bleogen pB1 has a cation-polar-cation motif, a signature heparin-binding motif that was confirmed by heparin affinity chromatography. Cell-based assays showed that bleogen pB1 is non-toxic to mammalian cells but functions as an anti-Candida peptide. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the occurrence, functions and precursor architectures of CRPs in the cactus family.

  13. AGROCLIMATIC ZONING OF EUROPEAN AND ASIAN PEAR CULTIVARS WITH POTENTIAL FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTING IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS SILVEIRA WREGE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pear is among the fruits of major commercial interest in the world and one of the most imported in Brazil. Brazilian production is very small and the fruit quality is low, due to production problems. The success of culture in the country, among other factors, may be linked to the choice of cultivars, pollinating and rootstocks better adapted to local conditions, and thus depend on the particulars of an agricultural zoning. The aim of this study was to identify, in southern Brazil, homogeneous climatic zones with potential for growing of European and Asian pears, through climate risk studies. The regions were defined by the seasonal availability of chilling hours (<7.2 °C accumulated during the period from May to September and the monthly risk of drought. The analysis allowed the recognition of four homogeneous areas for the production of pears in southern Brazil.

  14. Effect of Root Pruning and Irrigation Regimes on Yield and Physiology of Pear Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei

    Clara Frijs’ is the dominant pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar in Denmark. It is vigorous with long annual shoots, and therefore can be difficult to prune. Root pruning has been widely used to control the canopy size of fruit trees including pears. However, root pruned trees are more likely......, it was concluded that root pruning not only decreases water uptake but also nutrient uptake, and both have contributed to the reduced canopy growth. Supplemental irrigation partially improved the tree water status and nitrogen uptake without stimulating additional shoot growth in the root pruned trees....... A combination of root pruning and irrigation could be a promising practice to control tree size and secure a stable fruit yield in pear orchard....

  15. Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yande; Liu Wei; Sun Xudong; Gao Rongjie; Pan Yuanyuan; Ouyang Aiguo, E-mail: jxliuyd@163.com [School of Mechatronics Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Changbei Open and Developing District, Nanchang, 330013 (China)

    2011-01-01

    A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62{sup 0}Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

  16. Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yande; Liu Wei; Sun Xudong; Gao Rongjie; Pan Yuanyuan; Ouyang Aiguo

    2011-01-01

    A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62 0 Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

  17. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Fruits of Asian Pear Tree Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Park, Yeong Seob

    2007-12-01

    Anthracnose symptoms often occurred on fruits of Asian pear trees grown in Anseong, Naju, Seonghwan and Pyeongtaek in Korea during the harvesting period from 2000 to 2005. A total of 28 isolates of Colletotrichum sp. were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms. All the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of the fungus were tested for pathogenicity to fruits of Asian pear tree by artificial inoculation. All the isolates induced anthracnose symptoms on the fruits by wound inoculation but not by unwound inoculation. The anthracnose symptoms induced by artificial inoculation were similar to those observed in the orchard. This is the first report of anthracnose of Asian pear tree caused by Colletotrichum acutatum.

  18. Conservation of Williams pear using edible coating with alginate and carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessiane Silva de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of Williams pear, stored at 25 ºC for 15 days, with and without edible coating. Edible coatings prepared with alginate 2% and carrageenan 0.5% were tested. The analyses carried out on the samples were: weight loss, pH, soluble solids, firmness, and color. The edible coatings were characterized in terms of mechanical properties, permeability, thickness, and opacity. The results show that the application of edible coatings with carrageenan and alginate in pears influenced physical and chemical characteristics such as weight loss, pH, total soluble solids, color, and firmness of the fruit. However, the alginate coating showed the best results on pear conservation since it had lower water vapor permeability and greater tensile strength, and therefore it can be used as a protective film on these fruits.

  19. Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

    2002-08-01

    Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

  20. Utilization of Prickly Pear Peels to Improve Quality of Pan Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Sallam, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study utilization of prickly pear peels to improve quality of pan bread. Prickly pear peels powder added to wheat flour 72 % at levels 1.0 and 2.0% to make pan beard. In this study, evaluation of nutrients and chemical constitutes and functional properties of prickly pear peels as well as the rheological properties of dough contained prickly pear peels at levels 1% and 2% has been conducted. Then evaluated organoleptic characteristics of pan bread made of it also determined staling rate. Results showed that prickly pear peels had higher content of 32.67 % fiber, 14.25 % pectin and 87.82 % ascorbic acid, and higher contents of antioxidant components. It consists of 441.11 mg/100 g, total phenols, 35.2 flavonoids mg/100 g and DPPH radical-scavenging 62.14%, also water holding capacity was 1.8 ml H 2 O / g , oil holding capacity 2.35 (ml oil/g) and foam stability 7.15%. The major phenolic compounds Oleuro 1264.407, pyrogallo 1149.68, Benzoic 982.37, 3-oH Tyrosol 588.53, Ellagic 413.26, Chorogenic 271.10, Protocatechuic acid 176.02, P-oH- Benzoic 112.78, Epicatechin105.99, Gallic acid 61.26 ppm. The results revealed that addition of prickly pear peels to wheat flour increased the nutrition values of pan bread made of it due to high contents of fiber, ascorbic acid and natural antioxidants, and also decreased staling which improves the quality of pan bread, as well as increases shelf-life of pan bread.

  1. Changes in the physiological characteristics of mature pear fruits subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; Sewidan, A.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Taha, F.

    1988-01-01

    Moisture content, weight loss, firmness, titrable acidity total soluble solids and decay percentage of the pear fruits (variety of Le conte) of different treatments (0,1,2,3, and 4 KGy) were investigated during storage. The data reported show that there was a slight decrease in the moisture content and titrable acidity of pear fruits during storage and there was decrease in the firmness and decay percentage. This decrease was elevated by the increase of irradiation doses and storage period on the other hand, the weight losses and total soluble solids increased by increasing the irradiation doses and storage period

  2. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIMIENTA-BARRIOS, EULOGIO; ZAÑUDO-HERNANDEZ, JULIA; ROSAS-ESPINOZA, VERONICA C.; VALENZUELA-TAPIA, AMARANTA; NOBEL, PARK S.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  3. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Opuntia spp. Portuguese Populations Using SSR Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. G. Reis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Opuntia spp., most likely few individuals, were introduced in the Iberian Peninsula in the beginning of the 16th century, after the discovery of America, spreading afterwards throughout the Mediterranean basin. We analysed, for the first time, the genetic diversity in a set of 19 Portuguese Opuntia spp. populations from the species O. ficus-indica, O. elata, O. dillenii and O. robusta using nuclear microsatellite (nuSSR markers. The Italian cultivars ‘Bianca’, ‘Gialla’ and ‘Rossa’ were included in the study for comparison purposes. The nuSSR amplifications produced from five to 16 alleles, with an average of 9.2 alleles per primer pair, and average polymorphism information content of 0.71. The estimated Dice coefficient among populations varied from 0.26 to 1.0, indicating high interspecific genetic diversity but low genetic diversity at the intraspecific level. The hierarchical clustering analysis revealed four major groups that clearly separated the four Opuntia species. Among the O. ficus-indica populations, two sub-clusters were found, one including the white pulp fruits (with cv. Bianca and the other with the orange pulp ones and including the cv. Gialla, the cv. Rossa, and one pale yellow pulp population. No genetic differences were found between the inermis form, O. ficus-indica f. ficus-indica, and the rewilded spiny one, O. ficus-indica f. amyclaea. The dendrogram indicated that the clustering pattern was unrelated to geographical origin. The results revealed a low level of genetic diversity among the Portuguese populations of O. ficus-indica.

  4. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  5. Phylogeography of the Cactophilic Drosophila and Other Arthropods Associated with Cactus Necroses in the Sonoran Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Markow

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera and arachnids (order Pseudoscorpiones. For most taxa studied, little genetic structure and high dispersal ability are found in populations inhabiting the mainland and Baja California peninsula regions of the Sonoran Desert, consistent with the availability of the rotting cactus microhabitat which is patchily distributed and ephemeral. There is evidence, however, that the Gulf of California, which bisects the Sonoran Desert, has played a role in limiting gene flow and promoting speciation in several taxa, including histerid beetles, whereas other taxa, especially Drosophila nigrospiracula and D. mettleri, apparently are able to freely cross the Gulf, probably by taking advantage of the Midriff Islands in the northern Gulf as dispersal “stepping stones”. Genetic evidence has also been found for historical population expansions dating to the Pleistocene and late Pliocene in several taxa. Overall, these studies have provided important insights into how arthropods with different life history traits, but generally restricted to a necrotic cactus microhabitat, have evolved in an environmentally harsh and tectonically active region. In addition, they suggest some taxa for further, and more detailed, hypothesis driven studies of speciation.

  6. Factors affecting establishment success of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2012-06-01

    Early plant stages may be the most vulnerable within the life cycle of plants especially in arid ecosystems. Interference from exotic species may exacerbate this condition. We evaluated germination, seedling survival and growth in the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis, as a function of sunlight exposure (i.e., growing under open and shaded areas), different shade providers (i.e., growing under two native shrubs and one exotic grass species), two levels of predation (i.e., exclusion and non-exclusion) and variable microenvironmental conditions (i.e., temperature, PAR, humidity). Field experiments demonstrated that suitable conditions for germination and establishment of H. portoricensis seedling are optimal in shaded areas beneath the canopy of established species, but experiments also demonstrated that the identity of the shade provider can have a significant influence on the outcome of these processes. Harrisia portoricensis seedlings had higher probabilities of survival and grew better (i.e., larger diameters) when they were transplanted beneath the canopy of native shrubs, than beneath the exotic grass species, where temperature and solar radiation values were on average much higher than those obtained under the canopies of native shrubs. We also detected that exclusion from potential predators did not increase seedling survival. Our combined results for H. portoricensis suggested that the modification of microenvironmental conditions by the exotic grass may lower the probability of recruitment and establishment of this endangered cactus species.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  8. ESTUDIO DE LA ADSORCION DE CROMO HEXAVALENTE COMO BIOMATERIAL LA ECTODERMIS DE OPUNTIA

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Campos Medina

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el fenómeno de adsorción química como una opción viable en el tratamiento de aguas residuales que contiene disueltos iones metálicos, específicamente se aborda el estudio del Cromo Hexavalente, el cual se puso en contacto con el biomaterial de Ectodermis de Opuntia. Dicho biomaterial se puso en contacto con soluciones de dicho elemento solo y formando un complejo coloreado con la difenilcarbazida (DFC), esto con la finalidad de estudiar el comportamiento de la ads...

  9. Nutritional value of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes from Portuguese ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Pitacas, F.I.; Reis, C.M.G.; Blasco, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a forage for ruminants has been very important in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. O. ficus-indica cladodes can be fed to small ruminants especially in periods of the year when there is low quality and quantity of pasture. In Mediterranean regions like South of Portugal during the rainy season the availability of pasture is quantitatively and qualitatively satisfactory, but in critical times of the year the shortage and low nutr...

  10. Pollination of pima pineapple cactus (Coryphantha sheeri var. robustispina): does pollen flow limit abundance of this endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. McDonald; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Pima pineapple cactus (PPC) (Coryphantha sheeri var. robustispina), a federally listed endangered species, occurs throughout southeastern Arizona and has relatively low population densities. To determine whether pollination limits reproduction of PPC we used florescent dye to quantify pollen flow between individuals in a PPC...

  11. Bezerromycetales and Wiesneriomycetales ord. nov. (class Dothideomycetes), with two novel genera to accommodate endophytic fungi from Brazilian cactus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezerra, Jadson D. P.; Oliveira, Rafael J. V.; Paiva, Laura M.; Silva, Gladstone A.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.; Souza-Motta, Cristina M.

    During a survey of endophytic fungi from the cactus Tacinga inamoena in a Brazilian tropical dry forest (Caatinga) some undescribed ascomycetous fungi were isolated. These fungi are characterized by superficial and immersed, globose to subglobose, smooth or hairy ascomata, bitunicate asci, and

  12. Chapter 2: A historical perspective on the population decline of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Roy Johnson; Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Lois T. Haight; Russell B. Duncan; Kenneth J. Kingsley

    2000-01-01

    The cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) was discovered in the U.S. by Bendire in 1872 in the Tucson area (Coues 1872). During the next five decades, naturalists collected many specimens of this owl and typically described the subspecies as common or fairly common along some streams and rivers of central and southern Arizona...

  13. 9561 nutritional quality, phytochemical composition and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    conditions and have low water exigency and a high water-use efficiency ratio, which ... skin and pulp colour, pulp texture, sugar content, and juice acidity of cactus ..... methods for preservation of Opuntia cactus fruit syrup: Empowerment of.

  14. Efeitos da substituição do feno de capim-tifton e do farelo de milho pela palma forrageira e pelo farelo de soja sobre a ingestão de alimentos e parâmetros fisiológicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1149 Effect of the replacement of Tifton grass hay and the corn meal by forage cactus and soybean meal on the ingestion of foods and physiological parameters - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1149

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras da raça Holandesa em lactação, alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill. Foram utilizadas 5 vacas, distribuídas em delineamento de quadrado latino. As variáveis comportamentais foram observadas a intervalos de 5 minutos, em 24 horas. Os registros de temperatura ambiente, umidade relativa do ar, temperatura retal e freqüência respiratória foram efetuados pela manhã e à tarde. A inclusão de palma influenciou linearmente os tempos de ruminação (redução e ócio (aumento; quadraticamente o consumo de matéria seca (CMS e a eficiência de alimentação e de ruminação em função do CMS e linearmente decrescente o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, a eficiência de ruminação e alimentação em função do CFDN. A temperatura retal no turno da tarde e a ingestão de água diminuíram linearmenteThe experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lactating Holstein cows fed diet with different replacement levels (0; 12.9; 25.8; 38.7 e 51.6% of forage cactus (Opuntia fícus indica, Mill. Five cows were assigned to a 5x5 square design. The registration of variables behaviors was accomplished in a visual way, at intervals of five minutes, in 24 hours. The registration of room temperature, humidity relative, rectal temperature and respiratory frequency were performed in the morning and in the afternoon. The rumination time decreased linearly and resting increased linearly; the dry matter intake (DMI, the rumination and feeding efficiency in function of DMI had quadratic behavior; the fiber neutral detergent intake (FNDI, the rumination and feeding efficiency in function of FNDI decreased linearly; the rectal temperature in the afternoon and the water intake decreased linearly, in function of forage cactus levels in the diet

  15. Sulphated galactopyran derived from Gracilaria opuntia, a marine macroalgae restores the antioxidant metabolic enzymes during STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Rayapu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the effect of sulphated galactopyran fraction isolated from Gracilaria opuntia (G. opuntia (FM4 in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: In vitro antioxidant assays of FM4 were estimated by DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl free radical and Nitric oxide free radical activities. FM4 was purified and characterized by 1H-NMR spectra and FTIR as sulphated galactopyran. Diabetes was induced intraperitonially by single dose of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight. FM4 was administrated orally (80, 100, 125 mg/kg BW to diabetic rats for 60 days. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, lipid peroxidase (LPx, glutathione reduced (GSH, vitamin-C (VIT-C and vitamin-E (VIT-E levels were estimated. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. Results: Our results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of G. opuntia possess free radical scavenging activity. During FM4 fraction treatment (100 mg/kg BW, the SOD, GPx, CAT, GST, GSH, VIT-C and VIT-E levels were significantly (P < 0.05 increased, and the LPx levels were decreased in different organs such as liver, kidney, brain and pancreas of diabetic rats. Conclusions: The sulphated galactopyran fraction of the marine macroalgae (G. opuntia possesses the antioxidant activity which might help in the prevention of oxidative damage that occurs during diabetes.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis L-1, Which Has Antagonistic Activity against Pear Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Pingping; Cui, Jianchao; Jia, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenhui

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus velezensis L-1 is an effective biocontrol agent against pear diseases. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. velezensis L-1 in which clusters related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were predicted. This genome provides insights into the possible biocontrol mechanisms and furthers application of this specific bacterium.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis L-1, Which Has Antagonistic Activity against Pear Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pingping; Cui, Jianchao; Jia, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenhui

    2017-11-30

    Bacillus velezensis L-1 is an effective biocontrol agent against pear diseases. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. velezensis L-1 in which clusters related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were predicted. This genome provides insights into the possible biocontrol mechanisms and furthers application of this specific bacterium. Copyright © 2017 Sun et al.

  18. Volatiles from Psylla-infested pear trees and their possible involvement in attraction of anthocorid predators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scutareanu, P.; Drukker, B.; Bruin, J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work showed that anthocorid predators aggregate around gauze cages containing Psylla-infested trees in a pear orchard. Because anthocorids responded to odor from Psylla-infested leaves in a laboratory test, it was hypothesized that these aggregative responses in the field were triggered by

  19. Evaluation of Dacryodes edulis (native pear) seed biomass for Pb (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dacryodes edulis (Native pear) seed is herein evaluated as a promising biomass for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution. The Pb(II) adsorption onto Dacryodes edulis seed biomass was influenced by the solution pH, time, biomass dose and initial adsorbate concentration. The Freundlich model fitted better than the ...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant protection...) Field inspections for signs of pest infestation must be conducted by the national plant protection...-29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  1. Development of an energy-protein for animal food based crop residues pear (Pyrus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Julián Pulido-Suárez,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pear (Pyrus communis is a fruit from the species of deciduous, widely consumed worldwide for its high quality energ y. However, pear itself does not provide the amount of protein required for cattle feeding, so alternatives to improve its nutritional quality have been studied. On these grounds, the objective of this study was to evaluate the parameters of solid state fermentation, and compositional energ y value of a protein food based on pears (Pyrus communis with apparent physical damage. A completely random design was used to evaluate three treatments; these correspond to percentages of inclusion of calcium carbonate (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 formulation based on already established (40 % pear, 25 % rice flour, 25 % wheat bran and 10 % urea, the parameters evaluated were: pH, ashes (CZ, crude protein (CP and crude fiber (CF, and they were recorded at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. As a result, it was found that the pH dropped gradually for each treatment and at each sampling period; however, there were no significant differences. The lower value at the end of the process is recorded T2 (0.25 with 4.66, followed by T3 (0.50 with 4.50, the ash reached values of up to 6 % with T3, and T2 (0.50 reached the highest percentages in fiber and crude protein. Finally, decreasing the fermentation variables ensures a food with no presence of undesirable microorganisms and stable over time.

  2. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  3. Plant growth responses of apple and pear trees to doses of glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is commonly used for intra-row weed management in perennial plantations, where unintended crop exposure to this herbicide can cause growth reduction. The objective of this research was to analyze the initial plant growth behavior of young apple and pear plants exposed to glyphosate. Glyph...

  4. The genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Zebin

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) using a combination of BAC-by-BAC and next-generation sequencing is reported. A 512.0-Mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled with 194× coverage. High-density genetic maps ...

  5. EARLY SPRING APPLICATION OF AMINOETHOXYVINILGLYCINE (AVG INCREASES FRUIT SET AND YIELD OF ‘ROCHA’ PEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEUS DA SILVEIRA PASA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low fruit set is one of the main factors leading to poor yield of pear orchards in Brazil. Ethylene is associated with abscission of flowers and fruitlets. Then, the application of ethylene synthesis inhibitors, such as AVG, is a potential tool to increase fruit set of pears. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of AVG, sprayed at different rates and timings, on fruit set, yield and fruit quality of ‘Rocha’ pear. The study was performed in a commercial orchard located in the municipality of São Joaquim, SC, during the growing seasons of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. Plant material consisted of ‘Rocha’ pear trees grafted on quince rootstock ‘BA29’. AVG was tested at different rates (60 mg L-1 and 80 mg L-1 and timings [full bloom, one week after full bloom (WAFB, and two WAFB, either alone or in combination. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with at least five single-tree replications. The fruit set, number of fruit per tree, yield, estimated yield, fruit weight, return bloom, and fruit quality attributes were assessed. Fruit set and yield were consistently increased by single applications of AVG at 60 and 80 mg L-1 at both one and two weeks after full bloom, without negatively affecting fruit quality attributes and return bloom.

  6. Estimate of Leaf Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Asian Pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd. by CCM-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa GHASEMI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In many cases evaluation of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in plants need to destructive methods, more time and organic solvents. Application of chlorophyll meters save time and resources. The aim of this study was estimating of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves using non-destructive method and rapid quantification of chlorophyll by chlorophyll content meter (CCM-200. This study was conducted on 8 years old Asian pear trees during June 2008 in Tehran, Iran. To develop our regression model, the chlorophyll meter data were correlated with extracted chlorophyll and nitrogen content data obtained from DMSO and Kejeldal methods, respectively. The results showed that, there was positive and linear correlation between CCM-200 data and chlorophyll a (R�=0.7183, chlorophyll b (R�=0.8523, total chlorophyll (R�=0.90, and total nitrogen content (R�=0.76 in Asian pear leaves. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCM-200 can be used in order to predict both chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves.

  7. Finite element analysis of the dynamic behavior of pear under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Salarikia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pear fruit is susceptible to bruising from mechanical impact during field harvesting operations and at all stages of postharvest handling. The postharvest shelf life of bruised fruits were shorter, and they softened rapidly under cold storage compared with non-bruised samples. Developing strategies for reducing bruising during the supply chain requires an understanding of fruit dynamic behavior to different enforced loadings. Finite Element Method (FEM is among the best techniques, in terms of accuracy and cost-efficiency, for studying the factors effective in impact-induced bruising. In this research, the drop test of pear sample was simulated using FEM. The simulation was conducted on a 3D solid model of the pear that was created by using non-contact optical scanning technology. This computer-based study aimed to assess the stress and strain distribution patterns within pear generated by collision of the fruit with a flat surface made of different materials. The contact force between two colliding surfaces is also investigated. The simulations were conducted at two different drop orientations and four different impact surfaces. Results showed that, in both drop orientations, the largest and smallest stresses, strains and contact forces were developed in collision with the steel and rubber surfaces, respectively. In general, these parameters were smaller when fruit collided with the surfaces along its horizontal axis than when collided along its vertical axis. Finally, analyses of stress and strain magnitudes showed that simulation stress and strain values were compatible with experiments data.

  8. Xylella taiwanensis sp. nov. cause of pear leaf scorch disease in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a group of xylem-limited and nutritionally fastidious plant pathogenic bacteria. While mostly found in the Americas, new X. fastidiosa strains have been reported from other continents such as Asia, including a pear leaf scorch (PLS) strain from Taiwan. Current taxonomy of X. fa...

  9. Soil sampling and extraction methods with possible application to pear thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Bater

    1991-01-01

    Techniques are described for the sampling and extraction of microarthropods from soil and the potential of these methods to extract the larval stages of the pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), from soil cores taken in sugar maple stands. Also described is a design for an emergence trap that could be used to estimate adult thrips...

  10. Determination of chlormequat in pears by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; Dam, R.C.J. van; Vreeken, R.J.; Steijger, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    A straightforward and reliable method was developed for the determination of chlormequat in pears by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Water and methanol were compared as extraction solvents. Because no significant differences in extraction efficiency or repeatability were found,

  11. How to prevent ripening blockage in 1-MCP-treated 'Conference' pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, Maria-Angeles; Schotsmans, Wendy C; Larrigaudière, Christian; Dupille, Eve; Recasens, Inmaculada

    2011-08-15

    Some European pear varieties treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) often remain 'evergreen', meaning that their ripening process is blocked and does not resume after removal from cold storage. In this work this was confirmed also to be the case in 'Conference' pears. To reverse the blockage of ripening 1-MCP treatments combined with external exogenous ethylene were tested. 1-MCP treatment of 'Conference' pears is very effective in delaying ripening and, more specifically, softening. The same 1-MCP concentration in different experimental years caused a different response. The higher dose of 1-MCP (600 nL L⁻¹) always resulted in irreversible blockage of ripening, whereas the behaviour of fruit receiving a lower dose (300 nL L⁻¹) depended on the year, and this did not depend on maturity at harvest or on storage conditions. Simultaneous exposure to 1-MCP and exogenous ethylene significantly affected fruit ripening, allowing significant softening to occur but at a lower rate compared with control fruit. The application of exogenous ethylene and 1-MCP simultaneously after harvest permitted restoration of the ripening process after storage in 'Conference' pears, extending the possibility of marketing and consumption. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Improved irrigation scheduling for pear-jujube trees based on trunk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A suitable indicator for scheduling pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) irrigation in China was developed based on trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF). Parameters derived from TDF responses to variations in soil matrix potential (Ψsoil) were compared under deficit and well irrigation. Maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) increased ...

  13. Hourly laying patterns of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Arendt

    2011-01-01

    Temporal aspects of egg deposition are important factors governing avian reproductive success. I report hourly egg-laying patterns of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico during 1979–2000. Initiatory eggs were laid by early morning (median 5 0642 hrs, AST) and almost half of the eggs were laid by...

  14. Sources of Neofabraea spp. and Cadophora spp. in Dutch apple and pear orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Wenneker, M.; Haas, de B.H.; Anbergen, R.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.

    2015-01-01

    Post-harvest diseases of apple and pear result in significant economic losses during long storage. Pathogens causing quiescent infections in the orchard leading to late post-harvest losses in The Netherlands are Neofabraea alba (Lenticel spot disease), N. perennans (Bull eye rot), Neonectria

  15. High prevalence of pollinosis symptoms among the farmers cultivating Japanese pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, S; Teranishi, H; Shimooka, Y; Yamada, N

    2007-01-01

    In a district of Japanese pear cultivators, a questionnaire survey and an IgE antibody survey were conducted on the pollinosis. A high prevalence of 36.3 percent of the farmers complained of pollinosis symptoms. By the IgE antibody survey, the symptoms were found to be related to the airborne pollens in the orchard.

  16. Overhead work and shoulder-neck pain in orchard farmers harvesting pears and apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, H; Miyao, M; Kondo, T; Yamada, S

    1995-04-01

    The effects of overhead work were studied by comparing orchard farmers' musculoskeletal symptoms while bagging pears with those same symptoms while bagging apples. The subjects were 52 Japanese female farmers, who were examined twice an evening in late June for bagging pears, and during another evening of late July for bagging apples, when each task had been almost finished. They were questioned about musculoskeletal complaints of stiffness and pain during each job, and examined for muscle tenderness and pain from joint movement. Arm elevation angles during the work were measured for each type of bagging. The prevalence of stiffness and pain in the neck and shoulder, muscle tenderness in the shoulder regions, and pain in neck motion were found to be significantly higher when bagging pears than apples. Musculoskeletal symptoms of parts other than the neck and shoulder did not differ between the two types of bagging. The working posture of elevating the arm more than 90 degrees was assumed to account for 75% of the time bagging pears, against 40% for bagging apples. Overhead work requiring arm elevation and head extension was considered to be closely related with shoulder-neck disorders among farmers.

  17. Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR for large-scale enzymatic production of antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides targeting microRNAs or their mRNA targets prove to be powerful tools for molecular biology research and may eventually emerge as new therapeutic agents. Synthetic oligonucleotides are often contaminated with highly homologous failure sequences. Synthesis of a certain oligonucleotide is difficult to scale up because it requires expensive equipment, hazardous chemicals and a tedious purification process. Here we report a novel thermocyclic reaction, polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR, for the amplification of oligonucleotides. A target oligonucleotide and a tandem repeated antisense probe are subjected to repeated cycles of denaturing, annealing, elongation and cleaving, in which thermostable DNA polymerase elongation and strand slipping generate duplex tandem repeats, and thermostable endonuclease (PspGI cleavage releases monomeric duplex oligonucleotides. Each round of PEAR achieves over 100-fold amplification. The product can be used in one more round of PEAR directly, and the process can be further repeated. In addition to avoiding dangerous materials and improved product purity, this reaction is easy to scale up and amenable to full automation. PEAR has the potential to be a useful tool for large-scale production of antisense oligonucleotide drugs.

  18. Effects of major geometric variations between intracavitary applications on pear-shaped isodose dimension in cancer of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, R. Y.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The basic principal of intracavitary brachytherapy for cancer of the cervix is based on specific loading rules to achieve a pear-shaped isodose distribution centered around the cervix. Recently, ICRU Report 38 recommends a dose reference volume for reporting. Our previous studies have confirmed that there is considerable variations of geometry between applications. This study is to evaluate the effect of major geometric variations on pear-shaped isodose dimension in manual afterloading low-dose-rate system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred orthogonal films of 50 patients with cancer of the cervix (2 applications/patient) were reviewed for comparative measurements of geometric variations between applications. Major geometric variations were found for 13 patients in lengths of tandem, 7 patients in colpostats separation and 16 patients in vaginal packing. The direct measurement of these geometric variations were compared with the three-dimensional measurement of the pear-shaped isodose enclosed by the point A between the two applications. RESULTS: The geometric variations in the width of colpostats separation and length of tandem were directly related to the width and height of the pear-shaped isodose dimension. The geometric relationship between the colpostats and distal tandem had an important effect on the thickness of the pear-shape. In optimization of poor geometry for rectum or bladder wall, high dose volume centered around the cervix is reduced without changing the overall pear-shaped volume due to changing configuration of the pear-shaped isodose. In our selected patients with two applications, variations in vaginal packing had no direct effect on the width and thickness of the pear-shape due to other variables. CONCLUSION: Major geometric variations between applications greatly affect the dimension of the pear-shaped isodose distribution. Optimization of poor geometry is quite limited without compromising the high-dose volume centered around the

  19. Investigation of Pear Drying Performance by Different Methods and Regression of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient with Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an air heated solar collector (AHSC dryer was designed to determine the drying characteristics of the pear. Flat pear slices of 10 mm thickness were used in the experiments. The pears were dried both in the AHSC dryer and under the sun. Panel glass temperature, panel floor temperature, panel inlet temperature, panel outlet temperature, drying cabinet inlet temperature, drying cabinet outlet temperature, drying cabinet temperature, drying cabinet moisture, solar radiation, pear internal temperature, air velocity and mass loss of pear were measured at 30 min intervals. Experiments were carried out during the periods of June 2017 in Elazig, Turkey. The experiments started at 8:00 a.m. and continued till 18:00. The experiments were continued until the weight changes in the pear slices stopped. Wet basis moisture content (MCw, dry basis moisture content (MCd, adjustable moisture ratio (MR, drying rate (DR, and convective heat transfer coefficient (hc were calculated with both in the AHSC dryer and the open sun drying experiment data. It was found that the values of hc in both drying systems with a range 12.4 and 20.8 W/m2 °C. Three different kernel models were used in the support vector machine (SVM regression to construct the predictive model of the calculated hc values for both systems. The mean absolute error (MAE, root mean squared error (RMSE, relative absolute error (RAE and root relative absolute error (RRAE analysis were performed to indicate the predictive model’s accuracy. As a result, the rate of drying of the pear was examined for both systems and it was observed that the pear had dried earlier in the AHSC drying system. A predictive model was obtained using the SVM regression for the calculated hc values for the pear in the AHSC drying system. The normalized polynomial kernel was determined as the best kernel model in SVM for estimating the hc values.

  20. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae, furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Section of Entomology and Nematology. In this study, pear shoot sawfly in Eastern Slavonia occurred in the period of four weeks, starting from the third decade of April with the peak population at the beginning of the May. Adults flight is the most intensive during warm and sunny days, when temperatures are above 14°C. Adult sawflies are characterized by elongated body and antennae, usually 7-12 mm long and sexual dimorphism is present. Pest is univoltine. Basic colour of adult sawfly is black. Antennae are moniliform and consist of 20 (male - 22 (female segments. Females have red or dark red colored abdomen, while males have yellow or orange one. Eggs are cylindrically shaped, 0.8-1.0 mm long. Female lays approximately 30 eggs. Embryonic development of pear shoot sawfly eggs lasts from 11 to 14 days. Larvae are 8-10 mm long, white or pale yellow. Larvae molt three times. Pear shoot sawfly larvae were parasitized by insects from Hymenoptera order, from five identified and one unidentified genera. Level of parasitism by genera is as follows: Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae – 9.83%, Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – 2.01%, Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae – 1.66%, Pteromalus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae – 0.55%, Ichneumonida sp. (Hymenoptera: Pimplinae – 0.35% and unidentified genera – 0.62%. Plant parasitic species Metopoplax origani (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae was found in 1.80% of analyzed shoots. Larvae were

  1. Removal of trivalent samarium from aqueous solutions by activated biochar derived from cactus fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loukia Hadjittofi; Styliana Charalambous; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of activated biochar fibres obtained fromOpuntia Ficus Indica regarding the sorption of trivalent samarium (Sm(III)) from aqueous solutions was investigated by batch experiments. The effect of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time) on the Sm(III) adsorption was studied and the surface species were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy prior to and after the lanthanide sorption. The experimental results showed that the acti-vated biochar fibres possessed extraordinary sorption capacity for Sm(III) in acidic solutions (qmax=90 g/kg, pH 3.0) and near neutral solutions (qmax=350 g/kg, pH 6.5). This was attributed to the formation of samarium complexes with the surface carboxylic moieties, available in high density on the lamellar structures of the bio-sorbent.

  2. Shelf-life extension and quality improvement of minimally processed pear by combination treatments with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.; Hammad, A.A.; Serag, M.S.; Mansour, F.A.; Abu El-Nour, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Fresh-cut pears are not yet commercially available in Egypt. Thus, an attempt has been done to produce this minimally processed fruit manually at the laboratory. Fifteen samples of this manually prepared fresh-produce were evaluated for their microbiological quality. Total aerobic bacterial counts (TAPC) ranged from 7.5 x 10 to 3.5 x 10 cfu g-1, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from less than 10 to 3.2 x 10 cfu g-1; total mould and yeast counts (TM & Y) ranged from less than 10 to 5.3 x 10 cfu g-1 indicating good quality from the view point of microbiological population. Coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were found in only 2 samples at levels of 20 to 43 and greater than 3 to 9 most probable numbers per gram (MPN g-1), respectively. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was found in also 2 samples at levels of 102. Aeromonas hydrohila, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp., were not found in any of the samples. Fresh-cut pear s were dipped in water containing 2% ascorbic acid and 1% calcium lactate. The dipped fresh-cut pears were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy. Dipping fresh-cut pears in 2% ascorbic acid plus 1% calcium lactate prevented browning and enhanced firmness during refrigeration storage. Irradiation dose of 2 kGy was the optimum, since it reduced TAPC by 99.58% and LAB and TM and Y to un-detectable level. These combined treatments extend the shelf life of fresh-cut pears without affecting their chemical, physical and sensorial quality attributes

  3. Response of Opuntia stricta Haw micropropagated plants in acclimatization and field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Medeiros de Araújo Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Forage palm (Opuntia stricta Haw. is a great important crop for the semi-arid region of Brasil. It has been propagated through in vitro culture, by areole activation. This work aimed to determine the response of Opuntia stricta Haw. variety ‘Oreja de Elefante Mexicana’ micropropagated plants during its acclimatization and field planting. Plants were acclimatized in tubes and plastic bags with a mixture of soil and manure, and it were kept in greenhouse for 130 days. Later, the plants kept in tubes were divided into nine treatments, according to their size (between 6 to 14 cm, and transfer to the field. The use of tubes provided a higher survival, height, fresh and dry mass of the cladodes. There was no significant differences between the recipients used for root development. At the end of acclimatization it was observed that plants did not have a uniform development, presenting size variation. After the first 15 days in the field, the majority of the plants with primary shoots were larger than 10 cm. At 60 days the survival was 100%, and all plants presented shoots, even the smallest. However, is recommended that plants larger than 10 cm will be used, due to the better establishment to field conditions. The results demonstrate the feasibility in the use of micropropagated plants for the establishment of forage palm fields. Keywords: cladodes, forage palm, in vitro culture, semi-arid region

  4. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n -butanol. The n -butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol- n -butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P x ) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3- O -methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3- O -β- d -glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n -butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-P x . OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  5. Towards Drylands Biorefineries: Valorisation of Forage Opuntia for the Production of Edible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Iris Nájera-García

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Opuntia may be a well-suited feedstock for biorefineries located in drylands, where biomass is scarcer than in humid or temperate regions. This plant has numerous uses in Mexico and Central America, and its mucilage is a specialty material with many promising applications. We extracted the mucilage from a forage species, O. heliabravoana Scheinvar, and mixed it with a thermoplastic starch to produce an edible coating. The coating was applied to blackberries, which were then evaluated in terms of several physicochemical and microbiological variables. During a 10-day evaluation period, the physicochemical variables measured in the coated fruits were not significantly different from those of the control group. However, the microbiological load of the coated fruits was significantly lower than that of the uncoated fruits, which was attributed to a decreased water activity under the edible coating. Multivariate analysis of the physicochemical and microbial variables indicated that the storage time negatively affected the weight and size of the coated and uncoated blackberries. Although some sensory attributes have yet to be optimised, our results support the use of the mucilage of forage Opuntia for the formation of edible coatings, as well as their valorisation through a biorefinery approach.

  6. La Historia de una especie del patrimonio holguinero: Escobaria cubensis (Cactaceae "el cactus enano". Primera parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Reyes Fornet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta una investigación sobre la historia taxonómica y estudios sobre la ecología del "cactus enano de Holguín", Escobaria cubensis (Britton & Rose Hunt, 1978 desde 1909 hasta 1990, elementos importantes, para la conservación y como contribución al conocimiento de la historia del patrimonio natural holguinero, con datos históricos sobre visitas de personalidades del mundo y Holguín. Se estudiaron 37 materiales correspondientes a notas de viajes, cartas y publicaciones. Se señala la posibilidad de que el colector, J. Shafer estuvo en dos zonas de distribución. Las contribuciones al conocimiento de su ecología hasta 1990 se basaron en la observación y descripción.

  7. CACTUS, a characteristics solution to the neutron transport equations in complicated geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1980-04-01

    CACTUS has been written to solve the multigroup neutron transport equation in a general two-dimensional geometry. The method is based upon a characteristics formulation for the problem in which the transport equation is integrated explicitly along straight line tracks that are suitably distributed throughout the problem. Source distributions and scattering are assumed to be isotropic, but the only restriction on geometry is that the outer boundary should be rectangular. Within this rectangular boundary the user is free to build his problem geometry using any combination of intersecting straight lines and circular arcs. The theory of the method is described, followed by some details of a coding, a sensitivity study on the number of tracks required to integrate fluxes in a particular problem, a user's guide, and a few test cases. (author)

  8. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

    2002-05-07

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

  9. Development of microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing for the columnar cactus Echinopsis chiloensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Carmen G; Larridon, Isabel; Peralta, Gioconda; Asselman, Pieter; Pérez, Fernanda

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microsatellite markers as a tool to study population structure, genetic diversity and effective population size of Echinopsis chiloensis, an endemic cactus from arid and semiarid regions of Central Chile. We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for E. chiloensis using next-generation sequencing and tested them in 60 individuals from six sites, covering all the latitudinal range of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 8, while the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity ranged from 0.0 to 0.80 and from 0.10 to 0.76, respectively. We also detected significant differences between sites, with F ST values ranging from 0.05 to 0.29. Microsatellite markers will enable us to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of E. chiloensis in future ecological and phylogeographic studies.

  10. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno do capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação. Produção, composição do leite e custos com alimentação Effects of replacing corn and Tifton hay with forage cactus on milk production and composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de dietas com teores crescentes de palma forrageira sobre a produção, a composição do leite e o perfil dos ácidos graxos do leite de vacas holandesas em lactação. Os animais (583 ± 7,07 kg foram alimentados com dietas formuladas com diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia fícus indica Mill em substituição total ao milho (Zea mays L. e em substituição parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias, dez para adaptação dos animais à dieta e sete para coleta de dados. A produção de leite, total (kg/dia e corrigida para 3,5% de gordura (kg/dia, o teor de gordura (% e a produção de gordura (kg/dia do leite (20,65; 19,76; 3,73 e 0,745, respectivamente não foram influenciados pela introdução de palma nas dietas. O perfil de ácidos graxos da gordura do leite não foi influenciado (quanto aos ácidos cáprico, láurico, mirístico, linoléico, linolênico e araquídico pelos níveis de palma na dieta, entretanto, houve aumento linear dos ácidos de cadeia intermediária (palmítico e palmitoléico e tendência inversa para os ácidos esteárico e oléico. A inclusão de palma forrageira em substituição ao milho e parte do feno de capim-tifton para vacas holandesas em lactação não influenciou a produção e a composição do leite, exceto a concentração dos ácidos graxos de cadeia longa, que apresentou comportamento linear decrescente.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of replacing Tifton hay and corn with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill on milk production and composition and milk fatty acid profile in lactating Holstein cows. Animals averaged 583 ± 7.07 kg of body weight in the beginning of the trial and were fed diets containing (% of DM: 0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0 or 51

  11. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured.

  12. Vivipary and offspring survival in the epiphytic cactus Epiphyllum phyllanthus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota-Sánchez, J Hugo; Abreu, Deusa D

    2007-01-01

    Vivipary, the germination of seeds before they are shed from the parent plant, is a rare event in angiosperms involving complex ecophysiological processes. Pseudovivipary and cryptovivipary occur in approximately 30 (2%) species of the cactus family. A remarkable case of vivipary in Epiphyllum phyllanthus is described here. Information is provided regarding the biology of viviparous fruits, morphology, mortality, survival rates of viviparous offspring, and some eco-evolutionary implications of this reproductive strategy in the Cactaceae. This epiphytic cactus has no host-specific relationship. A low proportion (33.3%) of individuals produced viviparous fruits. Seed number/fruit varied from 197 to 230 with percentage of viviparous germination from 97.5% to 99%. The viviparous seedlings exhibited normal development and were no different from non-viviparous offspring. Transplanting experiments showed that the first week is critical for seedling establishment, and high mortality occurred in the three treatments used: 69% on the phorophyte surface, 58.6% on the ground, and 44.8% under controlled conditions. The number of survivors gradually stabilized, and the contribution to establishment was comparable in each of the treatments after the acclimation phase. It is suggested that vivipary is associated with thermoregulation, parental care, conspecific nursing, and rapid seedling establishment. Germination is not a limiting factor in the perpetuation of this viviparous species, but seedling establishment is. In viviparous individuals of E. phyllanthus, seedling mortality during establishment rather than failure to germinate within the fruit is a limiting factor affecting local population density. Overall, viviparity is an intrinsic, genetic event involving high metabolic costs favouring germination and dispersal of the fittest offspring regardless of substrate and environmental conditions.

  13. Studies on the Paint Forming Properties of Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes Edulis) Seed Oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Otaigbe, J.O.E; Oriji, O.G; Ekerenam, G.E

    2016-01-01

    Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) seed oils were investigated for their suitability as base materials for oil paint production. Soxhlet extraction of the oils from the powdered seeds using n-hexane gave 3.63% and 10.40% yields for Avocado and African Pear respectively. Proximate analysis and chemical characterization of the seed oils were carried out using standard procedures according to the American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS) and the American Society for Testing ...

  14. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D'Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-10-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca 2+ for muscle contraction. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50

  15. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D’Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Results: Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. Conclusion: The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca2+ for muscle contraction. SUMMARY Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical

  16. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears as affected by planting density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus da Silveira Pasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears at two planting densities. The experiment was carried out during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in one-year-old orchards (2011/2012 of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears, trained in a central-leader system and planted in two densities (2,000 and 4,000 trees per hectare. The assessed parameters were: production per hectare, production per tree, yield efficiency, number of fruit per tree, average fruit weight, trunk diameter increment, fruit firmness, and soluble solid contents. The cumulative yield of 'Rocha' is greater at the higher planting density, whereas the yield efficiency of 'Santa Maria' increases at the lower planting density, as the trees get more mature. Trunk diameter of 'Rocha' also increases at the lower planting density. However, fruit quality parameters in both cultivars are little affected by planting density.

  18. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  19. Hydrothermal carbonization of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes: Role of process parameters on hydrochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maurizio; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Fiori, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes are a potential source of solid biofuel from marginal, dry land. Experiments assessed the effects of temperature (180-250°C), reaction time (0.5-3h) and biomass to water ratio (B/W; 0.07-0.30) on chars produced via hydrothermal carbonization. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated that the three process parameters are critically important to hydrochar solid yield, while B/W drives energy yield. Heating value increased together with temperature and reaction time and was maximized at intermediate B/W (0.14-0.20). Microscopy shows evidence of secondary char formed at higher temperatures and B/W ratios. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric data, microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry suggest that calcium oxalate in the raw biomass remains in the hydrochar; at higher temperatures, the mineral decomposes into CO 2 and may catalyze char/tar decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2≤n≤9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

  1. Green Synthesis of Ag-Cu Nanoalloys Using Opuntia ficus- indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rocha, O.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Hernández-Martínez, A. R.; Gámez-Corrales, R.; Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Britto-Hurtado, R.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic Ag/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained by green synthesis using Opuntia ficus- indica plant extract. Two synthesis methods were applied to obtain nanoparticles with core-shell and Janus morphologies by reversing the order of precursors. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed size of 10 nm and 20 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Other small particles with size of up to 2 nm were also observed. Absorption bands attributed to surface plasmon resonance were detected at 440 nm and 500 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory predicted a breathing mode type (BMT) located at low wavenumber due to small, low-energy clusters of (AgCu) n with n = 2 to 9, showing a certain correlation with the experimental one (at 220 cm-1). The dependence of the BMT on the number of atoms constituting the cluster is also studied.

  2. Evaluation of Electrochemical Behavior of Nopal Extract (Opuntia Ficus- Indica as Possible Corrosion Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Mandujano-Ruíz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main problems of degradation in components, tooling, equipment and even in structural applications, examples of this are the carbon steels. In the present work, the capacity of corrosion inhibition of a biodegradable organic extract from the Nopal plant (Opuntia ficus-indica, for the protection of carbon steel type AISI 1018 was studied adding 50% v/v of the Nopal extract (EN in a solution of H2SO4 (0.6 mol.l-1. Polarization Resistance (LPR and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques were used for the electrochemical evaluation at room temperature for 24 h in order to obtain corrosion rates (Vcorr and inhibition efficiency (IE. Metallographic examination was also carried out to register the surface damage by corrosion. The results showed a reduction of the Vcorr with a maximum IE value of about 84% by adding the organic- liquid extracted from Nopal.

  3. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  4. Effect of irradiation and cold storage on the physiological characteristics of the pear fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; El-Latif, F.A.; Taha, F.

    1988-01-01

    With the aim of extending shelf life of fruits and the effects of gamma irradiation at the 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy dose levels, the present investigation has been undertaken to illustrate, the possible application of gamma irradiation processing to prolong the storage period of mature pear fruit. Significant differences had been found between irradiated and non-irradiated fruits regarding total soluble solids, weight loss, decay, firmness, titrable acidity and moisture content

  5. In vitro rumen fermentation kinetics of diets containing oldman saltbush hay and forage cactus, using a cattle inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.L. Tosto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate, by means of the semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, fermentation kinetics of carbohydrates and degradability of dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM of diets containing oldman saltbush hay levels (8.4; 18.8; 31.2 and 48.3% associated to forage cactus in natura. Pressure readings of the gases were done with a pressure transducer at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 17, 20, 24, 28, 34, 48, 72 and 96h post-inoculation. The rumen kinetics was described by the following parameters: maximum potential of gas production, lag time and production rates of gas (k, fibrous carbohydrates (FC and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC. It could be observed that the addition of oldman saltbush hay to the diets promoted a quadratic effect in the production of gases originated from NFC. However, there was no significant effect on the production of gases originated from FC and on production rates of gases from NFC and FC. The degradability of DM and OM did not differ due to the addition of oldman saltbush hay. The use of 8.4% hay and 74.9% forage cactus promoted the maximum potential of production of gases from the fibrous fraction of diets containing cactus and oldman saltbush hay.

  6. Physico chemical and microbiological changes in nopal (Opuntia spp.) irradiated with gamma rays of cobalt 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez N, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the physico-chemical and microbiological changes which take place in the nopal (Opuntia spp.) after they have been irradiated and stored at environment and refrigeration temperatures in order to determine the level of irradiation dose more adequate for getting them an increase in the storage life, as well as to determine the physico-chemical changes attributed to the irradiation doses used, comparing the obtained results with those ones of non-irradiated nopal samples, which are considered as control samples. The radiation source used was a GAMMABEAM-651 PT, property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of UNAM. The nopals studied are of the variety (Milpa Alta, Opuntia ficus) which were cut and packed in polyethylene bags with and without nitrogen. In order to find the adequate dose level it was used a lot of 200 samples which were treated in sets of 10. They were irradiated in doses of 0.5 to 10 kGy at a dose reason of 3.7 kGy/h. The adequate doses for getting an increase in the storage life, where there was not darkness were of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, allowed doses in the NOM-033-SSA1-1993, it was not found any change in acceptability by flavour, but so in the titled activity values and sugars. The lowest loss of weight was found in the 1.5 kGy dose without nitrogen and the highest in the 2.0 kGy with nitrogen dose. Likewise was determined that with the irradiation treatment in the recommended doses it is diminished the microorganisms growth, obtaining an improvement in the general appearance of the nopals during their storage period. (Author)

  7. Comparison of hypotensive, diuretic and renal effects between cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica and furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Meryem; Al-Waili, Noori; El-Haskoury, Redouan; El-Menyiy, Nawal; Al-Waili, Thia; Al-Waili, Ali; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the diuretic, hypotensive and renal effect of Opuntia ficus-indica in two different species in oral and intravenous administration. Diuretic activity was evaluated in rats with the plant cladode gel and aqueous extract administrated orally, and was evaluated in rabbits with plant extract administered intravenously. Single and repeated doses of cladode gel or aqueous extract of cladode were tested. Urine volume and blood and urine creatinine, sodium and potassium were measured, and creatinine clearance was calculated. The hypotensive effect of lyophilized extract of cladode was evaluated in rabbits. Two polyethylene PE50 catheters were used: one in the jugular vein for the infusion of the plant extract and the other in the carotid for the evaluation of the arterial pressure. The cladode gel or aqueous extract increased urine volume, creatinine clearance and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium without significant effect on serum creatinine or blood urea. Furosemide, gel and aqueous extract of cladode insignificantly lowered plasma potassium in rats. Intravenous administration of the lyophilized extract caused a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure in rabbits with a significant increase in urine volume and urine sodium and potassium; the effect was dose dependent. Intravenous administration of lyophilized extract did not affect plasma sodium or potassium. Gel and aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode have a significant diuretic effect on rats, and the lyophilized extract has a diuretic and hypotensive effect on normotensive rabbits without deterioration in renal function test. Additional studies on active ingredients are essential to pave the way for clinical studies on diuretic and hypotensive effect of the plant. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of the digestion process of Scenedesmus sp. and Opuntia maxima for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Suárez, Juan Luis; Martínez, Alejandro; Carreras, Nely

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Scenedesmus biomass showed low biodegradability and biogas production. • Methane yield and kinetics of the batch process were improved by co-digestion. • Scenedesmus and Opuntia maxima were successfully co-digested in CSTR. • High biogas yields were obtained and no inhibition by ammonia was observed. - Abstract: Scenedesmus biomass is not an adequate substrate for anaerobic digestion due to its low biodegradability and low biogas yield. This study aims to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of Scenedesmus microalgal biomass and Opuntia maxima cladodes, the latter added in order to improve the digestion process. Batch assays were conducted to evaluate possible synergistic effects in different mixtures of both substrates. Mixture with highest methane yield was digested in semi-continuous mode at different VS concentrations. Feedstock composed of 75% O.maxima and 25% Scenedesmus (VS basis) showed the highest methane yield increasing 66.4% and 63.9% that of Scenedesmus and O.maxima, respectively. In semi-continuous mode, ideal organic loading rate (OLR) with 6%VS feed concentration was 4 gVS L −1 d −1 , which yielded 292 ± 39 L CH4 kgVS −1 (15 days HRT). In the case of 8%VS feed concentration ideal OLR was 5.33 gVS L −1 d −1 , which yielded 308 ± 22 L CH4 kgVS −1 (15 days HRT). The co-digestion of O.maxima and Scenedesmus biomass enhanced the anaerobic digestion process and avoided inhibition caused by low C/N ratio of microalgae

  9. Aureobasidium pullulansas a biocontrol agent of blue mold in "Rocha" pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pinto, M M; Moura-Guedes, M C; Barreiro, M G; Pais, I; Santos, M R; Silva, M J

    2006-01-01

    The blue mold of "Rocha" pear caused by Penicillium expansum is an important postharvest disease which is adequately controlled by application of synthetic fungicides. In recent years, strategies like biological control have been considered a desirable alternative to chemicals. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans for control of postharvest decay of pear. A Portuguese isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans was characterized and evaluated for its activity in reducing postharvest blue mold decay of "Rocha" pear caused by Penicillium expansum. Study of optimal conditions for antagonist growth was carried out in six different culture media. The effect of four maturity stages of fruits in the development of A. pullulans was also studied. Biocontrol studies were performed with two concentrations of the antagonist (3 x 10(8) and 4 x 10(9) CFU/ml). A. pullulans growth was significantly different (P Corn Meal Agar (CMA) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media which contains the higher concentration of glucose (20 mg/l). Medium resulted from fruits of the first harvest date presented lower colony diameter. Inoculation of A. pullulans at 3 x 10(8) and 4 x 10(9) CFU/ml reduced the incidence of the disease by 23 and 63%, and reduced the lesion diameter by 36 and 46%, respectively.

  10. ‘PACKHAM’S TRIUMPH’ PEAR RESPONSE TO 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE AND NITRIC OXIDE TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS VINÍCIUS HENDGES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, gas-nitric oxide (NO and sodium nitroprusside (SNP on ripening of ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears. The treatments consisted of T1 control; T2 300 ppb 1-MCP; T3 1 mM SNP; T4 10 ppm NO; and T5 20 ppm NO. The fruit treated with 1-MCP showed significantly higher values for flesh firmness, texture, and peel green color, besides lower respiratory rates and ethylene production. On the other hand, NO and SNP treatments did not reduce fruit respiratory rate and ethylene production. Flesh firmness and textural features were maintained by treating fruit with 20 ppm NO after leaving chambers. Treatments using 1 mM SNP and 20 ppm NO kept peel green color (higher hue angle when compared to control, without decreasing fruit yellowing during the shelf life. The application of 300 ppb 1-MCP prevented buttery texture and yellowing in 'Packham’s Triumph' pear fruit during environment condition exposure. The use NO at 20 ppm kept flesh firmness during storage, however, with subsequent reduction of this variable in environmental conditions. The treatments with 1mM SNP and 20 ppm NO maintained green peel of pear fruit, even after exposure to environmental conditions, but not limiting yellowing.

  11. Development of genic SSR markers from transcriptome sequencing of pear buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao-yan; Liu, Guo-qin; Zong, Yu; Teng, Yuan-wen; Cai, Dan-ying

    2014-04-01

    A total of 8375 genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were discovered from a unigene set assembled from 116282 transcriptomic unigenes in this study. Dinucleotide repeat motifs were the most common with a frequency of 65.11%, followed by trinucleotide (32.81%). A total of 4100 primer pairs were designed from the SSR loci. Of these, 343 primer pairs (repeat length ≥15 bp) were synthesized with an M13 tail and tested for stable amplification and polymorphism in four Pyrus accessions. After the preliminary test, 104 polymorphic genic SSR markers were developed; dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats represented 97.11% (101) of these. Twenty-eight polymorphic genic SSR markers were selected randomly to further validate genetic diversity among 28 Pyrus accessions. These markers displayed a high level of polymorphism. The number of alleles at these SSR loci ranged from 2 to 17, with a mean of 9.43 alleles per locus, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.26 to 0.91. The UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average) cluster analysis grouped the 28 Pyrus accessions into two groups: Oriental pears and Occidental pears, which are congruent to the traditional taxonomy, demonstrating their effectiveness in analyzing Pyrus phylogenetic relationships, enriching rare Pyrus EST-SSR resources, and confirming the potential value of a pear transcriptome database for the development of new SSR markers.

  12. Chemical analysis of nutritional content of prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at varied ages in an organic harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2011-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  13. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuexin; Liu, Zhiming; Yang, Zhiping; Bao, Pengyun; Zhang, Congyao; Ding, Jianfeng

    2014-07-01

    The effects of a diet containing Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on growth and digestive enzyme activity were estimated in juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Groups of sea cucumbers were fed diets containing H. opuntiae C21 at 0 (control), 104, 105, and 106 CFU (colony-forming units)/g feed. Results showed that after 45 d the specific growth rate (SGR) of sea cucumbers fed a C21-supplemented diet at 10 4 CFU/g feed was significantly higher than that of the control ( P sea cucumbers. In addition, after feeding the C21-supplemented diets for 15 d, the sea cucumbers were switched to an unsupplemented diet and C21 was confirmed to be capable of colonizing the intestine for at least 31 d after cessation of feeding. In conclusion, C21 was shown to successfully colonize the intestine of juvenile A. japonicus via dietary supplementation, and improve growth and digestive enzyme activity.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY transcription factors in white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) reveals evolution and patterns under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosan; Li, Kongqing; Xu, Xiaoyong; Yao, Zhenghong; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Shaoling

    2015-12-24

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) constitute one of the largest protein families in higher plants, and its members contain one or two conserved WRKY domains, about 60 amino acid residues with the WRKYGQK sequence followed by a C2H2 or C2HC zinc finger motif. WRKY proteins play significant roles in plant development, and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world and is frequently threatened by abiotic stress, such as drought, affecting growth, development and productivity. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little is known about the WRKY TFs in pear, especially in respond to drought stress at the genome-wide level. We identified a total of 103 WRKY TFs in the pear genome. Based on the structural features of WRKY proteins and topology of the phylogenetic tree, the pear WRKY (PbWRKY) family was classified into seven groups (Groups 1, 2a-e, and 3). The microsyteny analysis indicated that 33 (32%) PbWRKY genes were tandemly duplicated and 57 genes (55.3%) were segmentally duplicated. RNA-seq experiment data and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that PbWRKY genes in different groups were induced by drought stress, and Group 2a and 3 were mainly involved in the biological pathways in response to drought stress. Furthermore, adaptive evolution analysis detected a significant positive selection for Pbr001425 in Group 3, and its expression pattern differed from that of other members in this group. The present study provides a solid foundation for further functional dissection and molecular evolution of WRKY TFs in pear, especially for improving the water-deficient resistance of pear through manipulation of the PbWRKYs.

  16. Production and Characterization of Cosmetic Nanoemulsions Containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill Extract as Moisturizing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar de Azevedo Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill extract (FXE were white, homogeneous and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5–6.0; droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI around 0.200 and a zeta potential from −26.71 to −47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  17. Use of physio-biochemical traits to evaluate the salt tolerance of five opuntia species in the algerian steppes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallouche, B.; Boutekrabt, A.; Hadjkouider, B.; Riahi, L.; Lamine, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, twelve physio-biochemical parameters were estimated to assess the behavior of five Opuntia species in the Algerian steppes (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis, O. amyclea, O. streptacantha, O. robusta and O. engelmanii).Herein, the salt stress was induced using three levels of NaCl (200 mM, 400 mM and 600 mM). Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the chlorophyll level for both young cladode and aged cladode was found to be the most discriminant parameter under salt stress concentrations 200 and 400 mM. The species were clustered in three groups with O. ficus indica f. inermis and O. amyclea being the most tolerant to salinity. For a salt concentration of 600 mM, the ANOVA showed that the chlorophyll content in aged cladode was the most discriminant parameter. The Biplot-based species analysis revealed that O. engelmanii was the most salt tolerant species. However, O. amyclea and O. robusta were found to be the most sensitive. In conclusion, total chlorophyll contents for young cladode and aged cladode, chlorophyll a of aged cladode, and root total soluble sugars can be used as key parameters to identify the salt tolerance for Opuntia species. (author)

  18. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  19. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. cladodes against UVA-induced oxidative stress in normal human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Ganna; Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Imbimbo, Paola; Silipo, Alba; Bonina, Andrea; Rizza, Luisa; Piccoli, Renata; Monti, Daria Maria; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-12-15

    Opuntia ficus-indica L. is known for its beneficial effects on human health, but still little is known on cladodes as a potent source of antioxidants. Here, a direct, economic and safe method was set up to obtain water extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes rich in antioxidant compounds. When human keratinocytes were pre-treated with the extract before being exposed to UVA radiations, a clear protective effect against UVA-induced stress was evidenced, as indicated by the inhibition of stress-induced processes, such as free radicals production, lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. Moreover, a clear protective effect against apoptosis in pre-treated irradiated cells was evidenced. We found that eucomic and piscidic acids were responsible for the anti-oxidative stress action of cladode extract. In conclusion, a bioactive, safe, low-cost and high value-added extract from Opuntia cladodes was obtained to be used for skin health/protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The polysaccharide and low molecular weight components of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes: Structure and skin repairing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Schiraldi, Chiara; D'Agostino, Antonella; Izzo, Elisabetta; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Andrea; Bonina, Francesco; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-02-10

    The Opuntia ficus-indica multiple properties are reflected in the increasing interest of chemists in the identification of its natural components having pharmaceutical and/or cosmetical applications. Here we report the structural elucidation of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage that highlighted the presence of components differing for their chemical nature and the molecular weight distribution. The high molecular weight components were identified as a linear galactan polymer and a highly branched xyloarabinan. The low molecular weight components were identified as lactic acid, D-mannitol, piscidic, eucomic and 2-hydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-butanoic acids. A wound healing assay was performed in order to test the cicatrizing properties of the various components, highlighting the ability of these latter to fasten dermal regeneration using a simplified in vitro cellular model based on a scratched keratinocytes monolayer. The results showed that the whole Opuntia mucilage and the low molecular weight components are active in the wound repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of hyaluronic acid and polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes on the metabolism of human chondrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, A M; Cardile, V; Garufi, F; Puglia, C; Bonina, F; Ronsisvalle, S

    2007-05-04

    Conventional medications in articular disease are often effective for symptom relief, but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favourable influence on the course of the disease. In this study, we assay the anti-inflammatory/chondroprotective effect of some lyophilised extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes and of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the production of key molecules released during chronic inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human chondrocyte culture, stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Further the antioxidant effect of these extracts was evaluated in vitro employing the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test). All the extracts tested in this study showed an interesting profile in active compounds. Particularly some of these extracts were characterized by polyphenolic and polysaccharidic species. In vitro results pointed out that the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes were able to contrast the harmful effects of IL-1 beta. Our data showed the protective effect of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes in cartilage alteration, which appears greater than that elicited by hyaluronic acid (HA) commonly employed as visco-supplementation in the treatment of joint diseases.

  2. Substituição do milho e do feno de capim-tifton por palma forrageira. Produção de proteína microbiana e excreção de uréia e de derivados de purina em vacas lactantes Effects of replacing of corn and Tifton hay with forage cactus on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Tifton hay and corn with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill on microbial protein synthesis and efficiency and N metabolism in lactating Holstein cows. Diets contained (% of DM: 0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0, or 51.0% of forage cactus. Five Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 17 days with 10 days for diet adaptation and seven days for data and sample collection. Urinary volume was estimated based on creatinine excretion in spot urine samples obtained four hours after feeding. Urinary volume (27.62 L, urinary excretion of uric acid (35.78 mmol/day and allantoin (288.42 mmol/day, allantoin in milk (18.11 mmol/day, total allantoin (306.54 mmol/day, total excretion of purine derivatives (342.33 mmol/day, absorbed purines (350.03 mmol/day, microbial protein synthesis (1376.07g/day and efficiency (115.38 g/kgNDT were not affected by increasing the levels of forage cactus in the diet. The urinary excretion of urea (mg/kg BW and the concentrations of urea and urea-N in plasma (mg/dL decreased linearly while the concentrations of urea and urea-N in milk were not affected when the levels of forage cactus were increased in the diet. Corn can be completely replaced with forage cactus because microbial protein synthesis was not changed and urinary excretion of urea decreased linearly. However, Tifton hay was necessary in the diet to maintain microbial production.

  3. Critical points and magnitude of impacts on the packing line: effect on ripening and quality of 'Packham's Triumph' pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Pasini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pears have a very sensitive epidermis and are prone to signal mechanical blemishes, which result in reduced visual quality and low consumer acceptance. The objective of this work was to identify critical points and the magnitude of impact forces on a packing line at a commercial packinghouse. The effect of injuries on ripening and quality of ´Packham´s Triumph´ pears was also evaluated after cold storage. The packing line was scrutinized on its transfer points, fruit drop heights and cushioning overlays, which allowed to acquire the maximum accelerations on each spot. The maximum acceleration forces were reproduced in the lab with ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears to evaluate the effects on fruit quality after cold storage. Four critical points were noticed on the packing line: at the transfer from the conveyor belt to the lifting rollers, at the transfer from the lifting rollers to the washing ramp with rotatory brushes, at the entrance to the singulator at the end of the conveyor belt and at the drop from the sizer to the packing stalls. Ripening of ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears invariably came about during cold storage, and independently of the imposed impacts. The impacts under the circumstances of the test did not affect the quality of ´Packham´s Triumph´ pears kept for up to 120 days at cold storage followed by five days at room temperature.

  4. Evaluation of cinnamon essential oil microemulsion and its vapor phase for controlling postharvest gray mold of pears (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Zhao, Ruipeng; Yu, Ling; Zhang, Yunbin; He, Yan; Yao, Jie

    2014-03-30

    Essential oil of cinnamon (CM) is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides. Thus this work aimed to investigate the possible effects of CM microemulsions on decay developments and qualitative properties of pears. The decay incidence of samples treated with 500 µg L⁻¹ microemulsion was significantly reduced by 18.7% in comparison to that of 500 µg L⁻¹ non-microemulsion after 4 days' storage at 20 °C. In the vapor phase, the CM microemulsion with the lowest concentration had the best control for decay incidence and lesion diameter. The interval between inoculations also influenced decay development. Pears treated with Botrytis cinerea and immediately followed by CM microemulsion showed the lowest decay incidence. Moreover, in the natural decay experiment, the percentage of rotted pears was 3.8% in the CM microemulsion treatment and 5.8% in the control. CM microemulsion delayed the loss of ascorbic acid, yet it had no significant influence on pear qualities such as firmness and color. CM microemulsion may be an alternative way to control the gray mold of pears without a negative influence on its qualities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Ecophysiological and Anatomical Mechanisms behind the Nurse Effect: Which Are More Important? A Multivariate Approach for Cactus Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Cacti establish mostly occurs under the canopy of nurse plants which provide a less stressful micro-environment, although mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. The impact of the combination of light and watering treatments on Opuntia streptacantha (Cactaceae) seedlings was examined. Methods/Principal Findings Ecophysiological [titratable acidity, osmotic potential (‘solute potential’, Ψs), relative growth rate (RGR) and their components (NAR, SLA, and LWR)], anatomical (chloroplast density, chloroplast frequency, and cell area), and environmental [photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and air temperature] sets of variables were analyzed, assessing relationships between them and measuring the intensity of the relationships. Three harvests were carried out at days 15, 30, and 45. Ψs and acidity content were the most important responses for seedling establishment. The main anatomical and environmental variables were chloroplast density and water availability, respectively. Opuntia streptacantha seedlings establish better in the shade-watering treatment, due to higher Ψs and acidity, unaffected chloroplasts, and lower PPFD. In addition, the chloroplasts of cells under high-light and non-watering treatment were clumped closer to the center of the cytosol than those under shade-drought, to avoid photoinhibition and/or to better distribute or utilize the penetrating light in the green plant tissue. Conclusions Opuntia seedlings grow better under the shade, although they can tolerate drought in open spaces by increasing and moving chloroplasts and avoiding drastic decreases in their Ψs. This tolerance could have important implications for predicting the impact of climate change on natural desert regeneration, as well as for planning reforestation-afforestation practices, and rural land uses. PMID:24312310

  6. In vitro ruminal fermentation kinetic of diets containing forage cactus with urea and different starch sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann dos Santos Luz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate fermentation kinetic of diets based on cactus forage enriched with urea and Tifton 85 hay, containing different starch sources, using semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. Treatments were disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications, where concentrates were formulated as follows: cassava roots (FSMa, semi flint corn grains (FSMiSD, dent corn grains (FSMiD and wheat bran (FTMa. All diets were formulated to obtain 15% of crude protein. Gas pressure were measured 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after inoculation. For fast phase maximum gas volume (Vf1, both treatments containing corn did not differ (P>0.05. FTMa differed (P<0.05 from diets composed with corn, as main starch source. Specific degradation rate of fast fraction (Kd1 was higher (P<0.05 on FSMa and FTMa diets, compared with corn diets. Colonization time (L showed lower values (P<0.05 for FTMa diet. The lowest total gas production was observed on FTMa and the highest for FSMiD, varying from 225.49 to 268.31 mL/g, respectively. Cassava roots as starch source contributes to a faster fermentation, compared to both corns, allowing a better synchronization with faster degradation nitrogen sources.

  7. Soil water dynamics and evapotranspiration of forage cactus clones under rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thieres George Freire da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate soil water dynamics in areas cultivated with forage cactus clones and to determine how environmental conditions and crop growth affect evapotranspiration. The study was conducted in the municipality of Serra Talhada, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Crop growth was monitored through changes in the cladode area index (CAI and through the soil cover fraction, calculated at the end of the cycle. Real evapotranspiration (ET of the three evaluated clones was obtained as the residual term in the soil water balance method. No difference was observed between soil water balance components, even though the evaluated clones were of different genus and had different CAI increments. Accumulated ET was of 1,173 mm during the 499 days of the experiment, resulting in daily average of 2.35 mm. The CAI increases the water consumption of the Orelha de Elefante Mexicana clone. In dry conditions, the water consumption of the Miúda clone responds more slowly to variation in soil water availability. The lower evolution of the CAI of the IPA Sertânia clone, during the rainy season, leads to a higher contribution of the evaporation component in ET. The atmospheric demand controls the ET of clones only when there is higher soil water availability; in this condition, the water consumption of the Miúda clone decreases more rapidly with the increase of atmospheric demand.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  9. Combining Ferric Salt and Cactus Mucilage for Arsenic Removal from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dawn I; Stebbins, Daniela M; Alcantar, Norma A

    2016-03-01

    New methods to remediate arsenic-contaminated water continue to be studied, particularly to fill the need for accessible methods that can significantly impact developing communities. A combination of cactus mucilage and ferric (Fe(III)) salt was investigated as a flocculation-coagulation system to remove arsenic (As) from water. As(V) solutions, ferric nitrate, and mucilage suspensions were mixed and left to stand for various periods of time. Visual and SEM observations confirmed the flocculation action of the mucilage as visible flocs formed and settled to the bottom of the tubes within 3 min. The colloidal suspensions without mucilage were stable for up to 1 week. Sample aliquots were tested for dissolved and total arsenic by ICP-MS and HGAFS. Mucilage treatment improved As removal (over Fe(III)-only treatment); the system removed 75-96% As in 30 min. At neutral pH, removal was dependent on Fe(III) and mucilage concentration and the age of the Fe(III) solution. The process is fast, achieving maximum removal in 30 min, with the majority of As removed in 10-15 min. Standard jar tests with 1000 μg/L As(III) showed that arsenic removal and settling rates were pH-dependent; As removal was between 52% (high pH) and 66% (low pH).

  10. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  11. Disruption rates for one vulnerable soil in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Sturm, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Rates of soil disruption from hikers and vehicle traffic are poorly known, particularly for arid landscapes. We conducted an experiment in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in western Arizona, USA, on an air-dry very fine sandy loam that is considered to be vulnerable to disruption. We created variable-pass tracks using hikers, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), and a four-wheel drive vehicle (4WD) and measured changes in cross-track topography, penetration depth, and bulk density. Hikers (one pass = 5 hikers) increased bulk density and altered penetration depth but caused minimal surface disruption up to 100 passes; a minimum of 10 passes were required to overcome surface strength of this dry soil. Both ATV and 4WD traffic significantly disrupted the soil with one pass, creating deep ruts with increasing passes that rendered the 4WD trail impassable after 20 passes. Despite considerable soil loosening (dilation), bulk density increased in the vehicle trails, and lateral displacement created berms of loosened soil. This soil type, when dry, can sustain up to 10 passes of hikers but only one vehicle pass before significant soil disruption occurs; greater disruption is expected when soils are wet. Bulk density increased logarithmically with applied pressure from hikers, ATV, and 4WD.

  12. Resolving a Prickly Situation: Involving Stakeholders in Invasive Cactus Management in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Kaplan, Haylee; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2016-05-01

    The regulation and management of alien species can be contentious, particularly when the stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who suffer the costs. We propose a consultative process involving relevant stakeholders in invasive species management decisions. The process involves (1) the identification of relevant stakeholders, (2) assessing their perceptions, (3) enhancing interaction between stakeholders, (4) assessing changes in stakeholders' perceptions following interactions with other stakeholders, and (5) developing management recommendations in collaboration with stakeholders. We demonstrate the application of the process using the family Cactaceae ('cacti') in South Africa. Many species of cacti have been introduced to the country over the past two centuries, mostly for horticulture, food and fodder, and hundreds of other species have been introduced in the past few decades (or are likely to be introduced soon) for horticulture. Using the proposed process enabled the negotiation and participation of all stakeholders in decision making and helped minimize contentious situations by clarifying stakeholder's beliefs and exploring consensus solutions. Consequently, management objectives were broadly supported by all stakeholders. These results will be included in a national cactus management strategy for South Africa.

  13. Forensic identification of CITES protected slimming cactus (Hoodia) using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathier, Gerard; van der Niet, Timotheus; Peelen, Tamara; van Vugt, Rogier R; Eurlings, Marcel C M; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Slimming cactus (Hoodia), found only in southwestern Africa, is a well-known herbal product for losing weight. Consequently, Hoodia extracts are sought-after worldwide despite a CITES Appendix II status. The failure to eradicate illegal trade is due to problems with detecting and identifying Hoodia using morphological and chemical characters. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of molecular identification of Hoodia based on DNA barcoding. Screening of nrITS1 and psbA-trnH DNA sequences from 26 accessions of Ceropegieae resulted in successful identification, while conventional chemical profiling using DLI-MS led to inaccurate detection and identification of Hoodia. The presence of Hoodia in herbal products was also successfully established using DNA sequences. A validation procedure of our DNA barcoding protocol demonstrated its robustness to changes in PCR conditions. We conclude that DNA barcoding is an effective tool for Hoodia detection and identification which can contribute to preventing illegal trade. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the rare and endangered cactus Uebelmannia pectinifera (Cactaceae) and its congeneric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, E M; Cidade, F W; Silva, G A R; Machado, M C

    2014-12-04

    The cactus genus Uebelmannia includes 3 narrow endemic species associated with rocky savanna habitats in eastern South America. Because of their rarity and illegal over-collection, all of these species are endangered. Taxonomic uncertainties resulting from dramatic local variation in morphology within Uebelmannia species preclude effective conservation efforts, such as the reintroduction or translocation of plants, to restore declining populations. In this study, we developed and characterized 18 perfect, dinucleotide simple-sequence repeat markers for U. pectinifera, the most widely distributed species in the genus, and tested the cross-amplification of these markers in the remaining congeneric species and subspecies. All markers were polymorphic in a sample from 2 U. pectinifera populations. The effective number of alleles ranged from 1.6 to 8.7, with an average per population of 3.3 (SE ± 0.30) and 4.5 (SE ± 0.50). Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.375 to 0.847 and 8-10 loci showed departures from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium in the analyzed populations. Based on the observed polymorphism level of each marker, as well as the analysis of null allele presence and evidence of amplification of duplicate loci, a subset of 12 loci can be used as reliable markers to investigate the genetic structure, diversity, and species limits of the Uebelmannia genus.

  15. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals that Ethylene/H2O2-mediated hypersensitive response and program cell death determine the compatible interaction of Sand pear and Alternaria Alternata

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major production restriction on sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) is black spot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata. However, pear response mechanism to A. alternata is unknown at molecular level. Here, host responses of a resistant cultivar Cuiguan (CG) and a susceptible cult...

  16. Opuntia spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICAP

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo 5 (2), 167-183 (in Spanish). ... In: La Contribución del sector pecuario a la seguridad alimentaria en México. Eds: Chay, A. ... SAS, 2003. Statistical Analysis Software, Version 9.1.3. SAS ...

  17. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  18. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  19. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.: Genome-Wide Identification, Classification and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Peng eCao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although some MYBs have been reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes. The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the twenty genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear.

  20. Genetic, metabolite and developmental determinism of fruit friction discolouration in pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Munazza; Brewer, Lester; Johnston, Jason; McGhie, Tony K; Gardiner, Susan E; Heyes, Julian A; Chagné, David

    2014-09-16

    The unattractive appearance of the surface of pear fruit caused by the postharvest disorder friction discolouration (FD) is responsible for significant consumer dissatisfaction in markets, leading to lower returns to growers. Developing an understanding of the genetic control of FD is essential to enable the full application of genomics-informed breeding for the development of new pear cultivars. Biochemical constituents [phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid (AsA)], polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, as well as skin anatomy, have been proposed to play important roles in FD susceptibility in studies on a limited number of cultivars. However, to date there has been no investigation on the biochemical and genetic control of FD, employing segregating populations. In this study, we used 250 seedlings from two segregating populations (POP369 and POP356) derived from interspecific crosses between Asian (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai and P. bretschneideri Rehd.) and European (P. communis) pears to identify genetic factors associated with susceptibility to FD. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based linkage maps suitable for QTL analysis were developed for the parents of both populations. The maps for population POP369 comprised 174 and 265 SNP markers for the male and female parent, respectively, while POP356 maps comprised 353 and 398 SNP markers for the male and female parent, respectively. Phenotypic data for 22 variables were measured over two successive years (2011 and 2012) for POP369 and one year (2011) only for POP356. A total of 221 QTLs were identified that were linked to 22 phenotyped variables, including QTLs associated with FD for both populations that were stable over the successive years. In addition, clear evidence of the influence of developmental factors (fruit maturity) on FD and other variables was also recorded. The QTLs associated with fruit firmness, PPO activity, AsA concentration and concentration of polyphenol compounds as well as FD are the first

  1. Allergenic pollens and spores in the working environment of Japanese pear farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, H; Uchida, M; Hayashi, S; Yamada, N

    2007-01-01

    Occupational allergies such as pollinosis are reported in several agricultural works in Japan. Many pollens and spores were observed in Japanese pear orchard during the artificial pollination season. By the study on daily symptoms in an allergic farmer, we confirmed that the pollinosis symptoms were most common and most severe during the artificial pollination. These results suggest that the exposure to allergenic pollens and spores induces allergic symptoms. Thus, caution should be paid for the avoidance of the exposure to these allergenic pollens and spores to prevent the allergy.

  2. Preparation of the cactus-like porous manganese oxide assisted with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Yan, Gang; Xu, Guofeng; Xue, Qingrui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Lab of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • The cactus-like porous MnO{sub 2} was synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted with SDS. • The MnO{sub 2} exhibits a max specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} (0.2 A g{sup −1}, 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). • Excellent cycling stability: 92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: The cactus-like porous manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method assisted with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The morphology, composition, property of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the sample without surfactant was composed of nanoflakes which piling up together, whereas in the presence of the surfactant, the MnO{sub 2} samples with the max specific surface of 321.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} showed a porous cactus-like microstructure, consisted of uniform nanowires and porous nanoflakes. The electrochemical performances of the MnO{sub 2} with and without surfactant were analyzed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS) and Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge (GCD) tests. The results showed that the MnO{sub 2} assisted with 1 wt.% SDS displayed a higher specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} at the current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} compared with the MnO{sub 2} without surfactant (134.8 F g{sup −1}). And such MnO{sub 2} samples with higher specific capacitance also afford an excellent cyclic stability with the capacity retention of approximately 92.9% after 1000 cycles in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. The superior capacitive performance of the as-prepared materials could be attributed to its unique cactus-like porous structure, which provided good electronic conductivity, large specific surface area as

  3. Iodine application increased ascorbic acid content and modified the vascular tissue in opuntia ficus-indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuna, H.T.G.; Morales, R.; Rubio, E.M.; Mendoza, A.B.; Ruvalcaba, R.M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discern the effect of applying both iodide and iodate to Opuntia ficus indica irrigation. The effect of iodate (KIO/sub 3/, 10-4 M) and iodide (KI, 10-4 M) on plant growth, yield and morphology was studied. Experiments were carried in three samples under tunnel conditions. In the last sampling, iodine species (KIO/sub 3/, KI) caused a negative effect in biomass. The amount of ascorbic acid, however, was increased over 51% in both iodine treatments. Phosphorus (0.26%), iron (50 ppm), and magnesium (1402 ppm) increases were also observed with iodate treatment in the first sampling, and increases in potassium (46.8 ppm) were apparent in the second. Iodide treatment increased the amounts of copper (1.02 ppm) and manganese (32.80 ppm) in the first sampling. Iodate treatment modified the number of xylem vessels and increased both the mucilage area and amount of druses. In general this study shows that iodate increases the amount of ascorbic acid and the morphology of the vascular tissue. (author)

  4. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp (AP-BL) ) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp (AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp (AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  5. Extraction and characterization of three polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Kriaa, Mouna; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-11-01

    The chemical extraction and the characterization of polysaccharides from mucilage (MC), pectin (PC) and total pectic mucilage fraction (TFC) of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activities was investigated. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups corresponding to polysaccharides. Uronic acid and the total sugar contents of PC were higher than those of TFC and MC whereas ash content of MC was considerably more important. In addition, the findings showed that all the samples had little protein content and low average molecular weight compared to the results mentioned in literature. Furthermore, MC reached not only the highest water (WHC) and oil holding (OHC) capacities (7.81g/g and 1.34g/g, respectively) but also the highest antioxidant properties (DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities, β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity and reducing power). However, PC had the strongest emulsifying and foaming properties. As for TFC, it had low WHC, OHC and emulsifying properties whereas it had higher foaming properties than MC and greater antioxidant properties compared to PC. These outcomes can encourage the use of PC as a surfactant and MC and TFC as natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Antunes-Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7±5.0%, resp. without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4±5.7% equating the indomethacin effects (69.5±5.3%. Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  7. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of isorhamnetin glycosides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  8. Depolymerization of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica: Antioxidant and antiglycated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, Mohamed Aymen; Hafsa, Jawhar; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Majdoub, Hatem

    2015-08-01

    The extraction, purification and degradation of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiglycated activities in vitro were investigated. The optimization of the extraction showed that extraction by ultrasound at 40 °C presented the best carbohydrates yield. The degradation of the extracted polysaccharides was achieved by free radical depolymerization with H2O2 in the presence of copper(II) acetate for various reaction times. Sugar contents were determined by colorimetric assays. The macromolecular characteristics of the different isolated and degraded carbohydrates were carried by size exclusion chromatography (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI). These experiments showed that all samples are polysaccharides, which are probably pectins and that molecular weight (Mw) has decreased from 6,800,000 to 14,000 g/mol after 3 h of depolymerization without changing the structure. Preliminary antioxidant and antiglycated tests indicated that degraded polysaccharides for 2 and 3 h showed even better antioxidant and antiglycated activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos; Allen, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  10. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  11. Optimization of enzymatic extraction of pectin from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes after mucilage removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Friji, Marwa; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2018-02-15

    In this study, pectin was isolated from Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes after removing mucilage using the xylanase and cellulase. The process variables were optimized by the Box Behnken design with three factors at three levels. The optimal extraction condition obtained was: liquid to solid (LS), cellulase to xylanase and enzymes to matter ratios of 22ml/g, 2:1U/U and 4U/g, respectively. The simulated extraction yield of 17.91% was validated by the experimental result (16.67±0.30). The enzyme-extracted pectin from OFI cladodes (EAEPC) was low methylated, with a high uronic acid content, a water and oil holding capacity of 5.42g/g and 1.23g/g, respectively, a good foam and emulsion stability and important DPPH radical scavenging activity. Both the OFI cladodes and enzymatic process present promising alternatives to traditional sources and extraction processes of pectin, respectively. EAEPC thus represents a promising additive in food industries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  13. Pectin from Opuntia ficus indica: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Giacomazza, Daniela; Dahmoune, Farid; Mangione, Maria Rosalia; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Rosa; Costa, Maria Assunta; Guarrasi, Valeria; Madani, Khodir

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of water-soluble pectin (WSP) from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes was performed using Response Surface Methodology. The effect of extraction time (X 1 ), microwave power (X 2 ), pH (X 3 ) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X 4 ) on the extraction yield was examined. The optimum conditions of MAE were as follows: X 1 =2.15min; X 2 =517W; X 3 =2.26 and X 4 =2g/30.6mL. The maximum obtained yield of pectin extraction was 12.57%. Total carbohydrate content of WSP is about 95.5% including 34.4% of Galacturonic acid. Pectin-related proteins represent only the 0.66% of WSP mass. HPSEC and light scattering analyses reveal that WSP is mostly constituted of high molecular pectin and FTIR measurements show that the microwave treatment does not alter the chemical structure of WSP, in which Galacturonic acid content and yield are 34.4% and 4.33%, respectively. Overall, application of MAE can give rise to high quality pectin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extraction, characterization and gelling behavior enhancement of pectins from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Delattre, Cédric; Pierre, Guillaume; Michaud, Philippe; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Dahmoune, Farid; Madani, Khodir

    2016-01-01

    Total Pectins Fraction (TPF) was extracted at room temperature from dried cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica. TPF is constituted of three pectic fractions WSP, CSP and ASP, which are made up of 66.6%, 44.3% and 81.1% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, respectively. The antioxidant ability of TPF increased with the concentration increasing. It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90% and chelated 90% of ferrous ions at 5 g/L. FTIR study was carried out. Strong characteristic absorption peaks at 1,618 cm(-1) assigned to the vibration of COO(-) group of galacturonic acid. In the fingerprint region, we noticed three well-defined peaks at 1054, 1085, and 1,154 cm(-1) characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. TPF are non-gelling pectins. The co-crosslinking of TPF with carrageenan was carried out and the gelling behavior was successfully improved. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel was obtained with 82% of TPF and 18% of carrageenan (w/w). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting Aging with Functional Food: Pasta with Opuntia Single-Arm Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Candore, Giuseppina; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Aldo; Gambino, Caterina Maria; Ruisi, Paolo; Caruso, Calogero; Vasto, Sonya; Accardi, Giulia

    2018-06-01

    Interventions to extend life span represent the new perspective in aging investigation. Healthy dietary habits are important modifiable factors that can favor a healthy aging phenotype. Many studies have demonstrated benefits for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus resulting from the traditional Mediterranean foods. Opuntia Ficus Indica (OFI), widespread in the Mediterranean basin, belongs to the Cactaceae family. It is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, products containing extracts from OFI fruits or cladodes have been used to control obesity and other metabolic parameters, such as glycemia and lipid profile. The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of pasta with 3% of OFI cladode extracts added to show its beneficial effect in human health. We performed a single arm longitudinal intervention study in 42 healthy volunteers, administrating 500 g/week of this functional pasta for 30 days. Our pasta had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties with putative effect on the aging process and related metabolic diseases. We also demonstrated a hypoglycemic effect. The results are preliminary, but it is possible to speculate that our pasta could be considered an effective food for the prevention of age-related metabolic disorders.

  16. Experimental binding of lead to a low cost on biosorbent: Nopal (Opuntia streptacantha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miretzky, Patricia; Muñoz, Carolina; Carrillo-Chávez, Alejandro

    2008-03-01

    The use of nopal cladodes (Opuntia streptacantha) as raw material for Pb(2+) biosorption was investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine Pb(2+) sorption capacity and the efficiency of the sorption process under different pH, initial Pb(2+) and nopal biomass concentrations. The experimental data showed a good fit to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. The maximum adsorption capacity for Pb(2+) was 0.14 mmol g(-1) with an efficiency higher than 94% (pH 5.0 and 2.5 g L(-1) nopal biomass). The Pb(2+) kinetics were best described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. The rate constant, the initial sorption rate and the equilibrium sorption capacity were determined. The practical implication of this study is the development of an effective and economic technology in which the nopal biomass did not undergo any chemical or physical pretreatment, which added to nopal abundance in Mexico and its low cost makes it a good option for Pb(2+) removal from contaminated waters.

  17. [Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; de León, C; Ariza-Andraca, R; Bañales-Ham, M B; López-Ledesma, R; Lozoya, X

    1989-01-01

    To assess if a dehydrated extract of nopal stems retains the effect on glycemia of the entire nopal stems two experiments were performed. A. Six patients with type II diabetes mellitus in fasting condition received 30 capsules containing 10.1 +/- 0.3 g of the extract, and serum glucose levels were measured hourly from 0 to 180 minutes. B. Six healthy volunteers received 30 capsules with the extract followed by 74 g of dextrose orally. Serum glucose measurements were made in a similar fashion. In each experiment a control test with empty capsules was performed. Nopal extract did not reduce fasting glycemia in diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the extract diminished the increase of serum glucose which followed a dextrose load. Peak serum glucose was 20.3 +/- 18.2 mg/dl (X +/- SD) lower in the test with nopal than in the control one (P less than 0.025). Dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) did not show acute hypoglycemic effect, although could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  18. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar as Biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa Icela; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela Alejandra; Juárez-Santillán, Luis Felipe; Martínez-Ugalde, Ivan; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Lucho-Constantino, Carlos Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the use of a natural adsorbent like nopal (Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar) for removing cadmium from aqueous solutions with low concentrations of this metal. Two treatments were applied to the cladodes: a dehydration to get dehydrated nopal (DHN) and heating up to 90°C to obtain a thermally treated nopal (TN). After examining the effect of various pH values (2-7), the capacity of each biosorbent was examined in batch sorption tests at different dosages (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 mg L(-1)). The results indicated that adsorption of cadmium to biomass of DHN and TN was highly dependent on pH and biosorbent dosage. The best removal of cadmium (53.3%, corresponding to q e of 0.155 mg g(-1)) was obtained at pH 4.0 by using the TN sorbent. Infrared and Raman spectra confirmed that cadmium removal occurred via adsorption to -OH functional groups.

  19. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar as Biosorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Icela Beltrán-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the use of a natural adsorbent like nopal (Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar for removing cadmium from aqueous solutions with low concentrations of this metal. Two treatments were applied to the cladodes: a dehydration to get dehydrated nopal (DHN and heating up to 90°C to obtain a thermally treated nopal (TN. After examining the effect of various pH values (2–7, the capacity of each biosorbent was examined in batch sorption tests at different dosages (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 mg L−1. The results indicated that adsorption of cadmium to biomass of DHN and TN was highly dependent on pH and biosorbent dosage. The best removal of cadmium (53.3%, corresponding to qe of 0.155 mg g−1 was obtained at pH 4.0 by using the TN sorbent. Infrared and Raman spectra confirmed that cadmium removal occurred via adsorption to –OH functional groups.

  20. Analgesic Potential of Opuntia dillenii and Its Compounds Opuntiol and Opuntioside Against Pain Models in Mice

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    Faheema Siddiqui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia dillenii (Nagphana traditionally used against inflammation and also possess analgesic effect. Thus in the present study analgesic properties of O. dillenii cladode methanol extract, its fractions obtained via vacuum liquid chromatography along with isolated α-pyrones, opuntiol and its glucoside, opuntioside were analyzed. The acetic acid-induced writhes were reduced by O. dillenii test agents with opuntioside being most effective (IC 50 26 ± 0.9 mg/kg and equipotent to diclofenac and β-sitosterol. Consistently, it also elicited most potent effect (IC 50: 28 ± 1.1 and 24 ± 1.2 mg/kg during early and late phases of formalin-induced paw licking, producing effect similar to diclofenac and indomethacin. It was also most effective in hot plate test. Naloxone (opioid antagonist reversed the analgesic effects of extract and fractions but failed to antagonize the opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effects. In conclusion, edible O. dillenii extract, its fractions, opuntiol and opuntioside reduced peripheral and centrally mediated pain via opioid dependent and independent systems. Among them opuntioside emerged as most effective analgesic possibly due to the presence of glucose moiety at position 7 of its α-pyrone ring. This is the first report of opuntiol and opuntioside analgesic effect which may serve as lead compounds in designing of new analgesics.