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Sample records for cactophilic drosophila mojavensis

  1. Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. IX. Host plant and population specific epicuticular hydrocarbon expression influences mate choice and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, J A; Etges, W J

    2013-03-01

    Sexual signals in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis include cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), contact pheromones that mediate female discrimination of males during courtship. CHCs, along with male courtship songs, cause premating isolation between diverged populations, and are influenced by genotype × environment interactions caused by different host cacti. CHC profiles of mated and unmated adult flies from a Baja California and a mainland Mexico population of D. mojavensis reared on two host cacti were assayed to test the hypothesis that male CHCs mediate within-population female discrimination of males. In multiple choice courtship trials, mated and unmated males differed in CHC profiles, indicating that females prefer males with particular blends of CHCs. Mated and unmated females significantly differed in CHC profiles as well. Adults in the choice trials had CHC profiles that were significantly different from those in pair-mated adults from no-choice trials revealing an influence of sexual selection. Females preferred different male CHC blends in each population, but the influence of host cactus on CHC variation was significant only in the mainland population indicating population-specific plasticity in CHCs. Different groups of CHCs mediated female choice-based sexual selection in each population suggesting that geographical and ecological divergence has the potential to promote divergence in mate communication systems.

  2. Population transcriptomics of cactus host shifts in Drosophila mojavensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, Luciano M

    2012-05-01

    In the presence of environmental change, natural selection can shape the transcriptome. Under a scenario of environmental change, genotypes that are better able to modulate gene expression to maximize fitness will tend to be favoured. Therefore, it is important to examine gene expression at the population level to distinguish random or neutral gene expression variation from the pattern produced by natural selection. This study investigates the natural variation in transcriptional response to a cactus host shift utilizing the mainland Sonora population of Drosophila mojavensis. Drosophila mojavensis is a cactophilic species composed of four cactus host populations endemic to the deserts of North America. Overall, the change in cactus host was associated with a significant reduction in larval viability as well as the differential expression of 21% of the genome (3109 genes). Among the genes identified were a set of genes previously known to be involved in xenobiotic metabolism, as well as genes involved in cellular energy production, oxidoreductase/carbohydrate metabolism, structural components and mRNA binding. Interestingly, of the 3109 genes whose expression was affected by host use, there was a significant overrepresentation of genes that lacked an orthologous call to the D. melanogaster genome, suggesting the possibility of an accelerated rate of evolution in these genes. Of the genes with a significant cactus effect, the majority, 2264 genes, did not exhibit a significant cactus-by-line interaction. This population-level approach facilitated the identification of genes involved in past cactus host shifts.

  3. Characterization of volatiles of necrotic Stenocereus thurberi and Opuntia littoralis and toxicity and olfactory preference of Drosophila melanogster, D. mojavensis wrigleyi, and D. mojavensis sonorensis to necrotic cactus volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-08-01

    Drosophila mojavensis wrigleyi and D. mojavensis sonorensis are geographically separated races of cactophilic fruit flies. D. mojavensis sonorensis inhabits the Sonoran Desert and utilizes necrotic rots of Stenocereus thurberi Engelm. as a food source and to oviposit while D. mojavensis wrigleyi inhabits Santa Catalina Island, California and utilizes the necrotic rots of Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell. The objectives of this study were to determine the volatile compositions of the necrotic cacti and to determine if the volatile components show either selective toxicity or attraction toward the fruit flies. The volatile chemical compositions of field-rot specimens of both necrotic cacti were obtained by dynamic headspace (purge-and-trap) and hydrodistillation techniques and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The volatile fraction of necrotic S. thurberi early rot was dominated by carboxylic acids (84.8%) and the late rot by p-cresol (32.6% in the dynamic headspace sample and 55.9% in the hydrodistilled sample). O. littoralis volatiles were dominated by carboxylic acids (86% in the dynamic headspace sample and 89.1% in the hydrodistilled sample). Fifteen compounds that were identified in the necrotic rot volatiles were used to test insecticidal activity and olfactory preference on the cactophilic Drosophila species, as well as D. melanogaster. Differences in toxicity and olfactory preference were observed between the different taxa. Both races of D. mojavensis exhibited toxicity to benzaldehyde and 2-nonanone, while butanoic acid and palmitic acid were tolerated at high concentrations. D. m. wrigleyi demonstrated a greater olfactory preference for anisole, butanoic acid, 2-heptanone, and palmitic acid than did D. m. sonorensis, while D. m. sonorensis demonstrated a greater preference for hexadecane, octanoic acid, and oleic acid than did D. m. wrigleyi.

  4. Phenotypic plasticity in Drosophila cactophilic species: the effect of competition, density and breeding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanara, Juan Jose; Werenkraut, Victoria

    2016-04-09

    Changes in the environmental conditions experienced by naturally occurring populations are frequently accompanied by changes in adaptive traits allowing the organism to cope with environmental unpredictability. Phenotypic plasticity is a major aspect of adaptation and it has been involved in population dynamics of interacting species. In this study, phenotypic plasticity (i.e., environmental sensitivity) of morphological adaptive traits were analyzed in the cactophilic species Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae (Diptera: Drosophilidae) considering the effect of crowding conditions (low and high density), type of competition (intraspecific and interspecific competition) and cacti hosts (Opuntia and Columnar cacti). All traits (wing length, wing width, thorax length, wing loading and wing aspect) showed significant variation for each environmental factor considered in both Drosophila species. The phenotypic plasticity pattern observed for each trait was different within and between these cactophilic Drosophila species depending on the environmental factor analyzed suggesting that body size-related traits respond almost independently to environmental heterogeneity. The effects of ecological factors analyzed in this study are discussed in order to elucidate the causal factors investigated (type of competition, crowding conditions and alternative host) affecting the election of the breeding site and/or the range of distribution of these cactophilic species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Delineation of Cis-Acting Sequences Required for Expression of Drosophila Mojavensis Adh-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, C. A.; Curtiss, S. W.; Weaver, J. A.; Sullivan, D. T.

    1992-01-01

    The control of expression of the Adh-1 gene of Drosophila mojavensis has been analyzed by transforming ADH null Drosophila melanogaster hosts with P element constructs which contain D. mojavensis Adh-1 having deletions of different extent in the 5' and 3' ends. Adh-1 expression in the D. melanogaster hosts is qualitatively similar to expression in D. mojavensis, although expression is quantitatively lower in transformants. Deletions of the 5' end indicate that information required for normal temporal and tissue expression in larvae is contained within 70 bp of the transcription start site. However, deletion constructs to -70 are deficient in ovarian nurse cell expression, whereas the additional upstream sequences present in constructs containing deletions to -257 do support expression in the ovary. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence in the -257 to -70 region of Adh-1 of four species: D. mojavensis and Drosophila arizona, which express Adh-1 in the ovary, and Drosophila mulleri and Drosophila navojoa, which do not, has led to the identification of regions of sequence similarity that correlate with ovary expression. One of these bears a striking similarity to a conserved sequence located upstream of the three heat shock genes that have constitutive ovarian expression and may be an ovarian control element. We have identified an aberrant aspect of Adh-1 expression. In transformants which carry an Adh-1 gene without a functional upstream Adh-2 gene Adh-1 expression continues into the adult stage instead of ceasing at the onset of metamorphosis. In transformants with a functional Adh-2 gene, Adh-1 expression ceases in the third larval instar stage and aberrant expression in the adult stage does not occur. PMID:1317314

  6. Comparative genomics: chromosome and gene evolution in two cactophilic Drosophila species, D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Las bases genéticas de la adaptación ecológica han sido investigadas durante muchos años mediante la exploración de regiones particulares del genoma tales como las reordenaciones cromosómicas, los polimorfismos morfológicos o las aloenzimas. El poder cada vez más apreciado de la genómica comparativa y el creciente número de genomas secuenciados ofrecen la oportunidad de comprender como se relacionan la evolución molecular, la adaptación y la variación fenotípica. Los cambios adaptativos han s...

  7. Divergence in olfactory host plant preference in D. mojavensis in response to cactus host use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Priya; Dweck, Hany K M; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S; Rollmann, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations.

  8. Flies across the water: genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation in allopatric desert Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markow, Therese A; Castrezana, Sergio; Pfeiler, Edward

    2002-03-01

    Between sister species of Drosophila, both pre- and postzygotic reproductive isolation commonly appear by the time a Nei's genetic distance of 0.5 is observed. The degree of genetic differentiation present when allopatric populations of the same Drosophila species exhibit incipient reproductive isolation has not been systematically investigated. Here we compare the relationship between genetic differentiation and pre- and postzygotic isolation among allopatric populations of three cactophilic desert Drosophila: D. mettleri, D. nigrospiracula, and D. mojavensis. The range of all three is interrupted by the Gulf of California, while two species, D. mettleri and D. mojavensis, have additional allopatric populations residing on distant Santa Catalina Island, off the coast of southern California. Significant population structure exists within all three species, but only for allopatric populations of D. mojavensis is significant isolation at the prezygotic level observed. The genetic distances for the relevant populations of D. mojavensis were in the range of 0.12, similar to that for D. mettleri whose greatest D = 0.11 was unassociated with any form of isolation. These observations suggest further investigations of Drosophila populations with genetic distances in this range be undertaken to identify any potential patterns in the relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of pre- and/or postzygotic isolation.

  9. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase after 2-propanol exposure in different geographic races of Drosophila mojavensis: lack of evidence for selection at the Adh-2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2005-03-15

    High frequencies of the fast allele of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (Adh-2F) are found in populations of Drosophila mojavensis that inhabit the Baja California peninsula (race BII) whereas the slow allele (Adh-2S) predominates at most other localities within the species' geographic range. Race BII flies utilize necrotic tissue of pitaya agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) which contains high levels of 2-propanol, whereas flies from most other localities utilize different cactus hosts in which 2-propanol levels are low. To test if 2-propanol acts as a selective force on Adh-2 genotype, or whether some other yet undetermined genetic factor is responsible, mature males of D. mojavensis lines derived from the Grand Canyon (race A) and Santa Catalina Island (race C), each with individuals homozygous for Adh-2F and Adh-2S, were exposed to 2-propanol for 24 h and ADH-2 specific activity was then determined on each genotype. Flies from five other localities homozygous for either the fast or slow allele also were examined. Results for all reported races of D. mojavensis were obtained. 2-propanol exposure inhibited ADH-2 specific activity in both genotypes from all localities, but inhibition was significantly less in two populations of race BII flies homozygous for Adh-2F. When F/F and S/S genotypes in flies from the same locality were compared, both genotypes showed high 2-propanol inhibition that was not statistically different, indicating that the F/F genotype alone does not provide a benefit against the inhibitory effects of 2-propanol. ADH-1 activity in female ovaries was inhibited less by 2-propanol than ADH-2. These results do not support the hypothesis that 2-propanol acts as a selective factor favoring the Adh-2F allele.

  10. Inter and intraspecific variation in female remating propensity in the cactophilic sibling species Drosophila buzzatii and D. koepferae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Juan; Hasson, Esteban

    2013-05-01

    Post-mating sexual selection by means of sperm competition or cryptic female choice occurs in species in which females remate before exhausting sperm supplied by previous mates. Thus, sperm competition is expected to be stronger when inseminated females remate more frequently or take longer to deplete sperm load. Previous studies comparing oviposition behavior in the pair of closely related species Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae suggest that inseminated females of the latter deplete sperm load more rapidly. Here, we investigate female remating in D. buzzatii and D. koepferae by studying how female remating propensity changes after mating. Our study reveals that, after mating, female D. buzzatii recovers receptivity 14 times faster and remate more frequently than D. koepferae. Thus, we argue that D. buzzatii exhibits greater chances that sperm from different mates meet inside the same female suggesting more complex post-mating interactions than in its sibling. In addition, our results show that there is intraspecific genetic variation for the duration of female refractory period in both species.

  11. Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

  12. Effects of temperature on transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon expression in ecologically differentiated populations of desert Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia C; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the effects of temperature differences on gene expression using whole-transcriptome microarrays and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. Four populations from Baja California and mainland Mexico and Arizona were each reared on two different host cacti, reared to sexual maturity on laboratory media, and adults were exposed for 12 hr to 15, 25, or 35°C. Temperature differences influenced the expression of 3,294 genes, while population differences and host plants affected >2,400 each in adult flies. Enriched, functionally related groups of genes whose expression changed at high temperatures included heat response genes, as well as genes affecting chromatin structure. Gene expression differences between mainland and peninsular populations included genes involved in metabolism of secondary compounds, mitochondrial activity, and tRNA synthases. Flies reared on the ancestral host plant, pitaya agria cactus, showed upregulation of genes involved in metabolism, while flies reared on organ pipe cactus had higher expression of DNA repair and chromatin remodeling genes. Population × environment (G × E) interactions had widespread effects on the transcriptome where population × temperature interactions affected the expression of >5,000 orthologs, and there were >4,000 orthologs that showed temperature × host plant interactions. Adults exposed to 35°C had lower amounts of most cuticular hydrocarbons than those exposed to 15 or 25°C, including abundant unsaturated alkadienes. For insects adapted to different host plants and climatic regimes, our results suggest that temperature shifts associated with climate change have large and significant effects on transcriptomes of genetically differentiated natural populations.

  13. Early events in speciation: polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2004-06-15

    Capturing the process of speciation early enough to determine the initial genetic causes of reproductive isolation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We have found, to our knowledge, the first example of substantial intraspecific polymorphism for genetic factors contributing to hybrid male sterility. Specifically, we show that the occurrence of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila arizonae, is controlled by factors present at different frequencies in different populations of D. mojavensis. In addition, we show that hybrid male sterility is a complex phenotype; some hybrid males with motile sperm still cannot sire offspring. Because male sterility factors in hybrids between these species are not yet fixed within D. mojavensis, this system provides an invaluable opportunity to characterize the genetics of reproductive isolation at an early stage.

  14. Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Andrew G.; Pachter, Lior

    2007-01-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimilis, willistoni, mojavensis, virilis and grimshawi), illustrate how rates and patterns of sequence divergence across taxa can illumin...

  15. Tolerance and bioaccumulation of U(VI) by Bacillus mojavensis and its solid phase preconcentration by Bacillus mojavensis immobilized multiwalled carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Sadin; Oduncu, M Kadir; Kilinc, Ersin; Soylak, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    In this study, uranium(VI) tolerance and bioaccumulation were investigated by using thermo -tolerant Bacillus mojavensis. The level of U(VI) was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of U(VI) was experimented. Bacterial growth was not affected in the presence of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L U(VI) at 36 h and the growth was partially affected in the presence of 5 mg/L U(VI) at 24 h. What was obtained from this study is that there was diversity in the various periods of the growth phases of metal bioaccumulation capacity, which was shown by B. mojavensis. The maximum bioaccumulation capacities were found to be 12.8, 22.7, and 48.2 mg/g dried bacteria, at 24th hours at concentration of 1.0, 2.5 and 5 mg/L U(VI), respectively. In addition to these, U(VI) has been preconcentrated on B. mojavensis immobilized MWCNT. Several factors such as pH, flow rate of solution, amount of biosorbent and support materials, eluent type, concentration and volume, the matrix interference effect on retention have been studied, and extraction conditions were optimized. Preconcentration factor was achieved as 60. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were calculated as 0.74 and 2.47 μg/L. The biosorption capacity of immobilized B. mojavensis was calculated for U(VI) as 25.8 mg/g. The results demonstrated that the immobilized biosorbent column could be reused at least 30 cycles of biosorption and desorption with the higher than 95% recovery. FT-IR and SEM analysis were performed to understand the surface properties of B. mojavensis.

  16. Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew G; Eisen, Michael B; Smith, Douglas R; Bergman, Casey M; Oliver, Brian; Markow, Therese A; Kaufman, Thomas C; Kellis, Manolis; Gelbart, William; Iyer, Venky N; Pollard, Daniel A; Sackton, Timothy B; Larracuente, Amanda M; Singh, Nadia D; Abad, Jose P; Abt, Dawn N; Adryan, Boris; Aguade, Montserrat; Akashi, Hiroshi; Anderson, Wyatt W; Aquadro, Charles F; Ardell, David H; Arguello, Roman; Artieri, Carlo G; Barbash, Daniel A; Barker, Daniel; Barsanti, Paolo; Batterham, Phil; Batzoglou, Serafim; Begun, Dave; Bhutkar, Arjun; Blanco, Enrico; Bosak, Stephanie A; Bradley, Robert K; Brand, Adrianne D; Brent, Michael R; Brooks, Angela N; Brown, Randall H; Butlin, Roger K; Caggese, Corrado; Calvi, Brian R; Bernardo de Carvalho, A; Caspi, Anat; Castrezana, Sergio; Celniker, Susan E; Chang, Jean L; Chapple, Charles; Chatterji, Sourav; Chinwalla, Asif; Civetta, Alberto; Clifton, Sandra W; Comeron, Josep M; Costello, James C; Coyne, Jerry A; Daub, Jennifer; David, Robert G; Delcher, Arthur L; Delehaunty, Kim; Do, Chuong B; Ebling, Heather; Edwards, Kevin; Eickbush, Thomas; Evans, Jay D; Filipski, Alan; Findeiss, Sven; Freyhult, Eva; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Garcia, Ana C L; Gardiner, Anastasia; Garfield, David A; Garvin, Barry E; Gibson, Greg; Gilbert, Don; Gnerre, Sante; Godfrey, Jennifer; Good, Robert; Gotea, Valer; Gravely, Brenton; Greenberg, Anthony J; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Gross, Samuel; Guigo, Roderic; Gustafson, Erik A; Haerty, Wilfried; Hahn, Matthew W; Halligan, Daniel L; Halpern, Aaron L; Halter, Gillian M; Han, Mira V; Heger, Andreas; Hillier, LaDeana; Hinrichs, Angie S; Holmes, Ian; Hoskins, Roger A; Hubisz, Melissa J; Hultmark, Dan; Huntley, Melanie A; Jaffe, David B; Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Jeck, William R; Johnson, Justin; Jones, Corbin D; Jordan, William C; Karpen, Gary H; Kataoka, Eiko; Keightley, Peter D; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kirkness, Ewen F; Koerich, Leonardo B; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kudrna, Dave; Kulathinal, Rob J; Kumar, Sudhir; Kwok, Roberta; Lander, Eric; Langley, Charles H; Lapoint, Richard; Lazzaro, Brian P; Lee, So-Jeong; Levesque, Lisa; Li, Ruiqiang; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Lin, Michael F; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Llopart, Ana; Long, Manyuan; Low, Lloyd; Lozovsky, Elena; Lu, Jian; Luo, Meizhong; Machado, Carlos A; Makalowski, Wojciech; Marzo, Mar; Matsuda, Muneo; Matzkin, Luciano; McAllister, Bryant; McBride, Carolyn S; McKernan, Brendan; McKernan, Kevin; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Minx, Patrick; Mollenhauer, Michael U; Montooth, Kristi; Mount, Stephen M; Mu, Xu; Myers, Eugene; Negre, Barbara; Newfeld, Stuart; Nielsen, Rasmus; Noor, Mohamed A F; O'Grady, Patrick; Pachter, Lior; Papaceit, Montserrat; Parisi, Matthew J; Parisi, Michael; Parts, Leopold; Pedersen, Jakob S; Pesole, Graziano; Phillippy, Adam M; Ponting, Chris P; Pop, Mihai; Porcelli, Damiano; Powell, Jeffrey R; Prohaska, Sonja; Pruitt, Kim; Puig, Marta; Quesneville, Hadi; Ram, Kristipati Ravi; Rand, David; Rasmussen, Matthew D; Reed, Laura K; Reenan, Robert; Reily, Amy; Remington, Karin A; Rieger, Tania T; Ritchie, Michael G; Robin, Charles; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Rohde, Claudia; Rozas, Julio; Rubenfield, Marc J; Ruiz, Alfredo; Russo, Susan; Salzberg, Steven L; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Saranga, David J; Sato, Hajime; Schaeffer, Stephen W; Schatz, Michael C; Schlenke, Todd; Schwartz, Russell; Segarra, Carmen; Singh, Rama S; Sirot, Laura; Sirota, Marina; Sisneros, Nicholas B; Smith, Chris D; Smith, Temple F; Spieth, John; Stage, Deborah E; Stark, Alexander; Stephan, Wolfgang; Strausberg, Robert L; Strempel, Sebastian; Sturgill, David; Sutton, Granger; Sutton, Granger G; Tao, Wei; Teichmann, Sarah; Tobari, Yoshiko N; Tomimura, Yoshihiko; Tsolas, Jason M; Valente, Vera L S; Venter, Eli; Venter, J Craig; Vicario, Saverio; Vieira, Filipe G; Vilella, Albert J; Villasante, Alfredo; Walenz, Brian; Wang, Jun; Wasserman, Marvin; Watts, Thomas; Wilson, Derek; Wilson, Richard K; Wing, Rod A; Wolfner, Mariana F; Wong, Alex; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wu, Chung-I; Wu, Gabriel; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yang, Hsiao-Pei; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Yorke, James A; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Zhang, Peili; Zhang, Yu; Zimin, Aleksey V; Baldwin, Jennifer; Abdouelleil, Amr; Abdulkadir, Jamal; Abebe, Adal; Abera, Brikti; Abreu, Justin; Acer, St Christophe; Aftuck, Lynne; Alexander, Allen; An, Peter; Anderson, Erica; Anderson, Scott; Arachi, Harindra; Azer, Marc; Bachantsang, Pasang; Barry, Andrew; Bayul, Tashi; Berlin, Aaron; Bessette, Daniel; Bloom, Toby; Blye, Jason; Boguslavskiy, Leonid; Bonnet, Claude; Boukhgalter, Boris; Bourzgui, Imane; Brown, Adam; Cahill, Patrick; Channer, Sheridon; Cheshatsang, Yama; Chuda, Lisa; Citroen, Mieke; Collymore, Alville; Cooke, Patrick; Costello, Maura; D'Aco, Katie; Daza, Riza; De Haan, Georgius; DeGray, Stuart; DeMaso, Christina; Dhargay, Norbu; Dooley, Kimberly; Dooley, Erin; Doricent, Missole; Dorje, Passang; Dorjee, Kunsang; Dupes, Alan; Elong, Richard; Falk, Jill; Farina, Abderrahim; Faro, Susan; Ferguson, Diallo; Fisher, Sheila; Foley, Chelsea D; Franke, Alicia; Friedrich, Dennis; Gadbois, Loryn; Gearin, Gary; Gearin, Christina R; Giannoukos, Georgia; Goode, Tina; Graham, Joseph; Grandbois, Edward; Grewal, Sharleen; Gyaltsen, Kunsang; Hafez, Nabil; Hagos, Birhane; Hall, Jennifer; Henson, Charlotte; Hollinger, Andrew; Honan, Tracey; Huard, Monika D; Hughes, Leanne; Hurhula, Brian; Husby, M Erii; Kamat, Asha; Kanga, Ben; Kashin, Seva; Khazanovich, Dmitry; Kisner, Peter; Lance, Krista; Lara, Marcia; Lee, William; Lennon, Niall; Letendre, Frances; LeVine, Rosie; Lipovsky, Alex; Liu, Xiaohong; Liu, Jinlei; Liu, Shangtao; Lokyitsang, Tashi; Lokyitsang, Yeshi; Lubonja, Rakela; Lui, Annie; MacDonald, Pen; Magnisalis, Vasilia; Maru, Kebede; Matthews, Charles; McCusker, William; McDonough, Susan; Mehta, Teena; Meldrim, James; Meneus, Louis; Mihai, Oana; Mihalev, Atanas; Mihova, Tanya; Mittelman, Rachel; Mlenga, Valentine; Montmayeur, Anna; Mulrain, Leonidas; Navidi, Adam; Naylor, Jerome; Negash, Tamrat; Nguyen, Thu; Nguyen, Nga; Nicol, Robert; Norbu, Choe; Norbu, Nyima; Novod, Nathaniel; O'Neill, Barry; Osman, Sahal; Markiewicz, Eva; Oyono, Otero L; Patti, Christopher; Phunkhang, Pema; Pierre, Fritz; Priest, Margaret; Raghuraman, Sujaa; Rege, Filip; Reyes, Rebecca; Rise, Cecil; Rogov, Peter; Ross, Keenan; Ryan, Elizabeth; Settipalli, Sampath; Shea, Terry; Sherpa, Ngawang; Shi, Lu; Shih, Diana; Sparrow, Todd; Spaulding, Jessica; Stalker, John; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Stavropoulos, Sharon; Stone, Catherine; Strader, Christopher; Tesfaye, Senait; Thomson, Talene; Thoulutsang, Yama; Thoulutsang, Dawa; Topham, Kerri; Topping, Ira; Tsamla, Tsamla; Vassiliev, Helen; Vo, Andy; Wangchuk, Tsering; Wangdi, Tsering; Weiand, Michael; Wilkinson, Jane; Wilson, Adam; Yadav, Shailendra; Young, Geneva; Yu, Qing; Zembek, Lisa; Zhong, Danni; Zimmer, Andrew; Zwirko, Zac; Jaffe, David B; Alvarez, Pablo; Brockman, Will; Butler, Jonathan; Chin, CheeWhye; Gnerre, Sante; Grabherr, Manfred; Kleber, Michael; Mauceli, Evan; MacCallum, Iain

    2007-11-08

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimilis, willistoni, mojavensis, virilis and grimshawi), illustrate how rates and patterns of sequence divergence across taxa can illuminate evolutionary processes on a genomic scale. These genome sequences augment the formidable genetic tools that have made Drosophila melanogaster a pre-eminent model for animal genetics, and will further catalyse fundamental research on mechanisms of development, cell biology, genetics, disease, neurobiology, behaviour, physiology and evolution. Despite remarkable similarities among these Drosophila species, we identified many putatively non-neutral changes in protein-coding genes, non-coding RNA genes, and cis-regulatory regions. These may prove to underlie differences in the ecology and behaviour of these diverse species.

  17. He said, she said: mRNA sequencing identifies specificity in metabolic response to Bacillus mojavensis lipopeptides in Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a mycotoxigenic fungus capable of both pathogenic and asymptomatic endophytic lifestyles in maize; such intimate association renders efficient chemical control cost-prohibitive. Bacillus mojavensis RRC101 is a maize endophyte demonstrating both in vitro antagonism of F. v...

  18. A divergent P element and its associated MITE, BuT5, generate chromosomal inversions and are widespread within the Drosophila repleta species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Nuria; Delprat, Alejandra; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The transposon BuT5 caused two chromosomal inversions fixed in two Drosophila species of the repleta group, D. mojavensis and D. uniseta. BuT5 copies are approximately 1-kb long, lack any coding capacity, and do not resemble any other transposable element (TE). Because of its elusive features, BuT5 has remained unclassified to date. To fully characterize BuT5, we carried out bioinformatic similarity searches in available sequenced genomes, including 21 Drosophila species. Significant hits were only recovered for D. mojavensis genome, where 48 copies were retrieved, 22 of them approximately 1-kb long. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot analyses on 54 Drosophila species showed that BuT5 is homogeneous in size and has a widespread distribution within the repleta group. Thus, BuT5 can be considered as a miniature inverted-repeat TE. A detailed analysis of the BuT5 hits in D. mojavensis revealed three partial copies of a transposon with ends very similar to BuT5 and a P-element-like transposase-encoding region in between. A putatively autonomous copy of this P element was isolated by PCR from D. buzzatii. This copy is 3,386-bp long and possesses a seven-exon gene coding for an 822-aa transposase. Exon-intron boundaries were confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR experiments. A phylogenetic tree built with insect P superfamily transposases showed that the D. buzzatii P element belongs to an early diverging lineage within the P-element family. This divergent P element is likely the master transposon mobilizing BuT5. The BuT5/P element partnership probably dates back approximately 16 Ma and is the ultimate responsible for the generation of the two chromosomal inversions in the Drosophila repleta species group.

  19. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; Reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617**T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618**T. Compara...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (<0.016 mN/m) (8) (9). B. mojavensis JF-2 grows under the environmental conditions found in many oil reservoirs, i. e., anaerobic, NaCl concentrations up to 80 g l{sup -1}, and temperatures up to 45 C (6, 7), making it ideally suited for in situ applications. However, anaerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 was inconsistent and difficult to replicate, which limited its use for in situ applications. Our initial studies revealed that enzymatic digests, such as Proteose Peptone, were required for anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2. Subsequent purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose Peptone resulted in the identification of the growth-enhancing factor as DNA or deoxyribonucleosides. The addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required

  1. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.

  2. Production and characterization of Iturinic lipopeptides as antifungal agents and biosurfactants produced by a marine pinctada martensii-derived Bacillus mojavensis B0621A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zongwang; Hu, Jiangchun

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus mojavensis B0621A was isolated from a pearl oyster Pinctada martensii collected from South China Sea. While screening for cyclic lipopeptides potentially useful as lead compounds for biological control against soil-bone fungal plant pathogens, three lipopeptides were isolated and purified from the fermentation broth of B. mojavensis B0621A via vacuum flash chromatography coupled with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The structural characterization and identification of these cyclic lipopeptides were performed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis as well as chemical degradation. These lipopeptides were finally characterized as homologues of mojavensins, which contained identical amino acids back bones of asparagine1, tyrosine2, asparagine3, glutamine4, proline5, asparagine6, and asparagine7 and differed from each other by their saturated β-amino fatty acid chain residues, namely, iso-C14 mojavensin, iso-C16 mojavensin, and anteiso-C17 mojavensin, respectively. All lipopeptide isomers, especially iso-C16 mojavensin and anteiso-C17 mojavensin, displayed moderate antagonism and dose-dependent activity against several formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum and presented surface tension activities. These properties demonstrated that the lipopeptides produced by B. mojavensis B0621A may be useful as biological control agent to fungal plant pathogens.

  3. The Foldback-like element Galileo belongs to the P superfamily of DNA transposons and is widespread within the Drosophila genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Mar; Puig, Marta; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2008-02-26

    Galileo is the only transposable element (TE) known to have generated natural chromosomal inversions in the genus Drosophila. It was discovered in Drosophila buzzatii and classified as a Foldback-like element because of its long, internally repetitive, terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) and lack of coding capacity. Here, we characterized a seemingly complete copy of Galileo from the D. buzzatii genome. It is 5,406 bp long, possesses 1,229-bp TIRs, and encodes a 912-aa transposase similar to those of the Drosophila melanogaster 1360 (Hoppel) and P elements. We also searched the recently available genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species for elements similar to Dbuz\\Galileo by using bioinformatic tools. Galileo was found in six species (ananassae, willistoni, peudoobscura, persimilis, virilis, and mojavensis) from the two main lineages within the Drosophila genus. Our observations place Galileo within the P superfamily of cut-and-paste transposons and extend considerably its phylogenetic distribution. The interspecific distribution of Galileo indicates an ancient presence in the genus, but the phylogenetic tree built with the transposase amino acid sequences contrasts significantly with that of the species, indicating lineage sorting and/or horizontal transfer events. Our results also suggest that Foldback-like elements such as Galileo may evolve from DNA-based transposon ancestors by loss of the transposase gene and disproportionate elongation of TIRs.

  4. Differences in tolerance to host cactus alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ignacio M; Carreira, Valeria P; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group.

  5. Assessment of pectinase production by Bacillus mojavensis I4 using an economical substrate and its potential application in oil sesame extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazala, Imen; Sayari, Nadhem; Romdhane, Molka Ben; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Haddar, Anissa

    2015-12-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) peels, local agricultural waste product, is rich in lignocellulolytic material, including pectin which can act as an inducer of pectinase production. Pectinolytic enzymes production by Bacillus mojavensis I4 was studied in liquid state fermentation using carrot peel as a substrate. Medium composition and culture conditions for the pectinase production by I4 were optimized using two statistical methods: Taguchi design was applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield of enzyme production and The Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the value of the four significant variables: carrot peels powder, NH4Cl, inoculum size and incubation time. The optimal conditions for higher production of pectinase were carrot peels powder 6.5 %, NH4Cl 0.3 %, inoculum level 3 % and cultivation time 32 h. Under these conditions, the pectinase experimental yield (64.8 U/ml) closely matched the yield predicted by the statistical model (63.55 U/ml) with R (2) = 0.963. The best pectinase activity was observed at the temperature of 60 °C and at pH 8.0. The enzyme retained more than 90 % of its activity after 24 h at pH ranging from 6.0 to 10.0. The enzyme preserved more than 85 % of its initial activity after 60 min of pre-incubation at 30-40 °C and more than 67 % at 50 °C. The extracellular juice of I4 was applied in the process of sesame seeds oil extraction. An improvement of 3 % on the oil yield was obtained. The findings demonstrated that the B. mojavensis I4 has a promising potential for future use in a wide range of industrial and biotechnological applications.

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of the LTR retrotransposons roo and rooA inferred from twelve complete Drosophila genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Chaux Nicole

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roo is the most abundant retrotransposon in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Its evolutionary origins and dynamics are thus of special interest for understanding the evolutionary history of Drosophila genome organization. We here study the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of roo, and its highly diverged relative rooA in 12 completely sequenced genomes of the genus Drosophila. Results We identify a total of 164 roo copies, 57 of which were previously unidentified copies that occur in 9 of the 12 genomes. Additionally we find 66 rooA copies in four genomes and remnants of this element in two additional genomes. We further increased the number of elements by searching for individual roo/rooA sequence domains. Most of our roo and rooA elements have been recently inserted. Most elements within a genome are highly similar. A comparison of the phylogenetic tree of our roo and rooA elements shows that the split between roo and rooA took place early in Drosophila evolution. Furthermore there is one incongruency between the species tree and the phylogenetic tree of the roo element. This incongruency regards the placement of elements from D. mojavensis, which are more closely related to D. melanogaster than elements from D. willistoni. Conclusion Within genomes, the evolutionary dynamics of roo and rooA range from recent transpositional activity to slow decay and extinction. Among genomes, the balance of phylogenetic evidence, sequence divergence distribution, and the occurrence of solo-LTR elements suggests an origin of roo/rooA within the Drosophila clade. We discuss the possibility of a horizontal gene transfer of roo within this clade.

  7. 一株抗马铃薯坏疽病莫海威芽孢杆菌(Bacillus mojavensis ZA1)培养条件的优化%Optimization of culture conditions of a biocontrol agent Bacillus mojavensis ZA1 to antagonize Phoma foveata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯中红; 畅涛; 杨成德; 薛莉; 李旭; 杨小利

    2016-01-01

    为了提高生防菌株莫海威芽孢杆菌(Bacillus mojavensis ZA1)液体发酵的生物量,利用单因素试验设计与响应曲面试验设计相结合的方法对 ZA1摇瓶发酵条件进行了优化。结果表明,ZA1的最佳培养基配比为氯化铵14.25 g、玉米粉19 g、马铃薯237 g、水1000 mL,最佳发酵条件为 pH 7.7、培养温度28℃、转速180 r/min 及发酵时间36 h,ZA1优化后活菌数为4.12×1010 CFU/mL。通过中心组合试验设计确定 ZA1在10 L 发酵罐中的最佳溶氧量为60%和转速为180 r/min;最优条件下,发酵 ZA1的放罐时间确定为36 h,活菌数达到1.59×1011 CFU/mL。该结果为利用 ZA1开发生防制剂奠定了基础。%This work aimed to identify optimum fermentation shaker-flask culture conditions for Bacillus mo-javensis strain ZA1.Various single culture factors were combined according to a Box-Behnken design.The op-timum ratio of ingredients for the culture medium for ZA1was found to be:14.25 g ammonium chloride,19 g corn flour,and 237 g potato,in 1000 mL distilled water.The optimum cultivation conditions were pH 7.7, temperature 28℃,and shaken at 180 r/min for 36 h.Under these conditions,the viable count of B .mojavens-is strain ZA1 was 4.12×10 10 colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL).Further testing using the central com-posite design method in a 10 L fermentation tank found the optimum for dissolved oxygen level and shaker rota-tion speed to be 60% saturation and 180 r/min respectively.Under these conditions,when fermentation time was 36 h in the fermentation tank,the viable count of B .mojavensis strain ZA1 reached 1.59×10 11 CFU/mL. The results of this study lay a solid foundation for the development of methodology for large scale production of biocontrol agents.

  8. Identification of misexpressed genetic elements in hybrids between Drosophila-related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Maestre, Hélène; Carnelossi, Elias A. G.; Lacroix, Vincent; Burlet, Nelly; Mugat, Bruno; Chambeyron, Séverine; Carareto, Claudia M. A.; Vieira, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Crosses between close species can lead to genomic disorders, often considered to be the cause of hybrid incompatibility, one of the initial steps in the speciation process. How these incompatibilities are established and what are their causes remain unclear. To understand the initiation of hybrid incompatibility, we performed reciprocal crosses between two species of Drosophila (D. mojavensis and D. arizonae) that diverged less than 1 Mya. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis on ovaries from parental lines and on hybrids from reciprocal crosses. Using an innovative procedure of co-assembling transcriptomes, we show that parental lines differ in the expression of their genes and transposable elements. Reciprocal hybrids presented specific gene categories and few transposable element families misexpressed relative to the parental lines. Because TEs are mainly silenced by piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), we hypothesize that in hybrids the deregulation of specific TE families is due to the absence of such small RNAs. Small RNA sequencing confirmed our hypothesis and we therefore propose that TEs can indeed be major players of genome differentiation and be implicated in the first steps of genomic incompatibilities through small RNA regulation. PMID:28091568

  9. Characterization of new hAT transposable elements in 12 Drosophila genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Ortiz, Mauro; Loreto, Elgion Lucio Silva

    2009-01-01

    In silico searches for sequences homologous to hAT elements in 12 Drosophila genomes have allowed us to identify 37 new hAT elements (8 in D. ananassae, 11 in D. mojavensis, 2 in D. sechellia, 1 in D. simulans, 2 in D. virilis, 3 in D. yakuba, 3 in D. persimilis, 1 in D. grimshawi, 5 in D. willistoni and 1 in D. pseudobscura). The size of these elements varies from 2,359 to 4,962 bp and the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) show lengths ranging from 10 to 24 bp. Several elements show intact transposase ORFs, suggesting that they are active. Conserved amino acid motifs were identified that correspond to those important for transposase activity. These elements are highly variable and phylogenetic analysis showed that they can be clustered into four different families. Incongruencies were observed between the phylogenies of the transposable elements and those of their hosts, suggesting that horizontal transfer may have occurred between some of the species.

  10. Drosophila embryogenesis scales uniformly across temperature in developmentally diverse species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Kuntz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects both the timing and outcome of animal development, but the detailed effects of temperature on the progress of early development have been poorly characterized. To determine the impact of temperature on the order and timing of events during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis, we used time-lapse imaging to track the progress of embryos from shortly after egg laying through hatching at seven precisely maintained temperatures between 17.5 °C and 32.5 °C. We employed a combination of automated and manual annotation to determine when 36 milestones occurred in each embryo. D. melanogaster embryogenesis takes [Formula: see text]33 hours at 17.5 °C, and accelerates with increasing temperature to a low of 16 hours at 27.5 °C, above which embryogenesis slows slightly. Remarkably, while the total time of embryogenesis varies over two fold, the relative timing of events from cellularization through hatching is constant across temperatures. To further explore the relationship between temperature and embryogenesis, we expanded our analysis to cover ten additional Drosophila species of varying climatic origins. Six of these species, like D. melanogaster, are of tropical origin, and embryogenesis time at different temperatures was similar for them all. D. mojavensis, a sub-tropical fly, develops slower than the tropical species at lower temperatures, while D. virilis, a temperate fly, exhibits slower development at all temperatures. The alpine sister species D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura develop as rapidly as tropical flies at cooler temperatures, but exhibit diminished acceleration above 22.5 °C and have drastically slowed development by 30 °C. Despite ranging from 13 hours for D. erecta at 30 °C to 46 hours for D. virilis at 17.5 °C, the relative timing of events from cellularization through hatching is constant across all species and temperatures examined here, suggesting the existence of a previously unrecognized timer

  11. Adult Neurogenesis in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Fernández-Hernández; Christa Rhiner; Eduardo Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been linked to several cognitive functions and neurological disorders. Description of adult neurogenesis in a model organism like Drosophila could facilitate the genetic study of normal and abnormal neurogenesis in the adult brain. So far, formation of new neurons has not been detected in adult fly brains and hence has been thought to be absent in Drosophila. Here, we used an improved lineage-labeling method to show that, surprisingly, adult neurogenesis occurs in the m...

  12. Ecologically relevant stress resistance: from microarrays and quantitative trait loci to candidate genes – A research plan and preliminary results using Drosophila as a model organism and climatic and genetic stress as model stresses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volker Loeschcke; Jesper G Sørensen; Torsten N Kristensen

    2004-12-01

    We aim at studying adaptation to genetic and environmental stress and its evolutionary implications at different levels of biological organization. Stress influences cellular processes, individual physiology, genetic variation at the population level, and the process of natural selection. To investigate these highly connected levels of stress effects, it is advisable – if not critical – to integrate approaches from ecology, evolution, physiology, molecular biology and genetics. To investigate the mechanisms of stress resistance, how resistance evolves, and what factors contribute to and constrain its evolution, we use the well-defined model systems of Drosophila species, representing both cosmopolitan species such as D. melanogaster with a known genome map, and more specialized and ecologically well described species such as the cactophilic D. buzzatii. Various climate-related stresses are used as model stresses including desiccation, starvation, cold and heat. Genetic stress or genetic load is modelled by studying the consequences of inbreeding, the accumulation of (slightly) deleterious mutations, hybridization or the loss of genetic variability. We present here a research plan and preliminary results combining various approaches: molecular techniques such as microarrays, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses, quantitative PCR, ELISA or Western blotting are combined with population studies of resistance to climatic and genetic stress in natural populations collected across climatic gradients as well as in selection lines maintained in the laboratory.

  13. BMAA neurotoxicity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianchong; Escala, Wilfredo; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon; Bradley, Walter G; Zhai, R Grace

    2009-01-01

    We report the establishment of an in vivo model using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the toxic effects of L-BMAA. We found that dietary intake of BMAA reduced the lifespan as well as the neurological functions of flies. Furthermore, we have developed an HPLC method to reliably detect both free and protein-bound BMAA in fly tissue extracts.

  14. Cancer in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herranz, Héctor; Eichenlaub, Teresa; Cohen, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Cancer genomics has greatly increased our understanding of the complexity of the genetic and epigenetic changes found in human tumors. Understanding the functional relationships among these elements calls for the use of flexible genetic models. We discuss the use of Drosophila models to study...

  15. Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties Over 40 Million Years of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E. J.; Machone, Joshua F.; Patterson, Seantay D.; Price, Amber L.; Turner, Bryce A.; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K.; McCartha, Shannon R.; Walji, Tezin A.; Walker, Chelsea A.; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K.; Armstrong, Andrew R.; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J.; Barberi, Chelsea R.; Beck, Lauren R.; Blaker, Amanda L.; Blunden, Christopher E.; Brand, Jordan P.; Brock, Ethan J.; Brooks, Dana W.; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C.; Clark, Eric M.; Clark, Nicole B.; Collins, Ashley A.; Cotteleer, Rebecca J.; Cullimore, Peterson R.; Dawson, Seth G.; Docking, Carter T.; Dorsett, Sasha L.; Dougherty, Grace A.; Downey, Kaitlyn A.; Drake, Andrew P.; Earl, Erica K.; Floyd, Trevor G.; Forsyth, Joshua D.; Foust, Jonathan D.; Franchi, Spencer L.; Geary, James F.; Hanson, Cynthia K.; Harding, Taylor S.; Harris, Cameron B.; Heckman, Jonathan M.; Holderness, Heather L.; Howey, Nicole A.; Jacobs, Dontae A.; Jewell, Elizabeth S.; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A.; Kehoe, James L.; Koaches, Hannah C.; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J.; Kus, Jordan E.; Lammers, Jennifer A.; Leads, Rachel R.; Leatherman, Emily C.; Lippert, Rachel N.; Messenger, Gregory S.; Morrow, Adam T.; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J.; Potocny, Stephanie J.; Powers, Michelle K.; Reem, Rachel M.; Rennhack, Jonathan P.; Reynolds, Katherine R.; Reynolds, Lyndsey A.; Rhee, Dong K.; Rivard, Allyson B.; Ronk, Adam J.; Rooney, Meghan B.; Rubin, Lainey S.; Salbert, Luke R.; Saluja, Rasleen K.; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R.; Schulz, Robert W.; Smith, Karl E.; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R.; Tache, Melissa A.; Tewilliager, Ashley A.; Tilot, Amanda K.; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M.; Vylonis, Megan B.; Watson, David T.; Wurzler, Juliana A.; Wysocki, Lauren M.; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A.; Emerson, Julia A.; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J.; DiLorenzo, Lauren A.; Goeller, Katie L.; Macchi, Christopher R.; Muller, Sarah E.; Pasierb, Brittany D.; Sable, Joseph E.; Tucci, Jessica M.; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A.; Beken, Levent H.; Conturso, Alaina C.; Danner, Benjamin L.; DeMichele, Gabriella A.; Gonzales, Justin A.; Hammond, Maureen S.; Kelley, Colleen V.; Kelly, Elisabeth A.; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M.; McCabe, Nikie L.; Newman, Alyssa M.; Spaeder, Lindsay A.; Tumminello, Richard A.; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M.; Cristostomo, Michael C.; DaSilva, Paolo A.; Harker, Katherine S.; Jarrell, Jenifer N.; Jimenez, Luis A.; Katz, Brandon M.; Kennedy, William R.; Kolibas, Kimberly S.; LeBlanc, Mark T.; Nguyen, Trung T.; Nicolas, Daniel S.; Patao, Melissa D.; Patao, Shane M.; Rupley, Bryan J.; Sessions, Bridget J.; Weaver, Jennifer A.; Goodman, Anya L.; Alvendia, Erica L.; Baldassari, Shana M.; Brown, Ashley S.; Chase, Ian O.; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B.; Custer, Ashley F.; DiTommaso, Tia M.; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C.; Grove, Ryan A.; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S.; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L.; Hopkins, Barbara L.; Huerta, Vilma F.; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M.; Lee, Cassidy T.; Lewis, Benjamin M.; Lydon, Anniken M.; Maniaci, Brian J.; Mitchell, Ryan D.; Morlock, Elaine V.; Morris, William M.; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C.; Osterloh, Jeannette M.; Perez, Marcos A.; Presley, Jonathan D.; Randazzo, Matt J.; Regan, Melanie K.; Rossi, Franca G.; Smith, Melanie A.; Soliterman, Eugenia A.; Sparks, Ciani J.; Tran, Danny L.; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A.; Wong, Jeremy N.; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J.; Hoogewerf, Arlene J.; Ackerman, Cheri M.; Armistead, Isaac O.; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J.; Brouwer, Lindsay K.; Burkhart, Brandon J.; Bushhouse, Kelsey T.; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y. Y.; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M.; Darusz, Jess M.; Dauphin, Cory M.; Davis, Yelena P.; Diekema, Emily J.; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E. M.; Faber, Hayley M.; Faber, Katherine J.; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T.; Hammond, Brandy L.; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R.; Hilbrands, Julia A.; Howell, Emily J.; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A.; Jelsema, Timothy R.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Jones, Kelly K.; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D.; Menyes, Erika E.; Nollet, Eric A.; Plescher, Brittany E.; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L.; Schepers, Allison J.; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R.; Sterling, Allison M.; Tenney, Jenna C.; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E.; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P.; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K.; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A.; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E.; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R.; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I.; Boudoures, Anna L.; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S.; French, Kristin M.; Gill, Ishwar S.; Havill, Jessen T.; Johnson, Jaelyn L.; Keny, Lauren J.; Kerber, John M.; Klett, Bethany M.; Kufel, Christina N.; May, Francis J.; Mecoli, Jonathan P.; Merry, Callie R.; Meyer, Lauren R.; Miller, Emily G.; Mullen, Gregory J.; Palozola, Katherine C.; Pfeil, Jacob J.; Thomas, Jessica G.; Verbofsky, Evan M.; Spana, Eric P.; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I.N.; Fitzgibbons, John D.; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J.; Knouse, Kristin A.; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S.; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W.; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D.; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U.; Shuen, Jessica A.; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q.; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Burg, Martin G.; Adams, Stephanie J.; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E.; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Robertson, Gregory M.; Smith, Samuel I.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Sassu, Eric D.; Bhalla, Satish C.; Sharif, Karim A.; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S.; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Davis, Kristen C.; Dunham, Carrie A.; Grantham, Alaina J.; Hare, Amber N.; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Yu, Nicole S.; Kaehler, Marian M.; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A.; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Alica B.; Anderson, John E.; Barnett, Jason M.; Baumgardner, Jordan S.; Brown, Adam D.; Carney, Jordan E.; Chavez, Ramiro A.; Christgen, Shelbi L.; Christie, Jordan S.; Clary, Andrea N.; Conn, Michel A.; Cooper, Kristen M.; Crowley, Matt J.; Crowley, Samuel T.; Doty, Jennifer S.; Dow, Brian A.; Edwards, Curtis R.; Elder, Darcie D.; Fanning, John P.; Janssen, Bridget M.; Lambright, Anthony K.; Lane, Curtiss E.; Limle, Austin B.; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R.; McDonough, Alexa M.; Melton, Amy D.; Minnick, Phillip J.; Musick, Adam E.; Newhart, William H.; Noynaert, Joseph W.; Ogden, Bradley J.; Sandusky, Michael W.; Schmuecker, Samantha M.; Shipman, Anna L.; Smith, Anna L.; Thomsen, Kristen M.; Unzicker, Matthew R.; Vernon, William B.; Winn, Wesley W.; Woyski, Dustin S.; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J.; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M.; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R.; Johnson, Todd D.; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H.; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S.; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R.; Waggoner, Andrew W.; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K.; Hark, Amy T.; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E.; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E.; Smith, Mary A.; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C. P.; Johnson, Ashlee G.; White, Jackie X.; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Chau, Kim M.; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E. Gloria C.; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M.; Bahr, Thomas J.; Caesar, Nicole M.; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W.; Cognetti, Peter A.; English, Johnathan D.; Fadus, Matthew C.; Fick, Cameron N.; Freda, Philip J.; Hennessy, Bryan M.; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K.; King, Jessica E.; Knob, Christopher R.; Kraftmann, Karen J.; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N.; Minniti, Carl J.; Minton, Thomas F.; Moran, Joseph V.; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C.; Puetz, William J.; Robinson, Lauren M.; Rose, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Edward P.; Timko, Ashley S.; Paetkau, Don W.; Eisler, Heather L.; Aldrup, Megan E.; Bodenberg, Jessica M.; Cole, Mara G.; Deranek, Kelly M.; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M.; Eckardt, Alexandra K.; Ehret, Sharon C.; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D.; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L.; Light, Morgan R.; Meier, Anne C.; O’Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R.; Reilly, Mary T.; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L.; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M.; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R.; Herrick, Douglas A.; Khoury, Christopher B.; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A.; Lowell, Shannon M.; Reynolds, Thomas J.; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H.; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T.; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D.; Lopilato, Jane E.; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A.; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R.; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R.; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R.; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H.; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B.; Smith, Jonathan E.; Unruh, Anna K.; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E.; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J.; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T.; Moore, Zachary D.; Savell, Christopher D.; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M.; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F.; Horton, Lanor S.; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H.; Liu, James Z.; Mach, Sandy D.; Phan, Thu A.; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E.; Strelitz, Jean M.; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C.; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J.; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E.; Gross, Meleah J.; Gygi, Amber M.; Jackson, Lesley E.; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L.; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L.; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E.; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J. Devin; Stemler, Kristina M.; Throm, Allison A.; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T. Aaron; Williams, Mallory A.; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M.; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E.; Florian, Kayla A.; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S.; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W.; Pelchen, Carly E.; Yenerall, Paul M.; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R.; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M.; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G.; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V.; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O.; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O.; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J.; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J.; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M.; delValle, Frank R. Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I.; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D.; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D.; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P.; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A.; Colón-Cruz, Luis R.; Correa-Muller, Ana I.; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L.; Cruz-García, José M.; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M.; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J.; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M.; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N.; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L.; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A.; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A.; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M.; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N.; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G.; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C.; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I.; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M.; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G.; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S.; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T.; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E.; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O.; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M.; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E.; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L.; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N.; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L.; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E.; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M.; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P.; Torres-Castillo, José L.; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A.; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M.; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M.; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R.; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R.; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L.; Molleston, Jerome M.; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J.; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P.; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y.; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L.; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W.; Nagengast, Alexis A.; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J.; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L.; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L.; Adams, Ashley L.; Barnard, Brianna K.; Cheramie, Martin N.; Eime, Anne M.; Golden, Kathryn L.; Hawkins, Allyson P.; Hill, Jessica E.; Kampmeier, Jessica A.; Kern, Cody D.; Magnuson, Emily E.; Miller, Ashley R.; Morrow, Cody M.; Peairs, Julia C.; Pickett, Gentry L.; Popelka, Sarah A.; Scott, Alexis J.; Teepe, Emily J.; TerMeer, Katie A.; Watchinski, Carmen A.; Watson, Lucas A.; Weber, Rachel E.; Woodard, Kate A.; Barnard, Daron C.; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M.; McNeil, Gerard P.; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C.; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25–50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3–11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11–27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4–3.6 vs. 8.4–8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. PMID:25740935

  16. Drosophila muller f elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Reed, Laura K; Smith, Sheryl T; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E J; Machone, Joshua F; Patterson, Seantay D; Price, Amber L; Turner, Bryce A; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K; McCartha, Shannon R; Walji, Tezin A; Walker, Chelsea A; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K; Armstrong, Andrew R; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J; Barberi, Chelsea R; Beck, Lauren R; Blaker, Amanda L; Blunden, Christopher E; Brand, Jordan P; Brock, Ethan J; Brooks, Dana W; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C; Clark, Eric M; Clark, Nicole B; Collins, Ashley A; Cotteleer, Rebecca J; Cullimore, Peterson R; Dawson, Seth G; Docking, Carter T; Dorsett, Sasha L; Dougherty, Grace A; Downey, Kaitlyn A; Drake, Andrew P; Earl, Erica K; Floyd, Trevor G; Forsyth, Joshua D; Foust, Jonathan D; Franchi, Spencer L; Geary, James F; Hanson, Cynthia K; Harding, Taylor S; Harris, Cameron B; Heckman, Jonathan M; Holderness, Heather L; Howey, Nicole A; Jacobs, Dontae A; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A; Kehoe, James L; Koaches, Hannah C; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J; Kus, Jordan E; Lammers, Jennifer A; Leads, Rachel R; Leatherman, Emily C; Lippert, Rachel N; Messenger, Gregory S; Morrow, Adam T; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J; Potocny, Stephanie J; Powers, Michelle K; Reem, Rachel M; Rennhack, Jonathan P; Reynolds, Katherine R; Reynolds, Lyndsey A; Rhee, Dong K; Rivard, Allyson B; Ronk, Adam J; Rooney, Meghan B; Rubin, Lainey S; Salbert, Luke R; Saluja, Rasleen K; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R; Schulz, Robert W; Smith, Karl E; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R; Tache, Melissa A; Tewilliager, Ashley A; Tilot, Amanda K; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M; Vylonis, Megan B; Watson, David T; Wurzler, Juliana A; Wysocki, Lauren M; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A; Emerson, Julia A; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J; DiLorenzo, Lauren A; Goeller, Katie L; Macchi, Christopher R; Muller, Sarah E; Pasierb, Brittany D; Sable, Joseph E; Tucci, Jessica M; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A; Beken, Levent H; Conturso, Alaina C; Danner, Benjamin L; DeMichele, Gabriella A; Gonzales, Justin A; Hammond, Maureen S; Kelley, Colleen V; Kelly, Elisabeth A; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M; McCabe, Nikie L; Newman, Alyssa M; Spaeder, Lindsay A; Tumminello, Richard A; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M; Cristostomo, Michael C; DaSilva, Paolo A; Harker, Katherine S; Jarrell, Jenifer N; Jimenez, Luis A; Katz, Brandon M; Kennedy, William R; Kolibas, Kimberly S; LeBlanc, Mark T; Nguyen, Trung T; Nicolas, Daniel S; Patao, Melissa D; Patao, Shane M; Rupley, Bryan J; Sessions, Bridget J; Weaver, Jennifer A; Goodman, Anya L; Alvendia, Erica L; Baldassari, Shana M; Brown, Ashley S; Chase, Ian O; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B; Custer, Ashley F; DiTommaso, Tia M; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C; Grove, Ryan A; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L; Hopkins, Barbara L; Huerta, Vilma F; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M; Lee, Cassidy T; Lewis, Benjamin M; Lydon, Anniken M; Maniaci, Brian J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Morlock, Elaine V; Morris, William M; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C; Osterloh, Jeannette M; Perez, Marcos A; Presley, Jonathan D; Randazzo, Matt J; Regan, Melanie K; Rossi, Franca G; Smith, Melanie A; Soliterman, Eugenia A; Sparks, Ciani J; Tran, Danny L; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A; Wong, Jeremy N; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J; Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Ackerman, Cheri M; Armistead, Isaac O; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J; Brouwer, Lindsay K; Burkhart, Brandon J; Bushhouse, Kelsey T; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y Y; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M; Darusz, Jess M; Dauphin, Cory M; Davis, Yelena P; Diekema, Emily J; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E M; Faber, Hayley M; Faber, Katherine J; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T; Hammond, Brandy L; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R; Hilbrands, Julia A; Howell, Emily J; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A; Jelsema, Timothy R; Johnson, Benjamin K; Jones, Kelly K; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D; Menyes, Erika E; Nollet, Eric A; Plescher, Brittany E; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L; Schepers, Allison J; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R; Sterling, Allison M; Tenney, Jenna C; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I; Boudoures, Anna L; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S; French, Kristin M; Gill, Ishwar S; Havill, Jessen T; Johnson, Jaelyn L; Keny, Lauren J; Kerber, John M; Klett, Bethany M; Kufel, Christina N; May, Francis J; Mecoli, Jonathan P; Merry, Callie R; Meyer, Lauren R; Miller, Emily G; Mullen, Gregory J; Palozola, Katherine C; Pfeil, Jacob J; Thomas, Jessica G; Verbofsky, Evan M; Spana, Eric P; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I N; Fitzgibbons, John D; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J; Knouse, Kristin A; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U; Shuen, Jessica A; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G; Burg, Martin G; Adams, Stephanie J; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J; Robertson, Gregory M; Smith, Samuel I; DiAngelo, Justin R; Sassu, Eric D; Bhalla, Satish C; Sharif, Karim A; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E; Alvarez, Consuelo J; Davis, Kristen C; Dunham, Carrie A; Grantham, Alaina J; Hare, Amber N; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W; Kuleck, Gary A; Yu, Nicole S; Kaehler, Marian M; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques Dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T; Poet, Jeffrey L; Allen, Alica B; Anderson, John E; Barnett, Jason M; Baumgardner, Jordan S; Brown, Adam D; Carney, Jordan E; Chavez, Ramiro A; Christgen, Shelbi L; Christie, Jordan S; Clary, Andrea N; Conn, Michel A; Cooper, Kristen M; Crowley, Matt J; Crowley, Samuel T; Doty, Jennifer S; Dow, Brian A; Edwards, Curtis R; Elder, Darcie D; Fanning, John P; Janssen, Bridget M; Lambright, Anthony K; Lane, Curtiss E; Limle, Austin B; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R; McDonough, Alexa M; Melton, Amy D; Minnick, Phillip J; Musick, Adam E; Newhart, William H; Noynaert, Joseph W; Ogden, Bradley J; Sandusky, Michael W; Schmuecker, Samantha M; Shipman, Anna L; Smith, Anna L; Thomsen, Kristen M; Unzicker, Matthew R; Vernon, William B; Winn, Wesley W; Woyski, Dustin S; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R; Johnson, Todd D; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R; Waggoner, Andrew W; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K; Hark, Amy T; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E; Smith, Mary A; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C P; Johnson, Ashlee G; White, Jackie X; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L M; Chau, Kim M; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E Gloria C; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M; Bahr, Thomas J; Caesar, Nicole M; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W; Cognetti, Peter A; English, Johnathan D; Fadus, Matthew C; Fick, Cameron N; Freda, Philip J; Hennessy, Bryan M; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K; King, Jessica E; Knob, Christopher R; Kraftmann, Karen J; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N; Minniti, Carl J; Minton, Thomas F; Moran, Joseph V; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C; Puetz, William J; Robinson, Lauren M; Rose, Thomas J; Sweeney, Edward P; Timko, Ashley S; Paetkau, Don W; Eisler, Heather L; Aldrup, Megan E; Bodenberg, Jessica M; Cole, Mara G; Deranek, Kelly M; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M; Eckardt, Alexandra K; Ehret, Sharon C; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L; Light, Morgan R; Meier, Anne C; O'Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R; Reilly, Mary T; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R; Herrick, Douglas A; Khoury, Christopher B; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A; Lowell, Shannon M; Reynolds, Thomas J; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D; Lopilato, Jane E; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B; Smith, Jonathan E; Unruh, Anna K; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T; Moore, Zachary D; Savell, Christopher D; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F; Horton, Lanor S; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H; Liu, James Z; Mach, Sandy D; Phan, Thu A; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E; Strelitz, Jean M; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E; Gross, Meleah J; Gygi, Amber M; Jackson, Lesley E; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J Devin; Stemler, Kristina M; Throm, Allison A; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T Aaron; Williams, Mallory A; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E; Florian, Kayla A; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W; Pelchen, Carly E; Yenerall, Paul M; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M; delValle, Frank R Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A; Colón-Cruz, Luis R; Correa-Muller, Ana I; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L; Cruz-García, José M; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P; Torres-Castillo, José L; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L; Molleston, Jerome M; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W; Nagengast, Alexis A; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L; Adams, Ashley L; Barnard, Brianna K; Cheramie, Martin N; Eime, Anne M; Golden, Kathryn L; Hawkins, Allyson P; Hill, Jessica E; Kampmeier, Jessica A; Kern, Cody D; Magnuson, Emily E; Miller, Ashley R; Morrow, Cody M; Peairs, Julia C; Pickett, Gentry L; Popelka, Sarah A; Scott, Alexis J; Teepe, Emily J; TerMeer, Katie A; Watchinski, Carmen A; Watson, Lucas A; Weber, Rachel E; Woodard, Kate A; Barnard, Daron C; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M; McNeil, Gerard P; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2015-03-04

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25-50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3-11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11-27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4-3.6 vs. 8.4-8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu.

  17. Drosophila by the dozen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celniker, Susan E.; Hoskins, Roger A.

    2007-07-13

    This year's conference on Drosophila research illustratedwell the current focus of Drosophila genomics on the comprehensiveidentification of functional elements in the genome sequence, includingmRNA transcripts arising from multiple alternative start sites and splicesites, a multiplicity of noncoding transcripts and small RNAs,identification of binding sites for transcription factors, sequenceconservation in related species and sequence variation within species.Resources and technologies for genetics and functional genomics aresteadily being improved, including the building of collections oftransposon insertion mutants and hairpin constructs for RNA interference(RNAi). The conference also highlighted progress in the use of genomicinformation by many laboratories to study diverse aspects of biology andmodels of human disease. Here we will review a few highlights of especialinterest to readers of Genome Biology.

  18. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina O. Igboin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed.

  19. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  20. Sterol requirements in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida de Carvalho, Maria Joao

    2009-01-01

    Sterol is an abundant component of eukaryotic cell membranes and is thought to influence membrane properties such as permeability, fluidity and microdomain formation. Drosophila is an excellent model system in which to study functional requirements for membrane sterol because, although it does not synthesize sterol, it nevertheless requires sterols to complete development. Moreover, Drosophila normally incorporates sterols into cell membranes. Thus, dietary sterol depletion can be used to ...

  1. Cytokines in Drosophila immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2016-02-01

    Cytokines are a large and diverse group of small proteins that can affect many biological processes, but most commonly cytokines are known as mediators of the immune response. In the event of an infection, cytokines are produced in response to an immune stimulus, and they function as key regulators of the immune response. Cytokines come in many shapes and sizes, and although they vary greatly in structure, their functions have been well conserved in evolution. The immune signaling pathways that respond to cytokines are remarkably conserved from fly to man. Therefore, Drosophila melanogaster, provides an excellent platform for studying the biology and function of cytokines. In this review, we will describe the cytokines and cytokine-like molecules found in the fly and discuss their roles in host immunity.

  2. Optogenetics in Drosophila Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemensperger, Thomas; Kittel, Robert J; Fiala, André

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetic techniques enable one to target specific neurons with light-sensitive proteins, e.g., ion channels, ion pumps, or enzymes, and to manipulate their physiological state through illumination. Such artificial interference with selected elements of complex neuronal circuits can help to determine causal relationships between neuronal activity and the effect on the functioning of neuronal circuits controlling animal behavior. The advantages of optogenetics can best be exploited in genetically tractable animals whose nervous systems are, on the one hand, small enough in terms of cell numbers and to a certain degree stereotypically organized, such that distinct and identifiable neurons can be targeted reproducibly. On the other hand, the neuronal circuitry and the behavioral repertoire should be complex enough to enable one to address interesting questions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a favorable model organism in this regard. However, the application of optogenetic tools to depolarize or hyperpolarize neurons through light-induced ionic currents has been difficult in adult flies. Only recently, several variants of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) have been introduced that provide sufficient light sensitivity, expression, and stability to depolarize central brain neurons efficiently in adult Drosophila. Here, we focus on the version currently providing highest photostimulation efficiency, ChR2-XXL. We exemplify the use of this optogenetic tool by applying it to a widely used aversive olfactory learning paradigm. Optogenetic activation of a population of dopamine-releasing neurons mimics the reinforcing properties of a punitive electric shock typically used as an unconditioned stimulus. In temporal coincidence with an odor stimulus this artificially induced neuronal activity causes learning of the odor signal, thereby creating a light-induced memory.

  3. Drosophila models for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Marcos; Cagan, Ross L

    2006-02-01

    Drosophila is a model system for cancer research. Investigation with fruit flies has facilitated a number of important recent discoveries in the field: the hippo signaling pathway, which coordinates cell proliferation and death to achieve normal tissue size; 'social' behaviors of cells, including cell competition and apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation, that help ensure normal tissue size; and a growing understanding of how oncogenes and tumor suppressors cooperate to achieve tumor growth and metastasis in situ. In the future, Drosophila models can be extended beyond basic research in the search for human therapeutics.

  4. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-01-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  5. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanis Missirlis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import, the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage. We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration.

  6. Developing a Drosophila Model of Schwannomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    scrib–/– animals (Pastor- Pareja et al., 2008). The Drosophila genome encodes a single member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, named Eiger...activation in Drosophila. Curr. Biol. 16, 1139-1146. Igaki, T., Pastor- Pareja , J. C., Aonuma, H., Miura, M. and Xu, T. (2009). Intrinsic tumor suppression...of high-resolution deletion coverage of the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Nat. Genet. 36, 288-292. Pastor- Pareja , J. C., Wu, M. and Xu. T. (2008

  7. Drosophila as a model for antiviral immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanna; Valanne; Mika; Rmet

    2010-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been successfully used to study numerous biological processes including immune response.Flies are naturally infected with more than twenty RNA viruses making it a valid model organism to study host-pathogen interactions during viral infections.The Drosophila antiviral immunity includes RNA interference,activation of the JAK/STAT and other signaling cascades and other mechanisms such as autophagy and interactions with other microorganisms.Here we review Drosophila as an immunological research model as well as recent advances in the field ofDrosophila antiviral immunity.

  8. Chromatin assembly using Drosophila systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyodorov, Dmitry V; Levenstein, Mark E

    2002-05-01

    To successfully study chromatin structure and activity in vitro, it is essential to have a chromatin assembly system that will prepare extended nucleosome arrays with highly defined protein content that resemble bulk chromatin isolated from living cell nuclei in terms of periodicity and nucleosome positioning. The Drosophila ATP-dependent chromatin assembly system described in this unit meets these requirements. The end product of the reaction described here has highly periodic extended arrays with physiologic spacing and positioning of the nucleosomes.

  9. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-06-06

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila.

  10. Drosophila's view on insect vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Alexander

    2009-01-13

    Within the last 400 million years, insects have radiated into at least a million species, accounting for more than half of all known living organisms: they are the most successful group in the animal kingdom, found in almost all environments of the planet, ranging in body size from a mere 0.1 mm up to half a meter. Their eyes, together with the respective parts of the nervous system dedicated to the processing of visual information, have long been the subject of intense investigation but, with the exception of some very basic reflexes, it is still not possible to link an insect's visual input to its behavioral output. Fortunately for the field, the fruit fly Drosophila is an insect, too. This genetic workhorse holds great promise for the insect vision field, offering the possibility of recording, suppressing or stimulating any single neuron in its nervous system. Here, I shall give a brief synopsis of what we currently know about insect vision, describe the genetic toolset available in Drosophila and give some recent examples of how the application of these tools have furthered our understanding of color and motion vision in Drosophila.

  11. Using Drosophila for Studies of Intermediate Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnekamp, Jens; Cryderman, Diane E; Thiemann, Dylan A; Magin, Thomas M; Wallrath, Lori L

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a useful organism for determining protein function and modeling human disease. Drosophila offers a rapid generation time and an abundance of genomic resources and genetic tools. Conservation in protein structure, signaling pathways, and developmental processes make studies performed in Drosophila relevant to other species, including humans. Drosophila models have been generated for neurodegenerative diseases, muscular dystrophy, cancer, and many other disorders. Recently, intermediate filament protein diseases have been modeled in Drosophila. These models have revealed novel mechanisms of pathology, illuminated potential new routes of therapy, and make whole organism compound screens feasible. The goal of this chapter is to outline steps to study intermediate filament function and model intermediate filament-associated diseases in Drosophila. The steps are general and can be applied to study the function of almost any protein. The protocols outlined here are for both the novice and experienced Drosophila researcher, allowing the rich developmental and cell biology that Drosophila offers to be applied to studies of intermediate filaments.

  12. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances.

  13. Behavioral modification in choice process of Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Shunpeng; (王顺鹏); TANG; Shiming; (唐世明); LI; Yan; (李; 岩); GUO; Aike; (郭爱克)

    2003-01-01

    In visual operant conditioning of Drosophila at the flight simulator, only motor output of flies--yaw torque--is recorded, which is involved in the conditioning process. The current study used a newly-designed data analysis method to study the torque distribution of Drosophila. Modification of torque distribution represents the effects of operant conditioning on flies' behavioral mode. Earlier works[10] showed that, when facing contradictory visual cues, flies could make choices based upon the relative weightiness of different cues, and it was demonstrated that mushroom bodies might play an important role in such choice behavior. The new "torque-position map" method was used to explore the CS-US associative learning and choice behavior in Drosophila from the aspect of its behavioral mode. Finally, this work also discussed various possible neural bases involved in visual associative learning, choice processing and modification processing of the behavioral mode in the visual operant conditioning of Drosophila.

  14. Drosophila Cajal bodies: accessories not included

    OpenAIRE

    Matera, A. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Cajal bodies are nuclear sites of small ribonucleoprotein (RNP) remodeling and maturation. A recent study describes the discovery of the Drosophila Cajal body, revealing some interesting insights into the subnuclear organization of RNA processing machineries among different species.

  15. Modeling tumor invasion and metastasis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Wayne O; Dyson, Nicholas J; Walker, James A

    2011-11-01

    Conservation of major signaling pathways between humans and flies has made Drosophila a useful model organism for cancer research. Our understanding of the mechanisms regulating cell growth, differentiation and development has been considerably advanced by studies in Drosophila. Several recent high profile studies have examined the processes constraining the metastatic growth of tumor cells in fruit fly models. Cell invasion can be studied in the context of an in vivo setting in flies, enabling the genetic requirements of the microenvironment of tumor cells undergoing metastasis to be analyzed. This Perspective discusses the strengths and limitations of Drosophila models of cancer invasion and the unique tools that have enabled these studies. It also highlights several recent reports that together make a strong case for Drosophila as a system with the potential for both testing novel concepts in tumor progression and cell invasion, and for uncovering players in metastasis.

  16. Lipid metabolism in Drosophila: development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonghua Liu; Xun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Proteins,nucleic acids,and lipids are three major components of the cell.Despite a few basic metabolic pathways,we know very little about lipids,compared with the explosion of knowledge about proteins and nucleic acids.How many different forms of lipids are there? What are the in vivo functions of individual lipid? How does lipid metabolism contribute to normal development and human health? Many of these questions remain unanswered.For over a century,the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a model organism to study basic biological questions.In recent years,increasing evidences proved that Drosophila models are highly valuable for lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis researches.Some recent progresses of lipid metabolic regulation during Drosophila development and in Drosophila models of human diseases will be discussed in this review.

  17. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  18. Modeling tumor invasion and metastasis in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne O. Miles

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of major signaling pathways between humans and flies has made Drosophila a useful model organism for cancer research. Our understanding of the mechanisms regulating cell growth, differentiation and development has been considerably advanced by studies in Drosophila. Several recent high profile studies have examined the processes constraining the metastatic growth of tumor cells in fruit fly models. Cell invasion can be studied in the context of an in vivo setting in flies, enabling the genetic requirements of the microenvironment of tumor cells undergoing metastasis to be analyzed. This Perspective discusses the strengths and limitations of Drosophila models of cancer invasion and the unique tools that have enabled these studies. It also highlights several recent reports that together make a strong case for Drosophila as a system with the potential for both testing novel concepts in tumor progression and cell invasion, and for uncovering players in metastasis.

  19. Modeling tumor invasion and metastasis in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of major signaling pathways between humans and flies has made Drosophila a useful model organism for cancer research. Our understanding of the mechanisms regulating cell growth, differentiation and development has been considerably advanced by studies in Drosophila. Several recent high profile studies have examined the processes constraining the metastatic growth of tumor cells in fruit fly models. Cell invasion can be studied in the context of an in vivo setting in flies, enabli...

  20. Progress in understanding the Drosophila dnc locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nighorn, A; Qiu, Y; Davis, R L

    1994-05-01

    The genetic dissection of learning and memory in Drosophila is two decades old. Recently, a great deal of progress has been made towards isolating new mutants as well as towards a better understanding of the originally isolated ones. This paper reviews the recent developments in the understanding of the structure and function of the gene identified by the first and best-characterized of these mutants, the Drosophila dunce mutant.

  1. A Drosophila Model for Screening Antiobesity Agents

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    Tran Thanh Men

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although triacylglycerol, the major component for lipid storage, is essential for normal physiology, its excessive accumulation causes obesity in adipose tissue and is associated with organ dysfunction in nonadipose tissue. Here, we focused on the Drosophila model to develop therapeutics for preventing obesity. The brummer (bmm gene in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be homologous with human adipocyte triglyceride lipase, which is related to the regulation of lipid storage. We established a Drosophila model for monitoring bmm expression by introducing the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene as a downstream reporter of the bmm promoter. The third-instar larvae of Drosophila showed the GFP signal in all tissues observed and specifically in the salivary gland nucleus. To confirm the relationship between bmm expression and obesity, the effect of oral administration of glucose diets on bmm promoter activity was analyzed. The Drosophila flies given high-glucose diets showed higher lipid contents, indicating the obesity phenotype; this was suggested by a weaker intensity of the GFP signal as well as reduced bmm mRNA expression. These results demonstrated that the transgenic Drosophila model established in this study is useful for screening antiobesity agents. We also report the effects of oral administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors and some vegetables on the bmm promoter activity.

  2. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)(Diptera: drosophilidae), trapped with combinations of wines and vinegars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trapping experiments evaluated wine and vinegar baits for spotted wing drosophila flies, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), and assessed variance in biat attractiveness with wit type, vinegar type, and bait age. A mixture of apple cider vinegar and a Merlot wine attracted more flies than a mixtur...

  3. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Erica Gene; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model in which to study the molecular and cellular basis of taste coding. Flies sense tastants via populations of taste neurons that are activated by compounds of distinct categories. The past few years have borne witness to studies that define the properties of taste neurons, identifying functionally distinct classes of sweet and bitter taste neurons that express unique subsets of gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families. There has also been significant progress in terms of understanding how tastant information is processed and conveyed to higher brain centers, and modulated by prior dietary experience or starvation.

  4. Gene Networks Underlying Chronic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-15

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Studies of the gene network affected by sleep deprivation and stress in the fruit fly Drosophila have revealed the...15-Apr-2009 14-Apr-2013 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Gene Networks Underlying Chronic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila The...Chronic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila Report Title Studies of the gene network affected by sleep deprivation and stress in the fruit fly Drosophila have

  5. Molecular evolution of Drosophila cuticular protein genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scott Cornman

    Full Text Available Several multigene families have been described that together encode scores of structural cuticular proteins in Drosophila, although the functional significance of this diversity remains to be explored. Here I investigate the evolutionary histories of several multigene families (CPR, Tweedle, CPLCG, and CPF/CPFL that vary in age, size, and sequence complexity, using sequenced Drosophila genomes and mosquito outgroups. My objective is to describe the rates and mechanisms of 'cuticle-ome' divergence, in order to identify conserved and rapidly evolving elements. I also investigate potential examples of interlocus gene conversion and concerted evolution within these families during Drosophila evolution. The absolute rate of change in gene number (per million years is an order of magnitude lower for cuticular protein families within Drosophila than it is among Drosophila and the two mosquito taxa, implying that major transitions in the cuticle proteome have occurred at higher taxonomic levels. Several hotspots of intergenic conversion and/or gene turnover were identified, e.g. some gene pairs have independently undergone intergenic conversion within different lineages. Some gene conversion hotspots were characterized by conversion tracts initiating near nucleotide repeats within coding regions, and similar repeats were found within concertedly evolving cuticular protein genes in Anopheles gambiae. Rates of amino-acid substitution were generally severalfold higher along the branch connecting the Sophophora and Drosophila species groups, and 13 genes have Ka/Ks significantly greater than one along this branch, indicating adaptive divergence. Insect cuticular proteins appear to be a source of adaptive evolution within genera and, at higher taxonomic levels, subject to periods of gene-family expansion and contraction followed by quiescence. However, this relative stasis is belied by hotspots of molecular evolution, particularly concerted evolution, during

  6. Drosophila chem mutations disrupt epithelial polarity in Drosophila embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Zamudio-Arroyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila embryogenesis has proven to be an extremely powerful system for developmental gene discovery and characterization. We isolated five new EMS-induced alleles that do not complement the l(3R5G83 lethal line isolated in the Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus screens. We have named this locus chem. Lethality of the new alleles as homozygous zygotic mutants is not completely penetrant, and they have an extended phenocritical period. Like the original allele, a fraction of mutant embryos die with cuticular defects, notably head involution and dorsal closure defects. Embryonic defects are much more extreme in germline clones, where the majority of mutant embryos die during embryogenesis and do not form cuticle, implying a strong chem maternal contribution. chem mutations genetically interact with mutations in cytoskeletal genes (arm and with mutations in the epithelial polarity genes coracle, crumbs, and yurt. chem mutants dorsal open defects are similar to those present in yurt mutants, and, likewise, they have epithelial polarity defects. chem1 and chem3 mutations suppress yurt3, and chem3 mutants suppress crumbs1 mutations. In contrast, chem1 and coracle2 mutations enhance each other. Compared to controls, in chem mutants in embryonic lateral epithelia Crumbs expression is mislocalized and reduced, Coracle is increased and mislocalized basally at embryonic stages 13–14, then reduced at stage 16. Arm expression has a similar pattern but levels are reduced.

  7. 31 Flavors of Drosophila Rab proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Schulze, Karen L.; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Suyama, Kaye; Wang, Stream; Fish, Matthew; Acar, Melih; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, HugoJ.; Scott, Matthew P.

    2007-04-03

    Rab proteins are small GTPases that play important roles intransport of vesicle cargo and recruitment, association of motor andother proteins with vesicles, and docking and fusion of vesicles atdefined locations. In vertebrates, more than 75 Rab genes have beenidentified, some of which have been intensively studied for their rolesin endosome and synaptic vesicle trafficking. Recent studies of thefunctions of certain Rab proteins have revealed specific roles inmediating developmental signal transduction. We have begun a systematicgenetic study of the 33 Rab genes in Drosophila. Most of the fly proteinsare clearly related to specific vertebrate proteins. We report here thecreation of a set of transgenic fly lines that allow spatially andtemporally regulated expression of Drosophila Rab proteins. We generatedfluorescent protein-tagged wild-type, dominant-negative, andconstitutively active forms of 31 Drosophila Rab proteins. We describeDrosophila Rab expression patterns during embryogenesis, the subcellularlocalization of some Rab proteins, and comparisons of the localization ofwild-type, dominant-negative, and constitutively active forms of selectedRab proteins. The high evolutionary conservation and low redundancy ofDrosophila Rab proteins make these transgenic lines a useful toolkit forinvestigating Rab functions in vivo.

  8. Comparison of human and Drosophila atlastin GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuyun; Hu, Xiaoyu; Bian, Xin; Liu, Xinqi; Hu, Junjie

    2015-02-01

    Formation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network requires homotypic membrane fusion, which involves a class of atlastin (ATL) GTPases. Purified Drosophila ATL is capable of mediating vesicle fusion in vitro, but such activity has not been reported for any other ATLs. Here, we determined the preliminary crystal structure of the cytosolic segment of Drosophila ATL in a GDP-bound state. The structure reveals a GTPase domain dimer with the subsequent three-helix bundles associating with their own GTPase domains and pointing in opposite directions. This conformation is similar to that of human ATL1, to which GDP and high concentrations of inorganic phosphate, but not GDP only, were included. Drosophila ATL restored ER morphology defects in mammalian cells lacking ATLs, and measurements of nucleotide-dependent dimerization and GTPase activity were comparable for Drosophila ATL and human ATL1. However, purified and reconstituted human ATL1 exhibited no in vitro fusion activity. When the cytosolic segment of human ATL1 was connected to the transmembrane (TM) region and C-terminal tail (CT) of Drosophila ATL, the chimera still exhibited no fusion activity, though its GTPase activity was normal. These results suggest that GDP-bound ATLs may adopt multiple conformations and the in vitro fusion activity of ATL cannot be achieved by a simple collection of functional domains.

  9. Development of dendrite polarity in Drosophila neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila neurons have dendrites that contain minus-end-out microtubules. This microtubule arrangement is different from that of cultured mammalian neurons, which have mixed polarity microtubules in dendrites. Results To determine whether Drosophila and mammalian dendrites have a common microtubule organization during development, we analyzed microtubule polarity in Drosophila dendritic arborization neuron dendrites at different stages of outgrowth from the cell body in vivo. As dendrites initially extended, they contained mixed polarity microtubules, like mammalian neurons developing in culture. Over a period of several days this mixed microtubule array gradually matured to a minus-end-out array. To determine whether features characteristic of dendrites were localized before uniform polarity was attained, we analyzed dendritic markers as dendrites developed. In all cases the markers took on their characteristic distribution while dendrites had mixed polarity. An axonal marker was also quite well excluded from dendrites throughout development, although this was perhaps more efficient in mature neurons. To confirm that dendrite character could be acquired in Drosophila while microtubules were mixed, we genetically disrupted uniform dendritic microtubule organization. Dendritic markers also localized correctly in this case. Conclusions We conclude that developing Drosophila dendrites initially have mixed microtubule polarity. Over time they mature to uniform microtubule polarity. Dendrite identity is established before the mature microtubule arrangement is attained, during the period of mixed microtubule polarity.

  10. Apoptosis in Drosophila: which role for mitochondria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Amandine; Rincheval-Arnold, Aurore; Colin, Jessie; Mignotte, Bernard; Guénal, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    It is now well established that the mitochondrion is a central regulator of mammalian cell apoptosis. However, the importance of this organelle in non-mammalian apoptosis has long been regarded as minor, mainly because of the absence of a crucial role for cytochrome c in caspase activation. Recent results indicate that the control of caspase activation and cell death in Drosophila occurs at the mitochondrial level. Numerous proteins, including RHG proteins and proteins of the Bcl-2 family that are key regulators of Drosophila apoptosis, constitutively or transiently localize in mitochondria. These proteins participate in the cell death process at different levels such as degradation of Diap1, a Drosophila IAP, production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species or stimulation of the mitochondrial fission machinery. Here, we review these mitochondrial events that might have their counterpart in human.

  11. Live cell imaging in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Richard M; Vallés, Ana Maria; Dobbie, Ian M; Davis, Ilan

    2010-04-01

    Although many of the techniques of live cell imaging in Drosophila melanogaster are also used by the greater community of cell biologists working on other model systems, studying living fly tissues presents unique difficulties with regard to keeping the cells alive, introducing fluorescent probes, and imaging through thick, hazy cytoplasm. This article outlines the major tissue types amenable to study by time-lapse cinematography and different methods for keeping the cells alive. It describes various imaging and associated techniques best suited to following changes in the distribution of fluorescently labeled molecules in real time in these tissues. Imaging, in general, is a rapidly developing discipline, and recent advances in imaging technology are able to greatly extend what can be achieved with live cell imaging of Drosophila tissues. As far as possible, this article includes the latest technical developments and discusses likely future developments in imaging methods that could have an impact on research using Drosophila.

  12. Natural selection drives Drosophila immune system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenke, Todd A; Begun, David J

    2003-08-01

    Evidence from disparate sources suggests that natural selection may often play a role in the evolution of host immune system proteins. However, there have been few attempts to make general population genetic inferences on the basis of analysis of several immune-system-related genes from a single species. Here we present DNA polymorphism and divergence data from 34 genes thought to function in the innate immune system of Drosophila simulans and compare these data to those from 28 nonimmunity genes sequenced from the same lines. Several statistics, including average K(A)/K(S) ratio, average silent heterozygosity, and average haplotype diversity, significantly differ between the immunity and nonimmunity genes, suggesting an important role for directional selection in immune system protein evolution. In contrast to data from mammalian immunoglobulins and other proteins, we find no strong evidence for the selective maintenance of protein diversity in Drosophila immune system proteins. This may be a consequence of Drosophila's generalized innate immune response.

  13. Sexual Behavior of Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revadi, Santosh; Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Dekker, Teun; Becher, Paul G

    2015-03-09

    A high reproductive potential is one reason for the rapid spread of Drosophila suzukii in Europe and in the United States. In order to identify mechanisms that mediate mating and reproduction in D. suzukii we studied the fly's reproductive behavior, diurnal mating activity and sexual maturation. Furthermore, we studied the change of female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) with age and conducted a preliminary investigation on the role of female-derived chemical signals in male mating behavior. Sexual behavior in D. suzukii is characterized by distinct elements of male courtship leading to female acceptance for mating. Time of day and age modulate D. suzukii mating activity. As with other drosophilids, female sexual maturity is paralleled by a quantitative increase in CHCs. Neither female CHCs nor other olfactory signals were required to induce male courtship, however, presence of those signals significantly increased male sexual behavior. With this pilot study we hope to stimulate research on the reproductive biology of D. suzukii, which is relevant for the development of pest management tools.

  14. Drosophila melanogaster Models of Galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenzer, J M I; Fridovich-Keil, J L

    2017-01-01

    The galactosemias are a family of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from impaired function of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Type I, or classic galactosemia, results from profound deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, the second enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Type II galactosemia results from profound deficiency of galactokinase, the first enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Type III galactosemia results from partial deficiency of UDP galactose 4'-epimerase, the third enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Although at least classic galactosemia has been recognized clinically for more than 100 years, and detectable by newborn screening for more than 50 years, all three galactosemias remain poorly understood. Early detection and dietary restriction of galactose prevent neonatal lethality, but many affected infants grow to experience a broad range of developmental and other disabilities. To date, there is no intervention known that prevents or reverses these long-term complications. Drosophila melanogaster provides a genetically and biochemically facile model for these conditions, enabling studies that address mechanism and open the door for novel approaches to intervention.

  15. Flavin reduction activates Drosophila cryptochrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anand T; Top, Deniz; Manahan, Craig C; Tokuda, Joshua M; Zhang, Sheng; Pollack, Lois; Young, Michael W; Crane, Brian R

    2013-12-17

    Entrainment of circadian rhythms in higher organisms relies on light-sensing proteins that communicate to cellular oscillators composed of delayed transcriptional feedback loops. The principal photoreceptor of the fly circadian clock, Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY), contains a C-terminal tail (CTT) helix that binds beside a FAD cofactor and is essential for light signaling. Light reduces the dCRY FAD to an anionic semiquinone (ASQ) radical and increases CTT proteolytic susceptibility but does not lead to CTT chemical modification. Additional changes in proteolytic sensitivity and small-angle X-ray scattering define a conformational response of the protein to light that centers at the CTT but also involves regions remote from the flavin center. Reduction of the flavin is kinetically coupled to CTT rearrangement. Chemical reduction to either the ASQ or the fully reduced hydroquinone state produces the same conformational response as does light. The oscillator protein Timeless (TIM) contains a sequence similar to the CTT; the corresponding peptide binds dCRY in light and protects the flavin from oxidation. However, TIM mutants therein still undergo dCRY-mediated degradation. Thus, photoreduction to the ASQ releases the dCRY CTT and promotes binding to at least one region of TIM. Flavin reduction by either light or cellular reductants may be a general mechanism of CRY activation.

  16. Asymmetric stem cell division: lessons from Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pao-Shu; Egger, Boris; Brand, Andrea H

    2008-06-01

    Asymmetric cell division is an important and conserved strategy in the generation of cellular diversity during animal development. Many of our insights into the underlying mechanisms of asymmetric cell division have been gained from Drosophila, including the establishment of polarity, orientation of mitotic spindles and segregation of cell fate determinants. Recent studies are also beginning to reveal the connection between the misregulation of asymmetric cell division and cancer. What we are learning from Drosophila as a model system has implication both for stem cell biology and also cancer research.

  17. Drosophila bitter taste(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eFrench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called bitter. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induce aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to inhibitory pheromones such as 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different categories of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction

  18. Signaling by Drosophila capa neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Shireen-A; Cabrero, Pablo; Povsic, Manca; Johnston, Natalie R; Terhzaz, Selim; Dow, Julian A T

    2013-07-01

    The capa peptide family, originally identified in the tobacco hawk moth, Manduca sexta, is now known to be present in many insect families, with increasing publications on capa neuropeptides each year. The physiological actions of capa peptides vary depending on the insect species but capa peptides have key myomodulatory and osmoregulatory functions, depending on insect lifestyle, and life stage. Capa peptide signaling is thus critical for fluid homeostasis and survival, making study of this neuropeptide family attractive for novel routes for insect control. In Dipteran species, including the genetically tractable Drosophila melanogaster, capa peptide action is diuretic; via elevation of nitric oxide, cGMP and calcium in the principal cells of the Malpighian tubules. The identification of the capa receptor (capaR) in several insect species has shown this to be a canonical GPCR. In D. melanogaster, ligand-activated capaR activity occurs in a dose-dependent manner between 10(-6) and 10(-12)M. Lower concentrations of capa peptide do not activate capaR, either in adult or larval Malpighian tubules. Use of transgenic flies in which capaR is knocked-down in only Malpighian tubule principal cells demonstrates that capaR modulates tubule fluid secretion rates and in doing so, sets the organismal response to desiccation. Thus, capa regulates a desiccation-responsive pathway in D. melanogaster, linking its role in osmoregulation and fluid homeostasis to environmental response and survival. The conservation of capa action between some Dipteran species suggests that capa's role in desiccation tolerance may not be confined to D. melanogaster.

  19. Automated measurement of Drosophila wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezey Jason

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies in evolutionary biology and genetics are limited by the rate at which phenotypic information can be acquired. The wings of Drosophila species are a favorable target for automated analysis because of the many interesting questions in evolution and development that can be addressed with them, and because of their simple structure. Results We have developed an automated image analysis system (WINGMACHINE that measures the positions of all the veins and the edges of the wing blade of Drosophilid flies. A video image is obtained with the aid of a simple suction device that immobilizes the wing of a live fly. Low-level processing is used to find the major intersections of the veins. High-level processing then optimizes the fit of an a priori B-spline model of wing shape. WINGMACHINE allows the measurement of 1 wing per minute, including handling, imaging, analysis, and data editing. The repeatabilities of 12 vein intersections averaged 86% in a sample of flies of the same species and sex. Comparison of 2400 wings of 25 Drosophilid species shows that wing shape is quite conservative within the group, but that almost all taxa are diagnosably different from one another. Wing shape retains some phylogenetic structure, although some species have shapes very different from closely related species. The WINGMACHINE system facilitates artificial selection experiments on complex aspects of wing shape. We selected on an index which is a function of 14 separate measurements of each wing. After 14 generations, we achieved a 15 S.D. difference between up and down-selected treatments. Conclusion WINGMACHINE enables rapid, highly repeatable measurements of wings in the family Drosophilidae. Our approach to image analysis may be applicable to a variety of biological objects that can be represented as a framework of connected lines.

  20. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of...

  1. Polarity and intracellular compartmentalization of Drosophila neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henner Astra L

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper neuronal function depends on forming three primary subcellular compartments: axons, dendrites, and soma. Each compartment has a specialized function (the axon to send information, dendrites to receive information, and the soma is where most cellular components are produced. In mammalian neurons, each primary compartment has distinctive molecular and morphological features, as well as smaller domains, such as the axon initial segment, that have more specialized functions. How neuronal subcellular compartments are established and maintained is not well understood. Genetic studies in Drosophila have provided insight into other areas of neurobiology, but it is not known whether flies are a good system in which to study neuronal polarity as a comprehensive analysis of Drosophila neuronal subcellular organization has not been performed. Results Here we use new and previously characterized markers to examine Drosophila neuronal compartments. We find that: axons and dendrites can accumulate different microtubule-binding proteins; protein synthesis machinery is concentrated in the cell body; pre- and post-synaptic sites localize to distinct regions of the neuron; and specializations similar to the initial segment are present. In addition, we track EB1-GFP dynamics and determine microtubules in axons and dendrites have opposite polarity. Conclusion We conclude that Drosophila will be a powerful system to study the establishment and maintenance of neuronal compartments.

  2. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Experimental Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gerald M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role of the fruit fly in genetics research requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Describes embryological and genetic methods used in the experimental analysis of this organism. Outlines the use of Drosophila in the study of the development and function of the nervous system. (RT)

  3. Isolation of Drosophila egg chambers for imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Richard M; Vallés, Ana Maria; Dobbie, Ian M; Davis, Ilan

    2010-04-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an important model for basic research into the molecular mechanisms underlying cell function and development, as well as a major biomedical research tool. A significant advantage of Drosophila is the ability to apply live cell imaging to a variety of living tissues that can be dissected and imaged in vivo, ex vivo, or in vitro. Drosophila egg chambers, for example, have proven to be a useful model system for studying border cell migration, Golgi unit transport, the rapid movement of mRNA and protein particles, and the role of microtubules in meiosis and oocyte differentiation. A crucial first step before imaging is preparation of the experimental material to ensure physiological relevance and to achieve the best conditions for image quality. Early- to mid-stage egg chambers cannot be mounted in an aqueous-based medium, because this causes a change in microtubule organization and follicle cell morphology. Such egg chambers survive better in Halocarbon oil, which allows free diffusion of oxygen, has low viscosity, and thus prevents dehydration and hypoxia. With a refractive index similar to glycerol, Halocarbon oil also has good optical properties for imaging. It also provides a good environment for injection and is particularly useful for long-term imaging of embryos. However, unlike with aqueous solutions, changes in the medium are not possible. This protocol describes the isolation of Drosophila egg chambers.

  4. Functional Neuroanatomy of "Drosophila" Olfactory Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying "Drosophila" learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive…

  5. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, N.E.; Clausen, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 angstrom resolution s...

  6. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, contact-less cardiac pacing technology can be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research and in clinics. Currently, electrical pacing is the gold standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling the cardiac function, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its capabilities. Optical pacing of heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Optical coherence tomography has been proved to be an effective technique in non-invasive imaging in vivo with ultrahigh resolution and imaging speed. In the last several years, non-invasive specific optical pacing in animal hearts has been reported in quail, zebrafish, and rabbit models. However, Drosophila Melanogaster, which is a significant model with orthologs of 75% of human disease genes, has rarely been studied concerning their optical pacing in heart. Here, we combined optogenetic control of Drosophila heartbeat with optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technique for the first time. The light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was specifically expressed by transgene as a pacemaker in drosophila heart. By stimulating the pacemaker with 472 nm pulsed laser light at different frequencies, we achieved non-invasive and more specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm, which demonstrates the wide potential of optical pacing for studying cardiac dynamics and development. Imaging capability of our customized OCM system was also involved to observe the pacing effect visually. No tissue damage was found after long exposure to laser pulses, which proved the safety of optogenetic control of Drosophila heart.

  7. Organization and evolution of Drosophila terminin: similarities and differences between Drosophila and human telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Daniela Raffa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila lacks telomerase and fly telomeres are elongated by occasional transposition of three specialized retroelements. Drosophila telomeres do not terminate with GC-rich repeats and are assembled independently of the sequence of chromosome ends. Recent work has shown that Drosophila telomeres are capped by the terminin complex, which includes the fast-evolving proteins HOAP, HipHop, Moi and Ver. These proteins are not conserves outside Drosophilidae and localize and function exclusively at telomeres, protecting them from fusion events. Other proteins required to prevent end-to-end fusion in flies include HP1, Eff/UbcD1, ATM, the components of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs (MRN complex, and the Woc transcription factor. These proteins do not share the terminin properties; they are evolutionarily conserved non-fast-evolving proteins that do not accumulate only telomeres and do not serve telomere-specific functions. We propose that following telomerase loss, Drosophila rapidly evolved terminin to bind chromosome ends in a sequence-independent manner. This hypothesis suggests that terminin is the functional analog of the shelterin complex that protects human telomeres. The non-terminin proteins are instead likely to correspond to ancestral telomere-associated proteins that did not evolve as rapidly as terminin because of the functional constraints imposed by their involvement in diverse cellular processes. Thus, it appears that the main difference between Drosophila and human telomeres is in the protective complexes that specifically associate with the DNA termini. We believe that Drosophila telomeres offer excellent opportunities for investigations on human telomere biology. The identification of additional Drosophila genes encoding non-terminin proteins involved in telomere protection might lead to the discovery of novel components of human telomeres.

  8. Drosophila neural stem cells in brain development and tumor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanrui; Reichert, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblasts, the neural stem cells in Drosophila, generate the complex neural structure of the central nervous system. Significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms regulating the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation in Drosophila neuroblast lineages. Deregulation of these mechanisms can lead to severe developmental defects and the formation of malignant brain tumors. Here, the authors review the molecular genetics of Drosophila neuroblasts and discuss some recent advances in stem cell and cancer biology using this model system.

  9. Classical and operant learning in the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Eschbach, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In dieser Doktorarbeit studiere ich einige psychologische Aspekte im Verhalten der Drosophila, insbesondere von Drosophila Larven. Nach einer Einleitung, in der ich den wissenschaftlichen Kontext darstelle und die Mechanismen der olfaktorischen Wahrnehmung sowie des klassichen und operanten Lernens beschreibe, stelle ich die verschiedenen Experimente meiner Doktorarbeit vor. Wahrnehmung Das zweite Kapitel behandelt die Art, in der adulte Drosophila zwischen Einzeldüften und Duftgemischen gene...

  10. Exquisite light sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Vinayak

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster shows exquisite light sensitivity for modulation of circadian functions in vivo, yet the activities of the Drosophila circadian photopigment cryptochrome (CRY have only been observed at high light levels. We studied intensity/duration parameters for light pulse induced circadian phase shifts under dim light conditions in vivo. Flies show far greater light sensitivity than previously appreciated, and show a surprising sensitivity increase with pulse duration, implying a process of photic integration active up to at least 6 hours. The CRY target timeless (TIM shows dim light dependent degradation in circadian pacemaker neurons that parallels phase shift amplitude, indicating that integration occurs at this step, with the strongest effect in a single identified pacemaker neuron. Our findings indicate that CRY compensates for limited light sensitivity in vivo by photon integration over extraordinarily long times, and point to select circadian pacemaker neurons as having important roles.

  11. Quantifying and predicting Drosophila larvae crawling phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Maximilian N.; Nettesheim, Guilherme; Shubeita, George T.

    2016-06-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model for cell biology, development, disease, and neuroscience. The fly’s power as a genetic model for disease and neuroscience can be augmented by a quantitative description of its behavior. Here we show that we can accurately account for the complex and unique crawling patterns exhibited by individual Drosophila larvae using a small set of four parameters obtained from the trajectories of a few crawling larvae. The values of these parameters change for larvae from different genetic mutants, as we demonstrate for fly models of Alzheimer’s disease and the Fragile X syndrome, allowing applications such as genetic or drug screens. Using the quantitative model of larval crawling developed here we use the mutant-specific parameters to robustly simulate larval crawling, which allows estimating the feasibility of laborious experimental assays and aids in their design.

  12. Motor Control of Drosophila Courtship Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. Shirangi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many animals utilize acoustic signals—or songs—to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone, called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse, and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1 that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a “modular” anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs.

  13. Evidence for transgenerational metabolic programming in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, Jessica L; Musselman, Laura P; Wilson, Christina A; Lang, Tieming; Keleher, Madeline; Baranski, Thomas J; Duncan, Jennifer G

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide epidemiologic studies have repeatedly demonstrated an association between prenatal nutritional environment, birth weight and susceptibility to adult diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite advances in mammalian model systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear, but might involve programming mechanisms such as epigenetics. Here we describe a new system for evaluating metabolic programming mechanisms using a simple, genetically tractable Drosophila model. We examined the effect of maternal caloric excess on offspring and found that a high-sugar maternal diet alters body composition of larval offspring for at least two generations, augments an obese-like phenotype under suboptimal (high-calorie) feeding conditions in adult offspring, and modifies expression of metabolic genes. Our data indicate that nutritional programming mechanisms could be highly conserved and support the use of Drosophila as a model for evaluating the underlying genetic and epigenetic contributions to this phenomenon.

  14. Evidence for transgenerational metabolic programming in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Buescher

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide epidemiologic studies have repeatedly demonstrated an association between prenatal nutritional environment, birth weight and susceptibility to adult diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite advances in mammalian model systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear, but might involve programming mechanisms such as epigenetics. Here we describe a new system for evaluating metabolic programming mechanisms using a simple, genetically tractable Drosophila model. We examined the effect of maternal caloric excess on offspring and found that a high-sugar maternal diet alters body composition of larval offspring for at least two generations, augments an obese-like phenotype under suboptimal (high-calorie feeding conditions in adult offspring, and modifies expression of metabolic genes. Our data indicate that nutritional programming mechanisms could be highly conserved and support the use of Drosophila as a model for evaluating the underlying genetic and epigenetic contributions to this phenomenon.

  15. The translation factors of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J.; Attrill, Helen; Lasko, Paul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Synthesis of polypeptides from mRNA (translation) is a fundamental cellular process that is coordinated and catalyzed by a set of canonical ‘translation factors’. Surprisingly, the translation factors of Drosophila melanogaster have not yet been systematically identified, leading to inconsistencies in their nomenclature and shortcomings in functional (Gene Ontology, GO) annotations. Here, we describe the complete set of translation factors in D. melanogaster, applying nomenclature already in widespread use in other species, and revising their functional annotation. The collection comprises 43 initiation factors, 12 elongation factors, 3 release factors and 6 recycling factors, totaling 64 of which 55 are cytoplasmic and 9 are mitochondrial. We also provide an overview of notable findings and particular insights derived from Drosophila about these factors. This catalog, together with the incorporation of the improved nomenclature and GO annotation into FlyBase, will greatly facilitate access to information about the functional roles of these important proteins. PMID:27494710

  16. Plasticity in the Drosophila larval visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abud J Farca-Luna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable ability of the nervous system to modify its structure and function is mostly experience and activity modulated. The molecular basis of neuronal plasticity has been studied in higher behavioral processes, such as learning and memory formation. However, neuronal plasticity is not restricted to higher brain functions, but may provide a basic feature of adaptation of all neural circuits. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful genetic model to gain insight into the molecular basis of nervous system development and function. The nervous system of the larvae is again a magnitude simpler than its adult counter part, allowing the genetic assessment of a number of individual genetically identifiable neurons. We review here recent progress on the genetic basis of neuronal plasticity in developing and functioning neural circuits focusing on the simple visual system of the Drosophila larva.

  17. Predatory cannibalism in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendravarma, Roshan K; Narasimha, Sunitha; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2013-01-01

    Hunting live prey is risky and thought to require specialized adaptations. Therefore, observations of predatory cannibalism in otherwise non-carnivorous animals raise questions about its function, adaptive significance and evolutionary potential. Here we document predatory cannibalism on larger conspecifics in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and address its evolutionary significance. We found that under crowded laboratory conditions younger larvae regularly attack and consume 'wandering-stage' conspecifics, forming aggregations mediated by chemical cues from the attacked victim. Nutrition gained this way can be significant: an exclusively cannibalistic diet was sufficient for normal development from eggs to fertile adults. Cannibalistic diet also induced plasticity of larval mouth parts. Finally, during 118 generations of experimental evolution, replicated populations maintained under larval malnutrition evolved enhanced propensity towards cannibalism. These results suggest that, at least under laboratory conditions, predation on conspecifics in Drosophila is a functional, adaptive behaviour, which can rapidly evolve in response to nutritional conditions.

  18. Development of larval motor circuits in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Okusawa, Satoko; Itakura, Yuki; Fushiki, Akira; Nose, Akinao

    2012-04-01

    How are functional neural circuits formed during development? Despite recent advances in our understanding of the development of individual neurons, little is known about how complex circuits are assembled to generate specific behaviors. Here, we describe the ways in which Drosophila motor circuits serve as an excellent model system to tackle this problem. We first summarize what has been learned during the past decades on the connectivity and development of component neurons, in particular motor neurons and sensory feedback neurons. We then review recent progress in our understanding of the development of the circuits as well as studies that apply optogenetics and other innovative techniques to dissect the circuit diagram. New approaches using Drosophila as a model system are now making it possible to search for developmental rules that regulate the construction of neural circuits.

  19. Remembering components of food in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav eDas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Remembering features of past feeding experience can refine foraging and food choice. Insects can learn to associate sensory cues with components of food, such as sugars, amino acids, water, salt, alcohol, toxins and pathogens. In the fruit fly Drosophila some food components activate unique subsets of dopaminergic neurons that innervate distinct functional zones on the mushroom bodies. This architecture suggests that the overall dopaminergic neuron population could provide a potential cellular substrate through which the fly might learn to value a variety of food components. In addition, such an arrangement predicts that individual component memories reside in unique locations. Dopaminergic neurons are also critical for food memory consolidation and deprivation-state dependent motivational control of the expression of food-relevant memories. Here we review our current knowledge of how nutrient-specific memories are formed, consolidated and specifically retrieved in insects, with a particular emphasis on Drosophila.

  20. Exquisite Light Sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster Cryptochrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayak, Pooja; Coupar, Jamie; Hughes, S. Emile; Fozdar, Preeya; Kilby, Jack; Garren, Emma; Yoshii, Taishi; Hirsh, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster shows exquisite light sensitivity for modulation of circadian functions in vivo, yet the activities of the Drosophila circadian photopigment cryptochrome (CRY) have only been observed at high light levels. We studied intensity/duration parameters for light pulse induced circadian phase shifts under dim light conditions in vivo. Flies show far greater light sensitivity than previously appreciated, and show a surprising sensitivity increase with pulse duration, implying a process of photic integration active up to at least 6 hours. The CRY target timeless (TIM) shows dim light dependent degradation in circadian pacemaker neurons that parallels phase shift amplitude, indicating that integration occurs at this step, with the strongest effect in a single identified pacemaker neuron. Our findings indicate that CRY compensates for limited light sensitivity in vivo by photon integration over extraordinarily long times, and point to select circadian pacemaker neurons as having important roles. PMID:23874218

  1. Three-dimensional imaging of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeanne McGurk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The major hindrance to imaging the intact adult Drosophila is that the dark exoskeleton makes it impossible to image through the cuticle. We have overcome this obstacle and describe a method whereby the internal organs of adult Drosophila can be imaged in 3D by bleaching and clearing the adult and then imaging using a technique called optical projection tomography (OPT. The data is displayed as 2D optical sections and also in 3D to provide detail on the shape and structure of the adult anatomy. METHODOLOGY: We have used OPT to visualize in 2D and 3D the detailed internal anatomy of the intact adult Drosophila. In addition this clearing method used for OPT was tested for imaging with confocal microscopy. Using OPT we have visualized the size and shape of neurodegenerative vacuoles from within the head capsule of flies that suffer from age-related neurodegeneration due to a lack of ADAR mediated RNA-editing. In addition we have visualized tau-lacZ expression in 2D and 3D. This shows that the wholemount adult can be stained without any manipulation and that this stain penetrates well as we have mapped the localization pattern with respect to the internal anatomy. CONCLUSION: We show for the first time that the intact adult Drosophila can be imaged in 3D using OPT, also we show that this method of clearing is also suitable for confocal microscopy to image the brain from within the intact head. The major advantage of this is that organs can be represented in 3D in their natural surroundings. Furthermore optical sections are generated in each of the three planes and are not prone to the technical limitations that are associated with manual sectioning. OPT can be used to dissect mutant phenotypes and to globally map gene expression in both 2D and 3D.

  2. Psychomotor Behavior: A Practical Approach in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadi, Konstantin G.; Gluscencova, Oxana B.; Boulianne, Gabrielle L

    2016-01-01

    Psychomotor behaviors are governed by fine relationships between physical activity and cognitive functions. Disturbances in psychomotor development and performance are a hallmark of many mental illnesses and often appear as observable and measurable behaviors. Here, we describe a new method called an “equilibrist test,” which can be used to quantify psychomotor learning and performance in Drosophila. We also show how this test can be used to quantify motor disturbances at relatively early sta...

  3. Innate immunity in Drosophila: Pathogens and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Govind, Shubha

    2008-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of traditional developmental genetics, research over the last 15 years has shown that innate immunity against bacteria and fungi is governed largely by two NF-κB signal transduction pathways, Toll and IMD. Antiviral immunity appears to stem from RNA interference, whereas resistance against parasitoids is conferred by Toll signaling. The identification of these post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms and the annotation of most Drosophila immunity genes have derive...

  4. Detection of Cell Death in Drosophila Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Deepika; Ryoo, Hyung Don

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila has served as a particularly attractive model to study cell death due to the vast array of tools for genetic manipulation under defined spatial and temporal conditions in vivo as well as in cultured cells. These genetic methods have been well supplemented by enzymatic assays and a panel of antibodies recognizing cell death markers. This chapter discusses reporters, mutants and assays used by various laboratories to study cell death in the context of development and in response to external insults. PMID:27108437

  5. Modelling planar cell polarity in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    During development, polarity is a common feature of many cell types. One example is the polarisation of whole fields of epithelial cells within the plane of the epithelium, a phenomenon called planar cell polarity (PCP). It is widespread in nature and plays important roles in development and physiology. Prominent examples include the epithelial cells of external structures of insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, polarised tissue morphogenesis in vertebrates and sensory hair cel...

  6. Neurophysiology of Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ryan J H; Furmston, Rebecca; Williams, Charles A C; Elliott, Christopher J H

    2015-01-01

    We provide an insight into the role Drosophila has played in elucidating neurophysiological perturbations associated with Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related genes. Synaptic signalling deficits are observed in motor, central, and sensory systems. Given the neurological impact of disease causing mutations within these same genes in humans the phenotypes observed in fly are of significant interest. As such we observe four unique opportunities provided by fly nervous system models of Parkinson's disease. Firstly, Drosophila models are instrumental in exploring the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, with several PD-related mutations eliciting related phenotypes including sensitivity to energy supply and vesicular deformities. These are leading to the identification of plausible cellular mechanisms, which may be specific to (dopaminergic) neurons and synapses rather than general cellular phenotypes. Secondly, models show noncell autonomous signalling within the nervous system, offering the opportunity to develop our understanding of the way pathogenic signalling propagates, resembling Braak's scheme of spreading pathology in PD. Thirdly, the models link physiological deficits to changes in synaptic structure. While the structure-function relationship is complex, the genetic tractability of Drosophila offers the chance to separate fundamental changes from downstream consequences. Finally, the strong neuronal phenotypes permit relevant first in vivo drug testing.

  7. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Niewalda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila.

  8. Pervasive natural selection in the Drosophila genome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Sella

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades, the predominant view of molecular evolution saw little connection between natural selection and genome evolution, assuming that the functionally constrained fraction of the genome is relatively small and that adaptation is sufficiently infrequent to play little role in shaping patterns of variation within and even between species. Recent evidence from Drosophila, reviewed here, suggests that this view may be invalid. Analyses of genetic variation within and between species reveal that much of the Drosophila genome is under purifying selection, and thus of functional importance, and that a large fraction of coding and noncoding differences between species are adaptive. The findings further indicate that, in Drosophila, adaptations may be both common and strong enough that the fate of neutral mutations depends on their chance linkage to adaptive mutations as much as on the vagaries of genetic drift. The emerging evidence has implications for a wide variety of fields, from conservation genetics to bioinformatics, and presents challenges to modelers and experimentalists alike.

  9. Homolog pairing and segregation in Drosophila meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, B D

    2009-01-01

    Pairing of homologous chromosomes is fundamental to their reliable segregation during meiosis I and thus underlies sexual reproduction. In most eukaryotes homolog pairing is confined to prophase of meiosis I and is accompanied by frequent exchanges, known as crossovers, between homologous chromatids. Crossovers give rise to chiasmata, stable interhomolog connectors that are required for bipolar orientation (orientation to opposite poles) of homologs during meiosis I. Drosophila is unique among model eukaryotes in exhibiting regular homolog pairing in mitotic as well as meiotic cells. I review the results of recent molecular studies of pairing in both mitosis and meiosis in Drosophila. These studies show that homolog pairing is continuous between pre-meiotic mitosis and meiosis but that pairing frequencies and patterns are altered during the mitotic-meiotic transition. They also show that, with the exception of X-Y pairing in male meiosis, which is mediated specifically by the 240-bp rDNA spacer repeats, chromosome pairing is not restricted to specific sites in either mitosis or meiosis. Instead, virtually all chromosome regions, both heterochromatic and euchromatic, exhibit autonomous pairing capacity. Mutations that reduce the frequencies of both mitotic and meiotic pairing have been recently described, but no mutations that abolish pairing completely have been discovered, and the genetic control of pairing in Drosophila remains to be elucidated.

  10. Specification of the somatic musculature in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobi, Krista C; Schulman, Victoria K; Baylies, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    The somatic muscle system formed during Drosophila embryogenesis is required for larvae to hatch, feed, and crawl. This system is replaced in the pupa by a new adult muscle set, responsible for activities such as feeding, walking, and flight. Both the larval and adult muscle systems are comprised of distinct muscle fibers to serve these specific motor functions. In this way, the Drosophila musculature is a valuable model for patterning within a single tissue: while all muscle cells share properties such as the contractile apparatus, properties such as size, position, and number of nuclei are unique for a particular muscle. In the embryo, diversification of muscle fibers relies first on signaling cascades that pattern the mesoderm. Subsequently, the combinatorial expression of specific transcription factors leads muscle fibers to adopt particular sizes, shapes, and orientations. Adult muscle precursors (AMPs), set aside during embryonic development, proliferate during the larval phases and seed the formation of the abdominal, leg, and flight muscles in the adult fly. Adult muscle fibers may either be formed de novo from the fusion of the AMPs, or are created by the binding of AMPs to an existing larval muscle. While less is known about adult muscle specification compared to the larva, expression of specific transcription factors is also important for its diversification. Increasingly, the mechanisms required for the diversification of fly muscle have found parallels in vertebrate systems and mark Drosophila as a robust model system to examine questions about how diverse cell types are generated within an organism.

  11. The Ran pathway in Drosophila melanogaster mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Wakefield

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the small GTPase Ran has emerged as a central regulator of both mitosis and meiosis, particularly in the generation, maintenance and regulation of the microtubule (MT-based bipolar spindle. Ran-regulated pathways in mitosis bear many similarities to the well-characterized functions of Ran in nuclear transport and, as with transport, the majority of these mitotic effects are mediated through affecting the physical interaction between karyopherins and Spindle Assembly Factors (SAFs - a loose term describing proteins or protein complexes involved in spindle assembly through promoting nucleation, stabilization, and/or depolymerization of MTs, through anchoring MTs to specific structures such as centrosomes, chromatin or kinetochores, or through sliding MTs along each other to generate the force required to achieve bipolarity. As such, the Ran-mediated pathway represents a crucial functional module within the wider spindle assembly landscape. Research into mitosis using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster has contributed substantially to our understanding of centrosome and spindle function. However, in comparison to mammalian systems, very little is known about the contribution of Ran-mediated pathways in Drosophila mitosis. This article sets out to summarize our understanding of the roles of the Ran pathway components in Drosophila mitosis, focusing on the syncytial blastoderm embryo, arguing that, far from being superfluous, it can provide important insights into the conserved functions on Ran during spindle formation.

  12. KIF27 is one of orthologs for Drosophila Costal-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2004-12-01

    Signals of Hedgehog family proteins (SHH, IHH and DHH) are transduced through Patched family receptors (PTCH1 and PTCH2) and Smoothened (SMO) to GLI family transcription factors (GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3). SHH plays a key role in development and progression of pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, basal cell carcinoma, and brain tumors. Drosophila Costal-2 (Cos2) is implicated in the Hedgehog pathway through the interaction with Smoothened (Smo), Cubitus interruptus (Ci), Fused (Fu), and microtubule; however, mammalian ortholog of Drosophila Cos2 remained to be identified. Here we identified and characterized human ortholog of Drosophila Cos2 by using bioinformatics. Full-length Drosophila Cos2 was most homologous to human KIF27, followed by mouse Kif7, and other KIF family members. KIF27 gene at human chromosome 9q22.1 and KIF7 gene at human chromosome 15q26.1 were paralogs within the human genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KIF27, Kif7, KIF4A, KIF4B and KIF21A constitute the KIF27 subfamily among mammalian Kinesin family. Drosophila Cos2 protein consists of Kinesin motor (KISc) domain, Ci-binding domain, and Smo-binding domain. KIF27 itself shared the common domain structure with Drosophila Cos2, while other members of KIF27 subfamily shared partial domain structure with Drosophila Cos2. These facts indicate that KIF27 is one of mammalian orthologs for Drosophila Cos2.

  13. The developmental transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Connecticut; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brooks, Angela N.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Duff, Michael O.; Landolin, Jane M.; Yang, Li; Artieri, Carlo G.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Boley, Nathan; Booth, Benjamin W.; Brown, James B.; Cherbas, Lucy; Davis, Carrie A.; Dobin, Alex; Li, Renhua; Lin, Wei; Malone, John H.; Mattiuzzo, Nicolas R.; Miller, David; Sturgill, David; Tuch, Brian B.; Zaleski, Chris; Zhang, Dayu; Blanchette, Marco; Dudoit, Sandrine; Eads, Brian; Green, Richard E.; Hammonds, Ann; Jiang, Lichun; Kapranov, Phil; Langton, Laura; Perrimon, Norbert; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Yi; Andrews, Justen; Bicke, Peter J.; Brenner, Steven E.; Brent, Michael R.; Cherbas, Peter; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Oliver, Brian; Celniker, Susan E.

    2010-12-02

    Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most well studied genetic model organisms; nonetheless, its genome still contains unannotated coding and non-coding genes, transcripts, exons and RNA editing sites. Full discovery and annotation are pre-requisites for understanding how the regulation of transcription, splicing and RNA editing directs the development of this complex organism. Here we used RNA-Seq, tiling microarrays and cDNA sequencing to explore the transcriptome in 30 distinct developmental stages. We identified 111,195 new elements, including thousands of genes, coding and non-coding transcripts, exons, splicing and editing events, and inferred protein isoforms that previously eluded discovery using established experimental, prediction and conservation-based approaches. These data substantially expand the number of known transcribed elements in the Drosophila genome and provide a high-resolution view of transcriptome dynamics throughout development. Drosophila melanogaster is an important non-mammalian model system that has had a critical role in basic biological discoveries, such as identifying chromosomes as the carriers of genetic information and uncovering the role of genes in development. Because it shares a substantial genic content with humans, Drosophila is increasingly used as a translational model for human development, homeostasis and disease. High-quality maps are needed for all functional genomic elements. Previous studies demonstrated that a rich collection of genes is deployed during the life cycle of the fly. Although expression profiling using microarrays has revealed the expression of, 13,000 annotated genes, it is difficult to map splice junctions and individual base modifications generated by RNA editing using such approaches. Single-base resolution is essential to define precisely the elements that comprise the Drosophila transcriptome. Estimates of the number of transcript isoforms are less accurate than estimates of the number of genes

  14. Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism to study nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cynthia; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry; Cai, Yu; Bay, Boon-Huat; Baeg, Gyeong-Hun

    2015-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an in vivo model organism for the study of genetics and development since 100 years ago. Recently, the fruit fly Drosophila was also developed as an in vivo model organism for toxicology studies, in particular, the field of nanotoxicity. The incorporation of nanomaterials into consumer and biomedical products is a cause for concern as nanomaterials are often associated with toxicity in many in vitro studies. In vivo animal studies of the toxicity of nanomaterials with rodents and other mammals are, however, limited due to high operational cost and ethical objections. Hence, Drosophila, a genetically tractable organism with distinct developmental stages and short life cycle, serves as an ideal organism to study nanomaterial-mediated toxicity. This review discusses the basic biology of Drosophila, the toxicity of nanomaterials, as well as how the Drosophila model can be used to study the toxicity of various types of nanomaterials.

  15. Rhodopsin 7–The unusual Rhodopsin in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Rhodopsins are the major photopigments in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila express six well-characterized Rhodopsins (Rh1–Rh6) with distinct absorption maxima and expression pattern. In 2000, when the Drosophila genome was published, a novel Rhodopsin gene was discovered: Rhodopsin 7 (Rh7). Rh7 is highly conserved among the Drosophila genus and is also found in other arthropods. Phylogenetic trees based on protein sequences suggest that the seven Drosophila Rhodopsins cluster in three different groups. While Rh1, Rh2 and Rh6 form a “vertebrate-melanopsin-type”–cluster, and Rh3, Rh4 and Rh5 form an “insect-type”-Rhodopsin cluster, Rh7 seem to form its own cluster. Although Rh7 has nearly all important features of a functional Rhodopsin, it differs from other Rhodopsins in its genomic and structural properties, suggesting it might have an overall different role than other known Rhodopsins. PMID:27651995

  16. Rhodopsin 7–The unusual Rhodopsin in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingkalai R. Senthilan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodopsins are the major photopigments in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila express six well-characterized Rhodopsins (Rh1–Rh6 with distinct absorption maxima and expression pattern. In 2000, when the Drosophila genome was published, a novel Rhodopsin gene was discovered: Rhodopsin 7 (Rh7. Rh7 is highly conserved among the Drosophila genus and is also found in other arthropods. Phylogenetic trees based on protein sequences suggest that the seven Drosophila Rhodopsins cluster in three different groups. While Rh1, Rh2 and Rh6 form a “vertebrate-melanopsin-type”–cluster, and Rh3, Rh4 and Rh5 form an “insect-type”-Rhodopsin cluster, Rh7 seem to form its own cluster. Although Rh7 has nearly all important features of a functional Rhodopsin, it differs from other Rhodopsins in its genomic and structural properties, suggesting it might have an overall different role than other known Rhodopsins.

  17. Isolation of protease-free alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Drosophila simulans and several homozygous and heterozygous Drosophila melanogaster variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilda, T; Lamme, DA; Collu, G; Jekel, PA; Reinders, P; Beintema, JJ

    1998-01-01

    The enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from several naturally occurring ADH variants of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans Lc,as isolated. Affinity chromatography with the ligand Cibacron Blue and elution with NAD(+) showed similar behavior for D. melanogaster ADH-FF, ADH-71k, and D. si

  18. Rapid and highly accurate detection of Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii, the spotted wing drosophila (SWD), is currently a major pest that causes severe economic losses to thin-skinned, small fruit growers in North America and Europe. The monitoring and early detection of SWD in the field is of the utmost importance for its proper management. Althou...

  19. Biological effects of radon in Drosophila; Efectos biologicos del radon en Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel P, A.E.; Tavera D, L.; Cruces M, M.P.; Arceo M, C.; Rosa D, M.E. de la

    1992-04-15

    The main objective of this investigation, is to study the biological effects of the Radon-222 at low dose in 'Drosophila melanogaster'. It is necessary to mention that these effects will analyze from the genetic point of view for: 1) To evaluate in which form the Radon-222 to low dose it influences in some genetic components of the adaptation in Drosophila, such as: fecundity, viability egg-adult and sex proportion. 2) To evaluate which is the genetic effect that induces the Radon to low dose by means of the SMART technique in Drosophila melanogaster, and this way to try of to identify which is the possible mechanism that causes the genetic damage to somatic level. The carried out investigation was divided in three stages: 1. Tests to the vacuum resistance. 2. Test of somatic mutation, and 3. Determination of the presence of radon daughters on the adult of Drosophila. It is necessary to point out that all the experiments were made by triplicate and in each one of them was placed detectors in preset places. Those obtained results are presented inside the 4 charts included in the present work. (Author)

  20. New Drosophila P-like elements and reclassification of Drosophila P-elements subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Elgion L S; Zambra, Francis M B; Ortiz, Mauro F; Robe, Lizandra J

    2012-07-01

    Genomic searches for P-like transposable elements were performed (1) in silico in the 12 available Drosophila genomes and (2) by PCR using degenerate primers in 21 Neotropical Drosophila species. In silico searches revealed P-like sequences only in Drosophila persimilis and Drosophila willistoni. Sixteen new P-like elements were obtained by PCR. These sequences were added to sequences of previously described P-like elements, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. The subfamilies of P-elements described in the literature (Canonical, M, O, T, and K) were included in the reconstructed tree, and all were monophyletic. However, we suggest that some subfamilies can be enlarged, other subdivided, and some new subfamilies may be proposed, totalizing eleven subfamilies, most of which contain new P-like sequences. Our analyses support the monophyly of P-like elements in Drosophilidae. We suggest that, once these elements need host-specific factors to be mobilizable, the horizontal transfer (HT) of P-like elements may be inhibited among more distant taxa. Nevertheless, HT among Drosophilidae species appears to be a common phenomenon.

  1. Yeast Communities of Diverse Drosophila Species: Comparison of Two Symbiont Groups in the Same Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The combination of ecological diversity with genetic and experimental tractability makes Drosophila a powerful model for the study of animal-associated microbial communities. Despite the known importance of yeasts in Drosophila physiology, behavior, and fitness, most recent work has focused on Drosophila-bacterial interactions. In order to get a more complete understanding of the Drosophila microbiome, we characterized the yeast communities associated with different Drosophila species collect...

  2. First record of spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Hrnčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly species was unexpectedly detected in Tephri traps baited with the three-component female-biased attractant BioLure that is regularly used for monitoring the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Montenegro. Brief visual inspection identified the new species as the spotted wing drosophila D. suzukii. The pest was first recorded in several localities on the Montenegrin seacoast around Boka Kotor Bay. After the finding, all Drosophila specimens were collected from traps for further laboratory observation. A quick follow-up monitoring of other Tephri traps was carried out within the next few days on the rest of the seacoast (localities from Tivat to Ulcinj. Additionally, Tephri traps were set up around Lake Skadar and in the city of Podgorica, as well as on fresh fruit markets in Podgorica. The results of this preliminary study showed that D. suzukii was present in all surveyed locations and adults were captured until late December. Both sexes were found in traps with BioLure. Our data show that D. suzukii is present in southern parts of Montenegro and there is a serious threat of its further spreading, particularly towards northern parts of the country where the main raspberry and blueberry production is placed. The results also show that Tephri traps baited with BioLure can be used for detection and monitoring of spotted wing drosophila.

  3. Appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Rohwedder, Astrid; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Thum, Andreas S

    2013-02-18

    In the following we describe the methodological details of appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae. The setup, in combination with genetic interference, provides a handle to analyze the neuronal and molecular fundamentals of specifically associative learning in a simple larval brain. Organisms can use past experience to adjust present behavior. Such acquisition of behavioral potential can be defined as learning, and the physical bases of these potentials as memory traces. Neuroscientists try to understand how these processes are organized in terms of molecular and neuronal changes in the brain by using a variety of methods in model organisms ranging from insects to vertebrates. For such endeavors it is helpful to use model systems that are simple and experimentally accessible. The Drosophila larva has turned out to satisfy these demands based on the availability of robust behavioral assays, the existence of a variety of transgenic techniques and the elementary organization of the nervous system comprising only about 10,000 neurons (albeit with some concessions: cognitive limitations, few behavioral options, and richness of experience questionable). Drosophila larvae can form associations between odors and appetitive gustatory reinforcement like sugar. In a standard assay, established in the lab of B. Gerber, animals receive a two-odor reciprocal training: A first group of larvae is exposed to an odor A together with a gustatory reinforcer (sugar reward) and is subsequently exposed to an odor B without reinforcement. Meanwhile a second group of larvae receives reciprocal training while experiencing odor A without reinforcement and subsequently being exposed to odor B with reinforcement (sugar reward). In the following both groups are tested for their preference between the two odors. Relatively higher preferences for the rewarded odor reflect associative learning--presented as a performance index (PI). The conclusion regarding the associative

  4. Whole genome phylogenies for multiple Drosophila species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharam Arun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructing the evolutionary history of organisms using traditional phylogenetic methods may suffer from inaccurate sequence alignment. An alternative approach, particularly effective when whole genome sequences are available, is to employ methods that don’t use explicit sequence alignments. We extend a novel phylogenetic method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD to reconstruct the phylogeny of 12 sequenced Drosophila species. SVD analysis provides accurate comparisons for a high fraction of sequences within whole genomes without the prior identification of orthologs or homologous sites. With this method all protein sequences are converted to peptide frequency vectors within a matrix that is decomposed to provide simplified vector representations for each protein of the genome in a reduced dimensional space. These vectors are summed together to provide a vector representation for each species, and the angle between these vectors provides distance measures that are used to construct species trees. Results An unfiltered whole genome analysis (193,622 predicted proteins strongly supports the currently accepted phylogeny for 12 Drosophila species at higher dimensions except for the generally accepted but difficult to discern sister relationship between D. erecta and D. yakuba. Also, in accordance with previous studies, many sequences appear to support alternative phylogenies. In this case, we observed grouping of D. erecta with D. sechellia when approximately 55% to 95% of the proteins were removed using a filter based on projection values or by reducing resolution by using fewer dimensions. Similar results were obtained when just the melanogaster subgroup was analyzed. Conclusions These results indicate that using our novel phylogenetic method, it is possible to consult and interpret all predicted protein sequences within multiple whole genomes to produce accurate phylogenetic estimations of relatedness between

  5. Ion channels to inactivate neurons in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J L Hodge

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels are the determinants of excitability; therefore, manipulation of their levels and properties provides an opportunity for the investigator to modulate neuronal and circuit function. There are a number of ways to suppress electrical activity in Drosophila neurons, for instance, over-expression of potassium channels (i.e. Shaker Kv1, Shaw Kv3, Kir2.1 and DORK that are open at resting membrane potential. This will result in increased potassium efflux and membrane hyperpolarisation setting resting membrane potential below the threshold required to fire action potentials. Alternatively over-expression of other channels, pumps or co-transporters that result in a hyperpolarised membrane potential will also prevent firing. Lastly, neurons can be inactivated by, disrupting or reducing the level of functional voltage-gated sodium (Nav1 paralytic or calcium (Cav2 cacophony channels that mediate the depolarisation phase of action potentials. Similarly, strategies involving the opposite channel manipulation should allow net depolarisation and hyperexcitation in a given neuron. These changes in ion channel expression can be brought about by the versatile transgenic (i.e. Gal4/UAS based systems available in Drosophila allowing fine temporal and spatial control of (channel transgene expression. These systems are making it possible to electrically inactivate (or hyperexcite any neuron or neural circuit in the fly brain, and much like an exquisite lesion experiment, potentially elucidate whatever interesting behaviour or phenotype each network mediates. These techniques are now being used in Drosophila to reprogram electrical activity of well-defined circuits and bring about robust and easily quantifiable changes in behaviour, allowing different models and hypotheses to be rapidly tested.

  6. Role of spectraplakin in Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyen Ngoc Mui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crumbs (Crb, a cell polarity gene, has been shown to provide a positional cue for the apical membrane domain and adherens junction during Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis. It has recently been found that stable microtubules in developing Drosophila photoreceptors were linked to Crb localization. Coordinated interactions between microtubule and actin cytoskeletons are involved in many polarized cellular processes. Since Spectraplakin is able to bind both microtubule and actin cytoskeletons, the role of Spectraplakin was analyzed in the regulations of apical Crb domain in developing Drosophila photoreceptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The localization pattern of Spectraplakin in developing pupal photoreceptors showed a unique intracellular distribution. Spectraplakin localized at rhabdomere terminal web which is at the basal side of the apical Crb or rhabdomere, and in between the adherens junctions. The spectraplakin mutant photoreceptors showed dramatic mislocalizations of Crb, adherens junctions, and the stable microtubules. This role of Spectraplakin in Crb and adherens junction regulation was further supported by spectraplakin's gain-of-function phenotype. Spectraplakin overexpression in photoreceptors caused a cell polarity defect including dramatic mislocalization of Crb, adherens junctions and the stable microtubules in the developing photoreceptors. Furthermore, a strong genetic interaction between spectraplakin and crb was found using a genetic modifier test. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we found a unique localization of Spectraplakin in photoreceptors, and identified the role of spectraplakin in the regulation of the apical Crb domain and adherens junctions through genetic mutational analysis. Our data suggest that Spectraplakin, an actin-microtubule cross-linker, is essential in the apical and adherens junction controls during the photoreceptors morphogenesis.

  7. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  8. The Drosophila melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vasu Sheeba

    2008-12-01

    As an experimental model system, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been seminal in shaping our understanding of the circadian clockwork. The wealth of genetic tools at our disposal over the past four decades has enabled discovery of the genetic and molecular bases of circadian rhythmicity. More recently, detailed investigation leading to the anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological characterization of the various neuronal subgroups that comprise the circadian machinery has revealed pathways through which these neurons come together to act as a neuronal circuit. Thus the D. melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit presents a relatively simple and attractive model for the study of neuronal circuits and their functions.

  9. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, Wolfgang [BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Mikkelsen, Nils Egil [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Centre, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Clausen, Anders Ranegaard [Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund (Sweden); Willer, Mette [ZGene A/S, Agern Alle 7, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark); Eklund, Hans [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Centre, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Gojkovic, Zoran [ZGene A/S, Agern Alle 7, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark); Piskur, Jure, E-mail: Jure.Piskur@cob.lu.se [BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 A resolution structure of Dm-dNK in complex with gemcitabine shows that the residues Tyr70 and Arg105 play a crucial role in the firm positioning of gemcitabine by extra interactions made by the fluoride atoms. This explains why gemcitabine is a good substrate for Dm-dNK.

  10. Acetylation regulates Jun protein turnover in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daoyong; Suganuma, Tamaki; Workman, Jerry L

    2013-11-01

    C-Jun is a major transcription factor belonging to the activating protein 1 (AP-1) family. Phosphorylation has been shown to be critical for c-Jun activation and stability. Here, we report that Jra, the Drosophila Jun protein, is acetylated in vivo. We demonstrate that the acetylation of Jra leads to its rapid degradation in response to osmotic stress. Intriguingly, we also found that Jra phosphorylation antagonized its acetylation, indicating the opposite roles of acetylation and phosphorylation in Jra degradation process under osmotic stress. Our results provide new insights into how c-Jun proteins are precisely regulated by the interplay of different posttranslational modifications.

  11. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Niewalda; Ines Jeske; Birgit Michels; Bertram Gerber

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group ...

  12. Microfluidic system with integrated microinjector for automated Drosophila embryo injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delubac, Daniel; Highley, Christopher B; Witzberger-Krajcovic, Melissa; Ayoob, Joseph C; Furbee, Emily C; Minden, Jonathan S; Zappe, Stefan

    2012-11-21

    Drosophila is one of the most important model organisms in biology. Knowledge derived from the recently sequenced 12 genomes of various Drosophila species can today be combined with the results of more than 100 years of research to systematically investigate Drosophila biology at the molecular level. In order to enable automated, high-throughput manipulation of Drosophila embryos, we have developed a microfluidic system based on a Pyrex-silicon-Pyrex sandwich structure with integrated, surface-micromachined silicon nitride injector for automated injection of reagents. Our system automatically retrieves embryos from an external reservoir, separates potentially clustered embryos through a sheath flow mechanisms, passively aligns an embryo with the integrated injector through geometric constraints, and pushes the embryo onto the injector through flow drag forces. Automated detection of an embryo at injection position through an external camera triggers injection of reagents and subsequent ejection of the embryo to an external reservoir. Our technology can support automated screens based on Drosophila embryos as well as creation of transgenic Drosophila lines. Apart from Drosophila embryos, the layout of our system can be easily modified to accommodate injection of oocytes, embryos, larvae, or adults of other species and fills an important technological gap with regard to automated manipulation of multicellular organisms.

  13. Characterization of maltase clusters in the genus Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriško, Marek; Janeček, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    To reveal evolutionary history of maltase gene family in the genus Drosophila, we undertook a bioinformatics study of maltase genes from available genomes of 12 Drosophila species. Molecular evolution of a closely related glycoside hydrolase, the α-amylase, in Drosophila has been extensively studied for a long time. The α-amylases were even used as a model of evolution of multigene families. On the other hand, maltase, i.e., the α-glucosidase, got only scarce attention. In this study, we, therefore, investigated spatial organization of the maltase genes in Drosophila genomes, compared the amino acid sequences of the encoded enzymes and analyzed the intron/exon composition of orthologous genes. We found that the Drosophila maltases are more numerous than previously thought (ten instead of three genes) and are localized in two clusters on two chromosomes (2L and 2R). To elucidate the approximate time line of evolution of the clusters, we estimated the order and dated duplication of all the 10 genes. Both clusters are the result of ancient series of subsequent duplication events, which took place from 352 to 61 million years ago, i.e., well before speciation to extant Drosophila species. Also observed was a remarkable intron/exon composition diversity of particular maltase genes of these clusters, probably a result of independent intron loss after duplication of intron-rich gene ancestor, which emerged well before speciation in a common ancestor of all extant Drosophila species.

  14. Evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia by a Drosophila mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy N; Lloyd, Vett K

    2015-07-01

    Mites are common ectoparasites of Drosophila and have been implicated in bacterial and mobile element invasion of Drosophila stocks. The obligate endobacterium, Wolbachia, has widespread effects on gene expression in their arthropod hosts and alters host reproduction to enhance its survival and propagation, often with deleterious effects in Drosophila hosts. To determine whether Wolbachia could be transferred between Drosophila melanogaster laboratory stocks by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, mites were introduced to Wolbachia-infected Drosophila vials. These vials were kept adjacent to mite-free and Wolbachia-uninfected Drosophila stock vials. The Wolbachia infection statuses of the infected and uninfected flies were checked from generation 1 to 5. Results indicate that Wolbachia DNA could be amplified from mites infesting Wolbachia-infected fly stocks and infection in the previously uninfected stocks arose within generation 1 or 2, concomitant with invasion of mites from the Wolbachia-infected stock. A possible mechanism for the transfer of Wolbachia from flies to mites and vice versa, can be inferred from time-lapse photography of fly and mite interactions. We demonstrated that mites ingest Drosophila corpses, including Wolbachia-infected corpses, and Drosophila larva ingest mites, providing possible sources of Wolbachia infection and transfer. This research demonstrated that T. putrescentiae white mites can facilitate Wolbachia transfer between Drosophila stocks and that this may occur by ingestion of infected corpses. Mite-vectored Wolbachia transfer allows for rapid establishment of Wolbachia infection within a new population. This mode of Wolbachia introduction may be relevant in nature as well as in the laboratory, and could have a variety of biological consequences.

  15. Logical modelling of Drosophila signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbodj, Abibatou; Junion, Guillaume; Brun, Christine; Furlong, Eileen E M; Thieffry, Denis

    2013-09-01

    A limited number of signalling pathways are involved in the specification of cell fate during the development of all animals. Several of these pathways were originally identified in Drosophila. To clarify their roles, and possible cross-talk, we have built a logical model for the nine key signalling pathways recurrently used in metazoan development. In each case, we considered the associated ligands, receptors, signal transducers, modulators, and transcription factors reported in the literature. Implemented using the logical modelling software GINsim, the resulting models qualitatively recapitulate the main characteristics of each pathway, in wild type as well as in various mutant situations (e.g. loss-of-function or gain-of-function). These models constitute pluggable modules that can be used to assemble comprehensive models of complex developmental processes. Moreover, these models of Drosophila pathways could serve as scaffolds for more complicated models of orthologous mammalian pathways. Comprehensive model annotations and GINsim files are provided for each of the nine considered pathways.

  16. Drosophila and the hallmarks of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofi, Theodoulakis; Apidianakis, Yiorgos

    2013-01-01

    : Cancer was the disease of the twentieth century. Today it is still a leading cause of death worldwide despite being intensively investigated. Abundant knowledge exists regarding the pathological and molecular mechanisms that drive healthy cells to become malignant and form metastatic tumors. The relation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors to the genetic trigger of carcinogenesis is unquestionable. However, the development of the disease requires many characteristics that due to their proven role in cancer are collectively described as the "hallmarks of cancer." We highlight here the historic discoveries made using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and its contributions to biomedical and cancer research. Flies are utilized as a model organism for the investigation of each and every aspect of cancer hallmarks. Due to the significant conservation between flies and mammals at the signaling and tissue physiology level it is possible to explore the genes and mechanisms responsible for cancer pathogenesis in flies. Recent Drosophila studies suggest novel aspects of therapeutic intervention and are expected to guide cancer research in the twenty-first century.

  17. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Manjunatha; Shantala Hari Dass; Vijay Kumar Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Extensive research has been carried out to understand how circadian clocks regulate various physiological processes in organisms. The discovery of clock genes and the molecular clockwork has helped researchers to understand the possible role of these genes in regulating various metabolic processes. In Drosophila melanogaster, many studies have shown that the basic architecture of circadian clocks is multi-oscillatory. In nature, different neuronal subgroups in the brain of D. melanogaster have been demonstrated to control different circadian behavioural rhythms or different aspects of the same circadian rhythm. Among the circadian phenomena that have been studied so far in Drosophila, the egg-laying rhythm is unique, and relatively less explored. Unlike most other circadian rhythms, the egg-laying rhythm is rhythmic under constant light conditions, and the endogenous or free-running period of the rhythm is greater than those of most other rhythms. Although the clock genes and neurons required for the persistence of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms have been studied extensively, those underlying the circadian egg-laying rhythm still remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the circadian egg-laying rhythm in D. melanogaster, and the possible molecular and physiological mechanisms that control the rhythmic output of the egg-laying process.

  18. The complexity of Drosophila innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Reumer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metazoans rely on efficient mechanisms to oppose infections caused by pathogens. The immediate and first-line defense mechanism(s in metazoans, referred to as the innate immune system, is initiated upon recognition of microbial intruders by germline encoded receptors and is executed by a set of rapid effector mechanisms. Adaptive immunity is restricted to vertebrate species and it is controlled and assisted by the innate immune system.Interestingly, most of the basic signaling cascades that regulate the primeval innate defense mechanism(s have been well conserved during evolution, for instance between humans and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Being devoid of adaptive signaling and effector systems, Drosophila has become an established model system for studying pristine innate immune cascades and reactions. In general, an immune response is evoked when microorganisms pass the fruit fly’s physical barriers (e.g., cuticle, epithelial lining of gut and trachea, and it is mainly executed in the hemolymph, the equivalent of the mammalian blood. Innate immunity in the fruit fly consists of a phenoloxidase (PO response, a cellular response (hemocytes, an antiviral response, and the NF-κB dependent production of antimicrobial peptides referred to as the humoral response. The JAK/STAT and Jun kinase signaling cascades are also implicated in the defence against pathogens.

  19. Fascin regulates nuclear actin during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelpsch, Daniel J; Groen, Christopher M; Fagan, Tiffany N; Sudhir, Sweta; Tootle, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Drosophila oogenesis provides a developmental system with which to study nuclear actin. During Stages 5-9, nuclear actin levels are high in the oocyte and exhibit variation within the nurse cells. Cofilin and Profilin, which regulate the nuclear import and export of actin, also localize to the nuclei. Expression of GFP-tagged Actin results in nuclear actin rod formation. These findings indicate that nuclear actin must be tightly regulated during oogenesis. One factor mediating this regulation is Fascin. Overexpression of Fascin enhances nuclear GFP-Actin rod formation, and Fascin colocalizes with the rods. Loss of Fascin reduces, whereas overexpression of Fascin increases, the frequency of nurse cells with high levels of nuclear actin, but neither alters the overall nuclear level of actin within the ovary. These data suggest that Fascin regulates the ability of specific cells to accumulate nuclear actin. Evidence indicates that Fascin positively regulates nuclear actin through Cofilin. Loss of Fascin results in decreased nuclear Cofilin. In addition, Fascin and Cofilin genetically interact, as double heterozygotes exhibit a reduction in the number of nurse cells with high nuclear actin levels. These findings are likely applicable beyond Drosophila follicle development, as the localization and functions of Fascin and the mechanisms regulating nuclear actin are widely conserved.

  20. Cellular Mechanisms of Drosophila Heart Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Vogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many of the major discoveries in the fields of genetics and developmental biology have been made using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. With regard to heart development, the conserved network of core cardiac transcription factors that underlies cardiogenesis has been studied in great detail in the fly, and the importance of several signaling pathways that regulate heart morphogenesis, such as Slit/Robo, was first shown in the fly model. Recent technological advances have led to a large increase in the genomic data available from patients with congenital heart disease (CHD. This has highlighted a number of candidate genes and gene networks that are potentially involved in CHD. To validate genes and genetic interactions among candidate CHD-causing alleles and to better understand heart formation in general are major tasks. The specific limitations of the various cardiac model systems currently employed (mammalian and fish models provide a niche for the fly model, despite its evolutionary distance to vertebrates and humans. Here, we review recent advances made using the Drosophila embryo that identify factors relevant for heart formation. These underline how this model organism still is invaluable for a better understanding of CHD.

  1. Lamin C and chromatin organization in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. V. Gurudatta; L. S. Shashidhara; Veena K. Parnaik

    2010-04-01

    Drosophila lamin C (LamC) is a developmentally regulated component of the nuclear lamina. The lamC gene is situated in the fifth intron of the essential gene tout velu (ttv). We carried out genetic analysis of lamC during development. Phenotypic analyses of RNAi-mediated downregulation of lamC expression as well as targeted misexpression of lamin C suggest a role for lamC in cell survival. Of particular interest in the context of laminopathies is the caspase-dependent apoptosis induced by the overexpression of lamin C. Interestingly, misexpression of lamin C in the central nervous system, where it is not normally expressed, did not affect organization of the nuclear lamina. lamC mutant alleles suppressed position effect variegation normally displayed at near-centromeric and telomeric regions. Further, both downregulation and misexpression of lamin C affected the distribution of heterochromatin protein 1. Our results suggest that Drosophila lamC has a tissue-specific role during development and is required for chromatin organization.

  2. Drosophila roadblock and Chlamydomonas Lc7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Aaron B.; Patel-King, Ramila S.; Benashski, Sharon E.; McCaffery, J. Michael; Goldstein, Lawrence S.B.; King, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms utilize microtubule-dependent motors of the kinesin and dynein superfamilies to generate intracellular movement. To identify new genes involved in the regulation of axonal transport in Drosophila melanogaster, we undertook a screen based upon the sluggish larval phenotype of known motor mutants. One of the mutants identified in this screen, roadblock (robl), exhibits diverse defects in intracellular transport including axonal transport and mitosis. These defects include intra-axonal accumulations of cargoes, severe axonal degeneration, and aberrant chromosome segregation. The gene identified by robl encodes a 97–amino acid polypeptide that is 57% identical (70% similar) to the 105–amino acid Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein–associated protein LC7, also reported here. Both robl and LC7 have homology to several other genes from fruit fly, nematode, and mammals, but not Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we demonstrate that members of this family of proteins are associated with both flagellar outer arm dynein and Drosophila and rat brain cytoplasmic dynein. We propose that roadblock/LC7 family members may modulate specific dynein functions. PMID:10402468

  3. Behavioural reproductive isolation and speciation in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Punita Nanda; Bashisth Narayan Singh

    2012-06-01

    The origin of premating reproductive isolation continues to help elucidate the process of speciation and is the central event in the evolution of biological species. Therefore, during the process of species formation the diverging populations must acquire some means of reproductive isolation so that the genes from one gene pool are prevented from dispersing freely into a foreign gene pool. In the genus Drosophila, the phenomenon of behavioural reproductive isolation, which is an important type of premating (prezygotic) reproductive isolating mechanisms, has been extensively studied and interesting data have been documented. In many cases incomplete sexual isolation has been observed and the pattern and degree of isolation within and between the species have often been used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships. The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural incompatibility in different species groups of Drosophila with particular reference to the models proposed on the basis of one-sided ethological isolation to predict the direction of evolution. This study is crucial for understanding the mechanism of speciation through behavioural incompatibility and also for an understanding of speciation genetics in future prospects.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Genomic Organization of a Novel Receptor from Drosophila melanogaster Structurally Related to Mammalian Galanin Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Camilla; Søndergaard, L.; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P.

    2000-01-01

    neurobiologi, molekylærbiologi, zoologi, neurohormonereceptor, allatostatin, galanin, insekt, Drosophila......neurobiologi, molekylærbiologi, zoologi, neurohormonereceptor, allatostatin, galanin, insekt, Drosophila...

  5. The dominant mutation Suppressor of black indicates that de novo pyrimindine biosynthesis is involved in the Drosophila tan pigmentation pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Kolbak, D.; Søndergaard, Leif

    1993-01-01

    Pyrimidines, beta-alanine, cuticle, drosophila, pyrimidine analogs, molecular genetics, rudimentary......Pyrimidines, beta-alanine, cuticle, drosophila, pyrimidine analogs, molecular genetics, rudimentary...

  6. [The applications and advantages of Drosophila melanogaster in cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guitao; Lu, Jianjun; Qu, Zhe; Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Di; Yang, Yanwei; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used to study human disease as a model organism for many years. Many basic biological, physiological, and neurological properties are conserved between mammals and fly. Moreover, Drosophila melanogaster has its unique advantage as a model organism. Recent studies showed that the high level of signaling pathway conservation in tumorigenesis between fly and human and its feasible genetic operation make fly an effective model for oncology research. Numerous research findings showed Drosophila melanogaster was an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis. This review mainly focuses on the advantages of Drosophila melanogaster in cancer research, established models used for the research of specific cancers and prospective research direction of oncology. It is hoped that this paper can provide insight for cancer research and development of anti-cancer drugs.

  7. Why clone flies? Using cloned Drosophila to monitor epigenetic defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Andrew J; Lloyd, Vett K

    2007-01-01

    Since the birth of the first cloned sheep in 1996, advances in nuclear transplantation have led to both the creation of genetically tailored stem cells and the generation of a number of cloned organisms. The list of cloned animals reared to adulthood currently includes the frog, sheep, mouse, cow, goat, pig, rabbit, cat, zebrafish, mule, horse, rat and dog. The addition of Drosophila to this elite bestiary of cloned animals has prompted the question - why clone flies? Organisms generated by nuclear transplantation suffer from a high rate of associated defects, and many of these defects appear to be related to aberrant genomic imprinting. Imprinted gene expression also appears to be compromised in Drosophila clones. Proper imprinted gene regulation relies on a suite of highly conserved chromatin-modifying genes first identified in Drosophila. Thus, Drosophila can potentially be used to study epigenetic dysfunction in cloned animals and to screen for genetic and epigenetic conditions that promote the production of healthy clones.

  8. Is premating isolation in Drosophila overestimated due to uncontrolled factors?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pelayo Casares; Rafael Piñeiro; Maria C. Carracedo

    2005-12-01

    Sexual isolation in Drosophila is typically measured by multiple-choice mating tests. While many environmental variables during such tests are controlled by the researcher, there are some factors that are usually uncontrolled. We demonstrate, using Drosophila melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura flies, that the temperature of rearing, preadult density, and level of consanguinity, can all produce differences in mating propensity between genetically equivalent flies. These differences in mating propensity, in turn, can give rise to statistically significant results in multiple-choice mating tests, leading to positive isolation values and the artifactual inference of sexual isolation between populations. This fact agrees with a nonrandom excess of significant positive tests found in a review of the literature of Drosophila intraspecific mating choice. An overestimate of true cases of sexual isolation in Drosophila in the literature can, therefore, not be ruled out.

  9. Molecular evolution of a Drosophila homolog of human BRCA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sarah M; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2009-11-01

    The human cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, functions in double-strand break repair by homologous recombination, and it appears to function via interaction of a repetitive region ("BRC repeats") with RAD-51. A putatively simpler homolog, dmbrca2, was identified in Drosophila melanogaster recently and also affects mitotic and meiotic double-strand break repair. In this study, we examined patterns of repeat variation both within Drosophila pseudoobscura and among available Drosophila genome sequences. We identified extensive variation within and among closely related Drosophila species in BRC repeat number, to the extent that variation within this genus recapitulates the extent of variation found across the entire animal kingdom. We describe patterns of evolution across species by documenting recent repeat expansions (sometimes in tandem arrays) and homogenizations within available genome sequences. Overall, we have documented patterns and modes of evolution in a new model system of a gene which is important to human health.

  10. Functional conservation of a glucose-repressible amylase gene promoter from Drosophila virilis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulas, C; Loverre-Chyurlia, A; Abukashawa, S; Bally-Cuif, L; Hickey, D A

    1993-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of the alpha-amylase gene is repressed by dietary glucose in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we show that the alpha-amylase gene of a distantly related species, D. virilis, is also subject to glucose repression. Moreover, the cloned amylase gene of D. virilis is shown to be glucose repressible when it is transiently expressed in D. melanogaster larvae. This cross-species, functional conservation is mediated by a 330-bp promoter region of the D. virilis amylase gene. These results indicate that the promoter elements required for glucose repression are conserved between distantly related Drosophila species. A sequence comparison between the amylase genes of D. virilis and D. melanogaster shows that the promoter sequences diverge to a much greater degree than the coding sequences. The amylase promoters of the two species do, however, share small clusters of sequence similarity, suggesting that these conserved cis-acting elements are sufficient to control the glucose-regulated expression of the amylase gene in the genus Drosophila.

  11. Sex ratios in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Salceda Victor M.; Arceo-Maldonado Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Most species show an equal proportion of individuals of both sexes. In diploid species sex ratio is determined by a genic balance between sex chromosomes. In Drosophila sex is determined by the ratio of X- chromosomes versus autosomes and in some species of the genus it is related to the presence of an inversion in the sex chromosome. The present work analyses the sex ratio in 27 natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that inhabit Mexico. Female fl...

  12. Concerted evolution of duplicated protein-coding genes in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, D. A.; Bally-Cuif, L.; Abukashawa, S; Payant, V; Benkel, B F

    1991-01-01

    Very rapid rates of gene conversion were observed between duplicated alpha-amylase-coding sequences in Drosophila melanogaster. This gene conversion process was also seen in the related species Drosophila erecta. Specifically, there is virtual sequence identity between the coding regions of the two genes within each species, while the sequence divergence between species is close to that expected based on their phylogenetic relationship. The flanking, noncoding regions are much more highly div...

  13. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  14. Effects of Transgenic Expression of Botulinum Toxins in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Backhaus, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Clostridial neurotoxins (botulinum toxins and tetanus toxin) disrupt neurotransmitter release by cleaving neuronal SNARE proteins. We generated transgenic flies allowing for conditional expression of different botulinum toxins and evaluated their potential as tools for the analysis of synaptic and neuronal network function in Drosophila melanogaster by applying biochemical assays and behavioral analysis. On the biochemical level, cleavage assays in cultured Drosophila S2 cells were performed ...

  15. Drosophila as a genetically tractable model for social insect behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Alison L. Camiletti; Thompson, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    The relatively simple communication, breeding, and egg-making systems that govern reproduction in female Drosophila retain homology to eusocial species in which these same systems are modified to the social condition. Despite having no parental care, division of labor, or subfertile caste, Drosophila may nonetheless offer a living test of certain sociobiological hypotheses framed around gene function. In this review, we make this case, and do so around the recent discovery that the non-social...

  16. Understanding the neurogenetics of sleep: progress from Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Harbison, Susan T.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.; Robert R H Anholt

    2009-01-01

    Most behaviors manifest themselves through interactions with environments. Sleep, however, is characterized by immobility and reduced responsiveness. Although nearly all animals sleep, the purpose of sleep remains an enduring puzzle. Drosophila melanogaster exhibits all the behavioral characteristics of mammalian sleep, enabling the use of powerful genetic approaches to dissect conserved fundamental neurogenetic aspects of sleep. Drosophila studies over the past four years have identified nov...

  17. Recent efforts to model human diseases in vivo in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Cathie M; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2008-01-01

    Upon completion of sequencing the Drosophila genome, it was estimated that 61% of human disease-associated genes had sequence homologs in flies, and in some diseases such as cancer, the number was as high as 68%. We now know that as many as 75% of the genes associated with genetic disease have counterparts in Drosophila. Using better tools for mutation detection, association studies and whole genome analysis the number of human genes associated with genetic disease is steadily increasing. These detection efforts are outpacing the ability to assign function and understand the underlying cause of the disease at the molecular level. Drosophila models can therefore advance human disease research in a number of ways by: establishing the normal role of these gene products during development, elucidating the mechanism underlying disease pathology, and even identifying candidate therapeutic agents for the treatment of human disease. At the 49(th) Annual Drosophila Research Conference in San Diego this year, a number of labs presented their exciting findings on Drosophila models of human disease in both platform presentations and poster sessions. Here we can only briefly review some of these developments, and we apologize that we do not have the time or space to review all of the findings presented which use Drosophila to understand human disease etiology.

  18. Simulation of gene pyramiding in Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Gene pyramiding has been successfully practiced in plant breeding for developing new breeds or lines in which favorable genes from several different lines were integrated.But it has not been used in animal breeding,and some theoretical investigation and simulation analysis with respect to its strategies,feasibility and efficiency are needed before it can be implemented in animals.In this study,we used four different pure fines of Drosophila melanogaster,each of which is homozygous at a specific mutant gene with a visible effect on phenotype,to simulate the gene pyramiding process and analyze the duration and population size required in different pyramiding strategies.We finally got the ideal individuals,which are homozygous at the four target genes simultaneously.This study demonstrates that gene pyramiding is feasible in animal breeding and the interaction between genes may affect the final results.

  19. Transcription Factor Networks in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Y. Rhee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific cellular fates and functions depend on differential gene expression, which occurs primarily at the transcriptional level and is controlled by complex regulatory networks of transcription factors (TFs. TFs act through combinatorial interactions with other TFs, cofactors, and chromatin-remodeling proteins. Here, we define protein-protein interactions using a coaffinity purification/mass spectrometry method and study 459 Drosophila melanogaster transcription-related factors, representing approximately half of the established catalog of TFs. We probe this network in vivo, demonstrating functional interactions for many interacting proteins, and test the predictive value of our data set. Building on these analyses, we combine regulatory network inference models with physical interactions to define an integrated network that connects combinatorial TF protein interactions to the transcriptional regulatory network of the cell. We use this integrated network as a tool to connect the functional network of genetic modifiers related to mastermind, a transcriptional cofactor of the Notch pathway.

  20. Multiscale modeling of dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Shev

    2014-11-01

    The role of mathematical models of signaling networks is showcased by examples from Drosophila development. Three models of consecutive stages in dorsoventral patterning are presented. We begin with a compartmental model of intracellular reactions that generates a gradient of nuclear-localized Dorsal, exhibiting constant shape and dynamic amplitude. A simple thermodynamic model of equilibrium binding explains how a spatially uniform transcription factor, Zelda, can act in combination with a graded factor, Dorsal, to cooperatively regulate gene expression borders. Finally, we formulate a dynamic and stochastic model that predicts spatiotemporal patterns of Sog expression based on known patterns of its transcription factor, Dorsal. The future of coupling multifarious models across multiple temporal and spatial scales is discussed.

  1. Heritability of Directional Asymmetry in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J. R. Carter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional asymmetry (DA, the consistent difference between a pair of morphological structures in which the same side is always larger than the other, presents an evolutionary mystery. Although many paired traits show DA, genetic variation for DA has not been unambiguously demonstrated. Artificial selection is a powerful technique for uncovering selectable genetic variation; we review and critique the limited number of previous studies that have been performed to select on DA and present the results of a novel artificial selection experiment on the DA of posterior crossvein location in Drosophila wings. Fifteen generations of selection in two genetically distinct lines were performed and none of the lines showed a significant response to selection. Our results therefore support and reconfirm previous findings; despite apparent natural variation and evolution of DA in nature, DA remains a paradoxical trait that does not respond to artificial selection.

  2. Studying cytokinesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D; Bellaïche, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial tissue cohesiveness is ensured through cell-cell junctions that maintain both adhesion and mechanical coupling between neighboring cells. During development, epithelial tissues undergo intensive cell proliferation. Cell division, and particularly cytokinesis, is coupled to the formation of new adhesive contacts, thereby preserving tissue integrity and propagating cell polarity. Remarkably, the geometry of the new interfaces is determined by the combined action of the dividing cell and its neighbors. To further understand the interplay between the dividing cell and its neighbors, as well as the role of cell division for tissue morphogenesis, it is important to analyze cytokinesis in vivo. Here we present methods to perform live imaging of cell division in Drosophila epithelial tissues and discuss some aspects of image processing and analysis.

  3. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  4. Innate immunity in Drosophila: Pathogens and pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubha Govind

    2008-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of traditional developmental genetics, research over the last 15 years has shown that innate immunity against bacteria and fungi is governed largely by two NF-κB signal transduction pathways, Toll and IMD. Antiviral immunity appears to stem from RNA interference, whereas resistance against parasitoids is conferred by Toll signaling. The identification of these post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms and the annotation of most Drosophila immunity genes have derived from functional genomic studies using "model" pathogens, intact animals and cell lines. The D. melanogaster host has thus provided the core information that can be used to study responses to natural microbial and metazoan pathogens as they become identified, as well as to test ideas of selection and evolutionary change. These analyses are of general importance to understanding mechanisms of other insect host-pathogen interactions and determinants of variation in host resistance.

  5. Ancient Anxiety Pathways Influence Drosophila Defense Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Farhan; Aryal, Sameer; Ho, Joses; Stewart, James Charles; Norman, Nurul Ayuni; Tan, Teng Li; Eisaka, Agnese; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Anxiety helps us anticipate and assess potential danger in ambiguous situations [1, 2, 3]; however, the anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of psychiatric illness [4, 5, 6]. Emotional states are shared between humans and other animals [7], as observed by behavioral manifestations [8], physiological responses [9], and gene conservation [10]. Anxiety research makes wide use of three rodent behavioral assays—elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box—that present a choice between sheltered and exposed regions [11]. Exposure avoidance in anxiety-related defense behaviors was confirmed to be a correlate of rodent anxiety by treatment with known anxiety-altering agents [12, 13, 14] and is now used to characterize anxiety systems. Modeling anxiety with a small neurogenetic animal would further aid the elucidation of its neuronal and molecular bases. Drosophila neurogenetics research has elucidated the mechanisms of fundamental behaviors and implicated genes that are often orthologous across species. In an enclosed arena, flies stay close to the walls during spontaneous locomotion [15, 16], a behavior proposed to be related to anxiety [17]. We tested this hypothesis with manipulations of the GABA receptor, serotonin signaling, and stress. The effects of these interventions were strikingly concordant with rodent anxiety, verifying that these behaviors report on an anxiety-like state. Application of this method was able to identify several new fly anxiety genes. The presence of conserved neurogenetic pathways in the insect brain identifies Drosophila as an attractive genetic model for the study of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, complementing existing rodent systems. PMID:27020741

  6. The Evolution of Olfactory Gene Families in Drosophila and the Genomic Basis of chemical-Ecological Adaptation in Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Sukanya; Ometto, Lino; Crava, Cristina M.; Revadi, Santosh; Kaur, Rupinder; Horner, David S.; Pisani, Davide; Dekker, Teun; Anfora, Gianfranco; Rota-Stabelli, Omar

    2016-01-01

    How the evolution of olfactory genes correlates with adaption to new ecological niches is still a debated topic. We explored this issue in Drosophila suzukii, an emerging model that reproduces on fresh fruit rather than in fermenting substrates like most other Drosophila. We first annotated the repertoire of odorant receptors (ORs), odorant binding proteins (OBPs), and antennal ionotropic receptors (aIRs) in the genomes of two strains of D. suzukii and of its close relative Drosophila biarmipes. We then analyzed these genes on the phylogeny of 14 Drosophila species: whereas ORs and OBPs are characterized by higher turnover rates in some lineages including D. suzukii, aIRs are conserved throughout the genus. Drosophila suzukii is further characterized by a non-random distribution of OR turnover on the gene phylogeny, consistent with a change in selective pressures. In D. suzukii, we found duplications and signs of positive selection in ORs with affinity for short-chain esters, and loss of function of ORs with affinity for volatiles produced during fermentation. These receptors—Or85a and Or22a—are characterized by divergent alleles in the European and American genomes, and we hypothesize that they may have been replaced by some of the duplicated ORs in corresponding neurons, a hypothesis reciprocally confirmed by electrophysiological recordings. Our study quantifies the evolution of olfactory genes in Drosophila and reveals an array of genomic events that can be associated with the ecological adaptations of D. suzukii. PMID:27435796

  7. Chloride channels in the plasma membrane of a foetal Drosophila cell line, S2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Margit; Willumsen, Niels J.

    2000-01-01

    S2 cells, Cl- Channels, Expression system, Drosophila, Inward rectifier, Outward rectifier, Patch clamp......S2 cells, Cl- Channels, Expression system, Drosophila, Inward rectifier, Outward rectifier, Patch clamp...

  8. Research progress on Drosophila visual cognition in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Visual cognition,as one of the fundamental aspects of cognitive neuroscience,is generally associated with high-order brain functions in animals and human.Drosophila,as a model organism,shares certain features of visual cognition in common with mammals at the genetic,molecular,cellular,and even higher behavioral levels.From learning and memory to decision making,Drosophila covers a broad spectrum of higher cognitive behaviors beyond what we had expected.Armed with powerful tools of genetic manipulation in Drosophila,an increasing number of studies have been conducted in order to elucidate the neural circuit mechanisms underlying these cognitive behaviors from a genes-brain-behavior perspective.The goal of this review is to integrate the most important studies on visual cognition in Drosophila carried out in mainland China during the last decade into a body of knowledge encompassing both the basic neural operations and circuitry of higher brain function in Drosophila.Here,we consider a series of the higher cognitive behaviors beyond learning and memory,such as visual pattern recognition,feature and context generalization,different feature memory traces,salience-based decision,attention-like behavior,and cross-modal leaning and memory.We discuss the possible general gain-gating mechanism implementing by dopamine-mushroom body circuit in fly’s visual cognition.We hope that our brief review on this aspect will inspire further study on visual cognition in flies,or even beyond.

  9. Go contributes to olfactory reception in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seven-transmembrane receptors typically mediate olfactory signal transduction by coupling to G-proteins. Although insect odorant receptors have seven transmembrane domains like G-protein coupled receptors, they have an inverted membrane topology and function as ligand-gated cation channels. Consequently, the involvement of cyclic nucleotides and G proteins in insect odor reception is controversial. Since the heterotrimeric Goα subunit is expressed in Drosophila olfactory receptor neurons, we reasoned that Go acts together with insect odorant receptor cation channels to mediate odor-induced physiological responses. Results To test whether Go dependent signaling is involved in mediating olfactory responses in Drosophila, we analyzed electroantennogram and single-sensillum recording from flies that conditionally express pertussis toxin, a specific inhibitor of Go in Drosophila. Pertussis toxin expression in olfactory receptor neurons reversibly reduced the amplitude and hastened the termination of electroantennogram responses induced by ethyl acetate. The frequency of odor-induced spike firing from individual sensory neurons was also reduced by pertussis toxin. These results demonstrate that Go signaling is involved in increasing sensitivity of olfactory physiology in Drosophila. The effect of pertussis toxin was independent of odorant identity and intensity, indicating a generalized involvement of Go in olfactory reception. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Go is required for maximal physiological responses to multiple odorants in Drosophila, and suggest that OR channel function and G-protein signaling are required for optimal physiological responses to odors.

  10. Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huaqi, E-mail: Huaqi.Jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu [Department of Developmental Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX, 75235 (United States); Edgar, Bruce A., E-mail: b.edgar@dkfz.de [ZMBH-DKFZ Alliance, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave. N., Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Drosophila has long been an excellent model organism for studying stem cell biology. Notably, studies of Drosophila's germline stem cells have been instrumental in developing the stem cell niche concept. The recent discovery of somatic stem cells in adult Drosophila, particularly the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of the midgut, has established Drosophila as an exciting model to study stem cell-mediated adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Here, we review the major signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila ISCs, discussing how this regulation maintains midgut homeostasis and mediates regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homeostasis and regeneration of adult fly midguts are mediated by ISCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damaged enterocytes induce the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGFR and Jak/Stat signalings mediate compensatory ISC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch signaling regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation.

  11. Drosophila adult and larval pheromones modulate larval food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Jean-Pierre; Cortot, Jérôme; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2014-06-07

    Insects use chemosensory cues to feed and mate. In Drosophila, the effect of pheromones has been extensively investigated in adults, but rarely in larvae. The colonization of natural food sources by Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila simulans species may depend on species-specific chemical cues left in the food by larvae and adults. We identified such chemicals in both species and measured their influence on larval food preference and puparation behaviour. We also tested compounds that varied between these species: (i) two larval volatile compounds: hydroxy-3-butanone-2 and phenol (predominant in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, respectively), and (ii) adult cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs). Drosophila buzzatii larvae were rapidly attracted to non-CH adult conspecific cues, whereas D. simulans larvae were strongly repulsed by CHs of the two species and also by phenol. Larval cues from both species generally reduced larval attraction and pupariation on food, which was generally--but not always--low, and rarely reflected larval response. As these larval and adult pheromones specifically influence larval food search and the choice of a pupariation site, they may greatly affect the dispersion and survival of Drosophila species in nature.

  12. big bang gene modulates gut immune tolerance in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnay, François; Cohen-Berros, Eva; Hoffmann, Martine; Kim, Sabrina Y.; Boulianne, Gabrielle L.; Hoffmann, Jules A.; Matt, Nicolas; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestine is detrimental to mammals. Similarly, constant activation of the immune response in the gut by the endogenous flora is suspected to be harmful to Drosophila. Therefore, the innate immune response in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster is tightly balanced to simultaneously prevent infections by pathogenic microorganisms and tolerate the endogenous flora. Here we describe the role of the big bang (bbg) gene, encoding multiple membrane-associated PDZ (PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1) domain-containing protein isoforms, in the modulation of the gut immune response. We show that in the adult Drosophila midgut, BBG is present at the level of the septate junctions, on the apical side of the enterocytes. In the absence of BBG, these junctions become loose, enabling the intestinal flora to trigger a constitutive activation of the anterior midgut immune response. This chronic epithelial inflammation leads to a reduced lifespan of bbg mutant flies. Clearing the commensal flora by antibiotics prevents the abnormal activation of the gut immune response and restores a normal lifespan. We now provide genetic evidence that Drosophila septate junctions are part of the gut immune barrier, a function that is evolutionarily conserved in mammals. Collectively, our data suggest that septate junctions are required to maintain the subtle balance between immune tolerance and immune response in the Drosophila gut, which represents a powerful model to study inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:23378635

  13. big bang gene modulates gut immune tolerance in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnay, François; Cohen-Berros, Eva; Hoffmann, Martine; Kim, Sabrina Y; Boulianne, Gabrielle L; Hoffmann, Jules A; Matt, Nicolas; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2013-02-19

    Chronic inflammation of the intestine is detrimental to mammals. Similarly, constant activation of the immune response in the gut by the endogenous flora is suspected to be harmful to Drosophila. Therefore, the innate immune response in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster is tightly balanced to simultaneously prevent infections by pathogenic microorganisms and tolerate the endogenous flora. Here we describe the role of the big bang (bbg) gene, encoding multiple membrane-associated PDZ (PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1) domain-containing protein isoforms, in the modulation of the gut immune response. We show that in the adult Drosophila midgut, BBG is present at the level of the septate junctions, on the apical side of the enterocytes. In the absence of BBG, these junctions become loose, enabling the intestinal flora to trigger a constitutive activation of the anterior midgut immune response. This chronic epithelial inflammation leads to a reduced lifespan of bbg mutant flies. Clearing the commensal flora by antibiotics prevents the abnormal activation of the gut immune response and restores a normal lifespan. We now provide genetic evidence that Drosophila septate junctions are part of the gut immune barrier, a function that is evolutionarily conserved in mammals. Collectively, our data suggest that septate junctions are required to maintain the subtle balance between immune tolerance and immune response in the Drosophila gut, which represents a powerful model to study inflammatory bowel diseases.

  14. Three new species of Drosophila tripunctata group (Diptera: Drosophilidae in the eastern Andes of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ramos Guillín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the Drosophila tripunctata group are described and illustrated. These new species were captured using plastic bottles containing pieces of fermented banana with yeast. The collections were from Napo Province, Ecuador at 2 200 m and 3 362 m above sea level. The new species are: Drosophila napoensis sp. nov., Drosophila cuyuja sp. nov. and Drosophila quijos sp. nov. The first two species belong to subgroup I and the latter species belong to subgroup III of the Drosophila tripunctata group.

  15. Comparative population genomics of latitudinal variation in Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Heather E; Bergland, Alan O; O'Brien, Katherine R; Behrman, Emily L; Schmidt, Paul S; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    Examples of clinal variation in phenotypes and genotypes across latitudinal transects have served as important models for understanding how spatially varying selection and demographic forces shape variation within species. Here, we examine the selective and demographic contributions to latitudinal variation through the largest comparative genomic study to date of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster, with genomic sequence data from 382 individual fruit flies, collected across a spatial transect of 19 degrees latitude and at multiple time points over 2 years. Consistent with phenotypic studies, we find less clinal variation in D. simulans than D. melanogaster, particularly for the autosomes. Moreover, we find that clinally varying loci in D. simulans are less stable over multiple years than comparable clines in D. melanogaster. D. simulans shows a significantly weaker pattern of isolation by distance than D. melanogaster and we find evidence for a stronger contribution of migration to D. simulans population genetic structure. While population bottlenecks and migration can plausibly explain the differences in stability of clinal variation between the two species, we also observe a significant enrichment of shared clinal genes, suggesting that the selective forces associated with climate are acting on the same genes and phenotypes in D. simulans and D. melanogaster.

  16. POSH misexpression induces caspase-dependent cell death in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Ashley L; Stronach, Beth

    2010-02-01

    POSH (Plenty of SH3 domains) is a scaffold for signaling proteins regulating cell survival. Specifically, POSH promotes assembly of a complex including Rac GTPase, mixed lineage kinase (MLK), MKK7, and Jun kinase (JNK). In Drosophila, genetic analysis implicated POSH in Tak1-dependent innate immune response, in part through regulation of JNK signaling. Homologs of the POSH signaling complex components, MLK and MKK7, are essential in Drosophila embryonic dorsal closure. Using a gain-of-function approach, we tested whether POSH plays a role in this process. Ectopic expression of POSH in the embryo causes dorsal closure defects due to apoptosis of the amnioserosa, but ectodermal JNK signaling is normal. Phenotypic consequences of POSH expression were found to be dependent on Drosophila Nc, the caspase-9 homolog, but only partially on Tak1 and not at all on Slpr and Hep. These results suggest that POSH may use different signaling complexes to promote cell death in distinct contexts.

  17. Chemical genetics and drug screening in Drosophila cancer models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mara Gladstone; Tin Tin Su

    2011-01-01

    Drug candidates often fail in preclinical and clinical testing because of reasons of efficacy and/or safety.It would be time- and cost-efficient to have screening models that reduce the rate of such false positive candidates that appear promising at first but fail later.In this regard,it would be particularly useful to have a rapid and inexpensive whole animal model that can pre-select hits from high-throughput screens but before testing in costly rodent assays.Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a potential whole animal model for drug screening.Of particular interest have been drugs that must act in the context of multi-cellularity such as those for neurological disorders and cancer.A recent review provides a comprehensive summary of drug screening in Drosophila,but with an emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders.Here,we review Drosophila screens in the literature aimed at cancer therapeutics.

  18. RNA editing in Drosophila melanogaster: new targets and functionalconsequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, Mark; Carlson, Joseph W.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2006-09-05

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine in primary mRNA transcripts. These re-coding events affect coding potential, splice-sites, and stability of mature mRNAs. ADAR is an essential gene and studies in mouse, C. elegans, and Drosophila suggest its primary function is to modify adult behavior by altering signaling components in the nervous system. By comparing the sequence of isogenic cDNAs to genomic DNA, we have identified and experimentally verified 27 new targets of Drosophila ADAR. Our analyses lead us to identify new classes of genes whose transcripts are targets of ADAR including components of the actin cytoskeleton, and genes involved in ion homeostasis and signal transduction. Our results indicate that editing in Drosophila increases the diversity of the proteome, and does so in a manner that has direct functional consequences on protein function.

  19. Drosophila as a genetic model for studying pathogenic human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tamara T; Allen, Amanda L; Bardin, Joseph E; Christian, Megan N; Daimon, Kansei; Dozier, Kelsey D; Hansen, Caom L; Holcomb, Lisa M; Ahlander, Joseph

    2012-02-05

    Viruses are infectious particles whose viability is dependent on the cells of living organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and animals. It is of great interest to discover how viruses function inside host cells in order to develop therapies to treat virally infected organisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studying the molecular mechanisms of replication, amplification, and cellular consequences of human viruses. In this review, we describe the advantages of using Drosophila as a model system to study human viruses, and highlight how Drosophila has been used to provide unique insight into the gene function of several pathogenic viruses. We also propose possible directions for future research in this area.

  20. Three-Dimensional Genome Organization and Function in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Yuri B.; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how the metazoan genome is used during development and cell differentiation is one of the major challenges in the postgenomic era. Early studies in Drosophila suggested that three-dimensional (3D) chromosome organization plays important regulatory roles in this process and recent technological advances started to reveal connections at the molecular level. Here we will consider general features of the architectural organization of the Drosophila genome, providing historical perspective and insights from recent work. We will compare the linear and spatial segmentation of the fly genome and focus on the two key regulators of genome architecture: insulator components and Polycomb group proteins. With its unique set of genetic tools and a compact, well annotated genome, Drosophila is poised to remain a model system of choice for rapid progress in understanding principles of genome organization and to serve as a proving ground for development of 3D genome-engineering techniques. PMID:28049701

  1. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibranovski, Maria D

    2014-01-01

    In several different taxa, there is indubitable evidence of transcriptional silencing of the X and Y chromosomes in male meiotic cells of spermatogenesis. However, the so called meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) has been recently a hot bed for debate in Drosophila melanogaster. This review covers cytological and genetic observations, data from transgenic constructs with testis-specific promoters, global expression profiles obtained from mutant, wild-type, larvae and adult testes as well as from cells of different stages of spermatogenesis. There is no dispute on that D. melanogaster spermatogenesis presents a down-regulation of X chromosome that does not result from the lack of dosage compensation. However, the issue is currently focused on the level of reduction of X-linked expression, the precise time it occurs and how many genes are affected. The deep examination of data and experiments in this review exposes the limitations intrinsic to the methods of studying MSCI in D. melanogaster. The current methods do not allow us to affirm anything else than the X chromosome down-regulation in meiosis (MSCI). Therefore, conclusion about level, degree or precise timing is inadequate until new approaches are implemented to know the details of MSCI or other processes involved for D. melanogaster model.

  2. How food controls aggression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod S Lim

    Full Text Available How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs.

  3. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alex; Louis, Matthieu; Webb, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  4. Tracking individual nanodiamonds in Drosophila melanogaster embryos

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, David A; Kowarsky, Mark; Zeeshan, Nida F; Barson, Michael S J; Hall, Liam; Yan, Yan; Kaufmann, Stefan; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; Caruso, Frank; Scholten, Robert; Saint, Robert B; Murray, Michael J; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2013-01-01

    Tracking the dynamics of fluorescent nanoparticles during embryonic development allows insights into the physical state of the embryo and, potentially, molecular processes governing developmental mechanisms. In this work, we investigate the motion of individual fluorescent nanodiamonds micro-injected into Drosophila melanogaster embryos prior to cellularisation. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and wide-field imaging techniques are applied to individual fluorescent nanodiamonds in blastoderm cells during stage 5 of development to a depth of ~40 \\mu m. The majority of nanodiamonds in the blastoderm cells during cellularisation exhibit free diffusion with an average diffusion coefficient of (6 $\\pm$ 3) x 10$^{-3}$ \\mu m$^2$/s, (mean $\\pm$ SD). Driven motion in the blastoderm cells was also observed with an average velocity of 0.13 $\\pm$ 0.10 \\mu m/s (mean $\\pm$ SD) \\mu m/s and an average applied force of 0.07 $\\pm$ 0.05 pN (mean $\\pm$ SD). Nanodiamonds in the periplasm between the nuclei and yolk were also...

  5. Insulin signaling mediates sexual attractiveness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Kuo

    Full Text Available Sexually attractive characteristics are often thought to reflect an individual's condition or reproductive potential, but the underlying molecular mechanisms through which they do so are generally unknown. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS is known to modulate aging, reproduction, and stress resistance in several species and to contribute to variability of these traits in natural populations. Here we show that IIS determines sexual attractiveness in Drosophila through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the production of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC, many of which function as pheromones. Using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS together with newly introduced laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-MS we establish that CHC profiles are significantly affected by genetic manipulations that target IIS. Manipulations that reduce IIS also reduce attractiveness, while females with increased IIS are significantly more attractive than wild-type animals. IIS effects on attractiveness are mediated by changes in CHC profiles. Insulin signaling influences CHC through pathways that are likely independent of dFOXO and that may involve the nutrient-sensing Target of Rapamycin (TOR pathway. These results suggest that the activity of conserved molecular regulators of longevity and reproductive output may manifest in different species as external characteristics that are perceived as honest indicators of fitness potential.

  6. Expression in aneuploid Drosophila S2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive departures from balanced gene dose in aneuploids are highly deleterious. However, we know very little about the relationship between gene copy number and expression in aneuploid cells. We determined copy number and transcript abundance (expression genome-wide in Drosophila S2 cells by DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq. We found that S2 cells are aneuploid for >43 Mb of the genome, primarily in the range of one to five copies, and show a male genotype ( approximately two X chromosomes and four sets of autosomes, or 2X;4A. Both X chromosomes and autosomes showed expression dosage compensation. X chromosome expression was elevated in a fixed-fold manner regardless of actual gene dose. In engineering terms, the system "anticipates" the perturbation caused by X dose, rather than responding to an error caused by the perturbation. This feed-forward regulation resulted in precise dosage compensation only when X dose was half of the autosome dose. Insufficient compensation occurred at lower X chromosome dose and excessive expression occurred at higher doses. RNAi knockdown of the Male Specific Lethal complex abolished feed-forward regulation. Both autosome and X chromosome genes show Male Specific Lethal-independent compensation that fits a first order dose-response curve. Our data indicate that expression dosage compensation dampens the effect of altered DNA copy number genome-wide. For the X chromosome, compensation includes fixed and dose-dependent components.

  7. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Davies

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  8. Tools for neuroanatomy and neurogenetics in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, Barret D.; Jenett, Arnim; Hammonds, Ann S.; Ngo, Teri-T B.; Misra, Sima; Murphy, Christine; Scully, Audra; Carlson, Joseph W.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Laverty, Todd R.; Mungall, Chris; Svirskas, Rob; Kadonaga, James T.; Doe, Chris Q.; Eisen, Michael B.; Celniker, Susan E.; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2008-08-11

    We demonstrate the feasibility of generating thousands of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster lines in which the expression of an exogenous gene is reproducibly directed to distinct small subsets of cells in the adult brain. We expect the expression patterns produced by the collection of 5,000 lines that we are currently generating to encompass all neurons in the brain in a variety of intersecting patterns. Overlapping 3-kb DNA fragments from the flanking noncoding and intronic regions of genes thought to have patterned expression in the adult brain were inserted into a defined genomic location by site-specific recombination. These fragments were then assayed for their ability to function as transcriptional enhancers in conjunction with a synthetic core promoter designed to work with a wide variety of enhancer types. An analysis of 44 fragments from four genes found that >80% drive expression patterns in the brain; the observed patterns were, on average, comprised of <100 cells. Our results suggest that the D. melanogaster genome contains >50,000 enhancers and that multiple enhancers drive distinct subsets of expression of a gene in each tissue and developmental stage. We expect that these lines will be valuable tools for neuroanatomy as well as for the elucidation of neuronal circuits and information flow in the fly brain.

  9. Flavonoids and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotibrán, América Nitxin Castañeda; Ordaz-Téllez, María Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

    2011-11-27

    Flavonoids are a family of antioxidants that are widely represented in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes, and chocolate, as well as in popular beverages, such as red wine, coffee, and tea. The flavonoids chlorogenic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and quercetin 3β-d-glycoside were investigated for genotoxicity using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART). This test makes use of two recessive wing cell markers: multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr(3)), which are mutations located on the left arm of chromosome 3 of Drosophila melanogaster and are indicative of both mitotic recombination and various types of mutational events. In order to test the antioxidant capacities of the flavonoids, experiments were conducted with various combinations of oxidants and polyphenols. Oxidative stress was induced using hydrogen peroxide, the Fenton reaction and paraquat. Third-instar transheterozygous larvae were chronically treated for all experiments. The data obtained in this study showed that, at the concentrations tested, the flavonoids did not induce somatic mutations or recombination in D. melanogaster with the exception of quercetin, which proved to be genotoxic at only one concentration. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and the Fenton reaction did not induce mutations in the wing somatic assay of D. melanogaster, while paraquat and combinations of flavonoids produced significant numbers of small single spots. Quercetin 3β-d-glycoside mixed with paraquat was shown to be desmutagenic. Combinations of the oxidants with the other flavonoids did not show any antioxidant activity.

  10. Population transcriptomics of Drosophila melanogaster females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saminadin-Peter Sarah S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation at the level of gene expression is abundant in natural populations and is thought to contribute to the adaptive divergence of populations and species. Gene expression also differs considerably between males and females. Here we report a microarray analysis of gene expression variation among females of 16 Drosophila melanogaster strains derived from natural populations, including eight strains from the putative ancestral range in sub-Saharan Africa and eight strains from Europe. Gene expression variation among males of the same strains was reported previously. Results We detected relatively low levels of expression polymorphism within populations, but much higher expression divergence between populations. A total of 569 genes showed a significant expression difference between the African and European populations at a false discovery rate of 5%. Genes with significant over-expression in Europe included the insecticide resistance gene Cyp6g1, as well as genes involved in proteolysis and olfaction. Genes with functions in carbohydrate metabolism and vision were significantly over-expressed in the African population. There was little overlap between genes expressed differently between populations in females and males. Conclusions Our results suggest that adaptive changes in gene expression have accompanied the out-of-Africa migration of D. melanogaster. Comparison of female and male expression data indicates that the vast majority of genes differing in expression between populations do so in only one sex and suggests that most regulatory adaptation has been sex-specific.

  11. Structure of full-length Drosophila cryptochrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoltowski, Brian D.; Vaidya, Anand T.; Top, Deniz; Widom, Joanne; Young, Michael W.; Crane, Brian R. (Cornell); (Rockefeller)

    2011-12-15

    The cryptochrome/photolyase (CRY/PL) family of photoreceptors mediates adaptive responses to ultraviolet and blue light exposure in all kingdoms of life. Whereas PLs function predominantly in DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photolesions caused by ultraviolet radiation, CRYs transduce signals important for growth, development, magnetosensitivity and circadian clocks. Despite these diverse functions, PLs/CRYs preserve a common structural fold, a dependence on flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and an internal photoactivation mechanism. However, members of the CRY/PL family differ in the substrates recognized (protein or DNA), photochemical reactions catalysed and involvement of an antenna cofactor. It is largely unknown how the animal CRYs that regulate circadian rhythms act on their substrates. CRYs contain a variable carboxy-terminal tail that appends the conserved PL homology domain (PHD) and is important for function. Here, we report a 2.3-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Drosophila CRY with an intact C terminus. The C-terminal helix docks in the analogous groove that binds DNA substrates in PLs. Conserved Trp536 juts into the CRY catalytic centre to mimic PL recognition of DNA photolesions. The FAD anionic semiquinone found in the crystals assumes a conformation to facilitate restructuring of the tail helix. These results help reconcile the diverse functions of the CRY/PL family by demonstrating how conserved protein architecture and photochemistry can be elaborated into a range of light-driven functions.

  12. Collective synchronization of divisions in Drosophila development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergassola, Massimo

    Mitoses in the early development of most metazoans are rapid and synchronized across the entire embryo. While diffusion is too slow, in vitro experiments have shown that waves of the cell-cycle regulator Cdk1 can transfer information rapidly across hundreds of microns. However, the signaling dynamics and the physical properties of chemical waves during embryonic development remain unclear. We develop FRET biosensors for the activity of Cdk1 and the checkpoint kinase Chk1 in Drosophila embryos and exploit them to measure waves in vivo. We demonstrate that Cdk1 chemical waves control mitotic waves and that their speed is regulated by the activity of Cdk1 during the S-phase (and not mitosis). We quantify the progressive slowdown of the waves with developmental cycles and identify its underlying control mechanism by the DNA replication checkpoint through the Chk1/Wee1 pathway. The global dynamics of the mitotic signaling network illustrates a novel control principle: the S-phase activity of Cdk1 regulates the speed of the mitotic wave, while the Cdk1 positive feedback ensures an invariantly rapid onset of mitosis. Mathematical modeling captures the speed of the waves and predicts a fundamental distinction between the S-phase Cdk1 trigger waves and the mitotic phase waves, which is illustrated by embryonic ablation experiments. In collaboration with Victoria Deneke1, Anna Melbinger2, and Stefano Di Talia1 1 Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center 2 Department of Physics, University of California San Diego.

  13. Ferritin Assembly in Enterocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Rosas-Arellano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ferritins are protein nanocages that accumulate inside their cavity thousands of oxidized iron atoms bound to oxygen and phosphates. Both characteristic types of eukaryotic ferritin subunits are present in secreted ferritins from insects, but here dimers between Ferritin 1 Heavy Chain Homolog (Fer1HCH and Ferritin 2 Light Chain Homolog (Fer2LCH are further stabilized by disulfide-bridge in the 24-subunit complex. We addressed ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo using novel transgenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster. We concentrated on the intestine, where the ferritin induction process can be controlled experimentally by dietary iron manipulation. We showed that the expression pattern of Fer2LCH-Gal4 lines recapitulated iron-dependent endogenous expression of the ferritin subunits and used these lines to drive expression from UAS-mCherry-Fer2LCH transgenes. We found that the Gal4-mediated induction of mCherry-Fer2LCH subunits was too slow to effectively introduce them into newly formed ferritin complexes. Endogenous Fer2LCH and Fer1HCH assembled and stored excess dietary iron, instead. In contrast, when flies were genetically manipulated to co-express Fer2LCH and mCherry-Fer2LCH simultaneously, both subunits were incorporated with Fer1HCH in iron-loaded ferritin complexes. Our study provides fresh evidence that, in insects, ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo are tightly regulated.

  14. Host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

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    Sergio Castrezana

    Full Text Available The process of local adaptation creates diversity among allopatric populations, and may eventually lead to speciation. Plant-feeding insect populations that specialize on different host species provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate the causes of ecological specialization and the subsequent consequences for diversity. In this study, we used geographically separated Drosophila mettleri populations that specialize on different host cacti to examine oviposition preference for and larval performance on an array of natural and non-natural hosts (eight total. We found evidence of local adaptation in performance on saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea for populations that are typically associated with this host, and to chemically divergent prickly pear species (Opuntia spp. in a genetically isolated population on Santa Catalina Island. Moreover, each population exhibited reduced performance on the alternative host. This finding is consistent with trade-offs associated with adaptation to these chemically divergent hosts, although we also discuss alternative explanations for this pattern. For oviposition preference, Santa Catalina Island flies were more likely to oviposit on some prickly pear species, but all populations readily laid eggs on saguaro. Experiments with non-natural hosts suggest that factors such as ecological opportunity may play a more important role than host plant chemistry in explaining the lack of natural associations with some hosts.

  15. Healthy aging – insights from Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin G Iliadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human life expectancy has nearly doubled in the past century due, in part, to social and economic development, and a wide range of new medical technologies and treatments. As the number of elderly increase it becomes of vital importance to understand what factors contribute to healthy aging. Human longevity is a complex process that is affected by both environmental and genetic factors and interactions between them. Unfortunately, it is currently difficult to identify the role of genetic components in human longevity. In contrast, model organisms such as C. elegans, Drosophila and rodents have facilitated the search for specific genes that affect lifespan. Experimental evidence obtained from studies in model organisms suggests that mutations in a single gene may increase longevity and delay the onset of age-related symptoms including motor impairments, sexual and reproductive and immune dysfunction, cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. Furthermore, the high degree of conservation between diverse species in the genes and pathways that regulate longevity suggests that work in model organisms can both expand our theoretical knowledge of aging and perhaps provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of age-related disorders.

  16. Drosophila as a genetically tractable model for social insect behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Camiletti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relatively simple communication, breeding and egg-making systems that govern reproduction in female Drosophila retain homology to eusocial species in which these same systems are modified to the social condition. Despite having no parental care, division of labour or subfertile caste, Drosophila may nonetheless offer a living test of certain sociobiological hypotheses framed around gene function. In this review, we make this case, and do so around the recent discovery that the non-social fly, Drosophila melanogaster, can respond to the ovary-suppressing queen pheromone of the honey bee Apis meliffera. Here, we first explain the sociobiological imperative to reconcile kin theory with molecular biology, and qualify a potential role for Drosophila. Then, we offer three applications for the fly-pheromone assay. First, the availability and accessibility of massive mutant libraries makes immediately feasible any number of open or targeted gene screens against the ovary-inhibiting response. The sheer tractability of Drosophila may therefore help to accelerate the search for genes in pheromone-responsive pathways that regulate female reproduction, including potentially any that are preserved with modification to regulate worker sterility in response to queen pheromones in eusocial taxa. Secondly, Drosophila’s powerful Gal4/UAS expression system can complement the pheromone assay by driving target gene expression into living tissue, which could be well applied to the functional testing of genes presumed to drive ovary activation or de-activation in the honey bee or other eusocial taxa. Finally, coupling Gal4 with UAS-RNAi lines can facilitate loss-of-function experiments against perception and response to the ovary inhibiting pheromone, and do so for large numbers of candidates in systematic fashion. Drosophila's utility as an adjunct to the field of insect sociobiology is not ideal, but retains surprising potential.

  17. Immunohistochemical tools and techniques to visualize Notch in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Emiliana; Vaccari, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The ability to accurately visualize proteins in Drosophila tissues is critical for studying their abundance and localization relative to the morphology of cells during tissue development and homeostasis. Here we describe the procedure to visualize Notch localization in whole-mount preparations of several Drosophila organs using confocal microscopy. The use of monoclonal antibodies directed to distinct portions of Notch allows one to follow the fate of the receptor during constitutive and inductive processes. The protocol described here can be used to co-label with antibodies recognizing markers of subcellular compartments in wild-type as well as mutant tissues.

  18. Drosophila homolog of the murine Int-1 protooncogene.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    We have isolated phage clones from Drosophila melanogaster genomic and cDNA libraries containing a sequence homologous to the murine Int-1 protooncogene. The Drosophila gene is represented by a single locus at position 28A1-2 on chromosome 2. The gene is expressed as a 2.9-kilobase-long polyadenylylated mRNA in embryo, larval, and pupal stages. It is hardly detectable in adult flies. The longest open reading frame of the cDNA clone corresponds to a protein 469 amino acids long. Alignment of t...

  19. Drosophila as a model for context-dependent tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, Marla; Perrimon, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila can exhibit classic hallmarks of cancer, such as evasion of apoptosis, sustained proliferation, metastasis, prolonged survival, genome instability, and metabolic reprogramming, when cancer-related genes are perturbed. In the last two decades, studies in flies have identified several tumor suppressor and oncogenes. However, the greatest strength of the fly lies in its ability to model cancer hallmarks in a variety of tissue types, which enables the study of context-dependent tumorigenesis. We review the organs and tissues that have been used to model tumor formation, and propose new strategies to maximize the potential of Drosophila in cancer research.

  20. Concerted evolution of duplicated protein-coding genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, D A; Bally-Cuif, L; Abukashawa, S; Payant, V; Benkel, B F

    1991-03-01

    Very rapid rates of gene conversion were observed between duplicated alpha-amylase-coding sequences in Drosophila melanogaster. This gene conversion process was also seen in the related species Drosophila erecta. Specifically, there is virtual sequence identity between the coding regions of the two genes within each species, while the sequence divergence between species is close to that expected based on their phylogenetic relationship. The flanking, noncoding regions are much more highly diverged and do not appear to be subject to gene conversion. Comparison of amylase sequences between the two species provides a clear demonstration that recurrent gene conversion does indeed lead to the concerted evolution of the gene pair.

  1. Modeling transcriptional networks in Drosophila development at multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Zeba; DePace, Angela H

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative models of developmental processes can provide insights at multiple scales. Ultimately, models may be particularly informative for key questions about network level behavior during development such as how does the system respond to environmental perturbation, or operate reliably in different genetic backgrounds? The transcriptional networks that pattern the Drosophila embryo have been the subject of numerous quantitative experimental studies coupled to modeling frameworks in recent years. In this review, we describe three studies that consider these networks at different levels of molecular detail and therefore result in different types of insights. We also discuss other developmental transcriptional networks operating in Drosophila, with the goal of highlighting what additional insights they may provide.

  2. Modeling dietary influences on offspring metabolic programming in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookheart, Rita T; Duncan, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    The influence of nutrition on offspring metabolism has become a hot topic in recent years owing to the growing prevalence of maternal and childhood obesity. Studies in mammals have identified several factors correlating with parental and early offspring dietary influences on progeny health; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these factors remain undiscovered. Mammalian metabolic tissues and pathways are heavily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster, making the fly an invaluable genetic model organism for studying metabolism. In this review, we discuss the metabolic similarities between mammals and Drosophila and present evidence supporting its use as an emerging model of metabolic programming.

  3. Genetic regulation of programmed cell death in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Programmed cell death plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis during animal development, and has been conserved in animals as different as nematodes and humans. Recent studies of Drosophila have provided valuable information toward our understanding of genetic regulation of death. Different signals trigger the novel death regulators rpr, hid, and grim, that utilize the evolutionarily conserved iap and ark genes to modulate caspase function. Subsequent removal of dying cells also appears to be accomplished by conserved mechanisms. The similarity between Drosophila and human in cell death signaling pathways illustrate the promise of fruit flies as a model system to elucidate the mechanisms underlying regulation of programmed cell death.

  4. Rpr- and hid-driven cell death in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng Da; Adams, Sheila M; O'Tousa, Joseph E

    2002-02-01

    The reaper (rpr) and head involution defective (hid) genes mediate programmed cell death (PCD) during Drosophila development. We show that expression of either rpr or hid under control of a rhodopsin promoter induces rapid cell death of adult photoreceptor cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that the dying photoreceptor cells share morphological features with other cells undergoing PCD. The anti-apoptotic baculoviral P35 protein acts downstream of hid activity to suppress the photoreceptor cell death driven by rpr and hid. These results establish that the Drosophila photoreceptors are sensitive to the rpr- and hid-driven cell death pathways.

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome engineering in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Andrew; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-09-01

    Genome engineering has revolutionised genetic analysis in many organisms. Here we describe a simple and efficient technique to generate and detect novel mutations in desired target genes in Drosophila melanogaster. We target double strand breaks to specific sites within the genome by injecting mRNA encoding the Cas9 endonuclease and in vitro transcribed synthetic guide RNA into Drosophila embryos. The small insertion and deletion mutations that result from inefficient non-homologous end joining at this site are detected by high resolution melt analysis of whole flies and individual wings, allowing stable lines to be made within 1 month.

  6. Genetic structure is determined by stochastic factors in a natural population of Drosophila buzzatii in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardi, J C; Hasson, E; Rodriguez, C; Fanara, J J

    1994-01-01

    D. buzzatii is a cactophilic species associated with several cactaceae in Argentina. This particular ecological niche implies that this species is faced with a non-uniform environment constituted by discrete and ephemeral breeding sites, which are colonized by a finite number of inseminated females. The genetic consequences of this population structure upon the second chromosome polymorphism were investigated by means of F-statistics in a natural endemic population of Argentina. The present study suggests that differentiation of inversion frequencies in third instar larvae among breeding sites has taken place mainly at random and selection is not operating to determine the structure of this population. The average number of parents breeding on a single pad seems to be similar to the number colonizing Opuntia ficus indica rotting cladodes in Carboneras, a derived population from Spain. There is no significant excess of heterokaryotypes within pads or in the population as a whole. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the potential role of selective versus stochastic factors relative to the among pad heterogeneity in the population here studied is different from that of the Spanish population previously reported. Potential mechanisms responsible for these differences are discussed.

  7. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  8. Tandem Duplications and the Limits of Natural Selection in Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebekah L; Cridland, Julie M; Shao, Ling; Hu, Tina T; Andolfatto, Peter; Thornton, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Tandem duplications are an essential source of genetic novelty, and their variation in natural populations is expected to influence adaptive walks. Here, we describe evolutionary impacts of recently-derived, segregating tandem duplications in Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila simulans. We observe an excess of duplicated genes involved in defense against pathogens, insecticide resistance, chorion development, cuticular peptides, and lipases or endopeptidases associated with the accessory glands across both species. The observed agreement is greater than expectations on chance alone, suggesting large amounts of convergence across functional categories. We document evidence of widespread selection on the D. simulans X, suggesting adaptation through duplication is common on the X. Despite the evidence for positive selection, duplicates display an excess of low frequency variants consistent with largely detrimental impacts, limiting the variation that can effectively facilitate adaptation. Standing variation for tandem duplications spans less than 25% of the genome in D. yakuba and D. simulans, indicating that evolution will be strictly limited by mutation, even in organisms with large population sizes. Effective whole gene duplication rates are low at 1.17 × 10-9 per gene per generation in D. yakuba and 6.03 × 10-10 per gene per generation in D. simulans, suggesting long wait times for new mutations on the order of thousands of years for the establishment of sweeps. Hence, in cases where adaptation depends on individual tandem duplications, evolution will be severely limited by mutation. We observe low levels of parallel recruitment of the same duplicated gene in different species, suggesting that the span of standing variation will define evolutionary outcomes in spite of convergence across gene ontologies consistent with rapidly evolving phenotypes.

  9. Tandem Duplications and the Limits of Natural Selection in Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila simulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah L Rogers

    Full Text Available Tandem duplications are an essential source of genetic novelty, and their variation in natural populations is expected to influence adaptive walks. Here, we describe evolutionary impacts of recently-derived, segregating tandem duplications in Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila simulans. We observe an excess of duplicated genes involved in defense against pathogens, insecticide resistance, chorion development, cuticular peptides, and lipases or endopeptidases associated with the accessory glands across both species. The observed agreement is greater than expectations on chance alone, suggesting large amounts of convergence across functional categories. We document evidence of widespread selection on the D. simulans X, suggesting adaptation through duplication is common on the X. Despite the evidence for positive selection, duplicates display an excess of low frequency variants consistent with largely detrimental impacts, limiting the variation that can effectively facilitate adaptation. Standing variation for tandem duplications spans less than 25% of the genome in D. yakuba and D. simulans, indicating that evolution will be strictly limited by mutation, even in organisms with large population sizes. Effective whole gene duplication rates are low at 1.17 × 10-9 per gene per generation in D. yakuba and 6.03 × 10-10 per gene per generation in D. simulans, suggesting long wait times for new mutations on the order of thousands of years for the establishment of sweeps. Hence, in cases where adaptation depends on individual tandem duplications, evolution will be severely limited by mutation. We observe low levels of parallel recruitment of the same duplicated gene in different species, suggesting that the span of standing variation will define evolutionary outcomes in spite of convergence across gene ontologies consistent with rapidly evolving phenotypes.

  10. Interaction between the Drosophila heterochromatin proteins SUUR and HP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.V. Pindyurin (Alexey); L.V. Boldyreva (Lidiya); V.V. Shloma (Victor); T.D. Kolesnikova (Tatiana); G.V. Pokholkova (Galina); E.N. Andreyeva (Evgeniya); E. Kozhevnikova (Elena); I.G. Ivanoschuk (Igor); E.A. Zarutskaya (Ekaterina); S.A. Demakov (Sergey); A.A. Gorchakov (Andrey); E.S. Belyaeva (Elena); I.F. Zhimulev (Igor)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSUUR (Suppressor of Under-Replication) protein is responsible for late replication and, as a consequence, for DNA underreplication of intercalary and pericentric heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. However, the mechanism by which SUUR slows down the replicati

  11. Monitoring Drosophila suzukii Matsumura in Oregon, USA sweet cherry orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii rapidly became a significant cherry pest in the western United States after it was observed damaging cherries in 2009 in California. It has caused significant damage to ripening cherries in all major USA cherry production districts leading to increased management costs and reduced...

  12. Drosophila evaluates and learns the nutritional value of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Michiko; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2011-05-10

    Living organisms need to search for and ingest nutritional chemicals, and gustation plays a major role in detecting and discriminating between chemicals present in the environment. Using Drosophila as a model organism, we asked whether animals have the ability to evaluate the nutritional value of sugars. In flies, chemosensilla on the tarsi and labellum are the gustatory organs used to discriminate between edible and nonedible compounds [1, 2]. We noticed that Drosophila do not assign nutritional values to all sweet chemicals. D-arabinose is sweet to flies, but it provides them with no nutrition. By contrast, the sugar alcohol D-sorbitol is not sensed as sweet, but flies can live on it. We performed behavioral and electrophysiological measurements to confirm these gustatory and feeding responses. We found that Drosophila can learn the nutritional value of nonsweet D-sorbitol when it is associated with an odor cue. The learning process involved the synapsin molecule, suggesting that a neuronal mechanism is involved. We propose that Drosophila uses neural machinery to detect, evaluate, and learn the nutritional value of foods after ingestion.

  13. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  14. The metabolic profile of long-lived Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Pedersen, Simon Metz; Nielsen, Niels Christian

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the age-related changes in the metabolic profile of male Drosophila melanogaster and compared the metabolic profile of flies selected for increased longevity to that of control flies of equal age. We found clear differences in metabolite composition between selection regimes...

  15. Genetic Analysis of Micro-environmental Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgante, Fabio; Sorensen, Daniel A; Sørensen, Peter

    be genetically variable. This study utilized the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to accurately estimate the genetic variance of micro-environmental plasticity for chill coma recovery time and startle response. Estimates of broad sense heritabilities for both traits are substantial (from 0.51 to 0...

  16. Handling Alters Aggression and "Loser" Effect Formation in "Drosophila Melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannoy, Severine; Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    In "Drosophila," prior fighting experience influences the outcome of later contests: losing a fight increases the probability of losing second contests, thereby revealing "loser" effects that involve learning and memory. In these experiments, to generate and quantify the behavioral changes observed as consequences of losing…

  17. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  18. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I.; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M.

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila. PMID:26380118

  19. Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Andrew G; Eisen, Michael B; Smith, Douglas R

    2007-01-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the ...

  20. Cubilin and amnionless mediate protein reabsorption in Drosophila nephrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujian; Zhao, Ying; Chao, Yufang; Muir, Katherine; Han, Zhe

    2013-02-01

    The insect nephrocyte and the mammalian glomerular podocyte are similar with regard to filtration, but it remains unclear whether there is an organ or cell type in flies that reabsorbs proteins. Here, we show that the Drosophila nephrocyte has molecular, structural, and functional similarities to the renal proximal tubule cell. We screened for genes required for nephrocyte function and identified two Drosophila genes encoding orthologs of mammalian cubilin and amnionless (AMN), two major receptors for protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule. In Drosophila, expression of dCubilin and dAMN is specific to nephrocytes, where they function as co-receptors for protein uptake. Targeted expression of human AMN in Drosophila nephrocytes was sufficient to rescue defective protein uptake induced by dAMN knockdown, suggesting evolutionary conservation of Cubilin/AMN co-receptors function from flies to humans. Furthermore, we found that Cubilin/AMN-mediated protein reabsorption is required for the maintenance of nephrocyte ultrastructure and fly survival under conditions of toxic stress. In conclusion, the insect nephrocyte combines filtration with protein reabsorption, using evolutionarily conserved genes and subcellular structures, suggesting that it can serve as a simplified model for both podocytes and the renal proximal tubule.

  1. The mode of evolution of aggregation pheromones in Drosophila species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symonds, MRE; Wertheim, B

    2005-01-01

    Aggregation pheromones are used by fruit flies of the genus Drosophila to assemble on breeding substrates, where they feed, mate and oviposit communally. These pheromones consist of species-specific blends of chemicals. Here, using a phylogenetic framework, we examine how differences among species i

  2. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  3. Locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster selected for different wing lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noach, EJK; De Jong, G; Scharloo, W

    1998-01-01

    Locomotor activity and its plasticity were investigated in Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for Long and for Short wings at two different temperatures. Flies were tested in a locometer at two different Activity temperatures. Locomotor activity, a physiological character, showed phenotypic plas

  4. Detecting novel low-abundant transcripts in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sanggyu; Bao, Jingyue; Zhou, Guolin;

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that low-abundant transcripts may play fundamental roles in biological processes. In an attempt to estimate the prevalence of low-abundant transcripts in eukaryotic genomes, we performed a transcriptome analysis in Drosophila using the SAGE technique. We collected 244...

  5. Fly foie gras: modeling fatty liver in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arquier, Nathalie; Léopold, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Lipids provide an essential source of metabolites and energy in normal development as well as during periods of food deprivation. A recent study in Drosophila (Gutierrez et al., 2007) reveals a novel role in regulating lipid metabolism for specialized cells called oenocytes that present striking functional similarities to mammalian hepatocytes.

  6. The olfactory circuit of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The olfactory circuit of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged in recent years as an excellent paradigm for studying the principles and mechanisms of information processing in neuronal circuits. We discuss here the organizational principles of the olfactory circuit that make it an attractive model for experimental manipulations, the lessons that have been learned, and future challenges.

  7. Body saccades of Drosophila consist of stereotyped banked turns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Elzinga, M.J.; Iwasaki, N.A.; Dickinson, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The flight pattern of many fly species consists of straight flight segments interspersed with rapid turns called body saccades, a strategy that is thought to minimize motion blur. We analyzed the body saccades of fruit flies (Drosophila hydei), using high-speed 3D videography to track body and wing

  8. Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myungjin; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Eunhee; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2006-10-31

    Drosophila has a primitive yet highly effective innate immune system. Although the infection-dependent activation mechanisms of the Drosophila immune system are well understood, its inhibitory regulation remains elusive. To find novel suppressors of the immune system, we performed a genetic screening for Drosophila mutants with hyperactivated immune responses and isolated a loss-of-function mutant of caspar whose product is homologous to Fas-associating factor 1 in mammals. Interestingly, caspar mutant flies showed increased antibacterial immune responses including increased resistance to bacterial infection and a constitutive expression of diptericin, a representative antibacterial peptide gene. Conversely, ectopic expression of caspar strongly suppressed the infection-dependent gene expression of diptericin, which allowed bacterial outgrowth. Consistent with these physiological phenotypes, Caspar negatively regulated the immune deficiency (Imd)-mediated immune responses by blocking nuclear translocation of Relish, an NF-kappaB transcription factor. In addition, we further demonstrated that Dredd-dependent cleavage of Relish, a prerequisite event for the nuclear entry of Relish, is the target of the Caspar-mediated suppression of the Imd pathway. Remarkably, Caspar was highly specific for the Imd pathway and did not affect the Toll pathway, which is crucial for antifungal immunity. Collectively, our elucidation of an inhibitory mechanism of the Imd pathway by Caspar will provide a valuable insight into understanding complex regulatory mechanisms of the innate immune systems in both Drosophila and mammals.

  9. Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maesani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs-locomotor bouts-matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior.

  10. Actin puts the squeeze on Drosophila glue secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Christien J

    2016-02-01

    An actin filament coat promotes cargo expulsion from large exocytosing vesicles, but the mechanisms of coat formation and force generation have been poorly characterized. Elegant imaging studies of the Drosophila melanogaster salivary gland now reveal how actin and myosin are recruited, and show that myosin II forms a contractile 'cage' that facilitates exocytosis.

  11. Drosophila phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase is required for tissue morphogenesis during oogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld, Floris; Rana, Anil; Lemstra - Wierenga, Willemina; Kampinga, Harm; Sibon, Ody

    2008-01-01

    Background: Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential metabolite, synthesized from vitamin B5 by the subsequent action of five enzymes: PANK, PPCS, PPCDC, PPAT and DPCK. Mutations in Drosophila dPPCS disrupt female fecundity and in this study we analyzed the female sterile phenotype of dPPCS mutants in detai

  12. Analysis of resistance and tolerance to virus infection in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkling, S.H.; Rij, R.P. van

    2015-01-01

    Host defense to virus infection involves both resistance mechanisms that reduce viral burden and tolerance mechanisms that limit detrimental effects of infection. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a model for identifying and characterizing the genetic basis of resistance and tol

  13. DIRECT SELECTION ON LIFE-SPAN IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWAAN, B; BIJLSMA, R; HOEKSTRA, RE

    1995-01-01

    An important issue in the study of the evolution of aging in Drosophila melanogaster is whether decreased early fecundity is inextricably coupled with increased life span in selection experiments on age at reproduction. Here, this problem has been tackled using an experimental design in which select

  14. Investigating Biological Controls to Suppress Spotted Wing Drosophila Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spotted wing drosophila has become a major cherry pest in California. To develop sustainable management options for this highly mobile pest, we worked with cooperators at Oregon State University and the USDA to discover and import natural enemies of the fly from its native range in South Korea ...

  15. The Capacity to Act in Trans Varies Among Drosophila Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Amanda J; Mayer-Hirshfeld, Ilana; Malibiran, Beatriz R; Cooper, Matthew A; Martino, Pieter A; Johnson, Justine E; Bateman, Jack R

    2016-05-01

    The interphase nucleus is organized such that genomic segments interact in cis, on the same chromosome, and in trans, between different chromosomes. In Drosophila and other Dipterans, extensive interactions are observed between homologous chromosomes, which can permit enhancers and promoters to communicate in trans Enhancer action in trans has been observed for a handful of genes in Drosophila, but it is as yet unclear whether this is a general property of all enhancers or specific to a few. Here, we test a collection of well-characterized enhancers for the capacity to act in trans Specifically, we tested 18 enhancers that are active in either the eye or wing disc of third instar Drosophila larvae and, using two different assays, found evidence that each enhancer can act in trans However, the degree to which trans-action was supported varied greatly between enhancers. Quantitative analysis of enhancer activity supports a model wherein an enhancer's strength of transcriptional activation is a major determinant of its ability to act in trans, but that additional factors may also contribute to an enhancer's trans-activity. In sum, our data suggest that a capacity to activate a promoter on a paired chromosome is common among Drosophila enhancers.

  16. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryon Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS, with an unconditioned stimulus (US. The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB, can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila.

  17. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events.

  18. Image tracking study on courtship behavior of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yin Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, there have been extensive studies aimed at decoding the DNA. Identifying the genetic cause of specific changes in a simple organism like Drosophila may help scientists recognize how multiple gene interactions may make some people more susceptible to heart disease or cancer. Investigators have devised experiments to observe changes in the gene networks in mutant Drosophila that responds differently to light, or have lower or higher locomotor activity. However, these studies focused on the behavior of the individual fly or on pair-wise interactions in the study of aggression or courtship. The behavior of these activities has been captured on film and inspected by a well-trained researcher after repeatedly watching the recorded film. Some studies also focused on ways to reduce the inspection time and increase the accuracy of the behavior experiment. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the behavior of drosophila during courtship was analyzed automatically by machine vision. We investigated the position and behavior discrimination during courtship using the captured images. Identification of the characteristics of drosophila, including sex, size, heading direction, and wing angles, can be computed using image analysis techniques that employ the Gaussian mixture model. The behavior of multiple drosophilae can also be analyzed simultaneously using the motion-prediction model and the variation constraint of heading direction. CONCLUSIONS: The overlapped fruit flies can be identified based on the relationship between body centers. Moreover, the behaviors and profiles can be correctly recognized by image processing based on the constraints of the wing angle and the size of the body. Therefore, the behavior of the male fruit flies can be discriminated when two or three fruit flies form a close cluster. In this study, the courtship behavior, including wing songs and attempts, can currently be distinguished with accuracies of 95.8% and

  19. Cellular and developmental adaptations to hypoxia: a Drosophila perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria Magdalena; Dekanty, Andrés; Wappner, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a widely utilized genetic model, is highly resistant to oxygen starvation and is beginning to be used for studying physiological, developmental, and cellular adaptations to hypoxia. The Drosophila respiratory (tracheal) system has features in common with the mammalian circulatory system so that an angiogenesis-like response occurs upon exposure of Drosophila larvae to hypoxia. A hypoxia-responsive system homologous to mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) has been described in the fruit fly, where Fatiga is a Drosophila oxygen-dependent HIF prolyl hydroxylase, and the basic helix-loop-helix Per/ARNT/Sim (bHLH-PAS) proteins Sima and Tango are, respectively, the Drosophila homologues of mammalian HIF-alpha (alpha) and HIF-beta (beta). Tango is constitutively expressed regardless of oxygen tension and, like in mammalian cells, Sima is controlled at the level of protein degradation and subcellular localization. Sima is critically required for development in hypoxia, but, unlike mammalian model systems, it is dispensable for development in normoxia. In contrast, fatiga mutant alleles are all lethal; however, strikingly, viability to adulthood is restored in fatiga sima double mutants, although these double mutants are not entirely normal, suggesting that Fatiga has Sima-independent functions in fly development. Studies in cell culture and in vivo have revealed that Sima is activated by the insulin receptor (InR) and target-of-rapamycin (TOR) pathways. Paradoxically, Sima is a negative regulator of growth. This suggests that Sima is engaged in a negative feedback loop that limits growth upon stimulation of InR/TOR pathways.

  20. Sucrose Improves Insecticide Activity Against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Richard S; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Loeb, Gregory M; Elsensohn, Johanna E; Hesler, Steven P

    2015-04-01

    The addition of sucrose to insecticides targeting spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), enhanced lethality in laboratory, semifield, and field tests. In the laboratory, 0.1% sucrose added to a spray solution enhanced spotted wing drosophila feeding. Flies died 120 min earlier when exposed to spinosad residues at label rates enhanced with sucrose. Added sucrose reduced the LC50 for dried acetamiprid residues from 82 to 41 ppm in the spray solution. Laboratory bioassays of spotted wing drosophila mortality followed exposure to grape and blueberry foliage and/or fruit sprayed and aged in the field. On grape foliage, the addition of 2.4 g/liter of sugar with insecticide sprays resulted in an 11 and 6% increase of spotted wing drosophila mortality at 1 and 2 d exposures to residues, respectively, averaged over seven insecticides with three concentrations. In a separate experiment, spinetoram and cyantraniliprole reduced by 95-100% the larval infestation of blueberries, relative to the untreated control, 7 d after application at labeled rates when applied with 1.2 g/liter sucrose in a spray mixture, irrespective of rainfall; without sucrose infestation was reduced by 46-91%. Adding sugar to the organically acceptable spinosyn, Entrust, reduced larval infestation of strawberries by >50% relative to without sugar for five of the six sample dates during a season-long field trial. In a small-plot field test with blueberries, weekly applications in alternating sprays of sucrose plus reduced-risk insecticides, spinetoram or acetamiprid, reduced larval infestation relative to the untreated control by 76%; alternating bifenthrin and phosmet (without sucrose) reduced infestation by 65%.

  1. Trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)(Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine, and acetic acid and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations for monitoring spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii, (Matsumura) are to use either vinegar or wine as a bait for traps. Traps baited with vinegar and traps baited with wine, in field tests in northern Oregon, captured large numbers of male and female SWD flies. Numbers of...

  2. Erythritol and Lufenuron Detrimentally Alter Age Structure of Wild Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Populations in Blueberry and Blackberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on the efficacy of 0.5 M (61,000 ppm) Erythritol (E) in Truvia Baking Blend®, 10 ppm Lufenuron (L), and their combination (LE) to reduce egg and larval densities of wild populations of spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (SWD) infesting fields of rabbiteye blueberries (...

  3. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and gene silencing of two Drosophila receptors for the Drosophila neuropeptide pyrokinin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Carina; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael;

    2003-01-01

    The database of the Drosophila Genome Project contains the sequences of two genes, CG8784 and CG8795, predicted to code for two structurally related G protein-coupled receptors. We have cloned these genes and expressed their coding parts in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We found that both receptor...

  4. System identification of Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anmo J; Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2011-02-01

    The lack of a deeper understanding of how olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) encode odors has hindered the progress in understanding the olfactory signal processing in higher brain centers. Here we employ methods of system identification to investigate the encoding of time-varying odor stimuli and their representation for further processing in the spike domain by Drosophila OSNs. In order to apply system identification techniques, we built a novel low-turbulence odor delivery system that allowed us to deliver airborne stimuli in a precise and reproducible fashion. The system provides a 1% tolerance in stimulus reproducibility and an exact control of odor concentration and concentration gradient on a millisecond time scale. Using this novel setup, we recorded and analyzed the in-vivo response of OSNs to a wide range of time-varying odor waveforms. We report for the first time that across trials the response of OR59b OSNs is very precise and reproducible. Further, we empirically show that the response of an OSN depends not only on the concentration, but also on the rate of change of the odor concentration. Moreover, we demonstrate that a two-dimensional (2D) Encoding Manifold in a concentration-concentration gradient space provides a quantitative description of the neuron's response. We then use the white noise system identification methodology to construct one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson (LNP) cascade models of the sensory neuron for a fixed mean odor concentration and fixed contrast. We show that in terms of predicting the intensity rate of the spike train, the 2D LNP model performs on par with the 1D LNP model, with a root mean-square error (RMSE) increase of about 5 to 10%. Surprisingly, we find that for a fixed contrast of the white noise odor waveforms, the nonlinear block of each of the two models changes with the mean input concentration. The shape of the nonlinearities of both the 1D and the 2D LNP model appears to be

  5. Asymmetrical reinforcement and Wolbachia infection in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jaenike

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement refers to the evolution of increased mating discrimination against heterospecific individuals in zones of geographic overlap and can be considered a final stage in the speciation process. One the factors that may affect reinforcement is the degree to which hybrid matings result in the permanent loss of genes from a species' gene pool. Matings between females of Drosophila subquinaria and males of D. recens result in high levels of offspring mortality, due to interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia infection of D. recens. Such hybrid inviability is not manifested in matings between D. recens females and D. subquinaria males. Here we ask whether the asymmetrical hybrid inviability is associated with a corresponding asymmetry in the level of reinforcement. The geographic ranges of D. recens and D. subquinaria were found to overlap across a broad belt of boreal forest in central Canada. Females of D. subquinaria from the zone of sympatry exhibit much stronger levels of discrimination against males of D. recens than do females from allopatric populations. In contrast, such reproductive character displacement is not evident in D. recens, consistent with the expected effects of unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility. Furthermore, there is substantial behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria, because females from populations sympatric with D. recens discriminate against allopatric conspecific males, whereas females from populations allopatric with D. recens show no discrimination against any conspecific males. Patterns of general genetic differentiation among populations are not consistent with patterns of behavioral discrimination, which suggests that the behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria results from selection against mating with Wolbachia-infected D. recens. Interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility may contribute not only to post-mating isolation, an effect already widely recognized, but also to

  6. Genome engineering: Drosophila melanogaster and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J T; Sarrion-Perdigones, Alejandro; Vandeventer, Paul J; Abel, Nicholas S; Christiansen, Audrey E; Hoffman, Kristi L

    2016-01-01

    A central challenge in investigating biological phenomena is the development of techniques to modify genomic DNA with nucleotide precision that can be transmitted through the germ line. Recent years have brought a boon in these technologies, now collectively known as genome engineering. Defined genomic manipulations at the nucleotide level enable a variety of reverse engineering paradigms, providing new opportunities to interrogate diverse biological functions. These genetic modifications include controlled removal, insertion, and substitution of genetic fragments, both small and large. Small fragments up to a few kilobases (e.g., single nucleotide mutations, small deletions, or gene tagging at single or multiple gene loci) to large fragments up to megabase resolution can be manipulated at single loci to create deletions, duplications, inversions, or translocations of substantial sections of whole chromosome arms. A specialized substitution of chromosomal portions that presumably are functionally orthologous between different organisms through syntenic replacement, can provide proof of evolutionary conservation between regulatory sequences. Large transgenes containing endogenous or synthetic DNA can be integrated at defined genomic locations, permitting an alternative proof of evolutionary conservation, and sophisticated transgenes can be used to interrogate biological phenomena. Precision engineering can additionally be used to manipulate the genomes of organelles (e.g., mitochondria). Novel genome engineering paradigms are often accelerated in existing, easily genetically tractable model organisms, primarily because these paradigms can be integrated in a rigorous, existing technology foundation. The Drosophila melanogaster fly model is ideal for these types of studies. Due to its small genome size, having just four chromosomes, the vast amount of cutting-edge genetic technologies, and its short life-cycle and inexpensive maintenance requirements, the fly is

  7. Molecular cloning and genomic organization of a second probable allatostatin receptor from Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, C; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    We (C. Lenz et al. (2000) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 269, 91-96) and others (N. Birgül et al. (1999) EMBO J. 18, 5892-5900) have recently cloned a Drosophila receptor that was structurally related to the mammalian galanin receptors, but turned out to be a receptor for a Drosophila peptide...... belonging to the insect allatostatin neuropeptide family. In the present paper, we screened the Berkeley "Drosophila Genome Project" database with "electronic probes" corresponding to the conserved regions of the four rat (delta, kappa, mu, nociceptin/orphanin FQ) opioid receptors. This yielded alignment...... with a Drosophila genomic database clone that contained a DNA sequence coding for a protein having, again, structural similarities with the rat galanin receptors. Using PCR with primers coding for the presumed exons of this second Drosophila receptor gene, 5'- and 3'-RACE, and Drosophila cDNA as template, we...

  8. Drosophila Kelch functions with Cullin-3 to organize the ring canal actin cytoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Andrew M.; Cooley, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Kelch (KEL) is the founding member of a diverse protein family defined by a repeated sequence motif known as the KEL repeat (KREP). Several KREP proteins, including Drosophila KEL, bind filamentous actin (F-actin) and contribute to its organization. Recently, a subset of KREP proteins has been shown to function as substrate adaptor proteins for cullin-RING (really interesting new gene) ubiquitin E3 ligases. In this study, we demonstrate that association of Drosophila K...

  9. Genotoxic activity in vivo of the naturally occurring glucoside, cycasin, in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, K; Furukawa, H; Hirono, I

    1995-03-01

    Cycasin, methylazoxymethanol-beta-glucoside, is a naturally occurring carcinogenic compound. The genotoxicity of cycasin was assayed in the Drosophila wing spot test. Cycasin induced small single and large single spots on feeding at 10 mumol/g medium. The presence of these spots indicates that cycasin is genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. Microorganisms which showed beta-glucosidase activity for cleaving cycasin to toxic aglycon were isolated from gut flora of the Drosophila larvae. Consequently, the Drosophila wing spot test would be useful for mutagenicity screening of other naturally occurring glucosides.

  10. Molecular Cloning of a Novel Bovine Homologue of the Drosophila Tumor Suppressor Gene, Lats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Pervious studies demonstrate that lats, also known as warts, is a tumor suppressor gene in Drosophila[1,2]. Mutations of lats lead to an increase in cell number and organ size in Drosophila, indicating lats may be involved in organ size control. Furthermore, the high conservation of sequence and tumor suppression function of lats between Drosophila and human suggests that it may be also involved in organ size control of higher animals[3]. So here we isolated the bovine homologue of Drosophila lats. Sequence analysis indicates the bovine LATS1 to be very similar to other lats proteins.

  11. Silver nanoparticle toxicity in Drosophila: size does matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Gorth

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Deborah J Gorth1, David M Rand2, Thomas J Webster11School of Engineering, 2Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI, USABackground: Consumer nanotechnology is a growing industry. Silver nanoparticles are the most common nanomaterial added to commercially available products, so understanding the influence that size has on toxicity is integral to the safe use of these new products. This study examined the influence of silver particle size on Drosophila egg development by comparing the toxicity of both nanoscale and conventional-sized silver particles.Methods: The toxicity assays were conducted by exposing Drosophila eggs to particle concentrations ranging from 10 ppm to 100 ppm of silver. Size, chemistry, and agglomeration of the silver particles were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering.Results: This analysis confirmed individual silver particle sizes in the ranges of 20–30 nm, 100 nm, and 500–1200 nm, with similar chemistry. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope data also indicated agglomeration in water, with the transmission electron microscopic images showing individual particles in the correct size range, but the dynamic light scattering z-average sizes of the silver nanoparticles were 782 ± 379 nm for the 20–30 nm silver nanoparticles, 693 ± 114 nm for the 100 nm silver nanoparticles, and 508 ± 32 nm for the 500–1200 nm silver particles. Most importantly, here we show significantly more Drosophila egg toxicity when exposed to larger, nonnanometer silver particles. Upon exposure to silver nanoparticles sized 20–30 nm, Drosophila eggs did not exhibit a statistically significant (P < 0.05 decrease in their likelihood to pupate, but eggs exposed to larger silver particles (500–1200 nm were 91% ± 18% less likely to pupate. Exposure to silver nanoparticles reduced the percentage of pupae able

  12. Descripción de tres especies nuevas del género Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae en el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luna Figuero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se encontraron tres especies nuevas de Drosophila entre los individuos colectados en diferentes localidades del Ecuador. Una de las especies nuevas pertenecen al grupo Drosophila willistoni y otra al grupo Drosophila asiri, la tercera especie se encuentra sin agrupar. En todos los muestreos realizados se usaron trampas fabricadas con botellas de plástico agujereadas con cebo de banano y levadura. Las tres especies son: D. (Sophophora neocapnoptera sp. nov., esta especie es similar a D. capnoptera Patterson & Mainland, 1944, sin embargo presentan algunas diferencias en el ala que permiten distinguirlas. Drosophila (Drosophila neoasiri sp. nov., una especie similar a D. asiri Vela & Rafael, 2005, la diferencia más relevante entre las dos especies se observa a nivel del edeago y Drosophila (Drosophila papallacta sp. nov. que por el momento no se encuentra relacionada a ningún grupo de especies del género Drosophila.

  13. Sleep, aging, and lifespan in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tononi Giulio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies in humans suggest that a decrease in daily sleep duration is associated with reduced lifespan, but this issue remains controversial. Other studies in humans also show that both sleep quantity and sleep quality decrease with age. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful model to study aging and sleep, and inheriting mutations affecting the potassium current Shaker results in flies that sleep less and have a shorter lifespan. However, whether the link between short sleep and reduced longevity exists also in wild-type flies is unknown. Similarly, it is unknown whether such a link depends on sleep amount per se, rather than on other factors such as waking activity. Also, sleep quality has been shown to decrease in old flies, but it remains unclear whether aging-related sleep fragmentation is a generalized phenomenon. Results We compared 3 short sleeping mutant lines (Hk1, HkY and Hk2 carrying a mutation in Hyperkinetic, which codes for the beta subunit of the Shaker channel, to wild-type siblings throughout their entire lifespan (all flies kept at 20°C. Hk1 and HkY mutants were short sleeping relative to wild-type controls from day 3 after eclosure, and Hk2 flies became short sleepers about two weeks later. All 3 Hk mutant lines had reduced lifespan relative to wild-type flies. Total sleep time showed a trend to increase in all lines with age, but the effect was most pronounced in Hk1 and HkY flies. In both mutant and wild-type lines sleep quality did not decay with age, but the strong preference for sleep at night declined starting in "middle age". Using Cox regression analysis we found that in Hk1 and HkY mutants and their control lines there was a negative relationship between total sleep amount during the first 2 and 4 weeks of age and hazard (individual risk of death, while no association was found in Hk2 flies and their wild-type controls. Hk1 and HkY mutants and their control lines also showed an

  14. Live imaging of GFP-labeled proteins in Drosophila oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrywka, Nancy Jo

    2013-03-29

    The Drosophila oocyte has been established as a versatile system for investigating fundamental questions such as cytoskeletal function, cell organization, and organelle structure and function. The availability of various GFP-tagged proteins means that many cellular processes can be monitored in living cells over the course of minutes or hours, and using this technique, processes such as RNP transport, epithelial morphogenesis, and tissue remodeling have been described in great detail in Drosophila oocytes. The ability to perform video imaging combined with a rich repertoire of mutants allows an enormous variety of genes and processes to be examined in incredible detail. One such example is the process of ooplasmic streaming, which initiates at mid-oogenesis. This vigorous movement of cytoplasmic vesicles is microtubule and kinesin-dependent and provides a useful system for investigating cytoskeleton function at these stages. Here I present a protocol for time lapse imaging of living oocytes using virtually any confocal microscopy setup.

  15. Drosophila melanogaster as a Model Organism of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Paulus

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has been utilized to model human brain diseases. In most of these invertebrate transgenic models, some aspects of human disease are reproduced. Although investigation of rodent models has been of significant impact, invertebrate models offer a wide variety of experimental tools that can potentially address some of the outstanding questions underlying neurological disease. This review considers what has been gleaned from invertebrate models of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, metabolic diseases such as Leigh disease, Niemann-Pick disease and ceroid lipofuscinoses, tumor syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy as well as CNS injury. It is to be expected that genetic tools in Drosophila will reveal new pathways and interactions, which hopefully will result in molecular based therapy approaches.

  16. Context generalization in Drosophila visual learning requires the mushroom bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wolf, Reinhard; Ernst, Roman; Heisenberg, Martin

    1999-08-01

    The world is permanently changing. Laboratory experiments on learning and memory normally minimize this feature of reality, keeping all conditions except the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli as constant as possible. In the real world, however, animals need to extract from the universe of sensory signals the actual predictors of salient events by separating them from non-predictive stimuli (context). In principle, this can be achieved ifonly those sensory inputs that resemble the reinforcer in theirtemporal structure are taken as predictors. Here we study visual learning in the fly Drosophila melanogaster, using a flight simulator,, and show that memory retrieval is, indeed, partially context-independent. Moreover, we show that the mushroom bodies, which are required for olfactory but not visual or tactile learning, effectively support context generalization. In visual learning in Drosophila, it appears that a facilitating effect of context cues for memory retrieval is the default state, whereas making recall context-independent requires additional processing.

  17. Fluorescent visualization of macromolecules in Drosophila whole mounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ricardo Guelerman Pinheiro; Machado, Luciana Claudia Herculano; Moda, Livia Maria Rosatto

    2010-01-01

    The ability to determine the expression dynamics of individual genes "in situ" by visualizing the precise spatial and temporal distribution of their products in whole mounts by histochemical and immunocytochemical reactions has revolutionized our understanding of cellular processes. Drosophila developmental genetics was one of the fields that benefited most from these technologies, and a variety of fluorescent methods were specifically designed for investigating the localization of developmentally important proteins and cell markers during embryonic and post embryonic stages of this model organism. In this chapter we present detailed protocols for fluorescence immunocytochemistry of whole mount embryos, imaginal discs, pupal retinas, and salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as methods for fluorescent visualization of specific subcellular structures in these tissues.

  18. CRISPR/Cas9 and genome editing in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Andrew R; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-01-20

    Recent advances in our ability to design DNA binding factors with specificity for desired sequences have resulted in a revolution in genetic engineering, enabling directed changes to the genome to be made relatively easily. Traditional techniques for generating genetic mutations in most organisms have relied on selection from large pools of randomly induced mutations for those of particular interest, or time-consuming gene targeting by homologous recombination. Drosophila melanogaster has always been at the forefront of genetic analysis, and application of these new genome editing techniques to this organism will revolutionise our approach to performing analysis of gene function in the future. We discuss the recent techniques that apply the CRISPR/Cas9 system to Drosophila, highlight potential uses for this technology and speculate upon the future of genome engineering in this model organism.

  19. A pulsed magnetic stress applied to Drosophila melanogaster flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Bozzetti, M. P.; Friscini, A.; Giuffreda, E.; Nassisi, V.; Specchia, V.; Velardi, L.

    2014-04-01

    We report the development of a system to feed pulsed magnetic stress to biological samples. The device is based on a RLC circuit that transforms the energy stored in a high voltage capacitor into a magnetic field inside a coil. The field has been characterized and we found that charging the capacitor with 24 kV results in a peak field of 0.4 T. In order to test its effect, we applied such a stress to the Drosophila melanogaster model and we examined its bio-effects. We analysed, in the germ cells, the effects on the control of specific DNA repetitive sequences that are activated after different environmental stresses. The deregulation of these sequences causes genomic instability and chromosomes breaks leading to sterility. The magnetic field treatment did not produce effects on repetitive sequences in the germ cells of Drosophila. Hence, this field doesn't produce deleterious effects linked to repetitive sequences derepression.

  20. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Samantha K.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL), a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation. PMID:28362856

  1. The multiple functions of the PGRP family in Drosophila immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Goto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system discriminates between infectious non-self and self using germ-line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that are highly conserved from insects to mammals. Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP is one of the hallmark pattern recognition receptors responsible for detecting unique bacteria-derived peptidoglycans. The PGRP family comprises several members (13 in Drosophila, 7 in Anopheles, and 4 in mammals and are differentially expressed on immune-responsive organs. Some PGRPs have amidase or bactericidal activities and function as immune modulators, whereas others have lost their enzymatic activity, but still have crucial roles in the activation of innate immune signaling. Evidence from recent Drosophila studies suggests that PGRPs have a role in a variety of immune reactions, such as in the activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade, the production of antimicrobial peptides through the activation of the Toll and Imd pathways, intracellular bacteria recognition, and phagocytosis.

  2. UDP-glucosyltransferase activity toward exogenous substrates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, M D; Ferré, J; Chapa, F J

    1991-05-01

    To investigate the capacity of Drosophila extracts to glucosylate exogenous substrates we have developed a fast and sensitive method for the detection of UDP-glucosyltransferase activity using 4-nitrophenol, 1-naphthol, or 2-naphthol as substrates. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to separate and quantitate the reaction products, allowing detection of activities that produced as little as 1 pmol of 2-naphthol glucoside (fluorescence detection) or 16 pmol of 4-nitrophenol glucoside (absorbance detection). Optimal activity was found at 43 degrees C and alkaline pH. The affinity of the Drosophila enzyme was 250-fold higher for 1-naphthol or 2-naphthol (Km approximately 4 microM) than for 4-nitrophenol and UDP-glucose (Km approximately 1 mM).

  3. Ultradian rhythm unmasked in the Pdf clock mutant of Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuuichi Seki; Teiichi Tanimura

    2014-09-01

    A diverse range of organisms shows physiological and behavioural rhythms with various periods. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms with an approximately 24 h period in both Drosophila and mammals, while less attention has been paid to ultradian rhythms with shorter periods. We used a video-tracking method to monitor the movement of single flies, and clear ultradian rhythms were detected in the locomotor behaviour of wild type and clock mutant flies kept under constant dark conditions. In particular, the Pigment-dispersing factor mutant (Pdf01) demonstrated a precise and robust ultradian rhythmicity, which was not temperature compensated. Our results suggest that Drosophila has an endogenous ultradian oscillator that is masked by circadian rhythmic behaviours.

  4. Phenotypic inheritance induced by hairpin RNA in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaguang Li; Yi Lu

    2009-01-01

    Phenotypic inheritance induced by RNA has been docu-mented in mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we report a similar inheritance in Drosophila. Mutant phe-notypes of eye defects and antenna duplication gener-ated from the crossing of one RNA interference (RNAi)transgenic line harboring one hairpin RNA transgene with a GAL4 driver line were inherited independently of the GAL4 driver. Hairpin RNA injection exper-iments demonstrated that the hairpin RNA could induce heritable mutant-like phenotypes on the eye and antenna. The penetrance of mutant phenotypes was reduced when the mutants were crossed to agol and piwi mutants. Our data suggest that hairpin RNA can induce phenotypic inheritance in Drosophila.

  5. Drosophila Models of Tauopathies: What Have We Learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gistelinck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein Tau are neuropathological hallmark lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD and related primary tauopathies. In addition, Tau is genetically implicated in a number of human neurodegenerative disorders including frontotemporal dementia (FTD and Parkinson's disease (PD. The exact mechanism by which Tau exerts its neurotoxicity is incompletely understood. Here, we give an overview of how studies using the genetic model organism Drosophila over the past decade have contributed to the molecular understanding of Tau neurotoxicity. We compare the different available readouts for Tau neurotoxicity in flies and review the molecular pathways in which Tau has been implicated. Finally, we emphasize that the integration of genome-wide approaches in human or mice with high-throughput genetic validation in Drosophila is a fruitful approach.

  6. Mal/SRF is dispensable for cell proliferation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J Thompson

    Full Text Available The Mal/SRF transcription factor is regulated by the level of G-actin in cells and has important roles in cell migration and other actin-dependent processes in Drosophila. A recent report suggests that Mal/SRF and an upstream regulator, Pico, are required for cell proliferation and tissue growth in Drosophila. I find otherwise. Mutation of Mal or SRF does not affect cell proliferation in the fly wing. Furthermore, I cannot reproduce the reported effects of Pico RNAi or Pico overexpression on body size. Nevertheless, I can confirm that overexpression of Pico or Mal causes tissue overgrowth specifically in the fly wing--where SRF is most highly expressed. My results indicate that Mal/SRF can promote tissue growth when abnormally active, but is not normally required for tissue growth during development.

  7. Substrate vibrations during courtship in three Drosophila species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Mazzoni

    Full Text Available While a plethora of studies have focused on the role of visual, chemical and near-field airborne signals in courtship of Drosophila fruit flies, the existence of substrate-borne vibrational signals has been almost completely overlooked. Here we describe substrate vibrations generated during courtship in three species of the D. melanogaster group, from the allegedly mute species D. suzukii, its sister species D. biarmipes, and from D. melanogaster. In all species, we recorded several types of substrate vibrations which were generated by locomotion, abdominal vibrations and most likely through the activity of thoracic wing muscles. In D. melanogaster and D. suzukii, all substrate vibrations described in intact males were also recorded in males with amputated wings. Evidence suggests that vibrational signalling may be widespread among Drosophila species, and fruit flies may provide an ideal model to study various aspects of this widespread form of animal communication.

  8. Sensory Conflict Disrupts Activity of the Drosophila Circadian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E.F. Harper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Periodic changes in light and temperature synchronize the Drosophila circadian clock, but the question of how the fly brain integrates these two input pathways to set circadian time remains unanswered. We explore multisensory cue combination by testing the resilience of the circadian network to conflicting environmental inputs. We show that misaligned light and temperature cycles can lead to dramatic changes in the daily locomotor activities of wild-type flies during and after exposure to sensory conflict. This altered behavior is associated with a drastic reduction in the amplitude of PERIOD (PER oscillations in brain clock neurons and desynchronization between light- and temperature-sensitive neuronal subgroups. The behavioral disruption depends heavily on the phase relationship between light and temperature signals. Our results represent a systematic quantification of multisensory integration in the Drosophila circadian system and lend further support to the view of the clock as a network of coupled oscillatory subunits.

  9. Spindle mechanics and dynamics during mitosis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mijung; Scholey, Jonathan M

    2004-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for studying mitosis. Syncytial embryos are amenable to time-lapse imaging of hundreds of synchronously dividing spindles, allowing the quantitation of spindle and chromosome dynamics with unprecedented fidelity. Other Drosophila cell types, including neuroblasts, cultured cells, spermatocytes and oocytes, contain spindles that differ in their design, providing cells amenable to different types of experiments and allowing identification of common core mechanisms. The function of mitotic proteins can be studied using mutants, inhibitor microinjection and RNA interference (RNAi) to identify the full inventory of mitotic proteins encoded by the genome. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how ensembles of mitotic proteins coordinate spindle assembly and chromosome motion in this system.

  10. Mechanisms of planar cell polarity establishment in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mlodzik, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Correct patterning and polarization of epithelial and mesenchymal cells are essential for morphogenesis and function of all organs and organisms. Epithelial cells are generally polarized in two axes: (a) the ubiquitous apical-basal axis and (b) polarity within the plane of the epithelium. The latter is generally referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP) and also is found in several contexts of mesenchymal cell patterning. In Drosophila, all adult structures display PCP features, and two conserved molecular systems (the Fat [Ft]/Dachsous [Ds] system and the Frizzled [Fz]/PCP pathway) that regulate this process have been identified. Although significant progress has been made in dissecting aspects of PCP signaling within cells, much remains to be discovered about the mechanisms of long-range and local PCP cell-cell interactions. Here, we discuss the current models based on Drosophila studies and incorporate recent insights into this long-standing cell and developmental biology problem.

  11. Immune stimulation reduces sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn B. Mallon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychoneuroimmunology studies the increasing number of connections between neurobiology, immunology and behaviour. We demonstrate the effects of the immune response on two fundamental behaviours: sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster. We used the Geneswitch system to upregulate peptidoglycan receptor protein (PGRP expression, thereby stimulating the immune system in the absence of infection. Geneswitch was activated by feeding the steroid RU486, to the flies. We used an aversive classical conditioning paradigm to quantify memory and measures of activity to infer sleep. Immune stimulated flies exhibited reduced levels of sleep, which could not be explained by a generalised increase in waking activity. Immune stimulated flies also showed a reduction in memory abilities. These results lend support to Drosophila as a model for immune–neural interactions and provide a possible role for sleep in the interplay between the immune response and memory.

  12. Learning the specific quality of taste reinforcement in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Michael; Miura, Daisuke; Tanimura, Teiichi; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-01-27

    The only property of reinforcement insects are commonly thought to learn about is its value. We show that larval Drosophila not only remember the value of reinforcement (How much?), but also its quality (What?). This is demonstrated both within the appetitive domain by using sugar vs amino acid as different reward qualities, and within the aversive domain by using bitter vs high-concentration salt as different qualities of punishment. From the available literature, such nuanced memories for the quality of reinforcement are unexpected and pose a challenge to present models of how insect memory is organized. Given that animals as simple as larval Drosophila, endowed with but 10,000 neurons, operate with both reinforcement value and quality, we suggest that both are fundamental aspects of mnemonic processing-in any brain.

  13. Higher dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On May 21 2008, Journal of Neuroscience published an online paper from the Institute of Neuroscience, the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, entitled "Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila." This work was done by Mr. LIU Tong, a doctoral candidate, and colleagues under the supervision of Dr. GUO Aike, and in collaboration with Dr. Jean-Francois Ferveur from France.

  14. Drosophila as a Model for Context-Dependent Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila can exhibit classic hallmarks of cancer, such as evasion of apoptosis, sustained proliferation, metastasis, prolonged survival, genome instability, and metabolic reprogramming, when cancer-related genes are perturbed. In the last two decades, studies in flies have identified several tumor suppressor and oncogenes. However, the greatest strength of the fly lies in its ability to model cancer hallmarks in a variety of tissue types, which enables the study of context-dependent tumorig...

  15. Three-dimensional network of Drosophila brain hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Saiga, Rino; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The first step to understanding brain function is to determine the brain's network structure. We report a three-dimensional analysis of the brain network of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster by synchrotron-radiation tomographic microscopy. A skeletonized wire model of the left half of the brain network was built by tracing the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray absorption coefficients. The obtained models of neuronal processes were classified into groups on the basis of their three-d...

  16. Frequent Replenishment Sustains the Beneficial Microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report that establishment and maintenance of the Drosophila melanogaster microbiome depend on ingestion of bacteria. Frequent transfer of flies to sterile food prevented establishment of the microbiome in newly emerged flies and reduced the predominant members, Acetobacter and Lactobacillus spp., by 10- to 1,000-fold in older flies. Flies with a normal microbiome were less susceptible than germfree flies to infection by Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Augmentation ...

  17. A high-quality catalog of the Drosophila melanogaster proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Erich; Ahrens, Christian H.; Mohanty, Sonaly

    2007-01-01

    % of the predicted Drosophila melanogaster proteome by detecting 9,124 proteins from 498,000 redundant and 72,281 distinct peptide identifications. This unprecedented high proteome coverage for a complex eukaryote was achieved by combining sample diversity, multidimensional biochemical fractionation and analysis...... matching approximately 50% of D. melanogaster gene models. This library of proteotypic peptides should enable fast, targeted and quantitative proteomic studies to elucidate the systems biology of this model organism....

  18. Caffeine promotes wakefulness via dopamine signaling in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely-consumed psychoactive drug in the world, but our understanding of how caffeine affects our brains is relatively incomplete. Most studies focus on effects of caffeine on adenosine receptors, but there is evidence for other, more complex mechanisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which shows a robust diurnal pattern of sleep/wake activity, caffeine reduces nighttime sleep behavior independently of the one known adenosine receptor. Here, we show that dopami...

  19. Molecular vibration-sensing component in Drosophila melanogaster olfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Maria Isabel; Turin, Luca; Mershin, Andreas; Efthimios M C Skoulakis

    2011-01-01

    A common explanation of molecular recognition by the olfactory system posits that receptors recognize the structure or shape of the odorant molecule. We performed a rigorous test of shape recognition by replacing hydrogen with deuterium in odorants and asking whether Drosophila melanogaster can distinguish these identically shaped isotopes. We report that flies not only differentiate between isotopic odorants, but can be conditioned to selectively avoid the common or the deuterated isotope. F...

  20. Modeling Novelty Habituation During Exploratory Activity in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Soibam, Benjamin; Shah, Shishir; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.; Roman, Gregg W.

    2013-01-01

    Habituation is a common form of non-associative learning in which the organism gradually decreases its response to repeated stimuli. The decrease in exploratory activity of many animal species during exposure to a novel open field arena is a widely studied habituation paradigm. However, a theoretical framework to quantify how the novelty of the arena is learned during habituation is currently missing. Drosophila melanogaster display a high mean absolute activity and a high probability for dir...

  1. Stathmin is Required for Stability of the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Ethan R.; Heerssen, Heather M.; Wright, Christina M.; Davis, Graeme W.; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic connections can be stably maintained for prolonged periods, yet can be rapidly disassembled during the developmental refinement of neural circuitry and following cytological insults that lead to neurodegeneration. To date, the molecular mechanisms that determine whether a synapse will persist versus being remodeled or eliminated remain poorly understood. Mutations in Drosophila stathmin were isolated in two independent genetic screens that sought mutations leading to impaired synapse...

  2. Different baits and bait amendments to attract Drosophila suzukii

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is a major pest of soft fruits. Baited traps are widely used for monitoring and mass trapping: different commercial baits, different recipes for home-made baits as well as several literature references on attractive compounds are available. In a series of 15 laboratory experiments we compared the attractiveness of different baits for D. suzukii: the commercially available Dros’attract (Biobest Belgium NV) and the Gasser-bait (Biologische Becherfalle für die Kirschessigf...

  3. Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, Andrew J.; Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Tootle, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)—lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes—regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton—temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin ...

  4. Multiscale diffusion in the mitotic Drosophila melanogaster syncytial blastoderm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fundamental importance of diffusion for embryonic morphogen gradient formation in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo, there remains controversy regarding both the extent and the rate of diffusion of well-characterized morphogens. Furthermore, the recent observation of diffusional “compartmentalization” has suggested that diffusion may in fact be nonideal and mediated by an as-yet-unidentified mechanism. Here, we characterize the effects of the geometry of the early syncytial...

  5. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukant Khurana; Mohammed Bin AbuBaker; Obaid Siddiqi

    2009-10-01

    Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) and long term (LTM) as a function of training cycles. The same method of analysis when applied to learning mutants dunce, amnesiac, rutabaga and radish reveals memory deficits characteristic of the mutant strains.

  6. Fungal diversity associated with Hawaiian Drosophila host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Ort

    Full Text Available Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ≥97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation.

  7. Homeotic gene function in the muscles of Drosophila larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Joan E.

    1986-01-01

    The segmental musculature of Drosophila melanogaster larvae consists of 24-30 muscles per segment. Unique patterns of muscles are found in the three thoracic segments and the first and last abdominal segments; the remaining abdominal segments share the same pattern. Mutations in Ultrabithorax (Ubx) cause partial transformation of the muscle pattern of larval abdominal segments towards metathorax. The muscles of the thorax are not affected. In the first two abdominal segments the changes inclu...

  8. Genetic Analysis of Stellate Elements of Drosophila Melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Palumbo, G.; Bonaccorsi, S.; Robbins, L. G.; Pimpinelli, S.

    1994-01-01

    Repeated elements are remarkably important for male meiosis and spermiogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Pairing of the X and Y chromosomes is mediated by the ribosomal RNA genes of the Y chromosome and X chromosome heterochromatin, spermiogenesis depends on the fertility factors of the Y chromosome. Intriguingly, a peculiar genetic system of interaction between the Y-linked crystal locus and the X-linked Stellate elements seem to be also involved in male meiosis and spermiogenesis. Deletio...

  9. Hawaiian Drosophila genomes: size variation and evolutionary expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Elysse M; Gall, Joseph G; Jonas, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports genome sizes of one Hawaiian Scaptomyza and 16 endemic Hawaiian Drosophila species that include five members of the antopocerus species group, one member of the modified mouthpart group, and ten members of the picture wing clade. Genome size expansions have occurred independently multiple times among Hawaiian Drosophila lineages, and have resulted in an over 2.3-fold range of genome sizes among species, with the largest observed in Drosophila cyrtoloma (1C = 0.41 pg). We find evidence that these repeated genome size expansions were likely driven by the addition of significant amounts of heterochromatin and satellite DNA. For example, our data reveal that the addition of seven heterochromatic chromosome arms to the ancestral haploid karyotype, and a remarkable proportion of ~70 % satellite DNA, account for the greatly expanded size of the D. cyrtoloma genome. Moreover, the genomes of 13/17 Hawaiian picture wing species are composed of substantial proportions (22-70 %) of detectable satellites (all but one of which are AT-rich). Our results suggest that in this tightly knit group of recently evolved species, genomes have expanded, in large part, via evolutionary amplifications of satellite DNA sequences in centric and pericentric domains (especially of the X and dot chromosomes), which have resulted in longer acrocentric chromosomes or metacentrics with an added heterochromatic chromosome arm. We discuss possible evolutionary mechanisms that may have shaped these patterns, including rapid fixation of novel expanded genomes during founder-effect speciation.

  10. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine, which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  11. Drosophila RSK negatively regulates bouton number at the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Matthias; Raabe, Thomas; Heisenberg, Martin; Sendtner, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) are growth factor-regulated serine-threonine kinases participating in the RAS-ERK signaling pathway. RSKs have been implicated in memory formation in mammals and flies. To characterize the function of RSK at the synapse level, we investigated the effect of mutations in the rsk gene on the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in Drosophila larvae. Immunostaining revealed transgenic expressed RSK in presynaptic regions. In mutants with a full deletion or an N-terminal partial deletion of rsk, an increased bouton number was found. Restoring the wild-type rsk function in the null mutant with a genomic rescue construct reverted the synaptic phenotype, and overexpression of the rsk-cDNA in motoneurons reduced bouton numbers. Based on previous observations that RSK interacts with the Drosophila ERK homologue Rolled, genetic epistasis experiments were performed with loss- and gain-of-function mutations in Rolled. These experiments provided evidence that RSK mediates its negative effect on bouton formation at the Drosophila NMJ by inhibition of ERK signaling.

  12. Gut microbiota dictates the metabolic response of Drosophila to diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Adam C-N; Dobson, Adam J; Douglas, Angela E

    2014-06-01

    Animal nutrition is profoundly influenced by the gut microbiota, but knowledge of the scope and core mechanisms of the underlying animal-microbiota interactions is fragmentary. To investigate the nutritional traits shaped by the gut microbiota of Drosophila, we determined the microbiota-dependent response of multiple metabolic and performance indices to systematically varied diet composition. Diet-dependent differences between Drosophila bearing its unmanipulated microbiota (conventional flies) and experimentally deprived of its microbiota (axenic flies) revealed evidence for: microbial sparing of dietary B vitamins, especially riboflavin, on low-yeast diets; microbial promotion of protein nutrition, particularly in females; and microbiota-mediated suppression of lipid/carbohydrate storage, especially on high sugar diets. The microbiota also sets the relationship between energy storage and body mass, indicative of microbial modulation of the host signaling networks that coordinate metabolism with body size. This analysis identifies the multiple impacts of the microbiota on the metabolism of Drosophila, and demonstrates that the significance of these different interactions varies with diet composition and host sex.

  13. Tropics accelerate the evolution of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukilevich, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that facilitate speciation and explain global patterns of species diversity has remained a challenge for decades. The most general pattern of species biodiversity is the latitudinal gradient, whereby species richness increases toward the tropics. Although such a global pattern probably has a multitude of causes, recent attention has focused on the hypothesis that speciation and the evolution of reproductive isolation occur faster in the tropics. Here, I tested this prediction using a dataset on premating and postzygotic isolation between recently diverged Drosophila species. Results showed that while the evolution of premating isolation was not greater between tropical Drosophila relative to nontropical species, postzygotic isolation evolved faster in the tropics. In particular, hybrid male sterility was much greater among tropical Drosophila compared to nontropical species pairs of similar genetic age. Several testable explanations for the novel pattern are discussed, including greater role for sterility-inducing bacterial endosymbionts in the tropics and more intense sperm-sperm competition or sperm-egg sexual conflict in the tropics. The results imply that processes of speciation in the tropics may evolve at different rates or may even be somewhat different from those at higher latitudes.

  14. Drosophila Adaptation to Viral Infection through Defensive Symbiont Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Vitor G.; Magalhães, Sara; Paulo, Tânia F.; Nolte, Viola; Schlötterer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial symbionts can modulate host interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Such interactions may affect the evolutionary trajectories of both host and symbiont. Wolbachia protects Drosophila melanogaster against several viral infections and the strength of the protection varies between variants of this endosymbiont. Since Wolbachia is maternally transmitted, its fitness depends on the fitness of its host. Therefore, Wolbachia populations may be under selection when Drosophila is subjected to viral infection. Here we show that in D. melanogaster populations selected for increased survival upon infection with Drosophila C virus there is a strong selection coefficient for specific Wolbachia variants, leading to their fixation. Flies carrying these selected Wolbachia variants have higher survival and fertility upon viral infection when compared to flies with the other variants. These findings demonstrate how the interaction of a host with pathogens shapes the genetic composition of symbiont populations. Furthermore, host adaptation can result from the evolution of its symbionts, with host and symbiont functioning as a single evolutionary unit. PMID:27684942

  15. The ecdysteroidome of Drosophila: influence of diet and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrynenko, Oksana; Rodenfels, Jonathan; Carvalho, Maria; Dye, Natalie A; Lafont, Rene; Eaton, Suzanne; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2015-11-01

    Ecdysteroids are the hormones regulating development, physiology and fertility in arthropods, which synthesize them exclusively from dietary sterols. But how dietary sterol diversity influences the ecdysteroid profile, how animals ensure the production of desired hormones and whether there are functional differences between different ecdysteroids produced in vivo remains unknown. This is because currently there is no analytical technology for unbiased, comprehensive and quantitative assessment of the full complement of endogenous ecdysteroids. We developed a new LC-MS/MS method to screen the entire chemical space of ecdysteroid-related structures and to quantify known and newly discovered hormones and their catabolites. We quantified the ecdysteroidome in Drosophila melanogaster and investigated how the ecdysteroid profile varies with diet and development. We show that Drosophila can produce four different classes of ecdysteroids, which are obligatorily derived from four types of dietary sterol precursors. Drosophila makes makisterone A from plant sterols and epi-makisterone A from ergosterol, the major yeast sterol. However, they prefer to selectively utilize scarce ergosterol precursors to make a novel hormone 24,28-dehydromakisterone A and trace cholesterol to synthesize 20-hydroxyecdysone. Interestingly, epi-makisterone A supports only larval development, whereas all other ecdysteroids allow full adult development. We suggest that evolutionary pressure against producing epi-C-24 ecdysteroids might explain selective utilization of ergosterol precursors and the puzzling preference for cholesterol.

  16. Transcriptomic Response of Drosophila Melanogaster Pupae Developed in Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Hateley, Shannon; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of Drosophila is evolutionarily adapted to Earth's gravity, and is a tightly regulated process. Deviation from 1g to microgravity or hypergravity can influence metamorphosis, and alter associated gene expression. Understanding the relationship between an altered gravity environment and developmental processes is important for NASA's space travel goals. In the present study, 20 female and 20 male synchronized (Canton S, 2 to 3day old) flies were allowed to lay eggs while being maintained in a hypergravity environment (3g). Centrifugation was briefly stopped to discard the parent flies after 24hrs of egg laying, and then immediately continued until the eggs developed into P6-staged pupae (25 - 43 hours after pupation initiation). Post hypergravity exposure, P6-staged pupae were collected, total RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy mini kits. We used RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile global transcriptomic changes in early pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity. During the pupal stage, Drosophila relies upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupa under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-exposed pupae compared to controls, with 1,513 genes showing a significant (q Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity.

  17. The Hydra FGFR, Kringelchen, partially replaces the Drosophila Heartless FGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Anja; Hübinger, Christine; Hüsken, Katrin; Vogt, Angelika; Rebscher, Nicole; Onel, Susanne-Filiz; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Hassel, Monika

    2013-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are highly conserved receptor tyrosine kinases, and evolved early in metazoan evolution. In order to investigate their functional conservation, we asked whether the Kringelchen FGFR in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris, is able to functionally replace FGFR in fly embryos. In Drosophila, two endogenous FGFR, Breathless (Btl) and Heartless (Htl), ensure formation of the tracheal system and mesodermal cell migration as well as formation of the heart. Using UAS-kringelchen-5xmyc transgenic flies and targeted expression, we show that Kringelchen is integrated correctly into the cell membrane of mesodermal and tracheal cells in Drosophila. Nevertheless, Kringelchen expression driven in tracheal cells failed to rescue the btl (LG19) mutant. The Hydra FGFR was able to substitute for Heartless in the htl (AB42) null mutant; however, this occurred only during early mesodermal cell migration. Our data provide evidence for functional conservation of this early-diverged FGFR across these distantly related phyla, but also selectivity for the Htl FGFR in the Drosophila system.

  18. In situ hybridization to somatic chromosomes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernburg, Abby F

    2011-09-01

    In situ hybridization was originally developed as a technique for visualizing and physically mapping specific sequences on Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. Hybridization techniques can also be used to localize sequences on smaller, diploid chromosomes, such as condensed mitotic chromosomes. Variations of the method also allow the hybridization of probes to chromosomes within intact cells and tissues, rather than to chromosomes isolated from their cellular context and flattened on slides. This article presents methods for hybridizing fluorescent probes to chromosomes in whole-mount Drosophila tissues. These methods allow the investigation of nuclear organization even at stages where chromosomes are decondensed (as in interphase) or, for other reasons, cannot be discriminated in the light microscope. Consequently, they are useful for addressing a variety of cell biological questions. In addition to enhancing our understanding of somatic chromosome organization, this experimental approach has also revealed interactions among meiotic chromosomes in Drosophila females, which spend much of meiosis in a compact ball called the karyosome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) methods can also be used to karyotype individual nuclei using chromosome-specific markers. With appropriate fixation conditions, hybridization to chromosomal DNA can be performed in conjunction with immunostaining, allowing the colocalization of cellular or chromosomal proteins.

  19. Using Linear Agarose Channels to Study Drosophila Larval Crawling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Heckscher, Ellie S

    2016-11-26

    Drosophila larval crawling is emerging as a powerful model to study neural control of sensorimotor behavior. However, larval crawling behavior on flat open surfaces is complex, including: pausing, turning, and meandering. This complexity in the repertoire of movement hinders detailed analysis of the events occurring during a single crawl stride cycle. To overcome this obstacle, linear agarose channels were made that constrain larval behavior to straight, sustained, rhythmic crawling. In principle, because agarose channels and the Drosophila larval body are both optically clear, the movement of larval structures labeled by genetically-encoded fluorescent probes can be monitored in intact, freely-moving larvae. In the past, larvae were placed in linear channels and crawling at the level of whole organism, segment, and muscle were analyzed(1). In the future, larvae crawling in channels can be used for calcium imaging to monitor neuronal activity. Moreover, these methods can be used with larvae of any genotype and with any researcher-designed channel. Thus the protocol presented below is widely applicable for studies using the Drosophila larva as a model to understand motor control.

  20. Stathmin is required for stability of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Ethan R; Heerssen, Heather M; Wright, Christina M; Davis, Graeme W; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2011-10-19

    Synaptic connections can be stably maintained for prolonged periods, yet can be rapidly disassembled during the developmental refinement of neural circuitry and following cytological insults that lead to neurodegeneration. To date, the molecular mechanisms that determine whether a synapse will persist versus being remodeled or eliminated remain poorly understood. Mutations in Drosophila stathmin were isolated in two independent genetic screens that sought mutations leading to impaired synapse stability at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here we demonstrate that Stathmin, a protein that associates with microtubules and can function as a point of signaling integration, is necessary to maintain the stability of the Drosophila NMJ. We show that Stathmin protein is widely distributed within motoneurons and that loss of Stathmin causes impaired NMJ growth and stability. In addition, we show that stathmin mutants display evidence of defective axonal transport, a common feature associated with neuronal degeneration and altered synapse stability. The disassembly of the NMJ in stathmin includes a predictable sequence of cytological events, suggesting that a common program of synapse disassembly is induced following the loss of Stathmin protein. These data define a required function for Stathmin during synapse maintenance in a model system in which there is only a single stathmin gene, enabling future genetic investigation of Stathmin function with potential relevance to the cause and progression of neuromuscular degenerative disease.

  1. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons revisited: mating status alters cuticular profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Everaerts

    Full Text Available Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs, or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA, affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i reciprocal in the two sexes, suggesting a passive mechanical transfer during mating, (ii parallel in both sexes, such as for cVA which strikingly appeared during mating, or (iii unilateral, presumably as a result of sexual interaction. We provide a complete reassessment of all Drosophila CHs and suggest that the chemical conversation between male and female flies is far more complex than is generally accepted. We conclude that focusing on individual compounds will not provide a satisfactory understanding of the evolution and function of chemical communication in Drosophila.

  2. Drosophila and experimental neurology in the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Joshua M

    2015-12-01

    For decades, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been among the premiere genetic model systems for probing fundamental neurobiology, including elucidation of mechanisms responsible for human neurologic disorders. Flies continue to offer virtually unparalleled versatility and speed for genetic manipulation, strong genomic conservation, and a nervous system that recapitulates a range of cellular and network properties relevant to human disease. I focus here on four critical challenges emerging from recent advances in our understanding of the genomic basis of human neurologic disorders where innovative experimental strategies are urgently needed: (1) pinpointing causal genes from associated genomic loci; (2) confirming the functional impact of allelic variants; (3) elucidating nervous system roles for novel or poorly studied genes; and (4) probing network interactions within implicated regulatory pathways. Drosophila genetic approaches are ideally suited to address each of these potential translational roadblocks, and will therefore contribute to mechanistic insights and potential breakthrough therapies for complex genetic disorders in the coming years. Strategic collaboration between neurologists, human geneticists, and the Drosophila research community holds great promise to accelerate progress in the post-genomic era.

  3. Transgenic Drosophila model to study apolipoprotein E4-induced neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Mohammad; Nongthomba, Upendra; Jahromi, Samaneh Reiszadeh; Ramesh, S R

    2016-03-15

    The ε4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) that is involved in neuron-glial lipid metabolism has been demonstrated as the main genetic risk factor in late-onset of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism underlying ApoE4-mediated neurodegeneration remains unclear. We created a transgenic model of neurodegenerative disorder by expressing ε3 and ε4 isoforms of human ApoE in the Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic models exhibited progressive neurodegeneration, shortened lifespan and memory impairment. Genetic interaction studies between amyloid precursor protein and ApoE in axon pathology of the disease revealed that over expression of hApoE in Appl-expressing neurons of Drosophila brain causes neurodegeneration. Moreover, acute oxidative damage in the hApoE transgenic flies triggered a neuroprotective response of hApoE3 while chronic induction of oxidative damage accelerated the rate of neurodegeneration. This Drosophila model may facilitate analysis of the molecular and cellular events implicated in hApoE4 neurotoxicity.

  4. Antimutagenic Profile of Antioxidant Vitamins in Drosophila Mulation Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.K.KHAN; S.P.SINHA

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the antimutagenicity of antioxidant vitamins(vitamins A,C,and E)as expressed by their efficacy to of X-chromosome linked recessive lethal mutations(XRLMs)in Drosophila.Larvae were exposed to dietary concentration of aflatoxins and/or the human therapeutic doses of any ofthe three antioxidant vitamins. Absence of normal eyedmales among M2 progeny gave an indication of mutation induction. Results Aflatoxin supplimentation significantly increased the incidence of XRLMs in Drosophila.Mutation frequency was also raised a little above the control level in case of vitamin treatment.However,notable mitigation in mutation frequency was registered when aflatoxin-treated larvae were concomitantly fed with any of the three antioxidant vitamins.Conclusion Aflatoxin exposure can enhance the frequency of gene mutation in Drosophila which is significantly lowered by each of the three antioxidant vitamins.The degree of amelioration produced by them is almost identical.This mitigation is based on the scavenging/trapping by antioxidant vitamins of DNA-reactive products (metabolites and radicals)emanating from aflatoxin metabofism.

  5. A drosophila full-length cDNA resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, Mark; Carlson, Joseph; Brokstein, Peter; Yu, Charles; Champe, Mark; George, Reed; Guarin, Hannibal; Kronmiller, Brent; Pacleb, Joanne; Park, Soo; Rubin, Gerald M.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2003-05-09

    Background: A collection of sequenced full-length cDNAs is an important resource both for functional genomics studies and for the determination of the intron-exon structure of genes. Providing this resource to the Drosophila melanogaster research community has been a long-term goal of the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project. We have previously described the Drosophila Gene Collection (DGC), a set of putative full-length cDNAs that was produced by generating and analyzing over 250,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a variety of tissues and developmental stages. Results: We have generated high-quality full-insert sequence for 8,921 clones in the DGC. We compared the sequence of these clones to the annotated Release 3 genomic sequence, and identified more than 5,300 cDNAs that contain a complete and accurate protein-coding sequence. This corresponds to at least one splice form for 40 percent of the predicted D. melanogaster genes. We also identified potential new cases of RNA editing. Conclusions: We show that comparison of cDNA sequences to a high-quality annotated genomic sequence is an effective approach to identifying and eliminating defective clones from a cDNA collection and ensure its utility for experimentation. Clones were eliminated either because they carry single nucleotide discrepancies, which most probably result from reverse transcriptase errors, or because they are truncated and contain only part of the protein-coding sequence.

  6. Rac promotes epithelial cell rearrangement during tracheal tubulogenesis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takahiro; Kato, Kagayaki; Taniguchi, Misako; Ng, Julian; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2003-04-01

    Cell rearrangement, accompanied by the rapid assembly and disassembly of cadherin-mediated cell adhesions, plays essential roles in epithelial morphogenesis. Various in vitro and cell culture studies on the small GTPase Rac have suggested it to be a key regulator of cell adhesion, but this notion needs to be verified in the context of embryonic development. We used the tracheal system of Drosophila to investigate the function of Rac in the epithelial cell rearrangement, with a special attention to its role in regulating epithelial cadherin activity. We found that a reduced Rac activity led to an expansion of cell junctions in the embryonic epidermis and tracheal epithelia, which was accompanied by an increase in the amount of Drosophila E-Cadherin-Catenin complexes by a post-transcriptional mechanism. Reduced Rac activity inhibited dynamic epithelial cell rearrangement. Hyperactivation of Rac, on the other hand, inhibited assembly of newly synthesized E-Cadherin into cell junctions and caused loss of tracheal cell adhesion, resulting in cell detachment from the epithelia. Thus, in the context of Drosophila tracheal development, Rac activity must be maintained at a level necessary to balance the assembly and disassembly of E-Cadherin at cell junctions. Together with its role in cell motility, Rac regulates plasticity of cell adhesion and thus ensures smooth remodeling of epithelial sheets into tubules.

  7. Rapid evolution in a fraction of the Drosophila nuclear genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werman, S D; Davidson, E H; Britten, R J

    1990-03-01

    Previous observations have indicated that Drosophila DNA contains a component that evolves so rapidly that it fails to hybridize between the DNAs of sibling species. To establish the reality of this component and study its properties, the fraction (about 20%) of Drosophila simulans (Dsim) DNA that fails to hybridize to Drosophila melanogaster (Dmel) DNA has been isolated. The majority of the hybridizable part of this isolated fraction (based on control tests on Dsim DNA) fails to hybridize with Dmel DNA under the conditions used for the initial fractionation. Clones of this fraction do hybridize with Dmel DNA at open criterion producing duplexes with greatly reduced thermal stability, indicating that the underlying process is rapid sequence divergence rather than loss of the homologous sequences by relatively large deletions. Cloned fragments from the nonhybridizing fraction from Dsim are more than 15% divergent from the Dmel homologues, whereas the fraction that does hybridize is only 3-5% divergent. In comparison, synonymous substitutions in the coding regions of five genes show a 9% average divergence between Dsim and Dmel. They appear to be intermediate in their degree of divergence between the hybridizing and nonhybridizing components.

  8. The impact of host diet on Wolbachia titer in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbus, Laura R; White, Pamela M; Silva, Jessica Pintado; Rabe, Amanda; Teixeira, Luis; Albertson, Roger; Sullivan, William

    2015-03-01

    While a number of studies have identified host factors that influence endosymbiont titer, little is known concerning environmental influences on titer. Here we examined nutrient impact on maternally transmitted Wolbachia endosymbionts in Drosophila. We demonstrate that Drosophila reared on sucrose- and yeast-enriched diets exhibit increased and reduced Wolbachia titers in oogenesis, respectively. The yeast-induced Wolbachia depletion is mediated in large part by the somatic TOR and insulin signaling pathways. Disrupting TORC1 with the small molecule rapamycin dramatically increases oocyte Wolbachia titer, whereas hyper-activating somatic TORC1 suppresses oocyte titer. Furthermore, genetic ablation of insulin-producing cells located in the Drosophila brain abolished the yeast impact on oocyte titer. Exposure to yeast-enriched diets altered Wolbachia nucleoid morphology in oogenesis. Furthermore, dietary yeast increased somatic Wolbachia titer overall, though not in the central nervous system. These findings highlight the interactions between Wolbachia and germline cells as strongly nutrient-sensitive, and implicate conserved host signaling pathways by which nutrients influence Wolbachia titer.

  9. The impact of host diet on Wolbachia titer in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Serbus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While a number of studies have identified host factors that influence endosymbiont titer, little is known concerning environmental influences on titer. Here we examined nutrient impact on maternally transmitted Wolbachia endosymbionts in Drosophila. We demonstrate that Drosophila reared on sucrose- and yeast-enriched diets exhibit increased and reduced Wolbachia titers in oogenesis, respectively. The yeast-induced Wolbachia depletion is mediated in large part by the somatic TOR and insulin signaling pathways. Disrupting TORC1 with the small molecule rapamycin dramatically increases oocyte Wolbachia titer, whereas hyper-activating somatic TORC1 suppresses oocyte titer. Furthermore, genetic ablation of insulin-producing cells located in the Drosophila brain abolished the yeast impact on oocyte titer. Exposure to yeast-enriched diets altered Wolbachia nucleoid morphology in oogenesis. Furthermore, dietary yeast increased somatic Wolbachia titer overall, though not in the central nervous system. These findings highlight the interactions between Wolbachia and germline cells as strongly nutrient-sensitive, and implicate conserved host signaling pathways by which nutrients influence Wolbachia titer.

  10. Olfactory attraction of Drosophila suzukii by symbiotic acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzetto, Fabio

    2016-03-24

    Some species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play relevant roles in the metabolism and physiology of Drosophila spp. and in some cases convey benefits to their hosts. The pest Drosophila suzukii harbors a set of AAB similar to those of other Drosophila species. Here, we investigate the potential to exploit the ability of AAB to produce volatile substances that attract female D. suzukii. Using a two-way olfactometer bioassay, we investigate the preference of D. suzukii for strains of AAB, and using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry we specifically characterize their volatile profiles to identify attractive and non-attractive components produced by strains from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter. Flies had a preference for one strain of Komagataeibacter and two strains of Gluconobacter. Analyses of the volatile profiles from the preferred Gluconobacter isolates found that acetic acid is distinctively emitted even after 2 days of bacterial growth, confirming the relevance of this volatile in the profile of this isolate for attracting flies. Analyses of the volatile profile from the preferred Komagataeibacter isolate showed that a different volatile in its profile could be responsible for attracting D. suzukii. Moreover, variation in the concentration of butyric acid derivatives found in some strains may influence the preference of D. suzukii. Our results indicate that Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter strains isolated from D. suzukii have the potential to provide substances that could be exploited to develop sustainable mass-trapping-based control approaches. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  11. No evidence for learned mating discrimination in male Drosophila pseudoobscura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandul Ekaterina V

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since females often pay a higher cost for heterospecific matings, mate discrimination and species recognition are driven primarily by female choice. In contrast, frequent indiscriminate matings are hypothesized to maximize male fitness. However, recent studies show that previously indiscriminate males (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster and Poecilia reticulata can learn to avoid heterospecific courtship. This ability of males to discriminate against heterospecific courtship may be advantageous in populations where two species co-occur if courtship or mating is costly. Results Here, we tested whether Drosophila pseudoobscura males learn to discriminate against heterospecific females after being exposed to and rejected by D. persimilis females. In most of our assays, we failed to observe differences in D. pseudoobscura courtship intensity of heterospecific females by males that had previously courted heterospecific females vs. males that had been maintained in isolation. Conclusion We conclude that learning to avoid heterospecific courtship may not be universal, even within the genus Drosophila, and may possibly be dependent on the natural history of the species.

  12. On the mechanics of cardiac function of Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingming; Sato, Thomas N

    2008-01-01

    The heart is a vital organ that provides essential circulation throughout the body. Malfunction of cardiac pumping, thus, leads to serious and most of the times, to fatal diseases. Mechanics of cardiac pumping is a complex process, and many experimental and theoretical approaches have been undertaken to understand this process. We have taken advantage of the simplicity of the embryonic heart of an invertebrate, Drosophila melanogaster, to understand the fundamental mechanics of the beating heart. We applied a live imaging technique to the beating embryonic heart combined with analytical imaging tools to study the dynamic mechanics of the pumping. Furthermore, we have identified one mutant line that exhibits aberrant pumping mechanics. The Drosophila embryonic heart consists of only 104 cardiac cells forming a simple straight tube that can be easily accessed for real-time imaging. Therefore, combined with the wealth of available genetic tools, the embryonic Drosophila heart may serve as a powerful model system for studies of human heart diseases, such as arrhythmia and congenital heart diseases. We, furthermore, believe our mechanistic data provides important information that is useful for our further understanding of the design of biological structure and function and for engineering the pumps for medical uses.

  13. Evaluation of polylactic acid nanoparticles safety using Drosophila model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz, Sophie; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Lethias, Claire; Viginier, Barbara; Terzian, Christophe; Verrier, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles and their sub-lethal effect on cell behavior and cell fate are a high topic of studies in the nanomaterial field. With an explosion of nanoparticle types (size, shape, polarity, stiffness, composition, etc.), Drosophila has become an attractive animal model for high throughput analysis of these nanocarriers in the drug delivery field with applications in cancer therapy, or simply to generate a fast and complete cytotoxic study of a peculiar nanoparticle. In respect to that, we have conducted an in cellulo study of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticle cytotoxicity, and determined that near lethal nanoparticle doses, oxidative stress as well as P53 and ATP pathways may lead to cell cycle arrest at G1, and ultimately to cell death. Neither viability nor the development of Drosophila larvae are affected by the ingestion of PLA nanoparticles at sub-lethal concentrations. Drosophila will be a useful model to study PLA and PLA-modified nanoparticle toxicity, and nanoparticle fate after ingestion.

  14. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Kudow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis − and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila. We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  15. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudow, Nana; Miura, Daisuke; Schleyer, Michael; Toshima, Naoko; Gerber, Bertram; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2017-03-15

    Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis - and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  16. Chemical Cues Influence Pupation Behavior of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila buzzatii in Nature and in the Laboratory.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcial Beltramí; María Cristina Medina-Muñoz; Francisco Del Pino; Jean-Francois Ferveur; Raúl Godoy-Herrera

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the wild, larvae of several species of Drosophila develop in heterogeneous and rapidly changing environments sharing resources as food and space. In this scenario, sensory systems contribute to detect, localize and recognize congeners and heterospecifics, and provide information about the availability of food and chemical features of environments where animals live. We investigated the behavior of D. simulans and D. buzzatii larvae to chemicals emitted by conspecifi...

  17. Reproductive character displacement of epicuticular compounds and their contribution to mate choice in Drosophila subquinaria and Drosophila recens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kelly A; White, Brooke E; Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; Bewick, Emily R; Rundle, Howard D

    2014-04-01

    Interactions between species can alter selection on sexual displays used in mate choice within species. Here we study the epicuticular pheromones of two Drosophila species that overlap partially in geographic range and are incompletely reproductively isolated. Drosophila subquinaria shows a pattern of reproductive character displacement against Drosophila recens, and partial behavioral isolation between conspecific sympatric versus allopatric populations, whereas D. recens shows no such variation in mate choice. First, using manipulative perfuming experiments, we show that females use pheromones as signals for mate discrimination both between species and among populations of D. subquinaria. Second, we show that patterns of variation in epicuticular compounds, both across populations and between species, are consistent with those previously shown for mating probabilities: pheromone compositions differ between populations of D. subquinaria that are allopatric versus sympatric with D. recens, but are similar across populations of D. recens regardless of overlap with D. subquinaria. We also identify differences in pheromone composition among allopatric regions of D. subquinaria. In sum, our results suggest that epicuticular compounds are key signals used by females during mate recognition, and that these traits have diverged among D. subquinaria populations in response to reinforcing selection generated by the presence of D. recens.

  18. The Drosophila gene CG9918 codes for a pyrokinin-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Torp, Malene; Hauser, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The database from the Drosophila Genome Project contains a gene, CG9918, annotated to code for a G protein-coupled receptor. We cloned the cDNA of this gene and functionally expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We tested a library of about 25 Drosophila and other insect neuropeptides, and...

  19. The nutritional and hedonic value of food modulate sexual receptivity in Drosophila melanogaster females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Jenke A; Jagadeesh, Samyukta; Gahr, Christoph; Boonekamp, Jelle J; Levine, Joel D; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these fo

  20. RNAi Screen in Drosophila melanogastor Identifies Regulators of Steroidogenesis and Developmental Maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Thomas

    In contrast to humans, Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, only produces one major class of cholesterol-derived steroid hormones, the ecdysteroids. This makes Drosophila a simple but elegant model organism to study steroidogenesis. During development, pulses of ecdysone...

  1. Non-crop plants used as hosts by Drosophila suzukii in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenis, Marc; Tonina, Lorenzo; Eschen, René; Sluis, van der Bart; Sancassani, Manuel; Mori, Nicola; Haye, Tim; Helsen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    The invasive spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii, a fruit fly of Asian origin, is a major pest of a wide variety of berry and stone fruits in Europe. One of the characteristics of this fly is its wide host range. A better knowledge of its host range outside cultivated areas is essential to

  2. The Drosophila gene brainiac encodes a glycosyltransferase putatively involved in glycosphingolipid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwientek, Tilo; Keck, Birgit; Levery, Steven B

    2002-01-01

    The Drosophila genes fringe and brainiac exhibit sequence similarities to glycosyltransferases. Drosophila and mammalian fringe homologs encode UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:fucose-O-Ser beta1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modulate the function of Notch family receptors. The biological function...

  3. Visualization of Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics in Fixed and Live Drosophila Egg Chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Christopher M; Tootle, Tina L

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of actin cytoskeletal dynamics is critical for understanding the spatial and temporal regulation of actin remodeling. Drosophila oogenesis provides an excellent model system for visualizing the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we present methods for imaging the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila egg chambers in both fixed samples by phalloidin staining and in live egg chambers using transgenic actin labeling tools.

  4. Visual Pattern Memory Requires "Foraging" Function in the Central Complex of "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Pan, Yufeng; Li, Weizhe; Jiang, Huoqing; Chatzimanolis, Lazaros; Chang, Jianhong; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2008-01-01

    The role of the "foraging" ("for)" gene, which encodes a cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG), in food-search behavior in "Drosophila" has been intensively studied. However, its functions in other complex behaviors have not been well-characterized. Here, we show experimentally in "Drosophila" that the "for"…

  5. The neuropeptide allatostatin A regulates metabolism and feeding decisions in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Carlsson, Mikael A.; Kondo, Shu;

    2015-01-01

    and energy mobilization are regulated by the glucagon-related adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs). Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila neuropeptide Allatostatin A (AstA) regulates AKH and DILP signaling. The AstA receptor gene, Dar-2, is expressed in both...

  6. Molecular cloning and genomic organization of an allatostatin preprohormone from Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, C; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    The insect allatostatins are neurohormones, acting on the corpora allata (where they block the release of juvenile hormone) and on the insect gut (where they block smooth muscle contraction). We screened the "Drosophila Genome Project" database with electronic sequences corresponding to various...... insect allatostatins. This resulted in alignment with a DNA sequence coding for some Drosophila allatostatins (drostatins). Using PCR with oligonucleotide primers directed against the presumed exons of this Drosophila allatostatin gene and subsequent 3'- and 5'-RACE, we were able to clone its c......DNA. The Drosophila allatostatin preprohormone contains four amino acid sequences that after processing would give rise to four Drosophila allatostatins: Val-Glu-Arg-Tyr-Ala-Phe-Gly-Leu-NH(2) (drostatin-1), Leu-Pro-Val-Tyr-Asn-Phe-Gly-Leu-NH(2) (drostatin-2), Ser-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ser-Phe-Gly-Leu-NH(2) (drostatin-3...

  7. AcEST: DK953833 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KP84|B4KP84_DROMO GI20300 OS=Drosophila mojavensis GN=GI203... 33 5.5 tr|Q7LC53|Q7LC53_HUMAN Intrinsic facto...ACQNDVITRIEATPTGRTHLWAMVLCLIGCWPCVCVPYCMDS 145 Query: 376 CVQ 384 C Q Sbjct: 146 CKQ 148 >tr|Q7LC53|Q7LC53_HUMAN Intrinsic

  8. Drosophila melanogaster--the model organism of choice for the complex biology of multi-cellular organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, Kathleen M.; Armstrong, J. Douglas; Texada, Michael J.; Munjaal, Ravi; Baker, Dean A.

    2005-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been intensely studied for almost 100 years. The sophisticated array of genetic and molecular tools that have evolved for analysis of gene function in this organism are unique. Further, Drosophila is a complex multi-cellular organism in which many aspects of development and behavior parallel those in human beings. These combined advantages have permitted research in Drosophila to make seminal contributions to the understanding of fundamental biological processes and ensure that Drosophila will continue to provide unique insights in the genomic era. An overview of the genetic methodologies available in Drosophila is given here, together with examples of outstanding recent contributions of Drosophila to our understanding of cell and organismal biology. The growing contribution of Drosophila to our knowledge of gravity-related responses is addressed.

  9. Genetic architecture of hybrid male sterility in Drosophila: analysis of intraspecies variation for interspecies isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Reed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of postzygotic isolation is a central puzzle in evolutionary biology. Evolutionary forces causing hybrid sterility or inviability act on the responsible genes while they still are polymorphic, thus we have to study these traits as they arise, before isolation is complete. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isofemale strains of D. mojavensis vary significantly in their production of sterile F(1 sons when females are crossed to D. arizonae males. We took advantage of the intraspecific polymorphism, in a novel design, to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping analyses directly on F(1 hybrid male sterility itself. We found that the genetic architecture of the polymorphism for hybrid male sterility (HMS in the F(1 is complex, involving multiple QTL, epistasis, and cytoplasmic effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The role of extensive intraspecific polymorphism, multiple QTL, and epistatic interactions in HMS in this young species pair shows that HMS is arising as a complex trait in this system. Directional selection alone would be unlikely to maintain polymorphism at multiple loci, thus we hypothesize that directional selection is unlikely to be the only evolutionary force influencing postzygotic isolation.

  10. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Coelho

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine, an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents. A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects.

  11. The PIKE homolog Centaurin gamma regulates developmental timing in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa Gündner

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to

  12. Innate immune responses of Drosophila melanogaster are altered by spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Marcu

    Full Text Available Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways.

  13. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stimuli. Since the first description of olfactory and taste receptors in Drosophila fifteen years ago, our knowledge on the identity, properties, and function of specific chemoreceptors has increased exponentially. In the last years, multidisciplinary approaches combining genetic tools with electrophysiological techniques, behavioral recording, evolutionary analysis, and chemical ecology studies are shedding light on our understanding on the ecological relevance of specific chemoreceptors for the survival of Drosophila in their natural environment. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chemoreceptors of both the olfactory and taste systems of the fruitfly. We focus on the relevance of particular receptors for the detection of ecologically relevant cues such as pheromones, food sources, and toxic compounds, and we comment on the behavioral changes that the detection of these chemicals induce in the fly. In particular, we give an updated outlook of the chemical communication displayed during one of the most important behaviors for fly survival, the courtship behavior. Finally, the ecological relevance of specific chemicals can vary depending on the niche occupied by the individual. In that regard, in this review we also highlight the contrast between adult and larval systems and we propose that these differences could reflect distinctive requirements depending on the change of ecological niche occupied by Drosophila along its life cycle.

  14. Genetic modifiers of MeCP2 function in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly N Cukier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The levels of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2 are critical for normal post-natal development and function of the nervous system. Loss of function of MeCP2, a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling, causes classic Rett syndrome (RTT as well as other related conditions characterized by autism, learning disabilities, or mental retardation. Increased dosage of MeCP2 also leads to clinically similar neurological disorders and mental retardation. To identify molecular mechanisms capable of compensating for altered MeCP2 levels, we generated transgenic Drosophila overexpressing human MeCP2. We find that MeCP2 associates with chromatin and is phosphorylated at serine 423 in Drosophila, as is found in mammals. MeCP2 overexpression leads to anatomical (i.e., disorganized eyes, ectopic wing veins and behavioral (i.e., motor dysfunction abnormalities. We used a candidate gene approach to identify genes that are able to compensate for abnormal phenotypes caused by MeCP2 increased activity. These genetic modifiers include other chromatin remodeling genes (Additional sex combs, corto, osa, Sex combs on midleg, and trithorax, the kinase tricornered, the UBE3A target pebble, and Drosophila homologues of the MeCP2 physical interactors Sin3a, REST, and N-CoR. These findings demonstrate that anatomical and behavioral phenotypes caused by MeCP2 activity can be ameliorated by altering other factors that might be more amenable to manipulation than MeCP2 itself.

  15. Quantification of Histamine and Carcinine in Drosophila melanogaster Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Madelaine E; Privman, Eve; Borman, Ryan P; Wolin, Danielle C; Venton, B Jill

    2016-03-16

    Histamine is a neurotransmitter crucial to the visual processing of Drosophila melanogaster. It is inactivated by metabolism to carcinine, a β-alanyl derivative, and the same enzyme that controls that process also converts dopamine to N-β-alanyl-dopamine. Direct detection of histamine and carcinine has not been reported in single Drosophila brains. Here, we quantify histamine, carcinine, dopamine, and N-β-alanyl-dopamine in Drosophila tissues by capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (CE-FSCV). Limits of detection were low, 4 ± 1 pg for histamine, 10 ± 4 pg for carcinine, 2.8 ± 0.3 pg for dopamine, and 9 ± 3 pg for N-β-alanyl-dopamine. Tissue content was compared in the brain, eyes, and cuticle from wild-type (Canton S) and mutant (tan(3) and ebony(1)) strains. In tan(3) mutants, the enzyme that produces histamine from carcinine is nonfunctional, whereas in ebony(1) mutants, the enzyme that produces carcinine from histamine is nonfunctional. In all fly strains, the neurotransmitter content was highest in the eyes and there were no strain differences for tissue content in the cuticle. The main finding was that carcinine levels changed significantly in the mutant flies, whereas histamine levels did not. In particular, tan(3) flies had significantly higher carcinine levels in the eyes and brain than Canton S or ebony(1) flies. N-β-Alanyl-dopamine was detected in tan(3) mutants but not in other strains. These results show the utility of CE-FSCV for sensitive detection of histamine and carcinine, which allows a better understanding of their content and metabolism in different types of tissues to be obtained.

  16. The PIKE homolog Centaurin gamma regulates developmental timing in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündner, Anna Lisa; Hahn, Ines; Sendscheid, Oliver; Aberle, Hermann; Hoch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to third instar

  17. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects.

  18. Intracellular shuttling of a Drosophila APC tumour suppressor homolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieszczanek Julius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumour suppressor is found in multiple discrete subcellular locations, which may reflect sites of distinct functions. In Drosophila epithelial cells, the predominant APC relative (E-APC is concentrated at the apicolateral adherens junctions. Genetic analysis indicates that this junctional association is critical for the function of E-APC in Wnt signalling and in cellular adhesion. Here, we ask whether the junctional association of E-APC is stable, or whether E-APC shuttles between the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. Results We generated a Drosophila strain that expresses E-APC (dAPC2 tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP-E-APC and we analysed its junctional association with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP experiments in live embryos. This revealed that the junctional association of GFP-E-APC in epithelial cells is highly dynamic, and is far less stable than that of the structural components of the adherens junctions, E-cadherin, α-catenin and Armadillo. The shuttling of GFP-E-APC to and from the plasma membrane is unaltered in mutants of Drosophila glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, which mimic constitutive Wingless signalling. However, the stability of E-APC is greatly reduced in these mutants, explaining their apparent delocalisation from the plasma membrane as previously observed. Finally, we show that GFP-E-APC forms dynamic patches at the apical plasma membrane of late embryonic epidermal cells that form denticles, and that it shuttles up and down the axons of the optic lobe. Conclusions We conclude that E-APC is a highly mobile protein that shuttles constitutively between distinct subcellular locations.

  19. Conserved mechanisms of tumorigenesis in the Drosophila adult midgut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Òscar Martorell

    Full Text Available Whereas the series of genetic events leading to colorectal cancer (CRC have been well established, the precise functions that these alterations play in tumor progression and how they disrupt intestinal homeostasis remain poorly characterized. Activation of the Wnt/Wg signaling pathway by a mutation in the gene APC is the most common trigger for CRC, inducing benign lesions that progress to carcinomas due to the accumulation of other genetic alterations. Among those, Ras mutations drive tumour progression in CRC, as well as in most epithelial cancers. As mammalian and Drosophila's intestines share many similarities, we decided to explore the alterations induced in the Drosophila midgut by the combined activation of the Wnt signaling pathway with gain of function of Ras signaling in the intestinal stem cells. Here we show that compound Apc-Ras clones, but not clones bearing the individual mutations, expand as aggressive intestinal tumor-like outgrowths. These lesions reproduce many of the human CRC hallmarks such as increased proliferation, blockade of cell differentiation and cell polarity and disrupted organ architecture. This process is followed by expression of tumoral markers present in human lesions. Finally, a metabolic behavioral assay shows that these flies suffer a progressive deterioration in intestinal homeostasis, providing a simple readout that could be used in screens for tumor modifiers or therapeutic compounds. Taken together, our results illustrate the conservation of the mechanisms of CRC tumorigenesis in Drosophila, providing an excellent model system to unravel the events that, upon mutation in Apc and Ras, lead to CRC initiation and progression.

  20. Mechanisms of maximum information preservation in the Drosophila antennal lobe.

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    Ryota Satoh

    Full Text Available We examined the presence of maximum information preservation, which may be a fundamental principle of information transmission in all sensory modalities, in the Drosophila antennal lobe using an experimentally grounded network model and physiological data. Recent studies have shown a nonlinear firing rate transformation between olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs and second-order projection neurons (PNs. As a result, PNs can use their dynamic range more uniformly than ORNs in response to a diverse set of odors. Although this firing rate transformation is thought to assist the decoder in discriminating between odors, there are no comprehensive, quantitatively supported studies examining this notion. Therefore, we quantitatively investigated the efficiency of this firing rate transformation from the viewpoint of information preservation by computing the mutual information between odor stimuli and PN responses in our network model. In the Drosophila olfactory system, all ORNs and PNs are divided into unique functional processing units called glomeruli. The nonlinear transformation between ORNs and PNs is formed by intraglomerular transformation and interglomerular interaction through local neurons (LNs. By exploring possible nonlinear transformations produced by these two factors in our network model, we found that mutual information is maximized when a weak ORN input is preferentially amplified within a glomerulus and the net LN input to each glomerulus is inhibitory. It is noteworthy that this is the very combination observed experimentally. Furthermore, the shape of the resultant nonlinear transformation is similar to that observed experimentally. These results imply that information related to odor stimuli is almost maximally preserved in the Drosophila olfactory circuit. We also discuss how intraglomerular transformation and interglomerular inhibition combine to maximize mutual information.

  1. Antimycoplasmal antibiotics and hybrid sterility in Drosophila paulistorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaghan, R P; Ehrman, L

    1970-07-03

    Male hybrids between the Santa Marta and Mesitas strains of Drosophila paulistorum are sterile. The sterility can be partially alleviated by treatment of the Santa Marta mothers with the antimycoplasmal antibiotics tylosin tartrate and tetracycline hydrochloride. The proportions of hybrid males in which there are mature motile spermatozoa are higher in the progenies of drug-treated mothers than in the controls. Electron microscopy reveals mycoplasma-like bodies in the untreated controls, but not in the sons of the treated females. The mycoplasma-like symbionts appear to be implicated in the production of the sterility in the hybrid males.

  2. Development of a two photon microscope for tracking Drosophila larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagyozov, Doycho; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gershow, Marc

    Current in vivo methods for measuring neural activity in Drosophila larva require immobilization of the animal. Although we can record neural signals while stimulating the sensory organs, we cannot read the behavioral output because we have prevented the animal from moving. Many research questions cannot be answered without observation of neural activity in behaving (freely-moving) animals. Our project aims to develop a tracking microscope that maintains the neurons of interest in the field of view and in focus during the rapid three dimensional motion of a free larva.

  3. The Drosophila HOAP protein is required for telomere capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Giovanni; Siriaco, Giorgia; Raffa, Grazia D; Kellum, Rebecca; Gatti, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    HOAP (HP1/ORC-associated protein) has recently been isolated from Drosophila melanogaster embryos as part of a cytoplasmic complex that contains heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and the origin recognition complex subunit 2 (ORC2). Here, we show that caravaggio, a mutation in the HOAP-encoding gene, causes extensive telomere-telomere fusions in larval brain cells, indicating that HOAP is required for telomere capping. Our analyses indicate that HOAP is specifically enriched at mitotic chromosome telomeres, and strongly suggest that HP1 and HOAP form a telomere-capping complex that does not contain ORC2.

  4. Methylmercury as a mitosis disturbing agent. [Allium cepa; Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C.

    1969-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the genetic effects of mercurials. These investigations included both cytological and genetical analyses. One of the main purposes of the investigations was to establish the lowest dose of the mercurials, which was genetically active. For the cytological work root tips cells of Allium cepa were used, while the genetical analyses were preformed on Drosophila melanogaster. The cytological tests on Allium included methyl mercury hydroxide, methyl mercury dicyandiamide, phenyl mercury hydroxide, and methoxyethylmercury chloride. The pesticide Panogen was also tested. The results from these studies are summarized.

  5. Mechanisms of asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila melanogaster neuroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells possess the properties of self-renewal and differentiation, and mainly rely on two strategies for division, including symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. In this review, we summarize the latest progress on asymmetric cell divisions in Drosophila melanogaster neuroblasts (NBs, which focus on the establishment of cell polarity, mitotic spindle orientation, the asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants as well as cell-cycle control. Here we also introduce five major cell fate determinants, including Numb, Prospero, Brat, Miranda, and Pon, which are thought to be unequally segregated to the ganglion mother cells (GMCs and play an important role in the formation of stem cell-derived tumors

  6. Multiplex detection of RNA expression in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, Dave; Mizutani, Claudia M; Lemons, Derek; Cox, W Gregory; McGinnis, William; Bier, Ethan

    2004-08-06

    We present a fluorescence-based, multiplex in situ hybridization method that permits the simultaneous detection of five differently labeled antisense RNA probes and up to seven differ-ent transcripts in a single Drosophila embryo. We also show that it should be possible to increase the number of detected transcripts substantially with nascent transcript multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization. These multiplex methods fill a current technological gap between high-resolution in situ hybridization with one or two fluorescently labeled probes and low-resolution but genome-wide microarray RNA profiling and should be of great utility in establishing gene networks.

  7. Transcriptional Activation of the Zygotic Genome in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Melissa M; Eisen, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    During the first stages of metazoan development, the genomes of the highly specified sperm and egg must unite and be reprogrammed to allow for the generation of a new organism. This process is controlled by maternally deposited products. Initially, the zygotic genome is largely transcriptionally quiescent, and it is not until hours later that the zygotic genome takes control of development. The transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome is tightly coordinated with the degradation of the maternal products. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes that mediate the reprogramming of the early embryonic genome and facilitate transcriptional activation during the early stages of Drosophila development.

  8. Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity of Drosophila's circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi Yoshii

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960, magnetic fields have been discussed as Zeitgebers for circadian clocks, but the mechanism by which clocks perceive and process magnetic information has remained unknown. Recently, the radical-pair model involving light-activated photoreceptors as magnetic field sensors has gained considerable support, and the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY has been proposed as a suitable molecule to mediate such magnetosensitivity. Since CRY is expressed in the circadian clock neurons and acts as a critical photoreceptor of Drosophila's clock, we aimed to test the role of CRY in magnetosensitivity of the circadian clock. In response to light, CRY causes slowing of the clock, ultimately leading to arrhythmic behavior. We expected that in the presence of applied magnetic fields, the impact of CRY on clock rhythmicity should be altered. Furthermore, according to the radical-pair hypothesis this response should be dependent on wavelength and on the field strength applied. We tested the effect of applied static magnetic fields on the circadian clock and found that flies exposed to these fields indeed showed enhanced slowing of clock rhythms. This effect was maximal at 300 muT, and reduced at both higher and lower field strengths. Clock response to magnetic fields was present in blue light, but absent under red-light illumination, which does not activate CRY. Furthermore, cry(b and cry(OUT mutants did not show any response, and flies overexpressing CRY in the clock neurons exhibited an enhanced response to the field. We conclude that Drosophila's circadian clock is sensitive to magnetic fields and that this sensitivity depends on light activation of CRY and on the applied field strength, consistent with the radical pair mechanism. CRY is widespread throughout biological systems and has been suggested as receptor for magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds. The present data establish the circadian clock of Drosophila as a model system

  9. Refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) induce germline aneuploidy in Drosophila oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, C J

    1994-06-01

    Mineral fibers are ubiquitous in the natural environment and are widely used in industry in such applications as insulators. We have previously shown that asbestos fibers induce aneuploidy in oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster; here we extend those studies by testing refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) for their mutagenicity to germ cells. The results establish that the tested RCFs are inducers of aneuploidy following feeding of adult females. A subset of the RCFs were also effective following larval feeding. Our results suggest that RCFs, like certain asbestos fibers, may pose a hazard to germ cells.

  10. Partial reversion at the bobbed locus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracol, R; Iturbide, Y; Prud'Homme, N

    1990-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster the tandemly arranged repetitive sequences coding for 18S and 28S rRNA are heterogenous at the level of the spacers between units and insertions that interrupt many 28S rRNA genes. This heterogeneity contrasts with the homogeneity of the regions transcribed into 18S and 28S rRNA. Homogenization and evolution of repetitive genes are usually explained by conversion, amplification events or unequal crossovers. In this paper we studied the change in rDNA patterns associated with partial reversion of bobbed mutations. In most cases, no increase in rDNA gene number, but a new repartition of gene types were found.

  11. Global genetic change tracks global climate warming in Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanyá, Joan; Oller, Josep M; Huey, Raymond B; Gilchrist, George W; Serra, Luis

    2006-09-22

    Comparisons of recent with historical samples of chromosome inversion frequencies provide opportunities to determine whether genetic change is tracking climate change in natural populations. We determined the magnitude and direction of shifts over time (24 years between samples on average) in chromosome inversion frequencies and in ambient temperature for populations of the fly Drosophila subobscura on three continents. In 22 of 26 populations, climates warmed over the intervals, and genotypes characteristic of low latitudes (warm climates) increased in frequency in 21 of those 22 populations. Thus, genetic change in this fly is tracking climate warming and is doing so globally.

  12. Assembly of Drosophila centromeric nucleosomes requires CID dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiguo; Colmenares, Serafin U; Karpen, Gary H

    2012-01-27

    Centromeres are essential chromosomal regions required for kinetochore assembly and chromosome segregation. The composition and organization of centromeric nucleosomes containing the essential histone H3 variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a fundamental, unresolved issue. Using immunoprecipitation of CID mononucleosomes and cysteine crosslinking, we demonstrate that centromeric nucleosomes contain CID dimers in vivo. Furthermore, CID dimerization and centromeric targeting require a residue implicated in formation of the four-helix bundle, which mediates intranucleosomal H3 dimerization and nucleosome integrity. Taken together, our findings suggest that CID nucleosomes are octameric in vivo and that CID dimerization is essential for correct centromere assembly.

  13. Modelling of intercellular synchronization in the Drosophila circadian clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Wei; Chen Ai-Min; Zhang Jia-Jun; Yuan Zhan-Jiang; Zhou Tian-Shou

    2009-01-01

    In circadian rhythm generation, intercellular signaling factors are shown to play a crucial role in both sustaining intrinsic cellular rhythmicity and acquiring collective behaviours across a population of circadian neurons. However, the physical mechanism behind their role remains to be fully understood. In this paper, we propose an indirectly coupled multicellular model for the synchronization of Drosophila circadian oscillators combining both intracellular and intercellular dynamics. By simulating different experimental conditions, we find that such an indirect coupling way can synchronize both heterogeneous self-sustained circadian neurons and heterogeneous mutational damped circadian neurons. Moreover, they can also be entrained to ambient light-dark (LD) cycles depending on intercellular signaling.

  14. Rhodopsin 7 and Cryptochrome - circadian photoreception in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Kistenpfennig, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Many organisms evolved an endogenous clock to adapt to the daily environmental changes caused by the earth’s rotation. Light is the primary time cue (“Zeitgeber”) for entrainment of circadian clocks to the external 24-h day. In Drosophila, several visual pigments are known to mediate synchronization to light: The blue-light photopigment Cryptochrome (CRY) and six well-described rhodopsins (Rh1-Rh6). CRY is present in the majority of clock neurons as well as in the compound eyes, whereas the l...

  15. Digital three-dimensional models of Drosophila development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereanu, Wayne; Hartenstein, Volker

    2004-08-01

    Digital models of organs, cells and subcellular structures have become important tools in biological and medical research. Reaching far beyond their traditional widespread use as didactic tools, computer-generated models serve as electronic atlases to identify specific elements in complex patterns, and as analytical tools that reveal relationships between such pattern elements that would remain obscure in two-dimensional sections. Digital models also offer the unique opportunity to store and display gene-expression patterns, and pilot studies have been made in several genetic model organisms, including mouse, Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, to construct digital graphic databases intended as repositories for gene-expression data.

  16. Inbreeding affects locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso; Pertoldi, Cino; Nasiri Moghadam, Neda

    2015-01-01

    The ability to move is essential for many behavioural traits closely related to fitness. Here we studied the effect of inbreeding on locomotor activity (LA) of Drosophila melanogaster at different ages under both dark and light regimes. We expected to find a decreased LA in inbred lines compared...... LA than control lines. Moreover, age per se did not affect LA neither in control nor in inbred lines, while we found a strong line by age interaction between inbred lines. Interestingly, inbreeding changed the daily activity pattern of the flies: these patterns were consistent across all control...

  17. The role of MOF in the ionizing radiation response is conserved in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Manika P.; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Pushpavallipvalli, Sreerangam NCVL; Sarkar, Arpita; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Lucchesi, John C.; Kumar, Rakesh; Yang, Qin; Pandita, Raj K.; Singh, Mayank; Bhadra, Utpal; Eissenberg, Joel C.; Pandita, Tej K.

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila, males absent on the first (MOF) acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac). This acetylation mark is highly enriched on the male X chromosome and is required for dosage compensation in Drosophila but not utilized for such in mammals. Recently, we and others reported that mammalian MOF, through H4K16ac, has a critical role at multiple stages in the DNA damage response (DDR) and double-strand break repair pathways. The goal of this study was to test whether mof is similarly required for the response to ionizing radiation (IR) in Drosophila. We report that Drosophila mof mutations in males and females, as well as mof knockdown in SL-2 cells, reduce post-irradiation survival. MOF depletion in SL-2 cells also results in an elevated frequency of metaphases with chromosomal aberrations, suggesting that MOF is involved in DDR. Mutation in Drosophila mof also results in a defective mitotic checkpoint, enhanced apoptosis, and a defective p53 response post-irradiation. In addition, IR exposure enhanced H4K16ac levels in Drosophila as it also does in mammals. These results are the first to demonstrate a requirement for MOF in the whole animal IR response and suggest that the role of MOF in the response to IR is conserved between Drosophila and mammals. PMID:22072291

  18. The role of MOF in the ionizing radiation response is conserved in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Manika P; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Pushpavallipvalli, Sreerangam N C V L; Sarkar, Arpita; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Lucchesi, John C; Kumar, Rakesh; Yang, Qin; Pandita, Raj K; Singh, Mayank; Bhadra, Utpal; Eissenberg, Joel C; Pandita, Tej K

    2012-02-01

    In Drosophila, males absent on the first (MOF) acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac). This acetylation mark is highly enriched on the male X chromosome and is required for dosage compensation in Drosophila but not utilized for such in mammals. Recently, we and others reported that mammalian MOF, through H4K16ac, has a critical role at multiple stages in the DNA damage response (DDR) and double-strand break repair pathways. The goal of this study was to test whether mof is similarly required for the response to ionizing radiation (IR) in Drosophila. We report that Drosophila mof mutations in males and females, as well as mof knockdown in SL-2 cells, reduce post-irradiation survival. MOF depletion in SL-2 cells also results in an elevated frequency of metaphases with chromosomal aberrations, suggesting that MOF is involved in DDR. Mutation in Drosophila mof also results in a defective mitotic checkpoint, enhanced apoptosis, and a defective p53 response post-irradiation. In addition, IR exposure enhanced H4K16ac levels in Drosophila as it also does in mammals. These results are the first to demonstrate a requirement for MOF in the whole animal IR response and suggest that the role of MOF in the response to IR is conserved between Drosophila and mammals.

  19. Three-dimensional structure of axonal mitochondria reflects the age of drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honglian Zhu; Xiaojiang Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of axonal mitochondria using Fiji and Neurolucida software, and to observe directly the morphology and distribution of mitochondria in axons of motor neurons in dorsal longitudinal flight muscles of drosophila aged 5 days and 20 days, using electron microscopy. Results indicated that there was no difference in the total area and volume of mitochondria between 5-day-old drosophila and 20-day-old drosophila in all sections, but the ratio of mitochondrial total areas to axon total areas, as well as mitochondrial density of 20-day-old drosophila, was lower than that of 5-day-old drosophila. The number of mitochondria, whose volume was less than 1 000 000 μm3, and between 1 000 000 μm3 and 10 000 000 μm3, was higher in 20-day-old drosophila than that in 5-day-old drosophila. The number of mitochondria with a volume between 1 000 000 μm3 and 100 000 000 μm3 was apparently higher than those with a volume less than 1 000 000 μm3 or larger than 100 000 000 μm3. In addition, the number of mitochondria with a volume more than 100 000 000 μm3 was small; however, the volume was nearly 70% of the total volume in both 5-day-old and 20-day-old drosophila. In contrast, the number of mitochondria with a volume between 1 000 000 μm3 and 10 000 000 μm3 was large, but the volume was less than 30% of the total volume. These experimental findings suggest that changes in mitochondrial morphology and number in motor neurons from the dorsal longitudinal muscle of drosophila are present during different ages.

  20. Drosophila big brain does not act as a water channel, but mediates cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kimiko; Tsuji, Shoji; Miwa, Hideki; Morisaku, Toshinori; Nuriya, Mutsuo; Orihara, Minako; Kaneko, Kazunari; Okano, Hideyuki; Yasui, Masato

    2009-06-18

    The neurogenic gene Drosophila big brain (bib) has a high sequence homology to aquaporin-4. However, its cellular functions in Drosophila neurogenesis have remained elusive. Here we investigated cell adhesion, and the ion and water permeability of Bib. The adhesive function was examined by a cell aggregation assay using L cells. Bib-transfected L cells formed aggregated clusters, while control-L cells remained as a single cell suspension. Ion permeation was not confirmed in L cells stably expressing Bib. When expressed in COS7 cells, Bib exhibited limited water permeability. This newly found cell adhesive function of Bib may be important for Drosophila neurogenesis.

  1. DNA Methyltransferase Gene dDnmt2 and Longevity of Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-JauLin; Lin-YaTang; M.NarsaReddy; C.K.JamesShen

    2005-01-01

    The DNA methylation program of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is carried out by the single DNA methyltransferase gene dDnmt2, the function of which is unknown before. We present evidence that intactness of the gene is required for maintenance of the normal life span of the fruit flies. In contrast, overexpression of dDnmt2 could extend Drosophila life span. The study links the Drosophila DNA methylation program with the small heatshock proteins and longevity/aging and has interesting implication on the eukaryotic DNA methyl-ation programs in general.

  2. The effect of Emblica officinalis diet on lifespan, sexual behavior, and fitness characters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pankaj; Prasad, B R Guru; Murthy, N Anjaneya; Hegde, S N

    2011-04-01

    Drosophila is an excellent organism to test Ayurvedic medicines. The objective of our study was to explore the potential of Emblica officinalis drug on longevity, sexual behavior, and reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster using adult feeding method. Increase in the lifespan, fecundity, fertility, ovarioles number, and developmental time was observed in both parents and F1 generation, but not in the F2 generation in experimental culture (control + E. officinalis). According to the Duncan's multiple range test and ANOVA, there is a significant difference between two cultures. It was also noticed that E. officinalis influence some fitness characters in Drosophila along with sexual behavior.

  3. Altered lipid metabolism in a Drosophila model of Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan A; Ohmann, Elisabeth; Sanchez, Diego; Botella, José A; Liebisch, Gerhard; Moltó, María D; Ganfornina, María D; Schmitz, Gerd; Schneuwly, Stephan

    2010-07-15

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the most common form of autosomal recessive ataxia caused by a deficit in the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Although demyelination is a common symptom in FRDA patients, no multicellular model has yet been developed to study the involvement of glial cells in FRDA. Using the recently established RNAi lines for targeted suppression of frataxin in Drosophila, we were able to study the effects of general versus glial-specific frataxin downregulation. In particular, we wanted to study the interplay between lowered frataxin content, lipid accumulation and peroxidation and the consequences of these effects on the sensitivity to oxidative stress and fly fitness. Interestingly, ubiquitous frataxin reduction leads to an increase in fatty acids catalyzing an enhancement of lipid peroxidation levels, elevating the intracellular toxic potential. Specific loss of frataxin in glial cells triggers a similar phenotype which can be visualized by accumulating lipid droplets in glial cells. This phenotype is associated with a reduced lifespan, an increased sensitivity to oxidative insult, neurodegenerative effects and a serious impairment of locomotor activity. These symptoms fit very well with our observation of an increase in intracellular toxicity by lipid peroxides. Interestingly, co-expression of a Drosophila apolipoprotein D ortholog (glial lazarillo) has a strong protective effect in our frataxin models, mainly by controlling the level of lipid peroxidation. Our results clearly support a strong involvement of glial cells and lipid peroxidation in the generation of FRDA-like symptoms.

  4. Locus Adh of Drosophila melanogaster under selection for delayed senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaustova, N.D. [Odessa State Univ. (Ukraine)

    1995-05-01

    Dynamics of the Adh activity and frequencies of alleles Adh{sup F} and Adh{sup S} were analyzed under selection for delayed senescence. The experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. Lines Adh{sup S}cn and Adh{sup F}vg and experimental populations cn` and vg`, selected for an increased duration of reproductive period (late oviposition) were used. Analysis of fertility, longevity, viability and resistance to starvation showed that selection for late oviposition resulted in delayed senescence of flies of the experimental populations. Genetic structure of population vg` changed considerably with regard to the Adh locus. This was confirmed by parameters of activity, thermostability, and electrophoretic mobility of the enzyme isolated from flies after 30 generations of selection. Analysis of frequencies of the Adh alleles showed that in both selected populations, which initially had different genetic composition, accumulated allele Adh{sup S}, which encodes the isozyme that is less active but more resistant to inactivation. Genetic mechanism of delayed senescence in Drosophila is assumed to involve selection at vitally important enzyme loci, including Adh. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Variation in the susceptibility of Drosophila to different entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jennifer M; Carrillo, Mayra A; Hallem, Elissa A

    2015-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are lethal parasites of insects that are of interest as models for understanding parasite-host interactions and as biocontrol agents for insect pests. EPNs harbor a bacterial endosymbiont in their gut that assists in insect killing. EPNs are capable of infecting and killing a wide range of insects, yet how the nematodes and their bacterial endosymbionts interact with the insect immune system is poorly understood. Here, we develop a versatile model system for understanding the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection that consists of seven species of EPNs as model parasites and five species of Drosophila fruit flies as model hosts. We show that the EPN Steinernema carpocapsae, which is widely used for insect control, is capable of infecting and killing D. melanogaster larvae. S. carpocapsae is associated with the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, and we show that X. nematophila induces expression of a subset of antimicrobial peptide genes and suppresses the melanization response to the nematode. We further show that EPNs vary in their virulence toward D. melanogaster and that Drosophila species vary in their susceptibilities to EPN infection. Differences in virulence among different EPN-host combinations result from differences in both rates of infection and rates of postinfection survival. Our results establish a powerful model system for understanding mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection.

  6. Drosophila provides rapid modeling of renal development, function, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Julian A T; Romero, Michael F

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of specialized excretory cells is a cornerstone of the metazoan radiation, and the basic tasks performed by Drosophila and human renal systems are similar. The development of the Drosophila renal (Malpighian) tubule is a classic example of branched tubular morphogenesis, allowing study of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions, stem cell-mediated regeneration, and the evolution of a glomerular kidney. Tubule function employs conserved transport proteins, such as the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and V-ATPase, aquaporins, inward rectifier K(+) channels, and organic solute transporters, regulated by cAMP, cGMP, nitric oxide, and calcium. In addition to generation and selective reabsorption of primary urine, the tubule plays roles in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics, and in innate immunity. The gene expression resource FlyAtlas.org shows that the tubule is an ideal tissue for the modeling of renal diseases, such as nephrolithiasis and Bartter syndrome, or for inborn errors of metabolism. Studies are assisted by uniquely powerful genetic and transgenic resources, the widespread availability of mutant stocks, and low-cost, rapid deployment of new transgenics to allow manipulation of renal function in an organotypic context.

  7. Sex ratios in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salceda Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most species show an equal proportion of individuals of both sexes. In diploid species sex ratio is determined by a genic balance between sex chromosomes. In Drosophila sex is determined by the ratio of X- chromosomes versus autosomes and in some species of the genus it is related to the presence of an inversion in the sex chromosome. The present work analyses the sex ratio in 27 natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that inhabit Mexico. Female flies captured in nature were counted and their sex ratio calculated and been called generation P, then cultured individualy, allowed to leave adult offspring which was quantified in order to get its sex ratio and designated generation F1. sex ratio was calculated using the expression: number of males times 100 divided by the number of females proposed by Darwin (1871. The sex ratio of each population was taken using the average of all the individual counts from each sample. The values found varied among different generations and populations, so for generation P their values varieded 37.4 to 190.4 and in generation F1 from 31.3 up to 96.4 males for each 100 females. According to their geographical distribution four North to South transects were arranged and in them means varied from 60.8 to 81.7 males for each 100 females. All this means that in Mexican population are more females than males, exceptionally more males than females.

  8. Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.

  9. The hemolymph proteome of fed and starved Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Handke

    Full Text Available The co-operation of specialized organ systems in complex multicellular organisms depends on effective chemical communication. Thus, body fluids (like blood, lymph or intraspinal fluid contain myriads of signaling mediators apart from metabolites. Moreover, these fluids are also of crucial importance for immune and wound responses. Compositional analyses of human body fluids are therefore of paramount diagnostic importance. Further improving their comprehensiveness should increase our understanding of inter-organ communication. In arthropods, which have trachea for gas exchange and an open circulatory system, the single dominating interstitial fluid is the hemolymph. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of hemolymph composition should provide an especially comprehensive picture of chemical communication and defense in animals. Therefore we used an extensive protein fractionation workflow in combination with a discovery-driven proteomic approach to map out the detectable protein composition of hemolymph isolated from Drosophila larvae. Combined mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than 700 proteins extending far beyond the previously known Drosophila hemolymph proteome. Moreover, by comparing hemolymph isolated from either fed or starved larvae, we provide initial provisional insights concerning compositional changes in response to nutritional state. Storage proteins in particular were observed to be strongly reduced by starvation. Our hemolymph proteome catalog provides a rich basis for data mining, as exemplified by our identification of potential novel cytokines, as well as for future quantitative analyses by targeted proteomics.

  10. [Learning and memory in Drosophila: physiologic and genetic bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, A V; Nikitina, E A; Savvateeva-Popova, E V

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of cognitive functions is one of the major achievements in neurobiology. At most, this is due to the studies on the simple nervous systems, such as the CNS in Drosophila melanogaster. Many of its functional characteristics are pretty similar to higher vertebrates. Among these are: 1) evolutionary conservation of genes and molecular systems involved in the regulation of learning acquisition and memory formation; 2) presence of highly specialized and differentiated sensory, associative and motor centers; 3) utilization of similar modes of informational coding and analysis; 4) availability of major learning forms including non-associative, as well as associative learning; 5) diversity of different memories, including short-term- and protein synthesis- dependent long-term memory; 6) presence of aminergic reinforcement systems in the brain; 7) feed-back loops of circadian clocks, current organism experience and individual organism characters affecting cognitive process per se. In this review the main attention is paid to the two mostly studied Drosophila learning forms, namely to olfactory Iearning and courtship suppression conditioning (CCS). A separate consideration is given to the impacts of kynurenins and metabolite of actin remodeling signal cascade.

  11. Genetic architecture of natural variation in Drosophila melanogaster aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, John; Couch, Charlene; Huang, Wen; Carbone, Mary Anna; Peiffer, Jason; Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-07-07

    Aggression is an evolutionarily conserved complex behavior essential for survival and the organization of social hierarchies. With the exception of genetic variants associated with bioamine signaling, which have been implicated in aggression in many species, the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression is largely unknown. Drosophila melanogaster is a favorable model system for exploring the genetic basis of natural variation in aggression. Here, we performed genome-wide association analyses using the inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and replicate advanced intercross populations derived from the most and least aggressive DGRP lines. We identified genes that have been previously implicated in aggressive behavior as well as many novel loci, including gustatory receptor 63a (Gr63a), which encodes a subunit of the receptor for CO2, and genes associated with development and function of the nervous system. Although genes from the two association analyses were largely nonoverlapping, they mapped onto a genetic interaction network inferred from an analysis of pairwise epistasis in the DGRP. We used mutations and RNAi knock-down alleles to functionally validate 79% of the candidate genes and 75% of the candidate epistatic interactions tested. Epistasis for aggressive behavior causes cryptic genetic variation in the DGRP that is revealed by changing allele frequencies in the outbred populations derived from extreme DGRP lines. This phenomenon may pertain to other fitness traits and species, with implications for evolution, applied breeding, and human genetics.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of promoter architecture in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Landolin, Jane M.; Brown, James B.; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Takahashi, Hazuki; Lassmann, Timo; Yu, Charles; Booth, Benjamin W.; Zhang, Dayu; Wan, Kenneth H.; Yang, Li; Boley, Nathan; Andrews, Justen; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Bickel, Peter J.; Carninci, Piero; Carlson, Joseph W.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2010-10-20

    Core promoters are critical regions for gene regulation in higher eukaryotes. However, the boundaries of promoter regions, the relative rates of initiation at the transcription start sites (TSSs) distributed within them, and the functional significance of promoter architecture remain poorly understood. We produced a high-resolution map of promoters active in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo by integrating data from three independent and complementary methods: 21 million cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) tags, 1.2 million RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLMRACE) reads, and 50,000 cap-trapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs). We defined 12,454 promoters of 8037 genes. Our analysis indicates that, due to non-promoter-associated RNA background signal, previous studies have likely overestimated the number of promoter-associated CAGE clusters by fivefold. We show that TSS distributions form a complex continuum of shapes, and that promoters active in the embryo and adult have highly similar shapes in 95% of cases. This suggests that these distributions are generally determined by static elements such as local DNA sequence and are not modulated by dynamic signals such as histone modifications. Transcription factor binding motifs are differentially enriched as a function of promoter shape, and peaked promoter shape is correlated with both temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression. Our results contribute to the emerging view that core promoters are functionally diverse and control patterning of gene expression in Drosophila and mammals.

  13. Genetic and Environmental Control of Neurodevelopmental Robustness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mellert

    Full Text Available Interindividual differences in neuronal wiring may contribute to behavioral individuality and affect susceptibility to neurological disorders. To investigate the causes and potential consequences of wiring variation in Drosophila melanogaster, we focused on a hemilineage of ventral nerve cord interneurons that exhibits morphological variability. We find that late-born subclasses of the 12A hemilineage are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation. Neurons in the second thoracic segment are particularly variable with regard to two developmental decisions, whereas its segmental homologs are more robust. This variability "hotspot" depends on Ultrabithorax expression in the 12A neurons, indicating variability is cell-intrinsic and under genetic control. 12A development is more variable and sensitive to temperature in long-established laboratory strains than in strains recently derived from the wild. Strains with a high frequency of one of the 12A variants also showed a high frequency of animals with delayed spontaneous flight initiation, whereas other wing-related behaviors did not show such a correlation and were thus not overtly affected by 12A variation. These results show that neurodevelopmental robustness is variable and under genetic control in Drosophila and suggest that the fly may serve as a model for identifying conserved gene pathways that stabilize wiring in stressful developmental environments. Moreover, some neuronal lineages are variation hotspots and thus may be more amenable to evolutionary change.

  14. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembeck, Lauren M; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-05-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster.

  15. Spatial Patterns of Recurved Sensory Organs in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Gemunu

    2008-03-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila is one of the most intensely studied models of development. A subset of -nominally- identical cells on the anterior wing of Drosophila begins to differentiate at puparium formation, each developing a sensory organ. In wild type flies, every fifth cell becomes such a sensory organ. Recent studies on mutant flies have shown that the transcription factor Senseless and the micro RNA miR-9a play significant roles in the choice of bristle density and the regularity of their arrangement. We propose that this cell differentiation is due to a Turing-type bifurcation whereby periodic concentration gradients emerge spontaneously from a uniform background. A paradigmatic model with intra-cellular networks and lateral activation and inhibition between neighboring cells (for example, through the Notch signaling pathway) is shown to generate the observed arrangements of sensory organs. The theory makes several experimentally verifiable predictions. For example, we propose methods to create mutant flies with systematically increasing numbers of ectopic bristles. In our theory, post-transcriptional regulatory action of the micro RNA occurs through the choice of stable solutions of the network.

  16. Protection of Drosophila chromosome ends through minimal telomere capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Loppin, Benjamin

    2015-05-15

    In Drosophila, telomere-capping proteins have the remarkable capacity to recognize chromosome ends in a sequence-independent manner. This epigenetic protection is essential to prevent catastrophic ligations of chromosome extremities. Interestingly, capping proteins occupy a large telomere chromatin domain of several kilobases; however, the functional relevance of this to end protection is unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the large capping domain by manipulating HOAP (encoded by caravaggio) capping-protein expression in the male germ cells, where telomere protection can be challenged without compromising viability. We show that the exhaustion of HOAP results in a dramatic reduction of other capping proteins at telomeres, including K81 [encoded by ms(3)K81], which is essential for male fertility. Strikingly however, we demonstrate that, although capping complexes are barely detected in HOAP-depleted male germ cells, telomere protection and male fertility are not dramatically affected. Our study thus demonstrates that efficient protection of Drosophila telomeres can be achieved with surprisingly low amounts of capping complexes. We propose that these complexes prevent fusions by acting at the very extremity of chromosomes, reminiscent of the protection conferred by extremely short telomeric arrays in yeast or mammalian systems.

  17. Global Patterns of Tissue-Specific Alternative Polyadenylation in Drosophila

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    Peter Smibert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the usage and consequences of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA in Drosophila melanogaster by using >1 billion reads of stranded mRNA-seq across a variety of dissected tissues. Beyond demonstrating that a majority of fly transcripts are subject to APA, we observed broad trends for 3′ untranslated region (UTR shortening in the testis and lengthening in the central nervous system (CNS; the latter included hundreds of unannotated extensions ranging up to 18 kb. Extensive northern analyses validated the accumulation of full-length neural extended transcripts, and in situ hybridization indicated their spatial restriction to the CNS. Genes encoding RNA binding proteins (RBPs and transcription factors were preferentially subject to 3′ UTR extensions. Motif analysis indicated enrichment of miRNA and RBP sites in the neural extensions, and their termini were enriched in canonical cis elements that promote cleavage and polyadenylation. Altogether, we reveal broad tissue-specific patterns of APA in Drosophila and transcripts with unprecedented 3′ UTR length in the nervous system.

  18. Strategies for exploring TGF-β signaling in Drosophila.

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    Peterson, Aidan J; O'Connor, Michael B

    2014-06-15

    The TGF-β pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signal transduction module that mediates diverse biological processes in animals. In Drosophila, both the BMP and Activin branches are required for viability. Studies rooted in classical and molecular genetic approaches continue to uncover new developmental roles for TGF-β signaling. We present an overview of the secreted ligands, transmembrane receptors and cellular Smad transducer proteins that compose the core pathway in Drosophila. An assortment of tools have been developed to conduct tissue-specific loss- and gain-of-function experiments for these pathway components. We discuss the deployment of these reagents, with an emphasis on appropriate usage and limitations of the available tools. Throughout, we note reagents that are in need of further improvement or development, and signaling features requiring further study. A general theme is that comparison of phenotypes for ligands, receptors, and Smads can be used to map tissue interactions, and to separate canonical and non-canonical signaling activities. Core TGF-β signaling components are subject to multiple layers of regulation, and are coupled to context-specific inputs and outputs. In addition to fleshing out how TGF-β signaling serves the fruit fly, we anticipate that future studies will uncover new regulatory nodes and modes and will continue to advance paradigms for how TGF-β signaling regulates general developmental processes.

  19. Electric shock-induced associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae.

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    Pauls, Dennis; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E R; Krebs-Wheaton, Rebecca; Selcho, Mareike; Stocker, Reinhard F; Thum, Andreas S

    2010-05-01

    Associative plasticity is a basic essential attribute of nervous systems. As shown by numerous reports, Drosophila is able to establish simple forms of appetitive and aversive olfactory associations at both larval and adult stages. Whereas most adult studies on aversive learning employed electric shock as a negative reinforcer, larval paradigms essentially utilized gustatory stimuli to create negative associations, a discrepancy that limits the comparison of data. To overcome this drawback, we critically revisited larval odor-electric shock conditioning. First, we show that lithium chloride (LiCl), which was used in all previous larval electric shock paradigms, is not required per se in larval odor-electric shock learning. This is of considerable practical advantage because beside its peculiar effects LiCl is attractive to larvae at low concentration that renders comparative learning studies on genetically manipulated larvae complicated. Second, we confirm that in both a 2-odor reciprocal and a 1-odor nonreciprocal conditioning regimen, larvae are able to associate an odor with electric shock. In the latter experiments, initial learning scores reach an asymptote after 5 training trials, and aversive memory is still detectable after 60 min. Our experiments provide a comprehensive basis for future comparisons of larval olfactory conditioning reinforced by different modalities, for studies aimed at analyzing odor-electric shock learning in the larva and the adult, and for investigations of the cellular and molecular substrate of aversive olfactory learning in the simple Drosophila model.

  20. Control of directional change after mechanical stimulation in Drosophila

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    Zhou Yating

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper adjustment of moving direction after external mechanical stimulation is essential for animals to avoid danger (e.g. predators, and thus is vital for survival. This process involves sensory inputs, central processing and motor outputs. Recent studies have made considerable progress in identifying mechanosensitive neurons and mechanosensation receptor proteins. Our understandings of molecular and cellular mechanisms that link mechanosensation with the changes in moving direction, however, remain limited. Results In this study, we investigate the control of movement adjustment in Drosophila. In response to gentle touch at the anterior segments, Drosophila larvae reorient and select a new direction for forward movement. The extent of change in moving direction is correlated with the intensity of tactile stimuli. Sensation of gentle touch requires chordotonal organs and class IV da neurons. Genetic analysis indicates an important role for the evolutionarily conserved immunoglobulin (Ig superfamily protein Turtle (Tutl to regulate touch-initiated directional change. Tutl is required specifically in post-mitotic neurons at larval stage after the completion of embryonic development. Circuit breaking analysis identified a small subset of Tutl-positive neurons that are involved in the adjustment of moving direction. Conclusion We identify Tutl and a small subset of CNS neurons in modulating directional change in response to gentle touch. This study presents an excellent starting point for further dissection of molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling directional adjustment after mechanical stimulation.

  1. Drosophila Golgi membrane protein Ema promotes autophagosomal growth and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsu; Naylor, Sarah A; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2012-05-01

    Autophagy is a self-degradative process in which cellular material is enclosed within autophagosomes and trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosomal biogenesis is well described; however mechanisms controlling the growth and ultimate size of autophagosomes are unclear. Here we demonstrate that the Drosophila membrane protein Ema is required for the growth of autophagosomes. In an ema mutant, autophagosomes form in response to starvation and developmental cues, and these autophagosomes can mature into autolysosomes; however the autophagosomes are very small, and autophagy is impaired. In fat body cells, Ema localizes to the Golgi complex and is recruited to the membrane of autophagosomes in response to starvation. The Drosophila Golgi protein Lva also is recruited to the periphery of autophagosomes in response to starvation, and this recruitment requires ema. Therefore, we propose that Golgi is a membrane source for autophagosomal growth and that Ema facilitates this process. Clec16A, the human ortholog of Ema, is a candidate autoimmune susceptibility locus. Expression of Clec16A can rescue the autophagosome size defect in the ema mutant, suggesting that regulation of autophagosome morphogenesis may be a fundamental function of this gene family.

  2. Taste and pheromone perception in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Michelle L; Amrein, Hubert

    2007-08-01

    Taste is an essential sense for detection of nutrient-rich food and avoidance of toxic substances. The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system provides an excellent model to study taste perception and taste-elicited behaviors. "The fly" is unique in the animal kingdom with regard to available experimental tools, which include a wide repertoire of molecular-genetic analyses (i.e., efficient production of transgenics and gene knockouts), elegant behavioral assays, and the possibility to conduct electrophysiological investigations. In addition, fruit flies, like humans, recognize sugars as a food source, but avoid bitter tasting substances that are often toxic to insects and mammals alike. This paper will present recent research progress in the field of taste and contact pheromone perception in the fruit fly. First, we shall describe the anatomical properties of the Drosophila gustatory system and survey the family of taste receptors to provide an appropriate background. We shall then review taste and pheromone perception mainly from a molecular genetic perspective that includes behavioral, electrophysiological and imaging analyses of wild type flies and flies with genetically manipulated taste cells. Finally, we shall provide an outlook of taste research in this elegant model system for the next few years.

  3. Neurofibromin Loss of Function Drives Excessive Grooming in Drosophila

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    Lanikea B. King

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis I is a common genetic disorder that results in tumor formation, and predisposes individuals to a range of cognitive/behavioral symptoms, including deficits in attention, visuospatial skills, learning, language development, and sleep, and autism spectrum disorder-like traits. The nf1-encoded neurofibromin protein (Nf1 exhibits high conservation, from the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to humans. Drosophila provides a powerful platform to investigate the signaling cascades upstream and downstream of Nf1, and the fly model exhibits similar behavioral phenotypes to mammalian models. In order to understand how loss of Nf1 affects motor behavior in flies, we combined traditional activity monitoring with video analysis of grooming behavior. In nf1 mutants, spontaneous grooming was increased up to 7x. This increase in activity was distinct from previously described dopamine-dependent hyperactivity, as dopamine transporter mutants exhibited slightly decreased grooming. Finally, we found that relative grooming frequencies can be compared in standard activity monitors that measure infrared beam breaks, enabling the use of activity monitors as an automated method to screen for grooming phenotypes. Overall, these data suggest that loss of nf1 produces excessive activity that is manifested as increased grooming, providing a platform to dissect the molecular genetics of neurofibromin signaling across neuronal circuits.

  4. Glucose modulates Drosophila longevity and immunity independent of the microbiota

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    Anthony Galenza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of nutrients is essential for maintenance of metabolic processes in all organisms. Nutritional imbalance contributes to myriad metabolic disorders that include malnutrition, diabetes and even cancer. Recently, the importance of macronutrient ratio of food has emerged as a critical factor to determine health outcomes. Here we show that individual modifications to a completely defined diet markedly impact multiple aspects of organism wellbeing in Drosophila melanogaster. Through a longitudinal survey of several diets we demonstrate that increased levels of dietary glucose significantly improve longevity and immunity in adult Drosophila. Our metagenomic studies show that relative macronutrient levels not only influence the host, but also have a profound impact on microbiota composition. However, we found that elevated dietary glucose extended the lifespan of adult flies even when raised in a germ-free environment. Furthermore, when challenged with a chronic enteric infection, flies fed a diet with added glucose had increased survival times even in the absence of an intact microbiota. Thus, in contrast to known links between the microbiota and animal health, our findings uncover a novel microbiota-independent response to diet that impacts host wellbeing. As dietary responses are highly conserved in animals, we believe our results offer a general understanding of the association between glucose metabolism and animal health.

  5. The function of PS integrins in Drosophila wing morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, M; DiAntonio, A; Leptin, M

    1989-12-01

    Integrins are found on many cell types during the development of most organisms. In Drosophila their functions can be analysed genetically. An analysis of lethal mutations in a PS integrin gene showed that the integrins were required for muscle attachment and for certain cell sheet migrations during embryogenesis. In this paper we use viable mutations in integrin component genes to look at integrin function in the later stages of development of one adult structure, the wing. We show that two known viable mutations, one which has its primary effect on the fly's escape response, the other on wing morphogenesis, are mutations in the beta and PS2alpha subunits, respectively, of the PS integrins. The mutation non-jumper (mys(mj42)) in the beta subunit leads to wasting of the thoracic jump muscles. Flies in which the dosage of this allele is reduced (and no wildtype copy is present) show defects also in wing morphogenesis. The two surfaces of the wing fail to connect properly, resulting in 'blistering' of the wing and the formation of extra crossveins. The mutation in the gene for the PS2alpha integrin subunit, inflated, also leads to a failure in wing surface apposition and consequent wing blistering. When the two mutations are combined, the mutant phenotype is greatly enhanced. Thus, one of the roles of the PS integrins in late Drosophila development is to ensure the correct apposition and patterning of the wing epithelia.

  6. Systems neuroscience in Drosophila: Conceptual and technical advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, H

    2015-06-18

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is ideally suited for investigating the neural circuit basis of behavior. Due to the simplicity and genetic tractability of the fly brain, neurons and circuits are identifiable across animals. Additionally, a large set of transgenic lines has been developed with the aim of specifically labeling small subsets of neurons and manipulating them in sophisticated ways. Electrophysiology and imaging can be applied in behaving individuals to examine the computations performed by each neuron, and even the entire population of relevant neurons in a particular region, because of the small size of the brain. Moreover, a rich repertoire of behaviors that can be studied is expanding to include those requiring cognitive abilities. Thus, the fly brain is an attractive system in which to explore both computations and mechanisms underlying behavior at levels spanning from genes through neurons to circuits. This review summarizes the advantages Drosophila offers in achieving this objective. A recent neurophysiology study on olfactory behavior is also introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness of these advantages.

  7. Glucose modulates Drosophila longevity and immunity independent of the microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenza, Anthony; Hutchinson, Jaclyn; Campbell, Shelagh D.; Hazes, Bart; Foley, Edan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The acquisition of nutrients is essential for maintenance of metabolic processes in all organisms. Nutritional imbalance contributes to myriad metabolic disorders that include malnutrition, diabetes and even cancer. Recently, the importance of macronutrient ratio of food has emerged as a critical factor to determine health outcomes. Here we show that individual modifications to a completely defined diet markedly impact multiple aspects of organism wellbeing in Drosophila melanogaster. Through a longitudinal survey of several diets we demonstrate that increased levels of dietary glucose significantly improve longevity and immunity in adult Drosophila. Our metagenomic studies show that relative macronutrient levels not only influence the host, but also have a profound impact on microbiota composition. However, we found that elevated dietary glucose extended the lifespan of adult flies even when raised in a germ-free environment. Furthermore, when challenged with a chronic enteric infection, flies fed a diet with added glucose had increased survival times even in the absence of an intact microbiota. Thus, in contrast to known links between the microbiota and animal health, our findings uncover a novel microbiota-independent response to diet that impacts host wellbeing. As dietary responses are highly conserved in animals, we believe our results offer a general understanding of the association between glucose metabolism and animal health. PMID:26794610

  8. Using Drosophila to discover mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes

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    Ronald W. Alfa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of glucose homeostasis are remarkably well conserved between the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and mammals. From the initial characterization of insulin signaling in the fly came the identification of downstream metabolic pathways for nutrient storage and utilization. Defects in these pathways lead to phenotypes that are analogous to diabetic states in mammals. These discoveries have stimulated interest in leveraging the fly to better understand the genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. Type 2 diabetes results from insulin insufficiency in the context of ongoing insulin resistance. Although genetic susceptibility is thought to govern the propensity of individuals to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus under appropriate environmental conditions, many of the human genes associated with the disease in genome-wide association studies have not been functionally studied. Recent advances in the phenotyping of metabolic defects have positioned Drosophila as an excellent model for the functional characterization of large numbers of genes associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we examine results from studies modeling metabolic disease in the fruit fly and compare findings to proposed mechanisms for diabetic phenotypes in mammals. We provide a systematic framework for assessing the contribution of gene candidates to insulin-secretion or insulin-resistance pathways relevant to diabetes pathogenesis.

  9. Molecular genetics of cancer and tumorigenesis: Drosophila models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-Min Deng

    2011-01-01

    Why do some cells not respond to normal control of cell division and become tumorous? Which signals trigger some tumor cells to migrate and colonize other tissues? What genetic factors are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer development? What environmental factors play a role in cancer formation and progression? In how many ways can our bodies prevent and restrict the growth of cancerous cells?How can we identify and deliver effective drugs to fight cancer? In the fight against cancer,which kills more people than any other disease,these and other questions have long interested researchers from a diverse range of fields.To answer these questions and to fight cancer more effectively,we must increase our understanding of basic cancer biology.Model organisms,including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,have played instrumental roles in our understanding of this devastating disease and the search for effective cures.Drosophila and its highly effective,easy-touse,and ever-expanding genetic tools have contributed toand enriched our knowledge of cancer and tumor formation tremendously.

  10. Control of dendritic morphogenesis by Trio in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Madhuri Shivalkar

    Full Text Available Abl tyrosine kinase and its effectors among the Rho family of GTPases each act to control dendritic morphogenesis in Drosophila. It has not been established, however, which of the many GTPase regulators in the cell link these signaling molecules in the dendrite. In axons, the bifunctional guanine exchange factor, Trio, is an essential link between the Abl tyrosine kinase signaling pathway and Rho GTPases, particularly Rac, allowing these systems to act coordinately to control actin organization. In dendritic morphogenesis, however, Abl and Rac have contrary rather than reinforcing effects, raising the question of whether Trio is involved, and if so, whether it acts through Rac, Rho or both. We now find that Trio is expressed in sensory neurons of the Drosophila embryo and regulates their dendritic arborization. trio mutants display a reduction in dendritic branching and increase in average branch length, whereas over-expression of trio has the opposite effect. We further show that it is the Rac GEF domain of Trio, and not its Rho GEF domain that is primarily responsible for the dendritic function of Trio. Thus, Trio shapes the complexity of dendritic arbors and does so in a way that mimics the effects of its target, Rac.

  11. Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Andrew J; Kelpsch, Daniel J; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Tootle, Tina L

    2014-02-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)--lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes--regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton--temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin remodeling, including actin filaments and aggregates, within the posterior nurse cells of S9 follicles; wild-type follicles exhibit similar structures at a low frequency. Hu li tai shao (Hts-RC) and Villin (Quail), an actin bundler, localize to all early actin structures, whereas Enabled (Ena), an actin elongation factor, preferentially localizes to those in pxt mutants. Reduced Ena levels strongly suppress early actin remodeling in pxt mutants. Furthermore, loss of Pxt results in reduced Ena localization to the sites of bundle formation during S10B. Together these data lead to a model in which PGs temporally regulate actin remodeling during Drosophila oogenesis by controlling Ena localization/activity, such that in S9, PG signaling inhibits, whereas at S10B, it promotes Ena-dependent actin remodeling.

  12. Multiscale diffusion in the mitotic Drosophila melanogaster syncytial blastoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brian R; Rikhy, Richa; Renz, Malte; Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2012-05-29

    Despite the fundamental importance of diffusion for embryonic morphogen gradient formation in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo, there remains controversy regarding both the extent and the rate of diffusion of well-characterized morphogens. Furthermore, the recent observation of diffusional "compartmentalization" has suggested that diffusion may in fact be nonideal and mediated by an as-yet-unidentified mechanism. Here, we characterize the effects of the geometry of the early syncytial Drosophila embryo on the effective diffusivity of cytoplasmic proteins. Our results demonstrate that the presence of transient mitotic membrane furrows results in a multiscale diffusion effect that has a significant impact on effective diffusion rates across the embryo. Using a combination of live-cell experiments and computational modeling, we characterize these effects and relate effective bulk diffusion rates to instantaneous diffusion coefficients throughout the syncytial blastoderm nuclear cycle phase of the early embryo. This multiscale effect may be related to the effect of interphase nuclei on effective diffusion, and thus we propose that an as-yet-unidentified role of syncytial membrane furrows is to temporally regulate bulk embryonic diffusion rates to balance the multiscale effect of interphase nuclei, which ultimately stabilizes the shapes of various morphogen gradients.

  13. Amyloid-β depresses excitatory cholinergic synaptic transmission in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqun Fang; Jingjing Duan; Dongzhi Ran; Zihao Fan; Ying Yan; Naya Huang; Huaiyu Gu; Yulan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Objective Decline,disruption,or alterations of nicotinic cholinergic mechanisms contribute to cognitive dysfunctions like Alzheimer's disease (AD).Although amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation is a pathological hallmark of AD,the mechanisms by which Aβ peptides modulate cholinergic synaptic transmission and memory loss remain obscure.This study was aimed to investigate the potential synaptic modulation by Aβ of the cholinergic synapses between olfactory receptor neurons and projection neurons (PNs) in the olfactory lobe of the fruit fly.Methods Cholinergic spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) were recorded with whole-cell patch clamp from PNs in Drosophila AD models expressing Aβ40,Aβ42,or Aβ42Arc peptides in neural tissue.Results In fly pupae (2 days before eclosion),overexpression of Aβ42 or Aβ42Arc,but not Aβ40,led to a significant decrease of mEPSC frequency,while overexpression of Aβ40,Aβ42,or Aβ42Arc had no significant effect on mEPSC amplitude.In contrast,Pavlovian olfactory associative learning and lifespan assays showed that both short-term memory and lifespan were decreased in the Drosophila models expressing Aβ40,Aβ42,or Aβ42Arc.Conclusion Both electrophysiological and behavioral results showed an effect of Aβ peptide on cholinergic synaptic transmission and suggest a possible mechanism by which Aβ peptides cause cholinergic neuron degeneration and the consequent memory loss.

  14. Integrins are required for cardioblast polarisation in Drosophila

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    Vanderploeg Jessica

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of a tubular organ, such as the heart, requires the communication of positional and polarity signals between migratory cells. Key to this process is the establishment of a new luminal domain on the cell surface, generally from the apical domain of a migratory cell. This domain will also acquire basal properties, as it will produce a luminal extracellular matrix. Integrin receptors are the primary means of cell adhesion and adhesion signaling with the extracellular matrix. Here we characterise the requirement of Integrins in a genetic model of vasculogenesis, the formation of the heart in Drosophila. Results As with vertebrates, the Drosophila heart arises from lateral mesoderm that migrates medially to meet their contralateral partners, to then assemble a midline vessel. During migration, Integrins are among the first proteins restricted to the presumptive luminal domain of cardioblasts. Integrins are required for normal levels of leading edge membrane motility. Apical accumulation of Integrins is enhanced by Robo, and reciprocally, apicalisation of luminal factors like Slit and Robo requires Integrin function. Integrins may provide a template for the formation of a lumen by stabilising lumen factors like Robo. Subsequent to migration, Integrin is required for normal cardioblast alignment and lumen formation. This phenotype is most readily modified by other mutations that affect adhesion, such as Talin and extracellular matrix ligands. Conclusion Our findings reveal an instructive role for Integrins in communicating polarising information to cells during migration, and during transition to an epithelial tube structure.

  15. miRNA-dependent translational repression in the Drosophila ovary.

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    John Reich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Drosophila ovary is a tissue rich in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Many of the regulatory factors are proteins identified via genetic screens. The more recent discovery of microRNAs, which in other animals and tissues appear to regulate translation of a large fraction of all mRNAs, raised the possibility that they too might act during oogenesis. However, there has been no direct demonstration of microRNA-dependent translational repression in the ovary. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, quantitative analyses of transcript and protein levels of transgenes with or without synthetic miR-312 binding sites show that the binding sites do confer translational repression. This effect is dependent on the ability of the cells to produce microRNAs. By comparison with microRNA-dependent translational repression in other cell types, the regulated mRNAs and the protein factors that mediate repression were expected to be enriched in sponge bodies, subcellular structures with extensive similarities to the P bodies found in other cells. However, no such enrichment was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the variety of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that operate in the Drosophila ovary, and have implications for the mechanisms of miRNA-dependent translational control used in the ovary.

  16. Ecdysone signaling at metamorphosis triggers apoptosis of Drosophila abdominal muscles.

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    Zirin, Jonathan; Cheng, Daojun; Dhanyasi, Nagaraju; Cho, Julio; Dura, Jean-Maurice; Vijayraghavan, Krishnaswamy; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-11-15

    One of the most dramatic examples of programmed cell death occurs during Drosophila metamorphosis, when most of the larval tissues are destroyed in a process termed histolysis. Much of our understanding of this process comes from analyses of salivary gland and midgut cell death. In contrast, relatively little is known about the degradation of the larval musculature. Here, we analyze the programmed destruction of the abdominal dorsal exterior oblique muscle (DEOM) which occurs during the first 24h of metamorphosis. We find that ecdysone signaling through Ecdysone receptor isoform B1 is required cell autonomously for the muscle death. Furthermore, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor FTZ-F1, opposed by another nuclear receptor, HR39, plays a critical role in the timing of DEOM histolysis. Finally, we show that unlike the histolysis of salivary gland and midgut, abdominal muscle death occurs by apoptosis, and does not require autophagy. Thus, there is no set rule as to the role of autophagy and apoptosis during Drosophila histolysis.

  17. U bodies respond to nutrient stress in Drosophila

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    Buckingham, Mickey; Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk

    2011-12-10

    The neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by mutation of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Cytoplasmic SMN protein-containing granules, known as U snRNP bodies (U bodies), are thought to be responsible for the assembly and storage of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) which are essential for pre-mRNA splicing. U bodies exhibit close association with cytoplasmic processing bodies (P bodies), which are involved in mRNA decay and translational repression. The close association of the U body and P body in Drosophila resemble that of the stress granule and P body in yeast and mammalian cells. However, it is unknown whether the U body is responsive to any stress. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model, here we show that U bodies increase in size following nutritional deprivation. Despite nutritional stress, U bodies maintain their close association with P bodies. Our results show that U bodies are responsive to nutrition changes, presumably through the U body-P body pathway.

  18. Appetitive and aversive visual learning in freely moving Drosophila

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    Christopher Schnaitmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare appetitive and aversive visual memories of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a new paradigm for classical conditioning. Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (blue and green light as conditioned stimuli or CS with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US. In a test phase, flies are given a choice between the paired and the unpaired visual stimuli. Associative memory is measured based on altered visual preference in the test. If a group of flies has, for example, received a sugar reward with green light, they show a significantly higher preference for the green stimulus during the test than another group of flies having received the same reward with blue light. We demonstrate critical parameters for the formation of visual appetitive memory, such as training repetition, order of reinforcement, starvation, and individual conditioning. Furthermore, we show that formic acid can act as an aversive chemical reinforcer, yielding weak, yet significant, aversive memory. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying visual memory and perception in Drosophila.

  19. Carbon nanopipette electrodes for dopamine detection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Hillary R; Anderson, Sean E; Privman, Eve; Bau, Haim H; Venton, B Jill

    2015-04-01

    Small, robust, sensitive electrodes are desired for in vivo neurotransmitter measurements. Carbon nanopipettes have been previously manufactured and used for single-cell drug delivery and electrophysiological measurements. Here, a modified fabrication procedure was developed to produce batches of solid carbon nanopipette electrodes (CNPEs) with ∼250 nm diameter tips, and controllable lengths of exposed carbon, ranging from 5 to 175 μm. The electrochemical properties of CNPEs were characterized with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) for the first time. CNPEs were used to detect the electroactive neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. CNPEs were significantly more sensitive for serotonin detection than traditional carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs). Similar to CFMEs, CNPEs have a linear response for dopamine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and a limit of detection of 25 ± 5 nM. Recordings with CNPEs were stable for over 3 h when the applied triangle waveform was scanned between -0.4 and +1.3 V vs Ag/AgCl/Cl(-) at 400 V/s. CNPEs were used to detect endogenous dopamine release in Drosophila larvae using optogenetics, which verified the utility of CNPEs for in vivo neuroscience studies. CNPEs are advantageous because they are 1 order of magnitude smaller in diameter than typical CFMEs and have a sharp, tunable geometry that facilitates penetration and implantation for localized measurements in distinct regions of small organisms, such as the Drosophila brain.

  20. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  1. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Chhabra

    Full Text Available The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans. Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  2. A novel assay reveals hygrotactic behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiteng Ji

    Full Text Available Humidity is one of the most important factors that determines the geographical distribution and survival of terrestrial animals. The ability to detect variation in humidity is conserved across many species. Here, we established a novel behavioral assay that revealed the thirsty Drosophila exhibits strong hygrotactic behavior, and it can locate water by detecting humidity gradient. In addition, exposure to high levels of moisture was sufficient to elicit proboscis extension reflex behavior in thirsty flies. Furthermore, we found that the third antennal segment was necessary for hygrotactic behavior in thirsty flies, while arista was required for the avoidance of moist air in hydrated flies. These results indicated that two types of hygroreceptor cells exist in Drosophila: one located in the third antennal segment that mediates hygrotactic behavior in thirst status, and the other located in arista which is responsible for the aversive behavior toward moist air in hydration status. Using a neural silencing screen, we demonstrated that synaptic output from the mushroom body α/β surface and posterior neurons was required for both hygrotactic behavior and moisture-aversive behavior.

  3. AcEST: DK961935 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Drosophila mojavensis GN=GI155... 36 1.1 tr|Q2EJA3|Q2EJA3_DROSI Catsup protein OS...4 tr|B4Q9E9|B4Q9E9_DROSI Catsup OS=Drosophila simulans GN=DsimCat... 35 1.4 tr|B4GWD3|B4GWD3_DROPE GL16465 O

  4. Chemical Cues Influence Pupation Behavior of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila buzzatii in Nature and in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramí, Marcial; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Del Pino, Francisco; Ferveur, Jean-Francois; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    In the wild, larvae of several species of Drosophila develop in heterogeneous and rapidly changing environments sharing resources as food and space. In this scenario, sensory systems contribute to detect, localize and recognize congeners and heterospecifics, and provide information about the availability of food and chemical features of environments where animals live. We investigated the behavior of D. simulans and D. buzzatii larvae to chemicals emitted by conspecific and heterospecific larvae. Our goal was to understand the role of these substances in the selection of pupation sites in the two species that cohabit within decaying prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica). In these breeding sites, larvae of D. simulans and D. buzzatii detect larvae of the other species changing their pupation site preferences. Larvae of the two species pupated in the part of the fruit containing no or few heterospecifics, and spent a longer time in/on spots marked by conspecifics rather than heterospecifics. In contrast, larvae of the two species reared in isolation from conspecifics pupated randomly over the substrate and spent a similar amount of time on spots marked by conspecifics and by heterospecifics. Our results indicate that early chemically-based experience with conspecific larvae is critical for the selection of the pupation sites in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, and that pupation site preferences of Drosophila larvae depend on species-specific chemical cues. These preferences can be modulate by the presence of larvae of the same or another species. PMID:22737236

  5. Chemical cues influence pupation behavior of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila buzzatii in nature and in the laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Beltramí

    Full Text Available In the wild, larvae of several species of Drosophila develop in heterogeneous and rapidly changing environments sharing resources as food and space. In this scenario, sensory systems contribute to detect, localize and recognize congeners and heterospecifics, and provide information about the availability of food and chemical features of environments where animals live. We investigated the behavior of D. simulans and D. buzzatii larvae to chemicals emitted by conspecific and heterospecific larvae. Our goal was to understand the role of these substances in the selection of pupation sites in the two species that cohabit within decaying prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica. In these breeding sites, larvae of D. simulans and D. buzzatii detect larvae of the other species changing their pupation site preferences. Larvae of the two species pupated in the part of the fruit containing no or few heterospecifics, and spent a longer time in/on spots marked by conspecifics rather than heterospecifics. In contrast, larvae of the two species reared in isolation from conspecifics pupated randomly over the substrate and spent a similar amount of time on spots marked by conspecifics and by heterospecifics. Our results indicate that early chemically-based experience with conspecific larvae is critical for the selection of the pupation sites in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, and that pupation site preferences of Drosophila larvae depend on species-specific chemical cues. These preferences can be modulate by the presence of larvae of the same or another species.

  6. Chemical cues influence pupation behavior of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila buzzatii in nature and in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramí, Marcial; Medina-Muñoz, María Cristina; Del Pino, Francisco; Ferveur, Jean-Francois; Godoy-Herrera, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    In the wild, larvae of several species of Drosophila develop in heterogeneous and rapidly changing environments sharing resources as food and space. In this scenario, sensory systems contribute to detect, localize and recognize congeners and heterospecifics, and provide information about the availability of food and chemical features of environments where animals live. We investigated the behavior of D. simulans and D. buzzatii larvae to chemicals emitted by conspecific and heterospecific larvae. Our goal was to understand the role of these substances in the selection of pupation sites in the two species that cohabit within decaying prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica). In these breeding sites, larvae of D. simulans and D. buzzatii detect larvae of the other species changing their pupation site preferences. Larvae of the two species pupated in the part of the fruit containing no or few heterospecifics, and spent a longer time in/on spots marked by conspecifics rather than heterospecifics. In contrast, larvae of the two species reared in isolation from conspecifics pupated randomly over the substrate and spent a similar amount of time on spots marked by conspecifics and by heterospecifics. Our results indicate that early chemically-based experience with conspecific larvae is critical for the selection of the pupation sites in D. simulans and D. buzzatii, and that pupation site preferences of Drosophila larvae depend on species-specific chemical cues. These preferences can be modulate by the presence of larvae of the same or another species.

  7. Molecular cloning of DNA complementary to Drosophila melanogaster alpha-amylase mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, B F; Abukashawa, S; Boer, P H; Hickey, D A

    1987-06-01

    Several lambda clones containing cDNAs from Drosophila melanogaster were identified in a lambda cDNA bank using two different approaches: (i) cross-species hybridization using a mouse amylase cDNA probe, and (ii) probing with a differential probe, generated from Drosophila RNA. An amylase cDNA fragment was used, in turn, for the isolation and characterization of amylase genomic clones. The size of the Drosophila amylase mRNA was estimated at 1650 b. This is comparable with the size of the murine amylase messenger that encodes a protein of similar molecular weight. In Drosophila larvae, amylase mRNA can account for as little as 0.01% of the poly(A)+ RNA under conditions of dietary glucose repression or greater than 1% of poly(A)+ RNA under derepressing dietary conditions.

  8. Metabolic and functional characterization of effects of developmental temperature in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Pedersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    , and in particular, how physiological stress at extreme temperatures may counteract beneficial acclimation responses at benign temperatures. We exposed Drosophila melanogaster to ten developmental temperatures covering their entire permissible temperature range. We obtained metabolic profiles and reaction norms...

  9. Proteomic Characterization of Inbreeding-Related Cold Sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, C.J.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Beck, Hans C.

    2013-01-01

    insight into the molecular interplay between intrinsic stress responses, inbreeding depression and temperature tolerance, we performed a proteomic characterization of a well-defined conditional inbreeding effect in a single line of Drosophila melanogaster, which suffers from extreme cold sensitivity...

  10. Multifractal analysis of the long-range correlations in the cardiac dynamics of Drosophila melanogaster

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, N K; Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Yankulova, Elka D.

    2006-01-01

    Time series of heartbeat activity of humans can exhibit long-range correlations. In this paper we show that such kind of correlations can exist for the heartbeat activity of much simpler species like Drosophila melanogaster. By means of the method of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) we calculate fractal spectra $f(\\alpha)$ and $h(q)$ and investigate the correlation properties of heartbeat activity of Drosophila with genetic hearth defects for three consequent generations of species. We observe that opposite to the case of humans the time series of the heartbeat activity of healtly Drosophila do not have scaling properties. Time series from flies with genetic defects can be long-range correllated and can have multifractal properties. The fractal heartbeat dynamics of Drosophila is transferred from generation to generation.

  11. High-resolution, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of Drosophila at 18.8 Tesla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Null

    Full Text Available High resolution MRI of live Drosophila was performed at 18.8 Tesla, with a field of view less than 5 mm, and administration of manganese or gadolinium-based contrast agents. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MR methods for imaging the fruit fly Drosophila with an NMR spectrometer, at a resolution relevant for undertaking future studies of the Drosophila brain and other organs. The fruit fly has long been a principal model organism for elucidating biology and disease, but without capabilities like those of MRI. This feasibility marks progress toward the development of new in vivo research approaches in Drosophila without the requirement for light transparency or destructive assays.

  12. Molecular cloning and expression of a hexameric Drosophila heat shock factor subject to negative regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clos, J; Westwood, J T; Becker, P B; Wilson, S; Lambert, K; Wu, C

    1990-11-30

    We report the cloning of the transcriptional activator of heat shock genes, HSF, from Drosophila. The predicted sequence of Drosophila HSF protein is surprisingly divergent from that of yeast HSF, except in regions important for DNA binding and oligomerization. A segment of the DNA binding domain of HSF bears an intriguing similarity to the putative DNA recognition helix of bacterial sigma factors, while the oligomerization domain contains an unusual arrangement of conserved hydrophobic heptad repeats. Drosophila HSF produced in E. coli under nonshock conditions forms a hexamer that binds specifically to DNA with high affinity and activates transcription from a heat shock promoter in vitro. In contrast, when HSF is expressed in Xenopus oocytes, maximal DNA binding affinity is observed only after heat shock induction. These results suggest that Drosophila HSF has an intrinsic affinity for DNA, which is repressed under nonshock conditions in vivo.

  13. Role of elongator subunit Elp3 in Drosophila melanogaster larval development and immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Jane; Kwon, So Yeon; Badenhorst, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Elongator complex has been implicated in several cellular processes, including gene expression and tRNA modification. We investigated the biological importance of the Elp3 gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Deletion of Elp3 results in larval lethality at the pupal stage. During early development...... demonstrate that Drosophila Elp3 is essential for viability, normal development, and hematopoiesis and suggest a functional overlap with the chromatin remodeler Domino....

  14. Drosophila Fascin is a novel downstream target of prostaglandin signaling during actin remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Groen, Christopher M.; Spracklen, Andrew J.; Fagan, Tiffany N.; Tootle, Tina L.

    2012-01-01

    Although prostaglandins (PGs)—lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes—regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics, their mechanisms of action are unknown. We previously established Drosophila oogenesis, in particular nurse cell dumping, as a new model to determine how PGs regulate actin remodeling. PGs, and thus the Drosophila COX-like enzyme Pxt, are required for both the parallel actin filament bundle formation and the cortical actin strengthening required for dumping. He...

  15. Comparative approaches to the study of physiology: Drosophila as a physiological tool

    OpenAIRE

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.; Argue, Kathryn J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have detailed the extensive conservation of developmental signaling pathways between the model system, Drosophila melanogaster, and mammalian models, but researchers have also profited from the unique and highly tractable genetic tools available in this system to address critical questions in physiology. In this review, we have described contributions that Drosophila researchers have made to mathematical dynamics of pattern formation, cardiac pathologies, the way in which pai...

  16. Identifying sexual differentiation genes that affect Drosophila life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tower John

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual differentiation often has significant effects on life span and aging phenotypes. For example, males and females of several species have different life spans, and genetic and environmental manipulations that affect life span often have different magnitude of effect in males versus females. Moreover, the presence of a differentiated germ-line has been shown to affect life span in several species, including Drosophila and C. elegans. Methods Experiments were conducted to determine how alterations in sexual differentiation gene activity might affect the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila females heterozygous for the tudor[1] mutation produce normal offspring, while their homozygous sisters produce offspring that lack a germ line. To identify additional sexual differentiation genes that might affect life span, the conditional transgenic system Geneswitch was employed, whereby feeding adult flies or developing larvae the drug RU486 causes the over-expression of selected UAS-transgenes. Results In this study germ-line ablation caused by the maternal tudor[1] mutation was examined in a long-lived genetic background, and was found to increase life span in males but not in females, consistent with previous reports. Fitting the data to a Gompertz-Makeham model indicated that the maternal tudor[1] mutation increases the life span of male progeny by decreasing age-independent mortality. The Geneswitch system was used to screen through several UAS-type and EP-type P element mutations in genes that regulate sexual differentiation, to determine if additional sex-specific effects on life span would be obtained. Conditional over-expression of transformer female isoform (traF during development produced male adults with inhibited sexual differentiation, however this caused no significant change in life span. Over-expression of doublesex female isoform (dsxF during development was lethal to males, and produced a limited

  17. Thermal evolution of gene expression profiles in Drosophila subobscura

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    Beltran Sergi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its pervasiveness, the genetic basis of adaptation resulting in variation directly or indirectly related to temperature (climatic gradients is poorly understood. By using 3-fold replicated laboratory thermal stocks covering much of the physiologically tolerable temperature range for the temperate (i.e., cold tolerant species Drosophila subobscura we have assessed whole-genome transcriptional responses after three years of thermal adaptation, when the populations had already diverged for inversion frequencies, pre-adult life history components, and morphological traits. Total mRNA from each population was compared to a reference pool mRNA in a standard, highly replicated two-colour competitive hybridization experiment using cDNA microarrays. Results A total of 306 (6.6% cDNA clones were identified as 'differentially expressed' (following a false discovery rate correction after contrasting the two furthest apart thermal selection regimes (i.e., 13°C vs . 22°C, also including four previously reported candidate genes for thermotolerance in Drosophila (Hsp26, Hsp68, Fst, and Treh. On the other hand, correlated patterns of gene expression were similar in cold- and warm-adapted populations. Analysis of functional categories defined by the Gene Ontology project point to an overrepresentation of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, nucleic acids metabolism and regulation of transcription among other categories. Although the location of differently expressed genes was approximately at random with respect to chromosomes, a physical mapping of 88 probes to the polytene chromosomes of D. subobscura has shown that a larger than expected number mapped inside inverted chromosomal segments. Conclusion Our data suggest that a sizeable number of genes appear to be involved in thermal adaptation in Drosophila, with a substantial fraction implicated in metabolism. This apparently illustrates the formidable challenge to

  18. Drosophila as a model to study the role of blood cells in inflammation, innate immunity and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila has a blood system with three types of haemocytes which function throughout different developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Haemocytes play essential roles in tissue modelling during embryogenesis and morphogenesis, and also in innate immunity. The open circulatory system of Drosophila makes haemocytes ideal signal mediators to cells and tissues in response to events such as infection, wounding and tumour formation. In this context, Drosophila is now used for screening an...

  19. An integrated hybrid microfluidic device for oviposition-based chemical screening of adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jacob C K; Hilliker, Arthur J; Rezai, Pouya

    2016-02-21

    Chemical screening using Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly) is vital in drug discovery, agricultural, and toxicological applications. Oviposition (egg laying) on chemically-doped agar plates is an important read-out metric used to quantitatively assess the biological fitness and behavioral responses of Drosophila. Current oviposition-based chemical screening studies are inaccurate, labor-intensive, time-consuming, and inflexible due to the manual chemical doping of agar. In this paper, we have developed a novel hybrid agar-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device for single- and multi-concentration chemical dosing and on-chip oviposition screening of free-flying adult stage Drosophila. To achieve this, we have devised a novel technique to integrate agar with PDMS channels using ice as a sacrificial layer. Subsequently, we have conducted single-chemical toxicity and multiple choice chemical preference assays on adult Drosophila melanogaster using zinc and acetic acid at various concentrations. Our device has enabled us to 1) demonstrate that Drosophila is capable of sensing the concentration of different chemicals on a PDMS-agar microfluidic device, which plays significant roles in determining oviposition site selection and 2) investigate whether oviposition preference differs between single- and multi-concentration chemical environments. This device may be used to study fundamental and applied biological questions in Drosophila and other egg laying insects. It can also be extended in design to develop sophisticated and dynamic chemical dosing and high-throughput screening platforms in the future that are not easily achievable with the existing oviposition screening techniques.

  20. Drosophila melanogaster as a Model for Lead Neurotoxicology and Toxicogenomics Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Mark Ruden

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model animal for studying the neurotoxicology of lead. It has been known since ancient Roman times that long-term exposure to low levels of lead results in behavioral abnormalities, such as what is now known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Because lead alters mechanisms that underlie developmental neuronal plasticity, chronic exposure of children, even at blood lead levels below the current CDC community action level (10 µg/dl, can result in reduced cognitive ability, increased likelihood of delinquency, behaviors associated with ADHD, changes in activity level, altered sensory function, delayed onset of sexual maturity in girls, and changes in immune function. In order to better understand how lead affects neuronal plasticity, we will describe recent findings from a Drosophila behavioral genetics laboratory, a Drosophila neurophysiology laboratory, and a Drosophila quantitative genetics laboratory who have joined forces to study the effects of lead on the Drosophila nervous system. Studying the effects of lead on Drosophila nervous system development will give us a better understanding of the mechanisms of Pb neurotoxicity in the developing human nervous system.

  1. Drosophila Vps13 Is Required for Protein Homeostasis in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jan J.; Lahaye, Liza L.; Kanon, Bart; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio; Freire, Raimundo; van IJzendoorn, Sven C.; Grzeschik, Nicola A.; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chorea-Acanthocytosis is a rare, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of locomotor and cognitive function. It is caused by loss of function mutations in the Vacuolar Protein Sorting 13A (VPS13A) gene, which is conserved from yeast to human. The consequences of VPS13A dysfunction in the nervous system are still largely unspecified. In order to study the consequences of VPS13A protein dysfunction in the ageing central nervous system we characterized a Drosophila melanogaster Vps13 mutant line. The Drosophila Vps13 gene encoded a protein of similar size as human VPS13A. Our data suggest that Vps13 is a peripheral membrane protein located to endosomal membranes and enriched in the fly head. Vps13 mutant flies showed a shortened life span and age associated neurodegeneration. Vps13 mutant flies were sensitive to proteotoxic stress and accumulated ubiquitylated proteins. Levels of Ref(2)P, the Drosophila orthologue of p62, were increased and protein aggregates accumulated in the central nervous system. Overexpression of the human Vps13A protein in the mutant flies partly rescued apparent phenotypes. This suggests a functional conservation of human VPS13A and Drosophila Vps13. Our results demonstrate that Vps13 is essential to maintain protein homeostasis in the larval and adult Drosophila brain. Drosophila Vps13 mutants are suitable to investigate the function of Vps13 in the brain, to identify genetic enhancers and suppressors and to screen for potential therapeutic targets for Chorea-Acanthocytosis. PMID:28107480

  2. Comparative evaluation of the genomes of three common Drosophila-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkau, Kristina; Fast, David; Duggal, Aashna; Foley, Edan

    2016-09-15

    Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to explore the molecular exchanges that occur between an animal intestine and associated microbes. Previous studies in Drosophila uncovered a sophisticated web of host responses to intestinal bacteria. The outcomes of these responses define critical events in the host, such as the establishment of immune responses, access to nutrients, and the rate of larval development. Despite our steady march towards illuminating the host machinery that responds to bacterial presence in the gut, there are significant gaps in our understanding of the microbial products that influence bacterial association with a fly host. We sequenced and characterized the genomes of three common Drosophila-associated microbes: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Acetobacter pasteurianus For each species, we compared the genomes of Drosophila-associated strains to the genomes of strains isolated from alternative sources. We found that environmental Lactobacillus strains readily associated with adult Drosophila and were similar to fly isolates in terms of genome organization. In contrast, we identified a strain of A. pasteurianus that apparently fails to associate with adult Drosophila due to an inability to grow on fly nutrient food. Comparisons between association competent and incompetent A. pasteurianus strains identified a short list of candidate genes that may contribute to survival on fly medium. Many of the gene products unique to fly-associated strains have established roles in the stabilization of host-microbe interactions. These data add to a growing body of literature that examines the microbial perspective of host-microbe relationships.

  3. Evolution and potential function of fibrinogen-like domains across twelve Drosophila species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middha Sumit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibrinogen-like (FBG domain consists of approximately 200 amino acid residues, which has high sequence similarity to the C-terminal halves of fibrinogen β and γ chains. Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs containing one or more FBG domains are found universally in vertebrates and invertebrates. In invertebrates, FREPs are involved in immune responses and other aspects of physiology. To understand the complexity of this gene family in Drosophila, we analyzed FREPs in twelve Drosophila species. Results Using the genome data from 12 Drosophila species, we identified FBG domains in each species. The results show that the gene numbers in each species vary from 14 genes up to 43 genes. Using sequence profile analysis, we found that FBG domains have high sequence similarity and are highly conserved throughout. By comparison of structure and sequence conservation, some of the FBG domains in Drosophila melanogaster are predicted to function in recognition of carbohydrates and their derivatives on the surface of microorganisms in innate immunity. Conclusion Sequence and structural analyses show that FREP family across 12 Drosophila species contains conserved FBG domains. Expansion of the FREP families in Drosophila is mainly accounted by a major expansion of FBG domains.

  4. Genome-wide identification of zero nucleotide recursive splicing in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Michael O; Olson, Sara; Wei, Xintao; Garrett, Sandra C; Osman, Ahmad; Bolisetty, Mohan; Plocik, Alex; Celniker, Susan E; Graveley, Brenton R

    2015-05-21

    Recursive splicing is a process in which large introns are removed in multiple steps by re-splicing at ratchet points--5' splice sites recreated after splicing. Recursive splicing was first identified in the Drosophila Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene and only three additional Drosophila genes have since been experimentally shown to undergo recursive splicing. Here we identify 197 zero nucleotide exon ratchet points in 130 introns of 115 Drosophila genes from total RNA sequencing data generated from developmental time points, dissected tissues and cultured cells. The sequential nature of recursive splicing was confirmed by identification of lariat introns generated by splicing to and from the ratchet points. We also show that recursive splicing is a constitutive process, that depletion of U2AF inhibits recursive splicing, and that the sequence and function of ratchet points are evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila. Finally, we identify four recursively spliced human genes, one of which is also recursively spliced in Drosophila. Together, these results indicate that recursive splicing is commonly used in Drosophila, occurs in humans, and provides insight into the mechanisms by which some large introns are removed.

  5. Kinetic characterization of the sole nonmuscle myosin-2 from the model organism Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heissler, Sarah M; Chinthalapudi, Krishna; Sellers, James R

    2015-04-01

    Nonmuscle myosin-2 is the primary enzyme complex powering contractility of the F-actin cytoskeleton in the model organism Drosophila. Despite myosin's essential function in fly development and homeostasis, its kinetic features remain elusive. The purpose of this in vitro study is a detailed steady-state and presteady-state kinetic characterization of the Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 motor domain. Kinetic features are a slow steady-state ATPase activity, high affinities for F-actin and ADP, and a low duty ratio. Comparative analysis of the overall enzymatic signatures across the nonmuscle myosin-2 complement from model organisms indicates that the Drosophila protein resembles nonmuscle myosin-2s from metazoa rather than protozoa, though modulatory aspects of myosin motor function are distinct. Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 is uniquely insensitive toward blebbistatin, a commonly used myosin-2 inhibitor. An in silico modeling approach together with kinetic studies indicate that the nonconsensus amino acid Met466 in the Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 active-site loop switch-2 acts as blebbistatin desensitizer. Introduction of the M466I mutation sensitized the protein for blebbistatin, resulting in a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 36.3 ± 4.1 µM. Together, these data show that Drosophila nonmuscle myosin-2 is a bona fide molecular motor and establish an important link between switch-2 and blebbistatin sensitivity.

  6. Excitatory effects of Buthus C56 toxin on Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gawade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Buthus C56 toxin from venom of the Indian red scorpion Mesobuthus tamulus was studied for its effects on spontaneous miniature excitatory junctional potentials (MEJP on Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions. C56 toxin was isolated on CM-Cellulose with linear gradient of ammonium acetate buffer, pH 6.0. Toxin purity was determined on SDS slab gel electrophoresis. Effective concentration of C56 toxin was based on contraction paralysis units (CPU in Drosophila 3rd instar larvae by microinjection (0.1 CPU/ml = 2 x 10-6 g/ml. The toxin-induced excitatory junctional potentials were studied for calcium dependency (0.2 mM to 1.2 mM Ca2+ in Drosophila Ringer. Excitatory junctional potential amplitude was increased with increasing calcium concentration; maximum increase in the frequency at 0.4 mM Ca2+/4 mM Mg2+ Drosophila Ringer. It was suggested that while amplitude of excitatory junctional potentials was increased with concentration, maximum frequency increase at 0.4 mMCa2+/4 mM Mg2+ Drosophila Ringer may be due to augmented Ca2+ influx in 0.4 mM Ca2+, when NMDA receptors were maximally activated in C56 toxin-treated Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction.

  7. Cajal bodies and histone locus bodies in Drosophila and Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Z F; Deryusheva, S; Gall, J G

    2010-01-01

    The organization of the cell nucleus into specialized compartments is important for nuclear function. We address the significance of compartmentalization by studying the Cajal body, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear organelle proposed to be involved in such diverse functions as assembly of the spliceosome, assembly of the transcription machinery, and modification of spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs. The Cajal body is typically identified by the presence of coilin, a protein of poorly defined function. Here, we demonstrate that coilin is not a unique Cajal body marker but also occurs in a related yet distinct nuclear organelle known as the histone locus body in both Drosophila and Xenopus. We stress the importance of multiple markers not only for identification of nuclear bodies but also for assessing their functional significance.

  8. (Mutagenic effect of tritium on DNA of Drosophila melanogaster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A series of Adh mutants induced in Drosophila by X-rays were compared to Adh mutants induced by tritiated water. Sequence analysis of 8 intragenic null mutations suggest a double strand break might occur, consistent with our linear dose response curve. Additional data are required before we accept this model; it is hoped experiments with {sup 60}Co will yield more intragenic deletions. Our current research project involves genetic and molecular analysis of {sup 3}H beta induced Adh null mutations. All 23 mutations induced at the Adh locus have been multilocus deletions. This is in contrast to results seen with X-ray induction of mutation; as a consequence, the emphasis of our molecular analysis has switched from sequencing intragenic mutations to developing methods for sequencing the break points of deletions. This will permit us to determine if our model of deletion formation is applicable outside the structural gene. 13 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Susi, a negative regulator of Drosophila PI3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Franz; Jaquenoud, Malika; Brogiolo, Walter; Zarske, Marcel; Wüstemann, Philipp; Fernandez, Rafael; Stocker, Hugo; Wymann, Matthias P; Hafen, Ernst

    2005-06-01

    The Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/PKB) signaling pathway controls growth, metabolism, and lifespan in animals, and deregulation of its activity is associated with diabetes and cancer in humans. Here, we describe Susi, a coiled-coil domain protein that acts as a negative regulator of insulin signaling in Drosophila. Whereas loss of Susi function increases body size, overexpression of Susi reduces growth. We provide genetic evidence that Susi negatively regulates dPI3K activity. Susi directly binds to dP60, the regulatory subunit of dPI3K. Since Susi has no overt similarity to known inhibitors of PI3K/PKB signaling, it defines a novel mechanism by which this signaling cascade is kept in check. The fact that Susi is expressed in a circadian rhythm, with highest levels during the night, suggests that Susi attenuates insulin signaling during the fasting period.

  10. TRII: A Probabilistic Scoring of Drosophila melanogaster Translation Initiation Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Relative individual information is a measurement that scores the quality of DNA- and RNA-binding sites for biological machines. The development of analytical approaches to increase the power of this scoring method will improve its utility in evaluating the functions of motifs. In this study, the scoring method was applied to potential translation initiation sites in Drosophila to compute Translation Relative Individual Information (TRII scores. The weight matrix at the core of the scoring method was optimized based on high-confidence translation initiation sites identified by using a progressive partitioning approach. Comparing the distributions of TRII scores for sites of interest with those for high-confidence translation initiation sites and random sequences provides a new methodology for assessing the quality of translation initiation sites. The optimized weight matrices can also be used to describe the consensus at translation initiation sites, providing a quantitative measure of preferred and avoided nucleotides at each position.

  11. Developmental regulation of nucleolus size during Drosophila eye differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nicholas E

    2013-01-01

    When cell cycle withdrawal accompanies terminal differentiation, biosynthesis and cellular growth are likely to change also. In this study, nucleolus size was monitored during cell fate specification in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc using fibrillarin antibody labeling. Nucleolus size is an indicator of ribosome biogenesis and can correlate with cellular growth rate. Nucleolar size was reduced significantly during cell fate specification and differentiation, predominantly as eye disc cells entered a cell cycle arrest that preceded cell fate specification. This reduction in nucleolus size required Dpp and Hh signaling. A transient enlargement of the nucleolus accompanied cell division in the Second Mitotic Wave. Nucleoli continued to diminish in postmitotic cells following fate specification. These results suggest that cellular growth is regulated early in the transition from proliferating progenitor cells to terminal cell fate specification, contemporary with regulation of the cell cycle, and requiring the same extracellular signals.

  12. Outcome learning, outcome expectations, and intentionality in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Martin

    2015-06-01

    An animal generates behavioral actions because of the effects of these actions in the future. Occasionally, the animal may generate an action in response to a certain event or situation. If the outcome of the action is adaptive, the animal may keep this stimulus-response link in its behavioral repertoire, in case the event or situation occurs again. If a responsive action is innate but the outcome happens to be less adaptive than it had been before, the link may be loosened. This adjustment of outcome expectations involves a particular kind of learning, which will be called "outcome learning." The present article discusses several examples of outcome learning in Drosophila. Learning and memory are intensely studied in flies, but the focus is on classical conditioning. Outcome learning, a particular form of operant learning, is of special significance, because it modulates outcome expectations that are operational components of action selection and intentionality.

  13. A mechanosensory receptor required for food texture detection in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alcañiz, Juan Antonio; Zappia, Giovanna; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Benton, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Textural properties provide information on the ingestibility, digestibility and state of ripeness or decay of sources of nutrition. Compared with our understanding of the chemosensory assessment of food, little is known about the mechanisms of texture detection. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster can discriminate food texture, avoiding substrates that are either too hard or too soft. Manipulations of food substrate properties and flies' chemosensory inputs indicate that texture preferences are revealed only in the presence of an appetitive stimulus, but are not because of changes in nutrient accessibility, suggesting that animals discriminate the substrates' mechanical characteristics. We show that texture preference requires NOMPC, a TRP-family mechanosensory channel. NOMPC localizes to the sensory dendrites of neurons housed within gustatory sensilla, and is essential for their mechanosensory-evoked responses. Our results identify a sensory pathway for texture detection and reveal the behavioural integration of chemical and physical qualities of food. PMID:28128210

  14. The mechanism of pattern formation in the developing drosophila retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN QiCheng

    2007-01-01

    The biological patterning of the drosophila retina in vivo has striking resemblance to liquid bubbles, in which the surface mechanics due to N-cadherin within a sub-group of retina cells can be mimicked by surface tension. In this work, the aggregating patterns were reasonably simplified into 2D clusters consisting of 2-6 identical bubbles confined within a shrinking boundary. By using a hybrid fluid dynamics model proposed for liquid foams, the aggregating process of 2-6 retina cells was studied. Assuming the minimal perimeter for patterning cells to be the condition of stability patterns, the stable converged patterns we simulated in this work are the same as the experimental observations. More importantly, a new pattern of 6 cells was obtained which was found physically more stable than the other two reported by Hayashi and Carthew[1]. Aggregating perimeters of cells, i.e. the surface energy, showed a good linear fit with the cell numbers.

  15. The mechanism of pattern formation in the developing drosophila retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The biological patterning of the drosophila retina in vivo has striking resemblance to liquid bubbles, in which the surface mechanics due to N-cadherin within a sub-group of retina cells can be mimicked by surface tension. In this work, the aggregating patterns were reasonably simplified into 2D clusters consisting of 2—6 identical bubbles confined within a shrinking boundary. By using a hybrid fluid dy-namics model proposed for liquid foams, the aggregating process of 2―6 retina cells was studied. Assuming the minimal perimeter for patterning cells to be the condition of stability patterns, the stable converged patterns we simulated in this work are the same as the experimental observations. More importantly, a new pattern of 6 cells was obtained which was found physically more stable than the other two reported by Hayashi and Carthew[1]. Aggregating perimeters of cells, i.e. the surface energy, showed a good linear fit with the cell numbers.

  16. Improved Software for Quantifying the Behavior of Drosophila Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Natalie; Gershow, Marc

    A key advantage of small crawling organisms like C elegans and the Drosophila larva is that their behaviors may be assayed automatically using computer vision software. Current state of the art software is capable of detecting the positions and postures of crawling larvae and automatically categorize their behaviors in parallel. However, these algorithms, which are based on frame-by-frame analysis of thresholded black and white images, fail to correctly describe the postures of larvae executing sharp bends and have difficulty separating multiple larvae that are physically touching. We present new tracking software that uses intensity information in grayscale images and applies temporal smoothness constraints to positions and postures. We implemented this software as an ImageJ plugin, extending its portability and applicability.

  17. Notch is required for long-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presente, Asaf; Boyles, Randy S; Serway, Christine N; de Belle, J Steven; Andres, Andrew J

    2004-02-10

    A role for Notch in the elaboration of existing neural processes is emerging that is distinct from the increasingly well understood function of this gene in binary cell-fate decisions. Several research groups, by using a variety of organisms, have shown that Notch is important in the development of neural ultrastructure. Simultaneously, Presenilin (Psn) was identified both as a key mediator of Notch signaling and as a site of genetic lesions that cause early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Here we demonstrate that Notch loss of function produces memory deficits in Drosophila melanogaster. The effects are specific to long-term memory, which is thought to depend on ultrastructural remodeling. We propose that Notch plays an important role in the neural plasticity underlying consolidated memory.

  18. The formation of sense organs in Drosophila: a logical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysen, Alain; Thomas, René

    2003-08-01

    The genetic analysis of development has revealed the importance of small sets of interacting genes in most morphogenetic processes. The results of gene interactions have so far been examined intuitively. This approach is largely sufficient when one deals with simple interactions, a feedback circuit for example. As more components become involved, however, it is difficult to make sure that the intuitive approach gives a comprehensive view of the behaviour of the system. In this paper, we illustrate the use of a logical approach to describe the genetic circuit that underlies the singling out of sense organ precursor cells in Drosophila. We show how to apply logical modelling to a realistic problem, and how this approach allows an easy assessment of the dynamic properties of the system, i.e., of its possible evolutions and of its reactions to fluctuations and perturbations.

  19. Permutation Entropy Applied to Movement Behaviors of Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuedan; Chon, Tae-Soo; Baek, Hunki; Do, Younghae; Choi, Jin Hee; Chung, Yun Doo

    Movement of different strains in Drosophila melanogaster was continuously observed by using computer interfacing techniques and was analyzed by permutation entropy (PE) after exposure to toxic chemicals, toluene (0.1 mg/m3) and formaldehyde (0.01 mg/m3). The PE values based on one-dimensional time series position (vertical) data were variable according to internal constraint (i.e. strains) and accordingly increased in response to external constraint (i.e. chemicals) by reflecting diversity in movement patterns from both normal and intoxicated states. Cross-correlation function revealed temporal associations between the PE values and between the component movement patterns in different chemicals and strains through the period of intoxication. The entropy based on the order of position data could be a useful means for complexity measure in behavioral changes and for monitoring the impact of stressors in environment.

  20. A role for the Drosophila neurogenic genes in mesoderm differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, V; Michelson, A M; Abmayr, S M; Neel, V; Alcamo, E; Maniatis, T; Young, M W

    1991-10-18

    The neurogenic genes of Drosophila have long been known to regulate cell fate decisions in the developing ectoderm. In this paper we show that these genes also control mesoderm development. Embryonic cells that express the muscle-specific gene nautilus are overproduced in each of seven neurogenic mutants (Notch, Delta, Enhancer of split, big brain, mastermind, neuralized, and almondex), at the apparent expense of neighboring, nonexpressing mesodermal cells. The mesodermal defect does not appear to be a simple consequence of associated neural hypertrophy, suggesting that the neurogenic genes may function similarly and independently in establishing cell fates in both ectoderm and mesoderm. Altered patterns of beta 3-tubulin and myosin heavy chain gene expression in the mutants indicate a role for the neurogenic genes in development of most visceral and somatic muscles. We propose that the signal produced by the neurogenic genes is a general one, effective in both ectoderm and mesoderm.

  1. Three-dimensional network of Drosophila brain hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The first step to understanding brain function is to determine the brain's network structure. We report a three-dimensional analysis of the brain network of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster by synchrotron-radiation tomographic microscopy. A skeletonized wire model of the left half of the brain network was built by tracing the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray absorption coefficients. The obtained models of neuronal processes were classified into groups on the basis of their three-dimensional structures. These classified groups correspond to neuronal tracts that send long-range projections or repeated structures of the optic lobe. The skeletonized model is also composed of neuronal processes that could not be classified into the groups. The distribution of these unclassified structures correlates with the distribution of contacts between neuronal processes. This suggests that neurons that cannot be classified into typical structures should play important roles in brain functions. The quantitative de...

  2. Activation of Drosophila hemocyte motility by the ecdysone hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Sampson

    2013-11-01

    Drosophila hemocytes compose the cellular arm of the fly's innate immune system. Plasmatocytes, putative homologues to mammalian macrophages, represent ∼95% of the migratory hemocyte population in circulation and are responsible for the phagocytosis of bacteria and apoptotic tissues that arise during metamorphosis. It is not known as to how hemocytes become activated from a sessile state in response to such infectious and developmental cues, although the hormone ecdysone has been suggested as the signal that shifts hemocyte behaviour from quiescent to migratory at metamorphosis. Here, we corroborate this hypothesis by showing the activation of hemocyte motility by ecdysone. We induce motile behaviour in larval hemocytes by culturing them with 20-hydroxyecdysone ex vivo. Moreover, we also determine that motile cell behaviour requires the ecdysone receptor complex and leads to asymmetrical redistribution of both actin and tubulin cytoskeleton.

  3. Shadow enhancers enable Hunchback bifunctionality in the Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Max V; Vincent, Ben J; Bragdon, Meghan D J; Lydiard-Martin, Tara; Wunderlich, Zeba; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H

    2015-01-20

    Hunchback (Hb) is a bifunctional transcription factor that activates and represses distinct enhancers. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that Hb can activate and repress the same enhancer. Computational models predicted that Hb bifunctionally regulates the even-skipped (eve) stripe 3+7 enhancer (eve3+7) in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. We measured and modeled eve expression at cellular resolution under multiple genetic perturbations and found that the eve3+7 enhancer could not explain endogenous eve stripe 7 behavior. Instead, we found that eve stripe 7 is controlled by two enhancers: the canonical eve3+7 and a sequence encompassing the minimal eve stripe 2 enhancer (eve2+7). Hb bifunctionally regulates eve stripe 7, but it executes these two activities on different pieces of regulatory DNA--it activates the eve2+7 enhancer and represses the eve3+7 enhancer. These two "shadow enhancers" use different regulatory logic to create the same pattern.

  4. Embryo-scale tissue mechanics during Drosophila gastrulation movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauzi, Matteo; Krzic, Uros; Saunders, Timothy E.; Krajnc, Matej; Ziherl, Primož; Hufnagel, Lars; Leptin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis of an organism requires the development of its parts to be coordinated in time and space. While past studies concentrated on defined cell populations, a synthetic view of the coordination of these events in a whole organism is needed for a full understanding. Drosophila gastrulation begins with the embryo forming a ventral furrow, which is eventually internalized. It is not understood how the rest of the embryo participates in this process. Here we use multiview selective plane illumination microscopy coupled with infrared laser manipulation and mutant analysis to dissect embryo-scale cell interactions during early gastrulation. Lateral cells have a denser medial–apical actomyosin network and shift ventrally as a compact cohort, whereas dorsal cells become stretched. We show that the behaviour of these cells affects furrow internalization. A computational model predicts different mechanical properties associated with tissue behaviour: lateral cells are stiff, whereas dorsal cells are soft. Experimental analysis confirms these properties in vivo. PMID:26497898

  5. Strawberry Accessions with Reduced Drosophila suzukii Emergence From Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoyun; Bräcker, Lasse; Bölke, Nadine; Plata, Camila; Zeitlmayr, Sarah; Metzler, Dirk; Olbricht, Klaus; Gompel, Nicolas; Parniske, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is threatening soft fruit production worldwide due to the females’ ability to pierce through the intact skin of ripe fruits and lay eggs inside. Larval consumption and the associated microbial infection cause rapid fruit degradation, thus drastic yield and economic loss. Cultivars that limit the proliferation of flies may be ideal to counter this pest; however, they have not yet been developed or identified. To search for potential breeding material, we investigated the rate of adult D. suzukii emergence from individual fruits (fly emergence) of 107 accessions of Fragaria species that had been exposed to egg-laying D. suzukii females. We found significant variation in fly emergence across strawberries, which correlated with accession and fruit diameter, and to a lesser extent with the strawberry species background. We identified accessions with significantly reduced fly emergence, not explained by their fruit diameter. These accessions constitute valuable breeding material for strawberry cultivars that limit D. suzukii spread. PMID:28066452

  6. Molecular vibration-sensing component in Drosophila melanogaster olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Maria Isabel; Turin, Luca; Mershin, Andreas; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.

    2011-01-01

    A common explanation of molecular recognition by the olfactory system posits that receptors recognize the structure or shape of the odorant molecule. We performed a rigorous test of shape recognition by replacing hydrogen with deuterium in odorants and asking whether Drosophila melanogaster can distinguish these identically shaped isotopes. We report that flies not only differentiate between isotopic odorants, but can be conditioned to selectively avoid the common or the deuterated isotope. Furthermore, flies trained to discriminate against the normal or deuterated isotopes of a compound, selectively avoid the corresponding isotope of a different odorant. Finally, flies trained to avoid a deuterated compound exhibit selective aversion to an unrelated molecule with a vibrational mode in the energy range of the carbon–deuterium stretch. These findings are inconsistent with a shape-only model for smell, and instead support the existence of a molecular vibration-sensing component to olfactory reception. PMID:21321219

  7. Myc-dependent genome instability and lifespan in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Greer

    Full Text Available The Myc family of transcription factors are key regulators of cell growth and proliferation that are dysregulated in a large number of human cancers. When overexpressed, Myc family proteins also cause genomic instability, a hallmark of both transformed and aging cells. Using an in vivo lacZ mutation reporter, we show that overexpression of Myc in Drosophila increases the frequency of large genome rearrangements associated with erroneous repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. In addition, we find that overexpression of Myc shortens adult lifespan and, conversely, that Myc haploinsufficiency reduces mutation load and extends lifespan. Our data provide the first evidence that Myc may act as a pro-aging factor, possibly through its ability to greatly increase genome instability.

  8. Live imaging in Drosophila: The optical and genetic toolkits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Elena; Karkali, Katerina; Mangione, Federica; Martín-Blanco, Enrique

    2014-06-15

    Biological imaging based on light microscopy comes at the core of the methods that let us understanding morphology and its dynamics in synergy to the spatiotemporal distribution of cellular and molecular activities as the organism develops and becomes functional. Non-linear optical tools and superesolution methodologies are under constant development and their applications to live imaging of whole organisms keep improving as we speak. Genetically coded biosensors, multicolor clonal methods and optogenetics in different organisms and, in particular, in Drosophila follow equivalent paths. We anticipate a brilliant future for live imaging providing the roots for the holistic understanding, rather than for individual parts, of development and function at the whole-organism level.

  9. Procedure for the permeabilization and cryobiological preservation of Drosophila embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, K.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Biology Div.; Schreuders, P.D. [Univ. of Tennessee-Oak Ridge Graduate School of Biomedical Science, TN (United States); Mahowald, A.P. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology; Mazur, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Biology Div.]|[Univ. of Tennessee-Oak Ridge Graduate School of Biomedical Science, TN (United States)

    1993-05-06

    The authors describe the detailed protocol developed in their laboratory at Oak Ridge for the permeabilization and cryobiological preservation of embryos of Drosophila melanogaster, Oregon R strain. The protocol is supplemented by notes containing two sorts of information. One category includes references to the appropriate portions of their published papers giving the scientific rationale and experimental basis for important steps. The other category is concerned with the criticality of certain steps and the precision with which they need to be performed. As an aid to investigators, the authors list even ordinary pieces of equipment. Brand names and model numbers are given where it is either important or convenient for readers to know precisely what is used.

  10. Hydrocarbon Patterns and Mating Behaviour in Populations of Drosophila yakuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Denis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila yakuba is widespread in Africa. Here we compare the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC profiles and mating behavior of mainland (Kounden, Cameroon and island (Mayotte, Sao-Tome, Bioko populations. The strains each had different CHC profiles: Bioko and Kounden were the most similar, while Mayotte and Sao-Tome contained significant amounts of 7-heptacosene. The CHC profile of the Sao-Tome population differed the most, with half the 7-tricosene of the other populations and more 7-heptacosene and 7-nonacosene. We also studied the characteristics of the mating behavior of the four strains: copulation duration was similar but latency times were higher in Mayotte and Sao-Tome populations. We found partial reproductive isolation between populations, especially in male-choice experiments with Sao-Tome females.

  11. A cellular automaton model for neurogenesis in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, Pascal O.; Chopard, Bastien; Preiss, Anette; Ramsden, Jeremy J.

    1998-07-01

    A cellular automaton (CA) is constructed for the formation of the central nervous system of the Drosophila embryo. This is an experimentally well-studied system in which complex interactions between neighbouring cells appear to drive their differentiation into different types. It appears that all the cells initially have the potential to become neuroblasts, and all strive to this end, but those which differentiate first block their as yet undifferentiated neighbours from doing so. The CA makes use of observational evidence for a lateral inhibition mechanism involving signalling products S of the ‘proneural’ or neuralizing genes. The key concept of the model is that cells are continuously producing S, but the production rate is lowered by inhibitory signals received from neighbouring cells which have advanced further along the developmental pathway. Comparison with experimental data shows that it well accounts for the observed proportion of neuroectodermal cells delaminating as neuroblasts.

  12. Characterization of mouse Dach2, a homologue of Drosophila dachshund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R J; Shen, W; Sandler, Y I; Heanue, T A; Mardon, G

    2001-04-01

    The Drosophila genes eyeless, eyes absent, sine oculis and dachshund cooperate as components of a network to control retinal determination. Vertebrate homologues of these genes have been identified and implicated in the control of cell fate. We present the cloning and characterization of mouse Dach2, a homologue of dachshund. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate Dach2 expression in embryonic nervous tissues, sensory organs and limbs. This pattern is similar to mouse Dach1, suggesting a partially redundant role for these genes during development. In addition, we determine that Dach2 expression in the forebrain of Pax6 mutants and dermamyotome of Pax3 mutants is not detectably altered. Finally, genetic mapping experiments place mouse Dach2 on the X chromosome between Xist and Esx1. The identification of human DACH2 sequences at Xq21 suggests a possible role for this gene in Allan-Herndon syndrome, Miles-Carpenter syndrome, X-linked cleft palate and/or Megalocornea.

  13. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jae Young Kwon; Anupama Dahanukar; Linnea A Weiss; John R Carlson

    2014-09-01

    We provide a map of the projections of taste neurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Using a collection of 67 GAL4 drivers representing the entire repertoire of Gr taste receptors, we systematically map the projections of neurons expressing these drivers in the thoracico-abdominal ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). We define 9 categories of projections in the thoracico-abdominal ganglia and 10 categories in the SOG. The projection patterns are modular, and can be interpreted as combinations of discrete pattern elements. The elements can be interpreted in terms of the taste organ from which the projections originate, the structures from which they originate, and the quality of taste information that they represent. The extensive diversity in projection patterns provides an anatomical basis for functional diversity in responses elicited by different taste stimuli.

  14. Essential role of Drosophila Hdacl in homeotic gene silencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuh-LongChang; Yu-HueiPeng; I-ChingPan; Der-ShanSun; BalasKing; Der-HwaHuang

    2005-01-01

    Deacetylation of the N-terminal tails of core histones plays a crucial role in gene silencing. Rpd3 and Hdal represent two major types of genes encoding trichostatin A-sensitive histone deacetylases. Although they have been widely found, their cellular and developmental roles remain to be elucidated in metazoa. We show that Drosophila Hdacl, an Rpd3-type gene, interacts cooperatively with Polycomb group repressors in silencing the homeotic genes that are essential for axial patterning of body segments. The biochem-ical copurification and cytological colocalization of HDAC1 and Polycomb group repressors strongly suggest that HDAC1 is a component of the silencing complex for chromatin modification on specific regulatory regions of homeotic genes.

  15. Tracing myoblast fusion in Drosophila embryos by fluorescent actin probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Myoblast fusion in the Drosophila embryo is a highly elaborate process that is initiated by Founder Cells and Fusion-Competent Myoblasts (FCMs). It occurs through an asymmetric event in which actin foci assemble in the FCMs at points of cell-cell contact and direct the formation of membrane protrusions that drive fusion. Herein, we describe the approach that we have used to image in living embryos the highly dynamic actin foci and actin-rich projections that precede myoblast fusion. We discuss resources currently available for imaging actin and myogenesis, and our experience with these resources if available. This technical report is not intended to be comprehensive on providing instruction on standard microscopy practices or software utilization. However, we discuss microscope parameters that we have used in data collection, and our experience with image processing tools in data analysis.

  16. Optical Tweezing Nuclei in the Cellular Blastoderm of Drosophila Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetz, Eva-Maria; Chaikin, Paul M.; Wieschaus, Eric F.

    2004-03-01

    Optical tweezers are used to manipulate nuclei in the syncytial blastoderm of Drosophila embryos. Our aim is to move a nucleus in a living embryo and study the reactions of its nearest neighbors to this displacement. Effects on the surrounding nuclei may allow us to test models in which actin-microtubule networks connect individual nuclei and keep them in place. In our experiments we use video analysis to follow individual nuclei using GFP-labeled histone protein. In a first approach, we were able to move nuclei in embryonic homogenates suspended in oil. Although the squashing destroys the cell, mitotic nuclear divisions continue, implying that the cytoskeleton, which connects the nuclei to the cortex, is still functioning. We will present studies of nuclear interactions in these squashes and in intact syncytial blastoderms.

  17. The syncytial Drosophila embryo as a mechanically excitable medium

    CERN Document Server

    Idema, Timon; Manning, M Lisa; Nelson, Philip C; Liu, Andrea J

    2013-01-01

    Mitosis in the early syncytial Drosophila embryo is highly correlated in space and time, as manifested in mitotic wavefronts that propagate across the embryo. In this paper we investigate the idea that the embryo can be considered a mechanically-excitable medium, and that mitotic wavefronts can be understood as nonlinear wavefronts that propagate through this medium. We study the wavefronts via both image analysis of confocal microscopy videos and theoretical models. We find that the mitotic wavefront can be resolved into two distinct wavefronts in each cycle, corresponding to metaphase and anaphase, respectively. The two wavefronts have the same speed and are separated by a time interval that is independent of cycle, supporting the idea that they are two different markers for the same process. To understand the wavefronts theoretically we analyze wavefront propagation in excitable media. We study two classes of models, one with biochemical signaling and one with mechanical signaling. We find that the depende...

  18. Structure of the kinase domain of Gilgamesh from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ni; Chen, CuiCui; Shi, Zhubing; Cheng, Dianlin

    2014-04-01

    The CK1 family kinases regulate multiple cellular aspects and play important roles in Wnt/Wingless and Hedgehog signalling. The kinase domain of Drosophila Gilgamesh isoform I (Gilgamesh-I), a homologue of human CK1-γ, was purified and crystallized. Crystals of methylated Gilgamesh-I kinase domain with a D210A mutation diffracted to 2.85 Å resolution and belonged to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.025, c = 291.727 Å. The structure of Gilgamesh-I kinase domain, which was determined by molecular replacement, has conserved catalytic elements and an active conformation. Structural comparison indicates that an extended loop between the α1 helix and the β4 strand exists in the Gilgamesh-I kinase domain. This extended loop may regulate the activity and function of Gilgamesh-I.

  19. [The role of Gilgamesh protein kinase in Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerusheva, O O; Dorogova, N V; Gubanova, N V; Omel'ianchuk, L V

    2008-09-01

    The cellular function of the gilgamesh mutation (89B9-12) of casein kinase gene in Drosophila spermatogenesis was studied. It was demonstrated that the sterility resulting from this mutation is connected with the abnormalities in spermatid individualization. A phylogenetic study of the protein sequences of casein kinases 1 from various organisms was conducted. The Gilgamesh protein was shown to be phylogenetically closer to the cytoplasmic casein kinase family, represented by the YCK3, YCK2, and YCK1 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and animal gamma-casein kinases. It is known that these yeast casein kinases are involved in vesicular trafficking, which, in turn, is related in its genetic control to the cell membrane remodeling during spermatid individualization. Thus, the data of phylogenetic analysis fit well the results obtained by studying the mutation phenotype.

  20. The Drosophila speciation factor HMR localizes to genomic insulator sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerland, Thomas Andreas; Sun, Bo; Smialowski, Pawel; Lukacs, Andrea; Thomae, Andreas Walter; Imhof, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid incompatibility between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans is caused by a lethal interaction of the proteins encoded by the Hmr and Lhr genes. In D. melanogaster the loss of HMR results in mitotic defects, an increase in transcription of transposable elements and a deregulation of heterochromatic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate HMR's function, we measured genome-wide localization of HMR in D. melanogaster tissue culture cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Interestingly, we find HMR localizing to genomic insulator sites that can be classified into two groups. One group belongs to gypsy insulators and another one borders HP1a bound regions at active genes. The transcription of the latter group genes is strongly affected in larvae and ovaries of Hmr mutant flies. Our data suggest a novel link between HMR and insulator proteins, a finding that implicates a potential role for genome organization in the formation of species.

  1. Dopamine drives Drosophila sechellia adaptation to its toxic host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavista-Llanos, Sofía; Svatoš, Aleš; Kai, Marco; Riemensperger, Thomas; Birman, Serge; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Hansson, Bill S

    2014-12-09

    Many insect species are host-obligate specialists. The evolutionary mechanism driving the adaptation of a species to a toxic host is, however, intriguing. We analyzed the tight association of Drosophila sechellia to its sole host, the fruit of Morinda citrifolia, which is toxic to other members of the melanogaster species group. Molecular polymorphisms in the dopamine regulatory protein Catsup cause infertility in D. sechellia due to maternal arrest of oogenesis. In its natural host, the fruit compensates for the impaired maternal dopamine metabolism with the precursor l-DOPA, resuming oogenesis and stimulating egg production. l-DOPA present in morinda additionally increases the size of D. sechellia eggs, what in turn enhances early fitness. We argue that the need of l-DOPA for successful reproduction has driven D. sechellia to become an M. citrifolia obligate specialist. This study illustrates how an insect's dopaminergic system can sustain ecological adaptations by modulating ontogenesis and development.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Micro-environmental Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgante, Fabio; Sorensen, Daniel A; Sørensen, Peter;

    Quantitative genetic models recognize the potential for genotype by environment interaction, whereby different genotypes have different plastic responses to changes in macro-environmental conditions. Recently, it has been recognized that micro-environmental plasticity (‘residual’ variance) may also...... be genetically variable. This study utilized the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to accurately estimate the genetic variance of micro-environmental plasticity for chill coma recovery time and startle response. Estimates of broad sense heritabilities for both traits are substantial (from 0.51 to 0.......77), of the same order as the heritability at the level of the trait mean for startle response and even larger for chill coma recovery. Genome wide association analyses identified molecular variants (from 15 to 31 depending on the sex and the trait) associated with micro-environmental plasticity. These findings...

  3. desat1 and the evolution of pheromonal communication in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, François; Houot, Benjamin; Chauvel, Isabelle; Dupas, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2009-07-01

    The evolution of communication is a fundamental biological problem. The genetic control of the signal and its reception must be tightly coadapted, especially in interindividual sexual communication. However, there is very little experimental evidence for tight genetic linkage connecting the emission of a signal and its reception. In Drosophila melanogaster, desat1 is the first known gene that simultaneously affects the emission and the perception of sex pheromones. Our experiments show that both aspects of pheromonal communication (the emission and the perception of sex pheromones) depend on distinct genetic control and may result from tissue-specific expression of different transcripts, all coding for the same desaturase. Therefore, and given the high conservation of its coding region, the pleiotropic activity of the desat1 gene may have arisen from an evolutionary process that shaped its regulatory regions.

  4. [The Effect of Transcription on Enhancer Activity in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, M M; Davydova, A I; Lomaev, D V; Georgiev, P G; Chetverina, D A

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the level of gene transcription is under the control of DNA regulatory elements, such as promoter, from which transcription is initiated with the participation of RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors, as well as the enhancer, which increase the rate of transcription with the involvement of activator proteins and cofactors. It was demonstrated that enhancers are often located in the transcribed regions of the genome. We showed earlier that transcription negatively affected the activity of enhancers in Drosophila in model transgenic systems. In this study, we tested the effect of the distance between the leading promoter, enhancer, and target promoter on the inhibitory effect of transcriptions of different strengths. It was demonstrated that the negative effect of transcription remained, but weakened with increased distance between the leading promoter and enhancer and with decreased distance between the enhancer and target promoter. Thus, transcription can modulate the activity of enhancers by controlling its maximum level.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of Polycomb targets in Drosophila

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    Schwartz, Yuri B.; Kahn, Tatyana G.; Nix, David A.; Li,Xiao-Yong; Bourgon, Richard; Biggin, Mark; Pirrotta, Vincenzo

    2006-04-01

    Polycomb Group (PcG) complexes are multiprotein assemblages that bind to chromatin and establish chromatin states leading to epigenetic silencing. PcG proteins regulate homeotic genes in flies and vertebrates but little is known about other PcG targets and the role of the PcG in development, differentiation and disease. We have determined the distribution of the PcG proteins PC, E(Z) and PSC and of histone H3K27 trimethylation in the Drosophila genome. At more than 200 PcG target genes, binding sites for the three PcG proteins colocalize to presumptive Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). In contrast, H3 me3K27 forms broad domains including the entire transcription unit and regulatory regions. PcG targets are highly enriched in genes encoding transcription factors but receptors, signaling proteins, morphogens and regulators representing all major developmental pathways are also included.

  6. Inositols affect the mating circadian rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Kazuki; Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ito, Kumpei; Negishi, Osamu; Tsuno, Takuo; Tsuno, Hiromi; Yamazaki, Youta; Ishida, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the molecular circadian clock underlies the mating behavior of Drosophila melanogaster. However, information about which food components affect circadian mating behavior is scant. The ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum has recently become a popular functional food. Here, we showed that the close-proximity (CP) rhythm of D. melanogaster courtship behavior was damped under low-nutrient conditions, but significantly enhanced by feeding the flies with powdered ice plant. Among various components of ice plants, we found that myo-inositol increased the amplitude and slightly shortened the period of the CP rhythm. Real-time reporter assays showed that myo-inositol and D-pinitol shortened the period of the circadian reporter gene Per2-luc in NIH 3T3 cells. These data suggest that the ice plant is a useful functional food and that the ability of inositols to shorten rhythms is a general phenomenon in insects as well as mammals. PMID:26097456

  7. Inositols affect the mating circadian rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki eSakata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that the molecular circadian clock underlies the mating behavior of D. melanogaster. However, information about which food components affect circadian mating behavior is scant. The ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum has recently become a popular functional food. Here, we showed that the close-proximity (CP rhythm of Drosophila melanogaster courtship behavior was damped under low-nutrient conditions, but significantly enhanced by feeding the flies with powdered ice plant. Among various components of ice plants, we found that myo-inositol increased the amplitude and slightly shortened the period of the CP rhythm. Real-time reporter assays showed that myo-inositol and D-pinitol shortened the period of the circadian reporter gene Per2-luc in NIH 3T3 cells. These data suggest that the ice plant is a useful functional food and that the ability of inositols to shorten rhythms is a general phenomenon in insects as well as mammals.

  8. Centrosome splitting during nuclear elongation in the Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaini, G; Anselmi, F

    1988-10-01

    In the early Drosophila embryo, nuclear elongation occurs during cellularization of the syncytial blastoderm. This process is closely related to the presence of microtubular bundles forming a basket-like structure surrounding the nuclei. In immunofluorescence observations with antibodies against alpha-tubulin, the microtubules appear to radiate from two bright foci widely separated from each other. We used electron microscopy to show that these foci are true centrosomes constituted by daughter and parent centrioles orthogonally disposed and surrounded by pericentriolar electrondense material. The centrosomes may be observed in the apical region of the blastoderm cells from the beginning of cellularization until the reestablishment of the first postblastodermic mitosis, when they organize the spindle poles. Until this time the dimensions of the procentrioles remain unchanged. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to the known behavior of centrioles in the cell cycle.

  9. Loss of mitochondrial DNA with aging in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, H R; Baird, M B; McMahon, M M

    1975-01-01

    The buoyant densities of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from Drosophila melanogaster lysates has been found to show no change with increasing age in both CsCl and Cs2SO4 equilibrium density gradients. Whole fly homogenates were used to demonstrate no change in nuclear DNA content during adult life. Mitochondrial DNA increased from 1.2 to 4.3% of the total DNA during the first week of adult life and then decreased during senescence to a minimum of 1.5% at 10 weeks of age which represented a 65% loss in mitochondrial DNA content with age. These data are interpreted to support the proposal that mitochondria destruction occurs during senescence.

  10. Dissecting mitosis by RNAi in Drosophila tissue culture cells

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    Maiato Helder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a detailed methodology to study the function of genes whose products function during mitosis by dsRNA-mediated interference (RNAi in cultured cells of Drosophila melanogaster. This procedure is particularly useful for the analysis of genes for which genetic mutations are not available or for the dissection of complicated phenotypes derived from the analysis of such mutants. With the advent of whole genome sequencing it is expected that RNAi-based screenings will be one method of choice for the identification and study of novel genes involved in particular cellular processes. In this paper we focused particularly on the procedures for the proper phenotypic analysis of cells after RNAi-mediated depletion of proteins required for mitosis, the process by which the genetic information is segregated equally between daughter cells. We use RNAi of the microtubule-associated protein MAST/Orbit as an example for the usefulness of the technique.

  11. The Role of PPK26 in Drosophila Larval Mechanical Nociception

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    Yanmeng Guo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila larvae, the class IV dendritic arborization (da neurons are polymodal nociceptors. Here, we show that ppk26 (CG8546 plays an important role in mechanical nociception in class IV da neurons. Our immunohistochemical and functional results demonstrate that ppk26 is specifically expressed in class IV da neurons. Larvae with mutant ppk26 showed severe behavioral defects in a mechanical nociception behavioral test but responded to noxious heat stimuli comparably to wild-type larvae. In addition, functional studies suggest that ppk26 and ppk (also called ppk1 function in the same pathway, whereas piezo functions in a parallel pathway. Consistent with these functional results, we found that PPK and PPK26 are interdependent on each other for their cell surface localization. Our work indicates that PPK26 and PPK might form heteromeric DEG/ENaC channels that are essential for mechanotransduction in class IV da neurons.

  12. Functional and Genetic Analysis of Spectraplakins in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ines; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Sánchez-Soriano, Natalia; Prokop, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of filamentous protein polymers required for virtually all cellular processes. It consists of three major classes, filamentous actin (F-actin), intermediate filaments, and microtubules, all displaying characteristic structural properties, functions, cellular distributions, and sets of interacting regulatory proteins. One unique class of proteins, the spectraplakins, bind, regulate, and integrate the functions of all three classes of cytoskeleton proteins. Spectraplakins are giant, evolutionary conserved multidomain proteins (spanning up to 9000 aa) that are true members of the plakin, spectrin, and Gas2-like protein families. They have OMIM-listed disease links to epidermolysis bullosa and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. Their role in disease is likely underrepresented since studies in model animal systems have revealed critical roles in polarity, morphogenesis, differentiation and maintenance, migration, signaling, and intracellular trafficking in a variety of tissues. This enormous diversity of spectraplakin function is consistent with the numerous isoforms produced from single genomic loci that combine different sets of functional domains in distinct cellular contexts. To study the broad range of functions and complexity of these proteins, Drosophila is a powerful model. Thus, the fly spectraplakin Short stop (Shot) acts as an actin-microtubule linker and plays important roles in many developmental processes, which provide experimentally amenable and relevant contexts in which to study spectraplakin functions. For these studies, a versatile range of relevant experimental resources that facilitate genetics and transgenic approaches, highly refined genomics tools, and an impressive set of spectraplakin-specific genetic and molecular tools are readily available. Here, we use the example of Shot to illustrate how the various tools and strategies available for Drosophila can be employed to decipher and dissect

  13. Development of a Drosophila cell-based error correction assay

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    Jeffrey D. Salemi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate transmission of the genome through cell division requires microtubules from opposing spindle poles to interact with protein super-structures called kinetochores that assemble on each sister chromatid. Most kinetochores establish erroneous attachments that are destabilized through a process called error correction. Failure to correct improper kinetochore-microtubule (kt-MT interactions before anaphase onset results in chromosomal instability (CIN, which has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor adaptation. Thus, it is important to characterize the molecular basis of error correction to better comprehend how CIN occurs and how it can be modulated. An error correction assay has been previously developed in cultured mammalian cells in which incorrect kt-MT attachments are created through the induction of monopolar spindle assembly via chemical inhibition of kinesin-5. Error correction is then monitored following inhibitor wash out. Implementing the error correction assay in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells would be valuable because kt-MT attachments are easily visualized and the cells are highly amenable to RNAi and high-throughput screening. However, Drosophila kinesin-5 (Klp61F is unaffected by available small molecule inhibitors. To overcome this limitation, we have rendered S2 cells susceptible to kinesin-5 inhibitors by functionally replacing Klp61F with human kinesin-5 (Eg5. Eg5 expression rescued the assembly of monopolar spindles typically caused by Klp61F depletion. Eg5-mediated bipoles collapsed into monopoles due to the activity of kinesin-14 (Ncd when treated with the kinesin-5 inhibitor S-trityl-L-cysteine (STLC. Furthermore, bipolar spindles reassembled and error correction was observed after STLC wash out. Importantly, error correction in Eg5-expressing S2 cells was dependent on the well-established error correction kinase Aurora B. This system provides a powerful new cell-based platform for studying error correction and

  14. Modeling Glioma Growth and Invasion in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Hanna Teresa Witte

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most common and most malignant intrinsic human brain tumor, characterized by extensive invasion and proliferation of glial (astrocytic tumor cells, frequent activation of tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways, relative resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and poor prognosis. Using the Gal4-UAS system, we have produced glioma models in Drosophila by overexpressing homologs of human tyrosine kinase receptors under control of the glia-specific promoter reversed polarity (repo. Glial overexpression of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR resulted in enhanced proliferation and migration of larval glial cells with increased numbers in the eye imaginal disc, diffuse tumor-like enlargement of the optic stalk, and marked ectopic invasion of glial cells along the optic nerve. Glial overexpression of the downstream kinase PI3K showed similar pathology. Overexpression of activated pvr (platelet-derived growth factor receptor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor homolog led to migration of glial cells along the optic nerve, whereas expression of activated htl (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 homolog and INR (insulin receptor showed markedly elevated numbers of glial cells in the optic stalk. The EGFR/phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K phenotype was partly reverted by the administration of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib and completely rescued by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and the Akt inhibitor triciribine. We suggest that Drosophila models will be useful for deciphering signaling cascades underlying abnormal behavior of glioma cells for genetic screens to reveal interacting genes involved in gliomagenesis and for experimental therapy approaches.

  15. Dynamic interpretation of hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila wing disc.

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    Marcos Nahmad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphogens are classically defined as molecules that control patterning by acting at a distance to regulate gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, secreted Hedgehog (Hh forms an extracellular gradient that organizes patterning along the anterior-posterior axis and specifies at least three different domains of gene expression. Although the prevailing view is that Hh functions in the Drosophila wing disc as a classical morphogen, a direct correspondence between the borders of these patterns and Hh concentration thresholds has not been demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence that the interpretation of Hh signaling depends on the history of exposure to Hh and propose that a single concentration threshold is sufficient to support multiple outputs. Using mathematical modeling, we predict that at steady state, only two domains can be defined in response to Hh, suggesting that the boundaries of two or more gene expression patterns cannot be specified by a static Hh gradient. Computer simulations suggest that a spatial "overshoot" of the Hh gradient occurs, i.e., a transient state in which the Hh profile is expanded compared to the Hh steady-state gradient. Through a temporal examination of Hh target gene expression, we observe that the patterns initially expand anteriorly and then refine, providing in vivo evidence for the overshoot. The Hh gene network architecture suggests this overshoot results from the Hh-dependent up-regulation of the receptor, Patched (Ptc. In fact, when the network structure was altered such that the ptc gene is no longer up-regulated in response to Hh-signaling activation, we found that the patterns of gene expression, which have distinct borders in wild-type discs, now overlap. Our results support a model in which Hh gradient dynamics, resulting from Ptc up-regulation, play an instructional role in the establishment of patterns of gene expression.

  16. Genetic analysis of Eclosion hormone action during Drosophila larval ecdysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Eileen; Mena, Wilson; Lahr, Eleanor C; Johnson, Erik C; Ewer, John

    2015-12-15

    Insect growth is punctuated by molts, during which the animal produces a new exoskeleton. The molt culminates in ecdysis, an ordered sequence of behaviors that causes the old cuticle to be shed. This sequence is activated by Ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), which acts on the CNS to activate neurons that produce neuropeptides implicated in ecdysis, including Eclosion hormone (EH), Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and Bursicon. Despite more than 40 years of research on ecdysis, our understanding of the precise roles of these neurohormones remains rudimentary. Of particular interest is EH; although it is known to upregulate ETH release, other roles for EH have remained elusive. We isolated an Eh null mutant in Drosophila and used it to investigate the role of EH in larval ecdysis. We found that null mutant animals invariably died at around the time of ecdysis, revealing an essential role in its control. Further analyses showed that these animals failed to express the preparatory behavior of pre-ecdysis while directly expressing the motor program of ecdysis. Although ETH release could not be detected, the lack of pre-ecdysis could not be rescued by injections of ETH, suggesting that EH is required within the CNS for ETH to trigger the normal ecdysial sequence. Using a genetically encoded calcium probe, we showed that EH configured the response of the CNS to ETH. These findings show that EH plays an essential role in the Drosophila CNS in the control of ecdysis, in addition to its known role in the periphery of triggering ETH release.

  17. Centrosome and microtubule instability in aging Drosophila cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Hedrick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several cytoskeletal changes are associated with aging which includes alterations in muscle structure leading to muscular atrophy, and weakening of the microtubule network which affects cellular secretion and maintenance of cell shape. Weakening of the microtubule network during meiosis in aging oocytes can result in aneuploidy or trisomic zygotes with increasing maternal age. Imbalances of cytoskeletal organization can lead to disease such as Alzheimer's, muscular disorders, and cancer. Because many cytoskeletal diseases are related to age we investigated the effects of aging on microtubule organization in cell cultures of the Drosophila cell model system (Schneider S-1 and Kc23 cell lines). This cell model is increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures. Drosophila cells are amenable to genetic manipulations and can be used to identify and manipulate genes which are involved in the aging processes. Immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis of microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) and microtubules at various times after subculturing cells in fresh medium. Our results reveal that centrosomes and the microtubule network becomes significantly affected in aging cells after 5 days of subculture. At 5-14 days of subculture, 1% abnormal out of 3% mitoses were noted which were clearly distinguishable from freshly subcultured control cells in which 3% of cells undergo normal mitosis with bipolar configurations. Microtubules are also affected in the midbody during cell division. The midbody in aging cells becomes up to 10 times longer when compared with midbodies in freshly subcultured cells. During interphase, microtubules are often disrupted and disorganized, which may indicate improper function related to transport of cell organelles along microtubules. These results are likely to help explain some cytoskeletal disorders and diseases related to aging.

  18. Quantifying adaptive evolution in the Drosophila immune system.

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    Darren J Obbard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that a large proportion of amino acid substitutions in Drosophila have been fixed by natural selection, and as organisms are faced with an ever-changing array of pathogens and parasites to which they must adapt, we have investigated the role of parasite-mediated selection as a likely cause. To quantify the effect, and to identify which genes and pathways are most likely to be involved in the host-parasite arms race, we have re-sequenced population samples of 136 immunity and 287 position-matched non-immunity genes in two species of Drosophila. Using these data, and a new extension of the McDonald-Kreitman approach, we estimate that natural selection fixes advantageous amino acid changes in immunity genes at nearly double the rate of other genes. We find the rate of adaptive evolution in immunity genes is also more variable than other genes, with a small subset of immune genes evolving under intense selection. These genes, which are likely to represent hotspots of host-parasite coevolution, tend to share similar functions or belong to the same pathways, such as the antiviral RNAi pathway and the IMD signalling pathway. These patterns appear to be general features of immune system evolution in both species, as rates of adaptive evolution are correlated between the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. In summary, our data provide quantitative estimates of the elevated rate of adaptive evolution in immune system genes relative to the rest of the genome, and they suggest that adaptation to parasites is an important force driving molecular evolution.

  19. SUMO-Enriched Proteome for Drosophila Innate Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handu, Mithila; Kaduskar, Bhagyashree; Ravindranathan, Ramya; Soory, Amarendranath; Giri, Ritika; Elango, Vijay Barathi; Gowda, Harsha; Ratnaparkhi, Girish S.

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification modulates the expression of defense genes in Drosophila, activated by the Toll/nuclear factor-κB and immune-deficient/nuclear factor-κB signaling networks. We have, however, limited understanding of the SUMO-modulated regulation of the immune response and lack information on SUMO targets in the immune system. In this study, we measured the changes to the SUMO proteome in S2 cells in response to a lipopolysaccharide challenge and identified 1619 unique proteins in SUMO-enriched lysates. A confident set of 710 proteins represents the immune-induced SUMO proteome and analysis suggests that specific protein domains, cellular pathways, and protein complexes respond to immune stress. A small subset of the confident set was validated by in-bacto SUMOylation and shown to be bona-fide SUMO targets. These include components of immune signaling pathways such as Caspar, Jra, Kay, cdc42, p38b, 14-3-3ε, as well as cellular proteins with diverse functions, many being components of protein complexes, such as prosß4, Rps10b, SmD3, Tango7, and Aats-arg. Caspar, a human FAF1 ortholog that negatively regulates immune-deficient signaling, is SUMOylated at K551 and responds to treatment with lipopolysaccharide in cultured cells. Our study is one of the first to describe SUMO proteome for the Drosophila immune response. Our data and analysis provide a global framework for the understanding of SUMO modification in the host response to pathogens. PMID:26290570

  20. Multiple redundant medulla projection neurons mediate color vision in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnattur, Krishna V; Pursley, Randall; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Ting, Chun-Yuan; Smith, Paul D; Pohida, Thomas; Lee, Chi-Hon

    2014-01-01

    The receptor mechanism for color vision has been extensively studied. In contrast, the circuit(s) that transform(s) photoreceptor signals into color percepts to guide behavior remain(s) poorly characterized. Using intersectional genetics to inactivate identified subsets of neurons, we have uncovered the first-order interneurons that are functionally required for hue discrimination in Drosophila. We developed a novel aversive operant conditioning assay for intensity-independent color discrimination (true color vision) in Drosophila. Single flying flies are magnetically tethered in an arena surrounded by blue and green LEDs (light-emitting diodes). The flies' optomotor response is used to determine the blue-green isoluminant intensity. Flies are then conditioned to discriminate between equiluminant blue or green stimuli. Wild-type flies are successfully trained in this paradigm when conditioned to avoid either blue or green. Functional color entrainment requires the function of the narrow-spectrum photoreceptors R8 and/or R7, and is within a limited range, intensity independent, suggesting that it is mediated by a color vision system. The medulla projection neurons, Tm5a/b/c and Tm20, receive direct inputs from R7 or R8 photoreceptors and indirect input from the broad-spectrum photoreceptors R1-R6 via the lamina neuron L3. Genetically inactivating these four classes of medulla projection neurons abolished color learning. However, inactivation of subsets of these neurons is insufficient to block color learning, suggesting that true color vision is mediated by multiple redundant pathways. We hypothesize that flies represent color along multiple axes at the first synapse in the fly visual system. The apparent redundancy in learned color discrimination sharply contrasts with innate ultraviolet (UV) spectral preference, which is dominated by a single pathway from the amacrine neuron Dm8 to the Tm5c projection neurons.

  1. Mechanical Coupling between Endoderm Invagination and Axis Extension in Drosophila.

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    Claire M Lye

    Full Text Available How genetic programs generate cell-intrinsic forces to shape embryos is actively studied, but less so how tissue-scale physical forces impact morphogenesis. Here we address the role of the latter during axis extension, using Drosophila germband extension (GBE as a model. We found previously that cells elongate in the anteroposterior (AP axis in the extending germband, suggesting that an extrinsic tensile force contributed to body axis extension. Here we further characterized the AP cell elongation patterns during GBE, by tracking cells and quantifying their apical cell deformation over time. AP cell elongation forms a gradient culminating at the posterior of the embryo, consistent with an AP-oriented tensile force propagating from there. To identify the morphogenetic movements that could be the source of this extrinsic force, we mapped gastrulation movements temporally using light sheet microscopy to image whole Drosophila embryos. We found that both mesoderm and endoderm invaginations are synchronous with the onset of GBE. The AP cell elongation gradient remains when mesoderm invagination is blocked but is abolished in the absence of endoderm invagination. This suggested that endoderm invagination is the source of the tensile force. We next looked for evidence of this force in a simplified system without polarized cell intercalation, in acellular embryos. Using Particle Image Velocimetry, we identify posteriorwards Myosin II flows towards the presumptive posterior endoderm, which still undergoes apical constriction in acellular embryos as in wildtype. We probed this posterior region using laser ablation and showed that tension is increased in the AP orientation, compared to dorsoventral orientation or to either orientations more anteriorly in the embryo. We propose that apical constriction leading to endoderm invagination is the source of the extrinsic force contributing to germband extension. This highlights the importance of physical

  2. Mechanisms of intron gain and loss in Drosophila

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    Yenerall Paul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely accepted that orthologous genes have lost or gained introns throughout evolution. However, the specific mechanisms that generate these changes have proved elusive. Introns are known to affect nearly every level of gene expression. Therefore, understanding their mechanism of evolution after their initial fixation in eukaryotes is pertinent to understanding the means by which organisms develop greater regulation and complexity. Results To investigate possible mechanisms of intron gain and loss, we identified 189 intron gain and 297 intron loss events among 11 Drosophila species. We then investigated these events for signatures of previously proposed mechanisms of intron gain and loss. This work constitutes the first comprehensive study into the specific mechanisms that may generate intron gains and losses in Drosophila. We report evidence of intron gain via transposon insertion; the first intron loss that may have occurred via non-homologous end joining; intron gains via the repair of a double strand break; evidence of intron sliding; and evidence that internal or 5' introns may not frequently be deleted via the self-priming of reverse transcription during mRNA-mediated intron loss. Our data also suggest that the transcription process may promote or result in intron gain. Conclusion Our findings support the occurrence of intron gain via transposon insertion, repair of double strand breaks, as well as intron loss via non-homologous end joining. Furthermore, our data suggest that intron gain may be enabled by or due to transcription, and we shed further light on the exact mechanism of mRNA-mediated intron loss.

  3. Context-specific comparison of sleep acquisition systems in Drosophila

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    David S. Garbe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is conserved across phyla and can be measured through electrophysiological or behavioral characteristics. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, provides an excellent model for investigating the genetic and neural mechanisms that regulate sleep. Multiple systems exist for measuring fly activity, including video analysis and single-beam (SB or multi-beam (MB infrared (IR-based monitoring. In this study, we compare multiple sleep parameters of individual flies using a custom-built video-based acquisition system, and commercially available SB- or MB-IR acquisition systems. We report that all three monitoring systems appear sufficiently sensitive to detect changes in sleep duration associated with diet, age, and mating status. Our data also demonstrate that MB-IR detection appeared more sensitive than the SB-IR for detecting baseline nuances in sleep architecture, while architectural changes associated with varying life-history and environment were generally detected across all acquisition types. Finally, video recording of flies in an arena allowed us to measure the effect of ambient environment on sleep. These experiments demonstrate a robust effect of arena shape and size as well as light levels on sleep duration and architecture, and highlighting the versatility of tracking-based sleep acquisition. These findings provide insight into the context-specific basis for choosing between Drosophila sleep acquisition systems, describe a novel cost-effective system for video tracking, and characterize sleep analysis using the MB-IR sleep analysis. Further, we describe a modified dark-place preference sleep assay using video tracking, confirming that flies prefer to sleep in dark locations.

  4. Shared visual attention and memory systems in the Drosophila brain.

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    Bruno van Swinderen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective attention and memory seem to be related in human experience. This appears to be the case as well in simple model organisms such as the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations affecting olfactory and visual memory formation in Drosophila, such as in dunce and rutabaga, also affect short-term visual processes relevant to selective attention. In particular, increased optomotor responsiveness appears to be predictive of visual attention defects in these mutants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further explore the possible overlap between memory and visual attention systems in the fly brain, we screened a panel of 36 olfactory long term memory (LTM mutants for visual attention-like defects using an optomotor maze paradigm. Three of these mutants yielded high dunce-like optomotor responsiveness. We characterized these three strains by examining their visual distraction in the maze, their visual learning capabilities, and their brain activity responses to visual novelty. We found that one of these mutants, D0067, was almost completely identical to dunce(1 for all measures, while another, D0264, was more like wild type. Exploiting the fact that the LTM mutants are also Gal4 enhancer traps, we explored the sufficiency for the cells subserved by these elements to rescue dunce attention defects and found overlap at the level of the mushroom bodies. Finally, we demonstrate that control of synaptic function in these Gal4 expressing cells specifically modulates a 20-30 Hz local field potential associated with attention-like effects in the fly brain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study uncovers genetic and neuroanatomical systems in the fly brain affecting both visual attention and odor memory phenotypes. A common component to these systems appears to be the mushroom bodies, brain structures which have been traditionally associated with odor learning but which we propose might be also involved in generating oscillatory brain activity

  5. Genomic Organization of the Drosophila Telomere RetrotransposableElements

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    George, J.A.; DeBaryshe, P.G.; Traverse, K.L.; Celniker, S. E.; Pardue, M-L.

    2006-10-16

    The emerging sequence of the heterochromatic portion of the Drosophila melanogaster genome, with the most recent update of euchromatic sequence, gives the first genome-wide view of the chromosomal distribution of the telomeric retrotransposons, HeT-A, TART, and Tahre. As expected, these elements are entirely excluded from euchromatin, although sequence fragments of HeT-A and TART 3 untranslated regions are found in nontelomeric heterochromatin on the Y chromosome. The proximal ends of HeT-A/TART arrays appear to be a transition zone because only here do other transposable elements mix in the array. The sharp distinction between the distribution of telomeric elements and that of other transposable elements suggests that chromatin structure is important in telomere element localization. Measurements reported here show (1) D. melanogaster telomeres are very long, in the size range reported for inbred mouse strains (averaging 46 kb per chromosome end in Drosophila stock 2057). As in organisms with telomerase, their length varies depending on genotype. There is also slight under-replication in polytene nuclei. (2) Surprisingly, the relationship between the number of HeT-A and TART elements is not stochastic but is strongly correlated across stocks, supporting the idea that the two elements are interdependent. Although currently assembled portions of the HeT-A/TART arrays are from the most-proximal part of long arrays, {approx}61% of the total HeT-A sequence in these regions consists of intact, potentially active elements with little evidence of sequence decay, making it likely that the content of the telomere arrays turns over more extensively than has been thought.

  6. Identification and functional analysis of healing regulators in Drosophila.

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    Álvarez-Fernández, Carmen; Tamirisa, Srividya; Prada, Federico; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Blanco, Enrique; Martín-Blanco, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is an essential homeostatic mechanism that maintains the epithelial barrier integrity after tissue damage. Although we know the overall steps in wound healing, many of the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Genetically amenable systems, such as wound healing in Drosophila imaginal discs, do not model all aspects of the repair process. However, they do allow the less understood aspects of the healing response to be explored, e.g., which signal(s) are responsible for initiating tissue remodeling? How is sealing of the epithelia achieved? Or, what inhibitory cues cancel the healing machinery upon completion? Answering these and other questions first requires the identification and functional analysis of wound specific genes. A variety of different microarray analyses of murine and humans have identified characteristic profiles of gene expression at the wound site, however, very few functional studies in healing regulation have been carried out. We developed an experimentally controlled method that is healing-permissive and that allows live imaging and biochemical analysis of cultured imaginal discs. We performed comparative genome-wide profiling between Drosophila imaginal cells actively involved in healing versus their non-engaged siblings. Sets of potential wound-specific genes were subsequently identified. Importantly, besides identifying and categorizing new genes, we functionally tested many of their gene products by genetic interference and overexpression in healing assays. This non-saturated analysis defines a relevant set of genes whose changes in expression level are functionally significant for proper tissue repair. Amongst these we identified the TCP1 chaperonin complex as a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton essential for the wound healing response. There is promise that our newly identified wound-healing genes will guide future work in the more complex mammalian wound healing response.

  7. Identification and functional analysis of healing regulators in Drosophila.

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    Carmen Álvarez-Fernández

    Full Text Available Wound healing is an essential homeostatic mechanism that maintains the epithelial barrier integrity after tissue damage. Although we know the overall steps in wound healing, many of the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Genetically amenable systems, such as wound healing in Drosophila imaginal discs, do not model all aspects of the repair process. However, they do allow the less understood aspects of the healing response to be explored, e.g., which signal(s are responsible for initiating tissue remodeling? How is sealing of the epithelia achieved? Or, what inhibitory cues cancel the healing machinery upon completion? Answering these and other questions first requires the identification and functional analysis of wound specific genes. A variety of different microarray analyses of murine and humans have identified characteristic profiles of gene expression at the wound site, however, very few functional studies in healing regulation have been carried out. We developed an experimentally controlled method that is healing-permissive and that allows live imaging and biochemical analysis of cultured imaginal discs. We performed comparative genome-wide profiling between Drosophila imaginal cells actively involved in healing versus their non-engaged siblings. Sets of potential wound-specific genes were subsequently identified. Importantly, besides identifying and categorizing new genes, we functionally tested many of their gene products by genetic interference and overexpression in healing assays. This non-saturated analysis defines a relevant set of genes whose changes in expression level are functionally significant for proper tissue repair. Amongst these we identified the TCP1 chaperonin complex as a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton essential for the wound healing response. There is promise that our newly identified wound-healing genes will guide future work in the more complex mammalian wound healing response.

  8. The NSL complex regulates housekeeping genes in Drosophila.

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    Kin Chung Lam

    Full Text Available MOF is the major histone H4 lysine 16-specific (H4K16 acetyltransferase in mammals and Drosophila. In flies, it is involved in the regulation of X-chromosomal and autosomal genes as part of the MSL and the NSL complexes, respectively. While the function of the MSL complex as a dosage compensation regulator is fairly well understood, the role of the NSL complex in gene regulation is still poorly characterized. Here we report a comprehensive ChIP-seq analysis of four NSL complex members (NSL1, NSL3, MBD-R2, and MCRS2 throughout the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Strikingly, the majority (85.5% of NSL-bound genes are constitutively expressed across different cell types. We find that an increased abundance of the histone modifications H4K16ac, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, and H3K9ac in gene promoter regions is characteristic of NSL-targeted genes. Furthermore, we show that these genes have a well-defined nucleosome free region and broad transcription initiation patterns. Finally, by performing ChIP-seq analyses of RNA polymerase II (Pol II in NSL1- and NSL3-depleted cells, we demonstrate that both NSL proteins are required for efficient recruitment of Pol II to NSL target gene promoters. The observed Pol II reduction coincides with compromised binding of TBP and TFIIB to target promoters, indicating that the NSL complex is required for optimal recruitment of the pre-initiation complex on target genes. Moreover, genes that undergo the most dramatic loss of Pol II upon NSL knockdowns tend to be enriched in DNA Replication-related Element (DRE. Taken together, our findings show that the MOF-containing NSL complex acts as a major regulator of housekeeping genes in flies by modulating initiation of Pol II transcription.

  9. Development of a Drosophila cell-based error correction assay.

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    Salemi, Jeffrey D; McGilvray, Philip T; Maresca, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Accurate transmission of the genome through cell division requires microtubules from opposing spindle poles to interact with protein super-structures called kinetochores that assemble on each sister chromatid. Most kinetochores establish erroneous attachments that are destabilized through a process called error correction. Failure to correct improper kinetochore-microtubule (kt-MT) interactions before anaphase onset results in chromosomal instability (CIN), which has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor adaptation. Thus, it is important to characterize the molecular basis of error correction to better comprehend how CIN occurs and how it can be modulated. An error correction assay has been previously developed in cultured mammalian cells in which incorrect kt-MT attachments are created through the induction of monopolar spindle assembly via chemical inhibition of kinesin-5. Error correction is then monitored following inhibitor wash out. Implementing the error correction assay in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells would be valuable because kt-MT attachments are easily visualized and the cells are highly amenable to RNAi and high-throughput screening. However, Drosophila kinesin-5 (Klp61F) is unaffected by available small molecule inhibitors. To overcome this limitation, we have rendered S2 cells susceptible to kinesin-5 inhibitors by functionally replacing Klp61F with human kinesin-5 (Eg5). Eg5 expression rescued the assembly of monopolar spindles typically caused by Klp61F depletion. Eg5-mediated bipoles collapsed into monopoles due, in part, to kinesin-14 (Ncd) activity when treated with the kinesin-5 inhibitor S-trityl-L-cysteine (STLC). Furthermore, bipolar spindles reassembled and error correction was observed after STLC wash out. Importantly, error correction in Eg5-expressing S2 cells was dependent on the well-established error correction kinase Aurora B. This system provides a powerful new cell-based platform for studying error correction and CIN.

  10. Protein crosslinking by transglutaminase controls cuticle morphogenesis in Drosophila.

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    Toshio Shibata

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase (TG plays important and diverse roles in mammals, such as blood coagulation and formation of the skin barrier, by catalyzing protein crosslinking. In invertebrates, TG is known to be involved in immobilization of invading pathogens at sites of injury. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila TG is an important enzyme for cuticle morphogenesis. Although TG activity was undetectable before the second instar larval stage, it dramatically increased in the third instar larval stage. RNA interference (RNAi of the TG gene caused a pupal semi-lethal phenotype and abnormal morphology. Furthermore, TG-RNAi flies showed a significantly shorter life span than their counterparts, and approximately 90% of flies died within 30 days after eclosion. Stage-specific TG-RNAi before the third instar larval stage resulted in cuticle abnormality, but the TG-RNAi after the late pupal stage did not, indicating that TG plays a key role at or before the early pupal stage. Immediately following eclosion, acid-extractable protein from wild-type wings was nearly all converted to non-extractable protein due to wing maturation, whereas several proteins remained acid-extractable in the mature wings of TG-RNAi flies. We identified four proteins--two cuticular chitin-binding proteins, larval serum protein 2, and a putative C-type lectin-as TG substrates. RNAi of their corresponding genes caused a lethal phenotype or cuticle abnormality. Our results indicate that TG-dependent protein crosslinking in Drosophila plays a key role in cuticle morphogenesis and sclerotization.

  11. Identification of novel Drosophila centromere-associated proteins.

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    Barth, Teresa K; Schade, Georg O M; Schmidt, Andreas; Vetter, Irene; Wirth, Marc; Heun, Patrick; Thomae, Andreas W; Imhof, Axel

    2014-10-01

    Centromeres are chromosomal regions crucial for correct chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. They are epigenetically defined by centromeric proteins such as the centromere-specific histone H3-variant centromere protein A (CENP-A). In humans, 16 additional proteins have been described to be constitutively associated with centromeres throughout the cell cycle, known as the constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN). In contrast, only one additional constitutive centromeric protein is known in Drosophila melanogaster (D.mel), the conserved CCAN member CENP-C. To gain further insights into D.mel centromere composition and biology, we analyzed affinity-purified chromatin prepared from D.mel cell lines expressing green fluorescent protein tagged histone three variants by MS. In addition to already-known centromeric proteins, we identified novel factors that were repeatedly enriched in affinity purification-MS experiments. We analyzed the cellular localization of selected candidates by immunocytochemistry and confirmed localization to the centromere and other genomic regions for ten factors. Furthermore, RNA interference mediated depletion of CG2051, CG14480, and hyperplastic discs, three of our strongest candidates, leads to elevated mitotic defects. Knockdowns of these candidates neither impair the localization of several known kinetochore proteins nor CENP-A(CID) loading, suggesting their involvement in alternative pathways that contribute to proper centromere function. In summary, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the proteomic composition of Drosophila centromeres. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000758 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000758).

  12. A Drosophila immune response against Ras-induced overgrowth

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    Thomas Hauling

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to characterize the innate immune response against the early stage of tumor development. For this, animal models where genetic changes in specific cells and tissues can be performed in a controlled way have become increasingly important, including the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Many tumor mutants in Drosophila affect the germline and, as a consequence, also the immune system itself, making it difficult to ascribe their phenotype to a specific tissue. Only during the past decade, mutations have been induced systematically in somatic cells to study the control of tumorous growth by neighboring cells and by immune cells. Here we show that upon ectopic expression of a dominant-active form of the Ras oncogene (RasV12, both imaginal discs and salivary glands are affected. Particularly, the glands increase in size, express metalloproteinases and display apoptotic markers. This leads to a strong cellular response, which has many hallmarks of the granuloma-like encapsulation reaction, usually mounted by the insect against larger foreign objects. RNA sequencing of the fat body reveals a characteristic humoral immune response. In addition we also identify genes that are specifically induced upon expression of RasV12. As a proof-of-principle, we show that one of the induced genes (santa-maria, which encodes a scavenger receptor, modulates damage to the salivary glands. The list of genes we have identified provides a rich source for further functional characterization. Our hope is that this will lead to a better understanding of the earliest stage of innate immune responses against tumors with implications for mammalian immunity.

  13. Large-scale discovery of promoter motifs in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Thomas A Down

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A key step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the repertoire of transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs that form the building blocks of promoters and other regulatory elements. Identifying these experimentally is very laborious, and the number of TFBMs discovered remains relatively small, especially when compared with the hundreds of transcription factor genes predicted in metazoan genomes. We have used a recently developed statistical motif discovery approach, NestedMICA, to detect candidate TFBMs from a large set of Drosophila melanogaster promoter regions. Of the 120 motifs inferred in our initial analysis, 25 were statistically significant matches to previously reported motifs, while 87 appeared to be novel. Analysis of sequence conservation and motif positioning suggested that the great majority of these discovered motifs are predictive of functional elements in the genome. Many motifs showed associations with specific patterns of gene expression in the D. melanogaster embryo, and we were able to obtain confident annotation of expression patterns for 25 of our motifs, including eight of the novel motifs. The motifs are available through Tiffin, a new database of DNA sequence motifs. We have discovered many new motifs that are overrepresented in D. melanogaster promoter regions, and offer several independent lines of evidence that these are novel TFBMs. Our motif dictionary provides a solid foundation for further investigation of regulatory elements in Drosophila, and demonstrates techniques that should be applicable in other species. We suggest that further improvements in computational motif discovery should narrow the gap between the set of known motifs and the total number of transcription factors in metazoan genomes.

  14. R-Smad competition controls activin receptor output in Drosophila.

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    Aidan J Peterson

    Full Text Available Animals use TGF-β superfamily signal transduction pathways during development and tissue maintenance. The superfamily has traditionally been divided into TGF-β/Activin and BMP branches based on relationships between ligands, receptors, and R-Smads. Several previous reports have shown that, in cell culture systems, "BMP-specific" Smads can be phosphorylated in response to TGF-β/Activin pathway activation. Using Drosophila cell culture as well as in vivo assays, we find that Baboon, the Drosophila TGF-β/Activin-specific Type I receptor, can phosphorylate Mad, the BMP-specific R-Smad, in addition to its normal substrate, dSmad2. The Baboon-Mad activation appears direct because it occurs in the absence of canonical BMP Type I receptors. Wing phenotypes generated by Baboon gain-of-function require Mad, and are partially suppressed by over-expression of dSmad2. In the larval wing disc, activated Baboon cell-autonomously causes C-terminal Mad phosphorylation, but only when endogenous dSmad2 protein is depleted. The Baboon-Mad relationship is thus controlled by dSmad2 levels. Elevated P-Mad is seen in several tissues of dSmad2 protein-null mutant larvae, and these levels are normalized in dSmad2; baboon double mutants, indicating that the cross-talk reaction and Smad competition occur with endogenous levels of signaling components in vivo. In addition, we find that high levels of Activin signaling cause substantial turnover in dSmad2 protein, providing a potential cross-pathway signal-switching mechanism. We propose that the dual activity of TGF-β/Activin receptors is an ancient feature, and we discuss several ways this activity can modulate TGF-β signaling output.

  15. Quantifying adaptive evolution in the Drosophila immune system.

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    Obbard, Darren J; Welch, John J; Kim, Kang-Wook; Jiggins, Francis M

    2009-10-01

    It is estimated that a large proportion of amino acid substitutions in Drosophila have been fixed by natural selection, and as organisms are faced with an ever-changing array of pathogens and parasites to which they must adapt, we have investigated the role of parasite-mediated selection as a likely cause. To quantify the effect, and to identify which genes and pathways are most likely to be involved in the host-parasite arms race, we have re-sequenced population samples of 136 immunity and 287 position-matched non-immunity genes in two species of Drosophila. Using these data, and a new extension of the McDonald-Kreitman approach, we estimate that natural selection fixes advantageous amino acid changes in immunity genes at nearly double the rate of other genes. We find the rate of adaptive evolution in immunity genes is also more variable than other genes, with a small subset of immune genes evolving under intense selection. These genes, which are likely to represent hotspots of host-parasite coevolution, tend to share similar functions or belong to the same pathways, such as the antiviral RNAi pathway and the IMD signalling pathway. These patterns appear to be general features of immune system evolution in both species, as rates of adaptive evolution are correlated between the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. In summary, our data provide quantitative estimates of the elevated rate of adaptive evolution in immune system genes relative to the rest of the genome, and they suggest that adaptation to parasites is an important force driving molecular evolution.

  16. Effects of carbon nanofiber on physiology of Drosophila

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    Lee SH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shin-Hae Lee,1,* Hye-Yeon Lee,1,* Eun-Ji Lee,1,* Dongwoo Khang,2 Kyung-Jin Min11Department of Biological Sciences, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: As nanomaterials are now widely utilized in a wide range of fields for both medical and industrial applications, concerns over their potential toxicity to human health and the environment have increased. To evaluate the toxicity of long-term exposure to carbon nanofibers (CNFs in an in vivo system, we selected Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Oral administration of CNFs at a concentration of 1,000 µg/mL had adverse effects on fly physiology. Long-term administration of a high dose of CNFs (1,000 µg/mL reduced larval viability based on the pupa:egg ratio, adult fly lifespan, reproductive activity, climbing activity, and survival rate in response to starvation stress. However, CNFs at a low concentration (100 µg/mL did not show any significant deleterious effect on developmental rate or fecundity. Furthermore, long-term administration of a low dose of CNFs (100 µg/mL increased lifespan and climbing ability, coincident with mild reactive oxygen species generation and stimulation of the antioxidant system. Taken together, our data suggest that a high dose of CNFs has obvious physiological toxicity, whereas low-dose chronic exposure to CNFs can actually have beneficial effects via stimulation of the antioxidant defense system.Keywords: toxicity, Drosophila melanogaster, lifespan, reactive oxygen species

  17. The role of dopamine in Drosophila larval classical olfactory conditioning.

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    Mareike Selcho

    Full Text Available Learning and memory is not an attribute of higher animals. Even Drosophila larvae are able to form and recall an association of a given odor with an aversive or appetitive gustatory reinforcer. As the Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model for studying odor processing, a detailed neuronal and functional map of the olfactory pathway is available up to the third order neurons in the mushroom bodies. At this point, a convergence of olfactory processing and gustatory reinforcement is suggested to underlie associative memory formation. The dopaminergic system was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect olfactory conditioning. To analyze the anatomy and function of the larval dopaminergic system, we first characterize dopaminergic neurons immunohistochemically up to the single cell level and subsequent test for the effects of distortions in the dopamine system upon aversive (odor-salt as well as appetitive (odor-sugar associative learning. Single cell analysis suggests that dopaminergic neurons do not directly connect gustatory input in the larval suboesophageal ganglion to olfactory information in the mushroom bodies. However, a number of dopaminergic neurons innervate different regions of the brain, including protocerebra, mushroom bodies and suboesophageal ganglion. We found that dopamine receptors are highly enriched in the mushroom bodies and that aversive and appetitive olfactory learning is strongly impaired in dopamine receptor mutants. Genetically interfering with dopaminergic signaling supports this finding, although our data do not exclude on naïve odor and sugar preferences of the larvae. Our data suggest that dopaminergic neurons provide input to different brain regions including protocerebra, suboesophageal ganglion and mushroom bodies by more than one route. We therefore propose that different types of dopaminergic neurons might be involved in different types of signaling necessary for aversive and appetitive

  18. CULLIN-3 controls TIMELESS oscillations in the Drosophila circadian clock.

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    Brigitte Grima

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic circadian clocks rely on transcriptional feedback loops. In Drosophila, the PERIOD (PER and TIMELESS (TIM proteins accumulate during the night, inhibit the activity of the CLOCK (CLK/CYCLE (CYC transcriptional complex, and are degraded in the early morning. The control of PER and TIM oscillations largely depends on post-translational mechanisms. They involve both light-dependent and light-independent pathways that rely on the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation of the clock proteins. SLMB, which is part of a CULLIN-1-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, is required for the circadian degradation of phosphorylated PER. We show here that CULLIN-3 (CUL-3 is required for the circadian control of PER and TIM oscillations. Expression of either Cul-3 RNAi or dominant negative forms of CUL-3 in the clock neurons alters locomotor behavior and dampens PER and TIM oscillations in light-dark cycles. In constant conditions, CUL-3 deregulation induces behavioral arrhythmicity and rapidly abolishes TIM cycling, with slower effects on PER. CUL-3 affects TIM accumulation more strongly in the absence of PER and forms protein complexes with hypo-phosphorylated TIM. In contrast, SLMB affects TIM more strongly in the presence of PER and preferentially associates with phosphorylated TIM. CUL-3 and SLMB show additive effects on TIM and PER, suggesting different roles for the two ubiquitination complexes on PER and TIM cycling. This work thus shows that CUL-3 is a new component of the Drosophila clock, which plays an important role in the control of TIM oscillations.

  19. Optogenetic control of serotonin and dopamine release in Drosophila larvae.

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    Xiao, Ning; Privman, Eve; Venton, B Jill

    2014-08-20

    Optogenetic control of neurotransmitter release is an elegant method to investigate neurobiological mechanisms with millisecond precision and cell type-specific resolution. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can be expressed in specific neurons, and blue light used to activate those neurons. Previously, in Drosophila, neurotransmitter release and uptake have been studied after continuous optical illumination. In this study, we investigated the effects of pulsed optical stimulation trains on serotonin or dopamine release in larval ventral nerve cords. In larvae with ChR2 expressed in serotonergic neurons, low-frequency stimulations produced a distinct, steady-state response while high-frequency patterns were peak shaped. Evoked serotonin release increased with increasing stimulation frequency and then plateaued. The steady-state response and the frequency dependence disappeared after administering the uptake inhibitor fluoxetine, indicating that uptake plays a significant role in regulating the extracellular serotonin concentration. Pulsed stimulations were also used to evoke dopamine release in flies expressing ChR2 in dopaminergic neurons and similar frequency dependence was observed. Release due to pulsed optical stimulations was modeled to determine the uptake kinetics. For serotonin, Vmax was 0.54 ± 0.07 μM/s and Km was 0.61 ± 0.04 μM; and for dopamine, Vmax was 0.12 ± 0.03 μM/s and Km was 0.45 ± 0.13 μM. The amount of serotonin released per stimulation pulse was 4.4 ± 1.0 nM, and the amount of dopamine was 1.6 ± 0.3 nM. Thus, pulsed optical stimulations can be used to mimic neuronal firing patterns and will allow Drosophila to be used as a model system for studying mechanisms underlying neurotransmission.

  20. Functional analysis of PGRP-LA in Drosophila immunity.

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    Mathilde Gendrin

    Full Text Available PeptidoGlycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs are key regulators of the insect innate antibacterial response. Even if they have been intensively studied, some of them have yet unknown functions. Here, we present a functional analysis of PGRP-LA, an as yet uncharacterized Drosophila PGRP. The PGRP-LA gene is located in cluster with PGRP-LC and PGRP-LF, which encode a receptor and a negative regulator of the Imd pathway, respectively. Structure predictions indicate that PGRP-LA would not bind to peptidoglycan, pointing to a regulatory role of this PGRP. PGRP-LA expression was enriched in barrier epithelia, but low in the fat body. Use of a newly generated PGRP-LA deficient mutant indicates that PGRP-LA is not required for the production of antimicrobial peptides by the fat body in response to a systemic infection. Focusing on the respiratory tract, where PGRP-LA is strongly expressed, we conducted a genome-wide microarray analysis of the tracheal immune response of wild-type, Relish, and PGRP-LA mutant larvae. Comparing our data to previous microarray studies, we report that a majority of genes regulated in the trachea upon infection differ from those induced in the gut or the fat body. Importantly, antimicrobial peptide gene expression was reduced in the tracheae of larvae and in the adult gut of PGRP-LA-deficient Drosophila upon oral bacterial infection. Together, our results suggest that PGRP-LA positively regulates the Imd pathway in barrier epithelia.