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Sample records for cactus moth cactoblastis

  1. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  2. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  3. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  4. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  5. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the number of times that males of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) mate under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were provided to each male at 24 h intervals until male death. Females removed from the containers were dissected to ascertain their mating ...

  6. Mating frequency of the male cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of three constant temperatures (20°, 25° and 30°C) on the rate of development and life history of the invasive cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). Results from these laboratory experiments were used to predict C. cactorum rate of development in the field during...

  7. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Science.gov (United States)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  8. Influence of radiation dose on the level of F1 sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined inherited sterility effects on the F1 and F2 generations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), in order to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would fully sterilize F1-generation moths, which would result in no viable offspring when F1 males were inbred- or out-crossed ...

  9. National preventive campaign against the cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mexico has the highest genetic diversity of cactus (Opuntia spp.), with 107 species of this genus (51 species of Platyopuntia and 56 of Cilyndropuntia; 38 native to Mexico). It is estimated that from cactus growing areas 150,000 ha are for forage, 60,000 ha for fruit production, 10,500 ha for green vegetable production and 100 ha for rearing mealy-bugs for dye production. In addition, wild cactus areas in the country cover approximately 3,000,000 ha. Cactus in Mexico is an important resource for human and livestock food diet. It is used as a mechanism to prevent soil erosion. It is a great source to generate employment, is the most important component of genetic biodiversity, and host for a wide variety of wildlife. The cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) in its larval stage feeds on Opuntias spp., therefore, it has been used worldwide as a control agent against cactus species considered as exotic invasives. C. cactorum was introduced into countries where some cactus species have become invasive species (Australia 1925, South Africa 1933, Hawaii 1950 and West Indies 1960). Since its introduction, either voluntary or accidentally, in the Caribbean, including Nevis Islands, Monserrat, Antigua, Haiti, Bahamas and Virgin Islands, the native population of Opuntias spp. have been seriously affected. The insect was found in Florida in 1989 and has already spread to several States in the southeast, and could be further spread to the southwest of the USA, moving towards Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and threatening areas with a vast presence of Opuntias spp., and as a consequence the potential of entry into Mexico. In response, the Mexican Government through the Plant Health General Directorate (SENASICA-SAGARPA), has implemented phytosanitary measures through a National Campaign to prevent the entry of the cactus moth. Actions Plans: A) To prevent the introduction of cactus moth into Mexico: - Risk analysis of the potential impact of cactus moth in terms of the

  10. An international cooperative effort to protect Opuntia cactus resources in the American Southwest and Mexico from the South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The South American Cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was intentionally introduced to an island in the Caribbean in the 1950’s and eventually made its way to the Florida peninsula by 1989. In 2004, the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APH...

  11. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  12. Trail marking by the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to t...

  13. New insecticides for control of the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) has successfully controlled several species of invasive prickly pear cacti (Cactaceae: Opuntioideae - Opuntia) in Australia and in many other parts of the world. However, in 1989 C. cactorum was detected in the Florida Keys. Its rapid spread along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts has raised concerns about its unavoidable impact on native Opuntia cacti in the southern United States and in Mexico. The current infestation of C. cactorum in Florida is affecting native Opuntia species distributed throughout large expanses of natural lands (O. stricta [Haworth] Haworth, O. humifusa [Raf.] Raffinesque and O. pusilla [Haworth] Nutall), as well as ornamental cactus plants (O. ficus-indica [L.] Miller and O. stricta) in urban settings. Even though chemical control would not be a practical or environmentally responsible tactic to protect the millions of ha of natural Opuntia vegetation, insecticide controls should be evaluated for their potential use in urban settings and in culturally managed plantings of Opuntia (nurseries, backyards, landscaped public lands) either alone or in combination with other suppression tactics. Furthermore, insecticides could be used to treat ornamental Opuntia in nursery settings to ensure that no infested plants are being transported and sold to the public. We conducted laboratory assays of nine products registered for use on ornamentals in Florida for their ovicidal and larvicidal activity against the invasive cactus moth C. cactorum. One hundred percent mortality (or 0% survival) of one-day-old eggs was obtained when egg stick sections were treated with cypermethrin, spinosad or imidacloprid. These products were equally as effective when assayed against eggs that were fully embryonated (28 days old) or when cladodes of O. stricta were exposed to neonates 24 hours after dipping or to cladodes that were dipped and stored for 30 days before exposure. When Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel) was used to prevent

  14. External morphology of the egg of the native (Melitara prodenialis) and exotic (Cactoblastis cactorum) cactus moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the chorionic surface of two pyralids that feed on Opuntia cactus. The chorionic surface of Cactoblastis cactorum has a reticulate pattern due to the ridges on the surface and aeropyles. The surface has a granular appearance at low m...

  15. COMPARATIVE PHENOLOGY OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM AND MELITARA PRODENIALIS (LEPIDOPTERA): PESTS OF CACTUS IN FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We surveyed native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta) at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL from September 2006 – September 2007 for the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum and the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis. Every week, we visually counted the numbers and reco...

  16. Developing the sterile insect technique for area-wide management of the invasive cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Although well known as a highly effective biological control agent against invasive Opuntia spp., Cactoblastis cactorum has become a serious threat to both native and cultivated Opuntia (cactus pear) species throughout the world. Its presence in the Caribbean and rapidly expanding range in the southeastern USA is an imminent threat to the biodiversity, and to the forage, vegetable and fruit production of the southwestern USA and Mexico. In order to address the critical nature of this threat, a strategic plan is under development by USDA-APHIS-PPQ in cooperation with USDA-ARS, Department of Interior-US Geological Survey (USGS), Mississippi State University, Colorado State University, the Nature Conservancy, the Cactus and Succulent Society of America, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Mexico's national plant protection organisation, SAGARPA (Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca, y Alimentacion), which has a strong emphasis on the development of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to control, contain, or mitigate the geographical expansion of C. cactorum from the southeastern US to the desert southwest and Mexico. In an effort to develop an SIT programme against C. cactorum, we have conducted research on radiation biology, mass-rearing on artificial diets, handling and transportation of irradiated moths, and efficacy trials for irradiated/released moths. A dose of 200Gy administered to adults was effective in completely sterilising the females, reducing the reproductive rate of males and producing complete sterility in the progeny of irradiated males. Evaluations of C. cactorum development on artificial diets and diet presentation systems have indicated that C. cactorum can be reared more efficiently on artificial diets than on Opuntia cladodes. To evaluate the efficacy of laboratory-reared moths, we released partially sterile males alone or in combination with fully sterile females at a 5:1 or 10:1 (treated

  17. Don't let cacto blast us: Development of a bi-national plan to stop the spread of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Until its appearance in the United States (USA) as an invasive insect, the South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), was considered the undisputed poster child for biological control of weeds because of its dramatic role in reducing expansive populations of unwanted prickly pear cacti in Australia and elsewhere around the world. Since its detection in south Florida in 1989, the cactus moth has expanded its range north along the Atlantic Coast as far as Bull Island near Charleston, South Carolina and west along the Gulf Coast as far as Dauphin Island, Alabama. Prickly pear cactus is of minor importance in the USA as a domestically produced food crop. However, prickly pear cactus has significant value as an ecological plant, adding to wildlife habitat, ecosystem structure and biodiversity in both developed and undeveloped areas. Additionally, further westward spread could lead into Mexico, where prickly-pear cactus is a major agricultural commodity and has significantly larger socio-economic importance. A meeting of assessment and planning was first held in Tampa, Florida in September 2000 with scientific experts, regulatory officials, and representatives from the conservation community from the USA, Mexico and South Africa. Meeting participants agreed that the cactus moth has the potential to be devastating to the fragile arid environments in the USA and Mexico. In July 2002, the FAO and IAEA hosted a cactus moth consultants meeting to review and evaluate the threat of C. cactorum to international agriculture and biodiversity. The role that the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) could play in addressing the cactus moth invasion as a model for invasive pests affecting not only agriculture but the environment was assessed. Furthermore, FAO and IAEA agreed to support research in member states for development of the SIT. Subsequent stakeholder meetings have been held in Miami, Florida in December 2003 and Mexico City, Mexico in July 2004

  18. Performance improvement through quality evaluation of sterile Argentine cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  20. CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE VALIDATION STUDY RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, in 1989 this moth was detected in the Florida Keys and has now become an invasive pest in the southea...

  1. Cactoblastis cactorum Sterile Insect Technique Validation Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically cont...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A TRAPPING SYSTEM FOR THE CACTUS MOTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests have demonstrated that virgin cactus moth females are very effective at attracting conspecific males. Research was conducted to isolate and identify volatile compounds released by cactus moth females. The behavioural activities of 3 putative compounds isolated by various methods are being d...

  3. Targets of an invasive species: Oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum on 14 North American Opuntioid cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent for cactus species of the genus Opuntia. The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North Americ...

  4. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  5. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  6. LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS FOR CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IMMATURES AND ADULTS UNDER FIVE DIFFERENT CONSTANT TEMPERATURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported in Florida in 1989, and is expanding its geographical range in the United States to threaten Opuntia cactus in the southwestern states and Mexico where it is an important economic crop. Laboratory life history studie...

  7. EXPANDING GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observational surveys and virgin female-baited traps have identified the continued spread of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The moth is infesting native and ornamental cacti north to Charleston, SC and west to St. George Island, FL. ...

  8. Life table analysis for Cactoblastis cactorum immatures and female adults under five constant temperatures:Implications for pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported in Florida in 1989, and is expanding its geographical range in the United States to threaten Opuntia cactus in the southwestern states and Mexico where it is an important economic crop. Laboratory life history studie...

  9. Rearing Cactoblastis cactorum on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum Berg, is an invasive species that threatens economically and ecologically important native cacti in Mexico and the U.S. southwest. The insect presently occurs along the coastal U.S. from Charleston, SC, to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL, and in the interi...

  10. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... potential economic effects of this action on small entities. South American cactus moth is a pest that... Executive Order 12866. However, for this action, the Office of Management ] and Budget has waived its review... Health Inspection Service has determined that this action will not have a significant economic impact...

  11. Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for the Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    A CLIMEX was developed for the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records, and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX “growth indices” against field measur...

  12. Artificial diets for classical weed biocontrol agents-it's been done. The Cactoblastis cactorum story in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp., but its unintentional arrival in North America represents an economic and ecological threat to native Opuntia spp. in the U. S. and ...

  13. Diet flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: The influence of age, gender, mating status and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to the rich diversity of Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring an...

  14. Rearing a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes: Preliminary comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared several biological parameters of native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, reared on an artificial versus the natural diet of Opuntia spp. cladodes. Results suggest that the current artificial diet developed for mass rearing C. cactorum can provide nutritional value for the rear...

  15. Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasela, James J; McIntosh, Arthur H; Ringbauer, Joseph; Goodman, Cynthia L; Carpenter, James E; Popham, Holly J R

    2012-05-01

    The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) in Australia, Hawaii, South Africa, and various Caribbean islands, has posed great concern as to the possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern USA as well as with the potential to cause a major infestation of commercial and agricultural cactus crops in Mexico. A number of control measures have been investigated with varying degrees of success including, field exploration for cactus moth-specific parasitoids, insecticides, fungal, bacterial, and nematode agents. Current tactics used by the USA-Mexico binational program to eradicate cactus moth from Mexico and mitigate its westward movement in the USA include host plant removal, the manual removal and destruction of egg sticks and infected cacti stems, and the Sterile Insect Technique. One other approach not taken until now is the development of a cactus moth cell line as a tool to facilitate the investigation of baculoviruses as an alternative biocontrol method for the cactus moth. Consequently, we established C. cactorum cell lines derived from adult ovarian tissue designated as BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG. The mean cell population doubling time was 204.3 and 112 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with weekly medium change, while the doubling time was 176.6 and 192.6 h for BCIRL-Cc-AM and BCIRL-Cc-JG, respectively, with a daily change of medium. In addition, the daily versus weekly change in medium was reflected in the percentage viability with both cell lines showing higher levels with a daily medium change. Of the three baculoviruses tested, only the recombinant AcMNPV-hsp70Red and GmMNPV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0 were able to demonstrate significant production of extracellular virus (ECV) in each of the cell lines, whereas both cell lines were

  16. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 μm in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  18. Diel flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: influence of age, gender, mating status, and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvary, Mark A; Bloem, Kenneth A; Bloem, Stephanie; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring and control. We used computer-linked flight mills to investigate diel flight activity and flight performance in relation to gender, age, mating status, and body size. Maximal flight activity for both mated and unmated moths occurred during twilight, whereas flight activity was low during photophase. The total distance flown and the number of initiated flights within a diel cycle were higher in both unmated and mated females than in males, but the longest single flight was similar in both genders. These findings suggest that pheromone trap captures of males likely indicate the simultaneous presence of females and that mated females might even be in areas where males are not detected yet. Flight performance heterogeneity was large, with a small portion of the population (both males and females) performing long unbroken flights, whereas the majority made short flights. Females had higher pupal and adult body size and shorter longevity than males. A few individuals, particularly young mated females, flying long distances may be important for active spread of a population and the colonization of new habitats. Implications of this study in the control of the cactus moth by using the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:18459394

  19. Survey and detection strategies for area-wide control of Cactoblastis cactorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is renowned for its control of invasive cacti (Opuntia spp.), but survey techniques were limited to visual surveys of egg sticks and damaged cactus cladodes. With this insect's accidental arrival in Florida and its rapidly expanding range along the Gulf coast, research was conducted to develop improved survey and detection tactics in order to delineate the rate of spread of this invasive species, identify new outbreak infestations, and support control strategies. Virgin female-baited sticky traps were effective in detecting C. cactorum adult males, even in areas where visual surveys failed to detect larval damage. However, because the use of fertile females in traps placed beyond the currently infested area may result in an escaped fertile female that could establish a breeding population and expand the infested area, we compared the attractiveness and the longevity of fertile and irradiated (sterile) females deployed as bait in traps. Traps baited with females sterilised with gamma radiation were as effective as traps baited with unirradiated (fertile) females in detecting populations of feral C. cactorum male moths. Additional experiments have been conducted to evaluate different trap types, trap placement heights, and trap colors, as well as the age and number of female 'baits' for their ability to capture wild male cactus moths. Currently, studies are being conducted to identify the sex pheromone of C. cactorum females to use as bait in the most effective trap design. As a result of these preliminary studies, experimental synthetic lures have been identified and evaluated in laboratory bioassays and field trials. Preliminary data from these trials indicate that the lures are attractive to C. cactorum males and may be useful as a survey tool in an expanded trapping and detection network for C. cactorum. (author)

  20. 75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Collection; South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... regulations for the interstate movement of regulated articles to prevent the spread of South American cactus... American cactus moth, contact Dr. Robyn Rose, Program Manager, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ,...

  1. Cactus framework II: Using Cactus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cactus is a code designed for numerical relativity and astrophysics. In this paper detailed instructions and examples how to use Cactus are given. Configuration files and thorn architecture are also discussed

  2. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  3. Cactus: a medicinal food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Anoop A; Rana, M K; Preetham, S P

    2012-10-01

    With excellent quality and flavour of fresh fruits, young leaves of cactus serve as nutritious vegetable and salad dish and the immature fruits for making mock-gherkins. Cactus, with high water use efficiency produce forage for animals, vegetables, and fruits with 14% glucose. Traditionally cactus used as a valuable health supporting nutrient and it also has applications in pharmaceutical industries. Cactus with number of uses has immense potential to be the food of future. PMID:24082263

  4. TURNING THE TIDE – USING THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MITIGATE AN UNWANTED WEED BIOCONTROL AGENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most successful program of classical biological control of weeds has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically contr...

  5. The Brownian Cactus I. Scaling limits of discrete cactuses

    CERN Document Server

    Curien, Nicolas; Miermont, Grégory

    2011-01-01

    The cactus of a pointed graph is a discrete tree associated with this graph. Similarly, with every pointed geodesic metric space $E$, one can associate an $\\R$-tree called the continuous cactus of $E$. We prove under general assumptions that the cactus of random planar maps distributed according to Boltzmann weights and conditioned to have a fixed large number of vertices converges in distribution to a limiting space called the Brownian cactus, in the Gromov-Hausdorff sense. Moreover, the Brownian cactus can be interpreted as the continuous cactus of the so-called Brownian map.

  6. Cactus Graphs for Genome Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, Benedict; Diekhans, Mark; Earl, Dent; St. John, John; Ma, Jian; Suh, Bernard; Haussler, David

    We introduce a data structure, analysis and visualization scheme called a cactus graph for comparing sets of related genomes. Cactus graphs capture some of the advantages of de Bruijn and breakpoint graphs in one unified framework. They naturally decompose the common substructures in a set of related genomes into a hierarchy of chains that can be visualized as multiple alignments and nets that can be visualized in circular genome plots.

  7. Cactus: HPC infrastructure and programming tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    Cactus provides computational scientists and engineers with a collaborative, modular and portable programming environment for parallel high performance computing. Cactus can make use of many other technologies for HPC, such as Samrai, HDF5, PETSc and PAPI, and several application domains such as numerical relativity, computational fluid dynamics and quantum gravity are developing open community toolkits for Cactus.

  8. Component Specification in the Cactus Framework: The Cactus Configuration Language

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Gabrielle; Löffler, Frank; Rideout, David; Schnetter, Erik; Seidel, Eric L

    2010-01-01

    Component frameworks are complex systems that rely on many layers of abstraction to function properly. One essential requirement is a consistent means of describing each individual component and how it relates to both other components and the whole framework. As component frameworks are designed to be flexible by nature, the description method should be simultaneously powerful, lead to efficient code, and be easy to use, so that new users can quickly adapt their own code to work with the framework. In this paper, we discuss the Cactus Configuration Language (CCL) which is used to describe components ("thorns'') in the Cactus Framework. The CCL provides a description language for the variables, parameters, functions, scheduling and compilation of a component and includes concepts such as interface and implementation which allow thorns providing the same capabilities to be easily interchanged. We include several application examples which illustrate how community toolkits use the CCL and Cactus and identify nee...

  9. Predation of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae by Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a sand bank area of Santa Catarina island, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Opuntia is worldwide known for its ecological, ornamental and agronomic importance. Some species became pests in the countries in which they where introduced, and as biological control, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae, originary from Argentina, were used. However, the effect of the attack of this piralid on native cactus has yet not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to detect and to quantify the predation of C. cactorum on Opuntia monacantha. The study was carried out from September to November of 2004, along pre-defined tracks, on a sand bank vegetation area, between the Mole and Galheta beaches in the Santa Catarina island (27º35’83.1’’S e 48º25’70.6’’W. All the studied plants (n = 20 presented some damage caused by C. cactorum. The proportion of unpredated cladodes (68% and fruits (85% was higher than the predated ones. Terminal cladodes were highly predated structures and presented the highest number of larvae inside. Seed loss in the predated fruits was high. The remaining areole of the predated cladodes and fruits differentiated into sprouts and routs and formed new plants. O. monacantha, despite of being predated by C. cactorum larvae, apparently possess defense mechanisms which assure the maintenance of its populations.

  10. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  11. CACTUS technology programme. Yearbook 1998; CACTUS teknologiaohjelman vuosikirja 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    In the future, the paper industry must be prepared for more environmentally friendly. The main challenge is to develop technologies capable of lowering emissions to air and water and at the same time reducing the formation of waste. To achieve a significant reduction in water consumption at paper mills it will be necessary to develop and to introduce new processes and products. The requirements are better paper quality and runnability and better process management. To assess the process alternatives a technology programme was established in 1996. The goal of this four year programme is to create knowledge that can be used at paper mills to achieve substantial reductions in raw water consumption without jeopardizing paper quality and runnability, increasing the consumption chemicals and impairing the energy efficiency. The costs of the programme are evaluated to be FIM 140-160 million, of which Tekes will supply FIM 70-80 million. The rest of funding is covered by participating companies from paper and chemical industry and from equipment producers. At present, the CACTUS Programme is focused on four research areas, (1) separation techniques and treatment methods, (2) measurements and process chemistry, (3) process modelling and simulation and (4) final placement of concentrates. The total cost of research projects within these areas in 1998 is about FIM 14 million. This yearbook summarises the main research results and future plans of the CACTUS projects. There are 26 research projects and 15 industrial joint projects going on in 1997- 1998. (orig.)

  12. Rearing Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on a factitious meridic diet at different temperatures and larval densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) is an invasive pest that represents an economic and ecological threat to native cacti in the U. S. and Mexico and that is currently the object of an eradication/control program in both countries. One tactic used to mitigate the threat of this species involves the SIT (St...

  13. A cactus theorem for end cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelidou, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Dinits-Karzanov-Lomonosov showed that it is possible to encode all minimal edge cuts of a graph by a tree-like structure called a cactus. We show here that minimal edge cuts separating ends of the graph rather than vertices can be `encoded' also by a cactus. We apply our methods to finite graphs as well and we show that several types of cuts can be encoded by cacti.

  14. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O' Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. (US Geological Survey (US)); Kreidler, T.J. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

  15. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays

  16. Cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Hartley

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of data from one part of a computer to another has always been a complex task in which speed is traded against accuracy and the time required for error correction. Much more complex therefore is the transfer of information from one machine to another of a different type. Difficulties arise when machines are updated, when file formats…

  17. Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane; Murray, Marion; Reding, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Codling moth (Order Lepidoptera, Family Tortricidae) is the most serious pest of apple and pear worldwide. In most commercial fruit producing regions and home yards in Utah, fruit must be protected to harvest a crop. Insecticides are the main control tactic. There are new insecticides available, many of which are less toxic to humans and beneficial insects and mites than earlier insecticides. For commercial orchards with more than 10 acres of contiguous apple and pear plantings, pheromone-bas...

  18. Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  19. "Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  20. Doing numerical cosmology with the Cactus code

    CERN Document Server

    Vulcanov, D N

    2002-01-01

    The article presents some aspects concerning the construction of a new thorn for the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. This thorn is completely dedicated to numerical simulations in cosmology, that means it can provide evolutions of different cosmological models, mainly based on Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric. Some numerical results are presented, testing the convergence, stability and the applicability of the code.

  1. The CACTUS transport method in WIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CACTUS solves the differential transport equation in two dimensions by the so-called Characteristics Method. By means of a combination of carefully selected numerical 'tracks' and a general, if somewhat tedious method of geometry description, the method has been used to solve a wide range of very complicated geometries from simple pincells to supercells (colorsets) of Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) channels. In all of these cases the 2D geometry is solved exactly without the need to smear fuel pins. This paper describes the rather simple equations solved by CACTUS and explains the tracking methods that automatically impose the required boundary conditions. The accuracy of the solution is dependent on the number of angles at which tracks are evaluated, and also on the spacing between them. In this respect, the method has similarities with numerical methods of integrating collision probabilities; it is significantly different in that the transport equation is solved along each track segment in turn. One disadvantage of the method is that both azimuthal and polar angles must be integrated numerically. The methods have been only worked out in detail for rectangular outer boundaries, i.e. for square or rectangular pitch lattices, but could be applied equally well to hexagonal systems. 5 refs, 6 figs

  2. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  3. Biological control of diamondback moth

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Ortiz, Freddy

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is a serious pest of economically important crucifer crops such as cabbage. The moth has developed resistance to all tested insecticides and further studies on the potential role of factors affecting P. xylostella survival, including natural enemies, are urgently needed. One aim of this thesis was to identify the species that are natural enemies of P. xylostella and to evaluate their role in the natural biol...

  4. 76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... and economic damage. In a final rule published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2009 (74 FR 27071... effective on July 15, 2010 (75 FR 41073-41074, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0037), we added Louisiana to the list.... The importation of prickly pear pads, also called ``nopales,'' of Opuntia species cacti is...

  5. 75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 75 FR 41073-41074 on July 15, 2010. FOR... on July 15, 2010 (75 FR 41073-41074, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0037), we amended the regulations by... amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 75 FR 41073-41074 on July 15, 2010. Done in...

  6. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  7. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Mark P Robertson; Wilson, John R. U.; Richardson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most dama...

  8. Annealing a magnetic cactus into phyllotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Gabor, Nathaniel M.; Lammert, Paul E.; Maynard, J. D.; Crespi, Vincent H.

    2010-04-01

    The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone, and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental “magnetic cactus” precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single-spiral) phyllotaxis.

  9. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by......, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals....

  10. Measurement of the flow past a cactus-inspired cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.; El-Makdah, Adnan M.

    2012-11-01

    Desert cacti are tall cylindrical plants characterized by longitudinal u- or v-shaped grooves that run parallel to the plant axis, covering its surface area. We study the wake flow modifications resulting from the introduction of cactus-inspired surface grooves to a circular cylinder. Particle image velocimetry PIV is implemented in a wind tunnel to visualize and quantify the wake flow from a cactus cylinder in cross wind and an equivalent circular cylinder at Re O(1E5). The cactus wake exhibits superior behavior over its circular counterpart as seen from the mean and turbulent velocity profiles. The surface flow within the grooves is also probed to elucidate the origins of the wake alterations. Lastly, we use simple statistical analysis based only on the wake velocity fields, under the assumption of periodicity of the shedding, to recover the time varying flow from the randomly acquired PIV snapshots.

  11. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action

  12. Cactus pear: a natural product in cancer chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer chemoprevention is a new approach in cancer prevention, in which chemical agents are used to prevent cancer in normal and/or high-risk populations. Although chemoprevention has shown promise in some epithelial cancers, currently available preventive agents are limited and the agents are costly, generally with side effects. Natural products, such as grape seed, green tea, and certain herbs have demonstrated anti-cancer effects. To find a natural product that can be used in chemoprevention of cancer, we tested Arizona cactus fruit solution, the aqueous extracts of cactus pear, for its anti-cancer effects in cultured cells and in an animal model. Method Aqueous extracts of cactus pear were used to treat immortalized ovarian and cervical epithelial cells, as well as ovarian, cervical, and bladder cancer cells. Aqueous extracts of cactus pear were used at six concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 or 25% to treat cells for 1, 3, or 5 days. Growth inhibition, apoptosis induction, and cell cycle changes were analyzed in the cultured cells; the suppression of tumor growth in nude mice was evaluated and compared with the effect of a synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphernyl retinamide (4-HPR, which is currently used as a chemoprevention agent. Immunohistochemistry staining of tissue samples from animal tumors was performed to examine the gene expression. Results Cells exposed to cactus pear extracts had a significant increase in apoptosis and growth inhibition in both immortalized epithelial cells and cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also affected cell cycle of cancer cells by increasing G1 and decreasing G2 and S phases. Both 4-HPR and cactus pear extracts significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice, increased annexin IV expression, and decreased VEGF expression. Conclusion Arizona cactus pear extracts effectively inhibited cell growth in several different immortalized and cancer cell cultures, suppressed

  13. Theoretical Exploration of Barrel-Shaped Drops on Cactus Spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To survive an arid environment, desert cacti are capable of harvesting water from fog by transporting condensed water drops using their spines. Cactus spines have a conical shape. In this work, on the basis of the difference of liquid pressure, a new theoretical model has been developed for a barrel-shaped liquid drop on a conical wire. This model is further simplified to interpret the effects of contact angles, conical angle, surface microgrooves, and gravity on the drop movement along a cactus spine. PMID:26473466

  14. Recent upgrades and performance of the CACTUS detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A.; Bergholt, L.; Guttormsen, M. [and others

    1998-03-01

    The SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron laboratory, including the Oslo Cyclotron, has been in operation since 1980. The main auxiliary equipment consists of the multi-detector system CACTUS. During the last years, new, high efficiency Ge(HP) detectors were purchased and integrated in the CACTUS detector array. In this connection, the electronical setup was revised and altered. Several drawbacks of the old setup could be pointed out and eliminated. A test of the performance of all detector array elements was made with high accuracy. 27 refs.

  15. Recent upgrades and performance of the CACTUS detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron laboratory, including the Oslo Cyclotron, has been in operation since 1980. The main auxiliary equipment consists of the multi-detector system CACTUS. During the last years, new, high efficiency Ge(HP) detectors were purchased and integrated in the CACTUS detector array. In this connection, the electronical setup was revised and altered. Several drawbacks of the old setup could be pointed out and eliminated. A test of the performance of all detector array elements was made with high accuracy. 27 refs

  16. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

  17. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,; Jozef Keckes

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpec...

  18. Bacteria associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) larvae and their cactus host Isolatocereus dumortieri

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durbán, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Antón, Josefa; Marcos-García, María de los Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and se...

  19. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpectedly high both in absolute and in specific terms. The unique cellulose-arabinan composite structure of cactus spines, together with high cellulose crystallinity, may explain this finding.

  20. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  1. Direct numerical simulation of flow past cactus--shaped cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Pradeep; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2006-11-01

    The Saguaro cacti are tall, have short root systems and can withstand high wind velocities (Bulk 1984, Talley et al. 2002). Their trunks are essentially cylindrical with V--shaped longitudinal cavities. The size and number of cavities on the Saguaro cacti vary so that they have a near--constant fraction cavity depth (l/D ratio of about 0.07, Geller & Nobel 1984). Direct numerical simulations is used to assess the aerodynamic effect of the grooves on the cactus. DNS is performed for cactus shaped cylinders with l/d ratio's of 0.07 and 0.105, and smooth cylinders (l/d=0) at the same Reynolds number. Presence of the V--shaped cavities is found to decrease the drag on the cylindrical trunk as well as affect the fluctuating lift forces. The talk will quantify these differences, and discuss the physical mechanisms by which V--shaped cavities on the surface influence the flow.

  2. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign

  3. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  4. Mexican cactus diversity: environmental correlates and conservation priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Godínez Alvarez; Pablo Ortega Baes

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes Mexican cactus diversity to determine those states with high species richness, endemism, and endangerment, which may be important for the conservation of these plants. Relationships between environmental factors and species richness and endemism were also examined. Species richness and number of endemic and endangered species were recorded for each state, along with its total area, temperature, and precipitation. Data were analyzed with simple and multiple linear regressio...

  5. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Toxqui-López; Ana L. Padilla-Velasco; Arturo Olivares-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and ex...

  6. Cactus pear: a fruit of nutraceutical and functional importance

    OpenAIRE

    Piga, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The constantly increasing demand for nutraceuticals is paralleled by a more pronounced request for natural ingredients and health-promoting foods. The multiple functional properties of cactus pear fit well this trend. Recent data revealed the high content of some chemical constituents, which can give added value to this fruit on a nutritional and technological functionality basis. High levels of betalains, taurine, calcium, magnesium, and antioxidants are noteworthy.

  7. Cactus Nurseries and Conservation in a Biosphere Reserve in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Pulido

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Documenting how socio-ecosystem conservation knowledge and practice arise and are modified are issues of ethnobiological interest. In the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve (RBBM, plant nurseries, some of which were created as Environmental Management Units (UMAs, have been established to grow and conserve cacti. This paper describes these nurseries, their role in cactus conservation, and the benefits and limitations for the people managing them. The nurseries have helped decrease illegal traffic in cacti and have enabled ex situ conservation of 22 cacti species. Cactus management has changed from extraction to cultivation, as a result of the knowledge and actions of multiple actors. The main limitation is marketing, a recurring problem for non-timber forest products (NTFP. Greater coordination among stakeholders is recommended, such as involvement by non-governmental organizations to improve their probability of success, as well as learning from the experience of other cactus UMAs. Improving the market for cacti is an issue that needs an immediate solution; otherwise conservation efforts could relapse.

  8. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development. PMID:25366556

  9. The flow past a cactus-inspired grooved cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Makdah, Adnan M.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2013-02-01

    The star-shaped cross section of giant cylindrical cactus plants is thought to be aerodynamically favorable for protection against toppling by strong winds. Particle image velocimetry is used to investigate the flow details within the surface grooves and in the immediate wake of a cactus-inspired model cylinder with eight longitudinal grooves, at biologically relevant Reynolds numbers between 50 × 103 and 170 × 103. The wake flow is analyzed and compared to a similarly sized circular cylinder. At the lowest Re tested, the wakes from the two geometries are similar. At higher Re, the cactus wake exhibits superior behavior as seen from the mean and turbulent velocities, suggesting that the flow mechanisms are Re dependent. The flow within the surface grooves reveals counter rotating rollers, while the geometrical ridges act as vortex generators known to help with the surface flow attachment. Lastly, a simplistic analysis is described to recover, qualitatively, certain time-dependent flow features from the randomly acquired PIV realizations.

  10. Reproductive biology of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Mexico and USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanteles opuntiarum, a parasitoid of cactus-feeding lepidopteran larvae, was incorrectly identified as A. alexanderi during the last 50 years. The discovery of A. opuntiarum as a new and separate species was followed by studies of its native host range. These studies revealed that the host range o...

  11. Evaluation of antidiabetic properties of cactus pear seed oil in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Berraaouan, Ali; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Sindic, Marianne; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae)) is a medicinal plant widely used to treat diabetes. This work investigates the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of cactus pear seed oil (CPSO), its mechanism of action, and any toxic effects. Peer reviewed

  12. Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in the Clover Improved Lattice Formulation of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Panagopoulos, H

    1999-01-01

    We extend to the clover improved lattice formulation of QCD the resummation of cactus diagrams, i.e. a certain class of tadpole-like gauge invariant diagrams. Cactus resummation yields an improved perturbative expansion. We apply it to the lattice renormalization of some two-fermion operators improving their one-loop perturbative estimates.

  13. Sterile insect technique in codling moth control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of mature pupae or adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), to 30-40 krad of gamma radiation induces a high level of sterility in the male and complete sterility in the female without seriously affecting behaviour except for sperm competitiveness which is drastically reduced. Substerilizing doses (below about 25 krad) have very little adverse effect and induces higher level of sterility in the F1 male than in the irradiated male parent. The most satisfactory method of measuring the population density of native moths is by examining fruit for larval exit holes. Population increase per generation depends largely on evening temperatures during the moth's reproductive period. The codling moth is a sedentary species, and its distribution is very uneven in commercial orchards. Neglected host trees must be sprayed or destroyed to avoid reinfestation of sterile insect release orchards with immigrant moths. Laboratory-reared moths may be marked externally with fluorescent powders or internally with calco oil red without adverse effects. Mass rearing is still unreliable and expensive, and prolonged colonization affects the insects' behaviour. Successful codling moth suppression was achieved in North America and/or Europe by release of sterile males, sterile females or sterile mixed sexes; by substerile males; and by F1 male progeny (released as diapausing larvae) of substerile males X untreated females. Arthropod predators and parasites held aphids and spider mites at noninjurious levels in most insect release orchards, but leafrollers eventually built up to damaging numbers. The sterile insect technique for commercial control of the codling moth is not feasible at this time because of high costs. (author)

  14. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target ef...

  15. Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Miller, Terence Holland

    2008-10-31

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in the Enewetak Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The survey was strictly a visual survey, backed up by digital photos and a written description of the current condition.

  16. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Robertson, Mark P; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion-in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  17. Testing The Cactus code on exact solutions of the Einstein field equations

    CERN Document Server

    Vulcanov, D N; Vulcanov, Dumitru N.; Alcubierre, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a series of numerical simulations of exact solutions of the Einstein equations performed using the Cactus code, a complete 3-dimensional machinery for numerical relativity. We describe an application (``thorn'') for the Cactus code that can be used for evolving a variety of exact solutions, with and without matter, including solutions used in modern cosmology for modelling the early stages of the universe. Our main purpose has been to test the Cactus code on these well-known examples, focusing mainly on the stability and convergence of the code.

  18. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  19. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  20. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. PMID:26041209

  1. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected. PMID:26991288

  2. Interfacing the Paramesh Computational Libraries to the Cactus Computational Framework Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will design and implement an interface between the Paramesh computational libraries, developed and used by groups at NASA GSFC, and the Cactus computational...

  3. Effect of Extrusion Cooking on Bioactive Compounds in Encapsulated Red Cactus Pear Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha G.; Carlos A. Amaya-Guerra; Armando Quintero-Ramos; Esther Pérez-Carrillo; Teresita de J. Ruiz-Anchondo; Juan G. Báez-González; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen O.

    2015-01-01

    Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different bar...

  4. Identification and ecology of bacterial communities associated with necroses of three cactus species.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, J. L.; Fogleman, J C

    1993-01-01

    To compare the bacterial communities residing in necrotic tissues of columnar cacti of the Sonoran Desert, isolates from 39 organ pipe, 19 saguaro, and 16 senita cacti were obtained. The isolates were clustered into 28 conspecific groups on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The distributions of the individual bacterial isolates varied among cactus species. Seven of the 28 species groups were unique to a particular cactus species, whereas 8 species groups were found in all three cacti. T...

  5. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J;

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...

  6. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, S; Hocutt, G D; Breitmeyer, C M; Markow, T A; Pfeiler, E

    1996-07-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow allele was 0.448 in flies from Agua Caliente and 0.659 in flies from the Grand Canyon. These frequencies were intermediate to those of the low (Baja California peninsula, Mexico) and high (Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona) frequency Adh-2S populations of D. mojavensis that utilize different species of host cacti. PMID:8765684

  7. Stability of cactus-pear powder during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The stability of cactus-pear powder, obtained by the process of spray drying for 40 days, was evaluated under controlled conditions of relative air humidity (83% and temperature (25 and 40 °C. The whole pulp was characterized with regard to its physico-chemical parameters: pH, total titratable acidity, soluble solids, water content, total solids, ashes, reducing sugars, total sugars, non-reducing sugars, luminosity, redness, yellowness and water activity. The stored samples in powder were evaluated every 10 days for water content, water activity, total titratable acidity and color (luminosity, redness and yellowness. The whole pulp was slightly acidic and perishable, due to the high water content. During storage, the packages did not prevent water absorption, thus increasing water content and, consequently, water activity. Yellowness oscillated along the storage time, but the predominance of the yellow color was not affected.

  8. Cactus Framework: Black Holes to Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetter, Erik; Allen, Gabrielle; Diener, Peter; Goodale, Tom; Radke, Thomas; Seidel, Edward; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are intense narrowly-beamed flashes of gamma-rays of cosmological origin. They are among the most scientifically interesting astrophysical systems, and the riddle concerning their central engines and emission mechanisms is one of the most complex and challenging problems of astrophysics today. In this article we outline our petascale approach to the GRB problem and discuss the computational toolkits and numerical codes that are currently in use and that will be scaled up to run on emerging petaflop scale computing platforms in the near future. Petascale computing will require additional ingredients over conventional parallelism. We consider some of the challenges which will be caused by future petascale architectures, and discuss our plans for the future development of the Cactus framework and its applications to meet these challenges in order to profit from these new architectures.

  9. Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

  10. Cereus peruvianus (Koubo new cactus fruit for the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several different species of the columnar cacti of the genera Stenocereus and Pachycereus, were introduced into different semi-arid ecozones in Israel and most of these efforts were of disappointing outcomes, the only exception being the Cereus peruvianus (L. Miller,which bore plenty of fruits, some of them of good taste. The original seeds of this plant were obtained from the late Mr. Amram (Ron Kodish, who collected seeds from various private gardens in Southern California which bore fruits of reasonable qualities. The initial success of this species led us to initiate an intensive research study, and today it is already fruit-crop, marketed mainly in Israel under the name " Koubo" . This paper will describe our work of domestication of this new cactus fruit crop in Israel.

  11. Tissue localization of betacyanins in cactus stems Localización de betacianinas en tejido del tallo de cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mosco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Betalains are soluble pigments found only in the suborder Chenopodiniae, while in all other Angiospermae they are replaced by anthocyanins. The convergent evolution of the presence of anthocyanins and betalains in vegetative tissues supports the hypothesis of a similar function, based on the absorption properties of these pigments. The screening effect of anthocyanins results in the reduction of the amount of photoinhibition. betalains, being the anthocyanin counterpart in most families of Caryophyllales, were also suggested to have a screening role. This study is aimed at identifying in which Cactaceae stem tissues betacyanins, reddish to violet betalain pigments, accumulate. Stem accumulation of betacyanins was observed in cacti both in their natural habitat and in cultivation. The localization of betacyanins was assessed by light microscope studies on tubercle transverse sections. During 2 field trips in distinct years to the Mexican plateau in March, many cactus species, belonging to different genera, were observed displaying a reddish stem. Light microscope studies on cultivated plants showed that betacyanins accumulate in the hypodermis and in the outer layers of the chlorenchyma, where they may act as a screen, thus protecting the photosystems present in the underlying chlorenchyma, and have a possible antioxidant function in the cortex.Las betalaínas son pigmentos solubles que se encuentran sólo en el suborden Chenopodiniae, mientras que en el resto de Angiospermae, lo que existe son antocianinas. La evolución convergente de la presencia de antocianinas y betalaínas en tejidos vegetativos apoya la hipótesis de una función similar, que se basa en las propiedades de absorción de estos pigmentos. El efecto pantalla de las antocianinas resulta en la reducción de fotoinhibición. Siendo las betalaínas la contraparte antocianítica en la mayoría de las familias de Caryophyllales, se sugirió también un papel de pantalla de estos

  12. Life history attributes of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) reared on transgenic corn kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, J D; Komaravalli, S R; Hanley, A M; Price, B D; Davis, P M

    2001-04-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), are two globally distributed stored-grain pests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the impact that corn (Zea mays L.) kernels (i.e., grain) of some Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) corn hybrids containing CrylAb Bt delta-endotoxin have on life history attributes of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Stored grain is at risk to damage from Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth; therefore, Bt corn may provide a means of protecting this commodity from damage. Thus, the objective of this research was to quantify the effects of transgenic corn seed containing CrylAb delta-endotoxin on Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth survival, fecundity, and duration of development. Experiments with Bt grain, non-Bt isolines, and non-Bt grain were conducted in environmental chambers at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and > or = 60% RH in continuous dark. Fifty eggs were placed in ventilated pint jars containing 170 g of cracked or whole corn for the Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth, respectively. Emergence and fecundity were observed for 5 wk. Emergence and fecundity of Indian meal moth and emergence of Angoumois grain moth were significantly lower for individuals reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt, MON 810 and Bt-11 transformed hybrids, respectively, than on their non-Bt transformed isolines. Longer developmental times were observed for Indian meal moth reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt than their non-Bt-transformed isolines. These results indicate that MON 810 and Bt-11 CrylAb delta-endotoxin-containing kernels reduce laboratory populations of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Thus, storing Bt-transformed grain is a management tactic that warrants bin scale testing and may effectively reduce Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth populations in grain without application of synthetic chemicals or pesticides. PMID:11332858

  13. High duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests. PMID:26549128

  14. Multimodal floral signals and moth foraging decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Riffell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combinations of floral traits - which operate as attractive signals to pollinators - act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition - a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers - a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths - showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however - a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths - did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as

  15. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  16. The cactus webworm, Loxomorpha flavidissimalis (Grote, 1878) (Pyraloidea, Crambidae): its distribution and a potential pest in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report Loxomorpha flavidissimalis, the cactus webworm, for the first time from Tamaulipas, Mexico, as an herbivore of the cultivated cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica. We observed larvae over a four year period (2010-2014) during the months of March to November and found young cladode losses attributa...

  17. 77 FR 26000 - Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Cactus Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  18. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. PMID:23545106

  19. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. PMID:24799205

  20. Phyllotactic pattern formation in early stages of cactus ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta M. Gola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of the family Cactaceae are characterized by a wide range of phyllotaxis. To assess the origin of this diversity, early stages of phyllotactic pattern formation were examined in seedlings. The analysis of the sequence of areole initiation revealed intertribal differences. In seedlings from the Trichocereeae (Gymnocalycium, Rebutia and Notocacteae (Parodia tribes, two opposite cotyledonal areoles developed as the first elements of a pattern. Usually, next pair of areoles was initiated perpendicularly to cotyledonal areoles, starting the decussate pattern. This pattern was subsequently transformed into bijugate or into simple spiral phyllotaxis. In seedlings from the Cacteae tribe (Mammillaria and Thelocactus, cotyledonal areoles were never observed and the first areoles always appeared in the space between cotyledons. It was either areole pair (mainly in Mammillaria, starting a decussate pattern, or a single areole (mainly in Thelocactus quickly followed by areoles spirally arranged, usually in accordance with the main Fibonacci phyllotaxis. Differences in the initial stages of pattern formation do not fully explain the phyllotaxis diversity in mature cacti. Only two, the most common phyllotactic patterns occurred in the early development of studied seedlings, i.e. the main Fibonacci and the decussate pattern. Discrepancy in the range of phyllotactic spectra in seedlings and in mature plants suggests that phyllotaxis diversity emerges during further plant growth. Initial phyllotactic transformations, occurring already in the very early stages, indicate great plasticity of cactus growth and seem to support the hypothesis of the ontogenetic increase of phyllotaxis diversity due to transformations.

  1. Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

  2. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2013-08-01

    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

  3. Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

  4. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ 3 2 and γ∞ > γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k. (paper)

  5. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

  6. Performance of orange oil in the control of carmine cochineal in giant cactus pear.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque; Carlos Henrique de Brito; Edson Batista Lopes; Jacinto de Luna Batista

    2009-01-01

    Since its introduction, in 2001, the carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae) already decimated some 100.000 hectares of giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) in semi-arid region of Paraiba. This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of five concentrations of orange oil, applied in cladodes on the death of D. opuntiae in field conditions. The research was carried out in a field of giant cactus pear infested by carmine cochineal on the site rigideira, Monteiro County, State of Paraíba. The ...

  7. Genome organization and gene expression of saguaro cactus carmovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z; Xiong, Z

    1997-03-01

    The complete sequence of the single-stranded, (+)-sense RNA genome of saguaro cactus carmovirus (SCV) has been determined. The 3879 nucleotide genome contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The 5'-proximal ORF encodes a 26 kDa protein (p26) and terminates with an amber codon which is readthrough into an in-frame p57 ORF to generate an 86 kDa fusion protein (p86). Two small, centrally located ORFs encode a 6 kDa protein (p6) and a 9 kDa protein (p9), respectively. The 3'-proximal ORF encodes a 37 kDa (p37) capsid protein (CP). Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences supports the classification of SCV in the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. All predicted SCV proteins are expressed in an in vitro translation system. SCV p26 and the readthrough fusion protein p86 are synthesized from the genomic RNA while p6, p9 and p37 CP ORFs at the 3' half of the genome are expressed from two subgenomic (sg) RNAs. The 5' termini of both sg RNAs have been mapped. The large 1614 nucleotide sg RNA contains the p6 and p9 ORFs as the first and the second ORFs respectively from its 5' end. It directs the synthesis of abundant p6 but a small amount of p9. While a synthetic transcript with the p9 ORF at the 5' end is a more efficient messenger for p9, no corresponding sg RNA has been identified in vivo. The smaller 1396 nucleotide sg RNA contains only the p37 ORF and directs the synthesis of SCV CP. PMID:9049400

  8. Effects of Bermudagrass hay and soybean hulls inclusion on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O A; Batista, Angela M V; Mustafa, Arif; Amorim, G L; Guim, A; Moraes, A C; de Lucena, R B; de Andrade, R

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing corn with soybean hulls (SH) or Bermudagrass tifton hay (TH) on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets. Three ruminally fistulated sheep were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square experiment with 21-day periods. All diets contained 75% spineless cactus (dry matter basis, DM) and formulated to be isonitrogenous. Fiber source had no influence on nutrient intakes except for the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) which was lower (pbloat associated with feeding high levels of spineless cactus to ruminants. PMID:19731062

  9. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  10. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber. PMID:22899620

  11. Parenchyma–Chlorenchyma Water Movement during Drought for the Hemiepiphytic Cactus Hylocereus undatus

    OpenAIRE

    NOBEL, PARK S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Hylocereus undatus, a hemiepiphytic cactus cultivated in 20 countries for its fruit, has fleshy stems whose water storage is crucial for surviving drought. Inter-tissue water transfer during drought was therefore analysed based on cell volumes and water potential components.

  12. Simultaneous growth of ZnSe cactus-like structures and novel microflowers of selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Zulfiqar [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Cao Chuanbao, E-mail: cbcao@bit.edu.cn [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Khan, Waheed S.; Butt, Faheem K.; Hussain, Sajad; Mahmood, Tariq; Nabi, Ghulam; Usman, Zahid [Research Centre of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnSe cactus-like structures and Se microflowers are simultaneously grown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VLS growth mechanism is proposed for the formation of ZnSe cactus-like structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se microflowers are obtained through thermal evaporation and condensation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strong blue emission band ascribed to band edge of ZnSe is observed at 427 nm. - Abstract: We report here the simultaneous growth of ZnSe cactus-like structures with nanorods emerging from their surface and selenium microflowers using Zn and Se powders as precursors. ZnSe cactuses were obtained by solid state chemical reaction whereas selenium microflowers were obtained by thermal evaporation and condensation process. ZnSe cactuses consist of spheres with diameter range 2-3 {mu}m having nanorods with diameter in the range 60-90 nm on the exterior surface. The mixture of zinc and selenium powders with few drops of aqueous ammonia loaded in semicircular long alumina boat was heated inside horizontal tube furnace at 500 Degree-Sign C for 180 min under ammonia atmosphere. The structural, compositional and morphological characterizations have been performed by means of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement of as-synthesized products show two intensive peaks centered at 404 nm and 427 nm (2.85 eV), which are attributed to the band edge emission of ZnSe. These two strong emission bands are blue shifted; this blue shift is because of quantum size confinement effect of nanostructures. A very weak peak centered at 464 nm (2.67 eV) is also observed in our sample which is exactly equivalent to the peak associated with the bulk ZnSe, and is attributed to near band edge emission (NBE) for the ZnSe nanostructures.

  13. Impact of increasing levels of spineless-cactus meal on the ingestive behaviour of grazing steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Abreu Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of spineless-cactus meal substituting for maize in diets for supplemented steers grazing on Urochoa brizantha during the postweaning phase. The experiment was conducted on Princesa do Mateiro farm, located in Ribeirão do Largo-BA, Brazil. Forty crossbred steers with an average body weight of 261 ± 7.46 kg were distributed into four groups for evaluation of the following four levels of substitution of ground maize for spinelesscactus meal: 0.00, 30.00, 60.00, and 90.00%. The results were analysed statistically by variance and regression analyses at a 5% error probability. Increasing the amount of spineless-cactus meal in the diet had a quadratic effect on the grazing time and on the time spent on other activities. The diet had a quadratic effect on the number of grazing periods, the number of periods at the trough, and the total feeding and chewing times. In contrast, the number of periods spent on other activities and on rumination was not influenced by the level of spineless-cactus meal. The bite rate, number of bites per swallow, and number of bites per day increased linearly, whereas the swallowing time and number of cuds ruminated per day decreased as the level of spineless-cactus meal added to the diet wasincreased. The feed and rumination efficiencies of dry matter, neutral detergent fibre, crude protein, and non-fibre carbohydrates were not influenced by the level of substitution of spineless-cactus meal for ground maize. Spinelesscactus meal levels close to 60% probably provided greater fibre degradation, leading the animals to spend more time on social interactions with the group, use the feed better, and possibly have a better feed conversion..

  14. Simultaneous growth of ZnSe cactus-like structures and novel microflowers of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► ZnSe cactus-like structures and Se microflowers are simultaneously grown. ► VLS growth mechanism is proposed for the formation of ZnSe cactus-like structures. ► Se microflowers are obtained through thermal evaporation and condensation process. ► A strong blue emission band ascribed to band edge of ZnSe is observed at 427 nm. - Abstract: We report here the simultaneous growth of ZnSe cactus-like structures with nanorods emerging from their surface and selenium microflowers using Zn and Se powders as precursors. ZnSe cactuses were obtained by solid state chemical reaction whereas selenium microflowers were obtained by thermal evaporation and condensation process. ZnSe cactuses consist of spheres with diameter range 2–3 μm having nanorods with diameter in the range 60–90 nm on the exterior surface. The mixture of zinc and selenium powders with few drops of aqueous ammonia loaded in semicircular long alumina boat was heated inside horizontal tube furnace at 500 °C for 180 min under ammonia atmosphere. The structural, compositional and morphological characterizations have been performed by means of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement of as-synthesized products show two intensive peaks centered at 404 nm and 427 nm (2.85 eV), which are attributed to the band edge emission of ZnSe. These two strong emission bands are blue shifted; this blue shift is because of quantum size confinement effect of nanostructures. A very weak peak centered at 464 nm (2.67 eV) is also observed in our sample which is exactly equivalent to the peak associated with the bulk ZnSe, and is attributed to near band edge emission (NBE) for the ZnSe nanostructures.

  15. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts. PMID:25232708

  16. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karym El-Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  17. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2015-01-01

    * Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  18. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karym El-Mostafa; Youssef El Kharrassi; Asmaa Badreddine; Pierre Andreoletti; Joseph Vamecq; M'Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj; Norbert Latruffe; Gérard Lizard; Boubker Nasser; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vit...

  19. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Albano; Carmine Negro; Noemi Tommasi; Carmela Gerardi; Giovanni Mita; Antonio Miceli; Luigi De Bellis; Federica Blando

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence...

  20. The moths (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) of northern Maharashtra: a preliminary checklist

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Gurule; S.M. Nikam

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of moth species collected in north Maharashtra is presented based on studies carried out in various localities from June 2009 to June 2010. From a total of 728 individuals, 245 morphospecies, placed in 177 genera and 20 families, were recognized. Almost a third of these species were collected as singletons and can be considered as rare. The moth fauna is very rich in arboreal feeding forms, indicating that the area is a fairly undisturbed forest patch. Of the 20 famili...

  1. First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

  2. Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M.; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2015-01-01

    Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and rich...

  3. Cactus pear peel flour as a fiber source and its effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat-sodium reduced-sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo-Olalde, Raul; Delgado-Suarez, J. Enrique; Gutierrez-Pabello, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the higher fiber content of fiber and antioxidant compounds cactus pear peel can be employed as a functional ingredient in meat products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of cactus pear peel flour as fiber source in the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat sodium reduced cooked sausages. There different formulations were employed, two with 2.5 and 5% of cactus pear peel flour, respectively, and control with no cactus pear peel flour. Sausages were vacuum p...

  4. Dating Cactus: Annual and Sub-annual Variations of Oxygen-18, Carbon-13 and Radiocarbon in Spines of a Columnar Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettman, D. L.; English, N. B.; Sandquist, D. R.; Williams, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    We measured δ18O, δ13C and F14C of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro), to resolve a record of plant physiological responses to annual and sub-annual climate variation in the eastern Sonoran Desert. Spines grow from the apex of the cactus and are arranged serially along the side of the cactus oldest at the base, youngest at the apex. To establish the age of the spine series, we measured F14C of spines collected at 8 different heights from the apex (3.77 m) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. These spines yielded fractions of modern carbon (F14C) from 0.9679 and 1.5537, indicating the presence of carbon in spine tissue derived from atmospheric nuclear testing. We used the F14C of spine tissue to calculate the year of spine emergence for each of the 11 spines, assuming minimal re-allocation of stored carbon to growing spines. At the same 8 heights, we interpolated the date of spine emergence from observed height measurements made between 1964 and 2002. A very strong positive correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.99, P saguaro (between 1.77 and 3.50 m) and representing ~15 years of growth, yielded δ18O variations in spine bulk organic material from 38° to 50° (VSMOW) and in δ13C from ° to 11.5° (VPDB). The δ18O and δ13C values were positively correlated over the entire record (linear regression, r2 = 0.22, P saguaro 30 km distant. Temporal isotopic records from saguaro and potentially other long-lived succulent plants may provide useful high-frequency records of ecological responses to climate variation in desert environments where other such records are lacking.

  5. Divergence in olfactory host plant preference in D. mojavensis in response to cactus host use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Priya; Dweck, Hany K M; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S; Rollmann, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

  6. Development and Characterization of 10 Microsatellite Loci in the Giant Cardon Cactus, Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Gutiérrez Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the cardon, a giant columnar cactus (Pachycereus pringlei of the Sonoran Desert, to investigate intraspecific genetic patterns of diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Using 454 GS-FLX technology and bioinformatics tools, microsatellite primers were successfully identified on 282 reads, including di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotides. A set of 10 primers were characterized on 80 individuals collected in two areas of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. All 10 loci were polymorphic, with a mean of 6.3 alleles per locus and overall levels of observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.41 to 0.59 and from 0.40 to 0.57, respectively. Alleles per individual plant ranged from one to four, suggesting a polyploidal genome. Conclusions: These loci should be useful for future investigations of population structure, genetic diversity, and gene flow in the cardon cactus.

  7. Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. CORCORAN, William E. CONNER, Jesse R. BARBER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The night sky is the venue of an ancient acoustic battle between echolocating bats and their insect prey. Many tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae answer the attack calls of bats with a barrage of high frequency clicks. Some moth species use these clicks for acoustic aposematism and mimicry, and others for sonar jamming, however, most of the work on these defensive functions has been done on individual moth species. We here analyze the diversity of structure in tiger moth sounds from 26 species collected at three locations in North and South America. A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: (1 frequency, (2 duty cycle (sound production per unit time and frequency modulation, and (3 modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal structure. Tiger moth species appear to cluster into two distinct groups: one with low duty cycle and few clicks per modulation cycle that supports an acoustic aposematism function, and a second with high duty cycle and many clicks per modulation cycle that is consistent with a sonar jamming function. This is the first evidence from a community-level analysis to support multiple functions for tiger moth sounds. We also provide evidence supporting an evolutionary history for the development of these strategies. Furthermore, cross-correlation and spectrogram correlation measurements failed to support a “phantom echo” mechanism underlying sonar jamming, and instead point towards echo interference [Current Zoology 56 (3: 358–369, 2010].

  8. Production of fungal protein by solid substrate fermentation of cactus Cereus peruvianus and Opuntia ficus indica

    OpenAIRE

    Moises A. Oliveira; Claudenice Rodrigues; Edson Marques dos Reis; Jorge Nozaki

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural wastes from cactus Cereus peruvianus and Opuntia ficus indica were investigated for protein production by solid substrate fermentation. Firstly, the polyelectrolytes were extracted and used in water cleaning as auxiliary of flocculation and coagulation. The remaining fibrous material and peels were used as substrate for fermentation with Aspergillus niger. Glucoamylase and cellulase were the main enzymes produced. Amino acids were determined by HPLC and protein by Lowry's method....

  9. Clarification of purple cactus pear juice using microfiltration membranes to obtain a solution of betalain pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara, Cristina; Beatriz CANCINO-MADARIAGA; Andrés RAMÍREZ-SALVO; Sáenz, Carmen; Robert, Paz; Mariane LUTZ

    2015-01-01

    Summary Betalains are fruit pigments possessing health-giving properties. To isolate the pigments, the juice must be separated from the fruit matrix, which contains biopolymers. The aim of this study was to clarify cactus pear juice by microfiltration to obtain a clarified juice containing betalains. For this purpose, two 0.2 µm pore size microfiltration membranes (ceramic and polymeric) were tested. The permeates were clear, free of turbidity and high in betalains (20%), also containing poly...

  10. Development and characterization of 10 microsatellite loci in the giant cardon cactus, Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Gutiérrez Flores; O. Adrian Lozano Garza; José L. León de la Luz; Francisco J. García de León

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the cardon, a giant columnar cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) of the Sonoran Desert, to investigate intraspecific genetic patterns of diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Using 454 GS-FLX technology and bioinformatics tools, microsatellite primers were successfully identified on 282 reads, including di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotides. A set of 10 primers were characterized on 80 individuals collect...

  11. Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work

  12. A user's guide to the WIMS-E module W-CACTUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CACTUS is a code that solves the multigroup neutron transport equations using a characteristics method. This is a numerical approach in which the differential form of the Boltzmann equation is integrated along explicit tracks through the geometry and the neutron flux is obtained by a summation of the contributions made by a selected sample of such tracks. This report describes the theory very briefly, and concentrates on providing the information required to use the program. (author)

  13. The role of endogenous cytokinins and environmental factors in flowering in the vine cactus Hylocereus undatus

    OpenAIRE

    Khaimov-Armoza, A.; Novák, O.; Strnad, M; Mizrahi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    It has been found that application of exogenous cytokinins at a specific time induced flower induction in Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britt. & Rose. The aim of the present paper is to explore the role of cytokinins in flower induction in the cacti. Since endogenous cytokinins have never been analyzed in any cactus species, the initial step was to analyze endogenous cytokinins the year-round, and especially during the flowering period, when flower bud induction occurs. We found that the areoles ...

  14. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Michael J.; Thomas D. Lee; Mark J. Ducey; Kevin J. Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal ar...

  15. Bacteria associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae larvae and their cactus host Isolatocereus dumortieri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Martínez-Falcón

    Full Text Available We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri. We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31,079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity.

  16. Transcriptional variation associated with cactus host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Kim; Matzkin, Luciano M; Bono, Jeremy M

    2015-10-01

    Although the importance of host plant chemistry in plant-insect interactions is widely accepted, the genetic basis of adaptation to host plants is not well understood. Here, we investigate transcriptional changes associated with a host plant shift in Drosophila mettleri. While D. mettleri is distributed mainly throughout the Sonoran Desert where it specializes on columnar cacti (Carnegiea gigantea and Pachycereus pringleii), a population on Santa Catalina Island has shifted to chemically divergent coastal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia littoralis). We compared gene expression of larvae from the Sonoran Desert and Santa Catalina Island when reared on saguaro (C. gigantea), coastal prickly pear and laboratory food. Consistent with expectations based on the complexity and toxicity of cactus relative to laboratory food, within-population comparisons between larvae reared on these food sources revealed transcriptional differences in detoxification and other metabolic pathways. The majority of transcriptional differences between populations on the cactus hosts were independent of the rearing environment and included a disproportionate number of genes involved in processes relevant to host plant adaptation (e.g. detoxification, central metabolism and chemosensory pathways). Comparisons of transcriptional reaction norms between the two populations revealed extensive shared plasticity that likely allowed colonization of coastal prickly pear on Santa Catalina Island. We also found that while plasticity may have facilitated subsequent adaptive divergence in gene expression between populations, the majority of genes that differed in expression on the novel host were not transcriptionally plastic in the presumed ancestral state. PMID:26384860

  17. Dark matter and gamma rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to nonthermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET

  18. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Kelly R.; Kus, Barbara E.; Preston, Kristine; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence.

  19. Population growth of carmine cochineal in giant cactus pear artificially infested on laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto de Luna Batista

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae is up today, the main pest of the giant cactus pear in the states of Pernambuco, Paraíba and Ceará. This research aimed to measure the population growth of D. opuntiae in cladodes of giant cactus pear infested in the laboratory conditios. Cladodes of giant cactus pear were artificially infested with colonies carmine cochineal. The experiment was initiated on 10/02/2009 and ended 10/03/2009. Shaped population growth is a function of time and infestation levels of initial and final, using a regression analysis with the application ASSISTAT 8.0 Beta. Data were also submitted to analysis of variance - ANOVA using a completely randomized design (CRD with eight treatments and five replications. The comparison of means was done by Tukey test at 5% probability. The results of the regression equations and curves showed that the insect Dactylopius opuntiae had a population growth in geometric progression in all treatments. Treatment eight colonies had the largest population growth where the average was obtained 1223.80 colonies / cladodes in 35 days. The lack of sunshine, average temperature of 22 º C and relative humidity of 75% RH during the study period, particularly favored the growth of the insect population.

  20. Unusual presentation of cactus spines in the flank of an elderly man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Splinters and spines of plant matter are common foreign bodies in skin wounds of the extremities, and often present embedded in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue. Vegetative foreign bodies are highly inflammatory and, if not completely removed, can cause infection, toxic reactions, or granuloma formation. Older patients are at increased risk for infection from untreated plant foreign bodies. The most common error in plant splinter and spine management is failure to detect their presence. Case presentation Here we report a case of cactus spines in an 84-year-old Caucasian man presenting on the right flank as multiple, red papules with spiny extensions. This presentation was unusual both in location and the spinous character of the lesions, and only after punch biopsy analysis was a diagnosis of cactus matter spines made. Conclusions Our patient presented with an unusual case of cactus spines that required histopathology for identification. Skin lesions with neglected foreign bodies are a common cause of malpractice claims. If not removed, foreign bodies of the skin, particularly in elderly individuals, can result in inflammatory and infectious sequela. This report underscores the importance of thoroughly evaluating penetrating skin lesions for the presence of foreign bodies, such as splinters and spines.

  1. Dark Matter and Gamma-Rays From Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    CERN Document Server

    Bergström, L; Bergstrom, Lars; Hooper, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma-rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma-rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to non-thermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be ...

  2. State of the Art on Cactus Additions in Alkaline Media as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Torres-Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research in progress includes results on the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel in alkaline media when two different dehydrated cacti (Opuntia ficus-indica—Nopal—and Aloe Vera were used as additions in pH 12.5 and 13.3 solutions and in concrete. The dehydrated cactus addition was mixed at different concentrations by either solution or cement mass (0.10%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%. Half-cell potentials and LPR measurements were performed at different time periods to characterize the possible corrosion inhibiting effect of the cactus additions tested in such alkaline media. Results showed good corrosion inhibiting effect of dehydrated Nopal on reinforcing steel, in all tested solutions, when chloride ions are present. Aloe Vera did show also corrosion inhibiting improvements in some extent. The addition of such cactus led to an apparent formation of a denser and more packed oxide/hydroxide surface layer on the steel surface that decreased corrosion activity. This oxide/hydroxide layer growth was confirmed by microscopic evaluation of the metal surface layer performed at the end of the research program. The preliminary findings suggest that adding Nopal at concentrations between 1% and 2%, by mass, might be suitable for durability enhancing applications in alkaline media, especially in concrete structures.

  3. Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

    2013-02-01

    Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

  4. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Uebelhack, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.

  5. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  6. Hymenopteran parasitoids of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong

    2005-04-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers. PMID:15889737

  7. The moths (Lepidoptera: Heterocera of northern Maharashtra: a preliminary checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Gurule

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary checklist of moth species collected in north Maharashtra is presented based on studies carried out in various localities from June 2009 to June 2010. From a total of 728 individuals, 245 morphospecies, placed in 177 genera and 20 families, were recognized. Almost a third of these species were collected as singletons and can be considered as rare. The moth fauna is very rich in arboreal feeding forms, indicating that the area is a fairly undisturbed forest patch. Of the 20 families encountered, Erebidae, Noctuidae, Crambidae, Geometridae and Sphingidae are the most diverse.

  8. Geographical Distribution and Status of Actias Moths in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL; Nopachon TUBTIM; Sungwol RATANACHAN

    2007-01-01

    Geographical distribution and status of Actias moths was assessed at 46 forest stations throughout Thailand from January 2004 to December 2006. At each station, an eighteen watt black light was operated against a white sheet from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am daily. All Actias moths were observed and collected twice during the trapping period at 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. Distribution, abundance, seasonality and status were analyzed. Three out of the four Actias species previously encountered in Thailand wer...

  9. Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2015-04-01

    Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20-40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916

  10. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

  11. Validation of CME Detection Software (CACTus) by Means of Simulated Data, and Analysis of Projection Effects on CME Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, K.; Jacobs, C.; Robbrecht, E.; de Groof, A.; Berghmans, D.; Poedts, S.

    2011-05-01

    In the context of space weather forecasting, an automated detection of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) becomes more and more important for efficiently handling a large data flow which is expected from recently-launched and future solar missions. In this paper we validate the detection software package "CACTus" by applying the program to synthetic data from our 3D time-dependent CME simulations instead of observational data. The main strength of this study is that we know in advance what should be detected. We describe the sensitivities and strengths of automated detection, more specific for the CACTus program, resulting in a better understanding of CME detection on one hand and the calibration of the CACTus software on the other hand, suggesting possible improvements of the package. In addition, the simulation is an ideal tool to investigate projection effects on CME velocity measurements.

  12. Role of loop activity in correlated percolation: results on a Husimi cactus and relationship with a Bethe lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the problem of correlated percolation on a Husimi cactus, which allows finite loops of size l, to investigate the effects of loop formation on percolation properties. In particular, we calculate how the percolation threshold and the percolation probability depend on l and the loop activity n. We calculate the contribution and its dependence on l and n from finite and infinite clusters to all densities. We show that macroscopic loops are formed immediately after percolation, and we calculate their density dependence on l and n. We compare the results on Husimi cactus with those on a Bethe lattice. We finally establish that the Husimi cactus turns into a Bethe lattice as l→∞. (author)

  13. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry. PMID:25977013

  14. The small-scale spatial distribution of an invading moth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard; Agassiz, David J. L.; Godfray, H. C. J.;

    1995-01-01

    We studied the spread of a small leaf-mining moth [Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller), Gracillariidae] after its accidental introduction into the British Isles. At large geographical scales, previous work had shown the spread to be well described by a travelling wave of constant velocity. Her...

  15. Olfactory coding in five moth species from two families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Carlsson, Mikael A; Sugimoto, Yuki; Schubert, Marco; Mißbach, Christine; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine what impact phylogeny and life history might have on the coding of odours in the brain. Using three species of hawk moths (Sphingidae) and two species of owlet moths (Noctuidae), we visualized neural activity patterns in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory neuropil in insects, evoked by a set of ecologically relevant plant volatiles. Our results suggest that even between the two phylogenetically distant moth families, basic olfactory coding features are similar. But we also found different coding strategies in the moths' antennal lobe; namely, more specific patterns for chemically similar odorants in the two noctuid species than in the three sphingid species tested. This difference demonstrates the impact of the phylogenetic distance between species from different families despite some parallel life history traits found in both families. Furthermore, pronounced differences in larval and adult diet among the sphingids did not translate into differences in the olfactory code; instead, the three species had almost identical coding patterns. PMID:22496291

  16. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  17. Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the potato tuber moth (PTM) (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is considered the most damaging potato pest. Larvae mine both leaves and tubers, in the field and in storage making the pest difficult to control. Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has...

  18. Clarification of purple cactus pear juice using microfiltration membranes to obtain a solution of betalain pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina VERGARA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary Betalains are fruit pigments possessing health-giving properties. To isolate the pigments, the juice must be separated from the fruit matrix, which contains biopolymers. The aim of this study was to clarify cactus pear juice by microfiltration to obtain a clarified juice containing betalains. For this purpose, two 0.2 µm pore size microfiltration membranes (ceramic and polymeric were tested. The permeates were clear, free of turbidity and high in betalains (20%, also containing polyphenols and antioxidant activity, whereas the retained fractions were high in mucilage. The best separation was obtained using the ceramic membrane.

  19. Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

    2002-08-01

    Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

  20. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  1. Dispersal speed of datylopius opuntiae on giant cactus pear (opuntia fícus- indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The insect Dactylopius opuntiae (cochineal carmine has become an important pest to giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica in several counties of the micro regions of Carirí Ocidental, Serra do Teixeira and Piancó, where the attack of the insect is so intense that it obliges farmers to eradicate crops. This research aimed to quantify the dispersal speed of D. opuntiae under field conditions, as a premise for the implementation of tactics of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM. The experiment was carried out at the Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, in Lagoa Seca County, state of Paraiba. Dispersion quantification was conducted in three rows of giant cactus pear each with ten plants, the first being selected to perform the artificial infestation (initial. Three evaluations was carried out in three rows and counted the average number of colonies arising from the initial infestation. Medium comparison of was made by Tukey test at 5% probability, using the application ASSISTAT 7.5 Beta. For the aspect of dispersion within each plant, it was observed that the artificially infested cladodes began to be colonized for 8 days after infection and subsequently at 15, 21, 28, 35 and 42 and 50 days, noting that equally the first, second and third rows were also colonized, showing thus the dispersal speed of the insect pest.

  2. Uranium adsorption by non-treated and chemically modified cactus fibres in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption efficiency of Opuntia ficus indica fibres regarding the removal of hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] from aqueous solutions has been investigated prior and after the chemical treatment (e.g. phosphorylation and MnO2-coating) of the biomass. The separation/removal efficiency has been studied as a function of pH, uranium concentration, adsorbent mass, ionic strength, temperature and contact time. Evaluation of the experimental data shows that biosorption is strongly pH-depended and that the MnO2-coated product presents the highest adsorption capacity followed by the phosphorylated and non-treated material. Experiments with varying ionic strength/salinity don't show any significant effect on the adsorption efficiency, indicating the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes. The adsorption reactions are in all cases exothermic and relatively fast, particularly regarding the adsorption on the MnO2-coated product. The results of the present study indicate that adsorption of uranium from waters is very effective by cactus fibres and particularly the modified treated fibres. The increased adsorption efficiency of the cactus fibres is attributed to their primary and secondary fibrillar structure, which result in a relative relative high specific surface available for sorption. (author)

  3. Phylogeography of the Cactophilic Drosophila and Other Arthropods Associated with Cactus Necroses in the Sonoran Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Markow

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera and arachnids (order Pseudoscorpiones. For most taxa studied, little genetic structure and high dispersal ability are found in populations inhabiting the mainland and Baja California peninsula regions of the Sonoran Desert, consistent with the availability of the rotting cactus microhabitat which is patchily distributed and ephemeral. There is evidence, however, that the Gulf of California, which bisects the Sonoran Desert, has played a role in limiting gene flow and promoting speciation in several taxa, including histerid beetles, whereas other taxa, especially Drosophila nigrospiracula and D. mettleri, apparently are able to freely cross the Gulf, probably by taking advantage of the Midriff Islands in the northern Gulf as dispersal “stepping stones”. Genetic evidence has also been found for historical population expansions dating to the Pleistocene and late Pliocene in several taxa. Overall, these studies have provided important insights into how arthropods with different life history traits, but generally restricted to a necrotic cactus microhabitat, have evolved in an environmentally harsh and tectonically active region. In addition, they suggest some taxa for further, and more detailed, hypothesis driven studies of speciation.

  4. Effect of planting methods on cladodes production in sweet cactus pear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Cavalcatni de Albuquerque

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, are grown predominantly two species of cactus pear, the Nopalea cochenillifera and Opuntia ficus indica. In the last two decades, the growing interest in and knowledge of fodder have greatly increased by the farmers. The objective of this research was to investigate how best method to plant the sweet cactus pear, which produces more cladodes per plant, from the mother cladodes. The experiment was conducted in Lagoa Seca-PB county, at field level, at Lagoa Seca Experimental Station from EMEPA-PB. The genotype used was Palmepa - PB1 (Baiana planted at a spacing of 1 x 50 m and in a soil classified as Neossol Regolithic Eutrophic. The cladodes were planted according to three types of plantation: P1 - cladodes planted upright 90°, P2 - cladodes planted with apex to the east, inclination of 45º and P3 - cladodes planted with apex to the west, with inclination of 45º. It was found that there was no statistical difference between treatments, but the planting method with the cladodes planted vertically (P1 showed, in 300 plants, an average of 134 and 109 producing, more cladodes in relation to planting method P2 and P3, respectively.

  5. Performance of orange oil in the control of carmine cochineal in giant cactus pear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction, in 2001, the carmine cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae already decimated some 100.000 hectares of giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica in semi-arid region of Paraiba. This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of five concentrations of orange oil, applied in cladodes on the death of D. opuntiae in field conditions. The research was carried out in a field of giant cactus pear infested by carmine cochineal on the site rigideira, Monteiro County, State of Paraíba. The trial design used was blocks at random (DBR composed of six treatments [doses of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7% of orange oil (Prev-am] and water as control and five repetitions. The orange oil known like Prev-Am (Sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate was effective against to carmine cochineal as early as the dose of 0.3% and higher potential for efficiency were observed at doses of 0.6 and 0.7%. After 48 hours of application of the product, which was observed at doses applied adults and nymphs of the insect, was dried according to the product action that acts by contact. The product had no lethal effect on ladybugs (Cycloneda sanguinea and Scymnus intrusus, but was lethal to larvae of Baccha sp. at a dose of 0.7%.

  6. Effect of extrusion cooking on bioactive compounds in encapsulated red cactus pear powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha G; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Ruiz-Anchondo, Teresita de J; Báez-González, Juan G; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen O

    2015-01-01

    Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C) and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm) using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm), color (L*, a*, b*), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the -0.0188 to -0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of -0.0122 to -0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products. PMID:25993418

  7. Effect of Extrusion Cooking on Bioactive Compounds in Encapsulated Red Cactus Pear Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G. Ruiz-Gutiérrez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm, color (L*, a*, b*, antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k and activation energies (Ea were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the −0.0188 to −0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of −0.0122 to −0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products.

  8. Not all the infected develop the disease - A "Lotus and Cactus" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchappan, Ramasamy M

    2016-06-01

    The immunogenetic dictum "not all the infected develop the disease" can best be explained by a "Lotus and Cactus" model. Lotuses grow in ponds and cacti in deserts: analogously, we can say that tubercle patient's lung (genetic makeup) functions as an ideal 'broth' for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) germs to grow, but not the lungs of an endemic control. HLA association studies from Europe to Asia since 1983 till date, have shown a persistent HLA DR2 (15) association. Further, HLA DR2 and non-DR2 endemic controls showed disparate patterns of immune responses and gene expressions. The host and pathogen MHC diversities, Th1-Th2 paradigm and cytokine circuits all may play a crucial role in TB susceptibility. It is possible to decipher the protective immunity by controlling the known confounders - epidemiological, demographic, socio-biological and also host and pathogen diversities. This has become significant with our understanding on the 'out of Africa' migration and neolithic co-dispersal of M.tb with modern human. Divergence and expansion of various MHCs (eg HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-B*57) and non-MHC alleles in various continents might be responsible for the skewed transmission and distribution of the infectious diseases around the globe. The 'Lotus and Cactus' model proposed here exemplifies this. A holistic genetic epidemiology approach employing modern tools is the need of the hour to better understand infectious disease susceptibility. PMID:26611827

  9. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. PMID:24621296

  10. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; de Lima Silva, Janaina; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus. PMID:26676244

  11. Dark Matter and the CACTUS Gamma-Ray Excess from Draco

    CERN Document Server

    Profumo, S; Kamionkowski, Marc; Profumo, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The CACTUS atmospheric Cherenkov telescope collaboration recently reported a gamma-ray excess from the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Draco features a very low gas content and a large mass-to-light ratio, suggesting as a possible explanation annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Draco dark-matter halo. We show that with improved angular resolution, future measurements can determine whether the halo is cored or cuspy, as well as its scale radius. We find the relevant WIMP masses and annihilation cross sections and show that supersymmetric models can account for the required gamma-ray flux. We compute for these supersymmetric models the resulting Draco gamma-ray flux in the GLAST energy range and the rates for direct neutralino detection and for the flux of neutrinos from neutralino annihilation in the Sun. We also discuss the possibility that the bulk of the signal detected by CACTUS comes from direct WIMP annihilation to two photons and point out that a decaying-dark-matter scena...

  12. Effective directional self-gathering of drops on spine of cactus with splayed capillary arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Xue, Yan; Chen, Yuan; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-12-01

    We report that the fast droplet transport without additional energy expenditure can be achieved on the spine of cactus (Gymnocalycium baldianum) with the assistance of its special surface structure: the cactus spine exhibits a cone-like structure covered with tilted scales. A single scale and the spine surface under it cooperatively construct a splayed capillary tube. The arrays of capillary tube formed by the overlapping scales build up the out layer of the spine. The serial drops would be driven by the asymmetric structure resulted from tilt-up scales-by-scales on the cone-shaped spine, and move directionally toward the bottom from top of spine, by means of the Laplace pressure in differences. In addition, after the past of the first droplet, thin liquid film of drop is trapped in the splayed capillary micro-tube on the surface of spine, which greatly reduces the friction of subsequential droplet transport in efficiency. This finding provides a new biological model which could be used to transport droplet spontaneously and directionally. Also this work offers a way to reduce the surface adhesion by constructing liquid film on the surface, which has great significance in prompting droplet transport efficiency.

  13. Are cactus growth forms related to germination responses to light? A test using Echinopsis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Aparicio-González, Mónica; Galíndez, Guadalupe; del Fueyo, Patricia; Sühring, Silvia; Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of light regimen (white light vs. darkness) on the germination of 12 species of the Echinopsis genus (tribe Trichocereeae, Cactaceae). This genus presents a variety of growth forms and relatively small and uniform seed size. These traits allowed us to test, within the same linage and removing seed mass effect, the hypothesis that the germination response to light (indifferent to light or positive photoblastic) is related to growth form. Our results reject this hypothesis since no seeds germinated in darkness, so all of the species can be classified as being positively photoblastic. The proportion of seed germination with white light was significantly different among cactus growth forms. Columnar cacti (arborescent, creeping and short) showed a greater proportion of seed germination than barrel and globose cacti. The germination rate differed among growth forms and species. At constant temperatures, creeping columnar cacti presented a significantly higher germination rate than the other growth forms. With alternating temperatures, columnar cacti showed higher germination rates than the other growth forms. The low proportion of seeds that germinated for some species indicates that they show seed dormancy. Our results suggest that germination responses to light in the cactus family could be related to seed mass and phylogenetic constraints.

  14. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics. PMID:27015281

  15. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics. PMID:27015281

  16. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health. PMID:26783704

  17. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Albano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Betacyanin (betanin, total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy. In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity, betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health.

  18. Anonymous nuclear markers data supporting species tree phylogeny and divergence time estimates in a cactus species complex in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-03-01

    Supportive data related to the article "Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America" (Perez et al., 2016) [1]. Here, we present pyrosequencing results, primer sequences, a cpDNA phylogeny, and a species tree phylogeny. PMID:26900589

  19. Analysis of factors that affect the potential of star fruit (Averhoa Bilimbi) and cactus (Gymnocalycium Hossei) extracts as alternative battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Sitti; Agnesstacia

    2014-03-01

    This research analyzes the factors that affect the work of the battery from the star fruit extract and the cactus extract. The value voltage and current generated are measure the work of the battery. Voltage measurement based on the electrode distance function, and electrode surface area. Voltage as a surface area electrode function and electrode distance function determined the current density and the voltage generated. From the experimental results obtained that the battery voltage is large enough, it is about 1.8 V for the extract of star fruit, and 1.7 V for the extract of cactus, which means that the juice extract from star fruit and the juice extract of cactus can become an alternative as battery replacement. The measurements with different electrode surface area on the star fruit and cactus extract which has the depth of the electrode 0.5 cm to 4 cm causes a decrease in the electric current generated from 12.5 mA to 1.0 mA, but obtained the same voltage.

  20. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for codling moth control

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Alan; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally effici...

  1. European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Totricidae) – occurence and management in Istrian vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    BAŽOK, Renata; Kristina DIKLIĆ

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiff.) flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA) for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitorin...

  2. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    OpenAIRE

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the...

  3. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    OpenAIRE

    Eric eWarrant; Barrie eFrost; Ken eGreen; Henrik eMouritsen; David eDreyer; Andrea eAdden; Kristina eBrauburger; Stanley eHeinze

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the...

  4. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Duménil; Gary J. R. Judd; Dolors Bosch; Mario Baldessari; César Gemeno; Groot, Astrid T

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communicatio...

  5. Mercury vapour lamps interfere with the bat defence of tympanate moths (Operophtera spp.; Geometridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson; Rydell

    1998-01-01

    Bats often forage near streetlamps, where they catch moths in particular. At least two hypotheses may explain the apparent increase in the availability of moths to bats feeding around streetlamps: (1) the moths become concentrated near the light and therefore more profitable to exploit; and (2) the light interferes with the moths' evasive flight behaviour. We tested the second of these hypotheses by exposing flying male winter moths, Operophtera spp., to bursts of ultrasound (26 kHz, 110 dB sound pressure level) from an electronic source. The light from a 125 W mercury vapour lamp had a quantitative effect on the moths' evasive flight response at close range (within ca 4 m), inhibiting it totally in nearly half (43%, N=125) of the cases. By contrast, moths flying in the surrounding woodland and without interference from the lamp always responded to the sound. Streetlamps of the mercury vapour type (white lamps) thus interfere with the defensive behaviour of moths and presumably increase their vulnerability to echolocating bats. This may have implications for the conservation of both moths and bats. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9480689

  6. The Genetic Basis of Pheromone Evolution in Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Astrid T; Dekker, Teun; Heckel, David G

    2016-03-11

    Moth sexual pheromones are widely studied as a fine-tuned system of intraspecific sexual communication that reinforces interspecific reproductive isolation. However, their evolution poses a dilemma: How can the female pheromone and male preference simultaneously change to create a new pattern of species-specific attraction? Solving this puzzle requires us to identify the genes underlying intraspecific variation in signals and responses and to understand the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for their interspecific divergence. Candidate gene approaches and functional analyses have yielded insights into large families of biosynthetic enzymes and pheromone receptors, although the factors controlling their expression remain largely unexplored. Intra- and interspecific crosses have provided tantalizing evidence of regulatory genes, although, to date, mapping resolution has been insufficient to identify them. Recent advances in high-throughput genome and transcriptome sequencing, together with established techniques, have great potential to help scientists identify the specific genetic changes underlying divergence and resolve the mystery of how moth sexual communication systems evolve. PMID:26565898

  7. Moth diversity of Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents results of an expedition to Tawang district (Arunachal Pradesh by the Zoological Survey of India, during the period 27th September 2009 to 15th October 2009. Field camps were established at two places i.e. Lumla and Zemmethang. From these two camps, collections of moths were made at various localities by installing light traps. During the survey, more than 250 morpho-species were collected, of which 102 species pertaining to 15 families were identified. The analysis of the fauna revealed that the moth fauna of the area is dominated by the family Geometridae, followed by Arctiidae, Drepanidae, Crambidae, Lymantriidae, Noctuidae, Uraniidae, Lasiocampidae, Sphingidae, Pyralidae, Zygaenidae, Bombycidae, Saturniidae, Pantheidae and Notodontidae.

  8. Processing of Pheromone Information in Related Species of Heliothine Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente G. Berg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In heliothine moths, the male-specific olfactory system is activated by a few odor molecules, each of which is associated with an easily identifiable glomerulus in the primary olfactory center of the brain. This arrangement is linked to two well-defined behavioral responses, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecific females and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. The chance of comparing the characteristic properties of pheromone receptor proteins, male-specific sensory neurons and macroglomerular complex (MGC-units in closely-related species is especially intriguing. Here, we review studies on the male-specific olfactory system of heliothine moths with particular emphasis on five closely related species, i.e., Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera.

  9. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  10. Occurrence and identification of the etiologic agents of plant diseases in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) in the semi-arid region of Paraiba

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Evelyne Franco de Souza; Luciana Cordeiro Nascimento; Egberto Araújo; Edson Batista Lopes; Francisca Maria Souto

    2010-01-01

    Cactus forage (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.), intensely cultivated in dry regions of northeast Brazil, although well adapted to the harsh semi-arid climate is affected by major problems such as pests and diseases, responsible for significant losses in production. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of the etiologic agents of diseases of cactus cultivated in 38 municipalities in the semi-arid region of Paraiba. The analyses were conducted and processed at the Laboratory ...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  12. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients’ sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  13. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  14. Cactus pear peel flour as a fiber source and its effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat-sodium reduced-sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo-Olalde, Raul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the higher fiber content of fiber and antioxidant compounds cactus pear peel can be employed as a functional ingredient in meat products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of cactus pear peel flour as fiber source in the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat sodium reduced cooked sausages. There different formulations were employed, two with 2.5 and 5% of cactus pear peel flour, respectively, and control with no cactus pear peel flour. Sausages were vacuum packed and stored at 4°C and analyzed (moisture, total moisture, expressible moisture, CIE-Lab color, and texture at 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. Sensory evaluation was performed at day 1. Results shown that when more cactus pear peel flour was employed, color differences were more marked between treatments, also reflected during sensory evaluation. The other parameters evaluated were not significantly different. As conclusion, cactus pear peel flour can be employed at 2.5% with no effect on sensory characteristics of cooked sausages.

  15. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive. PMID:24650181

  16. Ultrastructure of turnip crinkle- and saguaro cactus virus-infected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M; Martelli, G P

    1982-04-15

    An electron microscope study of different hosts infected with turnip crinkle (TCV) and saguaro cactus (SCV) viruses, two tentative members of the tombusvirus group, was carried out. Particles of both viruses were readily detected in cells of different tissues, in the cytoplasm of which they occurred in great numbers, though not in crystalline arrays. Cytological modifications of various types were also observed. The most striking of these was an extensive peripheral vesiculation of mitochondria in TCV-infected cells, which was accompanied by plastic activity of the organelles that often engulfed portions of ground cytoplasm and virus particles. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were not present. Likewise, none of the cytopathological features characterizing tombusvirus infections was observed. No indications were obtained to support the idea that TCV and SCV may continue to be considered members, even though tentative, of the tombusvirus group. PMID:18635129

  17. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

    2002-05-07

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

  18. The effects of cactus inspired spines on the aerodynamics of a cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Benjamin; Liu, Yingzheng

    2013-05-01

    The effect of cactus-like spines on the topology and the dynamics of the flow past a stationary or pivoted cylinder are experimentally studied. The experiments are performed either in a water channel or a wind tunnel at low to moderate Reynolds number (390-12 500). The instantaneous velocity field is recorded using TR-PIV and investigated for three different configurations: no spines, short spines (0.1D) and long spines (0.2D). The results show how the spines are able to slow the flow past the cylinder and then increase the recirculation area by up to 128% while the maximum fluctuating kinetic energy intensity is decreased by up to 35%. Moreover, the spines have a significant effect on the vortex shedding and the dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder, thus significantly reducing both the amplitude and the frequency at which a pivoted cylinder oscillates.

  19. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol

  20. CACTUS, a characteristics solution to the neutron transport equations in complicated geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CACTUS has been written to solve the multigroup neutron transport equation in a general two-dimensional geometry. The method is based upon a characteristics formulation for the problem in which the transport equation is integrated explicitly along straight line tracks that are suitably distributed throughout the problem. Source distributions and scattering are assumed to be isotropic, but the only restriction on geometry is that the outer boundary should be rectangular. Within this rectangular boundary the user is free to build his problem geometry using any combination of intersecting straight lines and circular arcs. The theory of the method is described, followed by some details of a coding, a sensitivity study on the number of tracks required to integrate fluxes in a particular problem, a user's guide, and a few test cases. (author)

  1. La Historia de una especie del patrimonio holguinero: Escobaria cubensis (Cactaceae "el cactus enano". Primera parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Reyes Fornet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta una investigación sobre la historia taxonómica y estudios sobre la ecología del "cactus enano de Holguín", Escobaria cubensis (Britton & Rose Hunt, 1978 desde 1909 hasta 1990, elementos importantes, para la conservación y como contribución al conocimiento de la historia del patrimonio natural holguinero, con datos históricos sobre visitas de personalidades del mundo y Holguín. Se estudiaron 37 materiales correspondientes a notas de viajes, cartas y publicaciones. Se señala la posibilidad de que el colector, J. Shafer estuvo en dos zonas de distribución. Las contribuciones al conocimiento de su ecología hasta 1990 se basaron en la observación y descripción.

  2. Cactus stems (Opuntia spp.): a review on their chemistry, technology, and uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2005-02-01

    Although traditionally used as a valuable health supporting nutrient, the vegetative parts of Opuntia spp. plants are scarcely used in modern nutrition and medicine. While all kinds of different Opuntia spp. have been studied, a systematic approach regarding the inter-relationships between the composition and the pre- and postharvest conditions is still missing. Therefore, the present review compiles and discusses literature on the chemical composition of cactus stems, the knowledge on uses in food, medicine, and cosmetics. It is concluded that much research is needed to get an insight into the multitude of bioactivities reported in the traditional literature but also to take advantage of the respective constituents for food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:15729672

  3. Water availability and the competitive effect of a columnar cactus on its nurse plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Martínez, Arturo; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador

    1998-02-01

    A field study was conducted in a semi-arid tropical ecosystem in Mexico to test whether competition for soil water is the causal mechanism underlying the negative effect of the columnar cactus Neobuxbaumia tetetzo on its nurse plant Mimosa luisana and to examine how this relationship varies over time. The effect of irrigation was evaluated by recording the production of leaves, modules (i.e. internodes with an axillary bud), inflorescences and fruits in shrubs growing either isolated or associated with juvenile or adult columnar cacti. 4 001 of water, in five doses of 801 each every 15 d, were added to the treatment plants; no water other than rainfall was added to control plants. Additionally, to evaluate how the effect of the columnar cacti on the shrubs may vary among years we made a comparison of the production of plant structures between 2 years of contrasting rainfall. The irrigation treatment increased the production of modules, inflorescences and fruits, but not of leaves. Shrub response to watering was also dependent on class of association: those associated with juvenile cacti showed a higher response to irrigation than any other treatment. Our results show that water addition increases the production of structures and partially reduces the negative effect of the cactus on nurse shrub, thus supporting the hypothesis of competition for water. The negative effect of the cacti on their nurse plants was present during both years of observations, but the intensity of the negative effect varies from relatively wet to dry years. The results are discussed in relation to how temporal changes in resource availability affect the results of competitive interactions and the importance of this mechanism in the structure and dynamics of this dryland community.

  4. Differences in tolerance to host cactus alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ignacio M; Carreira, Valeria P; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  5. In Vitro Propagation of Three Moroccan Prickly Pear Cactus Opuntia and Plant Establishment in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissam EL FINTI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia is one of the most widespread cacti, primarily due to their edible fruit and vegetable mass used as feed. The high demand for young plants of Opuntia made it necessary to find a rapid method of multiplication of the cactus, the safest method consisting in vitro micropropagation of species belonging to this genus. With aim of large production of plant material, a propagation system of three important prickly pear cactus cultivar (Opuntia ficus-indica in Morocco was developed. Segments of healthy young cladode (containing one areole were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS containing adenine sulfate (40 mg/1, monosodium phosphate (50 mg/l, sucrose (50 g/l, phytagel (0.3% and benzyladenine (BA at 22.2 μM, to start the process of micropropagation. In vitro-developed shoots from areoles were used as secondary explants to induce shoot development in the MS medium with 5 mg/l of BA. All of the three studied cultivars showed an important multiplication rate in this medium. ‘Sidi Ifni M’ (‘Moussa’ cultivar shows the greatest number of shoots followed by ‘Sidi Ifni A’ (‘Aissa’ and ‘Delahia’ 17.26, 14.12 and 12.13 respectively. Rooting of in vitro-generated shoots was achieved most efficiently on half-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA or IAA. Rooting frequencies were in the range from 95 to 100% and the highest mean number of root (19.1 was obtained with IBA for ‘Delahia’ cultivar. All micropropagated plants were transferred to greenhouse and all of them survived acclimatization process and showed good overall growth.

  6. Seasonal effects on carbon isotope composition of cactus in a desert environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that two different enzymes are involved in the fixation of CO2 in cactus plants under light and dark conditions and that because these enzymes discriminate against 13C in the atmosphere to different extents the wide range of C isotope discrimination values (delta13C) found in these plants has been attributed to different contributions of dark and light fixation to C gain. The proportion of total C fixed at night can be altered, however, by environmental variables such as temperature, water status, and photoperiod, and predictable changes in delta13C have been observed when these environmental conditions have been varied. The studies, with few exceptions, have, however, been made under artificial conditions. In the studies described here the sensitivity of the delta13C ratios to seasonal environmental influences was examined in a natural system. It was found that the C isotope composition of the plants did not change during the experiments, indicating insensitivity to short term seasonal influences. The experimental site was at an altitude of 289 m. at the Palm Desert, California. Total titratable acidity and malic acid content were determined in addition to the delta13C ratio. The extent of the diurnal change in the titratable acidity varied with rainfall, particularly in the autumn. It is concluded from the data obtained that the delta13C ratio of the plants studied is relatively insensitive to short term seasonal changes under natural desert conditions. The data also confirm that no exogenous CO2 is fixed in the light in this environment. The varying delta13C ratios observed in wild populations of cactus are a result of long term environmental differences other than seasonal effects, and hence credence is given to the use of such ratios for the reconstruction of past climates. (U.K.)

  7. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  8. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M;

    2013-01-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than ...

  9. Sex pheromones of the southern armyworm moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Jones, W A; Aldridge, M H

    1970-10-30

    Two sex pheromones have been isolated from the female southern armyworm moth, Prodenia eridania (Cramer), and identified as cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, identical with the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cis-9,trans-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate. PMID:5507205

  10. Identification of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth. PMID:25533775

  11. The effect of environmental conditions on viability of irradiated codling moth Cydia Pomonella (L.) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooled (4 ± 2 Centigrade) codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) males exposed to dose of 350 Gy were released in apple orchards starting at 6:00 o'clock in the morning until 4:00 in the afternoon at 2 h. intervals. Moths were released in shade (under trees) or in the sun (between trees), the number of dead moths after 20 minutes of release were recorded, percentage mortality was calculated and compared with unirradiated controls. The effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on moth survival and activity was evaluated by counting the number of caught males by pheromone traps. Results showed that percentage mortality increased with increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity and reached to 82% at 30 Centigrade and 40% Rh., when irradiated moths were released under direct sun shine. However, when moths were released in the shade under the same conditions, survival rate was as high as 91%. Results also showed that percentage survival in irradiated males was less than in the control when moths were released under direct sunshine. Results of monitoring moth activity also showed that pheromone trap continued to catch males for up to 8 days which may suggests that released males lived under field conditions for no less than one week. (author)

  12. Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Foletti, S; Palasantzas, G; Arikawa, K

    2006-01-01

    The outer surface of the facet lenses in the compound eyes of moths consists of an array of excessive cuticular protuberances, termed corneal nipples. We have investigated the moth-eye corneal nipple array of the facet lenses of 19 diurnal butterfly species by scanning electron microscopy, transmiss

  13. On the correlation of moth flight to characteristics of a turbulent plume

    CERN Document Server

    Hadad, Tal; Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Several mechanisms control male moth's navigation towards a female releasing sex pheromone. Optomotor anemotaxis is a visual mechanism for the moth flight direction relative to the ground, mechanoreceptors are used for calculating its speed relative to the air current and chemoreceptors on the antennae for sampling the pheromone concentration in the air. All together result in a zigzagging flight pattern of the male moth that depends on the characteristics of its encounters with the pheromone plume. The zigzagging flight pattern includes constant counter-turnings across the wind line in an angle up to 90 degree (casting). In this paper we address how air turbulence manifests the male flight behavior in respect to the streamwise current that carries the pheromone, emphasizing a relationship between the flight speed and the turbulent plume properties. The interaction between the moth flight and the flow field characteristics was examined in a wind tunnel where moth trajectory was recorded. Particle image veloci...

  14. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  15. Code Cactus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors)

  16. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  17. Concrete Durability Properties and Microstructural Analysis of Cement Pastes with Nopal Cactus Mucilage as a Natural Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Arellanes, S.; Cano-Barrita, P. F. de J.; Julián-Caballero, F.; Gómez-Yañez, C.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the addition of a 3% nopal cactus mucilage solution to cement pastes, in its effects on setting times, flow, hydration, and microstructure, as well as on capillary water absorption and chloride diffusion in concrete. Hydration was characterized through XRD and microstructure was characterized with SEM. The mucilage solution/cement and water/cement ratios tested were 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60. The results in cement pastes indicate that the addition of mucilage increases ...

  18. Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–16...

  19. Forage cactus associated with different fiber sources for lactating Sindhi cows: production and composition of milk and ingestive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Soares Saraiva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of forage cactus with different fiber sources (elephant grass hay - EGH; corn straw - CS, hay of cassava shoots - HCS; fresh sugarcane bagasse - FSB; and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse - HSB on the milk yield and composition and the feeding behavior of lactating Sindhi cows. Five cows with average body weight, average daily milk yield, and average daily 4%-fat-corrected milk yield of 265, 4.95 and 5.22 kg, respectively, were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The effect of experimental diets on milk yield and composition, feeding time (FT, rumination time (RT, idle time, mean values of total chewing time (TCT, number of ruminal boli (NRB, number of rumination chews (NRC, and feed efficiency (FE and rumination efficiency (RE expressed as a function of DM and NDF were analyzed. Milk yield in kg/day and corrected to 4.0% fat from the animals that received cactus associated with CS were higher as compared with the treatment with hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse. The milk composition variables were not influenced by the treatments, and nor were FT, RT, TCT, NRB and NC. Two patterns were observed for FE and RE, with higher efficiency of the diets with EGH, CS and HCS and lower efficiency for diets containing sugarcane bagasse. In this context, Sindhi cows fed forage cactus associated with corn straw, elephant grass hay, and hay of cassava shoots present better performance, feeding efficiency, and rumination responses than those fed forage cactus associated with fresh sugarcane bagasse and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.

  20. Forage cactus associated with different fiber sources for lactating Sindhi cows: intake, digestibility and microbial protein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Soares Saraiva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried to evaluate the effect of forage cactus with different fiber sources (elephant grass hay [EGH], corn straw [CS], hay of cassava shoots [HCS], fresh sugarcane bagasse [FSB], and hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse [HSB] on intake, apparent digestibility and macrobiotic protein production of cows. Five cows with 265 kg average body weight, 4.95 kg average daily milk yield and 5.22 kg 4% fat-corrected milk yield were randomly allocated to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The animals fed cactus associated with CS, EGH and HCS showed higher intake of DM and nutrients. However, regarding the digestibility, diets with sugarcane bagasse showed higher digestibility compared with those with CS and hay. For microbial protein, the excretion of purine derivatives, synthesis of microbial N and microbial protein production were higher in the treatment with CS than in the treatment with sugarcane bagasse. On the other hand, the treatment with EGH and HCS did not have statistical differences compared with the other cases. The mean efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of the experiment was 131 g microbial crude protein/kg of TDN. The treatment with CS showed better efficiency; however, it was statistically superior only compared with FSB. The other treatments did not show statistical difference compared with the other cases. Diets with cactus associated with corn straw, hay of elephant grass or hay of cassava shoots provide higher intake of dry matter and nutrients and better metabolic response compared with diets with cactus associated with sugarcane bagasse for lactating Sindhi cows.

  1. Daily to decadal patterns of precipitation, humidity, and photosynthetic physiology recorded in the spines of the columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Nathan B.; Dettman, David L.; Sandquist, Darren R.; Williams, David G.

    2010-06-01

    Isotopic analyses of cactus spines grown serially from the apex of long-lived columnar cactuses may be useful for climatological and ecological studies if time series can be reliably determined from spines. To characterize the timescales over which spines may record this information, we measured spine growth in saguaro cactus over days, months, and years with time-lapse photography, periodic marking, and postbomb radiocarbon dating and then analyzed isotopic variability over these same timescales and compared these measurements to local climate. We used daily increments of growth, visible as transverse bands of light and dark tissue in spines, as chronometers to develop diurnally resolved δ13C and δ18O records from three spines grown in series over a 70 day period. We also constructed a 22 year record of δ13C variations from spine tips arranged in chronological sequence along the side of a 4 m tall, single-stemmed saguaro. We evaluated two mechanisms potentially responsible for daily, weekly, and annual variability in δ13C values of spines; both related to vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Our data suggest that stomatal conductance is unlikely to be the determinant of δ13C variation in spines. We suggest that either VPD-induced changes in the balance of nighttime- and daytime-assimilated CO2 or mesophyll-limited diffusion of CO2 at night are the most likely determinant of δ13C variation in spines. Intra-annual and interannual variability of δ18O in spine tissue appears to be controlled by the mass balance of 18O-depleted water taken up after rain events and evaporative enrichment of 18O in tissue water between rains. We were able to estimate the annual growth and areole generation rate of a saguaro cactus from its 22 yearlong isotopic record because VPD, rainfall, and evaporation exhibit strong annual cycles in the Sonoran Desert and these variations are recorded in the oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of spines.

  2. In vitro rumen fermentation kinetics of diets containing oldman saltbush hay and forage cactus, using a cattle inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.L. Tosto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate, by means of the semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, fermentation kinetics of carbohydrates and degradability of dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM of diets containing oldman saltbush hay levels (8.4; 18.8; 31.2 and 48.3% associated to forage cactus in natura. Pressure readings of the gases were done with a pressure transducer at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 17, 20, 24, 28, 34, 48, 72 and 96h post-inoculation. The rumen kinetics was described by the following parameters: maximum potential of gas production, lag time and production rates of gas (k, fibrous carbohydrates (FC and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC. It could be observed that the addition of oldman saltbush hay to the diets promoted a quadratic effect in the production of gases originated from NFC. However, there was no significant effect on the production of gases originated from FC and on production rates of gases from NFC and FC. The degradability of DM and OM did not differ due to the addition of oldman saltbush hay. The use of 8.4% hay and 74.9% forage cactus promoted the maximum potential of production of gases from the fibrous fraction of diets containing cactus and oldman saltbush hay.

  3. Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-06-01

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P<0.01) decreased the body, testis, and accessory sex organ weights, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, histological analysis revealed pronounced morphological alterations with tubular necrosis and reduction in the number of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of sodium dichromate-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, exposure to sodium dichromate significantly (P<0.01) increased LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testis. Interestingly, pretreatment with CCE significantly (P<0.01) restored the serum testosterone level, sperm count, and motility to the levels of the control group. Moreover, CCE administration was capable of reducing the elevated level of LPO and significantly (P<0.01) increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in testis. Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis. PMID:24752970

  4. Geographical Distribution and Status of Actias Moths in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographical distribution and status of Actias moths was assessed at 46 forest stations throughout Thailand from January 2004 to December 2006. At each station, an eighteen watt black light was operated against a white sheet from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am daily. All Actias moths were observed and collected twice during the trapping period at 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. Distribution, abundance, seasonality and status were analyzed. Three out of the four Actias species previously encountered in Thailand were collected: A. maenas Doubleday, A. selene Hübner and A. rhodopneuma Röber. A. maenas was the most widespread species in the country with an average of 0.001037 individuals/spot sample and was found all year round. The highest abundance was in Narathiwat province, the northernmost border of the Sundaic region. A. selene was found at higher latitudes ranging from 20 °N at Doi Chiang Dao, Chiang Mai to 13 °N at Prachub Kirikhan province with an average of 0.003303 individuals/spot sample and were found all year round, with the highest abundance in July. By applying IUCN Categories & Criteria A. maenas and A. selene were designated as Vulnerable (VU and Near Threatened (NT species respectively. A. rhodopneuma moths were found only at Doi Phuka National Park, Nan province with 0.000263 individuals/spot sample from February to April and are therefore designated as a Critically Endangered (CR species. A. sinensis was not found during this study and is therefore assigned the status of extinct (EX.

  5. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindicus) as an alternative feed and water source for animals during the dry season in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout East Africa, animal feed resources fluctuate seasonally and are often of limited availability. Finding alternative feed resources that can sustain animal production during the long dry season is an essential need. Cactus is a drought-tolerant and succulent feed resource available throughout the year in Eritrea. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including increasing levels of spineless cactus in the diet of sheep fed urea-treated barley straw. Twenty four fat tailed Highland male sheep with mean live weight of 21.1 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments (T1-T4). Animals in T1 received urea (5%) -treated barley straw (UTBS) alone ad libitum, while those in T, T3 and T4 received ad libitum UTBS supplemented with 175 g, 350 g and 525 g of spineless cactus (dry matter [DM] basis), respectively. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant increases in DM intake (P 0.75d and 96.5 g/ kg BWt0.75d, respectively) as compared with the first two treatments (94.4 g/kg BWt0.75d and 87.6 g/kg BWt0.75d). Water intake was significantly decreased with the progressive increase in cactus intake. The highest BWt gain (51.9 g/d) was found when sheep received 350 g DM of cactus (T3), while the lowest was in the control diet (26.8 g/d). The metabolism data demonstrated that available energy intake (TDNI) was directly related to animal performance. In conclusion, feeding cactus with UTBS can significantly increase animal performance and feed intake, and reduced water intake. (author)

  6. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: Conserved karyotypes with diverged features

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2013), e64520. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106; GA AV ČR IAA600960925 Grant ostatní: GA JU(CZ) GAJU 059/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) GAJU137/2010/P; IAEA, Viennna(AT) 15838 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tortricid moths Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0064520

  7. Floral CO2 reveals flower profitability to moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Corinna; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Mechaber, Wendy L; Hildebrand, John G

    2004-06-01

    The hawkmoth Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), an experimentally favorable Lepidopteran that is highly sensitive to carbon dioxide (CO2), feeds on the nectar of a range of flowering plants, such as Datura wrightii (Solanaceae). Newly opened Datura flowers give off dramatically elevated levels of CO2 and offer ample nectar. Thus, floral CO2 emission could indicate food-source profitability. This study documents that foraging Manduca moths prefer surrogate flowers that emit high levels of CO2, characteristic of newly opened Datura flowers. We show for the first time that CO2 may play an important role in the foraging behavior of nectar-feeding insects. PMID:15303329

  8. Moth diversity of Tawang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, K; S. Sambath

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents results of an expedition to Tawang district (Arunachal Pradesh) by the Zoological Survey of India, during the period 27th September 2009 to 15th October 2009. Field camps were established at two places i.e. Lumla and Zemmethang. From these two camps, collections of moths were made at various localities by installing light traps. During the survey, more than 250 morpho-species were collected, of which 102 species pertaining to 15 families were identified. The analysis of t...

  9. Cyclically outbreaking geometrid moths in sub-arctic mountain birch forest: the organization and impacts of their interactions with animal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo

    2015-01-01

    In sub-arctic mountain birch forest in northern Fennoscandia, the 2 geometrid moth species Epirrita autumnata (autumnal moth) and Operophtera brumata (winter moth) show high-amplitude population cycles with regular 10-year periodicity. During some population peaks, moth populations attain outbreak densities and cause region-wide defoliation and mortality of mountain birch. The severity and duration of moth outbreaks presently appears to be increasing, owing to climate-driven range-expansions ...

  10. Bio-cultural anchorage of the prickly pear cactus in Tlalnepantla (Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The prickly pear cactus is a source of food with strong bio-cultural anchorage in Mexico. This is due to at least three factors: 1 the nature and heritage of cacti; 2 cultural heritage; and 3 the socio-cultural relationships with historical and symbolic roots that have facilitated knowledge of how to cultivate it and how to use it. The aim of this article is to put factors of territorial anchorage and its historical transformation in context by examining the case of the municipality of Tlalnepantla in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This community has experienced accelerated change due to the exchange of traditional crops for the prickly pear cactus and the integration of farming, commercialization and agro-transformation. Our hypothesis is that the market, internal conflicts and a lack of socio-institutional coordination have put social organization into crisis, favoring the territorial spread of the prickly pear cactus and making the Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS of Tlalnepantla less competitive. The conclusions highlight important economic and social advances whose roots lie in the strengthening and anchorage of the territory-product. However, circumstances both internal and external to the community persist, such as intra-community conflicts, the international market and cultural paradigm shifts that affect the producers and put consolidation of the LAFS at risk.El nopal es un alimento con un fuerte anclaje bio-cultural en México, propiciado por al menos tres factores: 1 la naturaleza y el patrimonio de cactáceas; 2 el patrimonio cultural; y, 3 las relaciones socio-culturales que han permitido un “saber hacer” y un “saber utilizar” con raíces históricas y simbólicas. El objetivo es situar los factores de anclaje territorial y su transformación histórica tomando como caso el municipio de Tlalnepantla, en el estado de Morelos, México. Esta comunidad ha experimentado un acelerado cambio por la reconversión de los cultivos

  11. Codling moth control by release of radiation-sterilized moths in a pome fruit orchard and observations of other pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of radiation-sterilized male and female Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) in a 40-ha pome fruit orchard from 1969-72 in the Similkameen Valley of British Columbia reduced the wild population of this pest to a very low level without causing serious problems in control of other apple and pear pests. Percent apples injured by codling moth larvae at harvest were 0.1 in 1968 (after 3 sprays of azinphosmethyl), and 0.05, 0.02, 0.007, and 0.001 from 1969-72

  12. Behaviour Patterns of the Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams; Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Houri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni is a serious pest of pine trees, especially the wide-spread Pinus brutia. This infestation has a significant economic impact both in the loss of forest wood growth and in medical expenses for treating related human diseases. This paper presents a detailed study of the behaviour patterns of the moth stage in an attempt to identify best control methods. Several key observations are made towards the moth emergence timing and period of nocturnal activity. Specifically, 92% of the moths were found to be most active between midnight and 6:00 a.m. Effects of light traps vs. pheromone traps are analyzed and light traps were found to be 15 times more efficient. In addition, 84% of the captured moths were males and only 16% were females. Several attempts were made to lure females into traps but were mostly unsuccessful. Finally, moth emergence in relevance to various weather conditions was analyzed and a clear relationship was established where rain appeared to motivate moth emergence. This work has been done over the span of two consecutive years. A clear mode of action is deduced for the best methods of moth control.

  13. Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Nickolay I.; Conner, William E.

    2005-04-01

    The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naïve big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

  14. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. PMID:22775528

  15. Past climate changes and ecophysiological responses recorded in the isotope ratios of saguaro cactus spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Nathan B; Dettman, David L; Sandquist, Darren R; Williams, David G

    2007-11-01

    The stable isotope composition of spines produced serially from the apex of columnar cacti has the potential to be used as a record of changes in climate and physiology. To investigate this potential, we measured the delta(18)O, delta(13)C and F(14)C values of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea). To determine plant age, we collected spines at 11 different heights along one rib from the stem apex (3.77 m height) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. Fractions of modern carbon (F(14)C) ranged from 0.9679 to 1.5537, which is consistent with ages between 1950 and 2004. We observed a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.997) between the F(14)C age of spines and the age of spines determined from direct and repeated height measurements taken on this individual over the past 37 years. A series of 96 spines collected from this individual had delta(18)O values ranging from 38 per thousand to 50 per thousand [Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] and delta(13)C values from -11.5 per thousand to -8.5 per thousand [Vienna Peedee belemnite (VPDB)]. The delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of spines were positively correlated (r = 0.45, P < 0.0001) and showed near-annual oscillations over the approximately 15-year record. This pattern suggests that seasonal periods of reduced evaporative demand or greater precipitation input may correspond to increased daytime CO(2) uptake. The lowest delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of spines observed occurred during the 1983 and 1993 El Niño years, suggesting that the stable isotope composition recorded in spine tissue may serve as a proxy for these climate events. We compared empirical models and data from potted experimental cacti to validate these observations and test our hypotheses. The isotopic records presented here are the first ever reported from a chronosequence of cactus spines and demonstrate that tissues of columnar cacti, and potentially other long-lived succulents, may contain a

  16. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  17. Peripheral and central olfactory tuning in a moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Rose C; Stopfer, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

  18. Radiobiological studies on the angoumois moth sitotroga cerealella (oliv.) (lepidoptera - Celechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain in bins or ear corn in storage has small buff moths flying about the bins or cramling rapidly over the surface of the grain when it is disturbed. One or two small round holes are eaten in the kernels of infested corn or in other grain. This insect is the most destructive grain moth occurring in our country casing great damage to corn in cribs and also destroying ripening grain, especially wheat, in the field. The present study deals with the effects of gamma irradiation on the different developmental stages of the angoumois grain moth sitotroga cerealella (olivier) with special reference to the effects of sterilizing dosage on sexual competition

  19. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  20. The Australian Bogong moth Agrotis infusa: A long-distance nocturnal navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eWarrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they hibernate over the summer months (referred to as aestivation. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their aestivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear

  1. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that

  2. Mapping and recombination analysis of two moth colour mutations, Black moth and Wild wing spot, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Katsuma, S; Kuwazaki, S; Jouraku, A; Fujimoto, T; Sahara, K; Yasukochi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tabunoki, H; Yokoyama, T; Kadono-Okuda, K; Shimada, T

    2016-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects exhibit body colour variations, where the high phenotypic diversity observed in the wings and bodies of adults provides opportunities for studying adaptive morphological evolution. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, two genes responsible for moth colour mutation, Bm and Ws, have been mapped to 0.0 and 14.7 cM of the B. mori genetic linkage group 17; however, these genes have not been identified at the molecular level. We performed positional cloning of both genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the moth wing- and body-colour patterns in B. mori. We successfully narrowed down Bm and Ws to ~2-Mb-long and 100-kb-long regions on the same scaffold Bm_scaf33. Gene prediction analysis of this region identified 77 candidate genes in the Bm region, whereas there were no candidate genes in the Ws region. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis in Bm mutant detected chromosome inversion, which explains why there are no recombination in the corresponding region. The comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the candidate regions of both genes shared synteny with a region associated with wing- and body-colour variations in other lepidopteran species including Biston betularia and Heliconius butterflies. These results suggest that the genes responsible for wing and body colour in B. mori may be associated with similar genes in other Lepidoptera. PMID:26219230

  3. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deal with invasions of exotic Lepidoptera is the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Pyralidae). Once the best example of successful classical biological control of weeds, solving a major cactus problem in Australia, it invaded Florida in 1989 and has been spreading along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. There is grave concern that this pest will eventually reach the cactus-rich Western U.S.A., Mexico, and Central America, threatening the biodiversity of the Opuntia-based native ecosystems and adversely impacting the important food and fodder Opuntia industry. Currently, the pheromone is being developed as a monitoring tool, mass rearing methods are being refined in South Africa and the radiation biology of the cactus moth is being studied to determine the optimum dose of radiation. An SIT programme is being considered to prevent further geographical expansion of this moth, but the use F1 sterility is also being assessed as a tool to determine the eventual host and geographical range and to study the rate of spread of this invading insect. To raise awareness of this major environmental threat and the potential of SIT to address alien species, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division recently hosted a planning and coordination meeting, that included representatives of some environmental organizations, to assess the role SIT/F1 Sterility can play in addressing the cactus moth invasion as a model of invasive pests affecting not only agriculture, but that are also of environmental concern (see report of a cactus moth Consultants Meeting on page 28). We foresee an increased role in developing SIT for potential alien invasive species to help FAO and IAEA Member States deal with incipient outbreaks of such pest species

  4. In vitro ruminal fermentation kinetic of diets containing forage cactus with urea and different starch sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann dos Santos Luz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate fermentation kinetic of diets based on cactus forage enriched with urea and Tifton 85 hay, containing different starch sources, using semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. Treatments were disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications, where concentrates were formulated as follows: cassava roots (FSMa, semi flint corn grains (FSMiSD, dent corn grains (FSMiD and wheat bran (FTMa. All diets were formulated to obtain 15% of crude protein. Gas pressure were measured 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after inoculation. For fast phase maximum gas volume (Vf1, both treatments containing corn did not differ (P>0.05. FTMa differed (P<0.05 from diets composed with corn, as main starch source. Specific degradation rate of fast fraction (Kd1 was higher (P<0.05 on FSMa and FTMa diets, compared with corn diets. Colonization time (L showed lower values (P<0.05 for FTMa diet. The lowest total gas production was observed on FTMa and the highest for FSMiD, varying from 225.49 to 268.31 mL/g, respectively. Cassava roots as starch source contributes to a faster fermentation, compared to both corns, allowing a better synchronization with faster degradation nitrogen sources.

  5. Agrobiodiversity of cactus pear (Opuntia, Cactaceae in the Meridional Highlands Plateau of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Reyes-Agüero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is characterized by a remarkable richness of Opuntia, mostly at the Meridional Highlands Plateau; it is also here where the greatest richness of Opuntia variants occurs. Most of these variants have been maintained in homegardens; however, the gathering process which originated these homegardens has been disrupted over the past decades, as a result of social change and the destruction of large wild nopaleras. If the variants still surviving in homegardens are lost, these will be hard to recover, that is, the millenary cultural heritage from the human groups that populated the Mexican Meridional Highland Plateau will be lost forever. This situation motivated the preparation of a catalogue that records the diversity of wild and cultivated Opuntia variants living in the meridional Highlands Plateau. To this end, 379 samples were obtained in 29 localities, between 1998 and 2003. The information was processed through Twinspan. All specimens were identified and preserved in herbaria. Botanical keys and descriptions were elaborated. The catalogue includes information on 126 variants comprising 18 species. There were species with only one variant (Opuntia atropes, O. cochinera, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. rzedowskii and O. velutina, two (O. durangensis, O. lindheimeri, O. phaeacantha and O. robusta, five (O. joconostle and O. lasiacantha, seven (O. chavena, 12 (O. hyptiacantha and O. streptacantha, 15 (O. ficus-indica, 22 (O. albicarpa, and up to 34 (O. megacantha. Additionally, 267 common cactus pear names were related to those variants.

  6. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. PMID:24210248

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  8. Combining Ferric Salt and Cactus Mucilage for Arsenic Removal from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dawn I; Stebbins, Daniela M; Alcantar, Norma A

    2016-03-01

    New methods to remediate arsenic-contaminated water continue to be studied, particularly to fill the need for accessible methods that can significantly impact developing communities. A combination of cactus mucilage and ferric (Fe(III)) salt was investigated as a flocculation-coagulation system to remove arsenic (As) from water. As(V) solutions, ferric nitrate, and mucilage suspensions were mixed and left to stand for various periods of time. Visual and SEM observations confirmed the flocculation action of the mucilage as visible flocs formed and settled to the bottom of the tubes within 3 min. The colloidal suspensions without mucilage were stable for up to 1 week. Sample aliquots were tested for dissolved and total arsenic by ICP-MS and HGAFS. Mucilage treatment improved As removal (over Fe(III)-only treatment); the system removed 75-96% As in 30 min. At neutral pH, removal was dependent on Fe(III) and mucilage concentration and the age of the Fe(III) solution. The process is fast, achieving maximum removal in 30 min, with the majority of As removed in 10-15 min. Standard jar tests with 1000 μg/L As(III) showed that arsenic removal and settling rates were pH-dependent; As removal was between 52% (high pH) and 66% (low pH). PMID:26824141

  9. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  10. Soil water dynamics and evapotranspiration of forage cactus clones under rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thieres George Freire da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate soil water dynamics in areas cultivated with forage cactus clones and to determine how environmental conditions and crop growth affect evapotranspiration. The study was conducted in the municipality of Serra Talhada, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Crop growth was monitored through changes in the cladode area index (CAI and through the soil cover fraction, calculated at the end of the cycle. Real evapotranspiration (ET of the three evaluated clones was obtained as the residual term in the soil water balance method. No difference was observed between soil water balance components, even though the evaluated clones were of different genus and had different CAI increments. Accumulated ET was of 1,173 mm during the 499 days of the experiment, resulting in daily average of 2.35 mm. The CAI increases the water consumption of the Orelha de Elefante Mexicana clone. In dry conditions, the water consumption of the Miúda clone responds more slowly to variation in soil water availability. The lower evolution of the CAI of the IPA Sertânia clone, during the rainy season, leads to a higher contribution of the evaporation component in ET. The atmospheric demand controls the ET of clones only when there is higher soil water availability; in this condition, the water consumption of the Miúda clone decreases more rapidly with the increase of atmospheric demand.

  11. Avalanche dynamics of the Abelian sandpile model on the expanded cactus graph

    CERN Document Server

    Gauthier, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the avalanche dynamics of the abelian sandpile model on arbitrarily large balls of the expanded cactus graph (the Cayley graph of the free product $\\mathbb{Z}_3 * \\mathbb{Z}_2$). I follow the approach of Dhar and Majumdar (1990) to enumerate the number of recurrent configurations. I also propose the substitution method of enumerating all the recurrent configurations in which adding a grain to a designated origin vertex (far enough away from the boundary vertices) causes topplings to occur in a specific cluster (a connected subgraph that is the union of cells, or copies of the 3-cycle). This substitution method lends itself to combinatorial evaluation of the number of positions in which a certain number of cells topple in an avalanche starting at the origin, which are amenable to analysis using well-known recurrences and corresponding generating functions. Using asymptotic methods, I show that, when counting cells that topple in the avalanche, the critical exponent of the Abelian sandpile model o...

  12. Resolving a Prickly Situation: Involving Stakeholders in Invasive Cactus Management in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Kaplan, Haylee; Wilson, John R. U.; Richardson, David M.

    2016-05-01

    The regulation and management of alien species can be contentious, particularly when the stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who suffer the costs. We propose a consultative process involving relevant stakeholders in invasive species management decisions. The process involves (1) the identification of relevant stakeholders, (2) assessing their perceptions, (3) enhancing interaction between stakeholders, (4) assessing changes in stakeholders' perceptions following interactions with other stakeholders, and (5) developing management recommendations in collaboration with stakeholders. We demonstrate the application of the process using the family Cactaceae (`cacti') in South Africa. Many species of cacti have been introduced to the country over the past two centuries, mostly for horticulture, food and fodder, and hundreds of other species have been introduced in the past few decades (or are likely to be introduced soon) for horticulture. Using the proposed process enabled the negotiation and participation of all stakeholders in decision making and helped minimize contentious situations by clarifying stakeholder's beliefs and exploring consensus solutions. Consequently, management objectives were broadly supported by all stakeholders. These results will be included in a national cactus management strategy for South Africa.

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a Cactus virus X strain from Hylocereus undatus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, M R; Chen, Y R; Liou, R F

    2004-05-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a strain of Cactus virus X (CVX-Hu) isolated from Hylocereus undatus (Cactaceae) has been determined. Excluding the poly(A) tail, the sequence is 6614 nucleotides in length and contains seven open reading frames (ORFs). The genome organization of CVX is similar to that of other potexviruses. ORF1 encodes the putative viral replicase with conserved methyltransferase, helicase, and polymerase motifs. Within ORF1, two other ORFs were located separately in the +2 reading frame, we call these ORF6 and ORF7. ORF2, 3, and 4, which form the "triple gene block" characteristic of the potexviruses, encode proteins with molecular mass of 25, 12, and 7 KDa, respectively. ORF5 encodes the coat protein with an estimated molecular mass of 24 KDa. Sequence analysis indicated that proteins encoded by ORF1-5 display certain degree of homology to the corresponding proteins of other potexviruses. Putative product of ORF6, however, shows no significant similarity to those of other potexviruses. Phylogenetic analyses based on the replicase (the methyltransferase, helicase, and polymerase domains) and coat protein demonstrated a closer relationship of CVX with Bamboo mosaic virus, Cassava common mosaic virus, Foxtail mosaic virus, Papaya mosaic virus, and Plantago asiatica mosaic virus. PMID:15098117

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave D. Madsen

    1998-08-08

    This closure report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range,approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol) (DOE, 1996). The remedial alternative proposed Nevada Division of Environmental Protection proposed the capping method. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the ar ea of the trenches, constructing/planning a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a post-closure monitoring plan. Closure activities for CAU 426 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan as documented in this Closure Report.

  15. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale. PMID:18767708

  16. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  17. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  18. Final critical habitat for the Blackburns sphinx moth (Manduca blackburni) on the island of Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Blackburn's Sphinx Moth (Manduca blackburni) occur on the island of Hawaii.

  19. Final critical habitat for the Blackburns sphinx moth (Manduca blackburni) on the island of Kahoolawe

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Blackburn's Sphinx Moth (Manduca blackburni) occur on the island of Kahoolawe.

  20. To females of a noctuid moth, male courtship songs are nothing more than bat echolocation calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Skals, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that intraspecific ultrasonic communication observed in some moths evolved, through sexual selection, subsequent to the development of ears sensitive to echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Given this scenario, the receiver bias model of signal evolution argues that...... acoustic communication in moths should have evolved through the exploitation of receivers' sensory bias towards bat ultrasound. We tested this model using a noctuid moth Spodoptera litura, males of which were recently found to produce courtship ultrasound. We first investigated the mechanism of sound...... production in the male moth, and subsequently the role of the sound with reference to the female's ability to discriminate male courtship songs from bat calls. We found that males have sex-specific tymbals for ultrasound emission, and that the broadcast of either male songs or simulated bat calls equally...

  1. Forest Pest Management, Gypsy Moth Trap Catches on Federal Land, 1990-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Enclosed are the results of the 1990-1997 gypsy moth pheromone trapping program on Federal lands inVirginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee,...

  2. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended. PMID:24026215

  3. Weather Affecting Macro-Moth Diversity at Khao Nan National Park, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE; Wittaya PHEERA; Ratree NINLAEARD; Krisanadej JAROENSUTASINEE; Surachai CHOLDUMRONGKUL

    2011-01-01

    Surveying on the diversity of the macro-moths was done at Khao Nan National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand from January 2007 to December 2008. We caught 57 species with 170 individuals of macro-moths covering nine families: Cossidae, Cyclidiidae, Eupterotidae, Geometridae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae and Uraniidae. We collected 46 species with 24 singletons and 123 individuals belonging to nine families at Headquarters and 24 species with 16 singletons and 47 indivi...

  4. Surviving cave bats: auditory and behavioural defences in the Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, James H; Jackson, Matt E; Jacobs, David S; Pavey, Chris R; Burwell, Chris J

    2008-12-01

    The Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans shares its subterranean day roosts (caves and abandoned mines) with insectivorous bats, some of which prey upon it. The capacity of this moth to survive is assumed to arise from its ability to listen for the bats' echolocation calls and take evasive action; however, the auditory characteristics of this moth or any tropically distributed Australian moth have never been examined. We investigated the ears of S. spectans and determined that they are among the most sensitive ever described for a noctuid moth. Using playbacks of cave-recorded bats, we determined that S. spectans is able to detect most of the calls of two co-habiting bats, Rhinolophus megaphyllus and Miniopterus australis, whose echolocation calls are dominated by frequencies ranging from 60 to 79 kHz. Video-recorded observations of this roost site show that S. spectans adjusts its flight activity to avoid bats but this defence may delay the normal emergence of the moths and leave some 'pinned down' in the roosts for the entire night. At a different day roost, we observed the auditory responses of one moth to the exceptionally high echolocation frequencies (150-160 kHz) of the bat Hipposideros ater and determined that S. spectans is unable to detect most of its calls. We suggest that this auditory constraint, in addition to the greater flight manoeuvrability of H. ater, renders S. spectans vulnerable to predation by this bat to the point of excluding the moth from day roosts where the bat occurs. PMID:19043053

  5. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Gupta; Nidhi Shrivastava; Pramod Kumar Singh; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean acces...

  6. Warning coloration can be disruptive: aposematic marginal wing patterning in the wood tiger moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Atsushi; Mappes, Johanna; Valkonen, Janne K

    2015-11-01

    Warning (aposematic) and cryptic colorations appear to be mutually incompatible because the primary function of the former is to increase detectability, whereas the function of the latter is to decrease it. Disruptive coloration is a type of crypsis in which the color pattern breaks up the outline of the prey, thus hindering its detection. This delusion can work even when the prey's pattern elements are highly contrasting; thus, it is possible for an animal's coloration to combine both warning and disruptive functions. The coloration of the wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) is such that the moth is conspicuous when it rests on vegetation, but when it feigns death and drops to the grass- and litter-covered ground, it is hard to detect. This death-feigning behavior therefore immediately switches the function of its coloration from signaling to camouflage. We experimentally tested whether the forewing patterning of wood tiger moths could function as disruptive coloration against certain backgrounds. Using actual forewing patterns of wood tiger moths, we crafted artificial paper moths and placed them on a background image resembling a natural litter and grass background. We manipulated the disruptiveness of the wing pattern so that all (marginal pattern) or none (nonmarginal pattern) of the markings extended to the edge of the wing. Paper moths, each with a hidden palatable food item, were offered to great tits (Parus major) in a large aviary where the birds could search for and attack the "moths" according to their detectability. The results showed that prey items with the disruptive marginal pattern were attacked less often than prey without it. However, the disruptive function was apparent only when the prey was brighter than the background. These results suggest that warning coloration and disruptive coloration can work in concert and that the moth, by feigning death, can switch the function of its coloration from warning to disruptive. PMID:26640666

  7. Coloration using higher order optical interference in the wing pattern of the Madagascan sunset moth

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, S; Nakano, T; Nozue, Y.; Kinoshita, S.

    2007-01-01

    Colour patterns of animals' bodies are usually produced by the spatial distribution of pigments with different colours. However, some animals use the spatial variation of colour-producing microstructures. We have studied one distinctive example of such structurally produced colour patterns, the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth, to clarify the physical rules that underlie the colour variation. It is known that the iridescent wing scale of the sunset moth has the alternate air–cuticle multila...

  8. Field observations about the behaviour of codling-moth in Trentino (North-Eastern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Mattedi, L.; Forno, F.; Varner, M; Umberto, P.

    2008-01-01

    Codling-moth and applescab are the most important pathogens in both conventional and organic apple productions. In order to control any phytopathological problem, it is important to improve the knowledge of the behaviour of each specific pest. Since several years (starting from 1986) we are improving in Trentino (North-Eastern Italy) the observations of the population dynamics of codling-moth in order to find the best way to control and treat this pest insect. Constant monit...

  9. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  10. Gypsy moth F1 sterility programme: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States of America the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is progressively invading the country from its original site of introduction in Massachusetts. The use of F1 sterility is being developed to eradicate the isolated infestations that occur sporadically far beyond the generally infested zone. F1 sterility is also being developed to retard the rate of expansion of the generally infested zone. The optimal dose to induce F1 sterility appears to be 80 Gy of gamma rays. Pilot trials are being carried out in which treated male pupae are distributed into the wild, or in which the F1 progeny of treated males and normal females are distributed during the egg stage. The latter approach permits mass rearing during most of the year and the stockpiling of diapausing eggs, as well as simplified shipment and distribution. In the past, mass rearing proved to be somewhat unreliable because of the occurrence of 'abnormal performance syndrome' or APS. This syndrome is characterized by a poor hatch, high mortality of neonates and retarded larval development. The syndrome is diet related, and can be avoided by fastidious attention to meeting the nutritional requirements of the rearing stocks. A special container was designed for the shipment and release of pupae. Also, a special formulation of the pheromone was developed that appears to permit the correlation of trap catches with local egg mass densities. Released males are marked internally with Calco red dye or externally with a fluorescent dye. Also, a morphometric method has been developed to distinguish between wild and released moths. F1 males mate readily, but the frequency of sperm transfer is low. Nevertheless, wild females mated to F1 males appear to behave as through they had been mated to normal males. (author)

  11. Mobile Mating Disruption of Light Brown Apple Moths Using Pheromone-Treated Sterile Mediterranean Fruit Flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Public opposition to aerial application of sex pheromone for mating disruption of light-brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walk.), in California stopped its further use in the ca $ 74 million eradication programme in 2008, underscoring the need for other eradication tactics. It is demonstrated that pheromone- treated sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies), Ceratitis capitata Wied., can disrupt communication in male moths. Results: Medflies topically dosed with moth pheromone (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate showed a no observed effect level (NOEL) of ∼ 10 μg fly-1, with increasing toxicity from 30 to 100 μg fly-1. Greater potency and longevity of attraction and lower mortality were achieved using microencapsulated pheromone. Releases of 1000 pheromone- treated medflies ha-1 prevented male moth catch to synthetic lures in treated 4 ha plots for 1 day in suburban Perth, Australia. Releases of ca 3000 pheromone-treated medflies ha-1 disrupted catch to single female moths in delta traps, and to synthetic pheromone lures. Percentage disruption on the first four nights was 95, 91, 82 and 85%. Conclusions: Disruption of moth catch using pheromonetreated medflies is a novel development that, with future improvement, might provide a socially acceptable approach for application of the insect mating disruption technique to control invasive insects in urban environments. Adequacy of payload and other issues require resolution. (author)

  12. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States

  13. Weather Affecting Macro-Moth Diversity at Khao Nan National Park, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveying on the diversity of the macro-moths was done at Khao Nan National Park, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand from January 2007 to December 2008. We caught 57 species with 170 individuals of macro-moths covering nine families: Cossidae, Cyclidiidae, Eupterotidae, Geometridae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae and Uraniidae. We collected 46 species with 24 singletons and 123 individuals belonging to nine families at Headquarters and 24 species with 16 singletons and 47 individuals belonging to 6 families at Huilek Park Ranger station. Sphingidae was recorded as the most diverse family sampled in Khao Nan National Park, followed by Noctuidae, and Saturniidae. The macro-moths visited the light trap at Headquarters every month during the study period. The highest species richness was observed in June 2007 with 10 species. The number of macro-moths at Huilek Park Ranger station was highest in October and December 2007. The species composition in the Headquarters was approximately three times higher than at Huilek Park Ranger station. At Headquarters, the number of individual macro-moths was positively correlated with mean/max/min temperatures and negatively correlated with relative humidity and not associated with rainfall. On the other hand, the number of individual macro-moths at Huilek Park Ranger station was not associated with mean/max/min temperatures, relative humidity or rainfall.

  14. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. PMID:26313955

  15. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  16. An endemic population of western poplar clearwing moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) invades a monoculture of hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John J; Kittelson, Neal T; Hannon, Eugene R; Walsh, Douglas B

    2006-06-01

    Western poplar clearwing, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is endemic in Pacific Northwest riparian habitats at low population densities. These moths have colonized commercial hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) plantings. Moth populations increased rapidly and became a major pest. Trap catches of male moths in mid-season surveys increased 190-fold from 95 in 2001 to >18,500 in 2002 across 6597 ha of poplars monitored. The outbreak of western poplar clearwings was widespread in 2002. Pheromone-baited traps placed one trap per 81.75 ha over 13,274 ha of commercial poplars captured >108,000 male moths in 2002. Damage to commercial poplars included girdling of saplings and burrows in limbs and trunks of trees. Repeated applications of chlorpyrifos failed to reduce the abundance of moths in 2002. Two management strategies over two separate plantations of approximately 6500 ha each were contrasted. Future control strategies recommend a halt to the use of contact insecticides that target adult moths. Short-term (3-5 yr) control should involve a pheromone-based mating disruption strategy followed eventually by selection of a clone that is less susceptible to P. robiniae attack. PMID:16813311

  17. Development of synthetic volatile attractant for maleEctropis obliqua moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ling; LI Xi-wang; XIN Zhao-jun; HAN Juan-juan; RAN Wei; LEI Shu

    2016-01-01

    The tea geometridEctropis obliquais one of the most serious leaf-feeding insect pests in tea (Camelia sinensis) in East Asia. Although several volatile chemicals emitted from tea plants have been reported to be attractive toE. obliqua moths, no synthetic attractants for E. obliqua moths have been developed. By measuring the behavioral responses of the moth to a series of chemicals in the lab, we found that a blend containing a ternary mixture containing (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and benzyl alcohol clearly attracted toE. obliqua moths of both sex and that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate could enhance the attractiveness of the ternary blend. Moreover, we found that the volatiles emitted from the plant-E. obliqua larva com-plex have the same attractiveness as: 1) the blend of volatiles containing the ternary mixture and 2) the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture to both male and female moths. In a ifeld bioassay, more male moths were observed on traps that were baited with the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture than on control traps. Our study raises the tantalizing possibility that synthetic blends could be deployed as attractants for pests in the ifeld.

  18. Preparation of the cactus-like porous manganese oxide assisted with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The cactus-like porous MnO2 was synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted with SDS. • The MnO2 exhibits a max specific capacitance of 187.8 F g−1 (0.2 A g−1, 1 M Na2SO4). • Excellent cycling stability: 92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: The cactus-like porous manganese dioxide (MnO2) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method assisted with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The morphology, composition, property of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the sample without surfactant was composed of nanoflakes which piling up together, whereas in the presence of the surfactant, the MnO2 samples with the max specific surface of 321.9 m2 g−1 showed a porous cactus-like microstructure, consisted of uniform nanowires and porous nanoflakes. The electrochemical performances of the MnO2 with and without surfactant were analyzed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS) and Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge (GCD) tests. The results showed that the MnO2 assisted with 1 wt.% SDS displayed a higher specific capacitance of 187.8 F g−1 at the current density of 0.2 A g−1 compared with the MnO2 without surfactant (134.8 F g−1). And such MnO2 samples with higher specific capacitance also afford an excellent cyclic stability with the capacity retention of approximately 92.9% after 1000 cycles in 1 M Na2SO4 solution at a current density of 1 A g−1. The superior capacitive performance of the as-prepared materials could be attributed to its unique cactus-like porous structure, which provided good electronic conductivity, large specific surface area as well as fast electron and ion transport

  19. Preparation of the cactus-like porous manganese oxide assisted with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Yan, Gang; Xu, Guofeng; Xue, Qingrui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Lab of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • The cactus-like porous MnO{sub 2} was synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted with SDS. • The MnO{sub 2} exhibits a max specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} (0.2 A g{sup −1}, 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). • Excellent cycling stability: 92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: The cactus-like porous manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method assisted with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The morphology, composition, property of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the sample without surfactant was composed of nanoflakes which piling up together, whereas in the presence of the surfactant, the MnO{sub 2} samples with the max specific surface of 321.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} showed a porous cactus-like microstructure, consisted of uniform nanowires and porous nanoflakes. The electrochemical performances of the MnO{sub 2} with and without surfactant were analyzed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS) and Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge (GCD) tests. The results showed that the MnO{sub 2} assisted with 1 wt.% SDS displayed a higher specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} at the current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} compared with the MnO{sub 2} without surfactant (134.8 F g{sup −1}). And such MnO{sub 2} samples with higher specific capacitance also afford an excellent cyclic stability with the capacity retention of approximately 92.9% after 1000 cycles in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. The superior capacitive performance of the as-prepared materials could be attributed to its unique cactus-like porous structure, which provided good electronic conductivity, large specific surface area as

  20. Noteworthy Record of Musonycteris harrisoni and Tlacuatzin canescens Pollinating a Columnar Cactus in West-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I. Iniguez-Davalos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report Musonycteris harrisoni (Phyllostomidae and Tlacuatzin canescens (Didelphidae feeding of flowers during the blooming period (March and April 2004 of Stenocereus queretaroensis, an endemic cactus showing nocturnal anthesis and chiropterophilic syndrome. Visits were considered legitimate because both mammals made contact with the stigma and anthers, although their visits were highly infrequent compared with the principal pollinator Leptonycteris curasoae. These mammals are usually associated with pristine tropical forests, although our study site showed high habitat fragmentation and extensive agriculture. It is likely that both mammals feed regularly on nectar of cacti in pristine tropical forests thus acting actively as pollinators.

  1. European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Totricidae) – occurence and management in Istrian vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Bažok; Kristina DIKLIĆ

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff.) flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA) for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitor...

  2. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth

    OpenAIRE

    Geffen, van, J; Grunsven, van, ECE; Ruijven, van, L.J.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on developme...

  3. Optical properties of Cu{sub 2}S nano-hollow cactus arrays with different morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liqiang, E-mail: liliqiang3672603@163.com [School of Physics, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Hong, Cuilan [School of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Zhang, Wenxing; Chen, Wencong; Li, Peng [School of Physics, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • The light absorption ability of CNHC is enhanced as the decrease of the thorn diameter. • The band gap of CNHC can be adjusted by changing their morphologies. • The CNHC with different morphologies are less sensitive to the light incident angles. • CNHC will reduce trouble of moving around solar cell panels when they were used in the photovoltaics. - Abstract: In this study, a series of Cu{sub 2}S nano-hollow cactus arrays (CNHC) with varying morphologies is prepared by a two-step process including electrodeposition and the solid–gas reaction method. The structure of the arrays is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy; while, their light absorption performance is investigated by diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The “thorns” of the CNHC are single-crystal Cu{sub 2}S semiconductors, and the band gap of the CNHC can be adjusted by changing their morphology, where the light absorption ability of the array is enhanced from 82% to 93% as the thorn diameter decreases from 1500 to 163 nm. All of the different CNHC morphologies exhibit little sensitivity to the incident angle of the light. For example, the light absorption of the CNHC with a thorn diameter of 430 nm only decreases by 5% as the incident angle increases from 0° to 45°. This shows the potential of the CNHC for use in solar energy applications, where its insensitivity to the angle of the incident light will reduce the necessity of adjusting the angle of solar cell panels using CNHC in the photovoltaics.

  4. Optical properties of Cu2S nano-hollow cactus arrays with different morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The light absorption ability of CNHC is enhanced as the decrease of the thorn diameter. • The band gap of CNHC can be adjusted by changing their morphologies. • The CNHC with different morphologies are less sensitive to the light incident angles. • CNHC will reduce trouble of moving around solar cell panels when they were used in the photovoltaics. - Abstract: In this study, a series of Cu2S nano-hollow cactus arrays (CNHC) with varying morphologies is prepared by a two-step process including electrodeposition and the solid–gas reaction method. The structure of the arrays is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy; while, their light absorption performance is investigated by diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The “thorns” of the CNHC are single-crystal Cu2S semiconductors, and the band gap of the CNHC can be adjusted by changing their morphology, where the light absorption ability of the array is enhanced from 82% to 93% as the thorn diameter decreases from 1500 to 163 nm. All of the different CNHC morphologies exhibit little sensitivity to the incident angle of the light. For example, the light absorption of the CNHC with a thorn diameter of 430 nm only decreases by 5% as the incident angle increases from 0° to 45°. This shows the potential of the CNHC for use in solar energy applications, where its insensitivity to the angle of the incident light will reduce the necessity of adjusting the angle of solar cell panels using CNHC in the photovoltaics

  5. Rehabilitation and certification of the PGPB Cactus-San Fernando gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graciano, L.S. [Permex Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Mexico City (Mexico); Clyne, A. [GE Energy PII Pipeline Solutions, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cazenave, P.; Willis, S. [GE Energy PII Pipeline Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Kania, R. [GE Energy Pipeline Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The Cactus-San Fernando gas pipeline system is 650 km in length and was constructed in the late 1970s. The system transports more than 1100 million standard cubic feet per day of dry natural gas to electricity generators in Mexico. This paper described a project undertaken to re-validate the pipeline and demonstrate the future integrity of the pipeline system and ensure that it was suitable for operation to 1219 psig. Pipeline sections were inspected using high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) in-line inspection (ILI) tools, and inertial mapping unit vehicles equipped with global positioning surveys (GPS). The combined inspections allowed the project team to accurately identify features of the pipeline that required repairs. External and internal corrosion were identified as the most prevalent defects. RSTRENG methodologies were used to investigate the interaction of individual corrosion anomalies. Corrosion patterns were compared, and above-ground survey data were used to establish the causes of both the external and internal corrosion, as well as to establish future corrosion growth rates. Decision tree analysis was then used to analyze the growth rates and to identify statistical differences between corrosion growth rates as a function of distance along the pipeline. After the ILI reports were generated, an integrity assessment was then conducted to identify necessary repair options. Repairs plans were then developed along with recommended re-inspection intervals for each section. After the integrity assessments were accepted by a certification company, field work was conducted to locate and measure defects. Defects characteristic of major volumetric welding flaws introduced during pipeline construction were identified and repaired with an epoxy sleeve technique. It was concluded that repairs needed to operate the pipeline at the requested pressure were accomplished within a period of 8 months. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Assessment of the invasive status of newly recorded cactus species in the central Tugela River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cheek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current distribution information on cacti in the Tugela River basin in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is scant. Accordingly, surveys in this region substantially improve our understanding of regional invasions by this succulent group. The identification of new or extended invasions requires (reassessments of their invasion status and consideration of possible management interventions.Objectives: To identify and collect cacti either not previously recorded or poorly known in the central Tugela River basin, and to assess their invasion status.Method: A 40 km section of tertiary road was travelled through the topocadastral square 2830 CC, from the R74 main road northward across the Bloukrans River towards the Tugela River. Herbarium specimens were collected to vouch for new instances of naturalisation of cacti, the colony sizes of which were estimated and invasion stages determined. An applicable weed risk assessment model was used to determine the threat status of one cactus species not previously evaluated for South Africa. Based on the South African Plant Invaders Atlas database records and field observations, management recommendations were suggested for six cacti species.Results: The first naturalised population of Opuntia microdasys in KwaZulu-Natal was detected, as was the first confirmed South African record of Echinopsis oxygona. Four populations of Peniocereus serpentinus were also found, ranging in size from several square metres to 0.4 ha. Echinopsis oxygona generated a score that falls into the reject category of the risk assessment model used.Conclusion: It is recommended that E. oxygona be added to the Species Under Surveillance for Possible Eradication or Containment Targeting list to investigate whether this species requires formal legal listing and the development of a specific eradication plan. Immediate action from local authorities is recommended for the manual removal of P. serpentinus and O. microdasys populations.

  7. Parenchyma–Chlorenchyma Water Movement during Drought for the Hemiepiphytic Cactus Hylocereus undatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOBEL, PARK S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Hylocereus undatus, a hemiepiphytic cactus cultivated in 20 countries for its fruit, has fleshy stems whose water storage is crucial for surviving drought. Inter-tissue water transfer during drought was therefore analysed based on cell volumes and water potential components. • Methods In addition to determining cell dimensions, osmotic pressures and water potentials, a novel but simple procedure leading to an external water potential of zero was devised by which cells in thin sections were perfused with distilled water. The resulting volume changes indicated that the parenchyma–chlorenchyma water movement was related to more flexible cell walls in the water-storage parenchyma with its lower internal turgor pressure (P) than in the chlorenchyma. • Key Results Under wet conditions, P was 0·45 MPa in the chlorenchyma but only 0·10 MPa in the water-storage parenchyma. During 6 weeks of drought, the stems lost one-third of their water content, becoming flaccid. About 95 % of the water lost came from cells in the water-storage parenchyma, which decreased by 44 % in length and volume, whereas cells in the adjacent chlorenchyma decreased by only 6 %; the osmotic pressure concomitantly increased by only 10 % in the chlorenchyma but by 75 % in the water-storage parenchyma. • Conclusions The concentrating effect that occurred as cellular volume decreased indicated no change in cellular solute amounts during 6 weeks of drought. The ability to shift water from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma allowed the latter tissue to maintain a positive net CO2 uptake rate during such a drought. PMID:16390846

  8. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. PMID:27283673

  9. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornyi, T.G., E-mail: tornyitom@atomki.hu [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A.C.; Siem, S. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Krasznahorkay, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Csige, L. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-02-21

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE−E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  10. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornyi, T. G.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csige, L.

    2014-02-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE-E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  11. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE−E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy

  12. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Tornyi, Tamás Gábor; Guttormsen, Magne; Larsen, Ann-Cecilie; Siem, Sunniva; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Csige, Lóránt

    2013-01-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers $60\\%$ of 2$\\pi$. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ${\\Delta}E-E$ silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly...

  13. Infestation and dispersal speed of dactylopius opuntiae cockerell on giant cactus pea, 1896 in the State Of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Brito

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2001 was introduced in the State of Paraíba, the exotic pest Dactylopius opuntiae, commonly known as carmine cochineal, which already undertaken the cultivation of the giant cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica in more than fifty cities. This study aimed to evaluate the infestation and dispersal speed of D. opuntiae at the field conditions, to establish a level of pest control. The research was performed in a field of giant cactus pear with twelve months cropped, artificially infested with the carmine cochineal in Lagoa Seca Experimental Station, Paraíba. The trial used was the completely randomized design (CRD consisting of ten treatments (giant cactus pear plants and ten repetitions (infested cladodes. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, using the ASSISTAT Application 7.5 Beta (2008. The results showed that ten colonies/cladodes caused infestation and a high dispersion of the insect. After 60 days the infestation and spread of colonies reached average value 171 colonies per plant. The dispersal of migrants nymphs are carried by wind from the cladodes to cladodes and plant to plant. From these results we can establish that the control level to carmine cochineal is less than 10 colonies/plant and the combat should be started immediately after detection of the first colonies of the pest in cactus pear crop.

  14. Selenium accumulation, distribution and speciation in spineless prickly pear cactus: a salt, boron, and drought tolerant, selenium-enriched nutraceutical fruit crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) may be an alternative crop to grow in drainage-impacted regions of the westside of California, where high levels of salinity, selenium (Se), and boron (B) are present. Preliminary trials have demonstrated that Opuntia can tolerate the adverse soil conditions, while accu...

  15. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  16. Contrasting Patterns of Host Adaptation in Two Egg Parasitoids of the Pine Processionary Moth (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Romani, Roberto; Petrucco-Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Battisti, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation of parasitoids to their phytophagous host is often mediated by environmental conditions and by the food plant of the phytophagous host. Therefore, the host food plant can indirectly affect the survival and fitness of parasitoids that also attack quiescent host stages, such as eggs, in which the resources available to the immature parasitoid stages are limited. Our aim was to investigate how two egg parasitoid species of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller), respond to variations in egg traits at the extremes of a west-to-east geographic gradient in northern Italy. We considered one specialist [Baryscapus servadeii (Domenichini)] and one generalist [Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet)] parasitoid, which reproduce mainly by thelytokous parthenogenesis and are common throughout the whole range of this pest. The size and shell structure of the pine processionary moth eggs were studied under light microscopy and tested experimentally under controlled conditions. We can conclude that 1) the pine processionary moth egg shell thickness is inversely proportional to the parasitism performance; 2) the larger eggs from the pine processionary moth eastern population produce parasitoid females of a larger size, which have greater realized fecundity; 3) the generalist parasitoid performs successfully with either the "home" or "away" (i.e., from both extremes of the geographic gradient) pine processionary moth eggs, which is not the case for the specialist parasitoid. The implications of these responses in the regulation of phytophagous populations are numerous and should be considered in population dynamics studies and pest management programs. PMID:26313953

  17. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mansour Hédi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which

  18. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  19. Outbreaks of Mass Reproduction of Siberian Moth in the 2nd Half of the 20th Century in Priamurye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Siberian moth Dendcrolimus superans sibiricus Tschetw. is the main important insect pest not only in Siberian coniferous taiga, but it often forms foci of mass reproduction in larch stands in the Russian Far East. This article has described outbreaks of the Siberian moth and other insect pests since 1960 till now.

  20. Moth-Eye TiO2 Layer for Improving Light Harvesting Efficiency in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong Min; Jang, Segeun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Yoon, Jungjin; Yoo, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jin-Wook; Choi, Mansoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A moth-eye nanostructured mp-TiO2 film using conventional lithography, nano-imprinting and polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) stamping methods is demonstrated for the first time. Power conversion efficiency of the moth-eye patterned perovskite solar cell is improved by ≈11%, which mainly results from increasing light harvesting efficiency by structural optical property. PMID:26990492

  1. Apple and sugar feeding in adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella: effects on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented; however, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated convincingly. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pair...

  2. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J;

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating the...

  3. EVALUACIÓN DEL USO DE ENZIMAS Y FILTRACIÓN POR GRAVEDAD PARA LA CLARIFICACIÓN DE UNA MEZCLA DILUIDA DE PULPA DE FRUTOS DE CACTUS (OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII BRITTON & ROSE), JUGOS DE NARANJA Y TORONJA EVALUATION OF THE USE OF ENZYMES AND GRAVITY FILTRATION FOR CLARIFICATION OF DILUTED MIXTURE OF CACTUS (OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII BRITTON & ROSE) FRUITS PULP, ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT JUICES

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira; Mario José Moreno Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    En Venezuela los frutos de cactus (Opuntia boldinguii) son de escasa utilidad comercial. Para su aprovechamiento se evaluó el efecto del uso combinado de enzimas fibrolíticas y filtración por gravedad en la clarificación de una mezcla diluida de pulpa de frutos de cactus, jugos de naranja y toronja. Se compararon los valores de las curvas de flujo de filtrado de las mezclas hidrolizada y sin hidrolizar mediante la prueba t de Welch. La concentración óptima de enzimas fue 0,76% (v/v). La hidró...

  4. Multiple mating of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and recovering fertility of its progeny after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximum multiple mating of the male diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) was 30 times in its life, and the average was 16 times. The maximum multiple mating of the male moth irradiated with a substerilizing dose (35 kR) was 14 times, and the average was 7.2 times. The maximum multiple mating of the female moth was 8 times, and the average was 4 times. The rates of egg sterility in F1 and F2 were 57.3% and 99.1% respectively, when the normal female diamondback moths were mated with male moths irradiated with 35 kR dose. However, the fertility was recovered in F3 as the rate of egg sterility was 0.7%

  5. Caracterización nutricional del cactus nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica bajo diferentes tratamientos de fertilización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez-M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro planeta se enfrenta actualmente a grandes cambios en su ambiente natural, no sólo como consecuencia de su evolución, sino también del acelerado proceso de degradación antrópica. Dentro de este contexto se origina la necesidad de buscar soluciones que mitiguen el bajo nivel de vida del campesino, dadas las precarias condiciones de muchos de los actuales ecosistemas, que no permiten implementar los modelos tradicionales de explotación desmesurada de los recursos. El cactus nopal  (Opuntia ficus-indica ofrece ventajas en la producción animal, presentándose como una alternativa agroecológica, fácil de implementar en zonas semiáridas bajo condiciones adversas y con un mínimo de insumosagropecuarios. El  objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el desempeño nutricional del cactus nopal bajo cuatro tipos de fertilización, mediante el análisis proximal de alimentos, implementado en el laboratorio de nutrición animal de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, UPTC sede Tunja, en los especímenes de cactus nopal existentes en el jardín botánico de la misma. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos de tratamientos para la fertilización: 1.Químico, 2.Orgánico, 3. Químico + Orgánico y 4.Testigo, aplicados en intervalos de veinte (20 días, por tres veces, aplicando también agua en un riego semanal; tiempo al cabo del cual se realizó la valoraciónnutricional, en donde el Tratamiento 2 (Orgánico fue el de mejor desempeño, seguido por el Tratamiento 3, luego el tratamiento 1 y, por último, el tratamiento 4 (testigo.

  6. Protein enrichment of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus - indica Mill using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de Fátima Araújo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbial protein bioconversion of cactus pear by yeast in solid medium was studied. Three cultivation variables used were: inoculum's concentrations (5, 10 and 15 %, substrate layer thickness (2, 4 and 6 cm and temperature (30, 34 and 38 ºC. The rate of dry matter production and total protein were determined. Results obtained were variance analysis, gross energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The maximum protein amount achieved for the conditions studied in the present work was higher than 26 %, which was compatible or greater than those of conventional concentrates of protein supplements used for animal feed. The protein concentrate of cactus pear had a higher in vitro digestibility index (95.8 % and did not show any changes in the gross energy value when compared to that of the cactus pear in natura.A bioconversão da proteína microbiana através da levedura em meio sólido, foi estudada em palma forrageira cultivada em condições laboratoriais, sob três níveis de concentração do inóculo (5, 10 e 15%, espessuras distintas das camadas dos substratos (2, 4 e 6cm e temperaturas (30, 34 e 38ºC. Foram analisadas as taxas de produção de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, cujos resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, energia bruta (EB e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O valor máximo de teor protéico, alcançado nas condições estudadas nesse trabalho, foi superior a 26%, sendo esse teor compatível ou maior do que os concentrados convencionais utilizados como suplemento protéico para a ração animal. O concentrado protéico da palma obteve um alto índice de digestibilidade in vitro (95,8% e não apresentou grande alteração no valor da energia bruta se comparada com a palma in natura.

  7. Estimation of the nopal cactus (Opuntia cochenillifera) for color removal in drinking water Evaluación de la tuna (Opuntia cochenillifera) para la remoción del color en agua potable

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Jiménez Antillón; Maricruz Vargas Camareno; Noemi Quirós Bustos

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of nopal cactus to remove color in river and artificial waters for human consumption was evaluated. The performance of nopal was compared with that of aluminum sulfate coagulant and a cationic flocculant.The river water was cha- racterized by high color, low turbidity, alkalinity and hardness, and a high percentage of dissolved oxygen. The cactus leaves showed no activity as unique coa- gulant to be evaluated only in river water. In artificial water, as a sole treatment (45 mg/...

  8. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  9. Regulatory role of PBAN in sex pheromone biosynthesis of heliothine moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell eJurenka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long-range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone PBAN (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide. This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hair-pencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hair-pencil pheromones.

  10. Studying nanostructured nipple arrays of moth eye facets helps to design better thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipples on the surface of moth eye facets exhibit almost perfect broadband anti-reflection properties. We have studied the facet surface micro-protuberances, known as corneal nipples, of the chestnut leafminer moth Cameraria ohridella by atomic force microscopy, and simulated the optics of the nipple arrays by three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. The influence of the dimensions and shapes of the nipples on the optics was studied. In particular, the shape of the nipples has a major influence on the anti-reflection properties. Furthermore, we transferred the structure of the almost perfect broadband anti-reflection coatings to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. The coating that imitates the moth-eye array allows for an increase of the short circuit current and conversion efficiency of more than 40%.

  11. Where to find a mate? Resource-based sexual communication of webbing clothes moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine

    2002-02-01

    Mate location in moths typically entails long-range attraction of males to female-produced pheromone. Here, we show that male and female webbing clothes moths, Tineola bisselliella, seek larval habitats (dry carrion, animal lairs, etc) to encounter mates. With males seeking, and arriving at, larval habitat earlier at night than females, male-produced pheromonal and sonic signals enhance the habitat's attractiveness to females. This resource-based mating strategy of T. bisselliella differs from that known for most other moths. It may have evolved in response to larval habitats that are patchy and temporary, but that disseminate attractive semiochemicals so abundantly that T. bisselliella encounter them more readily than their own pheromones.

  12. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3-10 in a molecular weight range of 11-170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6-8. PMID:27239343

  13. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L. Seeds and Their Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8.

  14. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indicus) as an alternative animal feed and water resource during dry season in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal feed and water shortage is one of the main constraints for the livestock sector in arid and semi arid region of Eritrea. The major feed resource comes from the rangeland pasture and crop residue. The quality and availability of these feed resources decreases rapidly following the rainy season. This fluctuating pattern of animal feed supply results in a pattern of gain and loss in animal growth and performance. In a country like Eritrea where feed shortage is such a serious problem, utilization of multipurpose trees and shrubs such as cactus that can cope with low and erratic rain fall, high temperature poor soils, and required low energy inputs can serve as an alternative strategy to reduce the chronic animal feed and water shortage (Barbera et al., 1995). Therefore the aim of this research was to assess the potential of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindica) as an alternative source feed and water for ruminant animals fed poor quality crop residues during the dry season in Eritrea. A randomized complete block design was used to allocate 24 fat tailed Highland male sheep with initial mean live weight of 21.1kg in two replications and one of four feed treatment groups. Animal in T1 received ad libitum amount of urea treated barley straw alone, while those in T2, T3 and T4 received ad libitum urea treated barley straw supplemented with 175g, 350g and 525g of spineless cactus (DM basis), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, four sheep were transferred to metabolic crates for the digestibility trial. Data were analyzed using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) with help of GENSTAT statistical producer software. Spineless cactus cladodes were high in water and ash content but low in crude protein and low in crude fibre. The energy content of cactus was 65% more than the urea treated straw. The effect of increasing level of spineless cactus on feed and water intake and weight gain is presented. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant

  15. Body-size influence on defensive behavior of Amazonlan moths: an ecophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F B

    2005-02-01

    Ectotherm locomotion is restricted by low temperatures, and many species, such as some flying insects, need to achieve thermal thresholds before taking off. Body size influences heat exchange between an animal and the environment. Therefore, larger animals have higher thermal inertia, and necessarily spend more time in pre-flight warming up, a critical period when they remain exposed and more susceptible to predators. Thus, one could expect larger animals, along their evolutionary history, to have developed a more diversified repertoire of defensive behaviors when compared to their smaller counterparts. Moths are an interesting model for testing this hypothesis, as they exhibit considerable variation in body size and many species present pre-flight warming up by muscle shivering, an evidence of thermal restriction on locomotion. I registered the responses of 76 moths immediately after simulating the attack of a predator and then associated behavioral response to body size. I conducted the experiments at 20 and 25 degrees C to check for possible thermal restrictions on behavior, and identified animals to the family level to check for the effects of a common phylogenetic history. When disturbed at 25 degrees C, smaller moths tend to fly, while larger ones tend to run. At 20 degreedC almost all moths ran, including the smaller ones, indicating a possible thermal restriction on flight. Corroborating the proposed hypothesis, a more diversified repertoire of defensive behaviors was registered among larger moths. An alternative interpretation would be that common behaviors among related moths could be explained by common phylogenetic histories. However, two facts support the physiological restriction hypothesis: (1) the analysis within Sphingidae and Geometridae (not closely related families) showed similar results to those of the overall analysis, and (2) a more diverse repertoire of defensive behaviors was associated to the lower, and therefore more restrictive to

  16. Use of \\kur{Notch} gene for the production of genetic "sexing" lines of codling moth.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVELLEROVÁ, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is the key pest of pome fruit and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. The extensive use of insecticides for a control of this pest has resulted in the development of resistance to these chemicals, and there is an increasing demand on the use of environment-friendly control tactics, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Codling moth SIT relies on the mass rearing and release of genetically sterile both males and females into a wild po...

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) fertility and reproductive behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to examine the effects of gamma radiation on fertility and reproductive behaviour. Data accumulated during these studies showed that egg production and hatch decreased with increasing radiation dose. Females were more sensitive to radiation treatment than were males. A dose of 150 Gy caused 100% sterility in females and significantly reduced fecundity, and a dose of 350 Gy reduced male fertility to less than 1%. Radiation dosages up to 400 Gy had no adverse effect on male longevity or competitiveness in cages using laboratory reared moths. However, males exposed to a dose of 350 or 400 Gy mated fewer times than unirradiated males. (author)

  18. Assessing MODIS-based Products and Techniques for Detecting Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    The project showed potential of MODIS and VIIRS time series data for contributing defoliation detection products to the USFS forest threat early warning system. This study yielded the first satellite-based wall-to-wall 2001 gypsy moth defoliation map for the study area. Initial results led to follow-on work to map 2007 gypsy moth defoliation over the eastern United States (in progress). MODIS-based defoliation maps offer promise for aiding aerial sketch maps either in planning surveys and/or adjusting acreage estimates of annual defoliation. More work still needs to be done to assess potential of technology for "now casts"of defoliation.

  19. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces pollinator visitation and seed set in the coast barrel cactus, Ferocactus viridescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, Katherine E; Hung, Keng-Lou James; McCann, Kyle R; Ludka, John T; Holway, David A

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction arise not only from resource allocation but also from interactions among mutualists. Indirect costs of plant defense by ants, for example, can outweigh benefits if ants deter pollinators. Plants can dissuade ants from occupying flowers, but such arrangements may break down when novel ant partners infiltrate mutualisms. Here, we examine how floral visitation by ants affects pollination services when the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) replaces a native ant species in a food-for-protection mutualism with the coast barrel cactus (Ferocactus viridescens), which, like certain other barrel cacti, produces extrafloral nectar. We compared the effects of floral visitation by the Argentine ant with those of the most prevalent native ant species (Crematogaster californica). Compared to C. californica, the Argentine ant was present in higher numbers in flowers. Cactus bees (Diadasia spp.), the key pollinators in this system, spent less time in flowers when cacti were occupied by the Argentine ant compared to when cacti were occupied by C. californica. Presumably as a consequence of decreased duration of floral visits by Diadasia, cacti occupied by L. humile set fewer seeds per fruit and produced fewer seeds overall compared to cacti occupied by C. californica. These data illustrate the importance of mutualist identity in cases where plants balance multiple mutualisms. Moreover, as habitats become increasingly infiltrated by introduced species, the loss of native mutualists and their replacement by non-native species may alter the shape of trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction. PMID:23892582

  20. Pathogenicity of a microsporidium isolate from the diamondback moth against Noctuid moths: characterization and implications for microbiological pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Abd Ghani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to problems with chemical control, there is increasing interest in the use of microsporidia for control of lepidopteran pests. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the susceptibility of exotic species to microsporidia from indigenous Lepidoptera. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated some biological characteristics of the microsporidian parasite isolated from wild Plutella xylostella (PX and evaluated its pathogenicity on the laboratory responses of sympatric invasive and resident noctuid moths. There were significant differences in spore size and morphology between PX and Spodoptera litura (SL isolates. Spores of PX isolate were ovocylindrical, while those of SL were oval. PX spores were 1.05 times longer than those of SL, which in turn were 1.49 times wider than those of the PX. The timing of infection peaks was much shorter in SL and resulted in earlier larval death. There were no noticeable differences in amplicon size (two DNA fragments were each about 1200 base pairs in length. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene sequences of the two isolates shared a clade with Nosema/Vairimorpha sequences. The absence of octospores in infected spodopteran tissues suggested that PX and SL spores are closely related to Nosema plutellae and N. bombycis, respectively. Both SL and S. exigua (SE exhibited susceptibility to the PX isolate infection, but showed different infection patterns. Tissular infection was more diverse in the former and resulted in much greater spore production and larval mortality. Microsporidium-infected larvae pupated among both infected and control larvae, but adult emergence occurred only in the second group. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The PX isolate infection prevented completion of development of most leafworm and beet armyworm larvae. The ability of the microsporidian isolate to severely infect and kill larvae of both native and introduced spodopterans makes it a

  1. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Koert G; van Grunsven, Roy H A; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M

    2014-06-01

    Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history. PMID:25360250

  2. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF. PMID:27211645

  3. Standardised methods for the GMO monitoring of butterflies and moths: the whys and hows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera are correlated with many biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment, and are widely accepted as relevant protection goals. Adverse effects on butterflies and moths through genetically modified (GM crops have been demonstrated, by both insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant events. Thus, Lepidoptera are considered suitable bio-indicators for monitoring the potential adverse effects due to the cultivation of GM crops, and guidelines were developed under the umbrella of the Association of German Engineers VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, entitled “Monitoring the effects of genetically modified organisms (GMO – Standardised monitoring of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera: transect method, light trap and larval survey”. Here, the background and rationale of the VDI guidelines is presented, including a summary of the methods described in the guidelines. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of underlying reasons for the selection and adjustment of the applied methodology with respect to the GMO monitoring of day-active Lepidoptera, of night-active moths and of the recording of lepidopteran larvae, as well as to sample design and strategy. Further aspects possibly interfering with monitoring quality are treated such as landscape patterns, low species number and abundance in agro-ecosystems, or high year-to-year fluctuations of populations of Lepidoptera. Though specifically designed for GM crops, the VDI guidelines may also serve as a template to monitor the effects of a wider range of adverse factors on Lepidoptera in agriculture.

  4. Moth diversity in three biofuel crops and native prairie in Illinois

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terry Harrison; May R.Berenbaum

    2013-01-01

    The expanding demand for biofuel feedstock may lead to large-scale conscription of land for monoculture production ofbiofuel crops with concomitant substantial negative impacts on biodiversity.We compared moth diversity in light-trap samples from corn,miscanthus,switchgrass and native prairie,to determine whether there is an observable relationship between plant species diversity and moth abundance and diversity.Moth alpha diversity was highest in prairie and was higher in switchgrass than in the other two biofuel crops.Beta diversity generally was low among the biofuel crops,and prairie shared lower beta diversity with switchgrass than with corn or miscanthus.Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in moth abundance per species among treatments.The alpha and beta diversity index findings are consistent with those of other studies on arthropods in biofuel crops and provide evidence to suggest that large-scale conversion of acreage to biofuel crops may have substantial negative effects on arthropod biodiversity both within the cropping systems and in the surrounding landscape.

  5. Moth diversity in three biofuel crops and native prairie in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-06-01

    The expanding demand for biofuel feedstock may lead to large-scale conscription of land for monoculture production of biofuel crops with concomitant substantial negative impacts on biodiversity. We compared moth diversity in light-trap samples from corn, miscanthus, switchgrass and native prairie, to determine whether there is an observable relationship between plant species diversity and moth abundance and diversity. Moth alpha diversity was highest in prairie and was higher in switchgrass than in the other two biofuel crops. Beta diversity generally was low among the biofuel crops, and prairie shared lower beta diversity with switchgrass than with corn or miscanthus. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences in moth abundance per species among treatments. The alpha and beta diversity index findings are consistent with those of other studies on arthropods in biofuel crops and provide evidence to suggest that large-scale conversion of acreage to biofuel crops may have substantial negative effects on arthropod biodiversity both within the cropping systems and in the surrounding landscape. PMID:23955892

  6. Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Min; Jeong, Yonkil; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2012-11-01

    We present the effect of broadband antireflective coverglasses (BARCs) with moth eye structures on the power generation capability of a sub-receiver module for concentrated photovoltaics. The period and height of the moth eye structures were designed by a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in order to cover the full solar spectral ranges without transmission band shrinkage. The BARCs with moth eye structures were prepared by the dry etching of silver (Ag) nanomasks, and the fabricated moth eye structures on coverglass showed strongly enhanced transmittance compared to the bare glass with a flat surface, at wavelengths of 300 - 1800 nm. The BARCs were mounted on InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells and the power conversion efficiency of this sub-receiver module reached 42.16% for 196 suns, which is a 7.41% boosted value compared to that of a module with bare coverglass, without any detrimental changes of the open circuit voltages (V(oc)) and fill factor (FF). PMID:23326839

  7. A predicted sex pheromone receptor of codling moth Cydia pomonella detects the plant volatile pear ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JonasMBengtsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles mediate host discrimination and host finding in phytophagous insects. Understanding how insects recognize these signals is a current challenge in chemical ecology research. Pear ester, ethyl (E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, is a powerful, bisexual attractant of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and strongly synergizes the male response to female-produced sex pheromone. We show here that the codling moth odorant receptor (OR CpomOR3 is dedicated to detecting this plant volatile. Heterologous expression of CpomOR3 in Drosophila T1 trichoid and ab3A basiconic sensilla, followed by a screening with codling moth pheromone compounds and known plant volatile attractants, confirms that CpomOR3 binds to pear ester. Although CpomOR3 does not respond to any of the pheromone components tested, a phylogenetic analysis of lepidopteran chemosensory receptor genes reveals a close relationship of CpomOR3 with pheromone receptors (PRs in moths. This corroborates the interaction of ecological and social chemosensory cues during premating communication. The finding that a plant volatile compound, pear ester, is a specific ligand for a PR-like lepidopteran receptor adds to our understanding of insect-plant interactions and emphasizes the interaction of natural and sexual selection during the phylogenetic divergence of insect herbivores.

  8. Trail marking and following by larvae of the small ermine moth Yponomeuta cagnagellus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessingh, P.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of chemical cues in insect behaviour is well established (Bell & Cardé, 1984). The best known examples include the sex pheromones of butterflies and moths, and the aggregation pheromones of bark beetles. In eusocial insects (bees, wasps, ants, and termites) pheromones are widely used

  9. Transcriptome of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptomic profiles of the lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which...

  10. Update on pest management of the banded sunflower moth in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banded sunflower moth has been a consistent pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Adults begin to emerge from the soil about mid-July and are present in the field until mid-August. Larvae feed in the florets, developing seed, and also destroy mature seeds. The goal of this project was to inv...

  11. alpha- and beta-diversity in moth communities in salt marshes is driven by grazing management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, C.; Fichtner, A.; van Klink, R.; Bakker, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of long-term sheep grazing in salt marshes on the diversity of moths and derives conclusive management suggestions for the conservation of invertebrate diversity in salt marshes. Study sites were located on the Hamburger Hallig, on the Western coast of Schleswig-Hols

  12. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  13. Effect of Sex Pheromone and Kairomone Lures on Catches of Codling Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone evaluated the performance of a clear vertical interception trap coated with oil and baited with either sex pheromone, pear ester, or both attractants (combo) for adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Baited interception traps caught significan...

  14. Chemical espionage by parasitic wasps. How Trichogramma species exploit moth sex pheromone systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noldus, L.P.J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Interactions between insects are for a great deal mediated by semiochemicals. For instance, female moths release specific volatile chemicals in order to attract males of the same species. These substances are called sex pheromones. Egg parasitoids use various chemical cues in their search for hosts,

  15. Effect of insecticide on the irradiated tropical warehouse moth,Cadra cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroids, Fenom(r) on the gamma- irradiated Tropical Warehouse Moth, Cadra cautella (Walker)(Lepidoptera: Phycitidae) larvae have been studied. Both theinsecticide and gamma irradiation either singly or in combination,significantly increased larval mortality and developmental periods.The pupation and adult eclosion, reproductive potential and longevity of the adults from treated larvae were significantly decreased

  16. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI AFFECTS A BENEFICIAL INSECT, THE CINNABAR MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. iological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (L), is susceptible ...

  17. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...

  18. Genetic Transformation of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L., with piggyBac EGFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was accomplished through embryo microinjection with a plasmid-based piggyBac vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Sequencing of the flanking regions around the inserted construct results in identification o...

  19. Haruchlora maesi, a new emerald moth genus and species from Mesoamerica (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viidalepp, Jaan; Lindt, Aare

    2014-01-01

    A new genus and species of Neotropical emerald geometrid moths, Haruchlora Viidalepp & Lindt, gen. nov., and Haruchlora maesi Viidalepp & Lindt, sp. nov. are described. The new genus differs from all other New World Geometrinae genera in having a bifid uncus, in characters of the pregenital segments of the male abdomen, and in the male genitalia.  PMID:25283909

  20. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  1. Resource-based classification of habitats of Central European macro-moths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, A.; Konvička, Martin; Beneš, Jiří; Kepka, Pavel

    Praha : Czech University of Life Sciences, 2009. s. 99-99. ISBN 978-80-213-1961-5. [European Congress of Conservation Biology /2./. 01.09.2009-05.09.2009, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : european macro-moths Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Flying slower: Floor pattern object size affects orthokinetic responses during moth flight to sex pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies with Oriental Fruit Moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) and Heliothis virescens males flying upwind along a pheromone plume showed that they increased their upwind flight speed as they flew higher above striped floor patterns and, for OFM, to a similar degree over dotted floor patterns. ...

  3. Components of female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer moth,Conopomorpha cramerella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D

    1986-01-01

    The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40∶60∶4∶6∶10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393

  4. Sound-sensitive neurons innervate the ventro-lateral protocerebrum of the heliothine moth brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfuhl, Gerit; Zhao, Xin Cheng; Ian, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    soma positioned near the calyces of mushroom bodies and with numerous neuronal processes in the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. Mass-staining of ventral-cord neurons supported the assumption that the ventro-lateral region of the moth brain was the main target for the auditory projections ascending from...

  5. Effects of 60Co irradiation on the genetics of indian meal moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4 ∼ 5 days old male pupae of Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hubner were irradiated with 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 krad of 60Co γ-ray. The male moths developed from treated pupae and their F1 generation were put together with normal female moths for copulation separately. The genetic effects of irradiation was studied and the results showed that the effects of irradiation were significant, which related to the irradiation dosage, on both parental and filial generations. Only 40% of the pupae was emerged, when they were irradiated at 10 krad. The effects on deformation rates, survival rates, copulation abilities, fecundities, hatching rates and genetic sterilities varied with different irradiation dosage treatment. With consideration of the total irradiation effect, the dosage lower than 5 krad is desirable for inducing the sterility of adults and sex chain recessive lethal gene. With 1, 5 and 7 krad of irradiation, a mutant of P. interpunctella with transparent wings was induced, which provides a marking feature in control of Indian meal moth by sex chain recessive lethal gene

  6. Mobile mating disruption of light brown apple moths using pheromone-treated sterile Mediterranean fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public opposition to aerial application of sex pheromone for mating disruption of light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana, LBAM) in California stopped its further use in the ca. $74 million eradication programme in 2008, underscoring the need for other eradication tactics. We demonstrate that ...

  7. Sex Attractants of the Banana Moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae): Provisional Identification and Field Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The banana moth, Opogona sacchari Bojer, is a ployphagous agricultural pest in many tropical areas of the world. The identification of an attractant for male O. sacchari could offer new methods for detection, study and control. RESULTS: A male electroantennographically active compound w...

  8. Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Ettema, J.A.; Donners, M.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Groenendijk, D.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, artificial night lighting has increased globally, which largely affected many plant and animal species. So far, current research highlights the importance of artificial light with smaller wavelengths in attracting moths, yet the effect of the spectral composition of artifici

  9. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Duménil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  10. Black metal thin films by deposition on dielectric antireflective moth-eye nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Caringal, Gideon Peter; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Grajower, Meir; Taha, Hesham; Levy, Uriel; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Although metals are commonly shiny and highly reflective, we here show that thin metal films appear black when deposited on a dielectric with antireflective moth-eye nanostructures. The nanostructures were tapered and close-packed, with heights in the range 300-600 nm, and a lateral, spatial...

  11. 用甲醇从仙人掌中提取黄酮%Study on Extraction of Flavonoids from Cactus by Methanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海莲; 胡震

    2015-01-01

    以仙人掌为原料,用甲醇提取仙人掌中黄酮类化合物。考察了料液比(仙人掌干粉质量与提取剂体积之比, g/mL)、提取温度、提取时间和甲醇浓度对仙人掌中黄酮的提取的影响,通过正交试验确定了最佳提取条件:料液比为1∶30(g/mL),提取温度为60℃,提取时间为3.5 h,甲醇浓度为95%。在该工艺条件下黄酮的提取率为0.741%。%In this thesis, cactus as raw material, methanol was used by refluxing extraction to extract flavonoids. The ratio of material to liquid (the ratio of cactus powder quality and the extractant volume, g/mL), extraction temperature, extraction time and potency of extraction agent were inspected to influence on the extraction yield of cactus flavonoids. Through the orthogonal experiment , the optimum extraction conditions were abtained as follows:the ratio of material to liquid was 1∶30 (g/mL), extraction temperature was 60℃, extracting time was 3.5 h and content of methanol was 95 %. Under this condition , the extraction yield of flavonoids from cactus was 0.741%.

  12. Optimization of Productive Process of Complex Functional Yoghurt with Cactus Honey%仙人掌蜂蜜复合保健酸奶的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常海军; 王强; 周文斌

    2011-01-01

    为了研制营养全面、具有保健作用的新型复合营养保健酸奶,以仙人掌、蜂蜜和牛乳为原料,采用正交试验设计对仙人掌蜂蜜复合保健酸奶的最优生产工艺进行了优化.结果表明:仙人掌添加量4%、蜂蜜泥添加量4%、菌种接种量6%、发酵温度42℃为最佳工艺条件;0.02%VC或0.03%柠檬酸可对仙人掌起到最佳护色效果;蜂蜜稀释至50%、100℃保温加热30min为最佳澄清技术.%The productive process of complex functional yoghurt with cactus honey was optimized using orthogonal experiment design, taking cactus, honey and milk as raw materials, to develop a new type of complex functional yoghurt. The results showed that the optimum conditions were 4% adding amount of cactus and honey separately,6% inoculation amount of strain and 42℃ fermentation temperature. The color-protecting effect of cactus with 0. 02 % Vc or 0.03 % citric acid was the best, the optimum clarification technology included honey diluted to 50% and heated at 100℃ for 30 minutes.

  13. Muscularity and adiposity of carcass of Santa Inês lambs: effects of different levels of replacement of ground corn by forage cactus meal in finishing ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rômulo Soares dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the levels of replacement of ground corn by forage cactus meal in the diet on the muscularity and adiposity of carcass of Santa Inês lambs finished at feedlot. This study was carried out at Estação Experimental de Pendência, belonging to Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA-PB. Forty male Santa Inês lambs in feedlot were used in the experiment. Treatments were randomly assigned to the animals according to a completely randomized design, with four treatments, that consisted of growing substitution levels of ground corn for forage cactus meal: 0, 33, 66 and 100% of substitution and ten replications (lambs. Animals were slaughtered and carcasses cooled for 24 hours for later assessment of conformation, morphometry, loin eye-muscle area, fatness, perirenal fat, marbling and subcutaneous fat thickness. Legs were separated for dissection of muscle, bone, subcutaneous fat, intermuscle fat and total fat, which were weighed for the determination of the muscle:bone and muscle:fat relation and the relative weight of tissue components. Averages were submitted to variance and regression analyses at a 5% level of probability. Diets had no effect on carcass conformation. However, a negative linear effect on weights and yields of fats was observed with the increased levels of forage cactus meal in the diet, and the opposite was observed in the muscle yield behavior. Forage cactus meal is biologically as efficient as ground corn, because it increases the muscularity and reduces the adiposity of the carcass of Santa Inês lambs in feedlot.

  14. Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Andrew; Stone, Emma L.; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed ‘powerdive’ flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats. PMID:26361558

  15. Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Andrew; Stone, Emma L; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed 'powerdive' flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats. PMID:26361558

  16. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets. PMID:24839899

  17. A 26-year Composite Stable Isotope Record of Precipitation, Humidity and El Niño in the Spines of Saguaro Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, N. B.; Dettman, D. L.; Williams, D. G.

    2008-12-01

    Seasonal cycles of rainfall and humidity are recorded by stable isotopes in the spines of columnar cactuses. Multi-decadal δ18O and δ13C records of spine series from five saguaro cactuses, dated using bomb radiocarbon and semi-annual variations in δ13C, demonstrate the reproducibility of a climate signal. For δ18O and δ13C, the expressed population signal between 1980 and 2006 is 0.68 and 0.66, respectively, but 0.76 and 0.59 between 1980 and 1997, suggesting that age/height related effects are present in isotopic spine series. Composite δ18O and δ13C records constructed from five spine series show significant relationships to external climate forcing. Once dating errors are corrected, mean annual spine δ18O is negatively correlated with total annual precipitation (TAP) from November through October (P 2‰) in the maximum annual spine δ18O are positively correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (P < 0.01). We hypothesize these decreases are caused by El Niño enhanced winter rainfall. While less significant, minimum annual δ13C is negatively correlated with TAP (P < 0.05) and mean nighttime VPD (P < 0.05). These results bolster proposed mechanistic models of isotopic variation in the spines of columnar cactuses and demonstrate the use of isotopic spine series as climate proxies.

  18. Ag Nanoparticles Decorated Cactus-Like Ag Dendrites/Si Nanoneedles as Highly Efficient 3D Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates toward Sensitive Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Ma, Dayan; Chen, Feng; Bai, Min; Xu, Kewei; Zhao, Yongxi

    2015-10-20

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been considered as a promising sensing technique to detect low-level analytes. However, its practical application was hindered owing to the lack of uniform SERS substrates for ultrasensitive and reproducible assay. Herein, inspired by the natural cactus structure, we developed a cactus-like 3D nanostructure with uniform and high-density hotspots for highly efficient SERS sensing by both grafting the silicon nanoneedles onto Ag dendrites and subsequent decoration with Ag nanoparticles. The hierarchical scaffolds and high-density hotspots throughout the whole substrate result in great amplification of SERS signal. A high Raman enhancement factor of crystal violet up to 6.6 × 10(7) was achieved. Using malachite green (MG) as a model target, the fabricated SERS substrates exhibited good reproducibility (RSD ∼ 9.3%) and pushed the detection limit down to 10(-13) M with a wide linear range of 10(-12) M to 10(-7) M. Excellent selectivity was also demonstrated by facilely distinguishing MG from its derivative, some organics, and coexistent metal ions. Finally, the practicality and reliability of the 3D SERS substrates were confirmed by the quantitative analysis of spiked MG in environmental water with high recoveries (91.2% to 109.6%). By virtue of the excellent performance (good reproducibility, high sensitivity, and selectivity), the cactus-like 3D SERS substrate has great potential to become a versatile sensing platform in environmental monitoring, food safety, and medical diagnostics. PMID:26406111

  19. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kharrassi, Youssef [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat (Morocco); Samadi, Mohammad [LCPMC-A2, ICPM, Department of Chemistry, Université de Lorraine, Metz (France); Lopez, Tatiana [CRINSERM 866, Dijon (France); Nury, Thomas [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); El Kebbaj, Riad [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat (Morocco); Andreoletti, Pierre; El Hajj, Hammam I. [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); Vamecq, Joseph [INSERM and HMNO, CBP, CHRU Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Moustaid, Khadija [Laboratoire de Biochimie et Neurosciences, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan I, BP 577, 26000 Settat (Morocco); Latruffe, Norbert [Université de Bourgogne, Laboratoire Bio-PeroxIL, EA7270, Dijon F-21000 (France); El Kebbaj, M’Hammed Saïd [Laboratoire de recherche sur les Lipoprotéines et l’Athérosclérose, Faculté des Sciences Ben M’sik, Avenue Cdt Driss El Harti BP. 7955, Université Hassan II-Mohammedia-Casablanca (Morocco); Masson, David [CRINSERM 866, Dijon (France); and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Sterol composition in argan oil and in cactus seed oil. • Chemical synthesis of two sterols: Schottenol and Spinasterol. • Sterols from argan oil or from cactus seed oil show no toxicity on BV2 cells. • Schottenol and Spinasterol modulate the activation and the expression of two nuclear receptors, LXRα and LXRβ. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  20. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sterol composition in argan oil and in cactus seed oil. • Chemical synthesis of two sterols: Schottenol and Spinasterol. • Sterols from argan oil or from cactus seed oil show no toxicity on BV2 cells. • Schottenol and Spinasterol modulate the activation and the expression of two nuclear receptors, LXRα and LXRβ. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism

  1. Competitiveness of irradiated adults of the almond moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When unmated 24 h old males of Ephestia cautella (Walker) were irradiated (I) at 60 krad and confined with unirradiated (U) males and U females (in a 1:1:1 ratio), the infertility of eggs was 45.1%. Increasing the ratio of I:U male to 5, 10, 15 and 20 increased the percentage of infertile eggs to 85.7, 92.0, 95.4 and 97.7, respectively. Thus, males treated with a sterilizing dose (60 krad) were fully competitive with U males, especially at the two highest 'flooding' ratios. Males and females treated with a sterilizing dose (60 krad) and confined with U males and U females in a ratio of I male:I female:U male:U female caused 60.9% infertility in the resulting eggs. When the ratio of sterile males and females was increased to 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1, 15:15:1:1 or 20:20:1:1 (I male:I female:U male:U female), the percentage of infertility reached 83.5, 97.3, 99.1 and 100.0, respectively. The percentage of actual infertility was less than the expected infertility for the ratios 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1 and 15:15:1:1, but it was exceeded by the highest ratio used (20:20:1:1). The competitiveness value for this flooding ratio was 1.00 (i.e. the sterile adults were fully competitive with the normal ones). The results indicated that irradiation at 60 krad, a sterilizing dose, did not decrease the sexual competitiveness of adults. Also, the release of I males only, or of I females together with I males, could give good results in controlling the almond moth population in an autocidal control programme and, therefore, separation of the sexes prior to release is probably unnecessary. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

  2. Annex 5: Potential markets for sterile date moth for use in SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing research in Tunisia has now shown that Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller, the date moth or, in many countries commonly known as the carob moth, has characteristics that will allow development of genetic sexing strains (Mediouni-BenJemaa, 2005). Development of such strains will take years, but will reduce costs of field programmes of SIT considerably as well as reducing damage from feeding sterile moths (Franz, 2005). A new Technical Cooperation Project under IAEA is starting in Tunisia in 2007 aimed at building capacity for implementing area-wide SIT technology to address this pest problem (IAEA, 2007a). This indicates the continuing interest of that government in finding an environmentally benign pest control method for this species. In many countries, such as Iraq and Iran, the primary host is pomegranate (A. Altaweel, pers. comm. 2005), and dates are rarely attacked during production. Mozaffarian et al. (2007) has shown that other less preferable hosts may provide over-wintering opportunities that then populate their preferred host in the next growth season. This may affect the coverage required for effective SIT once developed. Further research on this pest will continue to provide improved options for its control, including biological control agents that may be released simultaneously with sterile moths to bring some cost savings (Bloem et al., 2005). Studies on control of other key date pests (such as Ephestia cautella) have taken place, although field trials have not been pursued. Eventually, SIT control of multiples species simultaneously will be possible if research continues to resolve present limitations in mass rearing and quality control. Field performance of the irradiated date moth in Tunisia is discussed in Mediouni and Dhouibi, 2007. Commercial scale releases are not anticipated for several years, however, due to limited supply of sterile males and the need for additional research

  3. Simple ears-flexible behavior: Information processing in the moth auditory pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerit PFUHL; Blanka KALINOVA; Irena VALTEROVA; Bente G.BERG

    2015-01-01

    Lepidoptera evolved tympanic ears in response to echolocating bats.Comparative studies have shown that moth ears evolved many times independently from chordotonal organs.With only 1 to 4 receptor cells,they are one of the simplest hearing organs.The small number of receptors does not imply simplicity,neither in behavior nor in the neural circuit.Behaviorally,the response to ultrasound is far from being a simple reflex.Moths' escape behavior is modulated by a variety of cues,especially pheromones,which can alter the auditory response.Neurally the receptor cell(s) diverges onto many intemeurons,enabling pa rallel processing and feature extraction.Ascending interneurons and sound-sensitive brain neurons innervate a neuropil in the ventrolateral protocerebrum.Further,recent electrophysiological data provides the first glimpses into how the acoustic response is modulated as well as how ultrasound influences the other senses.So far,the auditory pathway has been studied in noctuids.The findings agree well with common computational principles found in other insects.However,moth ears also show unique mechanical and neural adaptation.Here,we first describe the variety of moths' auditory behavior,especially the co-option of ultrasonic signals for intraspecific communication.Second,we describe the current knowledge of the neural pathway gained from noctuid moths.Finally,we argue that Galleriinae which show negative and positive phonotaxis,are an interesting model species for future electrophysiological studies of the auditory pathway and multimodal sensory integration,and so are ideally suited for the study of the evolution of behavioral mechanisms given a few receptors [Current Zoology 61 (2):292-302,2015].

  4. Mechanical tuning of the moth ear: distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and tympanal vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Pérez, Martha; Nowotny, Manuela; Kössl, Manfred

    2013-10-15

    The mechanical tuning of the ear in the moth Empyreuma pugione was investigated by distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). DPOAE audiograms were assessed using a novel protocol that may be advantageous for non-invasive auditory studies in insects. To evoke DPOAE, two-tone stimuli within frequency and level ranges that generated a large matrix of values (960 frequency-level combinations) were used to examine the acoustic space in which the moth tympanum shows its best mechanical and acoustical responses. The DPOAE tuning curve derived from the response matrix resembles that obtained previously by electrophysiology, and is V-shaped and tuned to frequencies between 25 and 45 kHz with low Q10dB values of 1.21±0.26. In addition, while using a comparable stimulation regime, mechanical distortion in the displacement of the moth's tympanal membrane at the stigma was recorded with a laser Doppler vibrometer. The corresponding mechanical vibration audiograms were compared with DPOAE audiograms. Both types of audiograms have comparable shape, but most of the mechanical response fields are shifted towards lower frequencies. We showed for the first time in moths that DPOAE have a pronounced analogy in the vibration of the tympanic membrane where they may originate. Our work supports previous studies that point to the stigma (and the internally associated transduction machinery) as an important place of sound amplification in the moth ear, but also suggests a complex mechanical role for the rest of the transparent zone. PMID:23868848

  5. The Technical and Performance Characteristics of a Low-Cost, Simply Constructed, Black Light Moth Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter J T; Glover, Katharine; Stewart, Joel; Rice, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The universal mercury vapor black light trap is an effective device used for collecting moth specimens in a wide variety of habitats; yet, they can present challenges for researchers. The mercury vapor trap is often powered by a heavy automotive battery making it difficult to conduct extensive surveys in remote regions. The mercury vapor trap also carries a considerable financial cost per trap unit, making trapping challenging with low research budgets. Here, we describe the development and trapping properties of a lighter, simply constructed, and less expensive trap. The LED funnel trap consists of a funnel, soda bottles with plastic vanes, and is powered by rechargeable 9-V batteries. Two strips of low-wavelength LEDs are used as attractants. We tested the trapping parameters of this trap design compared to a standard mercury vapor trap over 10 trap nights in a suburban woodlot in the summer of 2015. The mercury vapor trap caught significantly more moth individuals than the LED trap (average of 78 vs 40 moths per trap night; P < 0.05), and significantly more species than the LED trap (23 vs 15 per trap night; P < 0.05); the mercury vapor trap caught a total of 104 macromoth species over the duration of the study, compared to a total of 87 by the LED trap. Despite the lower yields, the low cost of the LED trap (<$30 ea.) makes it superior to the mercury vapor trap in cost-acquisition per moth species and per moth individual trapped. The LED trap may be a viable alternative to the standard mercury vapor trap, facilitating insect trapping in more diverse settings. PMID:26936923

  6. Characterization of Silicon Moth-Eye Antireflection Coatings for Astronomical Applications in the Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeram, Sarik; Ge, Jian; Jiang, Peng; Phillips, Blayne

    2016-01-01

    Silicon moth-eye antireflective structures have emerged to be an excellent approachfor reducing the amount of light that is lost upon incidence on a given surface of optics made of silicon. This property has been exploited for a wide variety of products ranging from eyeglasses and flat-panel displays to solar panels. These materials typically come in the form of coatings that are applied to an optical substrate such as glass. Moth-eye coatings, made of a periodic array of subwavelength pillars on silicon substrates or other substrates, can produce the desired antireflection (AR) performance for a broad wavelength range and over a wide range of incident angles. In the field of astronomy, every photon striking a detector is significant - and thus, losses from reflectivity at the various optical interfaces before a detector can have significant implications to the science at hand. Moth-eye AR coatings on these optical interfaces may minimize their reflection losses while maximizing light throughput for a multitude of different astronomical instruments. In addition, moth-eye AR coatings, which are patterned directly on silicon surfaces, can significantly enhance the coating durability. At the University of Florida, we tested two moth-eye filters designed for use in the near-infrared regime at 1-8 microns by examining their optical properties, such as transmission, the scattered light, and wavefront quality, and testing the coatings at cryogenic temperatures to characterize their viability for use in both ground- and space-based infrared instruments. This presentation will report our lab evaluation results.

  7. Cold adaptation mechanisms in the ghost moth Hepialus xiaojinensis: Metabolic regulation and thermal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xuan; Meng, Qian; Shu, Ruihao; Wang, Menglong; Zhou, Guiling; Wang, Hongtuo; Miao, Lin; Zhang, Jihong; Qin, Qilian

    2016-02-01

    Ghost moths (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) are cold-adapted stenothermal species inhabiting alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau. They have an optimal developmental temperature of 12-16°C but can maintain feeding and growth at 0°C. Their survival strategies have received little attention, but these insects are a promising model for environmental adaptation. Here, biochemical adaptations and energy metabolism in response to cold were investigated in larvae of the ghost moth Hepialus xiaojinensis. Metabolic rate and respiratory quotient decreased dramatically with decreasing temperature (15-4°C), suggesting that the energy metabolism of ghost moths, especially glycometabolism, was sensitive to cold. However, the metabolic rate at 4°C increased with the duration of cold exposure, indicating thermal compensation to sustain energy budgets under cold conditions. Underlying regulation strategies were studied by analyzing metabolic differences between cold-acclimated (4°C for 48h) and control larvae (15°C). In cold-acclimated larvae, the energy generating pathways of carbohydrates, instead of the overall consumption of carbohydrates, was compensated in the fat body by improving the transcription of related enzymes. The mobilization of lipids was also promoted, with higher diacylglycerol, monoacylglycerol and free fatty acid content in hemolymph. These results indicated that cold acclimation induced a reorganization on metabolic structure to prioritise energy metabolism. Within the aerobic process, flux throughout the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was encouraged in the fat body, and the activity of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase was the likely compensation target. Increased mitochondrial cristae density was observed in the midgut of cold-acclimated larvae. The thermal compensation strategies in this ghost moth span the entire process of energy metabolism, including degration of metabolic substrate, TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, and from an energy budget

  8. Outbreaks by canopy-feeding geometrid moth cause state-dependent shifts in understorey plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Stein Rune; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Odland, Arvid; Ims, Rolf Anker; Elvebakk, Arve

    2013-11-01

    The increased spread of insect outbreaks is among the most severe impacts of climate warming predicted for northern boreal forest ecosystems. Compound disturbances by insect herbivores can cause sharp transitions between vegetation states with implications for ecosystem productivity and climate feedbacks. By analysing vegetation plots prior to and immediately after a severe and widespread outbreak by geometrid moths in the birch forest-tundra ecotone, we document a shift in forest understorey community composition in response to the moth outbreak. Prior to the moth outbreak, the plots divided into two oligotrophic and one eutrophic plant community. The moth outbreak caused a vegetation state shift in the two oligotrophic communities, but only minor changes in the eutrophic community. In the spatially most widespread communities, oligotrophic dwarf shrub birch forest, dominance by the allelopathic dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, was effectively broken and replaced by a community dominated by the graminoid Avenella flexuosa, in a manner qualitatively similar to the effect of wild fires in E. nigrum communities in coniferous boreal forest further south. As dominance by E. nigrum is associated with retrogressive succession the observed vegetation state shift has widespread implications for ecosystem productivity on a regional scale. Our findings reveal that the impact of moth outbreaks on the northern boreal birch forest system is highly initial-state dependent, and that the widespread oligotrophic communities have a low resistance to such disturbances. This provides a case for the notion that climate impacts on arctic and northern boreal vegetation may take place most abruptly when conveyed by changed dynamics of irruptive herbivores. PMID:23568711

  9. Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G; Waters, D A

    2000-08-22

    We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing their frequency, and measured the auditory thresholds from the A1 cells of the moths. Knowing the auditory responses of the moth we tested three predictions. (i) The ranking of the audibility of unmanipulated calls to the moths should be predictable from their temporal and/or frequency structure. This was supported. (ii) Doubling the duration of the calls should increase their audibility by ca. 3 dB for all species. Their audibility did indeed increase by 2.1-3.5 dB. (iii) Reducing the frequency of the calls would increase their audibility for all species. Reducing the frequency had small effects for the two bat species which used short duration (2.7-3.6 ms) calls. However, the relatively long-duration (50 ms), largely constant-frequency calls of R. hipposideros increased in audibility by 21.6 dB when their frequency was halved. Time and frequency changes influence the audibility of calls to tympanate moths in different ways according to call design. Large changes in frequency and time had relatively small changes on the audibility of calls for short, largely broadband calls. Channelling energy into the second harmonic of the call substantially decreased the audibility of calls for bats which use long-duration, constant-frequency components in echolocation calls. We discuss our findings in the contexts of the evolution of both bat echolocation call design and the potential responses of insects which hear ultrasound. PMID:11467425

  10. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  11. Area-wide codling moth SIT programme (1994-2004) in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 2004 was the tenth year of full sterile release operations for the 'Okanagan-Kootenay Sterile Insect Release Program' (OK-SIR), targeting area-wide control of codling moth in British Columbia, Canada. Since the inception of OK-SIR, beginning with orchard cleanup in 1992, the codling moth mass-rearing facility has produced nearly 2.5 billion sterile moths with observed morphological and behavioural stability throughout each rearing season and from year to year. Seasonal variation in field performance and pheromone response may impact the success of released moths in the spring, however, and further research is merited in this area, as is additional experimental work regarding the engagement of sterile moths with wild populations throughout the programme region. Moth production averages have gradually increased over time, exceeding the predicted capacity of the facility, and likely attributable to ongoing engineering improvements and procedural refinements. It is clear that the quantity of sterile moths released has provoked dramatic reduction in wild codling moth populations throughout the valley, increasing the damage-free yield of host crops. The reception of the public as well as the farming community towards sterile insect release has been generally favourable, supported by economic advantages for farmers and environmental gains associated with significant reduction in the application of harmful pesticides. Initially implemented as an eradication programme, field results suggested as early as 1998 that 'control' was a more feasible option. Since 1999, field operations have been directed toward this revised goal. The programme treatment area of over five thousand ha is comprised of 3 zones stretching north-south in the fruit-growing region and involves significant urban and agricultural interface. Following initial cleanup efforts, sterile release in the southernmost zone (Zone 1) began and involved seven years of full-scale releases until 2002, when

  12. Reproductive response of fat-tailed Barbarine ewes subjected to short-term nutritional treatments including spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis) cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakly, C; Rekik, M; Ben Salem, I; Lassoued, N; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Ben Salem, H

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive outputs in fat-tailed Barbarine sheep in central Tunisia are often low because of feed shortage and the low nutritive value of diets. Supplementation with conventional concentrates is economically unsuitable in central Tunisia, so more cost-effective and sustainable alternative feeding strategies need to be developed. We tested effects of short-term nutritional treatments including cactus cladodes during the induction of 'male effect' on fertility and prolificacy parameters (follicular growth, ovulatory response and early embryo losses). One hundred and twenty ewes were distributed in 4 equal groups balanced for live weight grazed natural pastures and were supplemented for 21 days, starting day 10 after introduction of rams, with cactus cladodes (CA), cactus cladodes and soybean meal (CAS), concentrate (CC) or only soybean meal (S). Nutritional treatment did not affect live weight in this experiment. Ewes receiving cactus had higher number of large pre-ovulatory follicles (≥6 mm; 1.08 ± 0.05), between days 14 and 19 after introduction of rams, than females in the CC and S ewes (0.64 ± 0.06; p < 0.05). However, there were no differences in the onset of oestrous behaviour in response to 'male effect' or in the number of corpora lutea. Average ovulation rates were 1.42 ± 0.16 for CC, 1.47 ± 0.13 for CAS, 1.31 ± 0.15 for CA and 1.31 ± 0.13 for S groups respectively. Finally, reproductive wastages at day 35 after mating were not different between groups being 0.33 ± 0.19 for CC, 0.60 ± 0.17 for CAS, 0.43 ± 0.16 for CA and 0.31 ± 0.15 for S groups respectively. It is concluded that Barbarine ewes fed nutritional treatments including cactus performed similarly to those receiving diets including conventional concentrate feeds. PMID:23301658

  13. Moths of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge: Results from 15 sites sampled 13-16 September 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Macro-moths were sampled from the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge 13-15 September, 2012 as part of a faunal inventory of this abundant and diverse insect group....

  14. Effects of delayed mating on the fecundity, fertility and longevity of females of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Ping Wang; Yu-Ling Fang; Zhong-Ning Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of delayed mating on the copulation duration, female fertility, fecundity, egg fertility, longevity and the number days alive after mating of females of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, were studied. When male mating was delayed, the female fertility, fecundity, egg fertility, longevity and number days alive after mating of DBM decreased, and there was a negative correlation between the age of the moth with those variables except copulation duration. When female mating was delayed, the female fertility, fecundity, percent egg fertility and number days alive after mating of DBM also decreased, but the longevity increased, which also showed a negative relationship between the age of the moth with the variables except copulation duration and longevity. When both males and females delayed mating, the female fertility and fecundity decreased; egg fertility was affected marginally, and the longevity of females increased. The moth age was negatively correlated with those variables.

  15. Acceptability of irradiated larvae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, by a parasitoid, Venturia canescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of releases of mass-produced natural enemies is to control a pest. In this context the aim of quality control should be to determine whether a natural enemy is still in a condition to properly control the pest. Formulated in this way we do not deal with terms like maximal or optimal quality, but something like acceptable quality. The aim of this study was to assess suitability and acceptability of irradiated host larvae of stored product moths by a parasitoid, Venturia canescens. Criteria for quality control were: (a) fertility of V. canescens adults emerged from irradiated moth larvae; (b) longevity of parasitoid adults emerged from irradiated moth larvae; and (c) weight (in mg) of parasitoid adults emerged from irradiated moth larvae, as compared to adults developed in nonirradiated host larvae. Adults of V. canescens emerged from moth larvae irradiated with a dose of 400 or 600 Gy were as fertile as the adults that emerged from untreated hosts (control). In all treatments, similar numbers of adults of the next generation were obtained. Also, the period of storage of irradiated and parasitised larvae of Ephestia kuehniella at low temperatures (5 Co) does not inhibit the development of parasitoids, and does not increase their mortality rates after the exposure to ambient temperature (25 deg. C). Finally, the fertility of emerged adults of V. canescens was not affected by the period of storage at lowered temperature. Longevity of V. canescens adults emerged from host larvae irradiated with a dose of 400 or 600 Gy was similar to that of the adults that emerged from untreated hosts (control). In all treatments, parasitoid adults were dead on day 13 after the emergence from host larvae. However, mortality rates of parasitoid adults emerged from non-irradiated larvae were somewhat lower than those developed in irradiated larvae. Weight of V. canescens adults emerged from moth larvae irradiated with a dose of 400 or 600 Gy of gamma radiation was very

  16. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology: nonlinear effects of temperature and developmental stage on developmental rate

    OpenAIRE

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; van Asch, Margriet; Visser, Marcel E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match bud burst of the host tree. In the winter moth, as in many insect species, egg development is strongly affected by ambient temperatures. Here we use laboratory experiments to show for the first time ...

  17. Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls

    OpenAIRE

    Wakefield, Andrew; Stone, Emma L.; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed ‘powerdive’ flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predato...

  18. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  19. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1 that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2 that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some

  20. Possibilities of eradicating the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. from Syria, by releasing gamma irradiation sterilized males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being a large apple producer, Syria is facing difficulties in exporting its surplus because of the high level of pesticide residues from the control of Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. etc. In addition, these species are under quarantine in some countries. A solution could be in using the sterile insect release technique (SIRT) for Codling moth. This method, however, has some limitations. It requires a thorough knowledge of biology and ecology of the pest species. It is also specific and effective towards particular pest species. A disadvantage could be the necessity to spray for other apple pests. Reporting the life history of the Codling moth in the apple producing regions, this paper discusses the possibility of using the SIRT for codling moth eradication. The results of the study indicate that the Codling moth has two distinct generations in the three main producing regions of the country. They also show that the separation between generations is very clear which may facilitate decision making in Codling moth control and eradication methods and reduces the number of required pesticide sprays. This also could be useful in adjusting Codling moth mass reading and release operations in a sterile insect release programme. Sex ratio is about 1:1 (males to females) and fecundity of the summer generation is higher than the spring one. The results also show that a very small percentage of the spring generation larvae enter diapause, while most of the summer generation larvae and all of those maturing in September do so. Studies on population density show that it is more than 5 times higher in neglected orchards than in commercial ones. Also the Codling moth summer generation increases about three times more than the spring generation, due probably to higher fecundity and favourable climatic conditions. (author)

  1. Blooming rhythms of cactus Cereus peruvianus with nocturnal peak at full moon during seasons of prolonged daytime photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Reinberg, Alain; Smolensky, Michael H; Gadacha, Wafa; Khedaier, Achraf; Sani, Mamane; Touitou, Yvan; Boughamni, Néziha Ghanem

    2016-01-01

    Cereus peruvianus (Peruvian apple cactus) is a large erect and thorny succulent cactus characterized by column-like (cereus [L]: column), that is, candle-shaped, appendages. For three successive years (1100 days), between early April and late November, we studied the flowering patterns of eight cacti growing in public gardens and rural areas of north and central Tunisia, far from nighttime artificial illumination, in relation to natural environmental light, temperature, relative humidity and precipitation parameters. Flower blooming was assessed nightly between 23:00 h and until at least 02:00 h, and additionally around-the-clock at ~1 h intervals for 30 consecutive days during the late summer of each year of study to quantify both nyctohemeral (day-night) and lunar patterns. During the summer months of prolonged daytime photoperiod, flower blooming of C. peruvianus exhibited predictable-in-time variation as "waves" with average period of 29.5 days synchronized by the light of the full moon. The large-sized flower (~16 cm diameter) opens almost exclusively at night, between sunset and sunrise, as a 24 h rhythm during a specific 3-4-day span of the lunar cycle (full moon), with a strong correlation between moon phase and number and proportion of flowers in bloom (ranging from r = +0.59 to +0.91). Black, blue and red cotton sheets were used to filter specific spectral bands of nighttime moonlight from illuminating randomly selected plant appendages as a means to test the hypothesis of a "gating" 24 h rhythm phenomenon of photoreceptors at the bud level. Relative to control conditions (no light filtering), black sheet covering inhibited flower bud induction by 87.5%, red sheet covering by 46.6% and blue sheet covering by 34%, and the respective inhibiting effects on number of flowers in bloom were essentially 100%, ~81% and ~44%. C. peruvianus is a unique example of a terrestrial plant that exhibits a circadian flowering rhythm (peak ~00:00 h) "gated" by 24 h, lunar

  2. Host-Related Olfactory Behavior in a Fruit-Piercing Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in Far Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaspel, Jennifer M.; Kononenko, Vladimir S.; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon R.

    2016-01-01

    The host preference of the economically important fruit piercing moth, Calyptra lata (Butler 1881), was studied when exposed to different fruits and the odors of those fruits in enclosed feeding assays and in a two-choice olfactometer. The fruits consisted of three ripe and locally available types: raspberries, cherries and plums. Moths were released in cages with the ripened fruit and observed for any feeding events, which were then documented. Moths fed on both raspberries and cherries, but not on plums. To test the role of olfactory cues in fruit preference, male moths were released singly in the two choice olfactometer, with one type of fruit odor released in one arm and background control air in the other. The behavior of the moths was recorded on video. Parameters scored were 1) time to take off, 2) flight duration and 3) total time to source contact. The moths showed a significant preference for raspberry odor, exhibited a neutral response to cherry odor and significantly avoided the odor of plums. These results indicate that Calyptra lata demonstrates selective polyphagic feeding behavior and uses olfactory cues from both preferred and non-preferred fruits to detect and locate potential food sources. The possible implications for pest control are discussed. PMID:27324579

  3. Study of the mechanism and possibilities of using F1 sterility for genetic control of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer based model was developed to simulate the suppression through three filial generations of field populations of codling moths, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), that have been exposed to the release of codling moths exposed to doses of gamma rays ranging from 1 to 500 Gy. The main purpose of the model is to select the optimal dose of radiation. The model runs on an IBM compatible computer. Numerous experiments were conducted to provide the experimental data required for the model. The model takes into account the fact that individual moths are affected in different ways by exposure to gamma rays. Some irradiated males mate and form spermatophore, while others fail to mate. Some males that form spermatophores fail to produce eupyrene sperm. These undesirable effects occur with increasing frequencies as the dose increases. Indeed, a high doses of radiation these negative effects are so great that the treated moths are totally non-competitive with the untreated moths. The release of F1 individuals has a number of advantages for the control of the codling moth. This approach involves the mass rearing and stockpiling of diapausing F1 larvae during the winter months. It facilitates the synchronization of the emergence and flight of genetically impaired individuals with the emergence and flight of the wild population. In addition, this approach facilitates the separation of the sexes and the release of only F1 males. The optimum dose for this approach was found to be 100 Gy. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  4. Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz

    2014-08-15

    Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. PMID:24679777

  5. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among Tunisian cactus species (Opuntia) as revealed by random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendhifi Zarroug, M; Baraket, G; Zourgui, L; Souid, S; Salhi Hannachi, A

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica is one of the most economically important species in the Cactaceae family. Increased interest in this crop stems from its potential contribution to agricultural diversification, application in the exploitation of marginal lands, and utility as additional income sources for farmers. In Tunisia, O. ficus indica has been affected by drastic genetic erosion resulting from biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, it is imperative to identify and preserve this germplasm. In this study, we focused on the use of random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms to assess genetic diversity among 25 representatives of Tunisian Opuntia species maintained in the collection of the National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia. Seventy-two DNA markers were screened to discriminate accessions using 16 successful primer combinations. The high percentage of polymorphic band (100%), the resolving power value (5.68), the polymorphic information content (0.94), and the marker index (7.2) demonstrated the efficiency of the primers tested. Therefore, appropriate cluster analysis used in this study illustrated a divergence among the cultivars studied and exhibited continuous variation that occurred independently of geographic origin. O. ficus indica accessions did not cluster separately from the other cactus pear species, indicating that their current taxonomical classifications are not well aligned with their genetic variability or locality of origin. PMID:25730081

  6. Activated biochar derived from cactus fibres--preparation, characterization and application on Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjittofi, Loukia; Prodromou, Melpomeni; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    The adsorption efficiency of activated biochar prepared from cactus fibres regarding the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time). Activation of the biochar took place using nitric acid oxidation and characterisation was performed by SEM analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption and acid-base titrations. The results show that laminar structures constitute the material and carboxylic moieties are the predominant binding sites. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 3.5 mol kg(-1). The effect of ionic strength and temperature on the adsorption efficiency indicates that at low pH outer-sphere and at near neutral pH inner-sphere complexes are the predominant surface species and the kinetic data obtained were fitted very well by the Lagergren rate expression. PMID:24718356

  7. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera; Gelichiidae) to plant volatiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P D Das; R Raina; A R Prasad; A Sen

    2007-03-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from males and females of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella in response to a broad range of plant volatile compounds belonging to diverse chemical classes. The responses to 27 compounds were evaluated, which indicated significant differences in EAGs between chemicals as well as between sexes. The fatty acid derivatives comprising essentially green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in females. The response profile of males was, in general, lower than that of females. EAG responses to the oxygenated and hydrocarbon monoterpenes were lower in both males and females. Dose–response studies indicate differences in response between the sexes and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in this species.

  8. Biomimetic ‘moth-eye’ anti-reflection boundary for graphene plasmons circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we propose the anti-reflection boundary design for planar graphene plasmons (GPs) circuits based on biomimetic moth-eye structures. The anti-reflection functionalities are investigated by analytical effective medium theory combined with transfer matrix method and numerical finite element method. Both analytical and numerical methods have shown that average reflection losses of 1% can be achieved within the mid-infrared region. Moreover, for plasmons with a very wide incident angle, the performance of such anti-reflection boundary could still be maintained, achieving less than 1% reflection up to 60° incident angle. The proposed moth-eye anti-reflection boundary would be helpful for the future development of high integration GPs circuits. (paper)

  9. Effect of host plant on gypsy moth diet and biological efficacy of Btk preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two host plants, Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L and black poplar (Populus nigra L on gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L development was researched. The effect of host plant was determined based on the parameters which characterize the diet, growth and efficacy of conversion of ingested food of the third instar caterpillars. Along with the effect on development, the effect of host plant on the efficacy of biological preparation based on the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki in gypsy moth caterpillar suppression was also researched. The differences in parameters characterizing the diet, growth, and efficacy of ingested food between experimental groups of caterpillars grown on poplar and Turkey oak leaves are explained by the differences in the chemical composition of the leaves of these tree species. The efficacy of Btk preparation is conditioned by the mechanism and content of different groups of defense substances in the leaves of the applied tree species.

  10. Moth Fauna of Gageodo Island in the Southwestern Sea, Korean Peninsula, including Seven Unrecorded Species (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed moths on Gageodo island in the southwestern sea of the Korean Peninsula over three years (2009, 2012, 2013 and found a total of 253 species in 18 families. Geometridae had the greatest species richness, with 63 species, followed by Noctuidae, Erebidae, Crambidae and Sphingidae. The annual changes in species richness and abundance were not different and seasonal occurrence of species showed a unimodal pattern in which the numbers of species and individuals increased from April and May, peaked in June and decreased to September and October. Seven moth species (Pyralidae: Herculia drabicilialis Yamanaka, Didia striatella (Inoue; Crambidae: Clupeosoma pryeri (Butler, Demobotys pervulgalis (Hampson, Yezobotys dissimilis (Yamanaka, Syllepte cissalis Yamanaka; Erebidae: Hypena sinuosa (Wileman are reported for the first time in Korea.

  11. Variation in courtship ultrasounds of three Ostrinia moths with different sex pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takanashi, Takuma; Nakano, Ryo; Surlykke, Annemarie;

    2010-01-01

    Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian...... congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication in O. furnacalis; however, variations in ultrasounds in the three congeners have not been addressed to date. Here we...... energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among...

  12. Management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) by mating disruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qino-Jun Wu; Shu-Fa Zhang; Jin-Liang Yao; Bao-Yun Xu; Shao-Li Wang; You-Jun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in China in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the efficacy of mating disruption (MD) on diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella,in cabbage,Brassica oleracea var.capitata.Effectiveness was positively correlated with the MD dispenser density in the field.A density of 167 MD dispensers per ha produced an average population decrease of about 50% compared to the conventional-practice field.Significant fewer males were captured in pheromone-treated and conventional-practice fields than in the blank control field,but the difference was not significant between the pheromone-treated and conventional-practice fields.In addition,fewer eggs and larvae were observed in pheromone-treated fields.Our results suggest mating disruption coupled with minimal insecticidal supplements is a promising solution for resistance management and control of diamondback moth infestation.

  13. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    OpenAIRE

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irr...

  14. Quantifying interspecific variation in dispersal ability of noctuid moths using an advanced tethered flight technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Hayley B. C.; Lim, Ka S.; Bell, James R.; Hill, Jane K.; Chapman, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dispersal plays a crucial role in many aspects of species' life histories, yet is often difficult to measure directly. This is particularly true for many insects, especially nocturnal species (e.g. moths) that cannot be easily observed under natural field conditions. Consequently, over the past five decades, laboratory tethered flight techniques have been developed as a means of measuring insect flight duration and speed. However, these previous designs have tended to focus on single...

  15. Economic assessment of managing processionary moth in pine forests: a case study in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Paola; Zocca, Alessia; Battisti, Andrea; Barrento, Maria João; Branco, Manuela; Paiva, Maria Rosa

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the private and social profitability of current strategies for managing processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in Portuguese pine forests, looking at economic and environmental costs and benefits. Costs include the expenses for forest treatment and the social costs of threats to human health (dermatitis amongst others); benefits are assessed in terms of both revenue and social benefits such as carbon fixation and recreation. The evaluation was done using Cos...

  16. Morphology and biology of the fruit piercing moth, Ophiusa corona (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permkam, S.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and biology of the fruit-piercing moth Ophiusa coronata (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae were studied in laboratory. Eggs were spherical and colored grayish green with an average diameter of 1.03±0.01 mm (mean±SEM. The larvae were looper caterpillars, possessing 2 white bands on the black head. The body was brown to blackish, marked with black spots and red longitudinal streaks. The pupa was black-brown. The adult moth had rufous and fuscous forewings tinged with a black spot in the middle. The hind wings were bright yellow in ground color with a dark band at the anterior and the posterior borders. Time required for egg to adult development averaged 40.35±0.59 days (mean±SEM. The average duration for egg, larval and pupal developments were 4.0±0.0, 23.20±0.49 and 13.15±0.22 days, respectively. Sexual maturity for female took 10.67±1.05 days. The average duration of egg laying, number of eggs and longevity of adult moths were 7.33±1.28 days, 333.0±171.82 egg/female and 22.83±2.45 days, respectively. Feeding preference and phototaxis of adult studies showed that adults likely preferred to feed ranking from slices of pineapple, banana, papaya and citrus, whereas sapodilla and rose apple were rarely fed on. Blue light and mercury vapor light were highly attractive, whereas violet light and fluorescent light were less attractive to this adult moth species.

  17. Distribution of two pine processionary moth species in Turkey evidences a contact zone

    OpenAIRE

    İpekdal, Kahraman; Burban, Christian; Kerdelhue, Carole; ÇAĞLAR, SELİM SÜALP

    2015-01-01

    The pine processionary moths Thaumetopoea pityocampa and T. Wilkinsoni are among the most important Mediterranean pine defoliators. Although recent studies suggest that the two species may coexist in Turkey, the relevant literature lacks precise information on the occurrence and exact distribution of the two species in this country. In particular, whether the two sister taxa form a contact zone is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to reveal the limits of the ranges of the two species in ...

  18. Evaluation of resistance in wheat genotypes to angoumois grain moth sitotroga cerealella (oliv.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken on evaluation of resistance in ten wheat genotypes to angoumois moth (S. cerealella (oliv.)). The results, based on biological, physical and chemical factors, indicated that varieties Pak-81 and pirsabak-85 were significantly resistant while mutants VM-30-6-1 and VM-79-7 were highly susceptible. The resistance of remaining varieties / mutants was in order: WM-23-1-1 > WM-89-1 >S-186 > sarsabaz > WM-91-3 > B-83. (author)

  19. Contributions toward the integrated pest management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), on collards in Virginia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero Alonso, Roberto J

    2005-01-01

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is a serious pest of crucifer vegetables (Brassica sp.) worldwide because of a lack of effective natural enemies in certain regions and because of insecticide resistance. In 2003, laboratory and field studies were initiated in Virginia to better understand P. xylostella, its primary natural enemies, and their susceptibilities to insecticides in order to develop an economically and environmentally sound integrated pest mana...

  20. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baker

    Full Text Available The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L. (Malpighiales: Salicaceae. Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30-35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005 with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species' requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas.

  1. Insecticidal activities of garlic substances against adults of grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Lian Yang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The angoumois grain moth,Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier),is one of the most serious stored grain pests around the world.In attempts to reduce the losses caused by the moth and to suppress its populations,the fumigant activities,behavioral influence and ovipositional inhibition of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil and its two major components,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,were investigated against the adult grain moth.Their effects on reduction in survival of first instar larvae to adult emergence were also evaluated.Results showed that these three materials (garlic essential oil,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide) had significant fumigant activity with 50% lethal concentration values at 1.33,0.99,and 1.02μL/L air space,respectively; meanwhile,the three materials possessed high behavioral deterrent activities against adults in the Y-tube olfactometer.When applied to rice grains,these materials reduced adult longevity and inhibited oviposition,with ovipositional inhibition above 70% at a concentration of 1.5 tL/25 g in either no-choice or two-choice tests.In short,the study showed that both diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,like garlic essential oil,acted as fumigants,produced behavioral deterfence and inhibited oviposition against angoumois grain moth.Our work here indicates that diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide may serve as potential alternatives for grain protectants since both of them can be prepared easily from readily available chemicals.

  2. When are good genes good? Variable outcomes of female choice in wax moths

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, F.-Y.; Greenfield, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Female lesser wax moths (Achroia grisella) choose males based on characters of their ultrasonic advertisement signals. Because a female's opportunity to obtain increased somatic benefits by mating with a particular male is limited, we investigated whether females obtain genetic benefits for their offspring via mate choice. Controlled breeding experiments conducted under favourable food and temperature conditions showed that developmental characters are heritable, that sire attractiveness and ...

  3. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Barrett, Sinead; Beale, Colin M.; Crawford, Terry J.; Ellis, Sam; Gullett, Tallulah; Parsons, Mark S.; Relf, Penny; Robertson, Paul; Small, Julian; Wainwright, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L.) (Malpighiales: Salicaceae). Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30–35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005) with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species’ requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas. PMID:27333285

  4. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for walnuts infested with codling moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation may be a potential quarantine treatment for either diapausing or nondiapausing codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae in walnuts. Exposure of larvae to 51.9 Gy from a 60Co source significantly reduced emergence of normal adults. The dose required for quarantine security (99.9968% mortality) was 230 Gy based on emergence of adults from treated larvae. Normal adults did not emerge from larvae exposed to 177 Gy in walnuts

  5. Cross-Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin CryIF in the Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella)

    OpenAIRE

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Finson, Naomi; Johnson, Marshall W.; Heckel, David G.

    1994-01-01

    Selection with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, which contains CryIA and CryII toxins, caused a >200-fold cross-resistance to CryIF toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. CryIE was not toxic, but CryIB was highly toxic to both selected and unselected larvae. The results show that extremely high levels of cross-resistance can be conferred across classes of CryI toxins of B. thuringiensis.

  6. Model Predicts a Future Pine Processionary Moth Risk in Artvin and Adjacent Regions

    OpenAIRE

    İPEKDAL, Kahraman; Beton, Damla

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has been receiving a lot of attention from researchers as it is believed to be proceeding at an extraordinary rate during the last 1,300 years and many studies have attempted to document and predict its environmental effects. Eastern winter pine processionary moth (PPM), Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae), an economically important pest of pines in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, distributed through almost all coastal regions within Turkey. ...

  7. Automated Inspection of Apple Moth : Machine vision using OpenCV and Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Mohamed; Gumaa, El Motasim

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the implementation of a machine vision algo-rithm on a Raspberry Pi Microcomputer. The commissioning client Teo Kanniainen conducted a research project on the subject of arranging low-cost apple moth inspection on his garden. The research resulted in production of a device collecting pictures of insects in order to process these images later. The contact person Markku Kippola discussed the issues of improved functionality and cost, so the overall aim of this t...

  8. Diversity and composition of Amazonian moths in primary, secondary and plantation forests.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawes, Joseph; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Overal, William L.; Barlow, Jos; Gardner, Toby A.; Peres, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    The response of tropical fauna to landscape-level habitat change is poorly understood. Increased conversion of native primary forest to alternative land-uses, including secondary forest and exotic tree plantations, highlights the importance of assessing diversity patterns within these forest types. We sampled 1848 moths from 335 species of Arctiidae, Saturniidae and Sphingidae, over a total of 30 trap-nights. Sampling was conducted during the wet season 2005, using three light-traps at 15 sit...

  9. Moth Fauna of Gageodo Island in the Southwestern Sea, Korean Peninsula, including Seven Unrecorded Species (Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Sung-Soo; An, Jeong-Seop; Kwon, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed moths on Gageodo island in the southwestern sea of the Korean Peninsula over three years (2009, 2012, 2013) and found a total of 253 species in 18 families. Geometridae had the greatest species richness, with 63 species, followed by Noctuidae, Erebidae, Crambidae and Sphingidae. The annual changes in species richness and abundance were not different and seasonal occurrence of species showed a unimodal pattern in which the numbers of species and individuals increased from April and...

  10. Chemical ecology of the cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae ) on a newly recorded host Senecio adonidifolius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Klaas

    2006-09-01

    The cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae, Arctiidae) normally feeds on Senecio jacobaea in the field. For the first time, naturally occurring populations of T. jacobaeae have been found thriving on Senecio adonidifolius, even though the moth's preferred host, S. jacobaea, is available within 50-400 m. In the laboratory, the cinnabar moth has been shown to feed on and develop on S. adonidifolius despite its different leaf morphology, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) profile and a large taxonomic distance to S. jacobaea. Here I examined whether T. jacobaeae has adapted to this new host in the field using adult oviposition behavior and plant acquired defense chemistry in pupae as criteria. Choice tests indicated local adaptation to this newly recorded host. T. jacobaeae reared on S. adonidifolius hosts laid more egg batches and total eggs on it than T. jacobaeae from S. jacobaea. The egg batches were smaller on S. adonidifolius possibly due to highly pinnate thread-like structure of its leaves. The bouquet of plant acquired PAs and the insect metabolized callimorphine in pupae differed widely between pupae collected from the two hosts. T. jacobaeae pupae taken from S. adonidifolius hosts contained more of the insect metabolized callimorphine than pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts, but they did not differ in total PA concentration. Pupae taken from S. jacobaea hosts contained more unmetabolized plant PA's than pupae from S. adonidifolius hosts. Additionally, 10% of T. jacobaeae larvae taken from S. adonidifolius in Biausse were infested with Carcelia dubia, a parasitic and rare tachinid fly that typically attacks arctiid moths.

  11. Implementation of a medfly, fruit fly parasitoids and codling moth rearing facility in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The medfly is a major pest for fruit crops worldwide and its presence in the countries means a threat for production and for export. The methodology that has been used in many countries to eradicate/suppress medfly population is the SIT (Sterile Insect Technique) that uses irradiation as a source for sterilisation. Besides medfly, Anastrepha species of quarantine relevance are important pests affecting the fruit crops in Brazil. Parasitoids that are natural enemies of fruit flies also will be reared in the facility for release in the production area. Finally, taking advantage of the large building area, the facility eventually will also produce sterile codling moths, a pest recently introduced into the south of Brazil and that affects the ever increasing apple and pear crops. The production of sterile medflies, natural enemies to control fruit flies and sterile codling moths - all of them using irradiation as sterilisation method and their release in the field is the most effective measure to control (suppression and eradication) such pests. The consumption of fresh fruits has increased worldwide and the production in Brazil either for domestic or export has been intensified in the last decade. As food safety is a major concern for the consumers, the use of environment-friendly technologies is always required. The SIT plays a major role for control fruit flies and other fruit pests. The final client for the sterile flies and moths will be the fruit growers in the tropical fruit growing areas in northern Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco (Sao Francisco Valley), Ceara, north of Minas Gerais e north of Espirito Santo. Initially 200 million medflies and 10 million Diachasmimorpha longicaudata wasps will be released per week. The codling moths irradiated in the facility will be sent by air to the apple and stone fruit production areas in the south of Brazil, (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina), where the species is present. (author)

  12. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin

    OpenAIRE

    Sanford, Jillian L.; Barski, Sharon A.; Seen, Christina M.; Joseph C. Dickens; Shields, Vonnie D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit ...

  13. New species of “giant” plume moths of the genus Platyptilia (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ustjuzhanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two new species of plume moths from the group of the so-called “giant” Platyptilia Hubner, 1825: Platyptilia fletcheri Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. and P. stanleyi Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. Both species were collected in the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda and Rwanda, respectively. Platyptilia stanleyi Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich sp. nov. exceeds all the known African species of Pterophoridae in its wingspan of 49 mm.

  14. Moth hearing in response to bat echolocation calls manipulated independently in time and frequency.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, G.; Waters, D A

    2000-01-01

    We measured the auditory responses of the noctuid moth Noctua pronuba to bat echolocation calls which were manipulated independently in time and frequency. Such manipulations are important in understanding how insect hearing influences the evolution of echolocation call characteristics. We manipulated the calls of three bat species (Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis nattereri and Pipistrellus pipistrellus) that use different echolocation call features by doubling their duration or reducing the...

  15. The cost of slowing the spread of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Jefferson H; Straka, Thomas J; Leonard, Donna S

    2003-10-01

    Beginning in 1992, the Slow The Spread (STS) pilot project was initiated to target gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) spread rate reduction by controlling populations in the transition zone. The project uses intensive monitoring techniques, with pheromone-baited sticky moth traps, to detect low-level populations and target them for eradication. The primary objective of the pilot project was to evaluate the feasibility of using integrated pest management techniques to slow the spread of gypsy moths over a large geographical area. In this study, the cost of STS pilot project activities in 1993-1995 was investigated. A cost accounting system was developed and used as a framework to collect the cost data and to investigate cost patterns and characteristics. Total expenditures of STS activities for 1993-1995 were 7,685.2 million dollars. Per unit cost was 49.67 dollars per trap with the direct cost component being 35.03 dollars per trap. Trapper labor and vehicle expense accounted for approximately 90% of this direct cost. Per unit cost for treatment activities was found to average 27.86 dollars per treated acre. In general, the STS pilot project is labor intensive, specifically the trapping component. From 1993-1995, 59% of total project expenditures were spent on trapping activities, 28% on pesticide treatments, and 13% on data management. A trapper productivity rate regression model is described. PMID:14650517

  16. Are the moth larvae able to withstand tree fall caused by wind storm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Parák

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wind storms play an important role in structuring European forests, however, the direct effects of strong wind on insects roosting in tree canopies are poorly known. In this study we assess the proportion of moth larvae which remain on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst. trees which have fallen during high winds. Next, we contribute to the knowledge of potential importance of such larvae in forests fragmented by local wind damage. We studied the effects of wind in spruce forest in the West Carpathians in March 2013. Branches were sampled from randomly chosen fallen and standing (undamaged spruce trees in April 2013. Larvae or emerged moths were obtained from branches in the laboratory using photoeclectors. Assemblages of larvae were analysed at community level using several approaches. In total, 11 species of Lepidoptera were found on the branches, 10 of them overwinter as larvae and one as eggs. No differences were observed between abundance and species richness of larval assemblages on fallen and standing trees. Assemblages were very similar; there was no difference detected between standing and fallen trees. Overwintering larvae can successfully complete their development on wind-felled trees; hence, the emerged moths may contribute to greater infestation of standing spruce trees surviving wind disturbance.

  17. [Optimization model of spatial population structure: example of poplar moth laying eggs on leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekretenko, O P; Sukhovol'skiĭ, V G; Tarasova, O V

    2002-01-01

    The authors analyze spatial distribution and survival of populations of poplar moth Litchcolletis populifoliella Tr. on its feeding plant--balsam poplar Populus balsamifera. Imago of the moth glue its eggs on the leaves thus determining the future location of their offspring on the host plant. Spatial distribution of eggs on leaf surface and distribution of leaves according egg numbers are not random. On the short distance from each egg the average number of eggs is less, than it should be in case of random distribution. While this distance increases up to some particular value the occurrence of eggs is higher than random. Thus, the eggs of moth are located by groups on the leaf surface. Within each group eggs are situated not very close to each other, this allowing larvae to lower competition for common resource. It is suggested that on the same feeding plant individuals have different interactions: competition, caused by limited quantity of resource and cooperation that is necessary to resist leaf defensive (antibiosis) reaction. PMID:12298182

  18. Power distribution in the hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Liang; Deng Xinyan, E-mail: xdeng@purdue.ed [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 500 Allison Rd., Chaffee Hall, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    We investigated inertial and aerodynamic power consumption during hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta. The aerodynamic power was estimated based on the aerodynamic forces and torques measured on model hawk-moth wings and hovering kinematics. The inertial power was estimated based on the measured wing mass distribution and hovering kinematics. The results suggest that wing inertial power (without consideration of muscle efficiency and elastic energy storage) consumes about half of the total power expenditure. Wing areal mass density was measured to decrease sharply from the leading edge toward the trailing edge and from the wing base to the wing tip. Such a structural property helps to minimize the wing moment of inertia given a fixed amount of mass. We measured the aerodynamic forces on the rigid and flexible wings, which were made to approximate the flexural stiffness (EI) distribution and deformation of moth wings. It has been found that wings with the characteristic spanwise and chordwise decreasing EI (and mass density) are beneficial for power efficiency while generating aerodynamic forces comparative to rigid wings. Furthermore, negative work to aid pitching in stroke reversals from aerodynamic forces was found, and it showed that the aerodynamic force contributes partially to passive pitching of the wing

  19. Stay out (almost) all night: contrasting responses in flight activity among tropical moth assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarre, G P A; Mendoza, I; Rougerie, R; Decaëns, T; Hérault, B; Bénéluz, F

    2015-04-01

    Variations in diel activity among hyperdiverse tropical communities of moths, despite representing a key component of niche partitioning between species, have barely been studied so far. Using light trapping from dawn to sunset over a 1-year period in French Guiana, we investigated these variations within and between two families of moths (Sphingidae and Saturniidae). Our results revealed contrasting patterns in flight activity at night between Sphingidae and Saturniidae. Sphingidae reached their peak in species richness and abundance between 7:00 and 8:00 p.m., followed by a decrease around 11:00 p.m. to midnight, whereas Saturniidae were continuously present throughout the night, with a peak around midnight. In addition, we found changes in diel activity among some of the most common genera in each family, highlighting distinct behavioral, physiological, and functional traits among taxa. Given differences in flight activity at different taxonomic levels, it is strongly recommended to monitor by light trapping throughout the night to effectively sample saturniid and sphingid assemblages, even though the activity of Sphingidae sharply declines after midnight. These results improve the general natural history information of tropical moths and reinforce the need of further research on the ecological and taxonomic consequences of differences in diel activity. PMID:26013127

  20. Identification of conjugated pentadecadienals as sex pheromone components of the sphingid moth, Dolbina tancrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; van Vang, Le; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Homologs of bombykal, (10E,12Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal, have been reported to be sex pheromones or sexual attractants of several species of sphingid moths. In this study, we identified novel bombykal analogs as sex pheromone components from a Japanese sphingid moth, Dolbina tancrei. Staudinger (Sphingidae: Lepidoptera). Sex pheromone gland extracts from calling female moths were subjected to gas chromatography/electroantennograhic detection (GC/EAD), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and gas chromatography (GC) analyses. GC/EAD analyses showed two active components in the crude pheromone extracts. GC/MS analysis determined these two components to be pentadecadienals. GC/MS of their MTAD derivatives showed conjugated double bonds at the 9- and 11-positions, indicating 9,11-pentadecadienals. The isomeric configurations of these candidates were determined by comparison of their Kováts retention indices with those of synthetic compounds. Field bioassays with the four isomers of 9,11-pentadecadienal and their mixtures confirmed that the two sex pheromone components of D. tancrei are (9E,11Z)-9,11-pentadecadienal and (9Z,11Z)-9,11-pentadecadienal, with the highest male catches observed for a 90:10 blend. This is the first report of 9,11-pentadecadienals as sex pheromone components in lepidopteran species. PMID:24190021

  1. Barbastelle bats ( Barbastella spp.) specialize in the predation of moths: implications for foraging tactics and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierro, Antoine; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    The diet of barbastelle bats, Barbastella (b.) barbastellus and B. (b.) leucomelas, captured, respectively, in the Swiss Alps and in the Kirghiz Tien Shian and Pamir mountains (central Asia) was investigated through faecal analysis. Location of hunting habitats and data on foraging behaviour of Swiss barbastelle bats were obtained from radiotracking. In either area, ca. 99% of prey by volume consisted of Lepidoptera. The regular occurrence of one small arctiid species in the diet of Swiss barbastelles, as well as the predominance (84%) of tympanate moths among the Lepidoptera sampled at foraging sites suggest that B. barbastellus could prey to a large extent on smaller tympanate moths. Observations of foraging bats showed that, in the study area, barbastelles behaved as typical aerialhawking bat species, although they hunted exclusively just above the forest canopy. This aerial-hawking bat species has seemingly evolved a peculiar foraging technique to overcome the defence system of its probable tympanate prey. The diet of Barbastella appears one of the narrowest among Palaearctic bats. Such a specialization in foraging habits probably points to a higher vulnerability of this species, as compared to other more flexible aerial-hawking bats, to negative changes in the abundance of moth populations. This could explain its current rarity throughout most of Europe.

  2. Female dietary bias towards large migratory moths in the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Vanessa A; Amorim, Francisco; Corley, Martin F V; McCracken, Gary F; Rebelo, Hugo; Beja, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    In bats, sexual segregation has been described in relation to differential use of roosting and foraging habitats. It is possible that variation may also exist between genders in the use of different prey types. However, until recently this idea was difficult to test owing to poorly resolved taxonomy of dietary studies. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing to describe gender-related variation in diet composition of the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis), while controlling for effects of age and season. We analysed guano pellets collected from 143 individuals mist-netted from April to October 2012 and 2013, in northeast Portugal. Moths (Lepidoptera; mainly Noctuidae and Geometridae) were by far the most frequently recorded prey, occurring in nearly all samples and accounting for 96 out of 115 prey taxa. There were significant dietary differences between males and females, irrespective of age and season. Compared to males, females tended to consume larger moths and more moths of migratory behaviour (e.g.Autographa gamma). Our study provides the first example of gender-related dietary variation in bats, illustrating the value of novel molecular tools for revealing intraspecific variation in food resource use in bats and other insectivores. PMID:27009885

  3. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale. PMID:25687127

  4. Power distribution in the hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated inertial and aerodynamic power consumption during hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta. The aerodynamic power was estimated based on the aerodynamic forces and torques measured on model hawk-moth wings and hovering kinematics. The inertial power was estimated based on the measured wing mass distribution and hovering kinematics. The results suggest that wing inertial power (without consideration of muscle efficiency and elastic energy storage) consumes about half of the total power expenditure. Wing areal mass density was measured to decrease sharply from the leading edge toward the trailing edge and from the wing base to the wing tip. Such a structural property helps to minimize the wing moment of inertia given a fixed amount of mass. We measured the aerodynamic forces on the rigid and flexible wings, which were made to approximate the flexural stiffness (EI) distribution and deformation of moth wings. It has been found that wings with the characteristic spanwise and chordwise decreasing EI (and mass density) are beneficial for power efficiency while generating aerodynamic forces comparative to rigid wings. Furthermore, negative work to aid pitching in stroke reversals from aerodynamic forces was found, and it showed that the aerodynamic force contributes partially to passive pitching of the wing

  5. The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan A; Saenko, Suzanne V; Wallbank, Richard W R; Wu, Grace C; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard M; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-06-01

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we use fine-scale mapping with population genomics and gene expression analyses to identify a gene, cortex, that regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast-evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell-cycle regulators, suggesting that it probably regulates pigmentation patterning by regulating scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia), our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects. PMID:27251285

  6. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCILAGE FROM LEAVES OF Pereskia bleo (ROSE CACTUS [Ekstraksi dan Karakterisasi Getah Daun Kaktus Mawar (Pereskia bleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hayati Ibrahim*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo (rose cactus is a type of tropical herbs which has long been used for its medicinal benefits among Malays and is also known to contain complex polysaccharide called mucilage. In this study, mucilage from leaves of rose cactus was extracted by using distilled water or 0.14 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution at three different temperatures (i.e. 50°C, 70°C or 90°C. There was a significant (p<0.05 interaction effect between type of medium used and temperature on yield of mucilage. Extraction using 0.14 M NaOH solution at 70°C provided the highest yield (2.55% of mucilage as compared to other extraction conditions. The mucilage extracted with 0.14 M NaOH solution at 70°C was further characterized in terms of physicochemical properties and compared with arabic gum. The crude protein, moisture and ash content of the mucilage were 4.81%, 13.59% and 28.67% respectively. It possessed appreciable amount of elements such as calcium (48.96 mg/g sample, and potassium (15.58 mg/g sample. The pH value of the mucilage was 10.89 (alkaline and it exhibited a clear thixotropic flow behavior with acceptable emulsion capacity (7.08% and stability (7.31% at 1% concentration. The colour of the mucilage and water holding capacity (WHC was L*= 68.81, and 461.87 % respectively. These findings suggest that rose cactus mucilage could be an interesting functional food ingredient as it originated from a well-known medicinal plant though further study should be done in order to fully understand its potential as one of alternative food hydrocolloids.

  7. 水热法合成仙人掌荧光碳量子点的研究%Study on the Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots by Cactus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欢; 黄小梅; 邓祥; 吴狄; 李红琼; 郭开雨; 罗琼

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots utilizing cactus as a carbon source via hydrothermal method was developed. Fluorescent carbon dots were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy. The effect of the amount of cactus, reaction time and reaction temperature on hydrothermal synthesis process was investigated in the present work. The results indicated that when the total volume of the solvent water was 30 mL, 0. 5 g of cactus used was optimal because the obtained fluorescent carbon dots showed the highest luminescent efficiency. Besides, the optimized reaction time and temperature were set at 3 h and 160 ℃ owing to fluorescent carbon dots with the highest fluorescent intensities. The fluorescent carbon dots can emit bright green photoluminescence under UV excitation.%以仙人掌为碳源,通过水热法合成了荧光碳量子点,并通过荧光光谱对样品的光学性能进行了表征,同时考察了仙人掌用量、水热反应时间和温度对合成荧光碳量子点的影响。结果显示:以仙人掌为碳源合成的荧光碳量子点在水溶剂30 mL条件下,仙人掌质量为0.5 g时得到的荧光碳量子点发光效率最高;同时,水热反应时间为3 h,反应温度为160℃时得到的荧光碳量子点发光强度最高。荧光碳量子点在紫外灯照射下发出明亮的绿光。

  8. Box Tree Moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae, New Invasive Insect Pest in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Matošević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Alien invasive species have been described as an outstanding global problem. Hundreds of species are intentionally and unintentionally moved worldwide and and numbers of introductions to new habitats have been accelerated all over the world due to the increasing mobility of people and goods over the past decades. Numerous alien insect species, many of them introduced only in the last 20 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Croatia. Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae is an invasive pest recently introduced to Europe causing serious damage to ornamental box (Buxus sp. shrubs and trees. The aim of this paper is to describe the biology of box tree moth with prognosis of its future spread and damages in Croatia. Material and Methods: Young larvae (first and second larval stage and adults of box tree moth were collected in August and September 2013 in Arboretum Opeka and in Varaždin. They were brought to the entomological laboratory of Croatian Forest Research Institute where they were reared to pupae and then to moths. Results and Conclusions: The box tree moth was recorded for the first time in North Croatia in August 2013. Larvae were found defoliating box plants (B. sempervirens in Arboretum Opeka, Vinica and they have been identified as C. prespectalis. According to damages it can be assumed that the pest has been introduced to the region earlier (in 2011 or 2012 and that the primary infection has not been detected. At least two generations per year could be assumed in Croatia in 2013. The damage done to box tree plants on the locality of study is serious. The plants have been defoliated, particularly in the lower parts. The defoliation reduced the amenity value of plants. This is the first record of this pest and its damages in Northern Croatia and it can be expected that the pest will rapidly spread to other parts of Croatia seriously damaging box plants

  9. Controlled growth of catalyst assisted and catalyst free CdSe micro cactuses with sharply pointed nanorods, their Photoluminescence (PL) and Photo electrochemical (PEC) properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Catalyst assisted (CA) and catalyst free (CF) growth of CdSe microcactuses with sharply pointed nanorods. ► VLS growth mechanism is proposed for CA and solid state chemical reaction for CF growth of CdSe Microcactus. ► Fabrication of PEC solar cell with 0.47% efficiency and 0.35 fill factor. ► PL studies exhibit peaks at 672 nm for CA and 596 nm for CF growth of CdSe cactuses respectively. ► CF growth is concluded to be better option as compared to CA growth for nanostructured materials. - Abstract: We report here a thermochemical approach for controlling the catalyst assisted and catalyst free growth of CdSe cactus like structures with sharply pointed nanorods (SPNR). The cactuses were simultaneously obtained on the silicon substrate and in semicircular alumina boat using cadmium and selenium powders as precursors under ammonia gas flow. The aqueous ammonia helps to control the growth of 1D structure and the formation of CdSe. Vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) growth mechanism is proposed for the catalyst assisted while solid state chemical reaction is suggested for the catalyst free growth of microcactuses. The microcactuses obtained in the boat as powder form are hollow whereas solid on the silicon substrate. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies exhibit sharp peak at 672 nm for catalyst assisted CdSe microcactuses. A broad peak at 596 nm was observed for catalyst free growth of CdSe SPNR. In this work we have demonstrated that PL emission from the catalyst free growth of nanostructured CdSe is broad and intense. These two peaks are blue shifted from the bulk. Nanorods emerging from exterior surface of cactus like structures are observed to have decreasing diameter along vertical-axis and end up in SPNR. Average diameter in the middle of nanorods is estimated in the range of 250–450 nm. Photo electrochemical (PEC) solar cell is fabricated on ITO coated glass substrate with the help of PVDF in NMP solution. The efficiency and fill

  10. A common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, is an important ecotope of wild Triatoma brasiliensis populations in the Jaguaribe valley of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the Caatinga eco-region of northeastern Brazil. Wild T. brasiliensis populations have been reported only from rocky outcrops. However, this species frequently infests/re-infests houses in rock-free sedimentary lowlands. We therefore hypothesized that it should also occupy other natural ecotopes. We show that a common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, locally known as xiquexique, often harbors T. brasiliensis breeding colonies apparently associated with rodents (n = 44 cacti, infestation rate = 47.7%, 157 bugs captured). Our findings suggest that infested cacti might be involved in house re-infestation by T. brasiliensis in the Caatinga region. PMID:24710611

  11. Use of Spineless Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for Dairy Goats and Growing Kids: Impacts on Milk Production, Kid's Growth, and Meat Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mahouachi, M.; N. Atti; Hajji, H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fe...

  12. Description of Rhabditis (Caenorhabditis) drosophilae n. sp. and R. (C.) sonorae n. sp. (Nematoda : Rhabditida) from saguaro cactus rot in Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Kiontke, K.

    1997-01-01

    Description est donnée de deux espèces gonochoriques, #Rhabditis$ (#Caenorhabditis$) #drosophilae$ n. sp. et #R.$ (#C.$) #sonorae$ n. sp., provenant de tissus de cactus "Saguaro" en décomposition en Arizona, Etats-Unis d'Amérique. Elles sont caractérisées par une bourse ouverte antérieurement et à marge lisse ; chez les deux espèces, les spicules, de forme complexe, ne sont pas pointus. Les dauerlarvae de #R. drosophilae$ n. sp. sont phorétiques sur la mouche #Drosophila nigrospiracula$ assoc...

  13. Long-Distance Kissing Loop Interactions between a 3' Proximal Y-Shaped Structure and Apical Loops of 5' Hairpins Enhance Translation of Saguaro Cactus Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Maitreyi; Shi, Kerong; Yuan, Xuefeng; Simon, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Circularization of cellular mRNAs is a key event prior to translation initiation. We report that efficient translation of Saguaro cactus virus (SCV) requires a 3' translational enhancer (PTE) located partially in coding sequences. Unlike a similar PTE reported in the 3' UTR of Pea enation mosaic virus that does not engage in an RNA:RNA interaction (Wang Z. et al., J. Biol. Chem. 284, 14189–14202, 2009), the SCV PTE participates in long distance RNA:RNA interactions with hairpins located in th...

  14. Muscularity and adiposity of carcass of Santa Inês lambs: effects of different levels of replacement of ground corn by forage cactus meal in finishing ration

    OpenAIRE

    José Rômulo Soares dos Santos; Marcílio Fontes Cezar; Wandrick Hauss de Sousa; Maria das Graças Gomes Cunha; José Morais Pereira Filho; Dannylo Oliveira de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the levels of replacement of ground corn by forage cactus meal in the diet on the muscularity and adiposity of carcass of Santa Inês lambs finished at feedlot. This study was carried out at Estação Experimental de Pendência, belonging to Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba S.A. (EMEPA-PB). Forty male Santa Inês lambs in feedlot were used in the experiment. Treatments were randomly assigned to the animals according to a complete...

  15. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... destination for specified handling, processing, or utilization (the destination and other conditions to be... American cactus moth because life stages of the South American cactus moth will be destroyed by the... insecticide spray cycle and have been sprayed with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, carbaryl,...

  16. Utility of Greater Wax Moth Larva (Galleria mellonella) for Evaluating the Toxicity and Efficacy of New Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Andrew P; Coote, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antimicrobial agents to combat infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens. Once a compound is shown to be effective in vitro, it is necessary to evaluate its efficacy in an animal infection model. Typically, this is achieved using a mammalian model, but such experiments are costly, time consuming, and require full ethical consideration. Hence, cheaper and ethically more acceptable invertebrate models of infection have been introduced, including the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. Invertebrates have an immune system that is functionally similar to the innate immune system of mammals, and often identical virulence and pathogenicity factors are used by human pathogenic microbes to infect wax moth larvae and mammals. Moreover, the virulence of many human pathogens is comparable in wax moth larvae and mammals. Using key examples from the literature, this chapter highlights the benefits of using the wax moth larva model to provide a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of new antimicrobial agents in vivo and prior to the use of more expensive mammalian models. This simple insect model can bridge the gap between in vitro studies and mammalian experimentation by screening out compounds with a low likelihood of success, while providing greater justification for further studies in mammalian systems. Thus, broader implementation of the wax moth larva model into anti-infective drug discovery and development programs could reduce the use of mammals during preclinical assessments and the overall cost of drug development. PMID:22305092

  17. Assessing the quality of mass-reared codling moths (Lepidoptera: tortricidae) by using field release-recapture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following small-scale field releases of sterile, mass-reared codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.), in the spring of 1995, significantly higher numbers of adults originating from larvae that had been induced into diapause were recaptured in passive interception traps compared with standard (nondiapaused) colony moths reared under either constant or fluctuating temperatures. When releases were made in the summer, significantly more diapaused females were again recaptured and similar numbers of diapaused and fluctuating temperature-reared standard males were trapped. Our field data showed that both male and female codling moths dispersed farther as ambient temperatures increased. When standard and diapaused sterile codling moths were released into replicated 1-ha plots under large-scale Sterile Insect Release program conditions in the summer and fall of 1996 and the spring of 1997, the proportion of recaptured diapaused males was significantly higher than for standard (nondiapaused) moths. This was true for recapture of males with passive interception, pheromone-baited, and virgin female-baited traps

  18. Effect of different film packaging on microbial growth in minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A; Mangia, N P; Fadda, A; Barberis, A; Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are natural contaminants of fresh produce and minimally processed products, and contamination arises from a number of sources, including the environment, postharvest handling and processing. Fresh-cut products are particularly susceptible to microbial contaminations because of the changes occurring in the tissues during processing. In package gas composition of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in combination with low storage temperatures besides reducing physiological activity of packaged produce, can also delay pathogen growth. Present study investigated on the effect of MAPs, achieved with different plastic films, on microbial growth of minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntio ficus-indica) fruit. Five different plastic materials were used for packaging the manually peeled fruit. That is: a) polypropylene film (Termoplast MY 40 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 300 cc/m2/24h); b) polyethylene film (Bolphane BHE, 11 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 19000 cc/m2/24h); c) polypropylene laser-perforated films (Mach Packaging) with 8, 16 or 32 100-micron holes. Total aerobic psychrophilic, mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast, mould populations and in-package CO2, O2 and C2H4 were determined at each storage time. Different final gas compositions, ranging from 7.8 KPa to 17.1 KPa O2, and 12.7 KPa to 2.6 KPa CO2, were achieved with MY and micro perforated films, respectively. Differences were detected in the mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and yeast loads, while no difference was detected in psychrophilic microorganisms. At the end of storage, microbial load in fruits sealed with MY film was significantly lower than in those sealed with BHE and micro perforated films. Furthermore, fruits packed with micro-perforated films showed the highest microbial load. This occurrence may in part be related to in-package gas composition and in part to a continuous contamination of microorganisms through micro-holes. PMID:25145227

  19. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25 min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25 min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15 min (6.83 and 6.72 MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32 MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43 logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25 min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54 logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82 UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18 mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6 mg VCEAC/100 mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1 μmol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14 days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25 min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage. PMID:26186846

  20. Differential response to soil salinity in endangered key tree cactus: implications for survival in a changing climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joie Goodman

    Full Text Available Understanding reasons for biodiversity loss is essential for developing conservation and management strategies and is becoming increasingly urgent with climate change. Growing at elevations <1.4 m in the Florida Keys, USA, the endangered Key tree cactus (Pilosocereus robinii experienced 84 percent loss of total stems from 1994 to 2007. The most severe losses of 99 and 88 percent stems occurred in the largest populations in the Lower Keys, where nine storms with high wind velocities and storm surges, occurred during this period. In contrast, three populations had substantial stem proliferation. To evaluate possible mortality factors related to changes in climate or forest structure, we examined habitat variables: soil salinity, elevation, canopy cover, and habitat structure near 16 dying or dead and 18 living plants growing in the Lower Keys. Soil salinity and elevation were the preliminary factors that discriminated live and dead plants. Soil salinity was 1.5 times greater, but elevation was 12 cm higher near dead plants than near live plants. However, distribution-wide stem loss was not significantly related to salinity or elevation. Controlled salinity trials indicated that salt tolerance to levels above 40 mM NaCl was related to maternal origin. Salt sensitive plants from the Lower Keys had less stem growth, lower root:shoot ratios, lower potassium: sodium ratios and lower recovery rate, but higher δ (13C than a salt tolerant lineage of unknown origin. Unraveling the genetic structure of salt tolerant and salt sensitive lineages in the Florida Keys will require further genetic tests. Worldwide rare species restricted to fragmented, low-elevation island habitats, with little or no connection to higher ground will face challenges from climate change-related factors. These great conservation challenges will require traditional conservation actions and possibly managed relocation that must be informed by studies such as these.

  1. Seasonal photosynthetic gas exchange and water-use efficiency in a constitutive CAM plant, the giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Dustin R; English, Nathan B; Dettman, David L; Williams, David G

    2011-11-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and the capacity to store large quantities of water are thought to confer high water use efficiency (WUE) and survival of succulent plants in warm desert environments. Yet the highly variable precipitation, temperature and humidity conditions in these environments likely have unique impacts on underlying processes regulating photosynthetic gas exchange and WUE, limiting our ability to predict growth and survival responses of desert CAM plants to climate change. We monitored net CO(2) assimilation (A(net)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and transpiration (E) rates periodically over 2 years in a natural population of the giant columnar cactus Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro) near Tucson, Arizona USA to investigate environmental and physiological controls over carbon gain and water loss in this ecologically important plant. We hypothesized that seasonal changes in daily integrated water use efficiency (WUE(day)) in this constitutive CAM species would be driven largely by stomatal regulation of nighttime transpiration and CO(2) uptake responding to shifts in nighttime air temperature and humidity. The lowest WUE(day) occurred during time periods with extreme high and low air vapor pressure deficit (D(a)). The diurnal with the highest D(a) had low WUE(day) due to minimal net carbon gain across the 24 h period. Low WUE(day) was also observed under conditions of low D(a); however, it was due to significant transpiration losses. Gas exchange measurements on potted saguaro plants exposed to experimental changes in D(a) confirmed the relationship between D(a) and g(s). Our results suggest that climatic changes involving shifts in air temperature and humidity will have large impacts on the water and carbon economy of the giant saguaro and potentially other succulent CAM plants of warm desert environments. PMID:21822726

  2. Significance of saguaro cactus alkaloids in ecology ofDrosophila mettleri, a soil-breeding, cactophilic drosophilid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J M; Fogleman, J C

    1987-11-01

    Drosophila mettleri is a soil-breeding, cactophilic drosophilid which lives in the Sonoran Desert. Several chemical constituents of cacti in this region have been identified as having major roles in insect-host plant relationships involvingDrosophila. For example, isoquinoline alkaloids, which are present in senita cactus, have been shown to be toxic to seven of the nine species tested. The two tolerant species areD. pachea, the normal resident, andD. mettleri. Necroses of senita cacti are often used as feeding substrates byD. mettleri adults, but this species has never been reared from senita rots. Soil, which have been soaked by juice from saguaro and cardón rots, are the typical breeding substrates of this species. The tissues of both of these cacti also contain alkaloids, chemically related to those in senita, but at much lower concentrations. Alkaloid concentration in saguaro-soaked soil was found to be 1.4-27 times the average concentration in fresh tissue. Alkaloids were extracted from saguaro tissue and used in tests of larva-to-adult viability, developmental rate, and adult longevity. Elevated concentrations of saguaro alkaloids had no significant effect on the longevity ofD. mettleri, but significantly reduced the longevity ofD. nigrospiracula andD. mojavensis, two nonsoil breeding cactophilic species. Viability and developmental rates of all three species were affected, but the effect onD. nigrospiracula was comparatively greater. It is argued that the adaptations that allowD. mettleri to utilize the saguaro soil niche also convey tolerance to alkaloids present in senita tissue. The ability to utilize senita necroses as feeding substrates represents an ecological advantage to D. mettleri, in that the density of potential feeding sites is increased as compared to species which are more specific in their host-plant relationships. PMID:24301541

  3. Effects of an invasive grass on the demography of the Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis: Implications for cacti conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2012-05-01

    The impact of exotic species around the world is among the primary threats to the conservation and management of rare and endangered species. In this work we asked whether or not the presence of the African grass Megathyrsus maximus on Mona Island was associated with negative impacts on the demography of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis. To address this question we performed field observations where we compared demographic data collected at un-manipulated areas invaded by Megathyrsus with un-manipulated areas non-invaded by this exotic grass. Additionally, demographic data were also collected in areas in which we removed the exotic grass biomass using two alternative treatments: complete and partial grass removal. Results demonstrated that the presence of Megathyrsus has negative effects on demographic parameters of Harrisia at various stages throughout its life cycle. In general, the survival, growth, and reproduction of Harrisia plants were depressed under the presence of Megathyrsus. Growth and survival of seedlings and juveniles of Harrisia were more impacted by the presence of Megathyrsus than adult performance and seedling recruitment only occurred in areas with grass absence. Our combined results suggest that modifications of the micro-environment by the presence of Megathyrsus may add an additional level of vulnerability to the persistence of Harrisia, and as such this factor must be considered when designing conservation strategies for this endangered species. This study highlights the need for a greater emphasis on understanding the interactions between invasive grass species and native cacti, and the importance of such information in designing conservation strategies for cacti species elsewhere.

  4. Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of most pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth have in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide spra...

  5. Disease status and population origin effects on floral scent: potential consequences for oviposition and fruit predation in a complex interaction between a plant, fungus, and noctuid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dötterl, S.; Jürgens, A.; Wolfe, L.M.; Biere, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Silene latifolia-Hadena bicruris nursery pollination system, the Hadena moth is both pollinator and seed predator of its host plant. Floral scent, which differs among S. latifolia individuals and populations, is important for adult Hadena to locate its host. However, the success of moth larva

  6. 仙人掌果中黄酮类物质提取工艺的优化%Optimization of the extraction process of flavonoids from cactus fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红梅; 姚晶; 宋琳; 马丹雅; 陈智斌; 杨同舟

    2013-01-01

    The pulp of cactus pear fruit is rich of flavonoids and other nutrients.The single factor experiments and orthogonal test was used to optimize the extraction progress for flavonoids from cactus pear fruit. The best extraction process condition was as follows: extraction temperature 70℃, the concentration of the extract solution 60% ,the extraction time 20min and the ratio of solid to liquid 1:20( w/v) ,and under the condition the extraction amount was 4.396mg/g.%仙人掌果的果肉中含有丰富的黄酮类物质和其他营养物质.本实验以其为原料,采用单因素实验和正交实验对仙人果中的黄酮类物质的提取工艺进行优化.通过实验得出仙人掌果中黄酮提取的最佳条件:提取温度70℃,提取液浓度60%,提取时间20min,料液比1∶20在此条件下可以获得最大的提取量为4.396mg/g.

  7. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit[CAW 426]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-226. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C

  8. European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Totricidae – occurence and management in Istrian vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bažok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitoring of grapevine and weekly adults catch. Developmental time with lower thermal threshold of 7 °C was calculated. The flight of the first generation was between 217.9 and 406.6 °C, second generation between 786.3 and 1329.8 °C, third generation between 1452.8 and 2108.2 °C.

  9. Effects of a broad spectrum and biorational insecticides on parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCravy, K W; Dalusky, M J; Berisford, C W

    2001-02-01

    We examined effects of aerial application of acephate (Orthene), Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki Berliner (Foray), and tebufenozide (Mimic) on larval/pupal parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), in the southwestern Georgia coastal plain. Parasitism of tip moths in acephate-treated plots was significantly lower than in untreated plots. Bacillus thuringiensis and tebufenozide showed no significant effects on parasitism. A tachinid, Lixophaga mediocris Aldrich, comprised a significantly greater proportion of emerging parasitoids in acephate-treated than in untreated control plots, whereas a chalcidid, Haltichella rhyacioniae Gahan, was less abundant in the acephate-treated plots. Acephate has a negative, but somewhat species-specific, impact on tip moth parasitism. PMID:11233099

  10. Integrating anti-reflection and superhydrophobicity of moth-eye-like surface morphology on a large-area flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) roll-to-roll (R2R) process with argon and oxygen (Ar–O2) plasma ashing and coating of a dilute perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) layer to fabricate the large-area moth-eye-like surface morphology on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. By using Maxwell-Garnett's effective medium theory, the optimal dimensions of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was designed and fabricated with UV-NIL R2R process to obtain maximum transmittance ratio. In addition, the base angle (θ = 30.1°) of the moth-eye-like surface morphology was modified with Ar–O2 plasma ashing and coated with a dilute FDTS layer to possess both superhydrophobic and air-retention properties. This increases both the transmittance ratio of 4% and contact angle to 153°. (paper)

  11. A Challenge for a Male Noctuid Moth? Discerning the Female Sex Pheromone against the Background of Plant Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeke, Elisa; Haverkamp, Alexander; Hansson, Bill S; Sachse, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Finding a partner is an essential task for members of all species. Like many insects, females of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens release chemical cues consisting of a species-specific pheromone blend to attract conspecific males. While tracking these blends, male moths are also continuously confronted with a wide range of other odor molecules, many of which are plant volatiles. Therefore, we analyzed how background plant odors influence the degree of male moth attraction to pheromones. In order to mimic a natural situation, we tracked pheromone-guided behavior when males were presented with the headspaces of each of two host plants in addition to the female pheromone blend. Since volatile emissions are also dependent on the physiological state of the plant, we compared pheromone attraction in the background of both damaged and intact plants. Surprisingly, our results show that a natural odor bouquet does not influence flight behavior at all, although previous studies had shown a suppressive effect at the sensory level. We also chose different concentrations of single plant-emitted volatiles, which have previously been shown to be neurophysiologically relevant, and compared their influence on pheromone attraction. We observed that pheromone attraction in male moths was significantly impaired in a concentration-dependent manner when single plant volatiles were added. Finally, we quantified the amounts of volatile emission in our experiments using gas chromatography. Notably, when the natural emissions of host plants were compared with those of the tested single plant compounds, we found that host plants do not release volatiles at concentrations that impact pheromone-guided flight behavior of the moth. Hence, our results lead to the conclusion that pheromone-plant interactions in Heliothis virescens might be an effect of stimulation with supra-natural plant odor concentrations, whereas under more natural conditions the olfactory system of the male moth appears

  12. Consultants Group Meeting on Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of Field Application. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIT currently has only limited application in Lepidoptera control. Prospects for improvement of the technique however are good, and the species with the best immediate prospect is the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). Codling moth is the key pest of most apple and pear orchards in the world and the cause of intensive insecticide use during the whole fruiting season. As a result of increasing development of insecticide resistance in codling moth, the banning of essential insecticides, as well as public concerns about the environment and food safety, the Subprogramme continues to receive enquiries from a number of countries as to the applicability of SIT as a suppression method for this species. SIT is currently used as part of areawide codling moth control in British Columbia, Canada and in the border area with Washington State, USA. The SIT can be integrated with a number of other techniques, including mating disruption as in the trial in Washington State. The Canadian programme is co-funded by growers, local and national government. The programme is proving effective at controlling the moth in an environmental friendly way. Currently the programme is only financially attractive with government subsidy although in view of the replacement of insecticide use with SIT, growers will be able to access the rapidly growing and very lucrative market for organic fruit. A new CRP is proposed with the objective of improving the efficiency of all stages of the SIT for codling moth. This will cover reducing the cost of production, product and process quality control, genetic sexing, strain compatibility and field monitoring among others.

  13. Fast Census of Moth Diversity in the Neotropics: A Comparison of Field-Assigned Morphospecies and DNA Barcoding in Tiger Moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenker, Mauricio M.; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Teston, José A.; Laguerre, Michel; Pie, Marcio R.; Freitas, André V. L.

    2016-01-01

    The morphological species delimitations (i.e. morphospecies) have long been the best way to avoid the taxonomic impediment and compare insect taxa biodiversity in highly diverse tropical and subtropical regions. The development of DNA barcoding, however, has shown great potential to replace (or at least complement) the morphospecies approach, with the advantage of relying on automated methods implemented in computer programs or even online rather than in often subjective morphological features. We sampled moths extensively for two years using light traps in a patch of the highly endangered Atlantic Forest of Brazil to produce a nearly complete census of arctiines (Noctuoidea: Erebidae), whose species richness was compared using different morphological and molecular approaches (DNA barcoding). A total of 1,075 barcode sequences of 286 morphospecies were analyzed. Based on the clustering method Barcode Index Number (BIN) we found a taxonomic bias of approximately 30% in our initial morphological assessment. However, a morphological reassessment revealed that the correspondence between morphospecies and molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) can be up to 94% if differences in genitalia morphology are evaluated in individuals of different MOTUs originated from the same morphospecies (putative cases of cryptic species), and by recording if individuals of different genders in different morphospecies merge together in the same MOTU (putative cases of sexual dimorphism). The results of two other clustering methods (i.e. Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery and 2% threshold) were very similar to those of the BIN approach. Using empirical data we have shown that DNA barcoding performed substantially better than the morphospecies approach, based on superficial morphology, to delimit species of a highly diverse moth taxon, and thus should be used in species inventories. PMID:26859488

  14. Evolution of oviposition behavior in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar in Hyrcanian forests, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOODARZ HAJIZADEH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hajizadeh G, Kavosi MR, Jalilvand H. 2013. Evolution of oviposition behavior in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar in Hyrcanian forests, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 101-105. Oviposition behavior has been introduced at the center of many of the major debates on the ecology and evolution of interactions between insects and plants. The objective of this research was to determine the number of egg masses gypsy moth in relation to diameter at breast height (dbh, egg placement, orientation and host tree species. Sampling was carried out in Daland national park, Gorgan province. By global position system (GPS device using polygons with width of 20 m and determined azimuth, defoliated trees were recorded. Data and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range tests. Results showed that the diameter at breast height was not significantly affected by the number of egg masses. The effect of oviposition place on number of egg masses gypsy moth were significant (P<0.01. The highest number of egg masses (2.148 egg masses/tree was observed at trunk of defoliated trees; also, minimum (1.65 egg masses/tree occurred in branches of defoliated trees. The effects of oviposition orient were significant (P<0.05. The means comparison showed that the maximum rates of egg masses was occurred in the south geographical position (2.04 egg masses/tree, the least of defoliation was related to the north direction (1.57 egg masses/tree. The primary host tree species was Persian iron wood (Parrotia persica. In finally, the selectivity of oviposition females may often provide the initial basis for divergence of insect populations on to different plant species, and it may drive the evolution of some plant defenses.

  15. Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

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    Pasi Sihvonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers, with approximately 23,000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.

  16. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella.

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    Jan Rozsypal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The codling moth (Cydia pomonella is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. CONCLUSION: Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer.

  17. Innate recognition of pheromone and food odors in moths: a common mechanism in the antennal lobe?

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    Joshua P Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of an animal often depends on an innate response to a particular sensory stimulus. For an adult male moth, two categories of odors are innately attractive: pheromone released by conspecific females, and the floral scents of certain, often co-evolved, plants. These odors consist of multiple volatiles in characteristic mixtures. Here, we review evidence that both categories of odors are processed as sensory objects, and we suggest a mechanism in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL, that encodes the configuration of these mixtures and may underlie recognition of innately attractive odors. In the pheromone system, mixtures of two or three volatiles elicit upwind flight. Peripheral changes are associated with behavioral changes in speciation, and suggest the existence of a pattern recognition mechanism for pheromone mixtures in the AL. Moths are similarly innately attracted to certain floral scents. Though floral scents consist of multiple volatiles that activate a broad array of receptor neurons, only a smaller subset, numerically comparable to pheromone mixtures, is necessary and sufficient to elicit behavior. Both pheromone and floral scent mixtures that produce attraction to the odor source elicit synchronous action potentials in particular populations of output (projection neurons (PNs in the AL. We propose a model in which the synchronous output of a population of PNs encodes the configuration of an innately attractive mixture, and thus comprises an innate mechanism for releasing odor-tracking behavior. The particular example of olfaction in moths may inform the general question of how sensory objects trigger innate responses.

  18. Towards a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae tussock moths of biosecurity concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R deWaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Many species in the tussock moth genus Lymantria are significant forestry pests, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., and consequently have been a focus for the development of molecular diagnostic tools to assist in identifying species and source populations. In this study we expand the taxonomic and geographic coverage of the DNA barcode reference library, and further test the utility of this diagnostic method, both for species/subspecies assignment and for determination of geographic provenance of populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcodes were obtained from 518 individuals and 36 species of Lymantria, including sequences assembled and generated from previous studies, vouchered material in public collections, and intercepted specimens obtained from surveillance programs in Canada. A maximum likelihood tree was constructed, revealing high bootstrap support for 90% of species clusters. Bayesian species assignment was also tested, and resulted in correct assignment to species and subspecies in all instances. The performance of barcoding was also compared against the commonly employed NB restriction digest system (also based on COI; while the latter is informative for discriminating gypsy moth subspecies, COI barcode sequences provide greater resolution and generality by encompassing a greater number of haplotypes across all Lymantria species, none shared between species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcodes for diagnosing species of Lymantria and reinforces the view that the approach is an under-utilized resource with substantial potential for biosecurity and surveillance. Biomonitoring agencies currently employing the NB restriction

  19. Genetic patterns in European geometrid moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system.

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    Axel Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems, a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88% in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93% were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3% were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18% were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed

  20. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose–response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6–227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level. - Highlights: • Dose–response tests were conducted on eggs and all larval stages. • Fifth instar is the most tolerant stage that could be shipped in fruits. • None normal-looking adult emerged from 30,850 fifth instars in confirmatory tests. • A minimum of 228 Gy is suggested for phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth

  1. Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a newly recorded parasitoid of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, M G; Wada, V I; La Salle, J; Sánchez, N E

    2011-01-01

    We report the first record of Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitizing larvae of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), in tomato crops in Northern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Tomato moth larvae were sampled during four consecutive growing cycles, between 2003 and 2005, in 10 sites. Neochrysocharis formosa was present only in organic outdoor and protected crops, and predominantly during the late season. Parasitism rates varied from 1.5% to 5%. The finding of this species is a new record for Argentina and South America, and T. absoluta is a new host record. PMID:21710041

  2. Irradiation of the rice moth larvae, Corcyra Cephalonica (Staint) (lepidoptera - Pyralidae) : effects on development, sterility and larval midgut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some effects of gamma radiation (25-450 Gy) on the larval stag of Corcyra Cephalonica were studied. Larvae (30 days old) irradiated with 450 Gy did not transform into pupae and all died. when larvae were irradiated with 50 Gy or higher doses the number of emerging moths was reduced and that of deformed moths increased. Complete sterility was not achieved at 25 and 50 Gy as healthy adults were obtained. Histological damage to the larval midgut following irradiation was positively correlated with the dose used. The regenerative cells that renew the epithelial lining of the midgut were more sensitive to irradiation. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Red Dog, Horses and Bogong Moths: The Memorialisation of Animals in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Searby

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine ways in which animals are memorialised in Australia. By examining the narratives surrounding horses in the Snowy Mountains of New South Wales, ceremonies for Bogong moths, and touching upon the stories of Red Dog, I show how the intangible can be considered a memorial and a memorial landscape conceived as one that is co-constructed by humans and animals. Understanding memorialisation as intangible facilitates a repositioning of animals in relation to humans and the creation of a new framework of reference for memorialising animals.

  4. Suppression of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a major insect pest of peaches in Bulgaria. Its control usually requires several insecticide treatments per season. This, however, gives rise to serious toxic residue problems. A program for suppression of OFM populations involving the use of sterile-insect technique (SIT) has been developed as an alternative to the chemical methods for OFM. Relevant information regarding laboratory rearing, radiation and basic biology are presented here. Expected effects of some release programs are modelled using appropriate mathematical simulations. Results obtained in a small field experiment showed high efficacy of a program integrating F1 male sterility technique and classic SIT. (author)

  5. New Zealand lessons may aid efforts to control light brown apple moth in California

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Lucia G.; Walker, James T.S.; Lo, Peter L; Rogers, David J.

    2010-01-01

    New Zealand’s major fruit industries are dependent upon producing high-quality crops for export with a very low incidence of pest damage. Light brown apple moth was an economically important pest within the fruit sector in the 1960s through the 1980s, and it developed resistance to broad-spectrum insecticides. The increase in its pest status focused research on biological control, and existing native natural enemies were augmented with new introductions from Australia in the late 1960s. By th...

  6. Lethal dose of gamma radiation for eggs of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), rice moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this experiment was to observe the effects of gamma radiation on rice moth Corcyra cephalonica (STAINTON, 1865) eggs. The doses utilized in this experiment were 0; 25; 50; 75; 100; 125; 150; 175; 200 Gy. The experiment was carried out in a climatic room at 25 ± 20 C and 70 ± 10% R.H. It was observed that lethal dose LD50 and LD100 for eggs from adults reared by artificial diet were 16 and 75 Gy, respectively. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  7. Radiation induced sterility in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta Busck. (Lepidoptera Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of studies on the sterilizing effects of gamma radiation, applied to oriental moth pupae or adults, are reported. The parameters of the induced sterility have been determined separately for individuals of both sexes. In males as well as in females the sterility is due chiefly to emergence of dominant lethal mutations in spermatozoa or oocytes which cause F1 egg mortality. Correspondingly, the frequency dynamics of these lethals is described by mixed types or sigmoid dose-response curves. The experimental data are interpreted in relation to sterile-insect release method for autocidal control of Gr. molesta. (author)

  8. Some aspects of the moth (Lepidoptera, Heterocera) species diversity in Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    OKYAR, Zuhal; Selcuk YURTSEVER; Aktaç, Nihat; Çakan, Gökhan

    2009-01-01

    The moth species were investigated in the four distinct types of habitat — coniferous, beech, oak forests and shrubs including 57 different sites — of Western Black Sea Region in Turkey between the years of 2001 and 2004. A total of 207 Lepidoptera species belonging to 164 genera and 11 families was determined. Results showed that the index of diversity in the coniferous habitats (H=0.5592) was significantly higher than those of beech (H=0.3561) and oak forests (H=0.4238), but was not signifi...

  9. Are the moth larvae able to withstand tree fall caused by wind storm?

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Parák; Ján Kulfan; Peter Zach

    2015-01-01

    Wind storms play an important role in structuring European forests, however, the direct effects of strong wind on insects roosting in tree canopies are poorly known. In this study we assess the proportion of moth larvae which remain on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) trees which have fallen during high winds. Next, we contribute to the knowledge of potential importance of such larvae in forests fragmented by local wind damage. We studied the effects of wind in spruce forest in the Wes...

  10. Effect of early oviposition experience on host acceptance in Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and application of F1 sterility and T.principium to suppress the potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments with Trichogramma principium Sugonyaev and Sorokina females offered potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) eggs demonstrated that wasps rates of oviposition were highest the first day and decreased gradually thereafter. In addition, when T. principium females were sequentially offered eggs from 250-Gy irradiated parents or obtained from non-irradiated moths, the probability of host acceptance was not influenced by treatment of host eggs. In a concurrent laboratory study, a large cage test with combinant releases of T. principium and 250-Gy irradiated moths produced the greatest reduction in potato tuber moth F3-emerged progeny. Reductions obtained with irradiated moths alone, single release of irradiated moths with T. principium, and one or three releases of parasitoids were significantly higher than those in the control. From a pest management perspective, T. principium releases would synergistically complement the effects of F1 sterility against potato tuber moth infestation. (author)

  11. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Zeller), the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), additional Glossina spp., other Anastrepha spp. and Bactrocera spp. fruit flies, and other pest insects. (author)

  12. Concrete Durability Properties and Microstructural Analysis of Cement Pastes with Nopal Cactus Mucilage as a Natural Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Arellanes, S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the addition of a 3% nopal cactus mucilage solution to cement pastes, in its effects on setting times, flow, hydration, and microstructure, as well as on capillary water absorption and chloride diffusion in concrete. Hydration was characterized through XRD and microstructure was characterized with SEM. The mucilage solution/cement and water/cement ratios tested were 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60. The results in cement pastes indicate that the addition of mucilage increases setting times, reduces flow, slows cement hydration, and inhibits the formation of calcium hydroxide crystals in comparison with the control. Capillary absorption was significantly reduced in concrete containing mucilage, and chloride diffusion coefficients dropped up to 20% in the mixture with a mucilage/cement ratio = 0.30. The mixture with a mucilage/cement ratio = 0.45 displayed marginal reduction, and the mixture with mucilage/cement ratio = 0.60 exhibited a diffusion coefficient that was greater than the control for the specimens without moist curing.En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto de una solución de mucílago de nopal al 3% en los tiempos de fraguado, fluidez, hidratación y microestructura de pastas de cemento, y absorción capilar de agua y difusión de cloruros en concreto. La hidratación fue caracterizada por XRD y la microestructura por medio de SEM. Las relaciones solución de mucílago/cemento y agua/cemento fueron 0,30; 0,45 y 0,60. Los resultados en las pastas de cemento indican que el mucílago retarda los tiempos de fraguado, reduce la fluidez, retarda la hidratación del cemento, e inhibe la formación de cristales de hidróxido de calcio, comparados con los controles. La absorción capilar en concreto conteniendo mucílago se redujo significativamente y los coeficientes de difusión de cloruros disminuyeron hasta 20% en la mezcla mucílago/cemento = 0.30. En la relación mucílago/cemento = 0.45 la reducción fue marginal y

  13. Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical performance and durability of concrete with water/cement (w/c ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 containing cactus mucilage and brown marine seaweed extract solutions (at 0.5° Brix concentrations. Cylindrical specimens (100 mm x 200 mm were cast and moist-cured for 0 and 28 days. Compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability, and chloride diffusion tests were conducted to evaluate all of the concrete mixes at the ages of 60 and 120 days. In addition, accelerated carbonation tests were carried out on specimens at the age of 180 days by exposure to 23 °C, 60% RH and at 4.4% CO2 for 120 days. The compressive strength results showed that only one concrete mix with admixtures increased in strength compared to the control. Regarding the rapid chloride permeability, chloride diffusion and carbonation, the results indicated that the durability of concretes containing organic additions was enhanced compared to the control.Este trabajo presenta el comportamiento mecánico y de durabilidad de concretos con relaciones agua/cemento de 0.30 y 0.60, conteniendo soluciones de mucílago de nopal y extracto de algas marinas cafés (0.5 °Brix de concentración. Especímenes cilíndricos (100 mm x 200 mm fueron elaborados y curados en húmedo por 0 y 28 días. Se evaluó la resistencia a la compresión, permeabilidad rápida y difusión de cloruros a los 60 y 120 días de edad. Adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas de carbonatación acelerada en especímenes con 180 días de edad, expuestos a 23 °C, 60% HR y 4.4% de CO2 por 120 días. Los resultados de resistencia a la compresión muestran que únicamente una mezcla de concreto con adición orgánica incrementó su resistencia con respecto al control. Con respecto a la permeabilidad rápida a cloruros, difusión de cloruros y carbonatación, los resultados indican que la durabilidad de los concretos que contenían adiciones orgánicas fue mejorada con respecto al control.

  14. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth. PMID:26314026

  15. Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous lepidopteran species have been investigated as candidates for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or inherited sterility (IS). However to date only two programmes are operational - the pink bollworm containment programme in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, and the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. Both of these programmes have been highly successful in controlling the pest populations, reducing insecticide use, and improving interactions between growers and the general public. However, other benefits, including the positive economic impacts of these programmes, have not been fully quantified. Methods to reduce the cost of lepidopteran programmes might include combining the SIT/IS with other pest control tactics such as mating disruption or the release of natural enemies, the development of genetic sexing strains, or the application of molecular technologies to develop genetic markers and genetic sterility. In future the greatest potential for impact of lepidopteran SIT/IS programmes may be in combating key invasive threats such as the eradication of an outbreak of the painted apple moth in New Zealand. (author)

  16. Insecticide effect of cyantraniliprole on tomato moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae larvae in field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick, Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae has traditionally been managed in Chile with organophosphate, pyrethroid, and nereistoxin insecticides; all of these have wide action spectra and high toxicity and many of them have developed rapid resistance. It is therefore important to have new molecules which are effective in controlling this pest; how ever, these molecules must have lower toxicity and greater selectivity for beneficial fauna to produce a more sustainable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of T. absoluta control with cyantraniliprole insecticide, which has desirable characteristics for programs of integrated pest management of tomato; we thus performed three trials in the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. These trials evaluated the control of T. absoluta using different doses of two formulations: cyantraniliprole 10 OD (oil dispersion with or without surfactants (Dyne-Amic, Codacide applied to leaves and cyantraniliprole 20 SC (suspension concentrate applied to soil. Trials used a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The effect of treatments was compared with standard insecticides and a control without insecticide. The degree of control was estimated by foliar and fruit damage at harvest. Results indicate a reduction in fruit damage between 75% and 85% for foliar applications and 82% for soil applications of cyantraniliprole. It is concluded that both formulations of cyantraniliprole were effective to reduce damage caused by the tomato moth larva in both the foliage and fruit of tomato.

  17. Sterile insect technique and F₁ sterility in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300-or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  18. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  19. Radiation biology and inherited sterility in false codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    False codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), male and female mature pupae and newly emerged adults were treated with increasing doses of gamma radiation, and the moths were either inbred or out-crossed with fertile counterparts. For newly emerged adults, there was no significant relationship between dose of radiation and insect fecundity when untreated females were mated to treated males. However, fecundity of treated females mated to either untreated or treated males declined as the dose of radiation increased. A similar trend was observed when mature pupae were treated. The dose at which 100% sterility was achieved in treated females mated to untreated males for both adults and pupae was 200 Gy, while fertility in crosses involving treated males declined linearly with increasing doses of radiation. In newly emerged adults, 350 Gy treated males had a residual fertility of 5.2% when mated to untreated females while in pupal experiments the residual fertility in 350 Gy treated males was 3.3%. Inherited effects resulting from irradiation of parental (P1) males with selected doses of radiation were recorded for the F1 generation. Decreased F1 fecundity and fertility increased F1 mortality during development, and a significant shift in the F1 sex ratio in favour of males was observed when increasing doses of radiation were applied to the P1 males

  20. Sequence variation determining stereochemistry of a Δ11 desaturase active in moth sex pheromone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Carraher, Colm; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-07-01

    A Δ11 desaturase from the oblique banded leaf roller moth Choristoneura rosaceana takes the saturated myristic acid and produces a mixture of (E)-11-tetradecenoate and (Z)-11-tetradecenoate with an excess of the Z isomer (35:65). A desaturase from the spotted fireworm moth Choristoneura parallela also operates on myristic acid substrate but produces almost pure (E)-11-tetradecenoate. The two desaturases share 92% amino acid identity and 97% amino acid similarity. There are 24 amino acids differing between these two desaturases. We constructed mutations at all of these positions to pinpoint the sites that determine the product stereochemistry. We demonstrated with a yeast functional assay that one amino acid at the cytosolic carboxyl terminus of the protein (258E) is critical for the Z activity of the C. rosaceana desaturase. Mutating the glutamic acid (E) into aspartic acid (D) transforms the C. rosaceana enzyme into a desaturase with C. parallela-like activity, whereas the reciprocal mutation of the C. parallela desaturase transformed it into an enzyme producing an intermediate 64:36 E/Z product ratio. We discuss the causal link between this amino acid change and the stereochemical properties of the desaturase and the role of desaturase mutations in pheromone evolution. PMID:27163509