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Sample records for cacao criollo porcelana

  1. Genetic identification of Theobroma cacao L. trees with high Criollo ancestry in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ovando, J A; Molina-Freaner, F; Nuñez-Farfán, J; Ovando-Medina, I; Salvador-Figueroa, M

    2014-01-01

    Criollo-type cacao trees are an important pool of genes with potential to be used in cacao breeding and selection programs. For that reason, we assessed the diversity and population structure of Criollo-type trees (108 cultivars with Criollo phenotypic characteristics and 10 Criollo references) using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Cultivars were selected from 7 demes in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico. SSRs amplified 74 alleles with an average of 3.6 alleles per population. The overall populations showed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.28, indicating heterozygote deficiency (average fixation index F = 0.50). However, moderate allelic diversity was found within populations (Shannon index for all populations I = 0.97). Bayesian method analysis determined 2 genetic clusters (K = 2) within individuals. In concordance, an assignment test grouped 37 multilocus genotypes (including 10 references) into a first cluster (Criollo), 54 into a second (presumably Amelonado), and 27 admixed individuals unassigned at the 90% threshold likely corresponding to the Trinitario genotype. This classification was supported by the principal coordinate analysis and analysis of molecular variance, which showed 12% of variation among populations (FST = 0.123, P cocoa. PMID:25511024

  2. The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...

  3. DESCRIPTION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MEXICAN CRIOLLO CACAO DURING POST-­ HARVEST PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    P. García-­Alamilla; V.W. González-Lauck; E de la Cruz-Lázaro; L.M. Lagunes­-Gálvez; R. García-Alamilla

    2012-01-01

    Cacao pod and bean characteristics are indicators of quality, productivity and production,while beans physical properties are required to design processing equipment for handling, transportation and storage. Description of physical properties of a Mexican criollo type cacao where made in function of moisture content during the post harvest processing process. The average moisture content was from 1.075 to 0.064 g g-1 dry mater from harvest to storage. The bean index ranged from 1.38 to 1.48 ...

  4. ¿cuál variedad de cacao debemos sembrar?

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarriaga Misas Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A mediados del año 34 se comenzaba a despertar el interés entre los agricultores una variedad de cacao denominada "injerto". También se iniciaban campañas en diferentes regiones del país para fomentar la siembra de caco "Pajarito" de Antioquia. Estas dos y el tipo "criollo" como pudiera llamarse la variedad que se ha tenido en cultivo en el Cauca, son es nuestro concepto las que han de bajarse en la discusión que se establezca alrededor del tema "¿Cuál variedad de cacao debemos sembrar?

  5. Agroforestry systems of timber species and cacao: survival and growth during the early stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Espinoza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, increased emphasis has been placed on diversifying the types of trees to shade cacao (Theobromacacao L. and to achieve additional services. Agroforestry systems that include profitable and native timber trees are a viable alternative but it is necessary to understand the growth characteristics of these species under different environmental conditions. Thus, timber tree species selection should be based on plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors. The aims of this study were (1 to evaluate growth rates and leaf area indices of the four commercial timber species: Cordia thaisiana, Cedrela odorata, Swietenia macrophylla and Tabebuia rosea in conjunction with incidence of insect attacks and (2 to compare growth rates of four Venezuelan Criollo cacao cultivars planted under the shade of these four timber species during the first 36 months after establishment. Parameters monitored in timber trees were: survival rates, growth rates expressed as height and diameter at breast height and leaf area index. In the four Cacao cultivars: height and basal diameter. C. thaisiana and C. odorata had the fastest growth and the highest survival rates. Growth rates of timber trees will depend on their susceptibility to insect attacks as well as to total leaf area. All cacao cultivars showed higher growth rates under the shade of C. odorata. Growth rates of timber trees and cacao cultivars suggest that combinations of cacao and timber trees are a feasible agroforestry strategy in Venezuela.

  6. Estudio del tamaño de cristalito en porcelanas industriales.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Bernabé, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente tesis en el estudio mediante técnicas de difracción de rayos X, con el apoyo en microscopía electrónica, de la microestructura de la mullita que se desarrolla en porcelanas industriales de formulación triaxial (caolín, feldespato y cuarzo). La porcelana es un material de gran importancia en la industria debido a su uso en campos tecnológicamente muy diversos, tales como la cerámica ornamental, pavimento y revestimiento, aisladores eléctrico o piezas resistentes ...

  7. Glomeromycota recovered from cacao soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kartini - Kramadibrata

    2009-01-01

    KRAMADIBRATA, K. 2009. Glomeromycota recovered from cacao soil. Reinwardtia 12(5): 357–371. ⎯ Glomeromycotan fungi were studied from several cacao plantations in Indonesia (Java and Bali) and Ecuador. The identity of 28 species of Glomeromycota associated with cacao is presented.

  8. 21 CFR 163.110 - Cacao nibs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cacao nibs. 163.110 Section 163.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.110 Cacao nibs. (a) Description. (1) Cacao nibs is the food prepared by removing the shell from cured, cleaned, dried, and...

  9. Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Cacao Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L) is mostly grown on soils with low natural fertility. On such soils nitrogen (N) is one of the most yield limiting nutrients for cacao. Information is lacking on N use efficiency in cacao. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate growth response and N use efficiency...

  10. Estudios sobre Cacao 1.Incidencia de la "Pasmazón de los Pepinos" en Algunos Cacaos Venezolanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciferri R.

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la incidencia de la pudrición de la mazorca del cacao por el Phytophthora palmivora Butler sobre diferentes grupos de variedades de cacao cultivadas en el ambiente subárido de regadío en Ocumare de la Costa, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. Se ha averiguado que la infección sistémica de dichas mazorcas proviene de la infección primaria de los cojines florales, habiéndose estudiado su curso y sus características. Entre otras cosas se notó que, aunque es verdad que el período de mayor susceptibilidad a la infección sistémica es el que corre desde el fin del estado de pepino del fruto (fruto mayor de 9-10 centímetros, o sea de 75 a 90 días de edad y el fin del período de desarrollo del fruto (140 a 150 días a contar desde la fecundación de la flor, puede haber un estado precoz de infección de la mazorca joven, el cual no ocurre nunca antes de los quince días de edad, esto es, en el período de máxima incidencia de la enfermedad fisiológica conocida como "pasmazón de los pepinos". Dicha infección es exclusivamente sistémica y puede afectar hasta las dos quintas partes de los pepinos que cuelgan de cojines infectados. Observóse que el chancro del tallo, que por lo regular sigue a la infección del cojín floral, no es tan dañino como comúnmente se afirma, pero que sus daños económicos se deben a la improductividad producida en el cojín infectado. El Criollo de concha decolorada es más susceptible a la infección por Phytophthora que el de concha morada y el híbrido forastero venezolano el cual, a su vez, parece más susceptible a la infección del cojín floral que los demás grupos de variedades. En un lapso de 10 meses los frutos infectados por medio del cojín floral representan los tres cuartos o cuatro quintos del total. La presencia de pigmento antociánico en la cáscara de la mazorca no madura parece conferir una relativa resistencia a la infección por el Phytophthora; empero, en el Forastero

  11. Genetic diversity and spatial structure in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop widely cultivated in the Bolivian Amazon. The germplasm group used by the Bolivian farmers was called “Cacao Nacional Boliviano” (CNB). Wild cacao populations are also found in the Beni River and in the valleys of Andes foot hills. Using DNA...

  12. The genetic identity of Theobroma cacao L. CCN-51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop for several growing regions of the world especially for small cacao farmers. In the Americas the cacao production is ~13.0% globally. Ecuador is among the higher producers in South America and its cacao beans are well known for fine flavors, aro...

  13. Maestros del cacao: los mayas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppan, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Atestiguado desde principios de la época Clásica (siglo IV), el glifo maya que se lee silábicamente como kakaw es el primer testimonio escrito de la palabra cacao en la historia. Este artículo presenta los dos principales tipos de referencias que se hicieron al cacao en las inscripciones anteriores al periodo de la Conquista: a través de lo que se refiere a la bebida que dio origen a nuestro chocolate, esencial en las fiestas de la élite y cuyos glifos nos permiten identificar ya varias forma...

  14. Criollo y nacional: aproximación a la serie Sub-realismo criollo de Marcos López

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Silvana López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo realiza un análisis de parte de la obra fotográfica titulada Sub-realismo criollo (2001-2008 del fotógrafo argentino Marcos López. Se considerarán las imágenes realizadas en el país de los años en los que se produjo la serie y se focalizará en algunas representaciones. Para ello analizaremos los elementos narrativos que la serie propone como relato y que se materializa en personajes, espacio y tiempo. Esto nos habilitará a profundizar en las funciones y características que asume el relato fotográfico sobre lo nacional parodiado, sobre los sentidos en torno a la designación de criollo, pero también sobre la mixtura entre surrealismo y Sub-realismo criollo. Finalmente, propondremos una lectura de la serie en vinculación con la noción de mito de Roland Barthes. El sentido mitológico develará las resistencias que se suceden en el marco de la serie y que aluden a ese conjunto idiosincrático e identitario que se aprecia y se manifiesta como cultura argentina.

  15. Diversidad genética de ovinos criollos colombianos

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas Ascue, Nini Johana

    2013-01-01

    Los ovinos al igual que otros animales domésticos, no son originarios del continente Americano. Estos animales llegaron desde España, primero en calidad de alimento para los navegantes y conquistadores, y luego como pie de cría para los primeros colonos y religiosos. El criollo es un animal rústico, de gran fertilidad y de importancia económica para Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Nariño y Santander, su amplia adaptación hace que fácilmente se encuentre desde las zonas áridas de la Guajira hasta los pá...

  16. Enraizamiento de estacas de cacao defoliadas (teobroma cacao)

    OpenAIRE

    Delisle A.; Ruíz Landa E.

    2012-01-01

    Los factores más importantes que controlan el enraizamiento de estacas de cacao son: adecuada cantidad de humedad y de agua. Para controlar estos factores muchos métodos han empleado con éxito. Es importante hacer notar que uno de los principales inconvenientes relacionados con este problema es el mantenimiento de las hojas en estado verde y sanas en las estacas. Variaciones en la cantidad de sombra y humedad tienden frecuentemente a producir en las hojas amarillamientos y parches negruzcos ...

  17. Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) Resistance Evaluation Againts Black Pod Diseaseand Effectiveness of Inoculation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiyo Rubiyo; Agus Purwantara; Dedy Suhendy; Trikoesoemaningtyas Trikoesoemaningtyas; Satriyas Ilyas; Sudarsono Sudarsono

    2008-01-01

    The general objective of this experiment was to standardize method of resistance evaluation of cacao germplasm against Phytophthora palmivora, the pathogen causing black pod disease in cacao. The sepecific objectives were to evaluate (1) effects of inoculum type and pod injury, (2) effects of inoculum type and seedling injury, and (3) effects of genetic background of cacao seedlings on infection of P. palmivora. In this experiment, effectiveness of either zoospora or mycellia was evaluated as...

  18. Evaluación del daño por contacto en porcelana feldespática sobre circona dental

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda Arango, Astrid Oasis

    2013-01-01

    Los materiales cerámicos son ampliamente utilizados en las restauraciones dentales como implantes y prótesis debido a sus excelentes propiedades mecánicas y estéticas y a su buena interacción con el ambiente fisiológico en que actúan. La circona recubierta con porcelana dental feldespática está siendo cada vez más utilizada en restauraciones dentales. La circona se recomienda como material base, debido a su alta resistencia, tenacidad de fractura y fácil mecanizado en estado pre-sinterizado. ...

  19. Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec

    OpenAIRE

    Powis, Terry G.; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

    2011-01-01

    Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use—spanning more than 34 centuries—as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BCE, an...

  20. La escoba de bruja del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés O. Carlos

    2012-01-01

    La "Escoba de bruja" es quizás la enfermedad más importante de todas las que atacan al árbol de cacao. Su presencia en los cacaotales es temida por todos los países tropicales productores de cacao, porque ha significado la ruina de las plantaciones en donde se ha establecido. Ocurre solamente en América y es causada por el hongo MarasmiusperniciosusStahel. En los primeros días en que hizo su aparición se creyó que era la misma enfermedad que ataca al cacao en la ex-colonia alemana del Camerún...

  1. De jacht op het geheim van cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Hollman, P.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Je kans op een dodelijke hartaanval halveert als je elke dag een groot paaseitje pure chocolade eet, blijkt uit een recente Nederlandse epidemiologische studie. En ook andere studies laten zien dat consumptie van cacao beschermt tegen hart- en vaatziekten. Maar het is nog een raadsel hoe dat precies komt, zegt Peter Hollman van RIKILT – Instituut voor voedselveiligheid. "Het menselijk lichaam neemt de bioactieve stoffen in cacao nauwelijks op"

  2. Biodiversity and biogeography of the cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in tropical America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of frosty pod rot, which occurs on the neotropical rainforest genera Theobroma and Herrania. While this basidiomycete has had devastating effects on the commercially important cacao tree (T. cacao) in tropical America, where it is confined, little is known ...

  3. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  4. Chemical and archaeological evidence for the earliest cacao beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, John S.; Joyce, Rosemary A.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; McGovern, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical analyses of residues extracted from pottery vessels from Puerto Escondido in what is now Honduras show that cacao beverages were being made there before 1000 B.C., extending the confirmed use of cacao back at least 500 years. The famous chocolate beverage served on special occasions in later times in Mesoamerica, especially by elites, was made from cacao seeds. The earliest cacao beverages consumed at Puerto Escondido were likely produced by fermenting the sweet pulp surrounding the ...

  5. The distribution of Glomeromycota in cacao rhizosphere in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kartini - Kramadibrata

    2009-01-01

    KRAMADIBRATA, K. 2009. The distribution of Glomeromycota in cacao rhizosphere in Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12(5): 347–356. ⎯ A study on the distribution of Glomeromycota (AF) in cacao soils in several cacao plantations in Java and Bali showed that Acaulospora walkeri as a dominant species and A. scrobiculata as a predominant species.

  6. Regional selection of hybrid Nacional cacao genotypes in Coastal Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent international demand for “nacional” flavour cacao has increased the need for local cacao producers in Ecuador to use high-yielding “nacional” hybrid genotypes. The relative potential of cacao genotypes over various environments needs to be assessed prior to final selection of potential candid...

  7. Actividad antibacteriana de la cáscara de cacao, Theobroma cacao L

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Cuéllar G.; Gloria Guerrero A.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de difusión en agar de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao, empleando cepas autóctonas y de referencia ATCC. Posteriormente, se hizo un análisis de estas fracciones por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Resultados. La ...

  8. CACAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initial prototype for a computer-assisted integrated mechanical design system was presented in 1986. This paper focused on the objectives of such a system as illustrated by an intentionally straightforward example. After the first prototype tests, the data base conceptual scheme has move towards a broader-based, more user-friendly system. This paper presents its guiding principles and the final architecture of the system

  9. CACAO facility. Radioactive targets at Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a new laboratory dedicated to the fabrication and characterization of radioactive targets. It is supported by the radiochemistry group and the stable target service of the IPNO. The recurring needs of physicists working in the nuclear fuel cycle physics and the growing difficulties to obtain radioactive targets elsewhere were the main motivating factors behind the construction of this new laboratory. The first targets of 235,238U and 232Th have already been prepared although the full operating licenses still need to be obtained. In this paper, the installation and the equipment of CACAO will be described. An extensive study of a U test target fabricated by the CACAO laboratory has been performed and results are reported here. The different techniques used to characterize the deposit are presented and the outcome is discussed. (author)

  10. Endophytic Bacillus Spp. of Theobroma cacao: Ecology and potential for biological control of cacao diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Melnick, Rachel L

    2010-01-01

    In South America, there are three key diseases that affect the yield of Theobroma cacao: black pod, caused by Phytophthora spp.; frosty pod, caused by Moniliophthora roreri; and witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. Although chemical control options exist, farmers typically only use cultural disease management such as phytosanitary pruning. Agrochemical use can be problematic in the developing countries where cacao is grown due to large risks to human health and the environment...

  11. The economics of Raramuri Criollo versus British crossbred cattle production in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary research indicates Raramuri Criollo cattle may range significantly further and forage in areas where traditional breeds rarely venture. They are thought to impose a lighter environmental footprint compared to their mainstream British crossbred counterparts. These small-frame animals are ...

  12. Assessment of Farmers’ Plant Disease Knowledge in Organic Cacao Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Heuschekel, Zoe; Home, Robert; Schneider, Monika; Pohlan, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The Alto Beni region on the eastern foothills of the Andes accounts for 90% of certified organic cacao production in Bolivia and other tropical products for the city of La Paz. In the region more than 2200 households strongly depend on the cultivation of cacao. Cacao is cultivated on small holder farms mostly in diversified agroforestry systems. These systems contribute to both the conservation of biodiversity and the food security of the farmers. An outbreak of the frosty pod disease caus...

  13. INVENTARISASI SERANGGA PADA PERKEBUNAN KAKAO (THEOBROMA CACAO) LABORATORIUM UNIT PERLINDUNGAN TANAMAN DESA BEDULU, KECAMATAN BLAHBATUH, KABUPATEN GIANYAR, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    I. G. A. PRADANA PUTRA; NI LUH WATINIASIH; NI MADE SUARTINI

    2011-01-01

    Bali has the potency to grow plantation, particularly cacao plants (Theobroma cacao). The increase of cacao production is supported by the increase of the number of productive cacao plants, but the production rate per hectare per year decreased at some districts. One reason of the decreasing cacao production was due to the attack of Plant Disease Organism. This research aimed to investigate the insect families associated with cacao plantations and the fuctions of the insects on cacao plants, ...

  14. Mutation breeding against black pod (Phytophthora pod rot) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black pod rot disease, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, is an important disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Nigeria and other cacao producing countries of West Africa and Latin America. A naturally occurring source of genetic resistance to the disease has not been found. This paper completes the report, the first part of which was published in Induced Mutations in Vegetatively Propagated Plants, IAEA, Vienna (1973). The survivors of the irradiated seedlings reported on in this publication were transplanted to the field along with their controls. When the Phytophthora pod disease season began in 1973, all experimental plants along with the controls were sprayed with active and freshly prepared dense sporangial suspension of P. palmivora. Observations on Phytophthora infection were recorded at two-weekly intervals for three months. Results were pooled for each set of experimental plants, after having confirmed that no marked difference appeared among individual plants of each group. Contrary to the observations recorded at the nursery stage, all experimental plants that showed no infection indicated disease infection levels normally characteristic of the F3 Amazon cultivar of Cacao in Nigeria. Although the nursery and the field data are difficult to reconcile and interpret, it is suggested that probably temporary disease tolerance/resistance, which some irradiated plants showed at the nursery (seedling) stage, was lost as the plants matured, thus suggesting different resistance factor systems for juvenile and mature cacao trees. (author)

  15. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  16. Coffee vs. Cacao: A Case Study from the Vietnamese Central Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dang Thanh; Shively, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Nam, the vice chair of a village in Dak Lak province of Vietnam, was keen to protect farmers in his village from the sharp decline in prices of coffee ("Coffea canephora" Pierre ex Froehner). He did this by encouraging farmers in his village to plant cacao ("Theobroma cacao" L. subsp. "cacao"). Cacao was suitable to the soil and climate of the…

  17. Cacao pod based ration supplemented with organic Zn: Growth responce on sheeps

    OpenAIRE

    Wisri Puastuti; Dwi YulistianiI; I Wayan Mathius; Fransiscus Giyai

    2010-01-01

    Cacao pod can be used as feed to replace grass. The aims of study was to evaluate the growth response of sheep fed on cacao pod based rations to replace grass and supplemented with organic Zn. Fresh cacao pod was chopped to the size of 1-2 cm. In untreated cacao pod (without ammoniation), chopped cacao pod was dried then milled, while in ammoniated cacao pod, the chopped cacao pod was mixed with urea, 1.5% (w/w) and kept in anaerobic conditions for 7 days. After 7 days it was dried and milled...

  18. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:26657007

  19. Design and implementation of the cacao genome database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cacao Genome Database (CGD, www.cacaogenomedb.org) is being developed to provide a comprehensive data mining resource of genomic, genetic and breeding data for Theobroma cacao. Designed using Chado and a collection of Drupal modules, known as Tripal, CGD currently contains the genetically anchor...

  20. A genetically anchored physical map of the cacao genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars Incorporated and the United States Department of Agriculture have undertaken the sequencing of the genome of Theobroma cacao, which produces cocoa beans, the key ingredient in chocolate. Genetic information, such as whole genome sequence is necessary to better understand and improve cacao. In m...

  1. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  2. A composite linkage map from the combination of three crosses made from commercial clones of cacao, T. cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report here the construction of the first composite map of cacao made from combining map data from three separate cacao populations. The populations arose from crosses of individual clones, which were typical of current breeding material. Codominant simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) constitut...

  3. Comparison of two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones for the effect of pollination intensity on fruit set and seed content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falque, M.; Lesdalons, C.; Eskes, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    We compared the influence of pollination intensity (PI) on fruit set and seed number per pod in two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones, IFC5 (Forastero Lower-Amazon Amelonado), which is self-compatible and known to produce a high number of seeds per pod under open pollination, and SCA6 (Forastero Upp

  4. Calidad de grano y tortillas de maíces criollos y sus retrocruzas

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Griselda Vázquez Carrillo; Lorena Guzmán Báez; José Luis Andrés García; Fidel Márquez Sánchez; Jorge Castillo Merino

    2003-01-01

    En esta investigación se determinaron las propiedades físicas y químicas del grano de maíces criollos y sus retrocruzas mejoradas, así como la calidad del nixtamal, masa y tortillas de diez de los maíces más usados en México en este proceso. Se analizaron 40 criollos originales (o) y 70 retrocruzas (r) (BC1F3). En 75 % de las retrocruzas el rendimiento del grano se incrementó en 30 %. Los maíces Tuxpeño Norteño, Pepitilla y Celaya fueron los de mayor producción de grano. El peso hectolítrico ...

  5. Breeding season of Criollo and Granadina goats under constant nutritional level in the Mexican highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to characterize the anoestrous season of Criollo and Granadina goats kept on a constant nutritional level to determine the time of year when ovarian activity ceases, the duration and depth of anoestrus, and the time at which these animals start cycling again. A sample of 19 Criollo and 11 Granadina goats were fed oat hay, concentrate and mineral salts to cover 100% of their nutritional requirements. All animals were adult, non-pregnant and non-lactating and were kept isolated from the males for the duration of the study. Blood samples, taken from all animals twice a week from November 1986 to July 1987 into heparinized tubes, were kept refrigerated until centrifugation for harvest of plasma and then frozen until assayed. Ovarian activity was monitored from the circulating levels of progesterone determined by the FAO/IAEA solid phase radioimmunoassay kit. Concentrations above 1 ng/mL were considered indicative of the presence of a functional corpus luteum and reproductive activity. The majority of the Criollo goats were cycling during November and December, ovarian activity decreasing gradually during February; from March to May most of the goats ceased to ovulate but ovarian activity resumed again in June or July; thus anoestrus was only evident during the spring. In contrast, Granadina goats had a longer and deeper anoestrus; 54% of these animals never showed significant increases in progesterone above basal levels during the period under study (November to July). The short anoestrous season of the Criollo goats and the weak inhibition of ovarian activity during this period suggest that these animals have a greater reproductive potential than the Granadina goats. (author). 21 refs, 7 figs

  6. Genetic diversity of naturalized cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of genetically diverse cacao with disease resistance, high productivity and desirable organoleptic traits is vitally important to the agricultural crop’s long-term sustainability. Environmental changes, pests and diseases as well as nation’s sovereign property rights have led to a de...

  7. Presencia de metales pesados en cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. orgánico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alfredo Huamaní-Yupanqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de metales pesados en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es actualmente un grave problema para agricultores y cooperativas de las regiones Huánuco y Ucayali, Perú. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los contenidos de cadmio y plomo en suelos y hojas del cacao en estas regiones. Para el efecto se recolectaron y analizaron en laboratorio muestras tomadas en 22 parcelas con cultivos orgánicos de esta especie, 17 en la región Huánuco y cinco en la región Ucayali. Se realizaron análisis de correlación de Pearson entre los contenidos de plomo y cadmio disponibles en el suelo con variables foliares (P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd, Pb y del suelo (arena, arcilla y K. En los suelos, sólo en el caso de potasio se presentan deficiencias; mientras que en el tejido foliar se presentaron deficiencias de N, P, K, Mg y Zn. Los valores promedio de cadmio y plomo disponible en los suelos fueron 0.53 y 3.02 ppm y en las hojas de cacao de 0.21 y 0.58 ppm respectivamente.

  8. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family. PMID:26440085

  9. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fupeng Li; Chaoyun Hao; Lin Yan; Baoduo Wu; Xiaowei Qin; Jianxiong Lai; Yinghui Song

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family.

  10. PROCESADORA Y COMERCIALIZADORA DE PASTA DE CACAO Y SUS DERIVADOS EN ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Pabón-Andrade, Johana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de fin de master tiene como objetivo realizar un plan de negocios de una empresa dedicada al procesamiento y comercialización de pasta de cacao y sus derivados en Ecuador. Las actividades de la empresa consistirán en comprar cacao, sin ningún procesamiento y transformarlo en pasta de cacao. A lo largo de este proceso se producen derivados como manteca de cacao, pulpa de cacao, cascara, ceniza de cacao, que junto con las pasta serán comercializados tanto dentro como fuer...

  11. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  12. Análisis de marcadores genéticos en una muestra de caballos criollos del Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    R. Gagliardi; Postiglioni, A; Andrés Cara, D.F. de; Biagetti, R.; Kelly, L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to charaterize at least tentatively the Criollo Horses of Uruguay through blood genetic markers. This breed, whose origin goes back to horses brought to Rio de la Plata in 1538 from Spain, nowadays, after more than four centuries in its environment, owns unique zootechnical traits and well developed rusticity. We have studied 7 systems of blood groups (A, C, D, K, P, Q and U) and 6 of biochemical polymorphisms (A1B, Al, Tf, alk-Es, PGD, PGM) in a sample of 99 Criollo H...

  13. Actividad antibacteriana de la cáscara de cacao, Theobroma cacao L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cuéllar G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de difusión en agar de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao, empleando cepas autóctonas y de referencia ATCC. Posteriormente, se hizo un análisis de estas fracciones por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Resultados. La fracción clorofórmica presentó actividad antibacteriana frente a Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 y Streptococcus agalactiae (autóctona, con porcentajes de inhibición de 34.90% (100 μg/μl y 52.40% (100 μg/μl respectivamente. También se evidenció una concentración mínima inhibitoria de 512 μg/ml frente a Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 y de 128 μg/ml frente a Streptococcus agalactiae. Conclusiones. Este trabajo es el primer reporte a saber en Colombia sobre actividad antibacteriana in vitro de la cáscara de cacao, el cual resulta ser un avance importante para esta agroindustria. Esta investigación abre paso a otros estudios relacionados para establecer el espectro de inhibición frente a otros microorganismos.

  14. Evidence of cacao use in the Prehispanic American Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Crown, Patricia L.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of ceramic vessels from Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, reveal theobromine, a biomarker for cacao. With an estimated 800 rooms, Pueblo Bonito is the largest archaeological site in Chaco Canyon and was the center of a large number of interconnected towns and villages spread over northwestern New Mexico. The cacao residues come from pieces of vessels that are likely cylinder jars, special containers occurring almost solely at Pueblo ...

  15. Biodiversity of small mammals in cacao agroforests in Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Paterová, Linda

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of the deforestation of tropical rain forests is caused by small-scale farmers. Traditional slash-and-burn systems with prolonged fallow periods are no longer feasible in most parts of the tropics. However, agroforests could have great potential to increase the productivity of farming systems and sustain continuous crop production. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests that maintains a high proportion of shade trees in a diverse structure is being viewed as a sustainable land...

  16. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi

    1980-09-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cacao swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed.

  17. Informe de nuevas variedades. CRIOLLO-3, UN GENOTIPO DE AJO DE ELEVADA PRODUCTIVIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Izquierdo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se seleccionaron los genotipos de ajo de más altos rendimientos, a partir de una prospección que se realizó a los mejores productores del cultivo en la provincia La Habana. Se presentan las características principales del genotipo "Criollo-3", que fue saneado de los virus más importantes que afectan al cultivo en nuestro país y propagado in vitro. Este clon mostró un buen comportamiento agronómico a las plagas y enfermedades, un elevado rendimiento y buena calidad de la semilla.

  18. El circo criollo en el marco de la construcción de la nacionalidad argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Daniel; Andruchow, Marcela; Cordero, Silvina

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar desde una perspectiva crítica e interpretativa y como producción simbólica al denominado Circo criollo, en el marco espacial de la Ciudad y la Provincia de Buenos Aires y temporal de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX., partiendo de la premisa de entender a dicha manifestación cultural, como un emergente importante para analizar el proceso histórico y social en un marco de urbanización y modernización acelerada de países con alta inmigración. El ci...

  19. CONTRIBUCIÓN GENÉTICA DEL CRIOLLO JALA EN VARIEDADES ELOTERAS DE MAÍZ

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Valdivia-Bernal; F. de Jesús Caro-Velarde; Raúl Medina-Torres; Margarito Ortiz-Catón; Alejandro Espinosa-Calderón; Víctor A. Vidal-Martínez; Alejandro Ortega-Corona

    2010-01-01

    El maíz (Zea mays L.) criollo de la raza Jala es apreciado por su calidad para consumo en elote; sin embargo, posee características agronómicas indeseables como plantas altas, de hasta 5 m, muy tardío y escasa adaptabilidad. Para contribuir al aprovechamiento de las características eloteras del maíz Jala en el desarrollo de variedades mejoradas, en este estudio se evaluó su aptitud combinatoria para dichas características cuando Jala es cruzado con variedades comerciales. El trabajo se efectu...

  20. The Potential of Cacao Agribusiness for Poverty Alleviation in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnah; Fleming, Euan M.; Villano, Renato A.; Patrick, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The cacao industry has played an important role in terms of export earnings and employment opportunities in Indonesia since 1980s. It is the main source of income for more than one million smallholder farmers in Indonesia, who are considered poor. Most planted areas of cacao are in Eastern Indonesia; however, cacao production has developed in Western Indonesia recently, with West Sumatra designated as the area of central production. Due to the importance of cacao industry in the Indonesian ec...

  1. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia...

  2. Produção de porcelana de ossos e caracterização de suas propriedades técnicas Production of bone porcelain and characterization of its technical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A porcelana de cinza de ossos é amplamente aceita e alcança alto valor de mercado, entretanto, sua produção ainda é pouco difundida, de modo que sua fabricação e pesquisa são restritas a poucos países. Sendo o Brasil grande produtor de gado, apresenta grande potencial para a reciclagem de ossos, podendo-se encontrar aplicação destes em materiais cerâmicos. Neste trabalho foi feita uma análise comparativa das características técnicas entre uma formulação de porcelana obtida com cinzas de ossos conforme a receita tradicional inglesa e uma formulação de porcelana tradicional. Os resultados mostraram que a sinterização de porcelana de cinzas de ossos requer cuidados extras em ciclos rápidos de queima quando comparada à porcelana tradicional, devido a um menor intervalo de gresificação. No entanto, a maior resistência mecânica e as qualidades estéticas, destacando-se a elevada alvura, fazem desta porcelana bastante atrativa em termos de potencial de aplicações industriais.Porcelains from bone ash are widely accepted and present high market value, however, their manufacture and research are still restricted to few countries. As a great producer of cattle, Brazil presents great potential for the recycling of cattle bone into ceramic materials. In this work, it was realized a comparative investigation of technical properties of a typical porcelain composition manufactured from bone ash according to English traditional composition and a traditional porcelain. The results revealed that it is more difficult to sinter bone porcelain in fast firing cycles, once it showed shorter firing intervals compared to traditional porcelains. However, the higher mechanical strength and better aesthetic qualities, especially its whiteness, make bone porcelains very attractive materials in terms of industrial applications potential.

  3. Development and characterization of microsatellites for the cacao fungal pathogen Moniliophthora roreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao is an important cash crop in Central and South America and a valuable food commodity in the United States and the global economy. The fungus Moniliophthora roreri infects and destroys cacao fruits and threatens the production of cacao in South and Central America and the Caribbean. To understa...

  4. Optimization of a SNP assay for Genotyping Theobroma cacao under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical tree crop Theobroma cacao L. is grown commercially for its beans, which are used in the production of cocoa butter and chocolate. Although the upper Amazon region is the center of origin for cacao, 70% of the world’s supply of cacao beans currently comes from small farms in West Africa...

  5. Concentration of Cadmium in Cacao Beans and its Relationship with Soil Cadmium in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg-1 established by the European Union) has raised concerns of safety in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate (dark chocolate). Currently, little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil,...

  6. Evolução do sistema construtivo de adobe na Fábrica de Porcelanas da Vista Alegre (1937-1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano, A.; A. Costa; Varum, H.

    2010-01-01

    O núcleo urbano da Fábrica de Porcelanas da Vista Alegre revela um especial interesse em termos da evolução da construção tradicional de adobe na cidade de Ílhavo, no distrito de Aveiro. Apresentando uma filosofia global de intervenção no território desde a sua génese, possui um património construído caracterizador de uma das fases da nossa história da construção e da Arquitectura. Aí se podem observar as medidas implementadas na segunda etapa de crescimento, com início nos finais dos anos 30...

  7. Mesquite seed density in fecal samples of Raramuri Criollo vs. Angus x Hereford cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was part of a larger project investigating breed-related differences in feeding habits of Raramuri Criollo (RC) versus Angus x Hereford (AH) cows. Seed densities in fecal samples collected in July and August 2015 were analyzed to compare presumed mesquite bean consumption of RC and AH cow...

  8. 'CRIOLLO-9', UN CULTIVAR DE AJO RESISTENTE A LAS ENFERMEDADES FITOPATÓGENAS Y ELEVADO POTENCIAL DE RENDIMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Izquierdo Oviedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las principales características del clon 'Criollo-9', saneado y rejuvenecido mediante la técnica de cultivo de meristemos. Este genotipo se mostró resistente ante las plagas y enfermedades que afectan a este cultivo y tuvo un elevado potencial de rendimiento.

  9. Produção de porcelana de ossos e caracterização de suas propriedades técnicas Production of bone porcelain and characterization of its technical properties

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Bragança; C. P. Bergmann

    2006-01-01

    A porcelana de cinza de ossos é amplamente aceita e alcança alto valor de mercado, entretanto, sua produção ainda é pouco difundida, de modo que sua fabricação e pesquisa são restritas a poucos países. Sendo o Brasil grande produtor de gado, apresenta grande potencial para a reciclagem de ossos, podendo-se encontrar aplicação destes em materiais cerâmicos. Neste trabalho foi feita uma análise comparativa das características técnicas entre uma formulação de porcelana obtida com cinzas de ossos...

  10. Effect Lindak Cacao Fruit Maturity (Theobroma cacao F.) with High Level of Polyphenols as Antioxidant

    OpenAIRE

    Langkong, Jumriah

    2014-01-01

    Lindak cacao beans has polyphenol compounds that has a function as antioxidants which is important for the body to ward off a disease like cancer. The content of polyphenols in cocoa pods, influenced by post-harvest and processing. In addition, also influenced by fruit maturity level of lindak cocoa maturity level A (colored yellow on the entire surface of the fruit), B (yellow on the groove and back fruits), and C (colored yellow on the flow of fruit). The purpose of this study was to ana...

  11. Contribution of cacao ( Theobroma cacao) agroforestry systems to the household economy of small-scale producers in Central America: the case of Bocas del Toro, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Niehaus, Lourdes A.

    2012-01-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is the main cash crop of Ngöbe-Buglé indigenous communities in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Their traditional polycultures include many other food crops for family consumption, but there is no actual description of their diversity, productivity or contribution to household economy. This study was designed to determine the value and allocation of multiple products, depict floristic composition of cacao agroforestry systems (AFS), assess socio-economic performance, a...

  12. Multivariate genetic divergence and hybrid performance of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Luiz Antônio dos Santos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic distances among cacao cultivars were calculated through multivariate analysis, using the D2 statistic, to examine racial group classification and to assess heterotic hybrids. A 5 x 5 complete diallel was evaluated. Over a five-year period (1986-1990, five cultivars of the S1 generation, pertaining to the Lower Amazon Forastero and Trinitario racial groups and 20 crosses between the corresponding S0 parents were analyzed, based upon five yield components - number of healthy and collected fruits per plant (NHFP and NCFP, wet seed weight per plant and per fruit (WSWP and WSWF, and percentage of diseased fruits per plant (PDFP. The diversity analysis suggested a close relationship between the Trinitario and Lower Amazon Forastero groups. A correlation coefficient (r was calculated to determine the association between genetic diversity and heterosis. Genetic distance of parents by D2 was found to be linearly related to average performance of hybrids for WSWP and WSWF (r = 0.68, P < 0.05 and r = 0.76, P < 0.05, respectively. The heterotic performance for the same components was also correlated with D2, both with r = 0.66 (P < 0.05. A relationship between genetic divergence and combining ability effects was suggested because the most divergent cultivar exhibited a high general combining ability, generating the best performing hybrids. Results indicated that genetic diversity estimates can be useful in selecting parents for crosses and in assessing relationships among cacao racial groups.

  13. Cacao Intensification in Sulawesi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-09-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates techniques to improve cacao farming in Sulawesi Indonesia with an emphasis on Farmer Field Schools and Cocoa Development Centers to educate farmers and for train the trainer programs. The study estimates the economic viability of cacao farming if smallholder implement techniques to increase yield as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  14. Caracterización morfológica de maíces criollos

    OpenAIRE

    Aramendiz Tatis, Hermes; Arias, Yolaida; Castro, Daniel; Marín, Norbey; López, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    El maíz es uno de los cultivos alimenticios más importantes del mundo y constituye parte inte­gral de la dieta y cultura de la gran mayoría de los pueblos latinoamericanos. Esta especie ha evoluciona­do en diferentes microambientes de la Región Caribe colombiana lo que ha generado una gran variabilidad genética; por esta razón, en el C.I. Turipaná de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agrope­cuaria –CORPOICA– se procedió a caracterizar morfo-agronómicamente 256 cultivares criollos de ...

  15. Valenzuela y Zea: Científicos Criollos en la Independencia Americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elvira Soto Arango

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 15 Rev. hist.educ.latinoam - Vol. 16 No. 23, julio - diciembre 2014 - ISSN 0122-7238 – pp. 15 - 40 El objeto de esta investigación se centró en los criollos Zea y Valenzuela en la faceta de los cambios y participación que presentaron en el período de la Independencia americana. A estos dos criollos neogranadinos les unió José Celestino Mutis, en su formación científica y ubicación profesional, y llegaron a ocupar la Subdirección de la Real Expedición Botánica de Nueva Granada. El método se centró en la historia social de la ciencia y la metodología utilizada se sustentó en la historia comparada en indicadores de análisis como: formación, trayectoria profesional, participación política y análisis de los discursos relevantes que pronunciaron en el proceso de la independencia. Las fuentes se localizaron en archivos de España, Colombia y Venezuela. En conclusión, la vida política de estos dos botánicos se une en un discurso político mediado por el pensamiento ilustrado de impulsar cambios en la educación y el desarrollo de la industria y el comercio, donde las ciencias útiles con el estudio de los recursos naturales de su patria marcaban el derrotero de la nueva concepción para el imaginario de nación de la élite criolla neogranadina.

  16. Etude de l'interaction Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Micheli, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    The document resume the teaching, research and administrative activities of the author, from 1998 to 2009. Research activities are related to the study of cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction. These activities have been developped from 2002 to 2009 in a collaboration between Cirad (France) and the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (Ilhéus, Brazil).

  17. Study of the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Micheli, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    The document resume the teaching, research and administrative activities of the author, from 1998 to 2009. Research activities are related to the study of cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction. These activities have been developped from 2002 to 2009 in a collaboration between Cirad (France) and the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (Ilhéus, Brazil).

  18. Variability of butterfat content in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): combination and correlation with other seed-derived traits at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa butterfat and cocoa powder are key economic products from the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.). In this study, 323 accessions from the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad were analysed for bean number (BNO), bean size as bean length x bean width (BLW), bean mass (BM), bean mass per fruit (BM...

  19. Study of Seed Germination by Soaking Methode of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of germination methods conduct to get information about seed viability based on germination rate, percentage of germination and vigority. Germination methods was studied to get the efficiency and effectivity of germination, easy to handle, low costs with high vigority. Sand and gunny sack methods  for germination, need extensive place  and 3-4 days germination period after planting. This research will study the alternative of germination method with soaking. This method can be accelerating  germination rate and effectively place usage without decreasing the quality of cacao seedling.The research was done at Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institue. This research consist of two experiment was arranged based on factorial completely random design. First experiment will observed to compared germination rate and the second experiment will observed seedling quality between soaking and wet gunny sack germination method.The results showed that length of radicel on soaking method longer than wet gunny sack method. Growth of radicel started from 2 hours after soaking, moreover length of radicel at 4 hours after soaking have significant different value with gunny sack method. On 24 hours after soaking have 3,69 mm and 0,681 mm on wet gunny sack treatment. Except lengt of hipocotyl, there is not different condition between seedling that out came  from soaking and wet gunny sack method. Length of hipocotyl on 36 hours after soaking have 9,15 cm and significant different between wet gunny sack germination method that have 5,40 cm. Keywords : seed germination, soaking method, Theobroma cacao L., cocoa seedlings

  20. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pcacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. PMID:26471657

  1. Nitrogen Resorption and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Cacao Agroforestry Systems Managed Differently in Central Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    TRIADIATI; SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO; EDI GUHARDJA; SUDARSONO; IBNUL QAYIM; CHRISTOPH LEUSCHNER

    2007-01-01

    Cacao agroforestry is a traditional form of agriculture practiced by the people of Central Sulawesi. These agroforestry systems vary from a simple system following selective cutting of forest trees, to a more sophisticated planting design. The cacao was planted under remaining forest covers (CF1), under planted trees (CF2), and between shade trees Gliricidia sepium (CP). The objectives of this study were to quantify nitrogen use efficiency (N NUE) and nitrogen resorption in cacao agroforestry...

  2. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Stack, Conrad; Mockaitis, Keithanne; May, Greg; Farmer, Andrew; Saski, Christopher; Schnell, Ray; Kuhn, David; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ∼4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification project was undertaken using RNAseq data from 16 diverse cacao cultivars. RNA sequences were aligned to the assembled transcriptome of the cultivar Matina 1-6, and 330,000 SNPs within coding regions ...

  3. Population densities and genetic diversity of actinomycetes associated to the rhizosphere of Theobroma cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Tâmara R. Barreto; da Silva, Augusto C.M.; Soares, Ana Cristina F.; De Souza, Jorge T.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the acknowledged importance of growth-promoting bacteria, only a reduced number of studies were conducted with these microorganisms on Theobroma cacao. The objectives of this work were to study the population densities and genetic diversity of actinomycetes associated with the rhizosphere of cacao as a first step in their application in plant growth promotion and biological control. The populations densities of actinomycetes in soil and cacao roots were similar, with mean values o...

  4. Producción de forraje con maíz criollo y maíz híbrido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Elizondo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de conocer el rendimiento productivo de forraje de dos cultivares de maíz: híbrido y criollo, evaluados a igual edad y luego en similar estado fisiológico, sembrados a diferentes distancias entre plantas, se llevó a cabo un experimento en la Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Mata de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicada a una altitud de 1542 msnm, con una precipitación media anual de 2050 mm. Se determinó en ambos cultivares, que la producción de materia seca (kg/ha, reflejó un incremento al disminuir la distancia entre plantas. El cultivar repercutió notablemente sobre los rendimientos productivos. Los rendimientos en base seca (kg/ha fueron 30% mayores en maíz criollo que en maíz hí- brido cuando se comparan a una misma edad. Cuando se comparan ambos cultivares en igual estado fisiológico, los rendimientos en base seca (kg/ha son 37% superiores en el cultivar criollo. La altura promedio de la planta fue 1,7 m mayor en el cultivar criollo que en el híbrido. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a rendimientos de biomasa verde o seca, ni en cuanto al contenido de materia seca al comparar el maíz criollo por edad y por estado fisiológico.

  5. Microestrutura, fases cristalinas e propriedades elétricas de porcelanas aluminosas contendo diferentes concentrações de Fe2O3sinterizadas em atmosfera redutora e oxidante

    OpenAIRE

    D. H. Piva; R. H. Piva; J. Venturini; M. R. Morelli; C. P. Bergmann

    2015-01-01

    ResumoPorcelanas aluminosas contendo diferentes concentrações de Fe2O3 foram sinterizadas em atmosfera oxidante e redutora. A microestrutura e fases formadas foram investigadas com o auxílio de difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Espectroscopia de impedância foi utilizada para estudar as propriedades elétricas. Os resultados indicaram que todas as amostras apresentaram mulita e coríndon como fases majoritárias e pequenas frações de quartzo. A adição de Fe2O3 provocou o ...

  6. The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian Amazon is within the center of origin and diversity for cacao (Theobroma cacao). One of the primary disease of cacao in Peru and Latin America is withes’ broom disease (WBD) caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of WBD in wild ca...

  7. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity. PMID:26927428

  8. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authenticity and traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important tropical crop since it is the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industry. Production and marketing of premium high-value fine flavored cacao provide opportunities for cacao growers, the chocolate industry and consumers. The higher far...

  9. Comportamento tribocorrosivo de sistemas metalocerâmicos odontológicos de Ni-Cr/porcelana e Ni-Cr/Ti/porcelana Tribocorrosive behavior of odontological Ni-Cr/porcelain and Ni-Cr/Ti/porcelain metal-ceramic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. A. de Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Próteses parciais fixas são empregadas na reabilitação da forma e função de dentes parcial ou totalmente comprometidos e devem permanecer permanentemente unidas aos remanescentes dentários. O material mais utilizado na confecção de próteses odontológicas é a porcelana feldspática. Contudo, ela apresenta propriedades mecânicas limitadas para reposição de espaços edêntulos extensos. A associação da porcelana com sistemas metálicos de níquel-cromo (sistema metalocerâmico permite que a infra-estrutura metálica compense a natureza frágil da porcelana, preservando-se tanto a isolação térmica como a estética desejáveis, além de reduzir a possibilidade do surgimento e crescimento de trincas durante os esforços mastigatórios. Falhas coesivas por baixa resistência mecânica da porcelana comunicam a estrutura metálica com o ambiente oral, caracterizado pela presença de uma solução eletrolítica (saliva, pela agressividade das variações cíclicas de temperatura, pH e por solicitações mecânicas. Este processo resulta na liberação de íons metálicos que podem desencadear respostas alérgicas ou inflamatórias, e/ou na degradação clínica precoce do sistema metalocerâmico. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da presença de uma camada intermediária de titânio sobre o comportamento de sistemas metalocerâmicos dentários. A aplicação por plasma de um filme fino de titânio gera uma camada óxida passivante regular que protege o substrato metálico contra os efeitos corrosivos da saliva. Ensaios tribocorrosivos foram realizados para simular o ambiente oral, detectando precocemente a formação de trincas no sistema metalocerâmico, o que qualifica a aderência entre os componentes do referido sistema. Foram produzidas amostras planas nas quais suspensões de porcelana feldspática odontológica foram depositadas e queimadas sobre substratos metálicos modificados por filme fino de tit

  10. Study of sexual cycle, reproductive seasonality and control of oestrus in Criollo goats in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study addresses the traditional system of goat production practised by peasant farmers in the marginal areas of Chile. As a significant proportion of peasant families depend exclusively on this animal for their livelihood, an improvement in the efficiency of goat production would have economic and social benefits for this sector of the Chilean community. In order to achieve this improvement experiments were conducted to provide basic knowledge on the reproductive indices of local (Criollo) goats under traditional management conditions. These showed that the mean duration of the oestrous cycle was 20.65±1.38 days (n=95) and that of oestrus was 29.66±7.30 hours (n=89). Sexual activity was concentrated between the months of March and August, with a peak of activity in June-July (corresponding to the months with shortest day length) and a cessation of activity between October and January. Other trials were conducted to evaluate the possibility of introducing artificial insemination as a means of improving the genetic merit of local goats. Thus, the efficacy of locally made sponges impregnated with progesterone or fluorogestone acetate (FGA) (with or without PMSG or prostaglandins) prior to artificial insemination showed that the FGA-PMSG combination was the most reliable in inducing oestrus in local goats. However, in terms of cost effectiveness a progesterone-prostaglandin combination was best. (author). 60 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  11. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Elisa S. L.; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L. N.; Pires, José Luis; Ronan X. Corrêa; Anete P. Souza

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called ‘Bahian cacao’ or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and O...

  12. Pengaruh Variasi Penambahan Qula Terhadap Kadar Karbohidrat, Protein, Dan Air Pada Pembatan Nata De Cacao Dari Pulpa Biji Buah Coklat (Theobroma Cacao Linn)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Intan Puspita Hati

    2011-01-01

    The determination of carbohydrate content, protein content, and water content of nata de cacao product with the addition sugar variations has been done. The pulp of cacao liquid with the addition sugar variations 0%; 5%; 7,5%; 10% and 12,5% was fermented to be nata de cacao. The carbohydrate content was determined by counting protein, fat, water, and ashes content. The protein content was determined by Kjeldahl methods.The water content determined by heated methode at temperature 100-1050C...

  13. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

  14. Variabilidad morfológica y molecular de cultivares criollos y mejorados de frijol común en Tabasco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Vidal-Barahona; Luz del Carmen Lagunes-Espinoza; Ernestina Valadez Moctezuma; Carlos Fredy Ortiz-García

    2006-01-01

    La variabilidad genética entre siete cultivares criollos de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) colectados en la región de la Chontalpa, Tabasco, México, y 14 cultivares mejorados fue evaluada con marcadores morfológicos y moleculares tipo RAPD e ISSR. Un alto nivel de cercanía entre los dos tipos de cultivares para las 19 características morfológicas evaluadas fue establecido por el análisis de componentes principales. Los genotipos criollos se asociaron con los mejorados. Entre los cult...

  15. Variabilidad morfológica y molecular de cultivares criollos y mejorados de frijol común en Tabasco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Ernestina Valadez Moctezuma; Luz del Carmen Lagunes-Espinoza; Abel Vidal-Barahona; Carlos Fredy Ortiz-García

    2006-01-01

    La variabilidad genética entre siete cultivares criollos de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) colectados en la región de la Chontalpa, Tabasco, México, y 14 cultivares mejorados fue evaluada con marcadores morfológicos y moleculares tipo RAPD e ISSR. Un alto nivel de cercanía entre los dos tipos de cultivares para las 19 características morfológicas evaluadas fue establecido por el análisis de componentes principales. Los genotipos criollos se asociaron con los mejorados. Entre los cultiva...

  16. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Horacio

    1940-03-01

    Full Text Available Por muchos años permaneció el cultivo del cacao en nuestro país, en un deplorable atraso técnico; el agricultor a duras penas si tenía conocimientos generales de su explotación y, de una industria que tuvo su auge debido a la extensividad de las plantaciones, hoy sólo resta una reducida porción de ella. ¿Qué factores operaron esa tan notoria reducción hasta el punto de que exportadores en otros tiempos nos convertimos en importadores obligados de ese producto? Hay muchas razones de orden técnico y de orden económico. Los cacaotaleros obtenían halagadoras retribuciones cuando el jornal consistía en la alimentación que se le daba a la peonada y cuando, generoso, añadía una sobretasa en dinero. Bajo ese sistema de explotación, el descuadre que pudiera ocasionar tanto las enfermedades criptogámicas como los plagas, no era suficiente como para provocar el pesimismo en el hacendado y por tanto inducirlo al abandono de la plantación. A medida que las condiciones sociales del campesino se fueron modificando y su standard de vida aumentaba, cambió fundamentalmente el mecanismo de la industria Se observó entonces que los árboles morían y que era pobre la producción; que lo que en tiempos pasados fuera un negocio lucrativo, se les había convertido en una actividad improductiva y, para controlar estos fenómenos que se generalizaban en todas las zonas cacaotaleras, opusieron la ignorancia, el rutinarismo y la desidia. Lentamente se han ido modificando los conceptos antiguos sobre el trabajo cultural y los cuidados que con relación a las enfermedades y plagas requiere este delicado cultivo; la rutina está echando paso atrás y las experiencias científicas que procuran la prosperidad del plantío, se ponen en práctica en algunas zonas . Esto da esperanza para la reconstitución de la industria cacaotalera en nuestro país, que cuenta con inmensas regiones de óptima calidad para hacerla florecer sobre bases nuevas, con

  17. Diagnóstico del sistema de manejo de desechos sólidos generados en el Hospital “Dr. Julio Criollo Rivas” Evaluation of the solid waste management program of the Dr. Julio Criollo Rivas Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna García; Fabiola Hernández; Glacelidys Rodríguez; Neil Mago

    2010-01-01

    Los Desechos Sólidos Hospitalarios (DSH), contienen agentes patógenos o infecto-contagiosos, que representan un riesgo potencial para el personal que labora en las instituciones de salud, los pacientes y público en general. En consecuencia, el presente estudio tiene por finalidad diagnosticar la situación actual del manejo de los desechos sólidos generados en el Hospital “Dr. Julio Criollo Rivas”, en Ciudad Bolívar - estado Bolívar, durante el último semestre del año 2007, a través de una inv...

  18. Genomics of Theobroma cacao, “the Food of the Gods”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the chocolate tree, is an important tropical tree-crop that provides sustainable economic and environmental benefits to some of the poorest and most ecologically sensitive areas of the world. Recent progress in the development of genomics tools for cacao is reviewed. These include a...

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes involved in self-incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing yield, quality and disease resistance are important objectives for cacao breeding programs. However, self-incompatibility (SI) often restricts progress, as crosses between certain cacao germplasm accessions and breeding lines are only partially successful. Various events are involved in t...

  20. Factors influencing the survival of developing embryos of theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae) in cryogenic storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, Theobroma cacao L., is native to tropical South American rainforests and is the source of chocolate. Ex situ conservation of this economically important species and its relatives is imperative to prevent genetic erosion resulting from diminished suitable habitat and increased pressure from a...

  1. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ~4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification pr...

  2. Molecular, physiological and morphological analysis of waterlogging tolerance in clonal genotypes of Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    In soil, hypoxia and anoxia conditions generated by waterlogging induce changes in genetic morphological, physiological processes, and as well as altering the growth and development of plant The mass propagation of cacao (Theobroma cacao) cuttings-to produce plantlets (clones) is affected by waterlo...

  3. Morphological, Physiological, and Taxonomic Characterization of Actinobacterial Isolates Living as Endophytes of Cacao Pods and Cacao Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Tsala, Éric; Monga, Ernest; Beaulieu, Carole

    2016-03-26

    Vascular plants are commonly colonized by endophytic actinobacteria. However, very little is known about the relationship between these microorganisms and cacao fruits. In order to determine the physiological and taxonomic relationships between the members of this community, actinobacteria were isolated from cacao fruits and seeds. Among the 49 isolates recovered, 11 morphologically distinct isolates were selected for further characterization. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed the partition of the selected isolates into three phylogenetic clades. Most of the selected endophytic isolates belonged to the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade. Physiological characterization was carried out and a similarity index was used to cluster the isolates. However, clustering based on physiological properties did not match phylogenetic lineages. Isolates were also characterized for traits commonly associated with plant growth-promoting bacteria, including antibiosis and auxin biosynthesis. All isolates exhibited resistance to geldanamycin, whereas only two isolates were shown to produce this antibiotic. Endophytes were inoculated on radish seedlings and most isolates were found to possess plant growth-promoting abilities. These endophytic actinobacteria inhibited the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi and/or bacteria. The present study showed that S. violaceusniger clade members represent a significant part of the actinobacterial community living as endophytes in cacao fruits and seeds. While several members of this clade are known to be geldanamycin producers and efficient biocontrol agents of plant diseases, we herein established the endophytic lifestyle of some of these microorganisms, demonstrating their potential as plant health agents. PMID:26947442

  4. Gauchos que lloran: masculinidades sentimentales en el imaginario criollista / Gauchos who Cry: Sentimental Masculinities in Criollo Imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Peluffo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies a canonical text in Argentinean literature, the Martín Fierro (1872-1878, by José Hernández. The objective is to explore, based on a debate on masculinity and nation,the sentimental side of criollo culture. Although Hernández’s gaucho is usually thought of as the archetype of a stoic masculinity that represses its emotions in order to fight wars at the border, this paper will show how that predominating notion undermines the tearful affective excesses constantly taking place in the text.

  5. Infestación por garrapatas en el ganado criollo lechero tropical en Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    González Cerón, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la infestación por garrapatas en un hato experimental de ganado Criollo Lechero Tropical (CLT) ubicado en la región central del estado de Veracruz, México; la información generada permitiría iniciar el registro sistemático de la infestación causada por éstos ectoparásitos para considerarla como una posible característica a ser incluida en un programa de mejora genética a mediano plazo. A 28 vaquillas (655±35 días de edad) y 16 toretes (741±8...

  6. Sintering and mechanical properties of porcelains prepared from algerian raw materials Sinterização e propriedades mecânicas de porcelanas preparadas com matéria-prima argelina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kitouni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcelain is a type of ceramics highly valued for its beauty and strength. The overall goal of this work is to utilize local raw materials within the following fractions: 37 wt.% kaolin, 35 wt.% feldspar and 28 wt.% quartz. This composition has been selected on the basis of the ternary phase diagrams (kaolin-feldspar-quartz. The densification behaviour indicated that specimens sintered at 1200 °C for 2 h with a heating rate of 5 °C/min, have a bulk density of about 2.50 g/cm³. This value is slightly higher than that reported for the conventional porcelain products (2.45 g/cm³. Porcelain specimens with and without calcination sintered at 1200 °C for 2 h have tensile strength values of about 45 and 73 MPa, respectively (equivalent flexural strength values of about 122 and 197 MPa, respectively. The flexural strength values of both specimens are much higher than those reported for conventional porcelains (ranged between 60 and 80 MPa. Furthermore, the value of micro-hardness of the fired samples without calcination at 1200 °C is 9.3 ± 0.2 GPa which is higher than the commercial porcelain products (5.5 GPa.A porcelana é um tipo de cerâmica altamente valorizada pela sua beleza e resistência mecânica. O objetivo geral deste trabalho é utilizar matérias-primas locais nas seguintes frações: 37% em peso de caulim, feldspato 35% em peso e 28% em peso de quartzo. Esta composição foi escolhida com base em diagramas de fase ternários (caulim, feldspato-quartzo. O comportamento de densificação indicou que amostras sinterizadas a 1200 °C por 2 h com taxa de aquecimento de 5 °C/min, tem uma densidade de cerca de 2,50 g/cm³. Este valor é ligeiramente superior ao relatado para os produtos de porcelana convencional (2,45 g/cm³. Espécimes de porcelana, com e sem calcinação sinterizadas a 1200 °C por 2 h têm valores de resistência à tração de cerca de 45 e 73 MPa, respectivamente (valores equivalentes de resistência à flexão de

  7. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  8. Foraging ecology of howler monkeys in a cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantation in Comalcalco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David; Estrada, Alejandro; Naranjo, Eduardo; Ochoa, Susana

    2006-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that primate populations may persist in neotropical fragmented landscapes by using arboreal agroecosystems, which may provide temporary habitats, increased areas of vegetation, and connectivity, among other benefits. However, limited data are available on how primates are able to sustain themselves in such manmade habitats. We report the results of a 9-month-long investigation of the feeding ecology of a troop of howler monkeys (n = 24) that have lived for the past 25 years in a 12-ha cacao plantation in the lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico. A vegetation census indicated the presence of 630 trees (> or =20 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)) of 32 shade species in the plantation. The howlers used 16 plant species (13 of which were trees) as sources of leaves, fruits, and flowers. Five shade tree species (Ficus cotinifolia, Pithecellobium saman, Gliricidia sepium, F. obtusifolia, and Ficus sp.) accounted for slightly over 80% of the total feeding time and 78% of the total number trees (n = 139) used by the howlers, and were consistently used by the howlers from month to month. The howlers spent an average of 51% of their monthly feeding time exploiting young leaves, 29% exploiting mature fruit, and 20% exploiting flowers and other plant items. Monthly consumption of young leaves varied from 23% to 67%, and monthly consumption of ripe fruit varied from 12% to 64%. Differences in the protein-to-fiber ratio of young vs. mature leaves influenced diet selection by the monkeys. The howlers used 8.3 ha of the plantation area, and on average traveled 388 m per day in each month. The howlers preferred tree species whose contribution to the total tree biomass and density was above average for the shade-tree population in the plantation. Given the right conditions of management and protection, shaded arboreal plantations in fragmented landscapes can sustain segments of howler monkey populations for many decades. PMID:16429417

  9. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. I. Reproduction and parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, t...

  10. Independent Origins of Yeast Associated with Coffee and Cacao Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Garmendia-Torres, Cecilia; Sirr, Amy; Hays, Michelle; Field, Colburn; Jeffery, Eric W; Fay, Justin C; Dudley, Aimée M

    2016-04-01

    Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S. cerevisiae strains residing in vineyards around the world are genetically similar, and their population structure suggests a common origin that followed the path of human migration [3-7]. Like wine, coffee and cacao depend on microbial fermentation [8, 9] and have been globally dispersed by humans. Theobroma cacao originated in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of Colombia and Venezuela [10], was cultivated in Central America by Mesoamerican peoples, and was introduced to Europeans by Hernán Cortés in 1530 [11]. Coffea, native to Ethiopia, was disseminated by Arab traders throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the 6(th) century and was introduced to European consumers in the 17(th) century [12]. Here, we tested whether the yeasts associated with coffee and cacao are genetically similar, crop-specific populations or genetically diverse, geography-specific populations. Our results uncovered populations that, while defined by niche and geography, also bear signatures of admixture between major populations in events independent of the transport of the plants. Thus, human-associated fermentation and migration may have affected the distribution of yeast involved in the production of coffee and chocolate. PMID:27020745

  11. Karakteristik Kimia Biji Kakao terhadap Posisi Buah di Pohon Kakao Lindak (Theobroma Cacao L)

    OpenAIRE

    Langkong, Jumriah

    2014-01-01

    Cacao has flavor and specific aroma. The society can be consumed in food industry that needs specific details in cacao processing. The aim of the research was to find out cauliflora and reamiflora fruit towards the fruit location that produced on advanced processing. There are treatments for branch, tree and twig, The analyzed treatments specially for water content, fat content, ash content and pH to find out cacao qualities and location. The result achieved of water content (5.08%-5.36%), fa...

  12. Antimicrobial Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Artificially and Naturally Contaminated Cacao Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Restaino, L; Myron, J. J. J.; Lenovich, L M; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

    1984-01-01

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 107 microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50°C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 × 104 and 1.4 × 103 spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D10 values for A. ...

  13. Organic cacao chain for development: The case of the Talamanca small-farmers association

    OpenAIRE

    Slingerland, M.A.; Díaz Gonzalez, E.

    2006-01-01

    In de Talamanca region in Costa Rica cocoa production was abandoned in the late 1970s when yields dropped to zero due to Monilia. In the early 1990s, the Talamanca Small-Farmers association (APPTA) gained success in promoting its revival. By creating contacts with buyers of organic cacao in the United States, APPTA was able to certify a significant area of cacao and to start exporting to the USA. Organic cacao had positive effects on farmers¿ income and on the environment. Recently a number o...

  14. Restauração metalocerâmica: um estudo comparativo da compatibilidade térmica de ligas Ni-Cr e porcelanas odontológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLLO João Manuel Domingos de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma das aplicações tecnológicas em que é necessário haver compatibilidade entre um material cerâmico e um material metálico é a confecção de restaurações odontológicas do tipo metalocerâmica. Neste caso, uma porcelana é fundida sobre um substrato metálico para obtenção da prótese de um dente. O requisito fundamental para o sucesso da união metalocerâmica é a adequação dos coeficientes de expansão térmica de cada um dos materiais, de forma a se obter um estado de tensão de compressão adequado na camada cerâmica. Este trabalho propôs-se a levantar as curvas de expansão térmica de ligas Ni-Cr e porcelanas odontológicas, através da técnica de dilatometria e verificar a possível compatibilidade térmica dos pares metal/cerâmica. Simulando a entrada de um novo produto no mercado, desenvolveu-se uma liga Ni-Cr experimental denominada SR, que foi comparada a uma liga comercial de Ni-Cr bastante utilizada em restaurações metalocerâmicas. A partir da análise das curvas de expansão térmica, foi possível verificar a compatibilidade dos pares metal/cerâmica quanto à dilatação térmica, segundo os conceitos preconizados por YAMAMOTO7 (1985. Sob este aspecto, a liga experimental apresentou valores que a incluem como mais uma opção na família de ligas Ni-Cr para utilização em restaurações metalocerâmicas. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o equipamento e a metodologia utilizados são adequados para análise comparativa da compatibilidade térmica entre ligas metálicas Ni-Cr e porcelanas odontológicas.

  15. Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao L.)Drying Kinetics Cinética del Secado de Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ndukwu MacManus Chinenye; A.S Ogunlowo; O.J. Olukunle

    2010-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is widely produced in West Africa and South America and is a great economic tree crop, with so many industrial uses. In this work, the experimental drying kinetics of foreign species was investigated, and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions, using heated batch drier at 55, 70 and 81 ºC. The moisture ratio data obtained from change of moisture content with the drying time was fit to two thin layer drying model with good results. A faster dryi...

  16. POLIMORFISMO DE MICROSATELITES EN INDIVIDUOS DE RAZAS DE BOVINO CRIOLLO COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORTEGA MYRIAM YANETH

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó el polimorfismo de tres sistemas microsatelitales (BMS 527, BMS 4440 y BMS 2113 en 5 razas de ganado bovino criollo colombianas: ROM (Romosinuano, BON (Blanco Orejinegro, CAS (Casanareño, SM (San Martinero  CCC (Costeño con cuernos y dos razas foráneas: Cebú y Holstein. Se encontraron 38 alelos en 105 individuos estudiados y se reportan alelos únicos para BON, ROM,  CCC y CAS. La heterocigosidad esperada total incluidas las dos razas foráneas  fue de 0.7228, mientras que la observada osciló entre 0.3511 y 0.7787. Se evidenció desequilibrio de Hardy- Weinberg para algunas razas en dos sistemas microsatélitales, resultado probable de efectos de selección a los cuales las razas criollas y foráneas han estado sujetas. El análisis de diversas distancias genéticas  mostró  que la raza más distante fue la Cebú en relación a las colombianas y a Holstein y un cluster consistente que agrupa las razas HOL-ROM-CAS. Los análisis de mezcla sugieren que las razas criollas colombianas tienen mayor aporte genético de la raza Holstein (entre un 76 y un 88% que de Cebú (entre un 8 y un 22 %. Finalmente, se sugiere que el sistema BMS2113, podría  ser de utilidad para realizar  análisis de paternidad en razas criollas colombianas.

     

  17. Estudio cuantitativo de algunas medidas ecocardiográficas en caballos Criollo Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Posada Arias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La ecocardiografía es considerada una de las herramientas de mayor valor diagnóstico en la evaluación de la anatomía y la función cardiaca, pues permite visualizar de forma no invasiva aspectos como el grosor de las válvulas cardiacas y el espesor del tabique interventricular, además de la posibilidad de medir las dimensiones de las cavidades del corazón. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar algunas características cuantitativas de ecocardiografías hechas en 60 equinos raza Caballo Criollo Colombiano (CCC de cualquier sexo, edad y peso. Las ecocardiografías fueron hechas en modo M, a partir de imágenes bidimensionales, en el plano tres, cuarto espacio intercostal de la ventana paraesternal derecha. Fueron evaluados los siguientes parámetros: DVId (diámetro del ventrículo izquierdo en diástole, DVIs (diámetro del ventrículo izquierdo en sístole, SIVd (tabique interventricular en diástole, SVIs (tabique interventricular en sístole, PPd (pared posterior del ventrículo izquierdo en diástole, PPs (pared posterior del ventrículo izquierdo en sístole, FE (fracción de eyección, FA (fracción de acortamiento y MVI (masa del ventrículo izquierdo. Para el análisis de los datos se hicieron grupos según la edad. Dependiendo de la distribución de los datos, se analizaron la media y la desviación estándar, y la mediana y los percentiles (software SPSS 21.0. Con este trabajo se hace un aporte importante para aquellas ocasiones en que sea necesario recurrir a la ecocardiografía para validar la información obtenida en el examen clínico o cuando se sospeche de una cardiopatía en CCC.

  18. Polimorfismos del gen BoLA-DRB3.2* en ganado criollo colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Hernández H.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Caracterizar el polimorfismo del gen BoLA-DRB3.2* en las razas bovinas criollas y colombianas. Materiales y métodos. En 360 muestras de ADN de ocho razas bovinas criollas (Blanco Orejinegro, Casanareño, Costeño con Cuernos, Chino Santandereano, Caqueteño, Hartón del Valle, Romosinuano y San Martinero, dos razas sintéticas Colombianas (Lucerna y Velásquez y dos razas foráneas (Brahman y Holstein se evaluó el polimorfismo del gen BoLA-DRB3.2 mediante técnicas moleculares (PCR-RFLP; se calculó el número promedio de alelos (NPA, las frecuencias, la heterocigocidad esperada (He y observada (Ho, el equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg, la estructura genética y los valores de FST y FIS. Resultados. El NPA fue 14.6 ± 3.8 siendo Caqueteño la raza con mayor NPA (25 y el menor el Chino Santandereano (10. Se encontraron 41 alelos BoLA-DRB3.2* los más frecuentes fueron *28, *37, *24, *23, *20, *27, *8, *16, *39 (0.17, 0.11, 0.10, 0.09, 0.09, 0.07, 0.07 y 0.06 respectivamente. Se encontró alta diversidad genética (He = 0.878 con mayor valor en Caqueteño (0.96 y menor en San Martinero (0.81. Todas las razas se encontraron en equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg, se encontraron valores altamente significativos de diferenciación genética (FST= 0.044 y de coeficiente de endogamia (FIS = 0.249. Conclusiones. El ganado criollo colombiano posee alto polimorfismo del gen BoLA-DRB3.2* representado en los altos valores de NPA y diversidad génetica.

  19. Digital radiographic evaluation of optical density of porcelains used for fabrication of inlay/onlay prosthesis Avaliação da densidade óptica de porcelanas usadas para confecção de próteses inlay/onlay por meio de radiografia digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar de Melo Castilho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to compare the mean value of optical density of four porcelains commonly used for fabrication of inlay/onlay prostheses using direct digital radiograph. The sample consisted of 20 2-mm thick porcelain specimens (measured by digital pachymeter: Empress (Ivoclair, Simbios (Degussa, Vita Omega 900 and Vitadur Alpha (Vita Zahnfabrik. The values of optical density of the specimens were expressed in millimeters aluminum equivalent (mm eq Al. The samples were X-rayed using two charge coupled devices (CCD - RVG (Trophy - Visualix (Gendex and a phosphor plate system - Digora (Soredex. The optical density reading was performed with Image Tool 1.28 in a total of 110 measurements. Statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in all materials studied (p Objetivo desse trabalho é comparar valores médios de densidade óptica de quatro porcelanas comumente utilizadas para confecção de inlay/onlay por meio da densidade óptica usando radiografia digital. A amostra constou de 20 corpos de prova com espessura de 2mm (mensurados em paquímetro digital das porcelanas: Empress (Ivoclair, Simbios (Degussa, Vita Omega 900 e Vitadur Alpha (Vita Zahnfabrik. Os valores de densidade óptica das amostras foram expressos em milímetros equivalente em alumínio (mm eq Al. Os espécimes foram radiografados, utilizando dois sistemas de dispositivo de carga acoplada (CCD - RVG (Trophy - Visualix (Gendex e um sistema de placa de fósforo - Digora (Soredex. A leitura da densidade óptica foi realizada no programa Image Tool 1.28 totalizando 110 medições. As leituras de densidade ópticas foram feitas no programa Image Tool 1.28 totalizando 110 mensurações. A análise estatística demonstrou que houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre a densidade óptica das porcelanas estudadas independentemente do sistema de radiografia empregado (p < 0,05. A porcelana Omega 900 obteve 1,8988mmeq

  20. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  1. ADMINISTRATION OF CACAO BEANS (Theobroma cacao L. EXTRACTS DECREASE MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION AND INCREASE BLOOD NOx CONCENTRATION IN WHITE RAT (Ra"us norvegicus INDUCED BY PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Wiryanthini IA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS causing accumulation of oxidative damage caused by exceeding anti oxidant capacity in the body. Psychological stress as psychosocial stress can induce oxidative stress which subsequently cause increase blood malondialdehyde (MDA and decrease blood nitrate and nitrite (NOx concentration as intermediate product of nitric oxide (NO. Cacao beans extracts contained anti oxidant flavanols consist of catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aims of this study is to investigate the effect of cacao beans (Theobroma cacao L. extracts for decreasing MDA and increasing NOx concentration in white rat (Ra$us norvegicus blood in stress oxidative state induced by psychosocial stress. It is an experimental study with Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. This study revealed decrease MDA concentration in group P1 (11.47 vs 8.04, P2 (11.92 vs 5.44 and P3 (11.69 vs 2.87 with P = 0.000 and increase NOx concentration in oxidative stress white rat induced by psychosocial stress a[er administration of cacao beans extract in group P1 (1909.83 vs 2085.16, P2 (1912.5 vs 2231.83 and P3 (1871.5 vs 2339.83 with P = 0.005. This study showed that cacao beans extract can inhibit oxidative stress caused by psychosocial stress.

  2. Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 107 microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co60 source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 500C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 104 and 1.4 x 103 spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D10 values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references

  3. Radionuclides in coffee, cacao and chocolate in Serbia during 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work was monitoring radioactivity in 88 products of coffee, cacao and chocolate in Serbia during 2006-2007. The each product contained legal criterion for radionuclide safety. (author)

  4. Production constraints and their causes in the cacao Industry in West Sumatra: from the farmers’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sefriadi, Hasnah; Villano, Renato; Fleming, Euan; Patrick, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We use structural equation modelling to conduct a path analysis for cacao production in West Sumatra, Indonesia, quantifying the main constraints identified by farmers attempting to increase their incomes. Stakeholders in a workshop identified low yield of cacao trees and low quality of cacao beans as the two main production constraints, which are the focus of this study. Farm-level data from 100 smallholders were analysed to describe and estimate the dependencies between various factors and ...

  5. Dissimilarity of Ant Communities Increases with Precipitation, but not Reduced Land-Use Intensity, in Indonesian Cacao Agroforestry

    OpenAIRE

    Damayanti Buchori; Teja Tscharntke; Yann Clough; Akhmad Rizali

    2013-01-01

    Land-use degradation and climate change are well-known drivers of biodiversity loss, but little information is available about their potential interaction. Here, we focus on the effects of land-use and precipitation on ant diversity in cacao agroforestry. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, we selected 16 cacao agroforestry plots with a shaded vs. unshaded plot in each of eight villages differing in precipitation (1032–2051 mm annual rainfall). On each plot, 10 cacao trees with similar size and a...

  6. History of the Internal Control System at the Association of Organic Cacao Farmers (APKO) in Pidie

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyadi, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Plenty of Activities, but Limited Funding and Reliable Resources. Another big problem faced by ICS is weeds and diseases that attack cacao trees. The farmers are not used to the organic farming practice of mechanical or manual weeding, instead of using herbicides. The farmers are also eager to apply chemicals to control cacao plant diseases. It requires constant monitoring of ICS staff, who must continually inform the cooperative of internal problems, verbally or in writing, in every meeting.

  7. From whole-body counting to imaging: The computer aided collimation gamma camera project (CACAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body counting is the method of choice for in vivo detection of contamination. To extend this well established method, the possible advantages of imaging radiocontaminants are examined. The use of the CACAO project is then studied. A comparison of simulated reconstructed images obtained by the CACAO project and by a conventional gamma camera used in nuclear medicine follows. Imaging a radionuclide contaminant with a geometrical sensitivity of 10-2 seems possible in the near future. (author)

  8. Trading Cacao : a View from Veracruz, 1629 – 1645

    OpenAIRE

    Ferry, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines several interrelated themes and uses a variety of research strategies to explore the general topic of chocolate and the cacao trade in early seventeenth-century Mexico. Based primarily on the records of the Mexico Tribunal of the Inquisition, the essay attempts to expand our understanding of the beginning of large-scale chocolate consumption in Mexico, of the inner workings of the business of buying, transporting, and selling cacao beans, and the business of chocolate sold...

  9. Pengendalian Serangan Colletotrichum sp. Pada Tanaman Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) Menggunakan Isolat Bakteri Kitinolitik

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Sri

    2011-01-01

    Colletotrichum sp., is one of causal agents of antracnose disease on cacao leaf. This fungus is one organisms that caused leaf blight. Biological control of Colletotrichum sp, utilizing bacterial and fungal isolates has been reported. However utilization of chitinolytic bacterial isolates to control anthracnose of cacao leaf has rarely been reported. In this study, the ability of chitinolitic bacterial isolates to inhibit Colletotrichum sp. was evaluated by using an antagonisms assay on minim...

  10. Quality Incentives and the Development of High-value Agrifood Markets: Ecuador's Cacao Marketing Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Jano, Pilar Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores constraints to the development of markets for high quality cacao in Ecuador. It focuses on the role of market level constraints, particularly the transmission of quality incentives along the marketing chain and their effects on farmersâ incentives to invest in quality production. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the problem, demonstrating that Ecuadorian farmers are not responding to international incentives to produce high quality cacao, and outlines the objectives, ...

  11. Production and robustness of a Cacao agroecosystem: effects of two contrasting types of management strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Sabatier

    Full Text Available Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance and robustness toward diverse perturbations of a Cacao agroecosystem managed with two contrasting groups of strategies: one group of strategies relying on a high level of pesticides and a second relying on low levels of pesticides. We conducted this study using a dynamical model of a Cacao agroecosystem that includes Cacao production dynamics, and dynamics of three insects: a pest (the Cacao Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella and two characteristic but unspecified beneficial insects (a pollinator of Cacao and a parasitoid of the Cacao Pod Borer. Our results showed two opposite behaviors of the Cacao agroecosystem depending on its management, i.e. an agroecosystem relying on a high input of pesticides and showing low ecosystem functioning and an agroecosystem with low inputs, relying on a high functioning of the ecosystem. From the production point of view, no type of management clearly outclassed the other and their ranking depended on the type of pesticide used. From the robustness point of view, the two types of managements performed differently when subjected to different types of perturbations. Ecologically intensive systems were more robust to pest outbreaks and perturbations related to pesticide characteristics while chemically intensive systems were more robust to Cacao production and management-related perturbation.

  12. Production and Robustness of a Cacao Agroecosystem: Effects of Two Contrasting Types of Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Wiegand, Kerstin; Meyer, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance and robustness toward diverse perturbations of a Cacao agroecosystem managed with two contrasting groups of strategies: one group of strategies relying on a high level of pesticides and a second relying on low levels of pesticides. We conducted this study using a dynamical model of a Cacao agroecosystem that includes Cacao production dynamics, and dynamics of three insects: a pest (the Cacao Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella) and two characteristic but unspecified beneficial insects (a pollinator of Cacao and a parasitoid of the Cacao Pod Borer). Our results showed two opposite behaviors of the Cacao agroecosystem depending on its management, i.e. an agroecosystem relying on a high input of pesticides and showing low ecosystem functioning and an agroecosystem with low inputs, relying on a high functioning of the ecosystem. From the production point of view, no type of management clearly outclassed the other and their ranking depended on the type of pesticide used. From the robustness point of view, the two types of managements performed differently when subjected to different types of perturbations. Ecologically intensive systems were more robust to pest outbreaks and perturbations related to pesticide characteristics while chemically intensive systems were more robust to Cacao production and management-related perturbation. PMID:24312469

  13. Agroforestry systems of timber species and cacao: survival and growth during the early stages

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmer Espinoza; Argenis Mora; Danni Guzman; Osmary Araque; Jaimez, Ramón E.; Wilmer Tezara

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, increased emphasis has been placed on diversifying the types of trees to shade cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and to achieve additional services. Agroforestry systems that include profitable and native timber trees are a viable alternative but it is necessary to understand the growth characteristics of these species under different environmental conditions. Thus, timber tree species selection should be based on plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors. The aims of this st...

  14. Microestrutura, fases cristalinas e propriedades elétricas de porcelanas aluminosas contendo diferentes concentrações de Fe2O3sinterizadas em atmosfera redutora e oxidante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Piva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoPorcelanas aluminosas contendo diferentes concentrações de Fe2O3 foram sinterizadas em atmosfera oxidante e redutora. A microestrutura e fases formadas foram investigadas com o auxílio de difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Espectroscopia de impedância foi utilizada para estudar as propriedades elétricas. Os resultados indicaram que todas as amostras apresentaram mulita e coríndon como fases majoritárias e pequenas frações de quartzo. A adição de Fe2O3 provocou o surgimento de hematita nas amostras sinterizadas em atmosfera oxidante e, ferro metálico nas amostras contendo > 3%p sinterizadas em atmosfera redutora. Os espectros de impedância indicam que as características da fase vítrea e interface entre fase vítrea /fases cristalinas regem o comportamento elétrico global das amostras. Não obstante, diferentes atmosferas de queima provocam efeitos opostos na resistividade elétrica das porcelanas contendo Fe2O3. A presença de hematita foi considerada a responsável pela diminuição da resistividade elétrica nas amostras sinterizadas em atmosfera oxidante, enquanto que o aumento na resistividade elétrica das amostras sinterizadas em atmosfera redutora foi atribuído à elevada quantidade de fase vítrea e porosidade. Estes resultados indicam que atmosfera redutora durante a queima pode favorecer o uso de matérias-primas com maiores concentrações de Fe2O3, desde que todo óxido de ferro tenha se dissolvido na fase liquida durante a queima.

  15. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  16. Identificación de los polimorfismos G1 y G8 del gen GDF9 en ovinos criollos Araucanos

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    E Paz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la especie ovina se han descrito una serie de polimorfismos en genes de efecto mayor relacionados con la actividad reproductiva. Las mutaciones ubicadas en el gen de efecto mayor GDF9 se han asociado con el incremento de la tasa ovulatoria y el tamaño de la camada. GDF9 es un factor celular secretado por el ovocito y es miembro de la familia de factores de crecimiento transformante (TGF-β localizado en el cromosoma 5 ovino. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar la presencia de los polimorfismos en los sitios G1 y G8 en el gen GDF9 en ovinos criollos Araucanos. Se extrajo el ADN de 100 muestras sanguíneas para posteriormente determinar la presencia de las mutaciones utilizando la técnica PCR-RFLP. Fue amplificada una región de 462 pb correspondiente al exón 1, la cuál fue digerida con la enzima de restricción HhaI, el siguiente fragmento amplificado fue de 139 pb correspondiente al exón 2, siendo digerido con la enzima Ddel. Se identificó la presencia del polimorfismo G1 con una frecuencia genotípica del 0,56 (genotipo GG, 0,44 (genotipo GA y una frecuencia alélica de 0,78 para el alelo (G y 0,22 para el alelo (A. No se detectó la presencia de polimorfismo G8. Este es el primer reporte de este polimorfismo en ovinos en Chile que podría servir como un marcador genético de prolificidad para la selección de ovinos criollos Araucanos.

  17. Antitumor activity against murine lymphoma L5178Y model of proteins from cacao (Theobroma cacao L. seeds in relation with in vitro antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugo Eugenia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, proteins and peptides have become an added value to foodstuffs due to new knowledge about its structural analyses as related to antioxidant and anticancer activity. Our goal was to evaluate if protein fractions from cacao seeds show antitumor activity on lymphoma murine L5178Y model. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was also evaluated with the aim of finding a correlation with the antitumor activity. Methods Differential extraction of proteins from unfermented and semi-fermented-dry cacao seeds was performed and characterized by SDS-PAGE and FPLC size-exclusion chromatography. Antitumor activity was evaluated against murine lymphoma L5178Y in BALB/c mice (6 × 104 cells i.p., with a treatment oral dose of 25 mg/kg/day of each protein fraction, over a period of 15 days. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS+ and ORAC-FL assays. Results Albumin, globulin and glutelin fractions from both cacao seed type were obtained by differential solubility extraction. Glutelins were the predominant fraction. In the albumin fraction, polypeptides of 42.3 and 8.5 kDa were found in native conditions, presumably in the form of two peptide chains of 21.5 kDa each one. The globulin fraction presented polypeptides of 86 and 57 kDa in unfermented cacao seed that produced the specific-cacao aroma precursors, and after fermentation the polypeptides were of 45 and 39 kDa. The glutelin fraction presented proteins >200 kDa and globulins components Conclusion This study is the first report on the biological activity of semifermented-dry cacao protein fractions with their identification, supporting the traditional use of the plant. The albumin fraction showed antitumor and free radical scavenging capacity, however both activities were not correlated. The protein fractions could be considered as source of potential antitumor peptides.

  18. Present Spatial Diversity Patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the Neotropics Reflect Genetic Differentiation in Pleistocene Refugia Followed by Human-Influenced Dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Loo, Judy; Hodgkin, Toby; Galluzzi, Gea; Van Etten, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon basin, but is generally believed to have been domesticated in Mesoamerica for the production of chocolate beverage. However, cacao's distribution of genetic diversity in South America is also likely to reflect pre-Columbian human influences that were superimposed on natural processes of genetic differentiation. Here we present the results of a spatial analysis of the intra-specific diversity of cacao in Latin America, drawing on a dataset...

  19. Rugosidade superficial de uma porcelana feldspática odontológica após simulação de ajuste oclusal e polimento =Surface roughness of a feldspathic dental porcelain after simulation of occlusal adjustment and polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck, Rafael Dario

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a rugosidade superficial (Ra de uma porcelana feldspática glazeada e submetida a dois sistemas de acabamento e polimento após simulação de ajuste oclusal. Metodologia: Vinte corpos-de-prova de porcelana feldspática glazeada (IPS Classic Ivoclar foram confeccionados em forma de disco de acordo com as recomendações do fabricante e divididos em dois grupos (A e B. A leitura da rugosidade média superficial inicial (Ra 0 foi realizada com um rugosímetro (Surtronic 3+. Os corpos-de-prova foram desgastados com pontas diamantadas (PM82F e 0261PM e a rugosidade superficial foi novamente aferida (Ra 1. O grupo A foi tratado com pontas de acabamento do sistema Edenta (EXA-Cerapol 352 e 362, Cerapol Super 372 e o grupo B com pontas de acabamento de silicone do sistema Tri Hawk (Universal Fase 1 e Fase 2, sendo realizadas novas leituras de rugosidade (Ra 2. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey, ao nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Os valores médios de Ra e desvio-padrão (em micrometros foram: Grupo A – Ra 0=0,21±0,07, Ra 1=0,66±0,07, Ra 2=0,23±0,07; e Grupo B – Ra 0=0,20±0,04, Ra 1=0,72±0,06, Ra 2=0,21±0,05. Não houve diferença estatística entre os tratamentos ou entre estes e a porcelana glazeada. Conclusão: Considerando a metodologia empregada, ambos os procedimentos de acabamento e polimento promoveram uma lisura superficial similar à porcelana glazeada original.

  20. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao) y coco (Cocos nucifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Román Jiménez Vera; Nicolás González Cortés; Arturo Magaña Contreras; Alma Corona Cruz

    2010-01-01

    El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco), aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de ferme...

  1. Evaluación del potencial biofertilizante de bacterias diazótrofas aisladas de suelos con cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Zulay Argüello-Navarro; Laura Yolima Moreno-Rozo

    2014-01-01

    La adaptabilidad del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) en condiciones adversas permite sugerir que la microbiota asociada con la rizosfera desempeña una función importante para la nutrición y el desarrollo de la planta. En el trabajo se evaluó el potencial biofertilizante de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno (diazótrofas) aisladas de suelos cacaoteros por la técnica de diluciones seriadas. Las bacterias se aislaron en medios semiselectivos (NFb, JMV, LGI, JNFb). Los aislados puros se caracterizaron m...

  2. Hidrocefalia y labio leporino con fisura palatina en un cordero criollo - Hidrocefalia and harelip with palatine fissure in a creole lamb

    OpenAIRE

    E. Castro Frías; José Antonio Labrada Santos

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEn el presente trabajo se notifica un caso clínico donde se aprecia una asociación de dos patologías no notificadas con anterioridad en corderos criollos en condiciones de campo, mostrándose sus imágenes.SummaryIn the present work is notified clinical case where an association of two pathologies is not appreciated reported previously in Creole lambs under field conditions, being show the imagens.

  3. Hidrocefalia y labio leporino con fisura palatina en un cordero criollo - Hidrocefalia and harelip with palatine fissure in a creole lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castro Frías

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn el presente trabajo se notifica un caso clínico donde se aprecia una asociación de dos patologías no notificadas con anterioridad en corderos criollos en condiciones de campo, mostrándose sus imágenes.SummaryIn the present work is notified clinical case where an association of two pathologies is not appreciated reported previously in Creole lambs under field conditions, being show the imagens.

  4. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate and is one of the most destructive diseases of cacao in the Americas. This Basidiomycete only infects cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty ...

  5. Nutritional content explains the attractiveness of cacao to crop raiding Tonkean macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin P.RILEY; Barbara TOLBERT; Wartika R.FARIDA

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional ecology has been linked to crop raiding behavior in a number of wildlife taxa.Here our goal is to explore the role nutrition plays in cacao crop raiding by Tonkean macaques Macaca tonkeana in Sulawesi,Indonesia.From June-Sept.2008 we collected fruit samples from 13 species known to be important Tonkean macaque foods and compared their nutritional value to that of cacao Theobroma cacao,an important cash crop in Sulawesi.Cacao pulp was significantly lower in protein,but lower in dietary fiber,and higher in digestible carbohydrates and energy content compared to forest fruits.These fmdings,combined with the fact that cacao fruits are spatially concentrated and available throughout the year,likely explain why Tonkean macaques are attracted to this cultivated resource.We use these data along with published feeding ecology data to propose strategies to minimize human-macaque conflict.Namely,we recommend the deliberate protection of Elmerillila tsiampaccca,Ficus spp.and Arenga pinnata,fruit species known to be regularly consumed and of considerable nutritional value.We also identify the A.pinnata palm as a potential buffer resource to curb cacao crop raiding by macaques.Cacao is a hard-to-process food because the pods have a thick outer skin that encases the seeds and pulp.Aren palm fruit,although lower in digestibility,is easier-to-process,higher in protein,and also available year round.In addition,because the palm has considerable cultural and economic significance for local people,the strategy of planting Aren palm in a buffer corridor is likely to garner local community support.

  6. Nutritional content explains the attractiveness of cacao to crop raiding Tonkean macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P. RILEY, Barbara TOLBERT, Wartika R. FARIDA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional ecology has been linked to crop raiding behavior in a number of wildlife taxa. Here our goal is to explore the role nutrition plays in cacao crop raiding by Tonkean macaques Macaca tonkeana in Sulawesi, Indonesia. From June – Sept 2008 we collected fruit samples from 13 species known to be important Tonkean macaque foods and compared their nutritional value to that of cacao Theobroma cacao, an important cash crop in Sulawesi. Cacao pulp was significantly lower in protein, but lower in dietary fiber, and higher in digestible carbohydrates and energy content compared to forest fruits. These findings, combined with the fact that cacao fruits are spatially concentrated and available throughout the year, likely explain why Tonkean macaques are attracted to this cultivated resource. We use these data along with published feeding ecology data to propose strategies to minimize human-macaque conflict. Namely, we recommend the deliberate protection of Elmerillila tsiampaccca, Ficus spp. and Arenga pinnata, fruit species known to be regularly consumed and of considerable nutritional value. We also identify the A. pinnata palm as a potential buffer resource to curb cacao crop raiding by macaques. Cacao is a hard-to-process food because the pods have a thick outer skin that encases the seeds and pulp. Aren palm fruit, although lower in digestibility, is easier-to-process, higher in protein, and also available year round. In addition, because the palm has considerable cultural and economic significance for local people, the strategy of planting Aren palm in a buffer corridor is likely to garner local community support [Current Zoology 59 (2: 160–169, 2013].

  7. Immunomodulatory properties of cacao extracts – potential consequences for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KathrinBecker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory properties of cacao, fruits of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae, are well documented, and therapeutic applications are described for gastrointestinal, nervous and cardiovascular abnormalities. Most, if not all of these disease conditions involve inflammation or immune activation processes. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ and related biochemical pathways like tryptophan breakdown by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO and neopterin formation are deeply involved in their pathogenesis. Neopterin concentrations and the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an estimate of IDO activity are elevated in a significant proportion of patients with virus infections, cancer, autoimmune syndrome, neurodegeneration and coronary artery disease. Moreover, higher neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations are indicative for poor prognosis. When investigating the effect of aqueous or ethanolic extracts of cacao on IFN-γ, neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations in mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, breakdown of tryptophan by IDO and formation of neopterin and IFN-γ were dose-dependently suppressed. The effects observed in the cell-based assays are associated with the antioxidant activity of the cacao extracts as determined by the cell-free oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC assay. The influence of cacao extracts on IDO activity could be of particular relevance for some of the beneficial health effects ascribed to cacao: tryptophan breakdown by IDO is strongly involved in immunoregulation, and the diminished availability of tryptophan limits the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter serotonin. The inhibition of tryptophan breakdown by cacao constituents could thus be relevant not only for immune system restoration in patients, but also contribute to mood elevation and thereby improve quality of life. However, the available data thus far are merely in vitro only and future studies need to be investigated.

  8. Composición fibrilar y densidad capilar del músculo Gluteus medius del caballo criollo chileno en reposo Fibre composition and capillary supply of the Gluteus medius muscle in resting Chilean criollo horses

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    R. PEREZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de analizar la composición fibrilar y la densidad capilar del músculo Gluteus medius del equino fina sangre chileno en reposo. Para el estudio se muestrearon 6 caballos chilenos adultos (5-10 años, durante el período de descanso previo al inicio de la temporada de rodeo. Biopsias musculares fueron extraídas desde una profundidad estándar de 6 cm. Mediante la técnica de la miosina ATPasa miofibrilar se determinó la distribución de los distintos tipos de fibras musculares, las que según sus patrones de reacción fueron clasificadas en los tipos I, IIA y IIB. Además, la densidad capilar se determinó mediante la técnica de alfa amilasa PAS. Los resultados muestran una mayor proporción de fibras de contracción rápida tipo II, dentro de ellas las tipo IIB son más frecuentes (42.5% que las tipo IIA (39.0%. Esta distribución en la composición fibrilar significaría que el músculo G. medius del caballo chileno está mejor adaptado para realizar trabajo de velocidad y resistencia. La mayor frecuencia de fibras tipo IIB y una baja densidad capilar (253 ± 26 capilares/mm2 permiten pensar que estas características están asociadas a una falta de aptitud física producto de un reposo prolongadoA study to analyze fibre composition and capillary supply of the Gluteus medius muscle of the Chilean criollo horse under resting conditions was carried out. Six adult (5-10 year old, clinically healthy Chilean criollo horses were sampled through a muscle biopsy technique during the period previous to the rodeo competition. Muscular biopsies were obtained from the left Gluteus medius at 6 cm of depth below the fascia. Muscle samples were serially sectioned and stained for myofibrilar ATP-ase and amylase-PAS, in order to identify types I, IIA and IIB fibres and to evaluate the fibre type distribution, the cross sectional area and capillary density. The results showed that the Chilean criollo horse has a greater

  9. Assessing genetic diversity in java fine-flavor cocoa (theobroma cacao l.) Germplasm by simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world, with an annual cacao bean production of 572,000 tons. The currently cultivated cacao varieties in Indonesia were inter-hybrids of various clones introduced from the Americas since the 16th century. Among them, “Java cocoa” is a wel...

  10. Photosynthetic photon flux density, carbon dioxide concentration, and vapor pressure deficit effects on photosynthesis in cacao seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a shade plant, native to the under-story of the evergreen rain forest of the Amazon basin and adapted to low levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The influence of PPFD, leaf to air water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and external carbon dioxide concentration...

  11. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  12. Genetic diversity assessment of sub-samples of cacao, Theobroma cacao L. collections in West Africa using simple sequence repeats marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of genetic diversity, particularly in an introduced crop species, is crucial to the management and utilization of the genetic resources available. Using capillary electrophoresis system, microsatellite markers were used to determine genetic diversity in 574 accessions of cacao, Theobroma c...

  13. Determinacion de parámetros y simulación matemática del proceso de secado de cacao (Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Villamizar de Borrero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio sobre la producción de cacao en Colombia, y el incremento notable, debido principalmente al aumento en el área cultivada y a los mayores rendimientos por hectárea obtenidos.

  14. POPULATION OF HELICOTYLENCHUS sp AND APHELENCHUS sp NEMATODES IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF CACAO (Theobroma cacao L.) UNDER TRADITIONAL AND IMPROVED FOREST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematode population associated with cocoa rhizosphere was investigated at field experiment at Tropical Crop Institute (ICT) Tarapoto, San Martin-Peru. This study was carried out under two cacao management systems: traditional management system (ST) and under improved forest management system (SBB). ...

  15. Social y culturalmente ambiguos: criollos-mestizos de Tucumán, siglo XVII Socially and culturally ambiguous: criollo-mestizo population of Tucumán (Argentina, 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Noli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la influencia de las sociedades indígenas sobre los descendientes de conquistadores españoles, los criollos. Se estudiará el caso de Juan Jordán de Trejo y los impedimentos presentados por una facción del cabildo de San Miguel de Tucumán a su admisión como teniente de gobernador. Este individuo descendía de una familia encomendera de Tafí, llamada Melián de Leguizamo y Guevara, pero pertenecía a una rama no favorecida del linaje y se desempeñaba como administrador de ese pueblo. Se indagará sobre las características de su mestizaje en el que destaca, a modo de espejo -de la españolización u occidentalización de los indios-, el manejo fluido de la lengua indígena, el conocimiento de las sociedades prehispánicas y sus territorios y el analfabetismo. Se analizará su rol como mediador interétnico (passeur culturel y las ventajas y obstáculos de este perfil en distintas coyunturas para el desempeño social y político en el grupo dominante.This article analyzes the influence of indigenous societies on the descendants of Spanish conquistadors, known as criollos. The subject is approached through a case study which shows how a faction of San Miguel de Tucumán town council (cabildo tried to prevent the admission of Juan Jordán de Trejo as deputy governor (teniente de gobernador. He belonged to the Melián de Leguizamo y Guevara family, owners of encomiendas in Tafí, but his lower lineage made him served as the town's administrator. Specific characteristics of his intercultural persona resembling a mirror image -referred to as Spanishization or Westernization of the Indians- will be studied, including his fluency in the indigenous language, his knowledge of pre-Hispanic societies and their territories and his illiteracy. His role as interethnic mediator (passeur culturel, and the advantages and drawbacks such a profile presents at different junctures, for social and political participation in the dominant

  16. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg−1) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg−1, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg−1. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg−1), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg−1, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil Cd contamination is likely

  17. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); He, Z.L., E-mail: zhe@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Stoffella, P.J. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Mylavarapu, R.S. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL 33611 (United States); Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Moyano, B. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); Baligar, V.C. [United State Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg{sup −1}) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg{sup −1}. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg{sup −1}), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg{sup −1}, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil

  18. Use of radio-active phosphorus in determining the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by cacao plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both 32P labelled phosphate solution and superphosphate were used in studying 1) in situ root distribution and activity of twenty year old Amelonado cacao (Theobroma Cacao L.) during wet and dry seasons, and 2) the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by the cacao plantation. The 32P content of the leaves was used to determine patterns of root activity. Uptake of 32P was greatest during the wet season and root activity highest within the upper 3 cm soil layer in both wet and dry seasons. Highest 32P activity was obtained at a distance of 120-160 cm, and lowest at 91 cm from the base of the tree. For maximum utilization of phosphate fertilizer by a plantation of twenty year old Amelonado cacao, planted at 240 cm x 240 cm spacing, the fertilizer should be broadcast during the wet season. Under low soil moisture conditions, the placement of 32P labelled superphosphate provides information on the relative availability of fertilizer or soil phosphorus and does not necessarily reflect the activity of the root profile. Active roots of cacao tend to be more extensive and are capable of exploring a much larger area than hitherto expected

  19. The CACAO Method for Smoothing, Gap Filling, and Characterizing Seasonal Anomalies in Satellite Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Aleixandre; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Kandasamy, S.; Vermote, E.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent, continuous, and long time series of global biophysical variables derived from satellite data are required for global change research. A novel climatology fitting approach called CACAO (Consistent Adjustment of the Climatology to Actual Observations) is proposed to reduce noise and fill gaps in time series by scaling and shifting the seasonal climatological patterns to the actual observations. The shift and scale CACAO parameters adjusted for each season allow quantifying shifts in the timing of seasonal phenology and inter-annual variations in magnitude as compared to the average climatology. CACAO was assessed first over simulated daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) time series with varying fractions of missing data and noise. Then, performances were analyzed over actual satellite LAI products derived from AVHRR Long-Term Data Record for the 1981-2000 period over the BELMANIP2 globally representative sample of sites. Comparison with two widely used temporal filtering methods-the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) model and the Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter as implemented in TIMESAT-revealed that CACAO achieved better performances for smoothing AVHRR time series characterized by high level of noise and frequent missing observations. The resulting smoothed time series captures well the vegetation dynamics and shows no gaps as compared to the 50-60% of still missing data after AG or SG reconstructions. Results of simulation experiments as well as confrontation with actual AVHRR time series indicate that the proposed CACAO method is more robust to noise and missing data than AG and SG methods for phenology extraction.

  20. Cacao diseases: a global perspective from an industry point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Prakash K

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Diseases of cacao, Theobroma cacao, account for losses of more than 30% of the potential crop. These losses have caused a steady decline in production and a reduction in bean quality in almost all the cacao-producing areas in the world, especially in small-holder farms in Latin America and West Africa. The most significant diseases are witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa, which occurs mainly in South America; frosty pod rot, caused by M. roreri, which occurs mainly in Central and northern South America; and black pod disease, caused by several species of Phytophthora, which are distributed throughout the tropics. In view of the threat that these diseases pose to the sustainability of the cacao crop, Mars Inc. and their industry partners have funded collaborative research involving cacao research institutes and governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The objective of this global initiative is to develop short- to medium-term, low-cost, environmentally friendly disease-management strategies until disease tolerant varieties are widely available. These include good farming practices, biological control and the rational or minimal use of chemicals that could be used for integrated pest management (IPM). Farmer field schools are used to get these technologies to growers. This paper describes some of the key collaborative partners and projects that are underway in South America and West Africa. PMID:18943730

  1. Sieving Effect of Sorting Machine with Vibration Table Type on Cacao Pod Based Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswoyo Soekarno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cacao pod is the biggest part (70% of weight of Cacao, which was not optimaly utilized.Cacao podis one of organic material that can be functioned as an organic fertilizer, such as compost. When utilizedwith right proportion, organic fertilizer is safe for plants and not degrades the soil composition. Compostingprocess is one of utilization form of Cacao pod. The size reduction of cacao pod in the organic fertilizerprocess would help to accelerate the composting process. Smaller particle size would faster interacting withenvironment, so the composting process would be well accelerated if compared to the material with biggersize. Chopping machine of Cacao pod is used to cut the biomass to be small particle in order to be able tobe utilized as some important necessity, i.e. fertilizer or farm animals feed. However, Varies compost sizewas one of the problems faced in the composting process. Therefore, the sorting process was needed tobe done after chopping process, so the compost size became uniform and fulfill the user demand. Thisresearch was aimed at knowing the slope effect of sorting machine and rotation speed (RPM. The methodused in analyzing the results of this research was comparing the treatment factors, which are shown withhistogram. As the super small size of compost recommended for applying in the fertilizing process, so theoptimum treatment combination for having high mass fraction of SS compost grade was achieved at 12oslope of sieve table and 1400 RPM motor rotation speed. As bigger the particle densities of the compostsize as smaller the compost porosity. Mass loss was very low at all treatment combination with the valuearound 0.43-1.33%, so the sieving efficiency can be said very high.

  2. Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao L.Drying Kinetics Cinética del Secado de Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukwu MacManus Chinenye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is widely produced in West Africa and South America and is a great economic tree crop, with so many industrial uses. In this work, the experimental drying kinetics of foreign species was investigated, and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions, using heated batch drier at 55, 70 and 81 ºC. The moisture ratio data obtained from change of moisture content with the drying time was fit to two thin layer drying model with good results. A faster drying process was observed at a higher drying temperature resulting in higher drying rates which is advantageous when evaluating costs. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to predict effective diffusivity using experimental data assuming that the variation of diffusivity with temperature can be expressed by an Arrhenius type function, and the values of diffusivity obtained ranged from 6.137 x 10-10 to 2.1855 x 10-9 m2 s-1 for the temperature used. The Arrhenius constant (D is predicted at 8.64 x 10-4 m2 s-1 while the activation energy was predicted at 39.94 kJ mol-1.El cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es ampliamente producido en el Oeste de África y Sudamérica y es un cultivo de gran importancia económica, con muchos usos industriales. En este trabajo se investigó la cinética del secado experimental de especies foráneas, y se realizaron experimentos bajo condiciones isotérmicas, usando un secador discontinuo en caliente a 55, 70 y 81 °C. Los datos de relación de humedad obtenidos desde el cambio de contenido de humedad con el tiempo de secado se ajustaron a un modelo de secado de dos capas delgadas con buenos resultados. Se observó un proceso de secado más rápido a una temperatura de secado mayor resultando en mayores tasas de secado, lo que es ventajoso al evaluar costos. La segunda ley de difusión de Fick se usó para predecir difusividad efectiva usando datos experimentales, asumiendo que la variación de difusividad con la temperatura puede ser

  3. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIMÉNEZ ROBAYO LIGIA MERCEDES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.

  4. Respon pertumbuhan bibit kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap pemberian pupuk guano dan KCl

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagukguk, Pispa

    2015-01-01

    Addition of Guano in Cultivation of Cacao Seedling is the one of step to use organic fertilizer that comes from animal feces in the world. For that purpose addition guano aims to increase growth of Cacao in Cultivation of Seedling. This research had been conducted at experimental field of Fakultas Pertanian USU in October 2013 - January 2014 using factorial randomized block design with two factor, i.e. addition dose of Guano (0, 75 , 150 , 225 g/polibag) and dose of KCl (0 , ...

  5. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential. PMID:23250409

  6. Dissimilarity of Ant Communities Increases with Precipitation, but not Reduced Land-Use Intensity, in Indonesian Cacao Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Buchori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Land-use degradation and climate change are well-known drivers of biodiversity loss, but little information is available about their potential interaction. Here, we focus on the effects of land-use and precipitation on ant diversity in cacao agroforestry. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, we selected 16 cacao agroforestry plots with a shaded vs. unshaded plot in each of eight villages differing in precipitation (1032–2051 mm annual rainfall. On each plot, 10 cacao trees with similar size and age (7–10 years were selected for hand collection of ants on each cacao tree and the soil surface. In total, we found 80 ant species belonging to five subfamilies. Land-use intensification (removal of shade trees and precipitation had no effect on species richness of ants per cacao tree (alpha diversity and, in an additive partitioning approach, within-plot beta diversity. However, higher precipitation (but not shade significantly increased ant species dissimilarity across cacao trees within a plot, with ant species showing contrasting responses to precipitation. Reduced precipitation causing drought stress appeared to contribute to convergence of ant community structure, presumably via reduced heterogeneity in cacao tree growth. In conclusion, reduced precipitation greatly influenced ant community dissimilarity and appeared to be more important for ant community structure than land-use intensification.

  7. Cacau "Jaca" resistente a Ceratocystis fimbriata na região cacaueira da Bahia, Brasil Resistance of cacao "Jaca" to Ceratocystis fimbriata in the cacao growing region of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Stela Dalva V. M. Silva; Márcia Cristina Paim; Wildson M. Castro

    2004-01-01

    Cento quarenta e quatro genótipos de cacaueiros (Theobroma cacao) testados "in vitro", apresentaram-se suscetíveis a altamente suscetíveis ao isolado 2591 de Ceratocystis fimbriata na Bahia. A variedade conhecida como cacau "Jaca" foi o material genético que apresentou maior resistência ao patógeno entre todos os materias testados.One hundred and forty four cacao (Theobroma cacao) genotypes testified "in vitro", showed susceptibility to high susceptibility to the isolate 2591 of Ceratocystis ...

  8. Efecto del colesterol y la dimetilformamida sobre parámetros posdescongelación en espermatozoides de caballos criollos colombianos

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M Mesa; Guillermo Henao R.

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Evaluar el efecto del colesterol y la dimetilformamida (DMF) sobre la criosupervivencia del semen de caballos criollos colombianos. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectó semen de diez caballos y se congeló bajo el mismo protocolo, con variaciones del crioprotector (glicerol 5% o DMF 5%) y la adición o ausencia de colesterol como modificador de membrana (1.5 mg ciclodextrinas con colesterol por cada 120 x 106 células). La criosupervivencia se evaluó estimando movilidad mediante e...

  9. Un Dilema imperial: criollos o peninsulares en el gobierno virreinal: Estudio de la incidencia de la venalidad en la Real Audiencia de M??xico (1701-1725)

    OpenAIRE

    Garc??a Garc??a, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    La tesis estudia c??mo el gobierno de Felipe V durante los a??os de la Guerra de Sucesi??nsuper?? los obst??culos que imped??an la designaci??n de los criollos para una instituci??nclave en el gobierno del Nuevo Mundo, la Real Audiencia de M??xico. Se explica c??mola Corona blandi?? el discurso financiero, la ???p??blica necesidad???, para conseguir unafinalidad pol??tica: la implicaci??n de los americanos en el gobierno del virreinato. Deesta manera, la autoridad real se impuso sobre institu...

  10. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  11. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio Solano Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la 'escoba de bruja' en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presen- ta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cer- canas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Trans- cribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evi- dente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de

    0.6143 y un Indice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a

    alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  12. El polisulfuro de calcio en el manejo de la moniliasis Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al. del cacao Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El cacao es severamente afectado por el hongo Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al., el cual daña los frutos y puede ocasionar pérdidas totales y su control es principalmente cultural. El objetivo del trabajo es determinar la efectividad del polisulfuro de calcio (PC como alternativa para su manejo. El patógeno fue aislado y cultivado in vitro y se evaluó el efecto del PC sobre la germinación y formación de conidias; en el campo, sobre frutos se asperjó PC antes y después de la inoculación con M. roreri y se determinó la incidencia e índices de severidad interna y externa. En una plantación de cacao se asperjó PC y se determinó su incidencia y producción. El PC in vitro inhibió el crecimiento y la formación de conidias; la aplicación de PC antes o después de la inoculación artificial con M. roreri sobre frutos inhibe completamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad; con aspersiones de PC en plantaciones de cacao la incidencia de la enfermedad fue de 0,53%, mientras que fue de 21% con manejo cultural y del 69,6% con testigo de inoculación natural; la producción de cacao seco/año fue de un 90,6% más con PC que en el testigo de inoculación natural, por lo que resulta viable integrar PC en el manejo deM. roreri.

  13. Evaluación del potencial biofertilizante de bacterias diazótrofas aisladas de suelos con cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zulay Argüello-Navarro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La adaptabilidad del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en condiciones adversas permite sugerir que la microbiota asociada con la rizosfera desempeña una función importante para la nutrición y el desarrollo de la planta. En el trabajo se evaluó el potencial biofertilizante de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno (diazótrofas aisladas de suelos cacaoteros por la técnica de diluciones seriadas. Las bacterias se aislaron en medios semiselectivos (NFb, JMV, LGI, JNFb. Los aislados puros se caracterizaron morfológica y bioquímicamente y complementariamente se evaluó la capacidad de fijación biológica de nitrógeno (FBN por el método de Micro-Kjeldahl. Los aislados con mejor capacidad de fijación de nitrógeno fueron seleccionados para evaluar su potencial promotor de crecimiento durante 120 días en plantas de cacao clon CCN 51 establecidas a partir de semillas. El análisis de datos mostró que las plantas de cacao respondieron efectivamente a los tratamientos con bacterias donde las variables de crecimiento y N (% foliar incrementaron significativamente, en comparación con el testigo. Se destacó el aporte de los aislados DKA2J24, DKB3J73 presuntamente del género Burkholderia sp. y DKA1L3 semejante al género Gluconacetobacter sp., todos con un gran potencial como biofertilizantes en la prueba de bioensayo.

  14. Algunas Observaciones sobre el Desecamiento del Grano de Cacao Bajo Diferentes Condiciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platone E.

    1949-12-01

    Full Text Available Las diversas modalidades del proceso de desecamiento del cacao fermentado (con tal de que la temperatura de desecamiento no sea muy elevada tienen escasa influencia sobre la calidad aparente del grano, a condición desde luego, de que el proceso sea llevado hasta lograr un mismo porcentaje de humedad en los granos. Ya se sabía que, aparentemente, debería preferirse el desecamiento artificial, al natural, por cuanto se logra un mejor control de la temperatura y de otras condiciones del proceso. En realidad, los fabricantes prefieren, en igualdad de condiciones, el cacao desecado al sol. A este propósito había sido establecido por la Oficina Internacional de Fabricantes de Cacao y Chocolate, según dice Knapp (ya citado, que el cacao que hubiese sido secado a más de 50°C, fuera específicamente rotulado como "desecado artificialmente". Sin embargo, el desecamiento al sol significa ordinariamente para los granos, una temperatura notoriamente superior a dichos 50oC, aunque por lo regular no suprior a 60°C.

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of cacao landraces in Northern and Central coastal Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge about genetic diversity among the landraces is essential for developing on-farm conservation strategy in modern agroecosystems. The “arriba” cacao is a group of landraces that are still used today for cacaoa production in the coastal plains and valleys of Ecuador. The strongly rising deman...

  16. Una virosis del cacao en colombia y en la república dominicana

    OpenAIRE

    Ciferri Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Se describe la sintomatología de una nueva enfermedad del cacao, llamada "hoja estrecha abollada", cuya naturaleza virosa ha sido establecida mediante la transmisión por injerto y cuya distribución geográfica, hasta la fecha, abarca la República Dominicana y el Valle del Cauca, en Colombia.

  17. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain 629, an Endophyte from Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantAnna, Brena M M; Marbach, Phellippe P A; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; De Souza, Jorge T; Roque, Milton R A; Queiroz, Artur T L

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain 629 is an endophyte isolated from Theobroma cacao L. Here, we report the draft genome sequence (3.9 Mb) of B. amyloliquefaciens strain 629 containing 16 contigs (3,903,367 bp), 3,912 coding sequences, and an average 46.5% G+C content. PMID:26586881

  18. Theobroma cacao: A genetically integrated physical map and genome-scale comparative synteny analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive integrated genomic framework is considered a centerpiece of genomic research. In collaboration with the USDA-ARS (SHRS) and Mars Inc., the Clemson University Genomics Institute (CUGI) has developed a genetically anchored physical map of the T. cacao genome. Three BAC libraries contai...

  19. Extracción de pectinas a partir de los subproductos del beneficio del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt Latorre, Lucas D.; Llano Moreno, Juan E.

    2009-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó la posibilidad de obtener pectinas a partir de los subproductos del proceso del beneficio del cacao. Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo en el laboratorio de desarrollo de productos del departamento de ingeniería de procesos de la Universidad EAFIT.

  20. DYNAMICS OF NEMATODE POPULATIONS IN CACAO GROWN UNDER TRADIONALLY SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT IN PERUVIAN AMAZON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature of crops and management systems greatly influences population dynamics of parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes in soil. An experiment was undertaken at Tropical Crop Research institute (ICT), Tarapoto, Peru to assess the population dynamics of nematodes in a Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)-Banana ...

  1. Mining of expressed sequence tag libraries of cacao for microsatellite markers using five computational tools

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aikkal Riju; M. K. Rajesh; P. T. P. Fasila Sherin; A. Chandrasekar; S. Elain Apshara; Vadivel Arunachalam

    2009-08-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide researchers with a quick and inexpensive route for discovering new genes, data on gene expression and regulation, and also provide genic markers that help in constructing genome maps. Cacao is an important perennial crop of humid tropics. Cacao EST sequences, as available in the public domain, were downloaded and made into contigs. Microsatellites were located in these ESTs and contigs using five softwares (MISA, TRA, TROLL, SSRIT and SSR primer). MISA gave maximum coverage of SSRs in cacao ESTs and contigs, although TRA was able to detect higher order (>5-mer) repeats. The frequency of SSRs was one per 26.9 kb in the known set of ESTs. One-third of the repeats in EST-contigs were found to be trimeric. A few rare repeats like 21-mer repeat were also located. A/T repeats were most abundant among the mononucleotide repeats and the AG/GA/TC/CT type was the most frequent among dimerics. Flanking primers were designed using Primer3 program and verified experimentally for PCR amplification. The results of the study are made available freely online database (http://riju.byethost31.com/cocoa/). Seven primer pairs amplified genomic DNA isolated from leaves were used to screen a representative set of 12 accessions of cacao.

  2. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  3. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  4. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  5. Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L.) germplasm collection from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao L. with its center of diversity in Central and South America was first introduced to West Africa in the mid-19th century and today the region produces 70% of the world's cocoa. Several distinct cocoa types have been introduced, cultivated and intercrossed across the region. Also, bi-...

  6. Cacau "Jaca" resistente a Ceratocystis fimbriata na região cacaueira da Bahia, Brasil Resistance of cacao "Jaca" to Ceratocystis fimbriata in the cacao growing region of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Dalva V. M. Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cento quarenta e quatro genótipos de cacaueiros (Theobroma cacao testados "in vitro", apresentaram-se suscetíveis a altamente suscetíveis ao isolado 2591 de Ceratocystis fimbriata na Bahia. A variedade conhecida como cacau "Jaca" foi o material genético que apresentou maior resistência ao patógeno entre todos os materias testados.One hundred and forty four cacao (Theobroma cacao genotypes testified "in vitro", showed susceptibility to high susceptibility to the isolate 2591 of Ceratocystis fimbriata in Bahia. The variety known, as cacao "Jaca" was the more genetic material that showed resistance to the pathogen among all the materials tested.

  7. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere of the major land use types of the tropical rain forest margin area in South East Asia and quantification of the impact that land use change from undisturbed primary rain forest to pasture has on these interactions is task of subprogramme B1 within the DFG-funded project STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins). In order to fulfill the projects tasks the different major land use types have to be investigated and each ecosystem characterized one by one and compared to a reference site in an undisturbed primary rain forest, to see the changes in the atmosphere-biospheric interactions, i. e. in water and carbon household, with land use change and thus the impact on regional climate. One of the major land use types in the valleys around the Lore Lindu National Park on Sulawesi are Cacao plantations, Theobroma cacao. A site in the Palolo valley near the village Nopu was chosen as research site since the area there is covered with small Cacao fields which form to one big area of Cacao and matches the requirements of the applied research approach. Since Cacao trees need to be shaded especially when younger, shadow trees had been planted and trees of the former forest had been left standing to serve as wind breaks and sun shades. The plantations in Nopu, Palolo valley, consist not only of fields of cultivated Cacao, but also serve as environment and home to the farmers and their families. The whole area of Cacao plantation is interspersed with wooden farm houses, which are also sources of carbon dioxide due to cooking or small power plants etc. and thus have to be taken into account when looking at the carbon household of this specific ecosystem. An estimation of the components of the carbon and water household and the contribution of the humans living within this environment to the carbon household of Cacao plantations of this ecosystem is subject of this presentation. From December 2001 until April 2002

  8. Caracterización química foliar de los árboles de aguacate criollo (Persea americana var. drymifolia) en los bancos de germoplasma de Michoacán, México Foliar chemical caracterization of the creole avocado trees (Persea americana var. drymifolia) in the germplasm banks from Michoacán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia A. Rincón-Hernández; José De La Luz Sánchez Pérez; Espinosa-García, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    Persea americana var. drymifolia (aguacate criollo mexicano) se emplea como portainjerto en huertos de aguacate Hass y es fuente de genes de resistencia a plagas y patógenos para éste y otros cultivares. El aguacate criollo mexicano se está sustituyendo por cultivares comerciales o perdiendo por la destrucción de ecosistemas. Por eso, se estudiaron 250 árboles (52 accesiones de 14 estados de México); 247 de criollo mexicano y 3 híbridos de éste con P.shiedeana, P. americana var. americana y P...

  9. Unique haplotypes of cacao trees as revealed by trnH-psbA chloroplast DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-López, Nidia; Ovando-Medina, Isidro; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Avendaño-Arrazate, Carlos H; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cacao trees have been cultivated in Mesoamerica for at least 4,000 years. In this study, we analyzed sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnH-psbA intergenic spacer from 28 cacao trees from different farms in the Soconusco region in southern Mexico. Genetic relationships were established by two analysis approaches based on geographic origin (five populations) and genetic origin (based on a previous study). We identified six polymorphic sites, including five insertion/deletion (indels) types and one transversion. The overall nucleotide diversity was low for both approaches (geographic = 0.0032 and genetic = 0.0038). Conversely, we obtained moderate to high haplotype diversity (0.66 and 0.80) with 10 and 12 haplotypes, respectively. The common haplotype (H1) for both networks included cacao trees from all geographic locations (geographic approach) and four genetic groups (genetic approach). This common haplotype (ancient) derived a set of intermediate haplotypes and singletons interconnected by one or two mutational steps, which suggested directional selection and event purification from the expansion of narrow populations. Cacao trees from Soconusco region were grouped into one cluster without any evidence of subclustering based on AMOVA (F ST = 0) and SAMOVA (F ST = 0.04393) results. One population (Mazatán) showed a high haplotype frequency; thus, this population could be considered an important reservoir of genetic material. The indels located in the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer of cacao trees could be useful as markers for the development of DNA barcoding. PMID:27076998

  10. Molecular, physiological and morphological analysis of waterlogging tolerance in clonal genotypes of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolde, Fabiana Zanelato; De Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Baligar, Virupax C; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2010-01-01

    In soil, anoxia conditions generated by waterlogging induce changes in genetic, morphological and physiological processes, altering the growth and development of plants. Mass propagation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantlets (clones) is affected by waterlogging caused by heavy rains and irrigation methods used to induce rooting. An experiment was undertaken to assess the effects of a 45-day flooding (anoxia) on physiological and morphological traits of 35 elite cacao genotypes, aiming at potentially identifying those with greater tolerance to flooding of the growth substrate. Eighteen fluorochrome-labeled microsatellite (SSR) primer pairs were used to assess genetic variability among clones, with 248 alleles being amplified and used to calculate similarity coefficients. The resulting dendrogram indicated the presence of four major groups, in which two represented 60% and 31% of the genotypes tested. A general trend toward high levels of heterozygosity was also found for physiological and morphological traits. The survival index (IS) for flood tolerance observed varied from 30 to 96%. Clones TSA-654, TSA-656, TSA-792, CA-1.4, CEPEC-2009 and PH-17 showed an IS value above 94%, whereas CEPEC-2010, CEPEC-2002, CA-7.1 and VB-903 clones were those mostly affected by waterlogging, with IS value below 56%. All genotypes displayed lenticel and adventitious root formation in response to waterlogging, although with different intensities. To determine whether patterns of physiological response could be associated with tolerance to anoxia, a similarity-grouping analysis was performed using the ratio between waterlogged and control values obtained for a series of physiological variables assessed. No specific pattern of physiological and morphological responses to waterlogging was strictly associated with survival of plantlets. However, results revealed by the dendrogram suggest that absence of leaf chlorosis may be a proper trait to indicate cacao clones with higher survival

  11. Substitusi Dedak Padi Dengan Pod Kakao(Theobroma cacao L) Dipermentasi Dengan Rhizopus SP, Saccharomyces SP, Lactobacilus SP Terhadap Performans Ternak Babi Perternakan Larance Jantan

    OpenAIRE

    Bornok Venantius P.

    2013-01-01

    BORNOK VENANTIUS P: Substitution of rice bran with cacao pods fermented by Rhizopus sp, Saccharomyces sp and Lactobacillus sp to performance of male croosbred Landrace swine. Under the supervision by NURZAINNAH GINTING and ISKANDAR SEMBIRING. Cacao pods fermented can be used as an alternative feed a substitution of rice bran for its capacity to improve performance during growth. The objective of this research was to prove potention of cacao pods fermented, which can be seen from consumptio...

  12. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4

    OpenAIRE

    Thyago Hermylly Santana Cardoso; Ana Camila Oliveira Freitas; Bruno Silva Andrade; Aurizangela Oliveira de Sousa; André da Silva Santiago; Daniela Martins Koop; Karina Peres Gramacho; Fátima Cerqueira Alvim; Fabienne Micheli; Carlos Priminho Pirovani

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during...

  13. Avaliação da superfície da porcelana após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos Porcelain surface evaluation after debonding of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Moreira Mattos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tempo de condicionamento ácido em superfície de porcelana e o estado desta após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizadas 20 amostras de porcelana feldspática para esmalte (Duceram-LFC divididas em 2 grupos de acordo com o tempo de condicionamento com ácido fluorídico 10% (15 segundos e 1 minuto. Após o ataque ácido, foi aplicado silano (3M Scotchbond, adesivo resinoso (Optibond Solo Plus e resina (Fill Magic nestas superfícies. A descolagem foi realizada através de força de cisalhamento numa máquina universal de ensaios (DL 500 - EMIC calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/minuto. O índice do adesivo remanescente (ARI nas superfícies cerâmicas e o estado destas após a remoção dos braquetes foram avaliados através de fotos digitais. RESULTADOS: no grupo 15 segundos, a força de adesão média foi de 3,63MPa, significantemente inferior à do grupo 1 minuto, que foi de 7,18MPa (pAIM: the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acid conditioning time in porcelain surface and its characteristics after debonding of orthodontic brackets. METHODS: twenty samples of feldspathic porcelain for enamel (Duceram-LFC were divided in 2 groups according with the amount of time of acid conditioning with hydrofluoric acid 10% (15 seconds and 1 minute. After acid etching, it was applied silane (3M Scotchbond, adhesive (Optibond Solo Plus and resin (Fill Magic in these surfaces. The debonding was done with shear strength through a universal testing machine (DL 500 - EMIC calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5mm/minute. The adhesive remnant index (ARI in the porcelain surfaces and their characteristics after removal of the brackets were evaluated through digital pictures. RESULTS: in the 15 seconds group, the mean bond strength was 3.63Mpa, significantly lower than the 1 minute group, that was 7.18Mpa (p<0.0001. All fractures during debonding

  14. Functional analysis of the theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1 that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response. After pathogen infection and in response to salicylic acid (SA accumulation, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it interacts with other transcription factors resulting in increased expression of over 2000 plant defense genes contributing to a pathogen resistance response. Results A putative Theobroma cacao NPR1 cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR using degenerate primers based on homologous sequences from Brassica, Arabidopsis and Carica papaya. The cDNA was used to isolate a genomic clone from Theobroma cacao containing a putative TcNPR1 gene. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of a 4.5 kb coding region containing three introns and encoding a polypeptide of 591 amino acids. The predicted TcNPR1 protein shares 55% identity and 78% similarity to Arabidopsis NPR1, and contains each of the highly conserved functional domains indicative of this class of transcription factors (BTB/POZ and ankyrin repeat protein-protein interaction domains and a nuclear localization sequence (NLS. To functionally define the TcNPR1 gene, we transferred TcNPR1 into an Arabidopsis npr1 mutant that is highly susceptible to infection by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, the cacao TcNPR1 gene partially complemented the npr1 mutation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, resulting in 100 fold less bacterial growth in a leaf infection assay. Upon induction with SA, TcNPR1 was shown to translocate into the nucleus of leaf and root cells in a manner identical to Arabidopsis NPR1. Cacao NPR1 was also capable of participating in SA-JA signaling crosstalk, as evidenced by the suppression of JA responsive gene expression in TcNPR1 overexpressing transgenic plants. Conclusion Our data indicate that the TcNPR1 is a functional

  15. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; Pcacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. PMID:26172587

  16. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao y coco (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Jiménez Vera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco, aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de fermentación y a los 12 días se obtuvo una concentración de 2,20 log UFC/g. En las bacterias lácticas se observó el mayor crecimiento; ellas alcanzaron una concentración de 8,00 log UFC/g a los 3 días de fermentación que se mantuvo durante los 9 días siguientes. Se realizaron pruebas de nivel de agrado y preferencia con 31 jueces consumidores. La adición de ingredientes como el cacao o el coco no mejoraron el nivel de agrado entre los consumidores evaluados (p > 0,05. El pozol blanco y fresco fue el preferido (32 %. En el futuro, estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para clasificar al pozol como una bebida funcional, debido a la presencia de bacterias lácticas en concentración similar a la encontrada en el yogur.

  17. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao y coco (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Jiménez Vera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco, aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de fermentación y a los 12 días se obtuvo una concentración de 2,20 log UFC/g. En las bacterias lácticas se observó el mayor crecimiento; ellas alcanzaron una concentración de 8,00 log UFC/g a los 3 días de fermentación que se mantuvo durante los 9 días siguientes. Se realizaron pruebas de nivel de agrado y preferencia con 31 jueces consumidores. La adición de ingredientes como el cacao o el coco no mejoraron el nivel de agrado entre los consumidores evaluados (p > 0,05. El pozol blanco y fresco fue el preferido (32 %. En el futuro, estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para clasificar al pozol como una bebida funcional, debido a la presencia de bacterias lácticas en concentración similar a la encontrada en el yogur.

  18. Estimación Del Peso Corporal Del Caballo Criollo Mediante Medidas Morfométricas: Validación De Ecuaciones Publicadas Para Otras Razas Y Desarrollo De Nueva Formula - Assessment of body weight of the Criollo horse using morphometric measurements: confirmation of published equations for other breeds and development of a new formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Neder, A.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl conocimiento del peso de un caballo es importante en el desarrollo de los programas de alimentación, dosificación de medicamentos y en laevaluación del crecimiento de los potrillos. Existen varias fórmulas para estimar el peso de un caballo a partir de medidas corporales como el perímetro torácico, perímetro umbilical, largo y alzada del caballo, pero no existe ningún estudio sobre la aplicabilidad de estas fórmulas a la raza Criolla. En el presente estudio se registraron 5 medidas morfométricas (perímetro torácico, perímetro umbilical, largo al encuentro, largo al olécranon y alzada y el peso de 42 caballos de raza Criolla de ambos sexos, de por lo menos 2 años de edad. El peso de cada animal fue estimado a partir de las medidas morfométricas utilizando 9 ecuaciones disponibles en bibliografía. Ninguna de dichas ecuaciones ajustó satisfactoriamente al peso real (p<0,01. La fórmula de Caroll y Huntington y su modificada, son las que más se aproximan al peso real para esta raza. A partir de estas, se obtuvo una nueva ecuación que se ajusta mejor al peso real de caballos Criollos.SummaryKnowing the body weight of a horse is important in the development offeeding programs, drug dosage and evaluation of foal growth.There are several formulae to estimate body weight from horse bodymeasurements such as chest girth, umbilical girth, length and height at withers, but no such study, applied to Criollo breed, exists.In the present study, five morphometric measurements (chest girth,umbilical girth, length to the point of shoulder, length to the olecranon and height at withers and the body weight of forty two Criollo horses, of both genders, at least two years old, were recorded. From the morphometric measurements, the body weight of each animal was studied, using nine equations found in the references. None of these equations satisfactory adjust to real weight (p<0,01. The Caroll and Huntington formula and the modified one

  19. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-02-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. PMID:27019680

  20. Genetic molecular diversity, production and resistance to witches’ broom in cacao clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pires

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 32 cacao clones selected as being resistant following the witches’ broom epidemic and for having distinct productivitywere characterized according to their genetic diversity and were submitted to a new selection. These plants were assessed for eightyears at the Oceania Farm (FO in Itagibá, Bahia, Brazil. The 13 microsatellite primers generated an average of 11.7 amplicons perlocus, and based on them it was demonstrated that the 32 clones distribute themselves in groups apart from the nine clones used ascontrols. The 32 materials displayed significant differences in relation to the characters assessed in the field. Two criteria were formedfrom the classification of the most productive and resistant plants, and then used to select plants within the clusters. The selected plantsdisplayed potential for the cacao improvement program, that they have a high production and high resistance to witches’ broom.

  1. Las enfermedades del cacao como un componente del sistema de producción del cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    EI manejo de las enfermedades de un cultivo, en su contexto más amplio debe considerarse como un componente del sistema de producción. Esta generalización, en el caso de la producción de cacao, significa que los procesos patológicos deberán interpretarse y manejarse dentro de las condiciones culturales, ecológicas y socio-económicas del media tropical colombiano.

  2. Diallel Analysis and Growth Parameters as Selection Tools for Drought Tolerance in Young Theobroma cacao Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Emerson Alves; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Ahnert, Dario; Branco, Marcia Christina da Silva; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the combining ability, of T. cacao genotypes preselected for drought tolerance through diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design, in an experimental arrangement 21 x 2 [21 complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and stressed)]. In the control, soil moisture was kept close to field capacity, with predawn leaf water potential (ΨWL) ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 MPa. In the drought regime, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by decreasing the amount of water application until ΨWL reached -2.0 to -2.5 MPa. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for most morphological attributes analyzed regarding progenies, water regime and their interactions. The results of the joint diallel analysis revealed significant effects between general combining ability (GCA) x water regimes and between specific combining ability (SCA) x water regimes. The SCA 6 genetic material showed high general combining ability for growth variables regardless of the water regime. In general, the water deficit influenced the production of biomass in most of the evaluated T. cacao crosses, except for SCA-6 x IMC-67, Catongo x SCA, MOC-01 x Catongo, Catongo x IMC-67 and RB-40 x Catongo. Multivariate analysis showed that stem diameter (CD), total leaf area (TLA), leaf dry biomass (LDB), stem dry biomass (SDB), root dry biomass (RDB), total dry biomass (TDB), root length (RL), root volume (RV), root diameter (RD) <1 mm and 1 <(RD) <2 mm were the most important growth parameters in the separation of T. cacao genotypes in to tolerant and intolerant to soil water deficit. PMID:27504627

  3. Water relations and gas exchange in Theobroma cacao var. Guasare under periods of water deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Rada, F.; R. E. Jaimez; C. García-Núñez; A. Azócar; M. E. Ramírez

    2005-01-01

    Water relations and gas exchange of Theobroma cacao var. Guasare under periods of water deficit were evaluated. Microclimatic characteristics (air temperature, relative humidity and photosynthetically active radiation), leaf gas exchange (stomatal conductance, transpiration and CO2 assimilation rates) and leaf water potential were measured throughout the day in plants subjected to 3, 12 and 25 days without water. Pressure-volume curves were used to determine osmotic potential at turgor loss. ...

  4. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Julie; Payne Mark J; Hurst Jeffrey W; Preston Amy G; Crozier Stephen J; Hainly Larry; Miller Debra L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder...

  5. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert...

  6. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Bryan A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD in cacao (Theobroma cacao. It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin. Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa/cacao

  7. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

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    Zainal Baharum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50 was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  8. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population ma...

  9. De mestizos y criollos en la Compañía de Jesús (Perú, siglos XVI-XVII

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    Coello de la Rosa, Alexandre

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the policies of the Society of Jesus in the 16th and 17th centuries regarding the ordination of mestizos and the doctrine of purity of the blood as an attempt of the Peruvian Jesuit authorities to keep the “impure” away from the centers of power. Mestizos were always suspected of jeopardizing the necessary hierarchy which stratified the colonial order. From this premise, I will try to prove that the exclusion of “Jesuit impure” had nothing to do with the mixing per se, but with the consolidation of the criollo as a social emerging category in Peru of the beginning at the 17th century.

    Este artículo analiza las políticas de la Compañía de Jesús en los siglos XVI y XVII con respecto a la ordenación de mestizos y a la doctrina de pureza de sangre como un intento por parte de las autoridades jesuitas peruanas de alejar a los «impuros» de los centros de poder. Los mestizos fueron siempre sospechosos de poner en peligro la jerarquía necesaria que estratificaba el orden colonial. Partiendo de esta premisa trataré de demostrar que la exclusión de los «impuros jesuitas» no tenía nada que ver con la mezcla per se, sino con la consolidación del criollo como categoría social emergente en el Perú de principios del siglo XVII.

  10. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Southern Sulawesi, Indonesia revealed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarti, Diny; Susilo, Agung W; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Ji, Kun; Motilal, Lambert A; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia is the third largest cocoa-producing country in the world. Knowledge of genetic diversity and parentage of farmer selections is important for effective selection and rational deployment of superior cacao clones in farmers' fields. We assessed genetic diversity and parentage of 53 farmer selections of cacao in Sulawesi, Indonesia, using 152 international clones as references. Cluster analysis, based on 15 microsatellite markers, showed that these Sulawesi farmer selections are mainly comprised of hybrids derived from Trinitario and two Upper Amazon Forastero groups. Bayesian assignment and likelihood-based parentage analysis further demonstrated that only a small number of germplasm groups, dominantly Trinitario and Parinari, contributed to these farmer selections, in spite of diverse parental clones having been used in the breeding program and seed gardens in Indonesia since the 1950s. The narrow parentage predicts a less durable host resistance to cacao diseases. Limited access of the farmers to diverse planting materials or the strong preference for large pods and large bean size by local farmers, may have affected the selection outcome. Diverse sources of resistance, harbored in different cacao germplasm groups, need to be effectively incorporated to broaden the on-farm diversity and ensure sustainable cacao production in Sulawesi. PMID:26719747

  11. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. PMID:26163705

  12. Optimization of the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage

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    Elena Chau Loo Kung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as main objective optimizing the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage. We obtained formulations of mixtures of cacao powder with different concentrations of 15%, 17.5% and 20%, as well as lecithin concentrations of 0.1%; 0.3%; and 0.5% maintaining a constant content of sugar (25 %, Vanillin (1% that included cacao powder with different pH values: natural (pH 5 and alkalinized (pH 6.5 and pH 8 and water by difference to 100%, generating a total of fifteen treatments to be evaluated, according to the Box-Behnen design for three factors. The treatments underwent satisfaction level tests to establish the general acceptability. The treatment that included cacao powder with a concentration of 17.5 %, pH 6.5 and lecithin concentration of 0.3 % obtained the best levels of acceptability. The software Statgraphics Plus 5.1 was used to obtain the treatment with maximum acceptability that corresponded to cacao powder with pH 6.81, with a concentration of 18.24 % and soy lecithin in 0.28% with a tendency to what was obtained in the satisfaction levels tests. Finally we characterized in a physical-chemistry and microbiological way the optimum formulation as well as evaluated sensitively obtaining an acceptability of 6.17.

  13. POLIMORFISMO DE MICROSATELITES EN INDIVIDUOS DE RAZAS DE BOVINO CRIOLLO COLOMBIANO Microsatellites polymorphism in individuals of Colombian Creole Cattle

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    JANETH ORTEGA TORRES

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el polimorfismo de tres sistemas microsatelitales (BMS 527, BMS 4440 y BMS 2113 en 5 razas de ganado bovino criollo colombianas: ROM (Romosinuano, BON (Blanco Orejinegro, CAS (Casanareño, SM (San Martinero CCC (Costeño con cuernos y dos razas foráneas: Cebú y Holstein. Se encontraron 38 alelos en 105 individuos estudiados y se reportan alelos únicos para BON, ROM, CCC y CAS. La heterocigosidad esperada total incluidas las dos razas foráneas fue de 0.7228, mientras que la observada osciló entre 0.3511 y 0.7787. Se evidenció desequilibrio de Hardy- Weinberg para algunas razas en dos sistemas microsatélitales, resultado probable de efectos de selección a los cuales las razas criollas y foráneas han estado sujetas. El análisis de diversas distancias genéticas mostró que la raza más distante fue la Cebú en relación a las colombianas y a Holstein y un cluster consistente que agrupa las razas HOL-ROM-CAS. Los análisis de mezcla sugieren que las razas criollas colombianas tienen mayor aporte genético de la raza Holstein (entre un 76 y un 88% que de Cebú (entre un 8 y un 22 %. Finalmente, se sugiere que el sistema BMS2113, podría ser de utilidad para realizar análisis de paternidad en razas criollas colombianas.The polymorphism of three microsatellite systems (BMS527, BMS4440 y BMS 2113 was evaluated in 5 Colombian creole breeds: ROM (romosinuano, BON (Blanco orejinegro, CAS (casanareño, SM (San Martinero, CCC (Costeño con cuernos and two foreign breeds: Cebu and Holstein . Thirty eight alleles in 105 studied individuals were fouund and unique alleles are reported for BON, ROM, CCC and CAS. Total expected heterocigocity which includes the two foreign breeds was 0.7228, where as observed heterocigocity varied between 0.3511 and 0.7787. Hardy/Weinberg desequilibrium was evident in some breeds in two microsatellite systems, as a result, probably of selection effects in creole and foreign breeds. The analysis of several

  14. Trichoderma martiale sp. nov., a new endophyte from sapwood of Theobroma cacao with a potential for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Rogério E; de Jorge Souza, T; Pomella, Alan W V; Hebbar, K Prakash; Pereira, José O; Ismaiel, Adnan; Samuels, Gary J

    2008-11-01

    The new species Trichoderma martiale was isolated as an endophyte from sapwood in trunks of Theobroma cacao (cacao, Malvaceae) in Brazil. Based on sequences of translation-elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2) T. martiale is a close relative of, and morphologically similar to, T. viride, but differs in the production of discrete pustules on corn meal-dextrose agar (CMD) and SNA, in having a faster rate of growth, and in being a tropical endophyte. This new species was shown, in small-scale, in situ field assays, to limit black pod rot of cacao caused by Phytophthora palmivora, the cause of black pod disease. PMID:18672059

  15. BASES PARA LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA EN EL CULTIVO DEL CACAO (Theobroma cacao, Lin POR MEDIO DEL CRITERIO DE EXPERTOS

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    Giclis M. Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cacao (Theobroma cacao, Lin por medio del criterio de expertos mediante el método Delphi. Se seleccionaron expertos de diferentes esferas y se determinó el nivel de experticia y el nivel de competencia de cada experto respecto a la problemática relacionada con la definición de los factores que definen la ubicación del cultivo. Para ello se elaboró y aplicó un sistema de rondas de preguntas o cuestionarios que surgieron del procesamiento estadístico sucesivo de cada ronda, donde se determinaron los parámetros: media aritmética de la evaluación de los expertos a cada pregunta, desviación estándar y varianza (dispersión de las evaluaciones de cada pregunta. A partir de estos estadígrafos se determinó el coeficiente de variación (nivel de concordancia, que unido con el nivel de relevancia, constituyeron los elementos discriminantes que permitieron proponer las variables en los cuestionarios subsiguientes. Los resultados permitieron determinar siete expertos para la consulta de las rondas de preguntas, con un nivel de competencia medio y alto, además de valoraciones promedio del coeficiente de competencia (K igual a 0,89. Se determinó que los factores genéticos, socioeconómicos y los fisiográficos no guardan relación con la definición del lugar para el desarrollo del cultivo; sin embargo, los factores climáticos (precipitaciones y temperatura y los edáficos (tipos y profundidad del suelo fueron los de mayor influencia para definir la ubicación del cacao, y constituyeron los principales elementos de las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cultivo.

  16. The influence of shade and organic fertilizer treatments on the physiology and establishment of Theobroma cacao clones

    OpenAIRE

    Acheampong, K.; Hadley, P.; Daymond, A. J.; Adu-Yeboah, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This experiment aimed to determine whether the soil application of organic fertilizers can help the establishment of cacao and whether shade alters its response to fertilizers. Study Design: The 1.6 ha experiment was conducted over a period of one crop year (between April 2007 and March 2008) at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana. It involved four cacao genotypes (T 79/501, PA 150, P 30 [POS] and SCA 6), three shade levels (‘light’, ‘medium’ and ‘heavy’) and two fertilizer treatme...

  17. Development of a tomographic system adapted to 3D measurement of contaminated wounds based on the Cacao concept (Computer aided collimation Gamma Camera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) is a gamma camera using a collimator with large holes, a supplementary linear scanning motion during the acquisition and a dedicated reconstruction program taking full account of the source depth. The CACAO system was introduced to improve both the sensitivity and the resolution in nuclear medicine. This thesis focuses on the design of a fast and robust reconstruction algorithm in the CACAO project. We start by an overview of tomographic imaging techniques in nuclear medicine. After modelling the physical CACAO system, we present the complete reconstruction program which involves three steps: 1) shift and sum 2) deconvolution and filtering 3) rotation and sum. The deconvolution is the critical step that decreases the signal to noise ratio of the reconstructed images. We propose a regularized multi-channel algorithm to solve the deconvolution problem. We also present a fast algorithm based on Splines functions and preserving the high quality of the reconstructed images for the shift and the rotation steps. Comparisons of simulated reconstructed images in 2D and 3D for the conventional system (CPHC) and CACAO demonstrate the ability of CACAO system to increase the quality of the SPECT images. Finally, this study concludes with an experimental approach with a pixellated detector conceived for a 3D measurement of contaminated wounds. This experimentation proves the possible advantages of coupling the CACAO project with pixellated detectors. Moreover, a variety of applications could fully benefit from the CACAO system, such as low activity imaging, the use of high-energy gamma isotopes and the visualization of deep organs. Moreover the combination of the CACAO system with a pixels detector may open up further possibilities for the future of nuclear medicine. (author)

  18. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

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    Thyago Hermylly Santana Cardoso

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease.

  19. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches’ broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease. PMID:26641247

  20. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

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    Bodo Trognitz

    Full Text Available The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG, grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS. The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation, individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open

  1. Efecto del riego subsuperficial en la microinjertación del cacao

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    Pedro Ochoa Mena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El interés del país, respecto al cultivo del cacao como renglón exportable y fuente de alimento, por aumentar, renovar y rehabilitar las plantaciones y la imperiosa necesidad del uso de sistemas de riego en el cultivo, sobre la base de la nueva dinámica climática, condujeron a la realización de este trabajo con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de la tecnología de riego subsuperficial por mecha, con respecto al riego por microaspersión aérea, en el crecimiento y desarrollo de posturas de cacao, propagadas por microinjertación. El experimento, diseñado en Bloques al Azar, estuvo compuesto por 4 tratamientos con 3 réplicas. Los tratamientos T1, T2 y T3 respondieron al riego subsuperficial por Mecha, mientras el T4 correspondió al tratamiento testigo (Microaspersión. Las variables estudiadas fueron: diámetro y longitud del injerto y área foliar. Los resultados mostraron mayor efectividad del riego subsuperficial respecto a la microaspersión, alcanzándose mejor desarrollo y crecimiento en las posturas de cacao microinjertadas, además del ahorro del 96 % del agua dispuesta para el riego. Entre los tratamientos subsuperficiales, el T1 fue el más promisorio. Se evidencia la utilización de esta nueva técnica de riego sin el empleo de energía eléctrica y en zonas con escasa precipitación.

  2. Antimicrobial properties of two novel peptides derived from Theobroma cacao osmotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, Loeni L; Silva-Werneck, Joseilde O; Ramos, Alessandra de R; Martins, Natalia F; Bresso, Emmanuel; Rodrigues, Magali A; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Marcellino, Lucilia H

    2016-05-01

    The osmotin proteins of several plants display antifungal activity, which can play an important role in plant defense against diseases. Thus, this protein can be useful as a source for biotechnological strategies aiming to combat fungal diseases. In this work, we analyzed the antifungal activity of a cacao osmotin-like protein (TcOsm1) and of two osmotin-derived synthetic peptides with antimicrobial features, differing by five amino acids residues at the N-terminus. Antimicrobial tests showed that TcOsm1 expressed in Escherichia coli inhibits the growth of Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelium and Pichia pastoris X-33 in vitro. The TcOsm1-derived peptides, named Osm-pepA (H-RRLDRGGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at R23-K49, and Osm-pepB (H-GGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at G28-K49, inhibited growth of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C and Pichia pastoris X-33) and spore germination of the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium f. sp. glycines and Colletotrichum gossypi. Osm-pepA was more efficient than Osm-pepB for S. cerevisiae (MIC=40μM and MIC=127μM, respectively), as well as for P. pastoris (MIC=20μM and MIC=127μM, respectively). Furthermore, the peptides presented a biphasic performance, promoting S. cerevisiae growth in doses around 5μM and inhibiting it at higher doses. The structural model for these peptides showed that the five amino acids residues, RRLDR at Osm-pepA N-terminus, significantly affect the tertiary structure, indicating that this structure is important for the peptide antimicrobial potency. This is the first report of development of antimicrobial peptides from T. cacao. Taken together, the results indicate that the cacao osmotin and its derived peptides, herein studied, are good candidates for developing biotechnological tools aiming to control phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:26996966

  3. Efecto de las cepas nativas Paecilomyces sp. (Bainier y Lecanicillium sp. (Zimm en el control de Carmenta foraseminis Eichlin (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae en cultivos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Figueroa Medina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El pasador del fruto, Carmenta foraseminis Eichlin, es un insecto que ha acentuado su ataque en cultivos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en los últimos años en Norte de Santander (Colombia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la patogenicidad de las cepas nativas Giav-3 Paecilomyces sp. y Giav-4 Lecanicillium sp. sobre larvas de C. foraseminis. Para el efecto, se realizaron aislamientos a partir de muestras de suelo recolectadas en el municipio de Tibú, Norte de Santander. Después de obtenidos los cultivos puros se procedió a la caracterización macroscópica y microscópica para la identificación del género de los aislados mediante claves taxonómicas. La infección fue realizada mediante inmersión de larvas en las suspensiones de los aislados en concentraciones de 0, 10(6, 10(7 y 10(8 conidios/ml. En ambos aislados se observó una tendencia lineal respecto a la mortalidad, la cual fue directamente proporcional a las concentraciones del inóculo. La CL50 y CL90 para Giav-3 fue de 10(6.95 y 10(8.70 conidios/ml y para Giav-4 de 10(6.6 y 10(8.04 conidios/ml, respectivamente. Lo cual indica que esta última requirió la menor concentración de inóculo para eliminar el 50% y 90% de la población tratada, lo que supone una mayor efectividad contra las larvas.

  4. Early Yield and Economical Study of Pogostemon Cablinas Intercrop in Young Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL.

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    Adi Prawoto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablinis an important source of volatile oil for pharmaceutical and cosmetical products. Agronomical aspect of this commodity needs open ecosystem, but for certain level of shading, this crop may yield economically. A study to evaluate the effect of P. cablinintercropped on young cocoa farm, had been conducted during 2005, in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI 45 m above sea level, D climate type (Schmidt and Fergusson, and on low gley humic soil. The experiment was arranged in factorial and the field design was split plot replicated three times. The main plot was no shade tree, shade of Leucaena glauca and Areca catechuwhile the subsplots were fertilizer dose (per ha/year, i.e. (P0 without fertilizer; (P1 140 kg Urea, 35 kg SP-36, 70 kg KCl; (P2 280 kg Urea, 70 kg SP-36,140 kg KCl; and (P3 560 kg Urea, 140 kg SP-36, 280 kg KCl. The result showed that P. cablin cultivation without shading gave better growth and yield than the shading treatment; meanwhile Leucaenashading showed better growth and early yield than the A. catechushading. Fertilizer rate of P1 produced highest leaf weight and oil yield, although P3 possessed the highest growth variables of plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and chlorophyll content. For the dry weight biomass variable, highest yield was obtained from no shade tree and P1 treatment. Using chromatography gas analysis, retention time of patchouly alcohol is 15—18 minutes, it was found that the content was influenced by shading treatment, i.e. 25.15% in monoculture, 28.73% in Leucaena and 25.21% in A. catechutreatment. For the oil viscosity variable, the monoculture treatment showed the highest value (23.21 centipoise, followed by A. catechu(11.60 centipoise and Leucaenatreatment (8.65 centipoise. Intercropping of P. cablinwith young cacao did not show negative effect on young cacao growth. This study demonstrated that pre-cropping of

  5. Drought effects on soil CO efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive" to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all ("non-responsive" (n=7. The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22. A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1.

  6. Algunas observaciones sobre el desecamiento del grano de cacao bajo diferentes condiciones

    OpenAIRE

    Platone E.; Ciferri R.

    2012-01-01

    Las diversas modalidades del proceso de desecamiento del cacao fermentado (con tal de que la temperatura de desecamiento no sea muy elevada) tienen escasa influencia sobre la calidad aparente del grano, a condición desde luego, de que el proceso sea llevado hasta lograr un mismo porcentaje de humedad en los granos. Ya se sabía que, aparentemente, debería preferirse el desecamiento artificial, al natural, por cuanto se logra un mejor control de la temperatura y de otras condiciones...

  7. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical

  8. 世界可可生产贸易现状%Present Situation of Cacao Production and Trade in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵溪竹; 朱自慧; 王华; 赖剑雄

    2012-01-01

    Analyzed the production of the cacao industry all over the world, including area harvested, production and yield, and the export and import of cacao products during 1999-2010. Expound the developing course and prospect of the cacao industry in China.%综述1999~2010年世界可可产业的收获面积、产量和单产以及世界可可生产贸易状况,概述我国可可产业的发展历程,展望我国可可产业的发展前景。

  9. Influencia del tiempo de tratamiento de superficie con ácido fluorhídrico de la porcelana VITA VM 13 en la resistencia de unión a cemento de resina frente a fuerzas de tracción: Estudio in vitro Influence of surface treatment time with hydrofluoric acid of VITA VM13 porcelain on tensile bond strength to a luting resin cement: In vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    JP Guzmán Thoms; H González Bustamante; M Salgado Montoya

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Los procedimientos restauradores indirectos son comunes en la clínica diaria actual. Se debe tener cuidado especial en la cementación, pues la gran mayoría de los fracasos ocurren en la interfase diente/restauración. Por esto es indispensable un adecuado tratamiento de superficie de la restauración para lograr una adhesión óptima a la superficie dentaria. Materiales y Métodos: Treinta cilindros de porcelana VITA VM 13 con dimensiones de 5 mm de altura y 7 mm de diámetro fueron s...

  10. Polimorfismo genético de beta-lactoglobulina y alphalactoalbúmina en el ganado criollo colombiano, mediante PCR-SSCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Rosero-Alpala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La población de ganado criollo colombiano ha venido presentando una inquietante disminución al pasar de 23.415 ejemplares en 1999 a 20.102 en 2003. A pesar de los esfuerzos por recuperar las razas criollas el panorama para su conservación es incierto, por tanto la búsqueda de caracteres deseables puede contribuir a su valoración y conservación. Los genes relacionados con el mejoramiento de la calidad de la leche producida por estas razas se consideran de gran importancia en la industria láctea, por tal razón y con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes beta-lactoglobulina y alpha-lactoalbúmina se analizaron 30 muestras de sangre de cada una de las razas criollas (Blanco Orejinegro, Caqueteño, Casanareño, Costeño con cuernos, Chino Santandereano, Hartón del Valle, Romosinuano y Sanmartinero, dos razas sintéticas colombianas (Lucerna y Velásquez y dos razas foráneas (Holstein y Brahman. Se amplificaron fragmentos de 262pb para beta-lactoglobulina (b-LG y de 166 pb para alpha-lactoalbúmina (a-LA que se genotipificaron mediante PCR-SSCP. El promedio de la frecuencia para b-LG A y b-LG B fue de 0.46 ± 0.020 y de 0.53 ± 0.020, respectivamente, y de 0.35 ± 0.019 para a-LA A y 0.64 ± 0.019 para a-LA B. El promedio de diversidad genética (He para b-LG fue 0.498 y de 0.455 para a-LA. Los ganados criollos representan una base genética valiosa, como alternativa para mejorar genéticamente los hatos destinados a la producción de leche con mejores características en calidad para la industria láctea.

  11. Polimorfismo genético de beta-lactoglobulina y alphalactoalbúmina en el ganado criollo colombiano, mediante PCR-SSCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Florez Jaime Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La población de ganado criollo colombiano ha venido presentando una inquietante disminución al pasar de 23.415 ejemplares en 1999 a 20.102 en 2003. A pesar de los esfuerzos por recuperar las razas criollas el panorama para su conservación es incierto, por tanto la búsqueda de caracteres deseables puede contribuir a su valoración y conservación. Los genes relacionados con el mejoramiento de la calidad de la leche producida por estas razas se consideran de gran importancia en la industria láctea, por tal razón y con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes beta-lactoglobulina y alpha-lactoalbúmina se analizaron 30 muestras de sangre de cada una de las razas criollas (Blanco Orejinegro, Caqueteño, Casanareño, Costeño con cuernos, Chino Santandereano, Hartón del Valle, Romosinuano y Sanmartinero, dos razas sintéticas colombianas (Lucerna y Velásquez y dos razas foráneas (Holstein y Brahman. Se amplificaron fragmentos de 262pb para beta-lactoglobulina (b-LG y de 166 pb para alpha-lactoalbúmina (a-LA que se genotipificaron mediante PCR-SSCP. El promedio de la frecuencia para b-LG A y b-LG B fue de 0.46 ± 0.020 y de 0.53 ± 0.020, respectivamente, y de 0.35 ± 0.019 para a-LA A y 0.64 ± 0.019 para a-LA B. El promedio de diversidad genética (He para b-LG fue 0.498 y de 0.455 para a-LA. Los ganados criollos representan una base genética valiosa, como alternativa para mejorar genéticamente los hatos destinados a la producción de leche con mejores características en calidad para la industria láctea.

  12. ANÁLISIS DE LA ESTRUCTURA ARBÓREA DEL SISTEMA AGROFORESTAL DE CACAO (Theobroma cacao L. EN EL SOCONUSCO, CHIAPAS - MÉXICO Analysis of the Structure Arborea Agroforestry System Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. in Soconusco, Chiapas - Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO A ROA-ROMERO

    Full Text Available Se determinó la abundancia, riqueza, importancia, equidad y diversidad de los árboles encontrados en sistemas agroforestales de cacao, del Soconusco, Chiapas, México. La presente investigación, se desarrolló en la región costera del Soconusco, ubicada al sur del estado de Chiapas; se muestrearon los municipios de Huehuetán, Tapachula y Tuxtla Chico, por ser los más representativos en área sembrada de cacao. En cada municipio, se establecieron al azar siete parcelas temporales de 50 x 50 m cada una, lo que suma en total 5,25 hectáreas , en las cuales se registraron variables como el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP: 1,3 m sobre el nivel del suelo, área basal, y sombrío en el cacaotal. Se encontraron 46 especies agrupadas en 21 familias, las especies con el mayor valor de importancia fueron Mangifera indica y Pouteria sapota, convirtiéndose en las especies de sombra más frecuentemente encontradas. La composición florística denotó una mayor similitud en los municipios de Tapachula y Huehuetán, como lo muestra el mayor porcentaje del índice de Jaccard y en lo que respecta a diversidad, el municipio de Tuxtla Chico presentó el mayor valor según el índice de Shannon. Este estudio determina la existencia de una cobertura definitiva de preferencia asociada a los árboles frutales.The abundance, wealth, size, fairness and diversity of trees found in cacao agroforestry systems was determined in Soconusco , Chiapas , Mexico . This research was conducted in the coastal region of Soconusco, located in the southern state of Chiapas . The municipalities of Huehuetán Tapachula and Tuxtla Chico were sampled, as the most representative in area planted with cocoa. In each municipality, were created at random seven parcels temporary 50 x 50 m each, which amount totalling 5.25 hectares , in which there were variables such as the diameter at breast height (DBH: 1.3 m above the soil, basal area, and grim in the cacaotal. We found 46 species

  13. Enhanced resistance in Theobroma cacao against oomycete and fungal pathogens by secretion of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Emily E; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Shi, Zi; Bailey, Bryan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Maximova, Siela N; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    The internalization of some oomycete and fungal pathogen effectors into host plant cells has been reported to be blocked by proteins that bind to the effectors' cell entry receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). This finding suggested a novel strategy for disease control by engineering plants to secrete PI3P-binding proteins. In this study, we tested this strategy using the chocolate tree Theobroma cacao. Transient expression and secretion of four different PI3P-binding proteins in detached leaves of T. cacao greatly reduced infection by two oomycete pathogens, Phytophthora tropicalis and Phytophthora palmivora, which cause black pod disease. Lesion size and pathogen growth were reduced by up to 85%. Resistance was not conferred by proteins lacking a secretory leader, by proteins with mutations in their PI3P-binding site, or by a secreted PI4P-binding protein. Stably transformed, transgenic T. cacao plants expressing two different PI3P-binding proteins showed substantially enhanced resistance to both P. tropicalis and P. palmivora, as well as to the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum theobromicola. These results demonstrate that secretion of PI3P-binding proteins is an effective way to increase disease resistance in T. cacao, and potentially in other plants, against a broad spectrum of pathogens. PMID:26214158

  14. Evaluación del entrenamiento tradicional del caballo criollo chileno de rodeo mediante el análisis de variables fisiológicas y bioquímicas sanguíneas Evaluation of a traditional program of training in chilean rodeo criollo horses through the analysis of physiological and blood biochemical changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GARCIA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de caracterizar el tipo de entrenamiento y analizar los cambios cardiovasculares, respiratorios, endocrinos y metabólicos que presenta el caballo Criollo Chileno durante los ejercicios de entrenamiento habitual en los criaderos, previo al período de competencias. Para determinar el nivel de esfuerzo se caracterizó la corrida según tiempos, tipos de ejercicios y distancia, para lo cual se midó la cancha y se cronometró el tiempo de ejercicio. Se registraron frecuencia cardíaca, frecuencia respiratoria y se extrajeron muestras de sangre para la determinación del volumen globular y medir las concentraciones de hemoglobina, proteínas totales, glucosa, ácido láctico, triglicéridos, insulina, cortisol y electrolitos (Na, Cl y Ca. También se determinó la actividad de enzimas creatin kinasa (CK, lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST. Las variables fisiológicas y las muestras de sangre se obtuvieron previo y posterior al ejercicio, en los días 0, 15, 30 y 45 de entrenamiento. Los resultados permiten concluir que el entrenamiento del caballo Criollo Chileno en los criaderos constituye un esfuerzo físico de intensidad moderada, producto de las bajas velocidades desarrolladas y la corta duración del ejercicio, los cuales tienen por objetivo principal lograr en los caballos una mayor destreza en la postura y en los mandos con las riendas para arrear el novillo, manteniendo como objetivo secundario el lograr en ellos una aptitud física acorde con las exigencias deportivas del rodeoA study in order to determine the effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine and metabolic variables of a traditional training program for Chilean Criollo horses was carried out. In order to analyse the level of work under which the horses are trained, the race track and the time of exercise were measured to determine work speed. Heart rate, respiratory rate were measured. Blood samples were

  15. Characterization of the legumains encoded by the genome of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Juliano Oliveira; Freire, Laís; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Fontes Soares, Virgínia Lúcia; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2016-01-01

    Legumains are cysteine proteases related to plant development, protein degradation, programmed cell death, and defense against pathogens. In this study, we have identified and characterized three legumains encoded by Theobroma cacao genome through in silico analyses, three-dimensional modeling, genetic expression pattern in different tissues and as a response to the inoculation of Moniliophthora perniciosa fungus. The three proteins were named TcLEG3, TcLEG6, and TcLEG9. Histidine and cysteine residue which are part of the catalytic site were conserved among the proteins, and they remained parallel in the loop region in the 3D modeling. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the propeptide, which is located in the terminal C region of legumains blocks the catalytic cleft. Comparing dendrogram data with the relative expression analysis, indicated that TcLEG3 is related to the seed legumain group, TcLEG6 is related with the group of embryogenesis activities, and protein TcLEG9, with processes regarding the vegetative group. Furthermore, the expression analyses proposes a significant role for the three legumains during the development of Theobroma cacao and in its interaction with M. perniciosa. PMID:26691061

  16. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material. PMID:26985935

  17. Differential expression of the lethal gene Luteus-Pa in cacao of the Parinari series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehem, B C; Almeida, A-A F; Figueiredo, G S F; Gesteira, A S; Santos, S C; Corrêa, R X; Yamada, M M; Valle, R R

    2016-01-01

    The recessive lethal character Luteus-Pa is found in cacao (Theobroma cacao) genotypes of the Parinari series (Pa) and is characterized by expression of leaf chlorosis and seedling death. Several genotypes of the Pa series are bearers of the gene responsible for the expression of the Luteus-Pa character, which can be used as a tool for determining relationships between genotypes of this group. To evaluate this phenomenon, we analyzed the differential expression of genes between mutant seedlings and wild-type hybrid Pa 30 x 169 seedlings, with the aim of elucidating the possible lethal mechanisms of the homozygous recessive character Luteus-Pa. Plant material was harvested from leaves of wild and mutant seedlings at different periods to construct a subtractive library and perform quantitative analysis using real-time PCR. The 649 sequences obtained from the subtractive library had an average length of 500 bp, forming 409 contigs. The probable proteins encoded were grouped into 10 functional categories. Data from ESTs identified genes associated with Rubisco, peroxidases, and other proteins and enzymes related to carbon assimilation, respiration, and photosystem 2. Mutant seedlings were characterized by synthesizing defective PsbO and PsbA proteins, which were overexpressed from 15 to 20 days after seedling emergence. PMID:26910005

  18. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  19. Variación de las propiedades físicas de la grasa de cacao con la temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Dios Alvarado, Juan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Values of physical properties determined at different temperatures in fat extracted from fresh cacao seeds (Theobroma cacao are presented. Linear relationships define the effect of temperature on the refraction index, density and surface tension, a logarithmic function was established for viscosity. The values of density and viscosity are used to determine the coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion and activation energy, respectively. Data of specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are included. In addition a melting and solidification points. The information can be used at ambient temperatures or greater current in the elaboration of chocolate and other cocoa products.

    Se presentan los valores experimentales de varias propiedades físicas determinadas en grasa obtenida de semillas de cacao (Theobroma cacao a diferentes temperaturas. El efecto de la temperatura sobre el índice de refracción, la densidad y la tensión superficial, es descrito en forma satisfactoria por ecuaciones lineales, en el caso de la viscosidad esta relación inversa es logarítmica. Los datos de la densidad se utilizan para determinar el coeficiente volumétrico de expansión térmica y los de la viscosidad para cuantificar la energía de activación.
    Se incluyen los datos del calor específico, de la difusividad térmica y de la conductividad térmica, conjuntamente con los puntos de fusión y de solidificación.
    Estos datos técnicos pueden ser utilizados a temperaturas ambientales y superiores que son comunes durante la elaboración de chocolates u otras tecnologías que utilizan cacao.

  20. Carcass characteristics of Criollo Cordobés kid goats under an extensive management system: effects of gender and liveweight at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvillani, A; Peña, F; de Gea, G; Gómez, G; Petryna, A; Perea, J

    2010-11-01

    Thirty males and thirty females suckling Criollo Cordobes kid goats of approximately 60 to 90 days old were used in this study. Kids were slaughtered at 9.511 kg of empty body weight. The carcasses showed a medium conformation index. The meat and fat colour, and internal subcutaneous fatness were mainly scored as either pink, cream, slight and low-medium, respectively. The shoulder comprised 66-67% muscle, 24-27% bone and 4-6% fat. The slaughter weight had significant effects on the following characteristics: dressing yield, carcass measures and indices, subcutaneous fatness, meat colour, and muscle/fat ratio. The effect of gender was smaller: the female kids presented the highest fatness values for all parameters studied. Also, these animals displayed the lowest percentage of joints of extra class. The meat of female kids contained significantly less muscle and bone and a higher proportion of fat than that of male kids. The allometric analysis displays an early growth in the carcass measures and indices, fifth quarter, joints and bone proportion of shoulder. Internal and dissectible fats show a late growth. Principal component (PC) analysis was performed to study the relationship between carcass quality variables. The six first PC's explained about 85% of the total variability. The weight and yield of the carcasses were more effective to define the first PC. The projection of the carcass quality data in the first two PC's allowed distinguishing between carcass weight and carcass conformation groups, but not between gender and fatness. PMID:20673705

  1. DIVERSIDAD DE MAÍCES CRIOLLOS DE NUEVO LEÓN, MÉXICO, MEDIANTE AFLP Y CARACTERES MORFOLÓGICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rodr\\u00EDguez-P\\u00E9rez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad de maíces criollos de Nuevo León, México, mediante AFLP y caracteres morfológicos. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo identifi car la variabilidad fenotípica y molecular entre poblaciones de maíz Pinto Amarillo y Liebre en Nuevo León, México. En la caracterización fenotípica se estableció un experimento en primavera 2009. Las variables registradas fueron altura de planta, días a fl oración masculina y femenina, número de hileras por mazorca, granos por hilera de mazorca, longitud y diámetro de mazorca. Para la caracterización molecular, las treinta poblaciones se sembraron en febrero del 2010 en macetas con peat-moss, después de treinta días se colectaron todas las hojas de la plántula, para la técnica AFLP; se realizó un análisis conglomerados utilizando el método de UPGMA. Se identifi caron tres grupos; doce poblaciones de Pinto Amarillo y tres de Liebre agrupando genotipos comunes. Los grupos se asociaron más a la raza de maíz que al lugar de colectas.

  2. Genetic variability in the brazilian criollo horse breed Variabilidade genética de cavalos da raça crioula no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Elizabeth Vinocur

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Allelic frequencies of 7 blood groups and 8 protein systems were determined in 6 herds of Criollo horse breed raised in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Analysis of these frequencies showed a significant isolation component (Fst = 0.0866; pAs freqüências alélicas de sete sistemas de grupos sangüíneos e oito sistemas protéicos foram determinadas em seis rebanhos de cavalos Crioulos criados no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A análise destas freqüências indicou que os rebanhos apresentaram um significativo componente devido ao isolamento (Fst = 0,0866; p<0,01 e esta diferença foi confirmada a partir do dendograma construído, utilizando-se a distância de Nei. Na medição da variabilidade genética, utilizando os 15 sistemas de tipagem sangüínea, os valores mais altos encontrados foram heterozigose média: 0.4631; número total de alelos :87 e probabilidade de exclusão de um parentesco indicado: 98%. Quando todas os rebanhos foram considerada na análise, o nível de endocruzamento (Fis foi zero. Estes resultados indicam que os cavalos Crioulos apresentam ampla variabilidade genética.

  3. La escoba de bruja del cacao [crinipellis perniciosa (stahel) singer] : descripción de síntomas de la enfermedad

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La descripción de síntomas de la enfermedad es un compendia de las observaciones sobre las diversas manifestaciones de la enfermedad en yemas vegetativas, cojines florales, frutos y plántulas procedentes de semillas infectadas, derivado de estudios sistemáticos sobre la infección de C  perniciosa en el cacao (Tlieobroma cacao L) con el fin de contribuir al reconocimiento y diagnóstico de la enfermedad.

  4. La moniliasis un desafio para lograr la sostenibilidad del sistema cacao en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isabel Ramírez González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Para México el cacao, más que un producto alimenticio, representa tradición, un gran legado cultural por preservar, una gran fuente de riquezas naturales y generador de empleos. Tiene sembradas 81 600 ha., una producción de 43 000 ha toneladas, y rendimiento de 597 kg/ha lo que le permite estar entre los 12 principales países productores, pero en el 11.º lugar por su bajo rendimiento. La actividad productiva está ejercida, principalmente, por pequeños productores quienes dependen de ella para su sustento.  El reciente ingreso de la moniliasis hace tambalear la producción ya que este hongo, ataca directamente a los frutos, ocasionando pérdidas totales en la producción. Aunque no hay reportes oficiales, se estima que la producción para el presente ciclo productivo disminuyó en un 50% y se considera que para el próximo sea del 70%, dado el avance acelerado de la enfermedad, con las consecuentes repercusiones económicas, sociales y ambientales. Esta enfermedad está presente en 11 países centro y suramericanos a los cuales ha afectado profundamente. No obstante, existen avances en su manejo, lo cual ha permitido a países como Ecuador, Bolivia y Colombia sobreponerse y llegar a una buena producción. De tal manera que la moniliasis es un gran desafío que permitirá lograr la sostenibilidad del sistema cacao en México, ya que existen diversas oportunidades para el sector, tales como la aceleración de su proceso de modernización en un contexto de sostenibilidad. La diversificación del sistema con maderas principalmente “preciosas”, frutales, especias y flores tropicales, renovación de las plantaciones con materiales mexicanos de altos rendimientos y calidad organoléptica bajo sistemas de producción orgánica, lo que le permitirá al productor acceder a mercados especializados, atraer turismo ecológico, buscar incentivos productivos, ecológicos y de captura de carbono, lo cual mejoraría la sostenibilidad del sistema. Las

  5. Packaging of Post Acclimatized Somatic Embryogenesis Cocoa Plantlet (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedarsianto Soedarsianto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plants that produced by somatic embryogenesis technique is one of the best choice to produce supperior clonal cacao (Theobroma cacao L. planting materials. The somatic embryogenesis technique is a possible way for massive propagation, the outcome is true to type plants, the architecture similarity that the seedlings but there is not segregation like seedlings plants. At present mass production started of plantlets production until post-acclimatized plantlets of somatic embryogenesis cocoa was done at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Distribution system of the planting materials to whole areas in form of as up-rooted post-acclimatized plantlet. Some problems identified to reduce probability of decreasing viability of up-rooted post-acclimatized plantlets and one of them is extreme internal water deficit. This research investigate of the influece storage condition (air tight and non-air tight and box storage (mica plastic and cardboardbox. The first experiment result show, there is no significant different between mica plastic and cardboard box usage for storage of post-acclimatized cocoa pantlet. Viability of up-rooted post acclimatized cocoa plantlet influenced exactly by air tight and non-air tight storage condition. Air tight storage condition have better viability of up-rooted post acclimatised (81,58% than non-air tight storage condition (65,00%. Leaf sanasence on air tight storage condition (10,33% lower than non-air tight storage (32,58%. There is not significantly on volume storage per plantlet between 4.416 cm3 and 12.600 cm3. Relationship between fallen leaves and cocoa planlet viability follow negative linear correlation y = -1,4719x + 104,88 (R2 = 0,9772. The second experiment treatment showed that maximal storage periode of post cclimatized cocoa plantlet just until 6 days stored (97% and not significant with 3 days one. Viability of post acclimatized cocoa plantlet decreased after 6 days storage period

  6. Caracterización de la constitución genética de la población de caballos criollos colombianos mediante frecuencias de marcadores microsatélites STR's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero MJ.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available La estructura genética de la población de Caballos Criollos colombianos y la relación que éstospresentan con sus parentales los caballos Árabe y Andaluz, fueron estudiadas utilizando 14marcadores microsatélites (ASB17, VHL20, HTG10, HTG7, HTG4, AHT5, AHT4, HMS3, HMS6,HMS7, HMS1, LEX33, ASB2, CA425, con herencia autosómica codominante, a partir de unamuestra aleatoria compuesta por 400 individuos.

  7. Alimento balanceado-forraje verde idropónico en la alimentación de conejos criollos (oryctolagus cuniculus) (Food green balance-forage hydroponic in the feeding of creole rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus))

    OpenAIRE

    José Rubén Nava Noriega; Juan Nava Zavaleta; Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo

    2005-01-01

    La producción de forraje verde hidropónico (FVH) se lleva a cabo en espacios reducidos con diferentes especies vegetales y condiciones hostiles, para alimentar diferentes especies de animales domésticos, equinos, bovinos, caprinos y conejos. El objetivo este trabajo fue valorar 9 proporciones de FVH-Alimento balanceado (AB) y ambos por separado como dietas para alimentación de conejos machos criollos Oryctolagus cuniculus. El FVH se produjo con semillas de trigo Triticum aestivum, desinfectad...

  8. Comparación de componentes micro y macromoleculares del Muérdago Criollo (Ligaria cuneifolia (R. et P.) Tiegh.) y del Muérdago Europeo (Viscum album L.)

    OpenAIRE

    WAGNER, Marcelo Luis; Fernández, Teresa; Álvarez, Élida; Ricco, Rafael Alejandro; Hajos, Silvia; GURNI, Alberto Angel

    1996-01-01

    El muérdago criollo (Ligaria cuneifolia (R. et P.) Tiegh.) es utilizado en medicina popular como sustituto del muérdago europeo (Viscum album L.). A pesar de pertenecer a dos familias botánicas diferentes, ambas poseen estadios vegetativos similares. Son especies hemiparásitas semileñosas y se utilizan como hipotensoras. En este estudio se analizan los componentes micro y macromoleculares presentes en los extractos acelulares de L. cuneifolia y V . album. El análisis de los componentes polife...

  9. Asociación del gen bola-drb3.2 con el virus de la leucosis bovina (vlb) en ganado criollo hartón del valle

    OpenAIRE

    Posso Terranova, Andrés Mauricio; Muñoz Florez, Jaime Eduardo; Giovambattista, Guillermo; Alvarez Franco, Luz Angela

    2014-01-01

    En cien muestras de ganado criollo hartón del Valle (HV) del Banco de ADN del Laboratorio de genética animal de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira se determinó la presencia del VLB siguiendo la metodología PCR anidado descrita por Beier et al. (2001) y se genotipificaron los animales para el gen DRB3.2* utilizando la metodología de PCR-SBT (Sequence Based Typings) descrita por Takeshima et al. (2009). Se encontró el porcentaje de presencia del virus. Para el gen BoLA-DRB3.2* se ...

  10. Phenology of Flowering and Pod Maturity on Some Cocoa Clones (Theobroma cacao L)

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Anita Sari; Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2015-01-01

    Phenology  of  flowering  is  an  important  aspect  in  the  growth  cycle  of cocoa (Theobroma  cacao L.) because the  performance of  plant  especially  flowering is  linked with  anthesis time, time and  duration  of  stigma  receptivity, fruit formation, crossing,  and  seed  development  which  determine  the  plant  breeding  programs . Research was conducted at the Kaliwining experimental station of Indonesian Coffee and  Cocoa  Research Institute  (ICCRI).  The  cocoa  plant  was  or...

  11. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacri, C. O.; Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S.; Cacao Group

    2010-02-01

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives à Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  12. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  13. Cacao 3 (Cc 3, Arte rupestre del formativo temprano en Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Rodrigo Martel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo hemos abordado el estudio de la producción del arte rupestre del sitio Cacao 3 –Cc3- (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca con relación a las prácticas socioculturales de grupos agropastoriles del periodo Formativo Temprano en la Puna meridional argentina, haciendo hincapié en el emplazamiento del sitio y su asociación contextual con las demás evidencias arqueológicas conocidas para el área de estudio y estableciendo las relaciones entre las manifestaciones rupestres de Cc3 con las de otros sitios, a nivel micro y macrorregional, a través de indicadores estilísticos

  14. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacri, C.O., E-mail: bacri@ipno.in2p3.f [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France); Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France)

    2010-02-11

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  15. Evaluación in vitro de Microorganismos Nativos por su Antagonismo contra Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par en Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. In vitro evaluation of Native Microorganisms for their Antagonism against Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Parin Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Villamil Carvajal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La moniliasis, causada por Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par, se ha convertido en la principal enfermedad limitante de la producción de cacao en Colombia y otros países. Con el objetivo de explorar alternativas para el biocontrol de esta enfermedad, hongos y bacterias aislados de frutos y suelo rizosférico de lotes plantados con cacao fueron evaluados por su antagonismo contra M. roreri. La evaluación se realizó en cajas Petri con PDA, para lo cual se colocó en el centro de las mismas, un disco de 5 mm de diámetro colonizado por el patógeno y a 3 cm del borde, sobre los ejes horizontal y vertical, cada uno de los aislamientos. Los microorganismos nativos que inicialmente mostraron antagonismo fueron posteriormente evaluados in vitro por su capacidad de restringir el crecimiento y esporulación de M. roreri. Los resultados indicaron que de 53 aislamientos de frutos y suelo rizosférico, 7 mostraron antagonismo contra M. roreri y entre ellos los más efectivos fueron los hongos H5 y H20 y la bacteria B3, los hongos para la restricción tanto del crecimiento como de la esporulación y la bacteria para el crecimiento. El hongo H20 inhibió en su totalidad el crecimiento de M. roreri. Estos resultados hacen posible que estos aislamientos sean promisorios para su incorporación al manejo de la enfermedad bajo condiciones de campo. De acuerdo con la caracterización morfológica y las pruebas bioquímicas los hongos pertenecen al género Trichoderma y la bacteria al género Bacillus.Abstract. The moniliasis, caused by Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par, has become the principal disease limiting cocoa production in Colombia and other countries. With the objective of exploring alternatives for the biocontrol of this disease, fungi and bacteria isolated from cocoa fruits and rhizospheric soil from plots planted to cocoa trees were evaluated for their antagonism against M. roreri. The evaluation was conducted in Petri dishes containing PDA, by

  16. Cacao y encomienda en la Alcaldía Mayor de Sonsonate, siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tous, Meritxell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of cocoa in the Alcaldía Mayor of Sonsonate, particularly in the Izalco region, during the last pre-Columbian period and also its exploitation during the XVIth century. It is demonstrated that, during the first half of these century, despite of the development of the encomienda system, the natives significantly controlled the production and exchange of cocoa, and also the property of the land. Nevertheless, during the second half of this century, the increase of cocoa production induced serious perturbations in the Indian communities because of the demographic collapse, the usurpation of the lands and the ladinoization processes.

    Este estudio analiza la importancia del cacao en la Alcaldía Mayor de Sonsonate, especialmente en la región de los Izalcos, durante el último periodo prehispánico así como su explotación en el XVI. Se demuestra que, durante la primera mitad de este siglo, a pesar del desarrollo de la encomienda, la población indígena controló, en buena medida, la producción y el intercambio del cacao, así como la propiedad de la tierra. También se pone de manifiesto que, a partir de la segunda mitad de este mismo siglo, el incremento de la producción cacaotera provocó daños irreversibles en las comunidades indígenas debido al más que notable descenso demográfico, a la usurpación de sus tierras y a los procesos de ladinización.

  17. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida: I. Reproduction and parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, the occurrence of calving difficulty, inadequate calf vigor at birth, and udder problems by cow breed groups. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, in all subsequent breeding seasons crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred to bulls of the other two breeds. Calving records (n = 1,484) from 2005 to 2011 were used to create calving and weaning rate and calving interval (excluding the interval between 2 and 3 yr of age). Final models for these traits included sire breed-dam breed interaction, cow age within year, and random animal effects. Heterosis estimates for Romosinuano-Brahman calving and weaning rate were 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P Brahman-Angus were twice as large (0.13 ± 0.03 and 0.14 ± 0.03, respectively; P Brahman direct effects on calving and weaning rate were -0.12 ± 0.04 and -0.14 ± 0.05 (P Brahman and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P Brahman cows had the most occurrences of udder problems as a proportion of lactating cows (0.14 to 0.21, P Brahman-sired cows that died or were culled as a proportion of those cows that began the project (0.1 to 0.28, P Brahman and Romosinuano-Angus cow performance was acceptable, but for most traits, those pairs of breeds had lower heterosis than Brahman-Angus. PMID:24663198

  18. Computer aided collimation gamma (Cacao): a new approach in measuring and visualizing the distribution of X and gamma ray emitters in contaminate wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of contaminated wounds can be greatly improved by visualizing the distribution of the radioactivity that is present. The low sensitivity of the conventional Anger camera means that it can only be used where there is a high level of activity. Moreover, these gamma cameras cannot make full use of the recent progress made in high spatial resolution semi-conductor detectors. In order to increase sensitivity while at the same time maintaining a sufficient resolution of the reconstructed image, the principle of the Computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) was proposed as a possible means of using gamma cameras in intern dosimetry. This principle is based on the combined use of collimators with holes that are wider- than the intrinsic resolution of the detector, circular and linear scanning movements, a detector sensitive to the source depth and a specific reconstruction algorithm. This article presents the recent developments of the CACAO system and illustrates by a theoretical and experimental study, its performances compared with the classic tomography system. We start with a general overview of the CACAO system and its reconstruction algorithm. First of all, the superiority of the CACAO system is demonstrated by a simulation ,study. Then, an experimental bench was developed using an implanted silicon pixel detector specifically designed to allow the visualization of a subject contaminated with low energy X and gamma emitters. The study presented here shows images obtained from a phantom composed of three sources of Americium 341Am. Although the comparison between the conventional and CACAO approaches were not carried out with optimal parameters, especially for CACAO, the initial results show that CACAO has an improved sensitivity and a superior resolution. Finally, the transposition of this system to the practical study of contaminated wounds is discussed. (authors)

  19. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems. PMID:26181053

  20. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compo...

  1. Insight into the Wild Origin, Migration and Domestication History of the Fine Flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. Variety from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Fouet, Olivier; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Boccara, Michel; Argout, Xavier; Amores, Freddy; Courtois, Brigitte; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Ecuador’s economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative ...

  2. Chemical speciation of cadmium: An approach to evaluate plant-available cadmium in Ecuadorian soils under cacao production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Baligar, V C

    2016-05-01

    Elevated concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao beans has raised serious concerns about the chocolate consumption on human health. Accumulation of Cd in cacao bean in southern Ecuador has been related to soil contamination. In this study, soil fractionation approach was used to identify available Cd pools in the soils and to correlate these Cd pools with bean Cd concentration and soil test indexes. The distribution of soil Cd fractions decreased in the order: oxidizable > acid-soluble > residual > reducible > water-soluble (+exchangeable). Oxidizable and acid-soluble fractions accounted for 59 and 68% of the total recoverable Cd for the 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble fraction was closely related to bean-Cd, with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.70 and 0.81 (P cacao-growing soils is related to the acid-soluble fraction and bound to organic matter, remediation of the contaminated soils should consider to the dynamics of soil pH and organic matter content. PMID:26891357

  3. Evaluación de la calidad físico-química y bacteriológica del agua subterránea en pozos criollos del municipio de Moa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Fernández-Urgellés

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los pobladores de los repartos Las Coloradas y La Playa (municipio de Moa utilizan para el consumo humano agua subterránea procedente de pozos criollos cuando falla la distribución de agua potable a través de la red hidrológica. Para conocer los componentes generales, mayoritarios y no deseables se evaluó la calidad físico-química y bacteriológica de estas aguas. Se emplearon las técnicas analíticas convencionales así como métodos gráficos. Los resultados reflejaron la presencia de elementos no deseables, indicadores de contaminación, que sobrepasan los índices establecidos para el consumo humano como agua potable. Los resultados del análisis bacteriológico evidenciaron la presencia de bacilos de colis y colifecales, siendo fundamentalmente su composición fecal lo que determina su estado sanitario. Se concluye que las aguas de los pozos criollos estudiados no responden a los requisitos establecidos en las normas para consumo humano.

  4. Procedimiento de pasterización en frío para el control de cronobacter sakazakii en fórmula láctea infantil suplementada con cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez López, Antonio; Rodrigo Aliaga, María Dolores; Pina Pérez, Maria Consuelo

    2011-01-01

    Procedimiento para el control de Cronobacter sakazakii en fórmula láctea infantil líquida con cacao caracterizado porque comprende las etapas de: a) tratamiento mediante pulsos eléctricos de alta intensidad, b) refrigeración, c) adición posterior de cacao rico en polifenoles y d) refrigeración.

  5. Identification and mapping of conserved ortholog set(COS) II sequences of cacao and their conversion to SNP markers for marker-assisted selection in Theobroma cocoa and comparative genomics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao is a tree cultivated in the tropics around the world for its seeds that are the source of both chocolate and cocoa butter. The cacao genome sequencing project initiated as a collaboration between USDA, Mars, Inc. and IBM has generated a great deal of transcriptome and genome sequenc...

  6. Protein extraction for proteome analysis from cacao leaves and meristems, organs infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of the witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Carvalho, Heliana Argôlo Santos; Machado, Regina Cele Reboucas; Gomes, Dayane Santos; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pomella, Alan William Vilela; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar de Mattos; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Micheli, Fabienne

    2008-06-01

    Preparation of high-quality proteins from cacao vegetative organs is difficult due to very high endogenous levels of polysaccharides and polyphenols. In order to establish a routine procedure for the application of proteomic and biochemical analysis to cacao tissues, three new protocols were developed; one for apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) extraction, and two for protein extraction--under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The first described method allows a quick and easy collection of AWF--using infiltration-centrifugation procedure--that is representative of its composition in intact leaves according to the smaller symplastic contamination detected by the use of the hexose phosphate isomerase marker. Protein extraction under denaturing conditions for 2-DE was remarkably improved by the combination of chemically and physically modified processes including phenol, SDS dense buffer and sonication steps. With this protocol, high-quality proteins from cacao leaves and meristems were isolated, and for the first time well-resolved 1-DE and 2-DE protein patterns of cacao vegetative organs are shown. It also appears that sonication associated with polysaccharide precipitation using tert-butanol was a crucial step for the nondenaturing protein extraction and subsequent enzymatic activity detection. It is expected that the protocols described here could help to develop high-level proteomic and biochemical studies in cacao also being applicable to other recalcitrant plant tissues. PMID:18435495

  7. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Trindade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos

  8. Avaliação in vitro da força de união, através de teste de tração, de porcelana feldspática com diversos tratamentos superficiais à resina composta In vitro evaluation of the bonding strength of the composite resin to feldspathic porcelain with several surface treatments, applying a tensile strength test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Mendes CARNEIRO JUNIOR

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Na busca da reprodução do aspecto dental, a porcelana se destaca entre os materiais restauradores. Desse modo, a utilização do material vem atualmente crescendo cada vez mais, e, com ela, a probabilidade de fraturas. Porém, uma falha nem sempre exige a troca da restauração: existe a possibilidade de um reparo com resina composta. Este trabalho se propôs a avaliar, in vitro, a força de união da resina composta à porcelana feldspática, quando efetuados os seguintes tratamentos superficiais na porcelana: asperização com instrumento cortante rotatório diamantado ou jateamento com óxido de alumínio de 50 micra, em aplicação isolada ou associada a condicionamento com ácido fosfórico, por 15 segundos, ou com ácido fluorídrico, por 1 ou por 4 minutos. Todos os espécimes foram previamente regularizados com lixa nº 220. Após os tratamentos superficiais, receberam o sistema de união adesivo para porcelana Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus Dental Adhesive System (3M. Feita a união com a resina composta (Restaurador Z100, 3M, foram armazenados em água destilada a 37ºC, em estufa, por 7 dias, e termociclados (600 ciclos de 1 minuto, entre 5 e 55ºC, sendo então submetidos a teste de tração. Pelos resultados obtidos, pôde-se concluir que ocorreu melhora na resistência à tração com todos os tratamentos propostos (em comparação ao observado no grupo controle, sem nenhum tratamento superficial. O jateamento produziu maior resistência de união que a asperização com instrumento cortante rotatório diamantado; mas, quando associados ao condicionamento com qualquer dos ácidos selecionados, independente do tempo de aplicação, não houve diferença estatística entre esses tratamentos.In the search for the recovery of the dental aspect, the porcelain stands out among restoring materials. The use of this material has increased considerably over the last years, therefore increasing the probability of fractures. Even so, not

  9. Asociación de índices infecciosos del virus de la fiebre aftosa a receptores celulares en el ganado criollo bon

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    Ariza Botero Manuel Fernando

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los miembros de la familia de receptores celulares, integrinas (·V‚1, ·V‚3 ·V‚6, han sido identificados como factores de adhesión de diferentes virus a las células del hospedero. Para el caso del virus de la Fiebre Aftosa, estas integrinas se unen al sitio de reconocimiento celular en la secuencia tripéptidica Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD e igualmente están localizadas en la proteína VP1 del virus. Evidencia genética de esta interacción ha sido obtenida mediante la mutación de la secuencia RGD en clones infecciosos de ADNc, identificando partículas virales no infectivas incapaces de absorberse a células susceptibles. Cierta clase de resistencia genética natural al virus de la fiebre aftosa ha sido descrita en el ganado bovino Blanco Orejinegro, considerándose que cierto grado de esta resistencia podría ser causado por mutaciones en estos receptores celulares responsables por la adhesión del virus. Uno de los objetivos del estudio fue la identificación de genes candidatos (integrinas, específicamente marcadores moleculares asociados a genes  potencialmente responsables por la adhesión del virus aftoso a la célula hospedera. Un total de 106 individuos pertenecientes al núcleo de ganado criollo (banco de germoplasma bovino, Corpoica fueron genotipados con dos marcadores tipo microsatélite (ILS030 y BM2113 y dos SNPs (SLC11A1 y ITGB6 encontrados en el cromosoma 2 bovino. Estos genotipos fueron asociados a índices de infecciosidad, obtenidos a partir de la infección de cultivos BHK y de fibroblastos con los serotipos O1 Campos y A24 Cruzeiro, para cada uno de los individuos. Dos de los cuatro marcadores (ITGB6 e ILST030S se asociaron significativamente con el fenotipo Índice de Resistencia y mostraron un amplio efecto aditivo (p=0,025 y p=0,001 respectivamente. El presente estudio permitirá identificar aquellas líneas familiares que segregan aquellos alelos benéficos dentro de un programa de selección asistida por marcadores

  10. Characterization of Colombian creole pigs by RAMs Caracterización de cerdos criollos colombianos mediante la técnica molecular RAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posso Andrés

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Using the molecular technique RAMs (Random Amplified Microsatellites, the genetic diversity and the existent genetic relationships were determined among 35 Colombian Creole pigs (Zungo, San Pedreño, Mule Foot and a sample of commercial type individuals. For ty six polymorphic loci were found and the heterozygocity values for the RAM markers fluctuated among 0.22 for CCA and 0.19 for CTand CGA, with 92.30% of polymorphic loci for CCA, 82.3 % for CT and 68.75% for CGA. The heterozygocity was of 0.2016 and the Fst was 0.3058 ±0.0433. The Nei distances tree established a very well defined group formed by the Zungo and San Pedreño breeds, which moved away from the rest of the individuals; the Mule foot pigs and Zungo (CLEM were grouped with the commercial ones, indicating introgression with foreign breeds.

    Key words: Swine; genetic variation; microsatellites; RAMs; Colombia.

    Mediante la técnica molecular RAMs (Random Amplified Microsatellites se determinó la diversidad y las relaciones genéticas en 35 cerdos criollos colombianos (Zungos, San Pedreño, Casco de Mula y en una muestra de animales de tipo comercial. Se encontraron 46 loci polimórficos; los valores de heterocigosidad por marcador RAMs fluctuaron entre 0.22 para CCA y 0.19 tanto para CT como para CGA, con 93.20% de loci polimórficos para CCA, 82.3% para CT y 68.75% para CGA. La heterocigosidad fue de 0.2016 y de 0.3058 ±0.0433 el Fst. El árbol de distancias de Nei definió bien las razas Zungo ySan Pedreño, las cuales se alejaron del resto de los individuos. Los cerdos Casco de Mula y Zungo (CLEM se agruparon con los comerciales, lo que indicó la presencia de introgresión con razas foráneas.

    Palabras claves: Cerdo; variación genética; microsatélites; RAMs; Colombia.

  11. Variabilidad Genética de Líneas Endogámicas de Maíz Comparadas con Progenitores Criollos mediante Microsatélites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Gutiérrez-Valenzuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de la diversidad genética en líneas puras de maíz ( Zea mays L., un cereal básico y el más importante en l a dieta de los mexicanos es indispensable en un programa de mejoramiento genético. En la actualidad existe un déficit productivo el cual puede ser reducido con la obtención de mejores genotipos de maíz. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue seleccionar una colección de marcadores moleculares tipo microsatélites repetidos de secuencia corta (SSRs relacionados con características deseables de líneas endogámicas de maíz generadas a partir de una colección inicial de maíces criollos, y analizar la diversidad genética de la población original y de las líneas endogámicas. De una población inicial de 600 genotipos de maíz derivados en el Instituto Tecnológico de Roque con buenas características agronómicas, se eligieron 80 líneas endogámicas S1, las que se evaluaron durante el ciclo agrícola 2010 para seleccionar genotipos que superaran en rendimiento a los progenitores. Solo siete líneas endogámicas S2 derivadas de este ensayo fueron evaluados en esta investigación, para continuar con el proceso de endogamia. La variabilidad genética detectada muestra la presencia de polimorfismos y una amplia distribución de genotipos en la poblaci ó n, lo que indica la posibilidad de continuar con el proceso de identificación de líneas superiores mediante selección para la explotación de heterosis.

  12. Computer aided collimation gamma (Cacao): a new approach in measuring and visualizing the distribution of X and gamma ray emitters in contaminate wounds; Cacao (camera a collimation assistee par ordinateur): une nouvelle approche pour reconstruire et visualiser des contaminations d'emetteurs X et gamma dans les blessures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douiri, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere (LENA), 75 - Paris (France); Jeanguillaume, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Larrey, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 49 - Angers (France); Franck, D.; Carlan, L. de [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Quartuccio, M.; Begot, S. [Faculte des Sciences d' Orsay (LPS), 91 - Orsay (France)

    2003-07-01

    The treatment of contaminated wounds can be greatly improved by visualizing the distribution of the radioactivity that is present. The low sensitivity of the conventional Anger camera means that it can only be used where there is a high level of activity. Moreover, these gamma cameras cannot make full use of the recent progress made in high spatial resolution semi-conductor detectors. In order to increase sensitivity while at the same time maintaining a sufficient resolution of the reconstructed image, the principle of the Computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) was proposed as a possible means of using gamma cameras in intern dosimetry. This principle is based on the combined use of collimators with holes that are wider- than the intrinsic resolution of the detector, circular and linear scanning movements, a detector sensitive to the source depth and a specific reconstruction algorithm. This article presents the recent developments of the CACAO system and illustrates by a theoretical and experimental study, its performances compared with the classic tomography system. We start with a general overview of the CACAO system and its reconstruction algorithm. First of all, the superiority of the CACAO system is demonstrated by a simulation ,study. Then, an experimental bench was developed using an implanted silicon pixel detector specifically designed to allow the visualization of a subject contaminated with low energy X and gamma emitters. The study presented here shows images obtained from a phantom composed of three sources of Americium {sup 341}Am. Although the comparison between the conventional and CACAO approaches were not carried out with optimal parameters, especially for CACAO, the initial results show that CACAO has an improved sensitivity and a superior resolution. Finally, the transposition of this system to the practical study of contaminated wounds is discussed. (authors)

  13. Determinación instrumental y sensorial del color de “magdalenas de chocolate” elaboradas con fibra de cacao como reemplazante de grasa

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cervera, Sandra; Salvador Alcaraz, Ana; Muguerza, Begoña; Moulay, Leila; Fiszman Dal Santo, Susana

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se ha utilizado fibra de cacao para sustituir de forma parcial la grasa de una formulación de magdalenas. Esta fibra aporta color “a chocolate” que puede aprovecharse como un valor añadido. Por esta razón, las magdalenas control (con la formulación completa en grasa) se han elaborado con cacao añadido para obtener “magdalenas de chocolate” y poder efectuar comparaciones sensorialmente válidas. Se estudió por tanto la correlación entre el color medido instrumental y sens...

  14. Caracterización del sistema proteolítico de Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) Evans et al., causante de la moniliasis del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    García Hernández, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo constituye el primer reporte sobre el estudio del sistema proteolítico del hongo Moniliophthora roreri, agente causal de la moniliasis del cacao. El trabajo inició con la identificación de la cepa aislada a partir de frutos de cacao infectados. La amplificación y secuenciación de un fragmento del gen 18S rDNA, permitió la identificación molecular de la cepa aislada como M. roreri, designada como MRO1. A continuación, se evaluó el crecimiento celular de ...

  15. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de lippia sobre moniliophthora roreri (cif. y par.) evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (theobroma cacao l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada, Betty Stefany; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Perea, Janeth Aidé; Stashenko, Elena; Escobar, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs) (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5) extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri) obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5) fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento ...

  16. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par.) Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Betty Stefany Lozada; Laura Viviana Herrera; Janeth Aidé Perea; Elena Stashenko; Patricia Escobar

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs) (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5) extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri) obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas....

  17. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2010-04-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  18. First Microsatellite Markers Developed from Cupuassu ESTs: Application in Diversity Analysis and Cross-Species Transferability to Cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Lucas; Moreira Fregapani, Roberta; Falcão, Loeni Ludke; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Costa, Marcos Mota do Carmo; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Alves, Rafael Moyses; Micheli, Fabienne; Marcellino, Lucilia Helena

    2016-01-01

    The cupuassu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum. is a fruitful species from the Amazon with great economical potential, due to the multiple uses of its fruit´s pulp and seeds in the food and cosmetic industries, including the production of cupulate, an alternative to chocolate. In order to support the cupuassu breeding program and to select plants presenting both pulp/seed quality and fungal disease resistance, SSRs from Next Generation Sequencing ESTs were obtained and used in diversity analysis. From 8,330 ESTs, 1,517 contained one or more SSRs (1,899 SSRs identified). The most abundant motifs identified in the EST-SSRs were hepta- and trinucleotides, and they were found with a minimum and maximum of 2 and 19 repeats, respectively. From the 1,517 ESTs containing SSRs, 70 ESTs were selected based on their functional annotation, focusing on pulp and seed quality, as well as resistance to pathogens. The 70 ESTs selected contained 77 SSRs, and among which, 11 were polymorphic in cupuassu genotypes. These EST-SSRs were able to discriminate the cupuassu genotype in relation to resistance/susceptibility to witches' broom disease, as well as to pulp quality (SST/ATT values). Finally, we showed that these markers were transferable to cacao genotypes, and that genome availability might be used as a predictive tool for polymorphism detection and primer design useful for both Theobroma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving EST-SSRs from cupuassu and is also a pioneer in the analysis of marker transferability from cupuassu to cacao. Moreover, these markers might contribute to develop or saturate the cupuassu and cacao genetic maps, respectively. PMID:26949967

  19. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although  the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao L., polifenol, embrio somatik, kalus, flavonoid, katekin, in vitro recalcitance

  20. Estudio de la variabilidad genética en una población de ganado bovino criollo argentino aislada geográficamente en una pradera de altura

    OpenAIRE

    Lojo, María Mercedes; Dulout, Fernando; Roccia, Irene; Ripoli, María Verónica; Golijow, Carlos Daniel; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    1995-01-01

    Se estudió de la variabilidad genética de tres loci (κ-Caseína, β-lactoglobulina y BoLA-DRB3), en una población de ganado Criollo Argentino aislada en una pradera de altura, ubicada en la localidad de Chasquivil (Tucumán). A pesar del aislamiento geográfico sufrido por un largo período de tiempo y el reducido tamaño de dicha población, el análisis de los resultados indicó una alta heterocigocidad sin que se observe la fijación de alguna de las variantes alélicas. Las frecuencias genotípicas e...

  1. Impacto ambiental de la explotación del yacimiento de materiales de construcción El Cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Naísma Hernández-Jatib; Mayda Ulloa-Carcasés; Yiezenia Rosario-Ferrer

    2011-01-01

    El impacto ambiental que produce la explotación del yacimiento de calizas El Cacao, se estudió haciendo uso de una metodología que conjuga distintas propuestas de otros investigadores. La metodología permitió identificar los impactos ambientales producidos por las acciones de desbroce, destape y extracción, perforación y voladura, excavaciones, transportación, procesamiento de la materia prima y su almacenamiento; así como la interacción entre estas acciones y los componentes del medio (suelo...

  2. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par.) Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) In vitro effect of essential oils of three Lippia species on Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par.) Evans et al., causative agent of moniliasis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Betty Stefany Lozada; Laura Viviana Herrera; Janeth Aidé Perea; Elena Stashenko; Patricia Escobar

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs) (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5) extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri) obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5) fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento ...

  3. Obtenção e caracterização de cinza de ossos bovinos visando à fabricação de porcelana de ossos - bone china Preparation and characterization of bovine bone ash for the fabrication of bone china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. Miyahara

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A porcelana de ossos - bone china - é uma cerâmica de corpo especial de grande dureza e translucidez exclusivamente fabricada na Inglaterra e em outras poucas partes do mundo, mas não no Brasil. Suas matérias-primas são compostas por aproximadamente metade de cinza de ossos, além de caulim e feldspato. O trabalho apresenta a obtenção e caracterização de cinza de ossos a partir de ossos bovinos com o objetivo da fabricação de porcelanas. No processo de preparação da cinza de ossos envolve o uso de autoclave, descarnagem manual, calcinação e moagem dos ossos. As condições de preparação foram estudadas em função das condições de calcinação, moagem e lavagem do osso. A calcinação foi estudada através de análises térmicas e difração de raios X de diferentes partes do animal. O pó obtido foi caracterizado por análises químicas, medida de granulometria por difração de laser, e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram que a matéria-prima obtida neste trabalho possui propriedades similares das originalmente utilizadas nas indústrias inglesas com baixo teor de ferro e partículas coloidais e que podem ser calcinadas a temperaturas inferiores a 1000 °C.Bone china is a special kind of porcelain, very hard and translucent, nowadays manufactured almost exclusively in England and in few other parts of the world, but not in Brazil. Its raw-materials comprise about fifty percent of bone ash, together with kaolin and a feldspar mineral. This paper presents the preparation and the characterization of bone ash obtained from bovine bones, with the objective of obtaining bone china. The preparation of the bone ash involves the use of an autoclave, manual removal of the meat, firing, and milling the bones. The preparation conditions were studied as a function of the firing conditions, milling, and washing the powder bones. The firing step was studied by thermal analyses TG-DTA and X-ray diffraction, whereas

  4. Efeitos do acondicionamento de uma porcelana dentária em meio de saliva artificial na resistência mecânica e previsão do tempo de vida Effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental porcelain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Yoshimura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito do acondicionamento em saliva artificial na resistência à flexão e no tempo de vida de uma porcelana feldspática dentária. Os espécimes na forma de disco foram preparados por sinterização, usinagem e polimento e ensaiados pelo método da fadiga dinâmica para determinação dos parâmetros de crescimento de trinca subcrítico (SCG, com taxas de tensão de 0,01 a 100 MPa/s em meio de saliva artificial a 37 °C. Antes do ensaio de flexão biaxial, parte dos espécimes foi imersa em saliva artificial a 37 °C por 10 dias e outra parte foi mantida ao ar. O acondicionamento em saliva causou aumento de ~11% na resistência à flexão biaxial; aumento de 20% no módulo de Weibull; aumento de 20% no coeficiente de susceptibilidade ao fenômeno de SCG; aumento de 50% na resistência à flexão prevista no tempo de fratura de 1 ano; manutenção da tenacidade à fratura; e diminuição de 5% da dureza superficial. Os resultados indicaram que, ao menos no caso investigado, a exposição da porcelana à saliva não degrada as propriedades mecânicas e pode até aumentar a resistência à flexão e à propagação lenta de trincas.The effects of artificial saliva storage on flexural strength and lifetime prediction of a dental feldspathic porcelain were investigated. The disk-shaped specimens were sintered, machined and polished and then subjected to a dynamic fatigue test in order to determine the slow crack growth (SCG parameters, by means of biaxial flexure tests at stress rates of 0.01 to 100 MPa/s. The specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ºC during the whole test. Before the biaxial flexure strength test, some specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 ºC for 10 days while others were stored in air at ambient temperature. The specimens stored in artificial saliva presented an ~11% increase in biaxial flexure strength; a 20% increase in Weibull modulus; a 20% increase in SCG susceptibility

  5. Use of Bennett's Hierarchical Model in the Evaluation of the Extension Education Program for Cacao Farmers in the Northeast Region of the Dominican Republic. Summary of Research 54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De los Santos, Saturnino; Norland, Emmalou Van Tilburg

    A study evaluated the cacao farmer training program in the Dominican Republic by testing hypothesized relationships among reactions, knowledge and skills, attitudes, aspirations, and some selected demographic characteristics of farmers who attended programs. Bennett's hierarchical model of program evaluation was used as the framework of the study.…

  6. Cacao single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers: A discovery strategy to identify SNPs for genotyping, genetic mapping and genome wide association studies (GWAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common genetic markers in Theobroma cacao, occurring approximately once in every 200 nucleotides. SNPs, like microsatellites, are co-dominant and PCR-based, but they have several advantages over microsatellites. They are unambiguous, so that a SN...

  7. Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. Cocoa is mainly produced on small holdings, providing resources for 14 million farmers. Disease resistance and cocoa quality improvement are two impo...

  8. Pengaruh Pupuk Organik Cair Dan Agensia Hayati Terhadap Pencegahan Penyakit Antraknosa (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc.) Pada Pembibitan Tanaman Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rani Mahneli

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan dengan ketinggian tempat ± 25 m dari permukaan laut. Penelitian dilakukan dari bulan Juli sampai dengan September 2007. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui Pengaruh Pupuk Organik Cair dan Agensia Hayati Terhadap Pencegahan Penyakit Antraknosa (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc.) Pada Pembibitan Tanaman Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) Penelitian ini mengg...

  9. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOPARASITIC ISOLATES OF TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM WITH POTENTIAL FOR SUPRESSION OF BLACK POD DISEASE OF CACAO IN CAMEROON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative measures are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod disease in Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitism on P. megakarya. Only Trichoderma asperellum isolates 659-7, PR10, PR11, a...

  10. Isolation and identification of mycoparasitic isolates of Trichoderma asperellum with potential for suppression of black pod disease of cacao in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative measures to chemical fungicides are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod diseasein Central and West Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitismon P. megakarya. Of over 200 isolates...

  11. The Oil of Matico (Piper aduncum L.) an Alternative for the Control of Cacao Frosty Pod Rot (Moniliophthora roreri) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cacao production in many Latin American countries is significantly reduced by frosty pod rot disease (Moniliophthora roreri) and yield reductions are to the extent of over 90% in many cases. The strategies of control includes: phytosanitation, genetic resistance, chemical and biological control....

  12. Dynamic immobilization of simulated radionuclide 133Cs in soil by thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although direct radiation induced health impacts were considered benign, soil contamination with 137Cs, due to its long-term radiological impact (30 years half-life) and its high biological availability is of a major concern in Japan in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Therefore 137Cs reduction and immobilization in contaminated soil are recognized as important problems to be solved using suitable and effective technologies. One such thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO amendments is a promising treatment for the ultimate immobilization of simulated radionuclide 133Cs in soil, showing low leachability and zero evaporation. Immobilization efficiencies were 88%, 95% and 96% when the 133Cs soil was treated at 1200 °C with activated carbon, fly ash and nanometallic Ca/CaO additives. In addition, the combination of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash (1:1) enhanced the immobilization efficiency to 99%, while no evaporation of 133Cs was observed. At lower temperatures (800 °C) the leachable fraction of Cs was only 6% (94% immobilization). Through the SEM–EDS analysis, decrease in the amount of Cs mass percent detectable on soil particle surface was observed after soil vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA. The 133Cs soil was subjected to vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA peaks related to Ca, crystalline phases (CaCO3/Ca(OH)2), wollastonite, pollucite and hematite appeared in addition to quartz, kaolinite and bentonite, which probably indicates that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials includes Ca-associated complexes. Thus, the thermal treatment with the addition of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash may be considered potentially applicable for the remediation of radioactive Cs contaminated soil at zero evaporation, relatively at low temperature. - Graphical abstract: SEM–EDS element maps of 133Cs contaminated soil before and after thermal treatment at 1200 °C with different addictives. Color intensity for Cs is from 0 to 100 (low

  13. The cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri (Marasmiaceae) possesses biallelic A and B mating loci but reproduces clonally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Valderrama, J R; Aime, M C

    2016-06-01

    The cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri belongs to the mushroom-forming family Marasmiaceae, but it has never been observed to produce a fruiting body, which calls to question its capacity for sexual reproduction. In this study, we identified potential A (HD1 and HD2) and B (pheromone precursors and pheromone receptors) mating genes in M. roreri. A PCR-based method was subsequently devised to determine the mating type for a set of 47 isolates from across the geographic range of the fungus. We developed and generated an 11-marker microsatellite set and conducted association and linkage disequilibrium (standardized index of association, IA(s)) analyses. We also performed an ancestral reconstruction analysis to show that the ancestor of M. roreri is predicted to be heterothallic and tetrapolar, which together with sliding window analyses support that the A and B mating loci are likely unlinked and follow a tetrapolar organization within the genome. The A locus is composed of a pair of HD1 and HD2 genes, whereas the B locus consists of a paired pheromone precursor, Mr_Ph4, and receptor, STE3_Mr4. Two A and B alleles but only two mating types were identified. Association analyses divided isolates into two well-defined genetically distinct groups that correlate with their mating type; IA(s) values show high linkage disequilibrium as is expected in clonal reproduction. Interestingly, both mating types were found in South American isolates but only one mating type was found in Central American isolates, supporting a prior hypothesis of clonal dissemination throughout Central America after a single or very few introductions of the fungus from South America. PMID:26932308

  14. Evaluation of the allergenicity potential of TcPR-10 protein from Theobroma cacao.

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    Sara Pereira Menezes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10, obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease. However, despite its biotechnological potential, the TcPR-10 has the P-loop motif similar to those of some allergenic proteins such as Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa and Pru av 1 (Prunus avium. The insertion of mutations in this motif can produce proteins with reduced allergenic power. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the wild type and mutant recombinant TcPR-10 using bioinformatics tools and immunological assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mutant substitutions (T10P, I30V, H45S were inserted in the TcPR-10 gene by site-directed mutagenesis, cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 cells. Changes in molecular surface caused by the mutant substitutions was evaluated by comparative protein modeling using the three-dimensional structure of the major cherry allergen, Pru av 1 as a template. The immunological assays were carried out in 8-12 week old female BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with the proteins (wild type and mutants via subcutaneous and challenged intranasal for induction of allergic airway inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the wild TcPR-10 protein has allergenic potential, whereas the insertion of mutations produced proteins with reduced capacity of IgE production and cellular infiltration in the lungs. On the other hand, in vitro assays show that the TcPR-10 mutants still present antifungal and ribonuclease activity against M. perniciosa RNA. In conclusion, the mutant proteins present less allergenic potential than the wild TcPR-10, without the loss of interesting biotechnological properties.

  15. Analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiles of clonal genotypes from Theobroma cacao subjected to soil flooding.

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    Fabiana Z Bertolde

    Full Text Available Soil flooding causes changes in gene transcription, synthesis and degradation of proteins and cell metabolism. The main objective of this study was to understand the biological events of Theobroma cacao during soil flooding-induced stress, using the analyses of gene expression and activity of key enzymes involved in fermentation, as well as the identification of differentially expressed proteins by mass spectrometry in two contrasting genotypes for flooding tolerance (tolerant - TSA-792 and susceptible - TSH-774. Soil anoxia caused by flooding has led to changes in the expression pattern of genes associated with the biosynthesis of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in leaves and roots of the two evaluated genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the enzyme activities of the two genotypes. Leaves and roots of the TSA-792 genotype showed higher ADH activity as compared to the TSH-774 genotype, whereas the activities of PDC and LDH have varied over the 96 h of soil flooding, being higher for TSA-792 genotype, at the initial stage, and TSH-774 genotype, at the final stage. Some of the identified proteins are those typical of the anaerobic metabolism-involved in glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation-and different proteins associated with photosynthesis, protein metabolism and oxidative stress. The ability to maintain glycolysis and induce fermentation was observed to play an important role in anoxia tolerance in cacao and may also serve to distinguish tolerant and susceptible genotypes in relation to this stressor.

  16. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L..

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    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.

  17. Energy and water fluxes above a cacao agroforestry system in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, indicate effects of land-use change on local climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.; Oltchev, A.; Kreilein, H.; Merklein, J.; Gravenhorst, G. [Inst. of Bioclimatology, Univ. Goettingen (Germany); June, T. [Inst. Pertanian Bogor, BIOTROP-ICSEA, Bogor (Indonesia); Rauf, A. [Univ. Tadulako, Palu (Indonesia)

    2005-04-01

    Rapid conversion of tropical rainforests to agricultural land-use types occurs throughout Indonesia and South-East Asia. We hypothesize that these changes in land-use affect the turbulent heat exchange processes between vegetation and the atmosphere, and the radiative properties of the surface, and therefore, induce an impact on local climate and water flows. As part of the international research project (SFB 552, Stability of Rainforest Margins in Indonesia, STORMA) the turbulent heat fluxes over a cacao agroforestry system (AFS) were investigated, using the eddy covariance technique. These first heat flux observations above a cacao AFS showed an unexpectedly large contribution of the sensible heat flux to the total turbulent heat transport, resulting in an averaged day-time Bowen ratio of {beta} = H/{lambda}E {approx} 1. Seasonality of {beta} did mainly coincide with the seasonal course of precipitation, which amounted to 1970 mm yr{sup -1} during the investigated period. The findings are compared to investigations at four neotropical rain forests where daytime {beta} were substantially smaller than 1. All discussed sites received similar incident short wave radiation, however, precipitation at the neotropical sites was much higher. Our first observations in a nearby Indonesian upland rain forest where precipitation was comparable to that at the cacao AFS showed an intermediate behaviour. Differences in {beta} between the cacao AFS and the tropical forests are discussed as a consequence of differing precipitation amounts, and albedo. From these comparisons we conclude that conversion from tropical forests to cacao AFS affects the energy fluxes towards increased heating of the day-time convective boundary-layer. (orig.)

  18. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. Genetic variability of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime & Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae in varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.Moniliophthora perniciosa, the founder agent of the ‘witch’s broom’ on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is one of the most important diseases in cocoa plantations, causing economic losses close to 70% worldwide and 40% nationwide. It shows a high genetic variability and discrepancies in its taxonomy. Characterization of the genetic diversity of biotypes is important for projects aimed towards the handling of this pathogen and the development of resistant cocoa materials. Twelve isolations of the fungus were analyzed in this study from different

  19. Embriogénesis somática secundaria en el genotipo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. inifap 1 y su descripción histológica

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    A. Alejandro-Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La embriogénesis somática aplicada para la propagación clonal de plantas de cacao, aun es de baja eficiencia, por lo que el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la respuesta de los cotiledones procedentes de embriones somáticos primarios como fuente de explante para inducir embriogénesis somática secundaria (ESS en presencia de fitohormonas y sin estas en el genotipo de cacao inifap 1, asi como describir los eventos de la ESS desde los 30 hasta los 240 días de cultivo. El uso de las fitohormonas ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiácetico (2,4-D y thidiazuron (TDZ son importantes para inducir la embriogénesis somática (ES primaria en cacao. Adicionalmente para generar la ESS se han utilizado fitohormonas. En la presente investigación, fueron establecidos cuatro tratamientos con fregmentos de cotiledón, con 2,4-D y TDZ en forma combinada e independiente, incluyendo un testigo sin fitohormonas. Los resultados mostraron, que los fragmentos de cotiledón cultivados sin fitohormonas favorece la ESS, obteniendo un promedio de seis embriones somáticos secundarios (ESs a los 210 días de cultivo contra uno para el tratamiento suplementado con TDZ. El meristemo apical y radicular se presentó en un periodo de 240 días, se observaron embriones somáticos con estructuras externas como: cotiledones, ápices y raíces. Los resultados mostraron que la exclusión del 2,4-D y el thidiazuron no son importantes para inducir la ESS. El mayor número de ESs se encontró en un medio desprovisto de fitohormonas por lo que esta información es relevante, debido a que los explantes de cotiledones procedentes de embriones somáticos primarios, generan mayor número de ESs en esta especie. Estos resultados constituyen el primer reporte de la inducción de la ESs sin fitohormonas.

  20. Pod Characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. related to rocoa pod borer resistance.

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    Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB had been identified in a series of study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of cocoa pod using more diverse of genetic background to obtain selection criteria. Genetic materials for this studywere 25 cocoa clones planted in Central Sulawesi for resistance evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed by using variable of the percentage of unextractable beans, number of larvae entry and exit holes by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichomes, granules of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using canonical correlation. The result performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics 0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical correlation for CPB resistance 0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance in 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiated the resistant clones of ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones of ICCRI 04, KW 516, and KW 564.

  1. (Agronomical and anatomical study of resulted early cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2005-05-01

    , weak and hollow when microtomised. Health union showed lignified accumulation that made tight union. It can be concluded that early cocoa grafting will success if the nursery is separated far from cocoa plantation, the medium is steril from soil borne disease, the graftstick is health, and tying of graft union must tight enough, then disease control must be done properly.Key Words : Theobroma cacao, clone, wiring, graft union, graftake.

  2. Characterization of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Farming Systems in the Norte de Santander Department and Assessment Their Sustainability / Caracterización de los Sistemas de Producción de Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en el Departamento de Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Arturo Ramírez Sulvarán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. based economyhas been considered a valid alternative to support sustainable development in northeastern Colombia. However, there is a lack of information about the cocoa production systems in the region which is needed for the implementation of effective plans to improve their performance and sustainability. Four of the main cocoa producing municipalities in the Norte de Santanderdepartment were considered for this study: Teorama, Bucarasica, Cúcuta and San Calixto. These entities were selected due to their adequate security conditions, availability of field assistants and departmental representativeness in cocoa production. The objective was to obtain basic information for local, specific and participatory actions for the sustainability of the cocoa production systems and to improve the living conditions of farmers. The methodology used was based on the farming system approach, considering the socioeconomic, technological and agro-ecologicalcomponents, and their relationships, and evaluating themaccording to the principles of sustainable agriculture. The phases covered were: (1 analysis of secondary data, (2 formulation and evaluation of sustainability indicators, (3 design, implementation and analysis of survey data and (4 validation by the farmers of the obtained information and the prioritization of problems. The results indicate that there is only one cocoa production system of a family-mercantile type, with low technology. Most farmers havelow incomes and basic needs such as health, education and public services are not met. They do not employ the agronomic and postharvest practices recommended by specialists. The water and soil resources are being degraded. In general, the farming system leans towards unsustainability and it is vital that integrative actions be taken to change this situation. / Se considera que el desarrollo de una economía basada en el cacao (Theobroma cacao L

  3. La noción de trabajo en la construcción de la identidad: indígenas y criollos en el Pilcomayo salteño

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    Catalina Buliubasich

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Con motivo de los reclamos por la propiedad de la tierra incoadas por comunidades indígenas chaquenses -mayoritariamente Wichí- aledañas al Pilcomayo salteño, el análisis se orientó a considerar qué factores intervinieron en la construcción de la identidad indígena, sobre todo frente a los criollos que ocupan esos mismos espacios. Estos, distribuidos en un patrón de asentamiento disperso, se ocupan del pastoreo de ganado, mientras que los indígenas desarrollan actividades de subsistencia, tanto las tradicionales, como la pesca en el río, caza, recolección de frutos silvestres y cultivos limitados, cuanto las no tan tradicionales de artesanías para el mercado o la venta temporaria de fuerza de trabajo. Tales diferencias en los usos del monte desembocaron en incompatibilidades y conflictos por la tierra entre las partes, que contribuyeron a la dinámica de la construcción de la identidad indígena, ocupando un lugar preponderante las visiones encontradas de lo que ambos grupos consideran trabajo.Due to the claim to own the land made by indigenous communities from Chaco -mostly Wichi- bordering the Salta 's Pilcomayo , this analysis was aimed to consider the factors that have intervened in the construction of the indigenous identity, especially in opposition to the criollos occupying the same area. The latter, distributed according to a pattern of scattered settlements, engage in cattle grazing, while indigenous people develop subsistence activities, both the traditional ones, such as fishing in the river, hunting, gathering wild fruits and limited farming and those not so traditional, such as craftmanship to be sold, or temporary workforce. Such differences in the use of the forest have provoked conflicts for the land between the parties. Those disagreements have contributed to the construction of the indigenous identity, and the different views on the concept of labor held by both groups have a relevant place in such construction.

  4. Genomic analyses and expression evaluation of thaumatin-like gene family in the cacao fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Sulamita de Freitas; Baroni, Renata Moro; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Reis, Osvaldo; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa

    2015-10-30

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are found in diverse eukaryotes. Plant TLPs, known as Pathogenicity Related Protein (PR-5), are considered fungal inhibitors. However, genes encoding TLPs are frequently found in fungal genomes. In this work, we have identified that Moniliophthora perniciosa, a basidiomycete pathogen that causes the Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao, presents thirteen putative TLPs from which four are expressed during WBD progression. One of them is similar to small TLPs, which are present in phytopathogenic basidiomycete, such as wheat stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis. Fungi genomes annotation and phylogenetic data revealed a larger number of TLPs in basidiomycetes when comparing with ascomycetes, suggesting that these proteins could be involved in specific traits of mushroom-forming species. Based on the present data, we discuss the contribution of TLPs in the combat against fungal competitors and hypothesize a role of these proteins in M. perniciosa pathogenicity. PMID:26367180

  5. Impacto ambiental de la explotación del yacimiento de materiales de construcción El Cacao

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    Naísma Hernández-Jatib

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El impacto ambiental que produce la explotación del yacimiento de calizas El Cacao, se estudió haciendo uso de una metodología que conjuga distintas propuestas de otros investigadores. La metodología permitió identificar los impactos ambientales producidos por las acciones de desbroce, destape y extracción, perforación y voladura, excavaciones, transportación, procesamiento de la materia prima y su almacenamiento; así como la interacción entre estas acciones y los componentes del medio (suelo, aire, agua, flora, fauna, paisaje, infraestructura y economía. Se encontró que los impactos más considerables ocurren durante el desbroce y destape, y que los componentes ambientales más afectados son el suelo, el aire, el agua y la economía. Finalmente se proponen medidas correctoras para mitigar las afectaciones ambientales.

  6. Reciclagem secundária de rejeitos de porcelanas elétricas em estruturas de concreto: determinação do desempenho sob envelhecimento acelerado Secondary recycling of electrical insulator porcelain waste in Portland concrete structures: determination of the performance under accelerated aging

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    K. F. Portella

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso de entulhos, entre outros rejeitos industriais e domésticos, pela construção civil vem sendo prática comum em diversos países desenvolvidos, em razão tanto do aumento da quantidade de rejeitos e conseqüente esgotamento de espaços apropriados para seu destino final, quanto da constante e cada vez mais rigorosa fiscalização e punição pelos organismos ambientais competentes. Antecipando maneiras para solução desses problemas, propôs-se o estudo da reciclagem e imobilização de rejeitos de porcelanas elétricas em concreto, em substituição parcial aos agregados graúdos e miúdos naturais. A vantagem não foi total por causa do indício de reações expansivas que poderiam prejudicar determinadas aplicações. Assim, foi proposto o estudo das condições ideais de dosagem para mitigar os efeitos de tais reações pela presença de contaminantes destes rejeitos. Os resultados demonstraram a efetiva promoção de reações do tipo álcali-agregado, e que o uso de cimentos especiais poderá diminuir o efeito prejudicial dos subprodutos formados.The use of rubbish and other kinds of domestic and industrial wastes on civil construction has been a common practice in many developed countries, due either to the increase in the amount of waste and the resultant reduction of appropriate places to its final disposal, as well as to the severity and steadiness of environmental inspection organizations. In order to provide beforehand manners to solve or reduce these problems, study of recycling and co-disposal of waste from porcelain electrical insulators in concrete was proposed. Besides the occurrence of expansive reactions, which may be harmful to the stability of important structures, the overall results were encouraging. Some contaminants found in the three phases of porcelain contributed to the happening of alkali-aggregate reaction, which can easily inhibited by the using of special cements, such as a sulfur-resistant one.

  7. EL CACAO: AYER, HOY Y SIEMPRE EN EL DESARROLLO SOCIOECONÓMICO Y CULTURAL DEL MUNDO, NORTE DE SANTANDER Y CÚCUTA

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Eugenia Ramírez Villar

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo es un breve relato de la historia del cacao en el mundo, en Colombia y en Cúcuta, surge de un trabajo de investigación histórico y retoma historias de Venezuela, Colombia, Francia, África, Italia, entre otros países que protagonizaron o ayudaron a que el cacao surgiera en la región y se posicionara en el sector productivo. La conclusión de la investigación está basada en el recuento según la región de Norte de Santander y Cúcuta, mostrando datos curiosos de la evolución del caca...

  8. Evaluasi Kesesuaian Lahan Untuk Tanaman Kopi(Cofeea arabica) dan Coklat(Theobroma cacao L.)Di Desa Juhar Kecamatan Juhar Kabupaten Karo

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Ida Tiur Marisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the land suitability classes in Junar village, Juhar District, Karo Regency for coffee {Coffea arabica) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). .. Two profiles with slope of 21% and 11%, were dug and studied and soil samples from each horizon were analysed for their physical and chemical properties. Land suitability was done by using five degree of limitation following procedure of Sys, et all, (1991). The result of the study showed that the classes of l...

  9. Theobroma cacao increases cells viability and reduces IL-6 and sVCAM-1 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Budi; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Nurdiana, Nurdiana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether an ethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao bean is able to increase cell viability and decrease IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluency, endothelial cells were divided into six groups, which included control (untreated), endothelial cells exposed to plasma from normal pregnancy, endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of T. cacao (PP+TC) at the following three doses: 25, 50, and 100ppm. The analysis was performed in silico using the Hex 8.0, LigPlus and LigandScout 3.1 software. Analysis on IL-6 and sVCAM-1 levels were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seven of them could bind to the protein NFκB (catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, niacin, phenylethylamine, theobromine, theophylline, and thiamin). This increase in IL-6 was significantly (Pcacao extract. Plasma from PP significantly increased sVCAM-1 levels compared to untreated cells. This increase in sVCAM-1 was significantly attenuated by all doses of the extract. In conclusion, T. cacao extract prohibits the increase in IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Therefore this may provide a herbal therapy for attenuating the endothelial dysfunction found in preeclampsia. PMID:26955771

  10. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the Cs extraction and immobilization in fly ash during water, methanol or n-MCaS extraction. - Highlights: • nMCaS suspension for cesium extraction and immobilization in fly ash was developed. • Enhanced cesium immobilization was done by nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. • By SEM analysis the amount of cesium detectable on soil particle surface decreases. • Leachable cesium concentrations reduced, lower than the standard regulatory limit. • nMCaS unique and a highly potential amendment for the remediation of Cs. - Abstract: In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable (133Cs) and radioactive cesium species (134Cs and 137Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of 133Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of 133Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable 133Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040 Bq kg−1134Cs and 137Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583 Bq kg−1 after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100 Bq L−1 total 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000 Bq kg−1 and 150 Bq L−1 respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediation of radioactive cesium-contaminated fly ash

  11. Phenology of Flowering and Pod Maturity on Some Cocoa Clones (Theobroma cacao L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenology  of  flowering  is  an  important  aspect  in  the  growth  cycle  of cocoa (Theobroma  cacao L. because the  performance of  plant  especially  flowering is  linked with  anthesis time, time and  duration  of  stigma  receptivity, fruit formation, crossing,  and  seed  development  which  determine  the  plant  breeding  programs . Research was conducted at the Kaliwining experimental station of Indonesian Coffee and  Cocoa  Research Institute  (ICCRI.  The  cocoa  plant  was  originated  from  top grafting seedling  with the age  of eight  years.  Design  of  experiment  was  randomized complete  block  design  consisted  of  eight  clones  as  treatment  with  three  replications.  Each  plot  consisted  of  20  sample  flowers.  The  parameters  observed  were phenology  of  flowering  and  pod  maturity.  Phenology  of  flowering  observed  were age  of  flowering,  number  of  opened  flower  buds,  number  of  flower  buds  that dropped  before  being  opened,  number  of  flower  buds  that  dropped  after  being opened,  and  number  of  opening  flowers  that  developed  into  tiny  fruits.  Observation  on  pod  and  been  quality  was  done  on  pod  size,  pod  weight,  pod  length, pod  girth,  and  bean  number.  The  result  of  experiment  showed  that  difference  in phenologyof  flowering and age of pod maturity  existed within eight cocoa clones tested.  KKM  22  showed  the  shortest  flowering  age  and  pod  maturity,  and  lowest number  of  beans.  The  highest  success  of  pollination  was  observed  on  Sca  6  and KW 617. ICCRI 03, Sulawesi 03, ICCRI 07, KKM 22 and KW 617 showed relative low success of  pollination,  that  iswas between 10  to 17.6%.  Age  of  flower  opening did  not  significantly  influence  age  of  pod

  12. Efecto del Tostado Sobre los Metabolitos Secundarios y la Actividad Antioxidante de Clones de Cacao Colombiano / Effect of Roasting on the Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Colombian Cocoa Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zapata Bustamante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El tostado es una de las operaciones tecnológicas másimportantes en el procesamiento de los granos de cacao; esteproceso conduce a la formación de los productos de la reacciónde Maillard (RM los cuales son cruciales para el desarrollo dela calidad organoléptica de los granos de cacao y sus productosasociados. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto del tostadosobre el contenido de metabolitos secundarios y la actividadantioxidante en cinco clones de cacao cultivados en Colombia.En los extractos metanólicos de los diferentes clones de cacao sedeterminó el contenido de fenoles totales, taninos condensados,antocianinas totales, catequina y epicatequina, teobromina ycafeína. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante pormedio de la actividad atrapadora del radical ABTS•+, el métodoORAC y la capacidad atrapadora de radicales superóxido. Enconclusión, el efecto del tostado en los clones de cacao no tuvo uncomportamiento uniforme sobre los cambios en los contenidos delos diversos metabolitos secundarios y la actividad antioxidante. /  Abstract. Roasting is one of the most important technologicaloperations in the processing of cocoa beans; this process leads tothe formation of products of the Maillard reaction (RM, which arecrucial for the development of organoleptic quality of cocoa beansand its associated products. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of roasting on the content of secondary metabolites andantioxidant activity in five Colombian cocoa clones, by differentmethodologies. The methanolic extracts of the cocoa beans wereanalyzed for total phenols content, condensed tannins, totalantiocianins, catechin and epicatechin, theobromine and caffeine.The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS assay, ORACmethod and superoxide radical scavenging method. The effect ofroasting on cocoa clones did not have an unspecified behavior. Inconclusion, the effect of roasting of cacao clones was not uniformon the

  13. Alimento balanceado-forraje verde idropónico en la alimentación de conejos criollos (oryctolagus cuniculus (Food green balance-forage hydroponic in the feeding of creole rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus

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    José Rubén Nava Noriega

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available La producción de forraje verde hidropónico (FVH se lleva a cabo en espacios reducidos con diferentes especies vegetales y condiciones hostiles, para alimentar diferentes especies de animales domésticos, equinos, bovinos, caprinos y conejos. El objetivo este trabajo fue valorar 9 proporciones de FVH-Alimento balanceado (AB y ambos por separado como dietas para alimentación de conejos machos criollos Oryctolagus cuniculus. El FVH se produjo con semillas de trigo Triticum aestivum, desinfectadas con hipoclorito de sodio al 5% y escarificadas por 24 horas con agua corriente; se transfirieron a charolas y se llevaron al invernadero, al inicio se regaron con agua corriente, luego con solución nutritiva durante 14 días. El experimento fue completamente al azar (CA con 11 tratamientos, proporciones FVH-AB, FVH y AB por separado, con 3 repeticiones. El experimento duró siete semanas y se registró el peso de los conejos una vez por semana, los datos se procesaron por análisis de varianza (P=0.05 con la prueba de medias de Tukey. Los resultados del peso de los conejos fueron significativos a partir de la cuarta semana, desde la proporción 60% de FVH + 40% de AB hasta AB solo, tratamientos del 3 al 11, con 100% FVH y 90% FVH + 10% AB. Se encontró semejanzas y diferencias con otros autores que han utilizado proporciones FVH + AB para conejos. Se concluye, que a partir de la proporción 60% FVH + 40 % AB puede ser utilizada en la alimentación de conejos criollos (Oryctolagus cuniculus con resultados de ganancia de peso similares a los obtenidos cuando se utiliza de 100% AB The production of forage green hydroponic (FVH it is carried out in reduced spaces with different vegetable species and hostile conditions, to feed different species of domestic, equine, bovine animals, caprines and rabbits. The objective this work was to value 9 proportions of balanced FVH-food (AB and both for separate as diets for feeding of Creole male rabbits Oryctolagus

  14. Husbandry practices associated with the presentation of abnormal behaviours in Chilean Creole horses Prácticas de manejo asociadas a la presentación de conductas anormales en caballos Criollo chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Tadich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behaviours usually develop in environments that are suboptimal for the horses and tend to reduce their welfare. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal behaviours in Chilean Creole horses, and associate their presentation with characteristics of the animal and their management. Twenty-three breeding centres were surveyed face to face through their veterinarians. Information on 441 horses was obtained, of which 116 were foals or yearlings that did not present any abnormal behaviours. Of the remaining 325 adult horses 11.1% presented abnormal behaviours; 3.1% corresponded to stereotypes and 8% to wood-chewing. A significant association was found between sex (stallions and the presentation of abnormal behaviours, while function was also significantly associated, with combination of sport and reproductive activities presenting a higher risk. In relation to husbandry practices horses received feeding 2 or 3 times daily. Diets comprised on average 50% roughage from the total feed ration (roughage + oats. A significant association was found between providing less than 60% of forage in the diet and the presentation of abnormal behaviours. Forty one percent of horses were kept in stables for over 6 hours per day, 37% had no type of contact with conspecifics while in the stable and 21% had straw bedding. None of these practices were associated with the presentation of abnormal behaviours. Establishing factors related to the development of abnormal behaviours in horses can allow improvement of their welfare through the implementation of appropriate husbandry practices in the equine production systems of the Chilean Creole horse.Las conductas anormales generalmente se desarrollan en ambientes subóptimos para el equino y tienden a reducir su bienestar. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de conductas anormales en equinos Criollo chileno, asociando su presentación a características del animal y de su

  15. Polimorfismo genético de beta-lactoglobulina y alphalactoalbúmina en el ganado criollo colombiano, mediante PCR-SSCP Genetic polymorphism of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactoalbumin in Colombian Creole cattle by PCR-SSCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Rosero-Alpala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La población de ganado criollo colombiano ha venido presentando una inquietante disminución al pasar de 23.415 ejemplares en 1999 a 20.102 en 2003. A pesar de los esfuerzos por recuperar las razas criollas el panorama para su conservación es incierto, por tanto la búsqueda de caracteres deseables puede contribuir a su valoración y conservación. Los genes relacionados con el mejoramiento de la calidad de la leche producida por estas razas se consideran de gran importancia en la industria láctea, por tal razón y con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes beta-lactoglobulina y alpha-lactoalbúmina se analizaron 30 muestras de sangre de cada una de las razas criollas (Blanco Orejinegro, Caqueteño, Casanareño, Costeño con cuernos, Chino Santandereano, Hartón del Valle, Romosinuano y Sanmartinero, dos razas sintéticas colombianas (Lucerna y Velásquez y dos razas foráneas (Holstein y Brahman. Se amplificaron fragmentos de 262pb para beta-lactoglobulina (b-LG y de 166 pb para alpha-lactoalbúmina (a-LA que se genotipificaron mediante PCR-SSCP. El promedio de la frecuencia para b-LG A y b-LG B fue de 0.46 ± 0.020 y de 0.53 ± 0.020, respectivamente, y de 0.35 ± 0.019 para a-LA A y 0.64 ± 0.019 para a-LA B. El promedio de diversidad genética (He para b-LG fue 0.498 y de 0.455 para a-LA. Los ganados criollos representan una base genética valiosa, como alternativa para mejorar genéticamente los hatos destinados a la producción de leche con mejores características en calidad para la industria láctea.The Colombian Creole Cattle has showed a preoccupant population decreasing, from 23,415 individuals in 1999 to 20,102 in 2003. Despite that many efforts to recover the creole breeds have been done, its future conservation is unclear. Searching for economic desirable genes may contribute to its preservation and utilization as a genetic resource. Genes related with the improvement of milk proteins are considered as an economic important

  16. Estudio molecular preliminar de accesiones de maíz (Zea maysL. criollo e indígena Colombiano, utilizando una región de ADN cloroplástico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediel Armando Revelo Portilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exploró en forma preliminar la diversidad genética existente en las 23 razas de maíz criollo e indígena descritas para Colombia por Roberts y colaboradores (1957, para el efecto se evaluaron 28 cebadores nucleares y cloroplásticos. Catorce de ellos amplificaron en la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR y fueron enviados para secuenciar a Macrogen Inc. (Corea. Mediante programas bioinformáticos (BioEdit 7.1.0, ClustalW versión 1.81, EditPlus Text Editor versión 3.20 y Gblock 0.91b 8 se encontró que ocho de estos cebadores presentaron un nivel alto de polimorfismo. La región genómica cloroplástica AtpB-1-RbcL-1 mostró el mayor polimorfismo y por tanto se utilizó para evaluar 23 materiales representativos de las 23 razas conservadas en el Banco de Germoplasma del CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo en México. Con el análisis de secuencias se revalidaron y confrontaron los grupos raciales obtenidos en el presente estudio -tres razas primitivas, siete razas probablemente introducidas, y 13 razas híbridas colombianas- con aquellos establecidos por Roberts y colaboradores, en los cuales se encontraron dos razas primitivas, nueve probablemente introducidas y 12 híbridas colombianas y con los grupos establecidos por Cardona (2010 utilizando la metodología Ward-MLM para los mismos caracteres descritos por Roberts et al. (1957, donde se encontraron cinco razas primitivas, siete probablemente introducidas y nueve híbridas colombianas. Con base en lo anterior, en el presente trabajo se hizo un aporte metodológico para revalidar datos históricos y redefinir grupos raciales.

  17. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred in to bulls of the other 2 breeds. Calves were spring-born from 2005 through 2011. Evaluated calf (n = 1,254) traits included birth weight and weight, ADG, BCS, and hip height at weaning. Cow weight (n = 1,389) was recorded at weaning. Maternal efficiency traits evaluated included weaning weight per 100 kg cow weight, weaning weight per calving interval, and weaning weight per cow exposed to breeding (n = 1,442). Fixed effects and their interactions were investigated included sire and dam breed of cow, sire breed of calf, cow age, year, calf gender, and weaning age as a linear covariate (calf traits at weaning). Direct and maternal additive genetic effects were random in models for calf traits; only direct additive effects were modeled for cow traits. Cows sired by Angus bulls from outside the research herd had calves that were heavier at birth and weaning and greater ADG, BCS, and hip height (P Brahman-Angus. Heterosis for cow weight was 65 ± 8 kg for Brahman-Angus (P Brahman, and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P Brahman-Angus cows excelled. PMID:24671581

  18. Efeito da modificação da composição química na sinterização e microestrutura de porcelanas de ossos bovinos Effect of chemical composition modification on sinterability and microstructure of bone china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gouvêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone china é um tipo especial de porcelana que foi primeiramente desenvolvida no Reino Unido e é caracterizada pela alta resistência mecânica, grande alvura e translucidez. É fabricada com uma mistura de matérias-primas composta por aproximadamente 50% de cinza de ossos bovinos calcinados (OBC e 25% de fundentes, 25% de caulim ou argilas plásticas. A modificação das proporções e tipos das matérias-primas originais, ou seja, a substituição de Cornish stone por feldspato para a fabricação de bone china acarreta numa alteração das proporções óxidos fundentes/SiO2. Quando fabricada com Cornish stone, a composição é de 50:25:25 (OBC:caulim:Cornish stone. A fabricação de bone china nesta proporção com OBC:caulim:feldspato já apresenta uma maior fundência e uma temperatura de sinterização inferior, mas muito próxima, da composição original inglesa. A modificação para a composição 60:20:20 faz com que ocorra um aumento da relação fundentes/SiO2, que leva a uma facilitação da sinterização devido à redução da viscosidade do vidro formado durante o processo. Nesta composição o material sinteriza a 1200 ºC, que é cerca de 80 ºC abaixo da temperatura de queima da composição inglesa original, e apresenta uma microestrutura final muito homogênea e de baixa porosidade.Bone china is a type of high quality porcelain body first developed in Britain in which calcined cattle bone (bone ash is a major component (50%, but with also Cornish stone (25% and kaolin (25%. Whiteness, strength and high translucency are the characteristic features of this ware. Cornish stone acts as a flux in the bone china, melting first and acting as a solvent for the other constituents. In this work Cornish stone was substituted by feldspar as a flux and the mixtures 50:25:25, 50:30:20 and 60:20:20 (Bone Ash:feldspar:kaolin were sintered from 1000 to 1300 ºC (50 ºC steps. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, mercury

  19. Aplicación y Comparación de Metodologías Multicriterio (AHP y Fuzzy Logic) en la Selección de Tecnología Postcosecha para Pequeños Productores de Cacao.

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Montenegro, Lenin

    2014-01-01

    El Ecuador provee el 70% de la demanda especializada en cacao (Theobroma cacao) del tipo “fino y de aroma” a nivel mundial, empleado en la elaboración de chocolates de alta calidad. En este trabajo se define un modelo de selección de tecnología post cosecha adaptada a los pequeños productores (59% de la producción Ecuatoriana), aplicando dos tipos de modelos multicriterios que incluyen los criterios de calidad, costo de transformación y capacidad de adopción tecnológic...

  20. Efecto de la fermentación y el tostado sobre la concentración polifenólica y actividad antioxidante de cacao nicaragüense

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo Mercado, Yader Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como finalidad hacer una caracterización del contenido en polifenoles totales (PT) y la actividad antioxidantes (AA) de varias muestras de semillas de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fermentadas y sin fermentar, de la variedad Trinitario, y procedentes de Nicaragua. Y además evaluar el efecto del tostado sobre dichas características y el color de los extractos fenólicos de las semillas. Los tratamientos de tostado fueron a 110 ºC por 90 min, 130 ºC por 60 min y 15...

  1. Insight into the wild origin, migration and domestication history of the fine flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. variety from Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Gaston Loor Solorzano

    Full Text Available Ecuador's economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.

  2. Possible Impact of Antioxidant Properties of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Against Irradiation - Induced Some Biochemical Disorders in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man is exposed to natural radiations either from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation of animals induce biochemical alterations which depend mostly on oxidative stress. This work aimed at evaluating the radioprotective efficiency of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) against whole body γ-irradiation of rats. The virtue of cocoa aqueous extract (CAE) was given to rats at a dose of 1 g/ kg for 6 weeks to determine changes in hepatic marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The animals exposed to γ-rays exhibited a pronounced increment in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ GT), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). On the other hand, a significant decline was demonstrated in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A decrease of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was sustained. The CAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings revealed that cocoa would exert radio-protective properties

  3. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana O. Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the cloning, sequence and expression analysis of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the most important pathogen of cocoa in Brazil. Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of a single copy of the GAPDH gene in the M. perniciosa genome (MpGAPDH. The complete MpGAPDH coding sequence contained 1,461 bp with eight introns that were conserved in the GAPDH genes of other basidiomycete species. The cis-elements in the promoter region of the MpGAPDH gene were similar to those of other basidiomycetes. Likewise, the MpGAPDH gene encoded a putative 339 amino acid protein that shared significant sequence similarity with other GAPDH proteins in fungi, plants, and metazoans. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the MPGAPDH protein with other homobasidiomycete fungi of the family Tricholomataceae. Expression analysis of the MpGAPDH gene by real-time PCR showed that this gene was more expressed (~1.3X in the saprotrophic stage of this hemibiotrophic plant pathogen than in the biotrophic stage when grown in cacao extracts.

  4. "BEING SUCCESSFUL MEANT SPEAKING WELL, AND SPEAKING WELL MEANT SPEAKING STANDARD ENGLISH". APROXIMACIÓN AL ESTUDIO DE LAS ACTITUDES LINGÜÍSTICAS EN HABLANTES TRILINGÜES: INGLÉS CRIOLLO, INGLÉS ESTÁNDAR Y ESPAÑOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Enrique García León

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El artículo presenta los hallazgos de un estudio sobre bilingüismo y lenguas en contacto que buscaba caracterizar las actitudes lingüísticas e identitarias de un grupo de hablantes de inglés criollo, inglés estándar y español. La metodología se basó en el estudio de caso y la historia de vida. Por medio de entrevistas se recolectaron ocho historias de vida que fueron analizadas con el programa ATLAS.ti. Los resultados muestran actitudes ambiguas frente al criollo y positivas hacia el inglés y el español. Estas responden a factores como la educación, la familia y los medios de comunicación. Se reflexiona sobre elementos como la diglosia educativa, el prestigio lingüístico y el cambio de código en las lenguas mencionadas. Así, se espera contribuir al campo de las lenguas en contacto y la criollística, dado que el estudio de las actitudes lingüísticas es fundamental para el mantenimiento y vitalidad de las lenguas minoritarias.

  5. Caracterización química foliar de los árboles de aguacate criollo (Persea americana var. drymifolia en los bancos de germoplasma de Michoacán, México Foliar chemical caracterization of the creole avocado trees (Persea americana var. drymifolia in the germplasm banks from Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia A. Rincón-Hernández

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Persea americana var. drymifolia (aguacate criollo mexicano se emplea como portainjerto en huertos de aguacate Hass y es fuente de genes de resistencia a plagas y patógenos para éste y otros cultivares. El aguacate criollo mexicano se está sustituyendo por cultivares comerciales o perdiendo por la destrucción de ecosistemas. Por eso, se estudiaron 250 árboles (52 accesiones de 14 estados de México; 247 de criollo mexicano y 3 híbridos de éste con P.shiedeana, P. americana var. americana y P. americana var. guatemalensis, plantados en los bancos de germoplasma en Michoacán. Se analizó la composición química mediante cromatografía de gases-masas. Hubo alta variabilidad química entre los árboles del banco de germoplasma con los 64 compuestos detectados. El análisis de cúmulos mostró 2 grandes grupos químicos con 100% disimilitud y 22 grupos a 10% de disimilitud. Los híbridos se agruparon de manera diferente a los árboles con características típicas de criollo y difieren en su altitud de origen. Corroboramos que los volátiles foliares sirven como marcadores para diferenciar los criollos típicos de sus híbridos y que mucha variación atribuida a la variedad criolla proviene de hibridaciones en zonas de contacto de esta variedad con otras variedades o especies de Persea.Persea americana var. drymifolia (mexican creole avocado is used as rootstock in Hass avocado orchards and it is a source of genes for resistance to pests and pathogens for this and other cultivars. The Mexican varieties are being replaced by commercial cultivars or lost by the destruction of ecosystems. Therefore, we studied 250 avocado trees of 52 accessions from 14 Mexican states; 247 mexican creole avocado and 3 hybrids of that tree with P. shiedeana, P. americana var. americana or P. americana var. guatemalensis, planted at germplasm banks, Michoacán. Foliar chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. High chemical variability among the trees was found

  6. Development of a nopal fiber (Opuntia ficus-indica) and powdered cocoa (Theobroma cacao) added beef patties, nutritive, physicochemical and sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    F.H. Chamorro-Ramirez; J.F. Gonzalez-Sanchez; A. Azpe-Franco; G. Arce-Jurado

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate addition effect of 3% of nopal fiber (FN) and cacao powder (CA) on the physicochemical, nutritional content and sensory acceptation of patty meat. A total of 144 patties were elaborated in three different batches: Control (TC) no addition; FN with 3% of FN; and CA with 3% of CA. Physicochemical tests (pH, Aw), texture (TPA) and instrumental color (CIE-Lab) at different storage times (0, 2, 7, 14 and 28 days), besides to nutritional content and accept...

  7. Simultaneous decontamination of cross-polluted soils with heavy metals and PCBs using a nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the use of nano-metallic calcium (Ca) and calcium oxide (CaO) dispersion mixture for the simultaneous remediation of contaminated soils with both heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Regardless of soil moisture content, nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture achieved about 95-99% of heavy metal immobilization by a simple grinding process. During the same treatment, reasonable PCB hydrodechlorination efficiencies were obtained (up to 97%), though higher hydrodechlorination efficiency by preliminary drying of soil was observed. PMID:24723351

  8. Chemical, physico-chemical and sensory characterization of mixed açai (Euterpe oleracea) and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao) jellies

    OpenAIRE

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto; Elck Almeida Carvalho; Karen Valverde Pontes; Waldemar de Sousa Barretto; Célio Kersul do Sacramento

    2013-01-01

    Four formulations of mixed açaí (Euterpe oleracea) (A) and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao) (CH) jellies were prepared according to the following proportions: T1 (40% A:60% CH), T2 (50% A:50% CH), T3 (60% A: 40% CH) and T4 (100% A - control). All formulations were prepared using a rate 60:40 (w/w) of sucrose and pulp, plus 0.5% pectin and the products reached to average of 65% soluble solids content. The jellies were analyzed by chemical and physicochemical (titratable acidity, pH, soluble sol...

  9. Pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable, Sector Cacao, Estado Sucre. Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lourdes Bruzco Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Se reflexiona sobre el pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable del sector cacao, estado Sucre, a partir de la racionalidad existente en el área y la que emerge al acercarse el sujeto indagador influenciado por el campo de las ciencias administrativas y gerenciales. La investigación se aborda desde la perspectiva interpretativa, haciendo uso del método hermenéutico. Se encontró: 1.Los informantes poseen conocimiento sobre los elementos constitutivos del ...

  10. Pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable, Sector Cacao; Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    María Lourdes Bruzco Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Se reflexiona sobre el pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable en el sector cacao del estado Sucre, a partir de la racionalidad existente en el área y la que emerge al acercarse el sujeto indagador influenciado por el campo de las ciencias administrativas y gerenciales. La investigación se aborda desde la perspectiva interpretativa, haciendo uso del método hermenéutico. Se encontró: 1. Los informantes poseen conocimiento sobre los elementos constitutivo...

  11. La incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial entre 1840 y 1925, según los informes consulares

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Maiguashca

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo ofrece una reinterpretación del proceso de incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial, entre 1840 y 1925. Esta revisión se realiza a partir de los conceptos desarrollados por el economista italiano Giovanni Arrighi: incorporación nominal, incorporación periférica e incorporación no-periférica. Por medio de estos, el ensayo analiza la variedad de enlaces que se desarrollaron entre el centro y la periferia, y dentro la periferia misma. Se estudian especialmente dos mom...

  12. El sitio Cueva Cacao 1A: hallazgos, espacio y proceso de complejidad en la Puna meridional (ca. 3000 años A. P.)

    OpenAIRE

    Olivera, Daniel Enzo; Vidal, Aixa S.; Grana, Lorena

    2003-01-01

    El estudio de objetos poco frecuentes en los sitios arqueológicos, como los realizados con materiales perecederos, constituye una importante fuente de información sobre distintos aspectos de la vida cotidiana de los grupos prehistóricos, no sólo en las cuestiones vinculadas directamente con la subsistencia sino también en lo relativo a la esfera social, al ritual y a las relaciones entre grupos. Las características de gran aridez, sedimentación eólica y difícil acceso del sitio Cueva Cacao 1A...

  13. Pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable, Sector Cacao, Estado Sucre. Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    María Lourdes Bruzco Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Se reflexiona sobre el pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable en el sector cacao del estado Sucre, a partir de la racionalidad existente en el área y la que emerge al acercarse el sujeto indagador influenciado por el campo de las ciencias administrativas y gerenciales. La investigación se aborda desde la perspectiva interpretativa, haciendo uso del método hermenéutico. Se encontró: 1. Los informantes poseen conocimiento sobre los elementos constitutivo...

  14. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en general más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  15. POTENCIAL DE REUTILIZACIÓN DEL EFLUENTE DE LA PLANTA DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DE NÁTAGA EN CULTIVO DE CACAO (Theobroma cacao L. POTENTIAL REUSE OF EFFLUENT FROM THE NÁTAGA MUNICIPALITY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT FOR THE CROP OF COCOA (Theobroma cocoa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Valencia

    Full Text Available El trabajo consistió en determinar el potencial de reutilización del efluente de la Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales (PTAR del municipio Nátaga, departamento Huila, Colombia, con fines de irrigación para un cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.. Este efluente es vertido a la Quebrada El Pueblo, creando problemas de contaminación y de riesgos de salud pública. Aplicando vigilancia tecnológica, se elaboró el estado del arte y recolección de información, para caracterizar el efluente y evaluar la PTAR; se calculó el balance hídrico del cultivo y los beneficios potenciales de la reutilización en riego de estas aguas residuales. El efluente de la PTAR pertenece a la clase C2S1 (CE = 0,54 dS/m, RAS = 1,5, con peligro de salinización medio y de alcalinización bajo para agua de riego; por su riesgo microbiológico es categoría B (CF = 105 NMP/100mL, HH = 21 HH/L, exigiendo adecuado manejo del riego, que minimice los riesgos de salud pública. La zona de influencia tiene déficit hídrico durante todo el año y el efluente constituye un recurso potencial para el cultivo de cacao, aportando en promedio 223.720 m³/año de agua, macronutrientes N (7.273kg/año, P (839kg/año, K (2.797kg/año y lodos (958 kg/año de materia seca; con el efluente en verano, se puede regar en promedio 19ha de cacao y, en invierno, 27ha. Se recomienda el riego del cacao con el efluente de la PTAR, pero se debe tener cuidado con los efectos sobre el suelo, la planta y la salud pública.The project consisted in the determination of the potential reuse of the effluent from the Nátaga municipality Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP for irrigation purpose in cocoa cultivations (Theobroma cacao L.. The effluent is discharged to the "El Pueblo" river, generating pollution problems and public health risks. By means of technological surveillance, the state of art was elaborated and the information, in order to characterize and evaluate the WWTP effluent

  16. Factors Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Technical and Organizational Recommendations by Farmers Involved with Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in Cameroon. A Research Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga, Andre; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    In order to promote cocoa production and assist cocoa farmers in overcoming diseases in this crop, the government of Cameroon created an experimental corporation called Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in 1974. This organization functioned much like an extension service to provide information about crop production and disease control.…

  17. Irradiation as an alternative treatment to methyl bromide for the disinfestation of tribolium castaneum in stored cacao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of irradiation on red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults were examined. Data was taken on mortality, adult emergence, and sterility after irradiation at doses between 0.02 and 0.16 kGy. Mature eggs were more resistant to irradiation than young eggs; development to adults was prevented at a dose of 0.08 kGy for one to two day old eggs but was not stopped for the three to four day old eggs at doses as high as 0.16 kGy. Larvae were the most sensitive to irradiation. Young larvae appeared to be more resistant to irradiation than older larvae. Pupae were the most resistant to irradiation, and older pupae were more resistant than younger pupae. Development to adults was not prevented in both types of pupae up to 0.16 kGy. Survivors were not observed after four weeks for adults receiving a dose of 0.10 kGy or higher. Adults emerging from irradiated eggs, larvae, and pupae were sterile, in some cases, at slightly higher doses than those required to prevent adult emergence. Adults from irradiated eggs and larvae were sterile at 0.06 kGy. For pupae, sterility was achieved at 0.06 and 0.12 kGy for the one to two days and four to five days old pupae, respectively. Adult sterility was achieved at 0.12 kGy. As expected, when one member of a mating pair was left unirradiated, the dose requirements were higher. The effect of mating combination is still being analyzed. Data are still being collected and analyzed for Ephestia cautella, another major pest of stored cacao bean. Tests with T. castaneum and E. cautella must be completed before a dose can be recommended for commercial treatment. (author)

  18. The effect of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on in vitro callogenesis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. development using modern breeding techniques can be facilitated by propagation of planting material through somatic embryogenesis. Various factors that may affect embryogenesis are the composition of culture medium and culture condition. Hormone commonly used to initiate the formation of callus is auxin with type 2.4-D (2.4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of 2.4 -D hormoneson the process of cocoa embryogenesis. The treatments were arragged in factorial combination in completely randomized design, which consisted of two factors. Thefirst factor was the concentration of auxin 2,4-D 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, and 100 %; and the second factor was cocoa clones; Sulawesi 01 and Sulawesi 02. The resultshowed that the addition of 2.4-D hormone up to 100% on somatic embryogenesis of cocoa for Sulawesi 01 clone was not significantly different from Sulawesi 02 clone for all parameters. While on the addition of 2.4-D, there was significant difference between Sulawesi 01 and 02. Cocoa embryogenic callus using the addition of 2.4-D (25%-100% was significantly different from control. Increased concentrations of 2,4-D hormone which is applied onto media would inhibit the formation of the somatic embryo. Addition of 2.4 D 25%, encouraged towards non-embryogenic callus. Keywords: 2.4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, embryogenic callus, somatic embryos, cocoa, medium culture, hormone

  19. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumbu, K. [Department of Chemistry, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  20. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  1. INTROGRESIÓN GENÉTICA DE Bos indicus (BOVIDAE EN BOVINOS CRIOLLOS COLOMBIANOS DE ORIGEN Bos taurus Genetic Introgression of Bos indicus (Bovidae in Colombian Creole Cattle Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ARTURO SÁNCHEZ ISAZA

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes a la raza Romosinuano (40% y 10 toros de la raza Casanareña (100% con cromosoma Y de tipo acrocéntrico característico de Bos indicus, lo cual estaría evidenciando un alto grado de introgresión genética, en estas dos razas, posiblemente originada por la intensiva introducción de sementales de la raza Cebú en la ganadería criolla colombiana. En las otras cinco razas (Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Chino santandereano, Costeño con cuernos, Hartón del valle y Sanmartinero, los toros presentaron el cromosoma Y submetacéntrico, característico de Bos taurus.This work evidenced, using a cytogenetics approach, that Bos indicus exerted a genetic introgression of paternal origin on Creole Colombian cattle descendent from Bos taurus. Analysis of chromosome Y morphology was carried out in heparinized blood samples of 67 bulls belonging to seven Colombian breeds. We report 4 sires belonging to the Romosinuano breed (40% and 10 bulls of the Casanareño breed (100% with acrocentric Y chromosome which is characteristic of Bos taurus. This finding indicates a high degree of genetic introgression in these two breeds probably caused by the continuous input of zebu stallions in the Colombian Creole breeds. In other five Creole breeds (Blanco Orejinegro -BON-, Chino Santandereano, Costeño con Cuernos, Hartón del Valle and Sanmartinero, the bulls had a submetacentric Y chromosome characteristic of Bos taurus.

  2. Fechamento das placas epifisárias do metacarpiano principal, do rádio e da tíbia em potros Crioulos Closure time of the epiphyseal plates in the third metacarpus, radius and tibia in Criollo foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Colares Luiz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a idade do fechamento das placas de crescimento dos ossos longos, foram usados 92 potros da raça crioula com idades entre 6 a 29 meses, machos e fêmeas, provenientes de cinco criatórios diferentes. Foram radiografadas as placas epifisárias distais do terceiro metacarpiano, do rádio e da tíbia. A imagem radiográfica foi classificada quanto ao fechamento em: visível, parcialmente visível ou não visível. Foram avaliados a influência do sexo, da propriedade e do regime nutricional sobre o fechamento da placa epifisária. Observou-se que, aos sete meses de idade, a placa epifisária do metacarpiano principal já não era visível. A placa epifisária distal da tíbia não foi possível de ser identificada aos 23 meses. Na porção distal do rádio, a placa epifisária esteve visível até os 25 meses de idade. Os resultados deste estudo comprovam que o período de fechamento da placa epifisária dos ossos metacarpiano principal, rádio e tíbia de potros crioulos se assemelha ao descrito em outras raças.Aiming at documenting the closure of the physeal plates of the long bones, 92 Criollo foals, males and females, between 6 and 29 months of age, were used in this study. Dorsopalmar radiographs were taken from the distal portion of the radius, 3rd metacarpal bone and tibia. The radiographic image of the growth plate was classified as visible, partially visible or not visible. At 7 months of age the growth plate of the 3rd metacarpal bone was no longer visible. In the distal physis of the tibia the growth plate was no longer visible at 23 months and at 25 months of age in the radius. The results of this study show that period of closure of the physeal plates of the main metacaopal bone, the radius and tibia is similar to the some described in other breeds.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood (ID 4276) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or...... directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claim is cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). The Panel considers that whereas the food, cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.), is not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect evaluated in this opinion, the food constituents, caffeine...... concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood....

  4. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Betty Stefany

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aisla- do M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibi- ción del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. ori- ganoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno,

    y-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, 1-mirceno, trans-1ccariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P <

    0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en gene- ral más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  5. Pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable, Sector Cacao; Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Bruzco Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reflexiona sobre el pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable en el sector cacao del estado Sucre, a partir de la racionalidad existente en el área y la que emerge al acercarse el sujeto indagador influenciado por el campo de las ciencias administrativas y gerenciales. La investigación se aborda desde la perspectiva interpretativa, haciendo uso del método hermenéutico. Se encontró: 1. Los informantes poseen conocimiento sobre los elementos constitutivos del pensamiento estratégico en mayor grado que aquellos que dan vida al desarrollo sustentable. 2. Las ideas expuestas convergen en una estructura de partes interrelacionadas en atención a las teorías revisadas. Se concluye que los gerentes encuestados de las pyme consideradas relacionan ambos conceptos, siendo ventajoso para el sector.

  6. La producción de cacao en el estado Zulia: impacto socioeconómico en los cacaocultores "Ruta del Chocolate"

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    Elvis Portillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó con el objetivo de promover el desarrollo de la cacaocultura del estado Zulia, mediante la transferencia tecnológica. Se utilizo el diagnóstico participativo, entrevistas directas, asistencia técnica, reuniones y dictado de cursos. Como resultados preliminares tenemos: Organización de 9 asociaciones de productores, 300 productores capacitados sobre el manejo agronómico del cultivo y aspectos organizacionales, Fortalecimiento del Laboratorio de Tecnología de alimentos de la Facultad de Agronomía de LUZ. El trabajo ha servido de incentivo para los productores del estado Zulia a fin de rescatar el cacao como rubro generador de divisas para los cacaocultores y el país.

  7. Relaciones entre los bovinos criollos panameños y algunas razas criollas de Latinoamérica Relationships between Panamanians and some creole cattle landraces in Latin America

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    Axel Villalobos-Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la relación genética entre poblaciones bovinas panameñas Guabalá y Guaymí y algunas poblaciones criollas de Latinoamérica. Se practicó un análisis factorial de correspondencias, análisis de varianza molecular, distancias genéticas, número medio de migrantes por población y los estadísticos F de Wright. Se evaluó la estructura de la población mediante un modelo Bayesiano, suponiéndose un número desconocido de K grupos diferentes genéticamente. El análisis factorial de correspondencias mostró que las poblaciones Guabalá y Guaymí se agrupan con los bovinos criollos mexicanos y el Texas Longhorn. Igualmente se observó menor diferenciación genética de las criollas panameñas con mexicanos y el Texas Longhorn. Los análisis de distancia genética también mostraron dados similares a los obtenidos por el Amova y por el análisis factorial de correspondencia, y se observó menor distancia entre poblaciones del norte y las panameñas, en comparación con las poblaciones del sur. La agrupación bayesiana permitió la asignación de los individuos a su respectivo grupo, con base en su semejanza genética, y proporcionó información acerca del número de poblaciones bajo el cual se originan. Hay una estrecha relación histórica, genética y geográfica de las poblaciones panameñas, criollas mexicanas y Texas Longhorn, a partir de las migraciones de sus precursores desde las Antillas hacia Panamá y México.The objective of this work was to establish the genetic relationship between Guabalá and Guaymi cattle populations and some native ones of Latin America. Factorial correspondence analysis, analysis of molecular variance, genetic distances, average number of migrants per population and Wright's F statistics were performed. Population structure was assessed by a Bayesian model, assuming an unknown number of K genetically distinct groups. The correspondence analysis showed that the

  8. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes

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    Blackmon Barbara P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or a selected sub-genomic region of biological interest. Such a region can be approached with next-generation whole-genome sequencing and assembly as if it were an independent small genome. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, specific BAC clones representing the prioritized genomic interval are selected, pooled, and used to prepare a sequencing library. Results This pooled BAC approach was taken to sequence and assemble a QTL-rich region, of ~3 Mbp and represented by twenty-seven BACs, on linkage group 5 of the Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6 genome. Using various mixtures of read coverages from paired-end and linear 454 libraries, multiple assemblies of varied quality were generated. Quality was assessed by comparing the assembly of 454 reads with a subset of ten BACs individually sequenced and assembled using Sanger reads. A mixture of reads optimal for assembly was identified. We found, furthermore, that a quality assembly suitable for serving as a reference genome template could be obtained even with a reduced depth of sequencing coverage. Annotation of the resulting assembly revealed several genes potentially responsible for three T. cacao traits: black pod disease resistance, bean shape index, and pod weight. Conclusions Our results, as with other pooled BAC sequencing reports, suggest that pooling portions of a minimum tiling path derived from a BAC-based physical map is an effective method to target sub-genomic regions for sequencing. While we focused on a single QTL region, other QTL regions of importance could be similarly sequenced allowing for biological discovery to take place before a high quality whole-genome assembly is completed.

  9. Absorción y distribución de nutrientes en clones de cacao y sus efectos en el rendimiento

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    Yina Jazbleidi Puentes-Páramo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En el centro experimental de la Federación Nacional de Cacaoteros de Colombia (Fedecacao, localizado en el municipio de Miranda, Cauca (Colombia se evaluó la capacidad de absorción y distribución de los nutrientes N, P y K en hojas, cáscara y almendra de los clones de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.: CCN-51 y ICS-95 (auto-compatibles y TSH-565 e ICS-39 (auto-incompatibles, y su influencia en el rendimiento. El diseño experimental fue bloques completos al azar con cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones; los tratamientos consistieron en un control (TR equivalente a la concentración de nutrientes en el suelo del centro experimental (kg/ha (49 N, 23.5 P y 146.5 K, e incrementos en esta concentración equivalentes a 25%(T1, 50% (T2, 75% (T3 y 100% (T4. La concentración de nutrientes en hojas, cáscara y almendra mostró diferencias significativas (P K > P y en cáscara fue K > N > P. El mayor rendimiento de grano y la mayor extracción de NPK por 1000 kg de peso seco se presentó en el T2. Todos los clones presentaron una secuencia similar de concentración de nutrientes en hoja, cáscara y almendra, sin embargo, fue evidente la diferencia existente en la capacidad de absorción y distribución de nutrientes y en el rendimiento entre clones, lo cual es relevante para el eficiente manejo nutricional del cultivo.

  10. Identificação de resistência genética do cacaueiro à podridão-parda Identification of cacao genetic resistance to black pod disease

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    Elisa Susilene Lisboa dos Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar métodos de caracterização da resistência do cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao à podridão-parda (Phytophthora palmivora. Foram estudados os métodos escala de notas, índice de intensidade de infecção e índice de doença. Discos foliares de 103 genótipos receberam 0,2 mL de uma suspensão com 3x10(5 zoósporos de P. palmivora por mililitro, e os sintomas foram avaliados pelos três métodos. Foram realizadas três avaliações (repetições por genótipo, cada uma composta por 20 discos. O método do índice de doença foi o mais eficiente em caracterizar a resistência de genótipos de cacaueiro a P. palmivora.The objective of this work was to compare methods for characterizing the resistance of cacao (Theobroma cacao to black pod (Phytophthora palmivora. The methods of disease scores, intensity of infection index and disease index were evaluated. Leaf discs of 103 genotypes were infected with 0.2 mL of a suspension with 3x10(5 zoospores of P. palmivora per milliliter, and symptoms were evaluated by the three methods. Three evaluations (replicates composed by 20 discs each were carried out for every genotype. The disease index method was the most efficient to characterize the cacao resistance to P. palmivora.

  11. Evaluation of phenotypic stability of resistance to Phytophthora spp. in cacao clones Avaliação da estabilidade fenotípica da resistência a Phytophthora spp. em clones de cacaueiro

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Roberto M. Pinto; Stela Dalva V.M. Silva; Milton M. Yamada

    2007-01-01

    Resistance of fourteen Theobroma cacao clones to Phytophthora spp. was evaluated using stem inoculations on grafted seedlings. Concepts of phenotypic stability were used to interpret the results and to express horizontality of the resistance. The linear regression coefficient 'b', the determination coefficient (R²) and average lesion size were used to determine the level of horizontal resistance, the phenotypic stability and the predictability of all clones. The results indicated that clones ...

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Phragmanthera Incana (Schum.) Harvested from Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) and Kolanut (Cola Nitida) Trees on Fe2+ induced Lipid Oxidative Stress in Some Rat Tissues - In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunmefun, O. T.; Fasola, T. R.; Saba, A. B.; Akinyemi, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence in both experimental and clinical studies has shown the participation of oxidative stress in the development and progression of diabetes mellitus. This study therefore, sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of Phragmanthera incana leaves, a mistletoe species harvested from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and Kolanut (Cola nitida) on FeSO4 induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas, liver, kidney, heart and brain in vitro. The methanolic extract was prepared with 9...

  13. Les difficultés de la replantation. Quel avenir pour le cacao en Côte d’Ivoire ?

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    Ruf François

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La conférence internationale sur le thème « Quel avenir pour les cultures pérennes ? » est née de deux préoccupations. La première recouvre le champ des difficultés de la replantation, difficultés techniques, économiques mais aussi environnementales, sociales et politiques : comment replanter 1 ? La seconde est la baisse des cours, probablement structurelle, de la plupart des matières premières agricoles, notamment de celles produites par des cultures pérennes. Si les prix restent aussi bas de façon aussi durable, pourquoi replanter ? De même qu’il est toujours de bon aloi d’acheter des actions quand la bourse s’écroule, les économistes recommandent de planter quand les cours des matières premières sont à leur plancher. Toutefois, si des centaines de milliers d’hectares sont plantés par des producteurs qui anticipent une remontée des cours, celle-ci peut alors être fort retardée. Cette capacité à anticiper un retour à des prix élevés est ainsi une des causes du prolongement de la phase des très bas prix du cacao jusqu’en 2001, ce qui semble bien relever d’un échec du marché 2. Le pourquoi et le comment de la replantation sont bien indissociables. Face aux enjeux, de nombreux pays détenteurs du patrimoine « cultures pérennes tropicales » ne manquent-ils pas d’une véritable politique de replantation prenant acte des changements nécessaires dans les conditions de production, se remettant en cause, tout en faisant face aux difficultés à interpréter les marchés ? Les problèmes de replantation ne peuvent se surmonter qu’à partir d’une compréhension des processus en œuvre, sur le terrain, en commençant par les décisions des producteurs. Les exemples, les études de cas, par village, par région, restent donc des fondamentaux pour une réflexion globale, pour une anticipation des problèmes, une action nationale, voire internationale, sur la replantation. En même temps, la question de

  14. Criollo cattle: Heritage genetics for arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty cows and three bulls from the Chinipas region in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were introduced onto the US Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service’s Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in 2005. Since then behavioral research has revealed these cattle, most accurately referre...

  15. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. In vitro effect of essential oils of three Lippia species on Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par. Evans et al., causative agent of moniliasis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P The in vitro antifungal effect of five essential oils (EOs (EO1, EO2, EO3, EO4 and EO5 extracted from Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora and L. alba on isolates of Monilia (Moniliophthora roreri was evaluated. Lippia plants were collected at five locations in Colombia, and monilia isolates were obtained from infected cocoa fruits collected in San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. The fungi strains (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 were characterized by morphology, germination and growth in culture media. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of EOs was evaluated against the M2 and the isolated strain of M. roreri (ATCC 64239 determining their effect on germination and mycelial growth inhibition. The five essential oils studied inhibited

  16. Evaluación de aguacates criollos en Nuevo León, México: región sur Evaluation of Creole avocados in Nuevo León, Mexico: southern region

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    Efraín Acosta Díaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Nuevo León, México, forma parte del centro de origen de la raza mexicana de aguacate (Persea americana Mill. var. drymifolia, en donde se cultivan variedades criollas en huertos comerciales y en traspatios, predominando la utilización de la variedad Plátano Grueso-1. Esta variedad se caracteriza por presentar un ciclo temprano de madurez fisiológica, lo cual permite que su producción se concentre en un periodo relativamente corto. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar un grupo de variedades criollas de aguacate en la región sur del estado de Nuevo León, mediante caracteres morfológicos de los frutos. Se utilizaron 29 variedades incluyendo la variedad Plátano Grueso-1 (testigo local, presentes en seis huertas comerciales y un traspatio en los municipios de Aramberri y Zaragoza, Nuevo León. Se determinaron 17 materiales con características morfológicas similares que la variedad Plátano Grueso-1, los cuales se clasificaron en tres grupos. El primer grupo está formado por 12 variedades con características del fruto similares a la variedad Plátano Grueso-1, con un período temprano de madurez fisiológica. El segundo grupo está integrado por tres variedades con características del fruto similares a la variedad Plátano Grueso-1, con un período intermedio de madurez fisiológica. El tercer grupo está constituido por dos variedades con características del fruto diferentes a la variedad Plátano Grueso, con un periodo tardío de madurez fisiológica. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que existe una amplia variación en los materiales criollos de aguacate cultivados en la región sur del estado de Nuevo León, lo cual se constituye como una alternativa para diversificar la producción y no depender casi exclusivamente de la variedad Plátano Grueso-1.The State of Nuevo León, Mexico, is a part of the birthplace of the Mexican breed of avocado (Persea americana Mill, var. drymifolia, where Creole varieties

  17. Descondensación de la heterocromatina en bovinos criollos portadores de la translocación Robertsoniana (rob1; 29. Acción del inductor 5-azacitidina-C Heterochromatin decondesation in Creole cattle carrier of Robertsonian franslocation (rob 1; 29. Action of 5-azacytidine-C

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    Rody Artigas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La translocación Robertsoniana (rob1; 29 está ampliamente distribuida en razas comerciales y en reservas genéticas de bovinos Criollos americanos. Se ha descrito un enlentecimiento en el desarrollo de embriones portadores de esta aneuploidía, frente a embriones normales. La acción de la 5-aza-C, como agente desmetilante, permitiría descondensar la heterocromatina constitutiva o facultativa. En este trabajo se realiza inducción con el análogo de base 5-aza-C(10mM, 2 hrs en cultivos linfocitarios de una hembra y un macho portadores de la rob1; 29, frente a bovinos Criollos normales. Se controla la acción desmetilante del inductor al identificar la despiralización del cromosoma X de replicación tardía en hembras y permitir el análisis de la despiralización de la cromatina en múltiples regiones de los autosomas (grandes, medianos, pequeños; de la rob1; 29 y del BTA1. Se discute la correlación existente entre regiones desmetiladas con la descondensación de la heterocromatina facultativa (condicional, relacionándola con la inestabilidad genómica, y la reprogramación epigenética.The Robertsonian translocation (rob1; 29 is widely spread in commercial breeds and specially in genetic reserve of American Creole cattle. It is also described a delay on embryo development in front of normal ones. The action of 5-aza-C, as an hypomethylated agent, could permitted to decondensate the constitutive or facultative heterochromatin. In this work we made induction with the 5-aza-C(10mM, 2 hrs analogs, in lymphocyte cultures of female and male carriers and normal Creole cattle. The DNA hypometilation is found in the inactive X chromosome of late replication as it is incorporated during the last hours of cell culture. The decondensing effects of 5-aza-C analogs is observed in multiple regions of the autosomes chromatin, the rob1; 29 and the BTA1. A correlation between hypometilated regions and decondensed of facultative (conditional

  18. Heterochromatin decondesation in Creole cattle carrier of Robertsonian franslocation (rob 1; 29. Action of 5–azacytidine–C Descondensación de la heterocromatina en bovinos criollos portadores de la translocación Robertsoniana (rob1; 29. Acción del inductor 5–azacitidina–C

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    Postiglioni Alicia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Robertsonian translocation (rob1; 29 is widely spread in commercial breeds and specially in genetic reserve of American Creole cattle. It is also described a delay on embryo development in front of normal ones. The action of 5–aza–C, as an hypomethylated agent, could permitted to decondensate the constitutive or facultative heterochromatin. In this work we made induction with the 5–aza–C(10mM, 2 hrs analogs, in lymphocyte cultures of female and male carriers and normal Creole cattle. The DNA hypometilation is found in the inactive X chromosome of late replication as it is incorporated during the last hours of cell culture. The decondensing effects of 5–aza–C analogs is observed in multiple regions of the autosomes chromatin, the rob1; 29 and the BTA1. A correlation between hypometilated regions and decondensed of facultative (conditional heterochromatin is related with genomic instability, and epigenetic reprogramming.La translocación Robertsoniana (rob1; 29 está ampliamente distribuida en razas comerciales y en reservas genéticas de bovinos Criollos americanos. Se ha descrito un enlentecimiento en el desarrollo de embriones portadores de esta aneuploidía, frente a embriones normales. La acción de la 5–aza–C, como agente desmetilante, permitiría descondensar la heterocromatina constitutiva o facultativa. En este trabajo se realiza inducción con el análogo de base 5–aza–C(10mM, 2 hrs en cultivos linfocitarios de una hembra y un macho portadores de la rob1; 29, frente a bovinos Criollos normales. Se controla la acción desmetilante del inductor al identificar la despiralización del cromosoma X de replicación tardía en hembras y permitir el análisis de la despiralización de la cromatina en múltiples regiones de los autosomas (grandes, medianos, pequeños; de la

  19. El mono y el cacao: la búsqueda de un mito a través de los relieves del Grupo de la Serie Inicial de Chichén Itzá Monkey and Cacao: in Search of a Myth Through the Initial Series Group Reliefs in Chichén Itzá

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    Martha Ilia Nájera Coronado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios sobre el cacao han subrayado la relevancia del árbol y de su fruto en diferentes ámbitos de la cultura maya y podría afirmarse que, después del maíz, fue la planta más venerada; su valor destaca en la esfera económica, en la social y, por supuesto, también en la religiosa. A pesar de ello se desconocen mitos sobre cómo los hombres llegaron a obtenerlo; por ello, con base en el modelo mítico mesoamericano del maíz, se propone una interpretación sustentada principalmente en el análisis de algunos de los relieves del Grupo de la Serie Inicial ubicado en Chichén Itzá, en la que el simio juega un papel relevante.Recent studies about cacao symbolism have stressed the importance of this plant and its bean in several contexts of ancient Maya culture, sustaining the assumption that it was the most revered plant after corn. Its value stands out in economic and social terms and, of course, in religious contexts. However, we do not know the mythical beliefs related with its procurement for the human beings; in this paper we propose a possible interpretation, based on the maize mythical model and supported by several representations from the Initial Series Group of Chichén Itzá, where monkeys play an important role.

  20. Development of a nopal fiber (Opuntia ficus-indica and powdered cocoa (Theobroma cacao added beef patties, nutritive, physicochemical and sensory characteristics

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    F.H. Chamorro-Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate addition effect of 3% of nopal fiber (FN and cacao powder (CA on the physicochemical, nutritional content and sensory acceptation of patty meat. A total of 144 patties were elaborated in three different batches: Control (TC no addition; FN with 3% of FN; and CA with 3% of CA. Physicochemical tests (pH, Aw, texture (TPA and instrumental color (CIE-Lab at different storage times (0, 2, 7, 14 and 28 days, besides to nutritional content and acceptation test. pH increased in all the treatments at 28 days of storage, where CA addition decreased luminosity (P>0.05 and maintained higher a* values (P0.05. FN or CA addition increased fiber content (P<0.05. Patties with FN showed a moderate acceptation. Since addition of FN or CA did not decreased consumer acceptation, these can be employed as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  1. La incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial entre 1840 y 1925, según los informes consulares

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    Juan Maiguashca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece una reinterpretación del proceso de incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial, entre 1840 y 1925. Esta revisión se realiza a partir de los conceptos desarrollados por el economista italiano Giovanni Arrighi: incorporación nominal, incorporación periférica e incorporación no-periférica. Por medio de estos, el ensayo analiza la variedad de enlaces que se desarrollaron entre el centro y la periferia, y dentro la periferia misma. Se estudian especialmente dos momentos de este proceso: 1840-1890 y 1890-1910. El análisis de las articulaciones externas e internas que se dieron en cada una de estas fases y los factores de producción que los sustentaron permiten caracterizar al primer momento como ‘incorporación nominal’ y al segundo como ‘periférica’. Esta distinción permite una mejor comprensión del auge cacaotero ecuatoriano en el largo siglo XIX. El trabajo se basa en los informes consulares extranjeros, un tipo de documentación que no ha sido suficientemente estudiada todavía.

  2. Análisis del diseño de voladuras con cargas compactas en la cantera de áridos El Cacao

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    José A. Otaño-Noguel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante las  voladuras primarias en la cantera de áridos El Cacao se obtiene un alto porcentaje de pedazos con dimensiones superiores a los admitidos por los eslabones siguientes de la cadena tecnológica, lo que provoca la necesidad de la fragmentación secundaria,  trayendo esto aparejado numerosos inconvenientes, el encarecimiento de las labores y el incremento  del  costo  de  producción. Para un diseño racional de las voladuras se requiere conocer las propiedades físicas de las rocas así como la acción de la explosión en el medio. En el presente trabajo  se  determinan esas propiedades y se ofrecen los resultados del estudio de la acción de la explosión en el medio provocado por la detonación de una carga compacta de sustancia explosiva.

  3. Desarrollo y optimización de una metodología analítica para la determinación de sedimento en bebida de mesa derivada del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Juliana; Tello, Myriam; Ostos, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio encaminado a desarrollar y optimizar una metodología analítica que permita determinar la cantidad de sedimento que presenta una bebida derivada del cacao (chocolate de mesa), para ser aplicada como prueba rutinaria de control de calidad indicadora del proceso, con base en los principios de la sedimentación. Para la caracterización del sedimento, se hizo la distribución de tamaños de partícula, porcentaje de grasa y peso del sedimento en seco. El desarrollo...

  4. Green synthesis of Pd/CuO nanoparticles by Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and phosphine-free Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba

    2015-06-15

    We report the green synthesis of palladium/CuO nanoparticles (Pd/CuO NPs) using Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions. The catalyst was characterized using the powder XRD, TEM, EDS, UV-vis and FT-IR. This method has the advantages of high yields, elimination of surfactant, ligand and homogeneous catalysts, simple methodology and easy work up. The catalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture and reused several times without any significant loss of catalytic activity. PMID:25721860

  5. Diversidade genética entre acessos de cacau de fazendas e de banco de germoplasma na Bahia Genetic diversity among farm and germplasm bank accessions of cacao in Bahia, Brazil

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    Jeiza Botelho Leal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética de acessos de cacau, selecionados previamente como produtivos e resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa na Bahia, e estudar suas inter-relações com genótipos no banco de germoplasma. Amostras de DNA de folhas dos 120 acessos, coletados em 17 fazendas de sete municípios do Sul da Bahia, foram amplificadas pela técnica de RAPD ("random amplified polymorphic DNA". Os coeficientes de dissimilaridade genética, calculados pelo método de Jaccard a partir das bandas RAPD, permitiram evidenciar, pela análise de agrupamento, que a maioria das seleções das fazendas (89,2% agrupou-se com acessos do banco de germoplasma considerados representativos da diversidade de cacau (híbridos, trinitários, Scavinas, amazônicos e cacau-comum. As demais seleções distribuíram-se em outros sete grupos distintos. Há elevada diversidade genética entre as seleções das fazendas, e algumas delas devem ter-se originado de genitores não incluídos nesta análise. Esses materiais apresentam potencial para seleção de clones com maior diversidade para novos cruzamentos ou uso pelos agricultores.The objective of this work was to assess genetic diversity of farm cacao accessions, previously selected as productive and resistant to witch broom in Bahia, Brazil, and to study their interrelationship with reference genotypes on germplasm bank. DNA samples from 120 cacao accessions, collected on 17 farms in seven counties in Southern Bahia, were amplified by RAPD technique (random amplified polymorphic DNA. The coefficients of genetic dissimilarity, calculated from the RAPD bands by Jaccard method, allowed to show by cluster analysis that most farm selections (89.2% grouped with accessions from germplasm bank considered representatives of the cacao genetic diversity (hybrids, Trinitarian, Scavina, Amazon and common cacao. The other selections were distributed in seven distinct groups. There is high genetic

  6. 施用生物有机肥对可可苗期生长及土壤酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Bio-organic Fertilizer Application on Cacao Plant Growth and Soil Enzyme Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青云; 王华; 王辉; 朱飞飞; 赵秋芳; 赵溪竹; 鱼欢; 朱自慧

    2013-01-01

    通过温室盆栽试验研究施用不同生物有机肥对可可苗期生长及土壤酶活性的影响.结果表明:施用生物有机肥BIOa和BIOb的处理可可植株干重,总根长、根系直径、根系表面积和根系总体积显著高于对照(单施化肥)及施用牛粪的处理;施用生物有机肥BIOa的处理可可叶片净光合速率、蒸腾速率和叶绿素含量与对照相比分别增加了169%、270%和28%;施用BIOa的处理土壤酸性磷酸酶、脲酶和蔗糖酶活性与对照相比显著提高了98.7%、92.2%和83.2%.综上所述,施用生物有机肥BIO可显著促进可可地上部植株和根系生长,同时也可显著提高相关土壤酶活性.%Green house pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of different bio-organic fertilizer application on cacao(Theobroma cacao.L)seedlings growth and soil enzyme activities.The main results obtained were listed as follows:application of bio-organic fertilizer could obviously increase cacao plant dry weights,total root length,root diameter,root surface area and root volume compared with the control and cattle manure treatments; application of bio-organic fertilizer BIOa significantly increased net photosynthetic,transpiration rate and Chlorophy by169%,270% and 28%,respectively compared with the control; application of bio-organic fertilizer BIOa obviously increased soil acidic phosphatase,urease and invertase activities by 98.7%,92.2% and 83.2%,respectively compared with the control.In conclusion,the application of bio-organic fertilizer can effectively promote cacao above-ground and root growth,moreover,significantly increase soil enzyme activities.

  7. The pathogenesis-related protein PR-4b from Theobroma cacao presents RNase activity, Ca2+ and Mg2+ dependent-DNase activity and antifungal action on Moniliophthora perniciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Menezes, Sara; de Andrade Silva, Edson Mario; Matos Lima, Eline; Oliveira de Sousa, Aurizângela; Silva Andrade, Bruno; Santos Lima Lemos, Livia; Peres Gramacho, Karina; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Micheli, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Background The production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) in plants in response to biotic or abiotic stresses is well known and is considered as a crucial mechanism for plant defense. A pathogenesis-related protein 4 cDNA was identified from a cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction cDNA library and named TcPR-4b. Results TcPR-4b presents a Barwin domain with six conserved cysteine residues, but lacks the chitin-binding site. Molecular modeling of TcPR-4b c...

  8. Préférences alimentaires de Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae vis-à-vis de quelques clones de cacaoyers (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Amang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding Preferences of Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae to some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones. The selection of cocoa clones, resistant to Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. was done in the laboratory according to the standardized method of indoor microtests based on the study of mirid feeding preferences. Fourteen cocoa clones were involved. The Sca6 clone was the control. An index (i which expresses the ratio of the number of stings on the clone to that obtained on the control was calculated for each cultivar. Which has enabled to quantify the levels of attractiveness of cocoa clones to S. singularis and to classify these clones in three groups: less attractive clones (i< 1, non different (i= 1 and more attractive (i> 1. The results obtained showed that the mean numbers of feeding stings on the control (tr ranged from 5.49 to 5.62 (5.49≤ tr≤ 5.62 and that obtained on the other clones (tc from 5.29 to 6.18 (5.29≤ tc ≤ 6.18. The Na33 clone had the highest stings mean number (6.18 and IFC 100 the lowest one (5.29. The High Amazonian clone Na33 was the most attractive and the clones ICS100, IFC100, (exotic trinitario, Sca12 (catongo and Na32 (High Amazonian were less attractive. On the other hand the clones IFC1363, IFC1362, IFC1374 (catongo, UPA337, T60/887, ICS1 and IMC60 (High Amazonians and ICS95 (exotic trinitario were non different. The reactivity seemed not depending on the origin of the clone. Save the High Amazonian clone Na33 which was the most attractive there were among non different and less attractive clones as well exotic trinitario, catongo as High Amazonians.

  9. Chemical, physico-chemical and sensory characterization of mixed açai (Euterpe oleracea and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao jellies

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    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Four formulations of mixed açaí (Euterpe oleracea (A and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao (CH jellies were prepared according to the following proportions: T1 (40% A:60% CH, T2 (50% A:50% CH, T3 (60% A: 40% CH and T4 (100% A - control. All formulations were prepared using a rate 60:40 (w/w of sucrose and pulp, plus 0.5% pectin and the products reached to average of 65% soluble solids content. The jellies were analyzed by chemical and physicochemical (titratable acidity, pH, soluble solid content, dry matter, total protein, lipids, vitamin C and calories and sensory characteristics; also were evaluated levels of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. It was used a hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate the attributes: overall impression, spreadability, brightness, flavor, texture and color, and also was verified the purchase intention score. The titratable acidity and pH ranged from 0.46 to 0.64% and 3.35 to 3.64, respectively, that are within the range found at most fruit jellies. The soluble solids content ranged between 65.2 and 65.5 ºBrix. The sensory acceptance results showed that all treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4 presented means of sensory attributes above 4, demonstrating good acceptance of the product, but the treatment T1 presented the higher scores for the evaluated attributes. Cocoa´s honey added a positive influence on the attributes of color, texture and spreadability.

  10. Otorgo que debo y me obligo: obligación, contrato y honor en las prácticas crediticias notariadas entre ibero-criollos. Buenos Aires 1640 Otorgo que debo y me obligo: obligation, contract and honor in notarized credit practices among iberian-creoles. Buenos Aires 1640

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    Martín Leandro Wasserman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se inscribe en una investigación en curso sobre las prácticas crediticias notariadas en Buenos Aires durante el siglo XVII. Abordando estas prácticas contractuales algunos actores, como Juan de Tapia de Vargas, se revelan sobresalientes y atraen nuestra atención, conduciéndonos a rastrear el desenvolvimiento estratégico desplegado mediante este recurso. La reconstrucción de las interacciones sostenidas por los actores mediante distintas prácticas relacionales puede conducir a profundizar el conocimiento de la dinámica interna de la estructura social. Así este abordaje puede ofrecer vías para reconocer los instrumentos de movilidad y ampliación de recursos relacionales empleados estratégicamente en el seno del sector ibero-criollo, permitiéndonos saldar, aunque parcialmente, la falta de estudios sobre relaciones de poder en la sociedad rioplatense colonial temprana.This article is part of an ongoing research about notarized credit practices in Buenos Aires during the 17th century. By addressing these contractual practices some agents, as Juan de Tapia de Vargas, being salient, attract our attention and lead us to trace the strategy deployed through this credit resource. The reconstruction of the interactions established by different social actors by means of different relational practices, can lead us to a deeper understanding of the internal dynamics of the social structure. In other words, this approach allows us to recognize mobility tools and resources to broaden relational ties used strategically within the Iberean-Creole social segment, allowing us to compensate, although partially, the vacancy of studies about power relations in Río de la Plata early colonial society.

  11. Componentes fenólicos e enzimas oxidativas em clones de Theobroma cacao resistentes e suscetíveis a Crinipellis perniciosa Phenols and oxidative enzymes in resistant and susceptible cocoa clones against Crinipellis perniciosa

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    Gutemberg Barone A. Nojosa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis de fenóis solúveis totais e a atividade das enzimas oxidativas polifenoloxidases e peroxidases foram estudados em tecidos foliares sadios dos clones de cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao SCA 6, TSH 1188, TSH 565, TSH 516, EET 397, EET 62, TSA 641, SIAL 505, RIM 106, RIM 52, SIC 24 e UF 613, com o objetivo de estudar possível(is mecanismo(s de resistência de cacaueiro a Crinipellis perniciosa. Os níveis de fenóis solúveis totais foram mais elevados em clones de cacaueiro com resistência a C. perniciosa, e podem estar contribuindo na resposta de defesa contra o patógeno. A atividade de polifenoloxidases foi menor nos clones resistentes do que nos clones suscetíveis. A atividade de peroxidases em folhas maduras foi menor nos clones resistentes, mas em folhas jovens não foi possível estabelecer uma relação da atividade de peroxidase com os clones resistentes. Os níveis de fenóis e a atividade das enzimas oxidativas correlacionaram-se de forma inversa na maioria dos clones estudados, o que pode indicar uma inibição das enzimas peroxidases e polifenoloxidases pelos compostos fenólicos.The levels of total soluble phenols and the activity of the oxidative enzymes polyphenol oxidases and peroxidases were studied in healthy leaf tissue of cocoa (Theobroma cacao clones SCA 6, TSH 1188, TSH 565, TSH 516, EET 397, EET 62, TSA 641, SIAL 505, RIM 106, RIM 52, SIC 24 and UF 613, for the purpose of detecting the possible resistance mechanism(s to Crinipellis perniciosa. The total soluble phenol content of T. cacao clones with resistance to C. perniciosa was generally higher than in the susceptible clones, which may contribute to defense against the pathogen. The activity of polyphenol oxidases was lower in the resistant clones compared to the susceptible ones. The activity of peroxidases in mature leaves was lower in resistant clones, but when considering young leaves it was not possible to establish a clear relation between the activity of

  12. Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A

    2009-10-14

    A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark

  13. Effects of Different Treatments on Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Theobroma cacao%不同处理对可可种子萌发以及幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李付鹏; 秦晓威; 朱自慧; 王华; 赵溪竹; 赖剑雄

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa is one of the three biggest worldwide beverage crops. Cocoa seeds are recalcitrant, which have to maintain high water content to keep their vitality. In order to investigate storage method of cocoa seeds, we analyze various treatments on seeds germination and seedling growth, including the fruit treatment, temperature and time. Our results indicated that cacao seeds lost germination ability after 4℃treatment, almost 50% treatment seeds could germinate when placed 30 days with unbroken pod husk in room temperature 25℃. In the short phase, cleaning cacao seed pulp could enhance the germination potential and promote early seedling growth.%可可是世界三大饮料作物之一,可可种子为顽拗性种子,含水量低于某一相对高的临界含水量时,其种子就会丧失活力。为探讨可可种子的贮藏方法,研究分析了果实处理方法、温度、时间对可可种子发芽及幼苗生长的影响。结果表明:可可种子经过4℃处理后便丧失了发芽力,室温25℃条件下果壳不破开,放置30 d后可可种子仍有近50%的发芽率;清洗可可种子果肉后短时间放置,可以提升种子的发芽势,并且能促进幼苗前期生长。

  14. Descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos desde las raíces finas de los sistemas agroforestales de cacao con sombras de poró y laurel, en Turrialba, Costa Rica Descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos desde las raíces finas de los sistemas agroforestales de cacao con sombras de poró y laurel, en Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Arboleda Fernando

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se usó el método de bolsas de descomposición para estudiar la pérdida de biomasa y liberación de N, P, K, Ca y Mg desde las raíces finas (<2 mm en los sistemas agroforestales de cacao con sombras de poró y laurel. Se muestrearon bolsas a las 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 y 25 semanas en las épocas seca y lluviosa. Las tasas de descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos fueron bien descritas por un modelo exponencial doble. Se observó alta relación entre las tasas de pérdida de biomasa y liberación de N de las tres especies. Las tasas de liberación de nutrimentos fueron K > Mg > P > N > Ca. Después de una semana de incubación cerca del 90% del K fue liberado mientras que el Ca tendió a la acumulación. Las raíces de poró fueron las de más rápida descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos, excepto de K. El poró sería la especie de sombra adecuada para sistemas de producción que requieran rápida recirculación de nutrimentos. El laurel exhibió tasas lentas de descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos.

    Palabras claves: Agroforestería, Theobroma cacao, Erythrina poeppigiana, Cordia alliodora, recirculación de nutrimentos, descomposición de raíces finas.

  15. Characterization of cocoa fiber and its effect on the antioxidant capacity of serum in rats Caracterización de la fibra de cacao y su efecto sobre la capacidad antioxidante en suero de animales de experimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lecumberri

    2006-10-01

    damage by means of its content in phenolic compounds (epicatechin wich are absorbed maintaining the antioxidant properties in vivo.Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo era caracterizar la composición de la fibra de cacao, estudiar su contenido en polifenoles y capacidad antioxidante in vitro, e investigar el efecto de la administración de un extracto polifenólico de dicha fibra sobre la capacidad antioxidante en suero de ratas. Material y métodos: Se analizó la composición en fibra dietética (FD y el contenido polifenólico de la fibra de cacao (FC, así como la capacidad antioxidante mediante la determinación de su poder reductor (FRAP y de secuestro de radicales libres (ABTS. Asimismo, se administró a ratas Wistar adultas mediante sonda gástrica un extracto rico en polifenoles de cacao (100 mg/kg de peso del animal procedente de la FC, a fin de estudiar la biodisponibilidad de los mismos, tomándose muestras a distintos intervalos de tiempo. Resultados: La fibra de cacao mostró ser una excelente fuente de FD, con un alto contenido de fibra total, superior al 60% de masa seca, con predominio de fracción insoluble (83%. Esta fibra contuvo sólo un 1,15% de polifenoles, con reducidos valores de capacidad antioxidante. Tras la administración intragástrica de extractos ricos en polifenoles de FC se observó una rápida y apreciable absorción de los polifenoles de la fibra de cacao, siendo la epicatequina el principal polifenol detectado en sangre. Paralelamente se produjo un incremento significativo, aunque transitorio, de la capacidad antioxidante en suero, entre los 10-45 minutos postgavage, momento en que empezó a disminuir hasta alcanzar valores basales al cabo de 6 h. Conclusiones: La FC se puede considerar como una excelente fuente de FD, principalmente de fibra insoluble, por lo que podría ser utilizado como ingrediente en el desarrollo de alimentos funcionales enriquecidos en fibra dietética. Además de los beneficios asociados a su elevado

  16. Evaluation of phenotypic stability of resistance to Phytophthora spp. in cacao clones Avaliação da estabilidade fenotípica da resistência a Phytophthora spp. em clones de cacaueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto M. Pinto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of fourteen Theobroma cacao clones to Phytophthora spp. was evaluated using stem inoculations on grafted seedlings. Concepts of phenotypic stability were used to interpret the results and to express horizontality of the resistance. The linear regression coefficient 'b', the determination coefficient (R² and average lesion size were used to determine the level of horizontal resistance, the phenotypic stability and the predictability of all clones. The results indicated that clones P 7 and MA 15 present highest levels of horizontal resistance and stability, but with moderate predictability. Clones CAS 1 and CEPEC 13 were classified as those with high horizontal resistance, stability and predictability, while clones PA 30, UF 650 and SIAL 88 and EET 59 showed intermediate resistance and stability and high predictability. Clones SPA 17, OC 61, PA 150, SIAL 505, ICS 1 and R 41 presented high susceptibility and intermediate or low stability and moderate or high predictability.A resistência de quatorze clones de Theobroma cacao a Phytophthora spp. foi avaliada utilizando inoculações em hastes de mudas enxertadas de cacau. Utilizaram-se os conceitos de estabilidade fenotípica para interpretar os resultados e expressar a horizontalidade da resistência. O coeficiente 'b' da regressão linear, o coeficiente de determinação (R² e a média das lesões foram utilizadas para determinar o nível de resistência horizontal, a estabilidade fenotípica e a previsibilidade de comportamento dos clones. Os resultados indicaram que os clones P 7 e MA 15 apresentaram os níveis mais altos de resistência e estabilidade, porém com previsibilidade moderada. Os clones CAS 1 e CEPEC 13 foram classificados como de alta resistência horizontal, estabilidade e previsibilidade enquanto que os clones PA 30, UF 650, SIAL 88 e EET 59 apresentaram resistência intermediária e alta previsibilidade. Os clones SPA 17, OC 61, PA 150, SIAL 505, ICS 1 e R 41

  17. Advances on Germplasm Research and Utilization of Theobroma cacao L.%可可种质资源多样性与创新利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓威; 郝朝运; 吴刚; 李付鹏; 赖剑雄

    2014-01-01

    就可可种质资源在起源、分布、传播、分类、鉴定及种质创新与利用等方面取得的研究进展进行综述.可可属植物有22种,仅可可(Theobroma cacao)和大花可可(Theobroma grandiflorum)用于栽培.可可种质资源多样性丰富,其分类研究经历了传统形态学划分的Criollo、Forastero和Trinitario遗传类群到现代分子标记划分的Mara(n)on、Curaray、Criollo、Iquitos、Nanay、Contamana、Amelonado、Purús、Nacional和Guiana遗传类群. 目前,可可的生产性品种选育仍以实生选种和芽变选种为主.分子标记的开发、遗传连锁图谱的构建和全基因组测序的完成,为实现可可分子标记辅助育种提供了技术保障.

  18. Memorias y representaciones sobre el criollo del chaco argentino

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    Maria Cristina Dasso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina, the creole population has been appreciated or undervalued according to the dominant national political vision. Border situations and contact between descendants of former Spanish settlers and the indigenous peoples of the Chaco allowed the rise of mutual representations that dominate their discourse up to these days. In this regard, there are paintings belonging to the nineteenth and twentieth century whose data on the creole are relevant to contrast with the aboriginal representation of the specific rural creole settlers of Mision Nueva Pompeya and the places related to this village of the Chaco.

  19. La contribución de la producción del cacao orgánico a la resiliencia socio-ecológica en el contexto del cambio climático en el Alto Beni – La Paz

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobi, Johanna; Schneider, Monika; Pillco Mariscal, María Isabel; Huber, Stephanie; Weidmann, Simon; Rist, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    El cultivo del cacao en pequeña escala, sustento básico de muchas familias del Alto Beni, es afectado por los impactos del cambio climático. Para el desarrollo sostenible, es necesario que las fincas adquieran resiliencia: la capacidad de un sistema para reducir su sensibilidad hacia factores de estrés y perturbaciones, manteniendo su productividad, capacidad auto-organizativa, de aprendizaje y adaptación al cambio. Investigamos las diferencias en la resiliencia entre las fincas orgánicas y n...

  20. Skład kwasów tłuszczowych i twardość czekolad gorzkich o różnej zawartości miazgi kakaowej = Fatty acid composition and hardness of dark chocolates with different content of cacao mass

    OpenAIRE

    Taradejna, Renata; Roszkowska, Beata; Parzych, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Taradejna Renata, Roszkowska Beata, Parzych Magdalena. Skład kwasów tłuszczowych i twardość czekolad gorzkich o różnej zawartości miazgi kakaowej = Fatty acid composition and hardness of dark chocolates with different content of cacao mass. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(9):141-148. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.30109 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.30109 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%289%29%3A141-148 https://pbn.nau...

  1. Diversidad, fluctuación poblacional y plantas huésped de escolitinos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México Diversity, dynamic population and host plants of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) associated to the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Pérez-De La Cruz; Armando Equihua-Martínez; Jesús Romero-Nápoles; Saúl Sánchez-Soto; Eustolia García-López

    2009-01-01

    Se estudió la diversidad de escolitinos asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México durante el año 2007. Los insectos adultos fueron recolectados en 4 localidades con trampas de alcohol etílico, trampas de atracción luminosa y captura directa sobre sus plantas huésped. Se recolectaron 19 263 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 51 especies y 26 géneros. Araptus hymenaeae y Cnesinus squamosus son nuevos registros para México. La máxima diversidad de insectos capturados con los 3 métodos d...

  2. Sources of resistance to Crinipellis perniciosa in progenies of cacao accessions collected in the Brazilian Amazon Fontes de resitência a Crinipellis perniciosa em progênies de cacaueiros coletados na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rodrigues Lavigne de Mello Paim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The witches' broom disease caused by the fungus Crinipellis perniciosa is the main phytossanitary constraint for cacao production in Brazil. The integrated management of the disease involves resistance as one of the components. The breeding program conducted by the Brazilian Institution, CEPLAC is directed toward the pyramidation of resistance genes from different sources to achieve a more durable resistance. This study aimed to identify sources of resistance in progenies of cacao accessions collected in the basins of ten Amazonian rivers and compared to progenies from the Peruvian clones 'Scavina 6' and 'Sacavina 12'. Progenies from 40 Amazonian accessions and 'Scavina' were evaluated in the field for six years for witches' broom resistance through multivariate and repeated measurement analyses evaluating the effect of progeny, area, block, year, and their interactions. There were differences in the mean number of vegetative brooms on some Amazonian progenies and 'Scavina' descendants. There was an increase in the number of vegetative brooms in the last year for 'Scavina' progenies, but that was not observed for the Amazonian progenies 64, 66, 156, 194, 195, 269 and 274. There were different gene/alleles for resistance in the Amazonian progenies in comparison to the traditional 'Scavina' accessions. These new sources of resistance will be important for pyramiding resistance genes and consequently increasing the stability and durability of the resistance to witches' broom.A doença vassoura-de-bruxa, causada pelo fungo Crinipellis perniciosa, é o principal problema fitossanitário para o cultivo do cacaueiro no Brasil. O manejo integrado da doença envolve a resistência como um dos componentes. O programa de melhoramento genético do cacaueiro conduzido pela Instituição brasileira CEPLAC é direcionado para acumular genes de resistência de diferentes fontes visando à obtenção de uma resistência mais durável. O objetivo deste estudo foi

  3. 可可体细胞胚胎发生及植株再生体系的构建%Study on Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration of Theobroma Cacao L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄碧兰; 庄南生; 赵建平; 张玄兵

    2005-01-01

    以可可(Theobroma Cacao L.)的子叶为外植体,通过体胚发生途径,诱导再生可可植株.各培养阶段的优化培养基和培养条件为:(1)愈伤组织诱导培养基(PCG):改良DKW+2,4-D 3.0 mg/L+KT 1.0 mg/L+TDZ0.01 mg/L,在(28±2)℃(以下培养温度均同)温度条件下,暗培养20 d,诱导率为96.67%;(2)愈伤组织增殖培养基(SCG):改良DKW+2,4-D 3.0 mg/L+KT 1.0 mg/L,暗培养20 d;(3)胚状体诱导培养基(ED):改良DKW+Sucrose 30 g/L,暗培养60~150 d,胚状体诱导产生并发育成熟,胚状体的诱导率为33.33%;(4)成熟胚诱导成苗:①PEC培养基为:改良DKW+Glucose 20 g/L+Sucrose 10 g/L,光照为16 h/d,培养60 d;②采用RD培养基:改良DKW+IBA 1.5 mg/L+IAA 0.5 mg/L,光照为16 h/d,培养30~90 d后,可得到完整的植株,再生植株的诱导率为42%.

  4. Avaliação e seleção de híbridos de cacaueiro em Rondônia Evaluation and selection of cacao hybrids in Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Guilherme Portela de Carvalho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar e selecionar híbridos de cacaueiro, quanto a rendimento e qualidade de sementes, nas condições ecológicas do Município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia. A seleção foi feita comparando-se, pelo teste de Duncan, as médias das medidas dos componentes de rendimento avaliados em um ensaio conduzido entre 1986 e 1991. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos completos casualizados. Os melhores desempenhos, quanto aos caracteres avaliados, foram obtidos em cruzamentos que incluíram os clones POUND 7 e BE 10 (número total de frutos coletados, SCA 6 e PA 150 (número total de frutos sadios, PA 150 (peso total de sementes úmidas, IMC 67 e POUND 7 (peso médio de sementes úmidas por fruto. Na análise simultânea dos caracteres, os híbridos SCA 6 x ICS 1, PA 150 x SIC 328 e IMC 67 x BE 8 sobressaíram-se, em relação aos demais.The goal of the present work was to evaluate and to select cacao hybrids with respect to seed yield and quality for ecological conditions of municipality of Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, Brazil. The selection was done comparing, by means of Duncan test, the yield measurement average in trial conducted from 1986 to 1991. A randomized complete block design was used. The best performance, considering total number of collected fruits, total number of healthy fruits, total weight of humid seeds and mean weight of humid seeds per fruit, were obtained from crosses involving POUND 7 and BE 10, SCA 6 and PA 150, PA 150, IMC 67 and POUND 7 clones, respectively. The hybrids SCA 6 x ICS 1, PA 150 x SIC 328 and IMC 67 x BE 8 were outstanding when compared to the others.

  5. Uma investigação aplicada da identidade da marca : o caso das porcelanas Vista Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Ruão, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    O presente artigo descreve uma investigação empírica conduzida no sentido de proceder ao diagnóstico de identidade de uma marca portuguesa, quase bi-centenária. Constituiu objectivo da pesquisa descortinar os traços caracterizadores da identidade da marca de produto Vista Alegre, e analisar a sua forma de relacionamento com o mercado. O método usado foi o estudo de casos simples, complementado pela técnica da análise de conteúdo. O modelo de diagnóstico de identidade aplicado resultou da comb...

  6. Survey on energetic processes of drying and firing of porcelain; Levantamento energetico em processos de secagem e queima de porcelanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Andre D.; Machado Junior, Antonio R.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Azevedo, Jorge G.W. de; Konishi, Ricardo; Lehmkuhl, Willian A. [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Nunes, Andrea T.; Possamai, Talita S.; Nicolau, Vicente de P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluates the processes of drying and firing of porcelain products. Ambient air heated to an average temperature of 100 deg C is used for drying the pieces. The air heating is done by heat exchangers located within the saturated steam dryers. A main steam's line coming from a boiler fuel feeds all the equipment, while the condensate returned to a reservoir for reheating. The yield obtained from the boiler is about 80%, a reasonable value for this type of equipment. The consumption of this equipment represents 27.6% of the energy used in the stage of burning. However, according to measurements taken about 30% of the energy available in the network is lost in the steam vapor transport and condensation. Considering the potential generation of heat from the fuel, including the boiler efficiency, estimated at about 40% lost energy in the generation and distribution of steam. In accordance with the evaluation, a competitive option would be the direct combustion of natural gas in each dryer, adopting a better control and combustion system, since the products of combustion may impact the quality of the porcelain. A new configuration is proposed as a conclusion. (author)

  7. Restauraciones estéticas de porcelana pura: Sistema Cercon Aesthetic all-ceramic restorations: Cercon System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fernández Bodereau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La estética en odontología está orientada a imitar la naturaleza, a tratar de conservar las proporciones, las formas, el color, la simetría. La tecnología ha desarrollado materiales cerámicos libres de metal que han reemplazado a los materiales tradicionales, capaces de imitar mejor a la naturaleza. El óxido de circonio parcialmente estabilizado con itrio, no solo es extremadamente resistente, sino que posee la ventaja de ser altamente translucido. Su translucidez de aproximadamente el 50% de la luz incidente, permite la elaboración de restauraciones con apariencia natural. La duración del proceso de escaneado y fresado dependerá del tamaño del objeto, del número de objetos procesados y de los pasos seleccionados (CAM o CAD/CAM. La estructura de óxido de circonio densamente sinterizado con su preciso ajuste, se cubre con la cerámica de recubrimiento que ha sido especialmente desarrollada para este propósito. En casi todos los casos que se nos plantean hay un solo diagnóstico, pero distintas alternativas de plantear el tratamiento. El éxito de estas restauraciones será predecible siempre que se fundamente en el conocimiento de los principios biológicos que la sustentan. El objetivo de esta publicación es exponer de manera concisa las bases teóricas a modo esquemático y las imágenes de la secuencia del tratamiento clínico.Aesthetic dentistry is dedicated to imitate nature by maintaining the size, shape, colour and symmetry. Technology has developed metal-free ceramic materials so capable of reproducing a natural appearance, that traditional materials have been replaced by them. The yttrium partially-stabilized zirconium oxide does not only have the advantage of being extremelly resistant, but it is also highly translucent. It has a translucency that allows about 50% of the incident light to pass through, a characteristic that is vital for providing a more natural appearance to restorations. The duration of scanning and milling procedures will depend on the size of the object, the number of objects proccessed and the steps selected (CAM or CAD/CAM. The framework of the densely sintered zirconium oxide with its precise fit is veneered with the veneering ceramic developed especially for this purpose. Almost in all cases, there are several treatment alternatives for the same diagnosis. The success of these restorations will be predicted as long as it is founded on sustaining biological principles. The aim of this paper is to concisely present the sequences for a clinical treatment in a schematic and illustrative manner.

  8. An example of association mapping in Cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association mapping and genomic selection have become important methodologies in perennial crop breeding improvement programs for accelerating breeding efforts and increasing the efficiency of selection. They are good alternatives to the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping approach.The ...

  9. Validation of a site specific management for plant nutrition in the cocoa crop in the province of Guayas, Ecuador Validación del manejo de la nutrición por sitio específico en una plantación de cacao en la provincia de Guayas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mite Francisco

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Validation of a site specific management for plant nutrition in the cocoa crop in the province of Guayas, Ecuador. In the cocoa crop at Las Cañas Farm, Puerto Inca, Canton Naranjal, province of Guayas, Ecuador, a site specific management experiment for plant nutrition to optimize the use of fertilizers and to improve productivity was carried out. All soil and plant analysis, data yield and fertilization programs were carried out. With the aereal photograph and the map of the farm using geographic information system (GIS, the experimental plots were defined. The plantation was divided in grids of 200 by 100 m. To characterize the soil, a soil sampling until 120 cm in depth was carried out. On the other hand, to dertimine the soil spatial variability, two soil cores were taken. Each core was separated in to 0-20 and 20-40 cm segments. Six series and three classes of soil were identified for cocoa: The class II are soils “quite good”, its cover 162.4 ha and represent 52.5% of the area. The class III that are “goods soils” occupy 56.5 ha and represent 18.3% The class IV are “inadequate soils” with water levels at 40 to 90 cm in depth and horizonts with stones. This area cover 62.7 ha and represent 20.2% of the total area, in which it is necessary to improve the drainage system. It was found that with a population of 2,222 plants for ha, the total nutrient uptake of N, P2O5, K2O, CaO, MgO and S for ha was 101, 27, 204, 69, 42, and 6 kg respectively, and with a population of 833 plants per ha, the total nutrient uptake was 50, 23, and 101, 35, 21 and 6 kg. That implementation of the site specific management for soil fertility allowed to correct problems of soil acidity and iron toxicity to improve productivity in the plots at Las Cañas Farm.

    Key words: cacao, site specific; soil fertility; Ecuador.

  10. Parentage analysis and outcrossing patterns in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) farms in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigates the parentage of farm accessions in Cameroon using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Bayesian analysis suggests that 25.5% of the 400 farm accessions studies are still closely related to the traditinal Amelonado variety called 'German Cocoa' by the farmers. Another 46....

  11. Ant fauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae associated to arboreal nests of Nasutitermes spp: (Isoptera, Termitidae in a cacao plantation in southeastern Bahia, Brazil Mirmecofauna (Hymenoptera, Formicidae associada a ninhos arborícolas de Nasutitermes spp: (Isoptera, Termitidae num cacaual do sudeste da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Pereira Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants are among the most common arthropods that colonize termite nests. The aim of this study was to identify the ant fauna associated to termite nests found in a cacao plantation in the county of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, with emphasis on the fauna that uses the nests as foraging and/or nesting environment. For this purpose, 34 active, decadent and abandoned nests of Nasutitermes corniger, N. ephratae and Nasutitermes sp., with different volumes and degrees of activity, were dissected. A total of 54 ant species, belonging to 23 genera and five subfamilies, was found in the constructions. The active, decadent and abandoned termite nests presented, respectively, six, eight and 48 ant species. Crematogaster acuta and Ectatomma tuberculatum were the most frequent species in the active and decadent nests, respectively, while the most frequent species in the abandoned nests were Solenopsis pollux, Thaumatomyrmex contumax and Thaumatomyrmex sp. Twenty-six ant species had true colonies within the termitaria. The Formicidae species richness in the nests was inversely related to the degree of termite activity in the nests. The occurrence of living, decadent or abandoned termitaria of Nasutitermes spp. in cacao plantations foments the heterogeneity of habitats available in the plantations and favors the maintenance of high diversity of organisms that use obligatory or opportunistically this substrate.As formigas estão entre os mais comuns artrópodes colonizadores de ninhos de térmitas. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar a mirmecofauna associada a ninhos de térmitas encontrados em um cacaual no município de Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil, com ênfase na fauna que utiliza os ninhos como ambiente de forrageio e/ou nidificação. Para tanto, 34 ninhos ativos, decadentes e abandonados de Nasutitermes corniger, N. ephratae e Nasutitermes sp., com diferentes volumes e graus de atividade, foram analisados. Um total de 54 espécies de formigas, pertencentes a 23

  12. Diversidad, fluctuación poblacional y plantas huésped de escolitinos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México Diversity, dynamic population and host plants of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pérez-De La Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad de escolitinos asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México durante el año 2007. Los insectos adultos fueron recolectados en 4 localidades con trampas de alcohol etílico, trampas de atracción luminosa y captura directa sobre sus plantas huésped. Se recolectaron 19 263 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 51 especies y 26 géneros. Araptus hymenaeae y Cnesinus squamosus son nuevos registros para México. La máxima diversidad de insectos capturados con los 3 métodos de recolecta se obtuvo en El Bajío (H'=2.45 y Dmg=4.83, la mínima en Río Seco (H'=2.29 y Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, y el máximo valor de equidad (J lo obtuvo El Bajío (0.67. El índice de similitud de Sorensen (Is mostró que los sitios de estudio tienden a presentar la misma composición de especies. Los índices de diversidad, equidad y similitud, aplicados a la fauna de escolitinos capturados con cada uno de los métodos empleados, mostraron diferencias, excepto en las trampas de alcohol. La fluctuación presenta picos poblacionales marcados al inicio y al final del año de estudio. Las plantas en las que se recolectó el mayor número de especies fueron Theobroma cacao (16 y Swietenia macrophylla (13.The bark and ambrosia beetle diversity in cocoa agroecosystems was studied during 2007 in Tabasco, Mexico. Adult insects were gathered in 4 localities with ethanol and light traps and by direct collecting in their host plants. 19 263 specimens were gathered, belonging to 51 species and 26 genera. Araptus hymenaeae and Cnesinus squamosus are new records for Mexico. The maximum diversity of insects captured with the 3 collecting methods was obtained in El Bajío (H'=2.45 and Dmg=4.83, the minimum in Río Seco (H'=2.29 and Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, and the maximum value of justness (J was obtained in El Bajío (0.67. The Sorensen similarity index (Is showed that the study places present the same species composition. The diversity, justness and similarity indices

  13. KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Supli Effendi

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of bioprocess design for aerobic fermentation in general and acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 in particular. Fermentation medium used was liquid waste of cocoa pulp with sugar content of 12.85%, and the addition of sucrosa and urea. The parameter observed was growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 and Acetobacter aceti B127, and chemical analysis including concentration of ethanol, total sugar and acetic acid, content. The research result showed that the  value was 0.048 hour-1, Y P was 0.676, Qp value was 0.033 hour-, and KLa value was 0.344, QO2.Cx value was 0.125 (mgO2L-1jam-1, Y X was s O2 0.378 (x 108selmL-1g-1¬¬O2, and dCT was 0.150 mgL-1hour-1. Concentration of acetic acid in the product was 4.24% or 42.4 gL-1

  14. Enraizamento de estacas, crescimento e respostas anatômicas de mudas clonais de cacaueiro ao ácido indol-3-butírico Stem cutting rooting, growth and anatomical responses of cacao tree clonal changes to the indole-3-butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto José dos Santos Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB no crescimento e na morfologia interna de quatro clones de Theobroma cacao (CCN-10, CP-53, PS-1319 e CA-1.4. O AIB foi aplicado na base da estaca de caule, em talco inerte, nas concentrações de 2; 4; 6 e 8 g kg-1, juntamente com o controle (sem AIB. A avaliação do crescimento de raízes, caule e folhas dos quatro clones foi realizada aos 160 dias após o estaqueamento (DAE para todas as concentrações de AIB, período também em que se realizou a coleta de material para os estudos anatômicos dos diversos órgãos, mas somente para a concentração de 4g kg-1 AIB e o controle. O clone CA-1.4 apresentou incremento na biomassa seca de raiz (BSR com o aumento das concentrações de AIB, ao passo que, nos demais clones, houve diminuições de BSR a partir dos 4 g kg-1 AIB. O mesmo fato foi observado para a biomassa seca de caule (BSC e de folha (BSF, exceto para a BSC do CCN-10 que não respondeu ao incremento das concentrações de AIB. Houve aumento de área foliar total para os clones CP-53 e PS-1319 com o incremento de AIB até 4 g kg-1, enquanto o aumento do número de folhas ocorreu somente para os clones CA-1.4 e CP-53 até as concentrações 8 e 4 g kg-1 AIB, respectivamente. Houve diminuição do número de estacas mortas para os clones CA-1.4 e CCN-10 até 8 g kg-1 de AIB e para o CP-53 até 4 g kg-1 de AIB. As melhores concentrações de AIB para o enraizamento de estacas de ramos dos clones de cacaueiros CP-53, PS-1319 e CCN-10 foram de 4, 4 e 6 g kg-1 AIB, respectivamente, enquanto para o clone CA-1.4 foi de 8 g kg-1 AIB; o aumento da concentração de AIB promoveu mudanças anatômicas nos órgãos vegetativos de todos os clones, influenciando na atividade do câmbio vascular e induzindo a formação de um maior número de raízes adventícias nas estacas.The effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA on growth and internal morphology of four clones of Theobroma cacao (CCN-10, CP

  15. Marcadores genéticos del bovino criollo : Su germoplasma como recurso genético

    OpenAIRE

    Quinteros, Indalecio Rodolfo

    1994-01-01

    En la presente comunicación se propone continuar en la investigación del germoplasma del ganado bovino por los Marcadores Genéticos Eritrocitarios y Bioquímicos en correspondencia a poblaciones de distintas regiones de Argentina y América, como contribución a otros tipos de estudios

  16. Mecanismos moleculares de resistencia a las enfermedades vesiculares virales del ganado criollo colombiano blanco orejinegro (BON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Ossa Londoño

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia circulan dos virus que producen enfermedad vesicular en bovinos: Fiebre Aftosa (VFA y Estomatitis Vesicular (VEV. El genoma de estos es ssRNA, el cual durante la replicación da lugar a dsRNA, que es el más potente inductor de interferón (IFN tipo I. El IFN activa tres rutas antivirales: 2-5 oligoadenilatosintetasa (2-5A, Proteina-kinasa dependiente de dsRNA (PKR y proteína Mx; las dos primeras inducen apoptosis (1,2. Hemos demostrado, in vitro, que en bovinos BON existe polimorfismo fenotípico en resistencia/susceptibilidad al VFA y al VEV. También se demostró asociación entre producción de IFN y resistencia in vitro al VFA (3, y polimorfismo en la expresión celular de integrina αV3, que es uno de los receptores utilizados por este virus. Este estudio pretende determinar el(los mecanismo(s molecular(es responsables de la resistencia/susceptibilidad, in vitro, al VFA y al VEV con énfasis en IFN, apoptosis y receptores celulares

  17. Cacao Flavor through Genetics – Anatomy of Fine Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will discuss the transcript analysis of Moniliophthora roreri infected pods, which revealed a total of 3009 differentially expressed transcripts among resistant and susceptible clones. Comparison of the tolerant and susceptible clones by KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome...

  18. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Franco; Eva Martínez-Pinilla; Ainhoa Oñatibia-Astibia

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time a...

  19. Genetics of reproductive self-compatibility in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in plants prevents self-fertilization. Various events are involved at different stages of this process, from interruption in pollen germination, pollen tube growth, syngamy or even to an arrest in embryo development. The main effect is yield reduction. SI also affects progr...

  20. DYNAMICS OF FUNGAL POPULATION IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF CACAO (Theobroma cacao L.) GROWN UNDER TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature of crops and management systems profoundly affect fungal communities in the rhizosphere of perennial crops. Fungal populations in soil are involved in organic matter transformation and nutrient cycling. A field experiment was established during 1999 at the Tropical Crop Institute, San Martin-...

  1. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR Y GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE MAÍCES CRIOLLOS AZULES CON ENVEJECIMIENTO ACELERADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Dur\\u00E1n-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto del envejecimie nto acelerado en semillas de varie dades criollas de maíz azul. En los laboratorios de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, semillas de cuatro varie dades criollas de maíz azul (Cuijingo, Cocotitlán, Puebla y Oaxaca, se sometie ron a dos tip os de envejecimie nto acelerado: calor húmedo (41°C, 72 horas y 100% h. r. y calor seco (60°C, 48 horas. Se evaluaron: protrusión radicular de 0 a 72 horas de imbibición y, a los sie te días de incubación a 25°C, plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas. Se obtuvo la caracterización molecular de los tratamie ntos mediante la RA PD y se construyeron los dendogramas respectivos. En plántulas normales provenie ntes de semillas sin envejecimie nto acelerado, las varie dades Oaxaca y Puebla fueron significativamente superiores. El peso seco en las plántulas disminuyó con el deterioro, sie ndo exigua con calor seco. La presencia de plántulas anormales se incrementó con ambos tip os de deterioro en el orden: Oaxaca, Puebla, Cocotitlán y Cuijingo. La diferenciación de los perfiles de bandeo entre semillas testigo y deterioradas ocurrió con la secuencia: Oaxaca (31,6%, Cocotitlán (25,8%, Puebla (19,6% y Cuijingo (18,6%. Estos valores de similitud, a los cuales se ramificaron los perfiles genómicos, se asociaron de manera inversa con el nivel de vigor de las semillas, y directamente con la presencia de anormalidades en las plántulas obtenidas.

  2. VARIACIÓN ANATÓMICA DEL XILEMA EN TALLO DE CULTIVARES DE TOMATE INJERTADOS EN UN TIPO CRIOLLO

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sory Toure; R. Nieto-Ángel; J. E. Rodríguez-Pérez; A. F. Barrientos-Priego; L. A. Ibáñez-Castillo; E. Romanchik K.; C. A. Núñez-Colín

    2010-01-01

    El tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) es una de las hortalizas más consumidas, sin embargo, por algunos problemas fitopatológicos se ha visto la necesidad de buscar alternativas, para la producción sin afectar la calidad, tales como el uso de portainjertos resistente a factores ambientales y enfermedades, lo que necesariamente se requiere de estudios para evaluar la compatibilidad vegetativa y la resistencia a dichos factores, y uno de ellos es la evaluación de los sistemas vasculares en los pu...

  3. Detección del virus de la leucosis bovina en ganado criollo colombiano mediante PCR-anidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Yovanny Hernández-Herrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la presencia del virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB en 360 muestras de ADN de ocho razas bovinas criollas: Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Casanareño (CAS, Costeño con Cuernos (CCC, Chino Santandereano (ChS, Caqueteño (CQT, Hartón del Valle (HV, Romosinuano (RS y San Martinero (SM, dos Razas Sintéticas Colombianas: Lucerna (LUC y Velásquez (VEL y dos razas foráneas: Brahmán (B y Holstein (H. Para la detección del pro-virus se amplificó una región del gen env viral, mediante PCR anidada. La presencia del VLB fue mayor en la raza HV seguido por ChS (83.3% y 60% respectivamente, VEL y LUC tuvieron el mismo porcentaje (50%, en CAS, CCC y CQT la presencia del virus fue de 26.7%, 23.3% y 16.7% respectivamente; no se encontró el virus en BON, SM y RS. En las razas foráneas la presencia fue de 83.3% para H y 6.7% para B. Se encontró dependencia altamente significativa entre la presencia del VLB y la raza, el sexo y región de origen de la muestra. El promedio de presencia en las razas criollas fue menor que en las foráneas, menor en los machos que en las hembras y en la región norte que en el suroccidente y el centro del país.

  4. Detección del virus de la leucosis bovina en ganado criollo colombiano mediante PCR-anidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la presencia del virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB en 360 muestras de ADN de oc%o razas bovinas criollas: Blanco (reinegro  (B(N,  -asanare/o (-AS,  -oste/o con -uernos (---, -%ino Santandereano (-%S, -a4uete/o (-8T, Hartón del Valle (HV, Romosinuano (RS y San Martinero (SM, dos Razas SintBticas -olombianas: Lucerna (LD-  y VelEs4uez (VGL y dos razas HorEneas: Bra%- mEn (B y Holstein (HJ Para la detección del proKvirus se amplificó una región del gen env viral, me- diante P-R  anidadaJ La presencia del VLB Hue mayor en la raza HV seguido por -%S (M3J3O y 60O respectivamente, VGL y LD-  tuvieron el mismo porcentae (Q0O, en -AS,  --- y -8T la presencia del virus fue de 26.7%, 23.3% y 16.7% respectivamente; no se encontró el virus en BON, SM y RS. En las razas foráneas la presencia fue de 83.3% para H y 6.7% para B. Se encontró dependencia altamente significativa entre la presencia del VLB y la raza, el sexo y región de origen de la muestraJ Gl prome- dio de presencia en las razas criollas Hue menor 4ue en las HorEneas, menor en los mac%os 4ue en las síembras y en la región norte 4ue en el suroccidente y el centro del pais

  5. Detección del virus de la leucosis bovina en ganado criollo colombiano mediante PCR-anidado

    OpenAIRE

    Giovambattista Guillermo; Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo; Posso Terranova Andres Mauricio; Hernández Herrera Darwin Yovanny; Antonio Benavides Javier

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó la presencia del virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB) en 360 muestras de ADN de oc%o razas bovinas criollas: Blanco (re)inegro  (B(N),  -asanare/o (-AS),  -oste/o con -uernos (---), -%ino Santandereano (-%S), -a4uete/o (-8T), Hartón del Valle (HV), Romosinuano (RS) y San Martinero (SM), dos Razas SintBticas -olombianas: Lucerna (LD-)  y VelEs4uez (VGL) y dos razas HorEneas: Bra%- mEn (B) y Holstein (H)J Para la detección del proKvirus se amplificó una región del gen ...

  6. Detección del virus de la leucosis bovina en ganado criollo colombiano mediante PCR-anidado

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin Yovanny Hernández-Herrera; Andrés Mauricio Posso-Terranova; Javier Antonio Benavides; Jaime Eduardo Muñoz-Flórez; Guillermo Giovambattista; Luz Ángela Álvarez-Franco

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluó la presencia del virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB) en 360 muestras de ADN de ocho razas bovinas criollas: Blanco Orejinegro (BON), Casanareño (CAS), Costeño con Cuernos (CCC), Chino Santandereano (ChS), Caqueteño (CQT), Hartón del Valle (HV), Romosinuano (RS) y San Martinero (SM), dos Razas Sintéticas Colombianas: Lucerna (LUC) y Velásquez (VEL) y dos razas foráneas: Brahmán (B) y Holstein (H). Para la detección del pro-virus se amplificó una región del gen env viral, mediante PCR a...

  7. Caracterización y prevalencia de las enfermedades orales en el caballo criollo, departamento de Caldas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mario Cruz Amaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo es caracterizar y estimar la prevalencia de las enfermedades orales en el equino de trabajo del departamento de Caldas, Colombia. Se registraron las variables presencia o no de enfermedad en la cavidad oral, condición corporal (CC, edad, sexo, especie (mular o caballar y tipo de alimentación. Para analizar la información se crearon cuatro grupos de edad: joven, adulto, maduro, viejo. Se conformaron tres grupos de CC: pobre o delgados (1-2-3, saludable (4-5-6 y obesos (7-8-9, y se observaron tres grupos de alimentación: tipo 1, forraje; tipo 2, forraje + alimento concentrado, y tipo 3, forraje + derivados de la fabricación de panela (cachaza. Todos los análisis se efectuaron usando el programa SAS. La prevalencia para cada enfermedad se calculó mediante ji-cuadrado (χ2. El efecto de los grupos de edad, CC y alimentación sobre las distintas enfermedades orales se evaluó mediante análisis de varianza (Anova. El nivel de significancia se fijó en p < 0,05. La prevalencia de enfermedad oral hallada fue del 76,5% (n = 400. Se diagnosticaron 32 anormalidades orales diferentes. La CC y la edad tuvieron un efecto significativo sobre la probabilidad de asociarse con afección oral (p < 0,01. El efecto del tipo de alimentación sobre la probabilidad de enfermedad oral fue significativo (p = 0,04, mientras los efectos de sexo y especie no lo fueron. Los equinos estudiados no habían recibido tratamiento odontológico previamente, siendo este un importante campo de acción para los profesionales de dicha región.

  8. 40 CFR 180.491 - Propylene oxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Commodity Parts per million Cacao bean, dried bean 200 Cacao bean, cocoa powder 200 Fig 3.0 Garlic, dried...: Commodity Parts per million Basil, dried leaves 6000 Cacao bean, dried bean 20.0 Cacao bean, cocoa powder...

  9. Bartolome Sureda's sepiolitic porcelain (1803-1808). Archaeometric study of the Buen Retiro Royal Porcelain Manufacture; La porcelana de sepiolita de Bartolome Sureda (1802-1808). Investigacin arqueometrica sobre la Real Fabrica de Buen Retiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, C.; Criado, E.; Recio, P.; Martinez, R.; Aza, A. H. de; Valle, E. J.; Manueco, C.

    2011-07-01

    This work deals with an original class of porcelain produced under the direction of Bartolome Sureda in the last years (1803- 1808) of the Royal Porcelain Factory of Buen Retiro. The results of the chemical and mineralogical analysis of a selection of tableware, tiles and sculpture shards, found in the archaeological excavation (1996) of the site where the factory was built, confirm the production of a new hard-paste porcelain where the kaolin was substituted by a magnesium clay, the sepiolite. The characteristics of pastes and glazes and the investigation of the historic and scientific contexts of porcelain and white earthenware in Europe have allowed establishing the reasons and the technical parameters of this production. Replicas of the paste were done in the laboratory to assert the raw materials and the firing conditions of this porcelain. (Author)

  10. República Dominicana: a construção do pueblo criollo - doi:10.5102/uri.v6i1.822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Melo Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo explora os limites do nacionalismo dominicano que, ao se opor binariamente ao nacionalismo haitiano, se constitui em uma alteridade perfeita que, mesmo assim, não consegue ocultar o princípio de transitabilidade existente na constituição de identidades opostas. Dessa forma, é a partir do trânsito contínuo pela identidade haitiana que o nacionalismo dominicano irá construir seus principais pilares, parecendo perder o seu significado caso esta oposição não seja continuamente reproduzida pelo pensamento social e pela historiografia dominicana.

  11. Microorganismos anaerobios ruminales de ganado criollo Bon: Identificación molecular y evaluación de su capacidad celulolítica

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Fernández, Edna Judith

    2005-01-01

    Resumen: La investigación biotecnológica está dedicada a maximizar toda la eficiencia de cada una de las etapas del proceso biotecnológico y encontrar organismos que sinteticen productos que sean utiliza nivel industrial, alimenticio, ambiental y farmacéutico. Este último proceso involucran necesariamente, aislamiento, caracterización y si es preciso, modificación de genes que expresen efectivamente en microorganismos que puedan ser usados para la producción industrial. Con el fin de contr...

  12. De mestizos y criollos en la Compañía de Jesús (Perú, siglos XVI-XVII)

    OpenAIRE

    Coello de la Rosa, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the policies of the Society of Jesus in the 16th and 17th centuries regarding the ordination of mestizos and the doctrine of purity of the blood as an attempt of the Peruvian Jesuit authorities to keep the “impure” away from the centers of power. Mestizos were always suspected of jeopardizing the necessary hierarchy which stratified the colonial order. From this premise, I will try to prove that the exclusion of “Jesuit impure” had nothing to do with t...

  13. ¿Confiar en los criollos? Apreciaciones sobre la condición de los españoles americanos en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Gil Amate

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is a reflection on the suspicion that the native sector caused in high political office of the Hispanic monarchy, which emanates obviously selective policy and honours both in the field of administration and in the Church. The talent and moral quality of this segment of the population was more than in any other period in question throughout the eighteenth century. The work draws a panoramic sustained in eighteenthcentury works and documents which are made apologies and criticisms of the Spanish Americans. The assumption underpinning this research suggests that if the distrust of America's Hispanic population had not so deep draft, the policy of the Bourbons might have had other guidance, and therefore the historical memory of the natives, after Independence, could have been less negative about their past Colonial

  14. EFECTO DEL ENVEJECIMIENTO ARTIFICIAL DE SEMILLAS DE MAÍCES CRIOLLOS AZULES EN SU GERMINACIÓN Y HUELLA GENÓMICA

    OpenAIRE

    Germán F. Gutiérrez-Hernández; Vázquez-Ramos, Jorge M.; Elpidio García-Ramírez; Marina O. Franco-Hernández; José L. Arellano-Vázquez; Dagoberto Durán-Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Para establecer su huella genómica y estimar su grado de tolerancia al envejecimiento, semillas de cuatro variedades criollas de maíz azul (Zea mays L.), Cuijingo, Cocotitlán, Puebla y Oaxaca, se sometieron a dos tipos de envejecimiento artificial: calor húmedo (CH, 41 0C, 100 % HR, 72 h) y calor seco (CS, 60 0C, 0 % HR, 48 h), con sus respectivos testigos no envejecidos. Las variables de respuesta fueron: protrusión radicular entre 0 y 72 h de imbibición y a 7 d de incubación a 25 0C, número...

  15. Asociación de índices infecciosos del virus de la fiebre aftosa a receptores celulares en el ganado criollo bon

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza Botero Manuel Fernando; Rodríguez Morales Alejandra

    2006-01-01

    Los miembros de la familia de receptores celulares, integrinas (·V‚1, ·V‚3 ·V‚6), han sido identificados como factores de adhesión de diferentes virus a las células del hospedero. Para el caso del virus de la Fiebre Aftosa, estas integrinas se unen al sitio de reconocimiento celular en la secuencia tripéptidica Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) e igualmente están localizadas en la proteína VP1 del virus. Evidencia genética de esta interacción ha sido obtenida mediante la mutación de la secuencia RGD en clone...

  16. Detección de una mutación puntual en el gen receptor Ryanodina (Ryr 1 en cerdos criollos colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de estrés porcino (PSS es una enfermedad hereditaria monogénica recesiva relacionada con el gen receptor ryanodina (Ryr1. Utilizando PCR-SSCP y PCR-RFLP se tipificaron genéticamente 14 individuos de cerdos comerciales con el rasgo sindactilia (Casco de Mula-CM, 21 San Pedreños -SP y 100 Zungos- ZN. Las razas CM y SP tuvieron las mismas frecuencias alélicas (F(H = 0.79 y F(h = 0.21, mientras que en los cerdos ZN no se encontró el alelo recesivo (h. La heterocigosidad (He fue de 0.28% para los cerdos CM y 0.23% para los SP. La He para la muestra poblacional fue de 0.066.

  17. Molecular characterization of the Colombian creole duck in four departments Caracterización molecular del pato criollo colombiano en cuatro departamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Néstor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available 53 individuals of Muscovy ducks from Caldas, Risaralda, Antioquia and Valle del Cauca departments with three primers RAMs were evaluated. 71 polymorphic loci (61,2% were generated with 0.19 of heterocigozity. The primer with the highest heterocigozity was CGA (0.23 and CA had the highest polymorphic loci (76.1%. The RAMs technique allowed to discriminate Anas and Cairina genus with an index of similarity of 0.83. At a 0.894 of similarity index, the Muscovy ducks formed 5 groups. The best primer to discriminate species was CCA (Fst= 0.274. The genetic differentiation was moderate (Fst= 0.2045.Se evaluaron 53 individuos de patos Muscovy de los departamentos de Caldas, Risaralda, Antioquia y Valle del Cauca con tres cebadores RAMs. Se generaron 71 loci polimórficos (61.2% con 0.19 de heterocigosidad. El cebador con mayor heterocigosidad fue CGA (0.23 y CA el de mayor loci polimórfico (76.1%. La técnica RAMs permitió diferenciar los géneros Anas y Cairina a un índice de similitud de 0.83. Con un índice de similitud del 0.894, los patos Muscovy formaron cinco grupos. El mejor cebador para diferenciar especies fue CCA (Fst= 0.274. La diferenciación genética en la muestra poblacional fue moderada (Fst= 0.2045.

  18. Caracterización molecular del pato criollo colombiano en cuatro departamentos Molecular characterization of the Colombian creole duck in four departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Hernández

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 53 individuos de patos Muscovy de los departamentos de Caldas, Risaralda, Antioquia y Valle del Cauca con tres cebadores RAMs. Se generaron 71 loci polimórficos (61.2% con 0.19 de heterocigosidad. El cebador con mayor heterocigosidad fue CGA (0.23 y CA el de mayor loci polimórfico (76.1%. La técnica RAMs permitió diferenciar los géneros Anas y Cairina a un índice de similitud de 0.83. Con un índice de similitud del 0.894, los patos Muscovy formaron cinco grupos. El mejor cebador para diferenciar especies fue CCA (Fst= 0.274. La diferenciación genética en la muestra poblacional fue moderada (Fst= 0.2045.53 individuals of Muscovy ducks from Caldas, Risaralda, Antioquia and Valle del Cauca departments with three primers RAMs were evaluated. 71 polymorphic loci (61,2% were generated with 0.19 of heterocigozity. The primer with the highest heterocigozity was CGA (0.23 and CA had the highest polymorphic loci (76.1%. The RAMs technique allowed to discriminate Anas and Cairina genus with an index of similarity of 0.83. At a 0.894 of similarity index, the Muscovy ducks formed 5 groups. The best primer to discriminate species was CCA (Fst= 0.274. The genetic differentiation was moderate (Fst= 0.2045.

  19. Comportamiento agronómico del híbrido H-137 y materiales criollos de maíz en el valle de puebla

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Aceves Ruíz; Antonio Turrent Fernández; José I. Cortés Flores; Víctor Volke Haller

    2002-01-01

    Con el propósito de comparar la respuesta del híbrido de maíz H- 137 con variedades criollas, a la fertilización con N, P, K y densidad de población (DP), se condujeron nueve experimentos de campo en el Valle de Puebla, México, entre 1993 y 1995. Tres experimentos sufrieron daño severo por sequía, en dos el daño fue moderado y cuatro no presentaron daño. Se observó una clara interacción entre variedad y los factores de estudio (N, P, K, DP). La respuesta a DP y a la fertilización con nitrógen...

  20. Efecto de la administración de líquido ruminal fresco sobre algunos parámetros productivos en ovinos criollos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la administración de líquido ruminal fresco (LRF de bovino sobre la ganancia de peso, bioactividad ruminal y pH ruminal en ovinos. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron nueve ovinos destetados con edades y pesos homogéneos, distribuidos de forma aleatoria en tres grupos, a los cuales se les suministró trestratamientos diferentes: tratamiento 1, 400 ml de LRF; tratamiento 2, 200 ml de LRF y tratamiento 3 como control (sin LRF. El LRF se administro vía oral, usando una dosis única al inicio del estudio. Para la evaluación de los parámetros, se inició con una mediciónel día 0 y luego se realizaron mediciones cada 15 d durante un periodo de 60 d. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó ANOVA y las diferencias se comprobaron mediante el test de comparación de medias de Tukey. Resultados. El promedio de la ganancia de peso diario, fue de 194.4 y 169.4 g/d en los animales tratados con 400 y 200 ml deLRF, respectivamente y de 157.8 g/d en los animales que no recibieron LRF, siendo estas diferencias estadísticamente no significativas (p>0.05. La bioactividad ruminal presentó cambios significativos tras la administración de 400 ml de LRF (p<0.05. El pH solo mostró cambios significativos en la medición realizada a los 15 d postadministración de 400 ml de LRF. Conclusiones. La administración de LRF no provocó aumentos significativos sobre la ganancia diaria de peso, no obstante, mostró efectos favorables sobre la bioactividad ruminal.

  1. El criollo limonense en español-hablante Costa Rica: el efecto de la globalización en el espacio y en el contacto de lenguas

    OpenAIRE

    Herzfeld, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo se basa en las teorías más recientes sobre las escalas de socialización y el análisis espacial, ambos considerados dentro del marco de la ideología sociolingüística. Según estas teorías, el espacio no se debe concebir como un fondo neutral sino como agente activo en los procesos sociolingüísticos. Un cambio de espacio resulta en una permutación en la conexión entre un repertorio lingüístico y la competencia lingüística requerida para actuar en ese espacio. Los hablantes se expres...

  2. Early Yield and Economical Study of Pogostemon Cablinas Intercrop in Young Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Prawoto; M Sholeh N.P

    2006-01-01

    Pogostemon cablinis an important source of volatile oil for pharmaceutical and cosmetical products. Agronomical aspect of this commodity needs open ecosystem, but for certain level of shading, this crop may yield economically. A study to evaluate the effect of P. cablinintercropped on young cocoa farm, had been conducted during 2005, in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) 45 m above sea level, D climate type (Schmidt and Fergusson), and on...

  3. Systems and Managements Related Differences in Phenology of 12 Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Pietro; Armengot, Laura; Milz, Joachim; Alcon, Freddy; Schneider, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa production systems can vary from a mono-cropping (MC) full sun plantation to a highly diversified successional agroforestry (SAFS). Mono-cropping is still the most common one but recently agroforestry (AF) systems have raised more interest because of their expected long term resilience. Nevertheless, information about the influence of cropping systems and management methods such as organic versus conventional in cocoa production and phenology in South America is missing. This study i...

  4. Functional analysis of the theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Verica Joseph; Liu Yi; Maximova Siela N; Shi Zi; Guiltinan Mark J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1) that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response. After pathogen infection and in response to salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it interacts with other transcription factors resulting in increased expression of over 2000 plant defense genes contributing to a pathogen resistance response. Results A putative Theo...

  5. A preliminary survey into ways of overcoming self-incompatibility in theobroma cacao L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varying concentrations of NAA and GA3 (100-500 mg/l) were applied to the base of self-incompatible cocoa flowers with the view to delaying floral abscission and thus lengthening the time needed for the fusion of self-incompatible male and female gametes. NAA above 300 mg/l slightly delayed floral abscission but this did not help overcome the self-incompatibility whilst none of the GA3 concentrations used either delayed floral abscission or promoted self-compatibility. Similar concentrations of both hormones when applied to the stigma before selfing also did not help to overcome the self-incompatibility. Self-incompatibility was partially overcome by treating compatible pollen with 60Gy of gamma rays and mixing it with self-incompatible pollen. Compatible pollen treated at 60Gy and used alone to pollinate self-incompatible flowers resulted in 100 percent flat, non-viable cocoa beans whilst gamma treated pollen mixed with self-incompatible pollen produced about 30 percent fully formed and viable cocoa beans. This appears to suggest that the irradiated compatible pollen is acting as mentor pollen and promoting selfing. (author)

  6. Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro plant development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pods of the cocoa cultivar Amelonado and the Amazon T85/799 line were used as material for our experiments. Somatic embryogenesis was induced from cotyledons of unripe zygotic embryos in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 10 μM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2 g/L casein hydrolysate. Direct development of asexual embryos on the surfaces of the cotyledons was observed. Somatic embryos also differentiated from callus cells proliferating on cotyledon explants. Plantlets with green cotyledons were obtained on a medium composed of MS, 1 μM zeatin and 0.01 μM NAA. The removal of cotyledons enhanced further plantlet development. (author)

  7. The detection and utilization of disease resistance, quality, and productivity QTLs in cacao breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 15 years a number of studies have produced genetic linkage maps using a variety of molecular markers and small populations (<500 individuals), and a consensus genetic linkage map has been developed that gives the most precise estimates of marker locations and distances. QTLs have been ...

  8. Distribution of organic C oxidizable fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems can play a major role in the sequestration of carbon (C) because of their higher input of organic material to the soil. The importance of organic carbon to the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil quality is well recognized. However, total organic carbon measuremen...

  9. Impact of fermentation on nitrogenous compounds of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) from various origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Breysse, A; Davrieux, F; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X

    2016-02-01

    Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and origin analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found. Attention was drawn on each fraction, and enabled to point out other phenomenon occurring during fermentation. The migration of some nitrogenous compounds towards the bean shell during fermentation was demonstrated. Acetone treatment of cocoa powder prior to SDS-PAGE led to losses of nitrogenous compounds. This result gives clues on the tanning phenomenon carried out by polyphenols on nitrogenous compounds, phenomenon which increases during fermentation. PMID:26304435

  10. Production and Robustness of a Cacao Agroecosystem: Effects of Two Contrasting Types of Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatier, Rodolphe,; Wiegand, Kerstin; Meyer, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance an...

  11. Increasing accuracy and throughput in large-scale microsatellite fingerprinting of cacao field germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsatellite-based DNA fingerprinting has been increasingly applied in crop genebank management. However, efficiency and cost-saving remain a major challenge for large scale genotyping, even when middle or high throughput genotyping facility is available. In this study we report on increasing the...

  12. Top Grafting Performance of Some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones as Affected by Scion Budwood Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrusy Zakariyya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing budwood number is an efficient effort to overcome problemsrelated with limited scion materials. The objective of this research was to studythe effect of scion budwood number in some clones on the performance of graftedcocoa seedlings. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Research Station,Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, Indonesia at an elevationof 48 m above sea level. Layout for this study used factorial with 2 factors inrandomized complete block design, with four replications for every treatment.The first factor was clone type, namely MCC 02 and Sulawesi 1; whereas the secondfactor was number of grafted scion budwood, namely one, two, and three graftedbudwoods. There was no interaction between clone and number of scion budwoodfor variables of shoot length, stem girth, content of total chlorophyll, chlorophylla, and chlorophyll b. Meanwhile, there was interaction for stomatal conductanceand stomatal diffusion resistance. Clone significantly affected photosynthesisand stomatal diffusion resistance, while number of scion budwood affected significantlythe shoot length. Photosynthesis activity of MCC 02 was higher comparedto Sulawesi 1. In average, stomatal diffusion resistance of Sulawesi 1 was higherthan MCC 02. The shoot length of one grafted budwood was higher than thetwo or three grafted budwood.

  13. Stability in Flowering, Flushing, and Fruiting Characters of 21 Potential Cacao Clones in ICCRI Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flowering character and flowering intensity can be used to estimate productivity and it is important for supporting breeding activity especially for pollination program. This research was aimed to study the stability of character of flushing, flowering and fruiting on different cocoa clones (genetic. The research was done at Kaliwining Research Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember. There were 21 clones; KW 422, KW 426, KW 427, KW 425, KW 523, KW 062, KW 084, KW 094, KW 162, KW 163, KW 165, KW 219, KW 235, KW 236, KW 265, KW 005, KW 292, KW 570, KW 514, KW 516, and KW 617. Flowering intencity, fruiting, and flushing were observed. The result of the study showed that KW 084 was the most stable clone for fruiting. KW 235 had high pod number in April. KW 426, KW 427, KW 523, and Sulawesi 2 had high pod number in March and June. KW 219 and KW 516 had the lowest pod number. Low pod number did not occur in March until June. Flowering and flushing on all genotypes showed the stability value with IPCA value nearly zero. KW 094 showed high flowering intensity in October. High flushing intensity occurred in January and July, the lower one in April and August. Key words: Stability analysis, flushing, flowering, fruiting, cocoa clones

  14. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  15. Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of "cocoa honey" (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Nascimento da Silva; Danilo da Cruz Ramos; Lígia Miranda Menezes; Alexilda Oliveira de Souza; Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes; Marcondes viana da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa honey is considered as the liquid portion of cocoa pulp that is released from the fruit soon after it is cut open and can be used before fermentation by simple extraction due to its nutritional characteristics. The objective of the present study is to determine the biochemical characteristics of a cocoa by-product, "cocoa honey" (CH), produced in the State of Bahia-Brazil. The biochemical characterization was conducted to determine reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C, total dietary...

  16. Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of "cocoa honey" (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Nascimento da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa honey is considered as the liquid portion of cocoa pulp that is released from the fruit soon after it is cut open and can be used before fermentation by simple extraction due to its nutritional characteristics. The objective of the present study is to determine the biochemical characteristics of a cocoa by-product, "cocoa honey" (CH, produced in the State of Bahia-Brazil. The biochemical characterization was conducted to determine reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C, total dietary fiber, flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity using an EC50. It was observed that cocoa honey can be considered a source of bioactive compounds, can be consumed in natura or processed, and used as an ingredient in the chocolate industry and in other food products. However, it is necessary to use complementary methods, such as HPLC, to quantify the phenolic compounds of this by-product.

  17. Localization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Theobroma cacao L. Somatic Embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    ALEMANNO, L.; Ramos, T.; GARGADENEC, A.; ANDARY, C.; FERRIERE, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cocoa breeders and growers continue to face the problem of high heterogeneity between individuals derived from one progeny. Vegetative propagation by somatic embryogenesis could be a way to increase genetic gains in the field. Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. This study was conducted to investigate the phenolic composition of cocoa flowers (the explants used to achieve somatic embryogenesis) and how it changes during the process, by m...

  18. Use of a proteolytic enzyme in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Sousa de Brito

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysis using an exogenous protease on cocoa nibs was performed to verify the formation of precursors and the effect on cocoa flavour. An experimental design was used to check the influence of temperature (30 to 70 ºC and enzyme : substrate ratio [E/S] (97.5 to 1267.5 U g-1 of protein. The % Degree of Hydrolysis (% DH was affected mainly by [E/S] leading to a 4-fold increase (from 5 to 20 % after 6 hours of treatment. During cocoa nibs roasting, there was a greater consumption of hydrolysis compounds in the sample treated with protease as compared to the control, indicating their participation in the Maillard reaction. An increased perception of chocolate flavour and bitter taste was observed in a product formulated with protease treated cocoa.Foi feita uma hidrólise da proteína dos nibs de cacau usando-se uma protease para verificar a formação de precursores e o efeito sobre o sabor do cacau. Um desenho experimental foi usado para verificar a influência da temperatura (30 a 70 ºC e razão enzima : substrato [E/S] (97,5 a 1267,5 U g-1 de proteína. O grau de hidrólise % (%DH foi afetado principalmente pela [E/S], tendo sofrido um aumento de 4 vezes (de 5 para 20 % após 6 horas de tratamento. Durante a torração dos nibs houve um consumo maior dos compostos de hidrólise na amostra tratada com protease em comparação com o controle, indicando a participação desses compostos na reação de Maillard. Foi observado um aumento na percepção do sabor de chocolate e do gosto amargo em um produto formulado com o cacau tratado com a protease.

  19. APPLICATION OF AGERATUM CONYZOIDES TO CONTROLING PHYTOPHTHORA POD ROT DISEASE, PHYTOPHORA PALMIVORA ON CACAO FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    Sjam, Sylvia; Surapati, Untung; Rosmana, Ade; Rahim, Muhammad Danial; Dewi, Vien Sartika; Limbongan, Amelia; Kartika, Rini

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phytophthora pod rot (PPR), caused by Phytophthora palmivora Bult is one of the most important diseases on cocoa in the world. In Indonesia, yield losses due to the diseases were estimated in the range of 33 ??? 99 %. The disease could be controlled by plant extracts, Ageratum conyzoides. This study aimed to evaluate the application of A. Conyzoides to controlling PPR in the cocoa field. The research was conducted at the Plant Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanu...

  20. Theobroma cacao L., the Food of the Gods: a scientific approach beyond myths and claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, M; Conti, A

    2010-01-01

    Cocoa beans are rich source of polyphenols, contributing about 10% of the dry weight of the whole bean and its derivative chocolate, particularly dark chocolate, is considered one of the major contributors of antioxidants to the American diet after fruits and vegetables. At present the wide variation in cocoa processing and in the content and profile of polyphenols make it difficult to determine to what extent the findings about positive effects expressed in different studies, translate into tangible clinical benefits. Moreover, before claiming any healthy properties to a plant, natural product or food item on human subject, a basic research project approved by scientific and ethical commissions has to be performed. Until now the definition, composition, manufacturing specifications, packaging and labelling of cocoa and chocolate products in Europe, are regulated by "Directive 2000/36/EC of the European parliament and of the council". The definitions take changes in consumer tastes, chocolate composition and labelling into account, but do not consider the real potential of healthy, beneficial and nutraceutical effects. In fact, they fail to establish an official analytical methodology for the quantification of phenolic compounds in cocoa and chocolate. Moreover quantification of these compounds is not used in product classification. This article reviews many qualitative differences of cocoa and chocolate, in particular dark chocolate, aiming to establish the different implications for public health through the use of the analyzed concentration of polyphenols in cocoa products. PMID:19735732

  1. Relationship between Physiological Characteristic and Bean Quality on Some Cocoa Clones (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is one of the physiological process that influence the bean weight and this process related with the efectiveness of the stomata character and chlorophyll content in the leaves. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Research Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Design of experiment was randomized complete block design (RCBD consisted of six clones as treatment were Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, Sca 6, ICS 60, TSH 858, ICCRI 03, PA 300. Each treatment was replicated three times.  Stomata resistance diffusion, tranpiration,the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll total (a+b, bean number and bean weight were observed. The resuts  of experiment showed that  difference in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll total (a+b, stomata resistance diffusion, bean number and bean weight existed within  six clones tested. Transpiration rate did not show the significantly different between six clones tested. Sulawesi 1 showed the highest content of chlorophyll a and  ICS 60 and ICCRI 03 showed higher content of chlorophyll b than the other clones. Chlorophyll a, b and total (a+b showed positively influence on bean number and bean weight. Transpiration rate had negatively influence to bean number per pod, on the otherhand it showed positively influence to bean weight. Chlorophyll total (a+b showed high genetic variance (σg2, high phenotypic variance (σf2  and high estimated value of heritability (H.  The chlorophyll a,b had moderate genetic variance, moderate phenotypic variance and high of estimated value of heritability.  Chlorophyll total (a+b could be used a selection criteria based on the value of correlation, genetic variance, phenotypic variance and estimated value of heritability would give high opportunity in selection process. 

  2. Physiological and biochemical responses of Theobroma cacao L. genotypes submitted to flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flooding is common in lowlands and areas with high rainfall or excessive irrigation. One major effect of this stress is the deprivation of O2 in the root zone, which affects several biochemical and morphophysiological plants processes. This study aimed to elucidate biochemical and physiological char...

  3. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for butter content and hardness in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa butter is an important raw material for the chocolate, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The butter content and quality in cocoa beans are genetically controlled characteristics, and affect its commercial values and industrial applicability. In the present work, an F2 population derived...

  4. Effectiveness of calcium chloride in reduction of shoot necrosis incocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in vitro propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2012-01-01

    Various efforts have been developed for the optimization of the various stages in vitro micropropagation. The maturation stage and pre-acclimatization plantlets is an important stages that must be considered to produce vigorous plants and ready to be planted in the field. The purpose of this study was to reduced shoot tip necrosis in cocoa planlets to obtaine vigorous planlets from in vitro propagation through the addition of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2). The study used two stages of embryogenic ...

  5. Resterilization in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryogenesispropagation to save contaminated embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas; Cahya Ismayadi

    2011-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a technique to produce primary embryos using tissue culture. Contamination in tissue culture can be caused by internal and external contaminant. Resterilization can be performed to save contaminated embryos. The aim of this research is to obtain resterilization method in cocoa micropropagation by tissue culture so that free bacterial explants can be obtained and embryogenic. This experiments used five clones of cocoa, namely Sulawesi 1, KW 514, ICCRI 05, ICCRI 03 and ...

  6. In vitro seed germination and rootstock establishing for micrografting of Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micrografting has been successfully implemented in several plant species of Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus, Havea, Malus, Olea, Opuntia, Prunus and other genera. This technique is employed for plant rejuvenation, true-to-type propagation, genetic improvement, recovery of virus-free plants, testing of po...

  7. Existence of entomopathogen fungi, Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte in cacao seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is one of the entomopathogen fungi which is known as biological control agent of cocoa pod borer and cocoa mirids (Helopeltis spp.. Because of its effectiveness in the fields is still not consistent, so we conduct a research with the objective to know the possibility of Beauveria bassiana to be established as a endophyte. Various fungal entomopathogens have already been reported as endophytes and the various methods used to inoculate the plants with B. bassiana were partially effective. The research has been conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute by inoculating of cocoa seeds and cocoa nursery with B. bassiana suspension.  The trial was arranged  by randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement. The factor were spore concentration of B. bassiana (0; 2; and 4 g/ 10 l and cocoa varieties (family of ICS 60, TSH858, and hybrid. The trial were use  four replications. The results showed that the fungal entomopathogen B. bassiana was established as an endophyte in cocoa seedling, both from cocoa seeds and nursery application. Percentage of existence of B. bassiana colonies as endophytes one month after seeds application were ICS 60 amounted to 93.3 % both on concentration treatments, while the families of TSH 858 by 80 % and 86.67 % respectively in 2 g and 4 g per 10 l of B. bassiana spores concentration treament.. The lowest percentage was in hybrids, which amounted to 66.67% and 50%. B. bassiana colonies was exixtence as an endophyte in culture from root, stem and leaves of cocoa seedling up to 5 months post inoculation. While the application on nursery by soil drenshing, leaf spraying, and stem injection , it was known that B. bassiana colonies were found in the tissues of leaves, stems, and roots until two months after application. Colonies of B. bassiana as endophytes still exsist until six weeks after nursery was planted in the field. 

  8. Comparison of SNPs and microsatellites in identifying offtypes of cacao clones from Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are increasingly being used in crop breeding programs, slowly replacing microsatellites and other markers. SNPs provide many benefits over microsatellites, including ease of analysis and unambiguous results across various platforms. We compare SNPs to m...

  9. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a... that the cacao fat content is less than 10 percent by weight, as determined by the method prescribed...

  10. 21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for breakfast cocoa in § 163.112, except that the cacao...

  11. 伐らない焼畑--カメルーン東南部の熱帯雨林帯におけるカカオ栽培の受容にみられる変化と持続 (特集 地域研究の前線)

    OpenAIRE

    四方, 篝

    2007-01-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop for small-scale Bangandou farmers living in forested area of Cameroon. In this region, cacao is usually grown under the shade in fi elds of selectively thinned natural forestland. This study aims to clarify how the cacao-growing system has been integrated into the Bangandou's subsistence slash-and-burn agriculture and examines its role in their livelihood. Bangandou people favor establishing new cacao fi elds in primary forests or old cacao...

  12. Better chocolate through genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the cacao or chocolate tree, is a tropical understory tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate. And like any important crop, cacao is the subject of much research. On September 15, 2010, scientists publicly released a preliminary sequence of the cacao genome--which contains all o...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND LITTER FAUNA IN DIFFERENT COCOA AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the density and diversity of meso and macro-fauna of soils located under cacao agrosystems of southern Bahia, Brazil. The researched areas studied were: Cacao improved with Erythrina spp. shade tree (CRE); Cacao under an improved cabruca (CRC); Cacao ...

  14. 可可蔗糖磷酸合成酶基因家族进化及组织表达分析%Phylogeny and Expression Profile of the Sucrose Phosphate Synthase Gene Family in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李付鹏; 秦晓威; 伍宝朵; 赵溪竹; 王华; 朱自慧; 赖剑雄

    2015-01-01

    在高等植物中,蔗糖磷酸合成酶(Sucrose phosphate synthase,SPS)是蔗糖合成的限速酶.在多种植物中都发现了SPS基因,而可可中尚未见相关报道.通过分析可可基因组数据库,鉴定出4个SPS候选基因,依次命名为TcSPS1、TcSPS2、TcSPS3和TcSPS4.4个基因的编码区(CDS)长度在3 075~3 228 bp之间,外显子数目为12~14,预测蛋白的平均分子量为118.15 ku,等电点均小于7.进化分析结果表明SPS基因家族分成3个亚族;TcSPS1和TcSPS2属于Class Ⅰ亚族,TcSPS3和TcSPS4分别属于ClassⅡ亚族和ClassⅢ亚族.实时荧光定量PCR分析结果表明,TcSPS1与TcSPS2在树皮和果实中高量表达,TcSPS3和TcSPS4主要在叶片中表达.伴随着叶片和花蕾生长发育,各TcSPS基因表达量均呈现出上升的趋势,表明其与主要光合产物--蔗糖的合成或再合成有密切联系,参与可可“源库”器官中光合产物分配.

  15. EFEK KONSUMSI MINUMAN BUBUK KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L.) BEBAS LEMAK TERHADAP SIFAT ANTIOKSIDATIF LIMFOSIT SUBYEK PEREMPUAN [The Effect of Fat Free Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Powder Drinks Consumption on Antioxidative Activity of Lymphocyte of Women Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Erniati; Fransiska R Zakaria2); Bambang Pontjo Priosoeryanto

    2012-01-01

    The health benefits of cocoa both in vivo and in vitro have been reported in many studies. Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids known to have antioxidant activity, such as catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of fat free cocoa powder drink consumption on antioxidative properties and proliferation activities of woman lymphocyte. Healthy woman subjects were divided into cocoa group (n = 9) and control group (n = 9). Cocoa powder drink contai...

  16. EFEK KONSUMSI MINUMAN BUBUK KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L. BEBAS LEMAK TERHADAP SIFAT ANTIOKSIDATIF LIMFOSIT SUBYEK PEREMPUAN [The Effect of Fat Free Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L. Powder Drinks Consumption on Antioxidative Activity of Lymphocyte of Women Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erniati1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of cocoa both in vivo and in vitro have been reported in many studies. Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids known to have antioxidant activity, such as catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of fat free cocoa powder drink consumption on antioxidative properties and proliferation activities of woman lymphocyte. Healthy woman subjects were divided into cocoa group (n = 9 and control group (n = 9. Cocoa powder drink containing skim milk and sugar was given to the cocoa groups every morning for 25 days. The control group received only water containing skim milk and sugar. Both cocoa and control group received physical medical checkup at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Their peripheral blood was taken for lymphocyte antioxidant analysis. The measured antioxidant properties consisted of antiradical activity by DPPH method, malonaldehyde (MDA and glutathione levels. The data of cocoa group showed that there was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in antiradical level from 31+11.2 to 40.19+7.42% and glutathione from 48.2±10.5 to 66.7±15.9 μmol/land a decrease in MDA level in the lymphocyte (p < 0.05 from 2.98±2.21 to 1.29±0.33 μmol/las compared to the control group (from 25.77±6.9 to 26.79±6.12%; 34.7±20.7 to 37.8±19.2 μmol/land 3.01±1.53 to 2.069±0.707 μmol/l respectively after consumption of the cocoa powder drink. The results of this research revealed that fat free cocoa powder has a strong antioxidant activity which was manifested up to the blood cells.

  17. Motivation of Cocoa Farmers in Implementing the Cocoa Production Technology: Case at Sirenja District Donggala Regency, Central Sulawesi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Amiruddin Saleh

    2010-01-01

    One of the efforts to increase the quality and production of cacao is to apply proper technology of cacao production at farmers level. Level of the technology of cacao production is different among the farmers, which related to the motivation. The present research objectives were to identify motivation of farmers in implementing the cacao production technology, to identify the implementation of the cacao production technology by farmers, to analyze the factors of farmers’ motivation in implem...

  18. Pooled-BAC sequencing of a black pod resistance region (cBPQTL12) in T. cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is an expensive and technically challenging endeavor. An alternative to WGS is to sequence specific chromosomal segments of biological interest (e.g. a QTL interval). This method is cheaper than WGS and reduces the risk of misassembly from distal parts of the genome. Us...

  19. CONTRIBUIÇÃO AO ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DA FOLHA E DO CAULE DO CACAUEIRO (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAKAYAMA L.H.I

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever a anatomia da folha e do caule adulto enfatizando a caracterização dos tricomas e das estruturas secretoras do cacaueiro. Foram analisadas amostras de caule e folhas (limbo e pecíolo, correspondente ao 3º nó, além de folhas novas de 5cm de comprimento. A lâmina foliar é hipoestomática, com estômatos do tipo anomocítico. Em ambas as faces do limbo ocorrem quatro tipos de tricomas: sendo dois tectores e dois glandulares. Na epiderme adaxial estão presentes as glândulas secretoras de mucilagem. O mesofilo é dorsiventral; o parênquima paliçádico é formado por duas ou três camadas. O parênquima lacunoso apresenta células coletoras. Ao longo do mesofilo predomina feixes colaterais envolvidos por bainha esclerenquimática que se estende até as epidermes. O padrão de venação é do tipo Camptodroma com ramificações mistas Brochidrodomas e Eucamptodromos. O pecíolo e o caule apresentam a epiderme com os tricomas descritos para o limbo; No parênquima cortical e medular do pecíolo e caule, há células contendo grãos de amido, idioblastos contendo drusas e canais de mucilagem. O sistema vascular ao longo do pecíolo se diferencia quanto a organização. O caule apresenta camadas de clorênquima, e de colênquima. Ocorre a esclerificação das células deste último, com o desenvolvimento. Segue-se um anel descontínuo de fibras do floema primário. A medula é ampla e se esclerifica com o desenvolvimento.

  20. Use of gamma rays to induce mutants resistant to cocoa swollen shoot disease in Theobroma cacao L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetative buds of three cocoa varieties, ‘Amelonado’ (P30), ‘Trinitario’ (K5) and ‘Upper Amazon’ (T85/799) were irradiated with 15, 20 and 25 Gy of γ-rays, respectively, and budded on to rootstocks to generate MV1 shoots. The terminal buds of the shoots were removed to induce the formation of MV2 shoots, from which MV3 shoots were similarly derived. The MV3 plants were screened for resistance to the Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV) by patch-graft inoculation of the root-stocks. Only a few plants from each of the three cocoa varieties were found to be symptomless after indexing. These plants were multiplied by budding to the MV4 and MV5 stages and screened at each stage for CSSV resistance by inoculation using virus-carrying mealybugs. At the MV5 stage, some plants still remained symptomless and this was confirmed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study reveals that γ-rays can be used to induce genetic variability for resistance to CSSV in cocoa, as well as for other traits such as chlorophyll deficiency. (author)

  1. Analisis Forecasting Penawaran dan Permintaan Ekspor Biji Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) Sumatera Utara ke Malaysia Tahun 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Atikah, Fadiah

    2016-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi penawaran ekspor biji kakao Sumatera Utara, faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi permintaan ekspor biji kakao Sumatera Utara ke Malaysia, dan proyeksi penawaran dan permintaan ekspor biji kakao Sumatera Utara ke Malaysia tahun 2020. Metode analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis regresi linear berganda untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi penawaran dan permintaan ekspor biji kakao ...

  2. Assessing Genetic Diversity Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL.) Collection Resistant to Cocoa Pod Borer Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Agung Wahyu Susilo; Dapeng Zhang; Lambert Motilal

    2013-01-01

    Breeding  for  cocoa  pod  borer  (CPB)  resistance  on  cocoa  was  initiated  by selecting  the  resistant  genotypes  through  cocoa  farm  in  the  endemic  area.  For breeding  purpose  the  collected  genotypes  should  be  assessed  for  their  diversity  in  constructing  appropriate  mating  design.  This  research  has  objective  to assess  genetic  diversity  of  the  exploratory  collection  using  DNA  fingerprinting. The  tested  clones  were  25  exploratory  collections  comp...

  3. Respons Pertumbuhan Bibit Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.)Terhadap Pemberian Abu Janjang Kepada Sawit Dan Pupu Urea Pada Media Pembibitan

    OpenAIRE

    Sidabutar, Sarah Vitya

    2013-01-01

    SARAH VITRYA SIDABUTAR : the response of cocoa seedlings growth for giving palm bunch ash and urea fertilizer in the media of nursery, Led by Ir. Balonggu Siagian, MS and Ir Meiriani, MP. The research was conducted in the field UPT BBI, Tanjung Selamat at an altitude ± 57 meters above sea level since May 2012 until August 2012 using Randomized Block Design (RBD) factorial with two factors. The first factor is palm bunch ( 0, 10, 20, and 30 gram/polybag). The second factor ...

  4. Respons Pertumbuhan Bibit Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap Pemberian Abu Boiler dan Pupuk Urea pada Media Pembibitan

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Uli Kris Putri

    2014-01-01

    Growing media fertility can be improved or enhanced with inorganic or organic fertilizer, such as boiler ash, which is one type of solid waste by-product of palm oil mills as well as the source of nitrogen urea fertilizer, is expected to boost growth of cocoa seedling in the nursery. This research had been conducted at experimental field of Fakultas Pertanian USU in May 2013 until September 2013, using factorial randomized block design with two factor, i.e. dose of boiler ash (0, 100, 200, a...

  5. Changes in Biochemical and Physico-chemical Qualities during Drying of Pulp Preconditioned and Fermented Cocoa (Theobroma cacao Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of post-harvest pod storage as a means of pulp preconditioning on the souring production, flavour precursors development and free fatty acids during drying of fermented Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4 x 4 full factorial experiment was conducted with pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days and drying times (0, 2, 4 and 6 days as the principal factors. The souring/acidification indices (pH and titratable acidity, total sugar, total nitrogen and free fatty acids (FFA were studied using standard analytical methods. The results showed that titratable acidity, total sugars and total nitrogen in cocoa beans decreased during drying and with increasing pod storage durations probably due to their participation in Maillard non-enzymatic reactions to form flavour volatiles and colour pigments as Amadori intermediates. By contrast, FFAs and pH increased during drying and with increasing pod storage durations. Pod storage for up to 7 days followed by 6 days of fermentation and drying respectively produced beans with acceptable FFA values below 1.75% whilst enhancing the flavour precursors development and reductions in nib acidity. However, these observed changes were more dependent on pod storage than on drying.

  6. Efektivitas Bentuk Fisik Ransum Yang Mengandung Pod Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) Fermentasi Aspergillus niger Terhadap karkas Kelinci Rex Lepas Sapih

    OpenAIRE

    Bancin, Syahril

    2015-01-01

    Livestock rabbit is a commodity that can produce quality meat with high protein content. Feed is an important factor in the livestock business, balanced nutrition will result in higher meat production. Utilization of farm wastes such as cocoa pot into animal feed, decent thing to do because it is not competitive with human foodstuffs. Feed in the form of pellets have several advantages, namely: to increase palatability, waste can be reduced rations due to wastage, can streamline formula pelle...

  7. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase in two cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. cultivars produced in the south of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrielle Souza Leão MACEDO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reactions leading to the formation of precursors of chocolate flavor are performed by endogenous enzymes present in the cocoa seed. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO presence and activity during fermentation of cocoa beans is responsible for the development of flavor precursors and is also implicated in the reduction of bitterness and astringency. However, the reliability of cocoa enzyme activities is complicated due to variations in different genotypes, geographical origins and methods of fermentation. In addition, there is still a lack of systematic studies comparing different cocoa cultivars. So, the present study was designed to characterize the activity of PPO in the pulp and seeds of two cocoa cultivars, PH 16 and TSH 1188. The PPO activity was determined spectrophotometrically and characterized as the optimal substrate concentration, pH and temperature and the results were correlated with the conditions during the fermentation process. The results showed the specificity and differences between the two cocoa cultivars and between the pulp and seeds of each cultivar. It is suggested that specific criteria must be adopted for each cultivar, based on the optimal PPO parameters, to prolong the period of maximum PPO activity during fermentation, contributing to the improvement of the quality of cocoa beans.

  8. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  9. Utilization of radiometric method in evaluation of wear on human dental enamel in vitro by dental porcelain glazed and polished; Utilizacao do metodo radiometrico na avaliacao in vitro do desgaste provocado ao esmalte dental humano por porcelanas dentais glazeadas e polidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki de; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Protese]. E-mail: katekawa@usp.br; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mitiko@curiango.ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    The dental porcelain is a material commonly used in prosthesis. Disadvantages of dental porcelain use include possibility to cause tooth or dental materials wear. Before its use in the mouth, surfaces are treated with polishing and/or glazing. This research used the radiometric method to verify the influence of these surface treatments on the porcelains of commercial brands: Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse. This method was originally developed for dentifrice abrasiveness evaluation. Five specimens of dental enamel and 10 specimens of each porcelain (5 glazed, 5 polished) were used. The dental enamel was flattened and irradiated with neutrons from the IEA-R1 (IPEN/CNEN) nuclear reactor. Then it was weared by each porcelain in sliding motion, with water. After 2,500 cycles for each porcelain specimen, the released enamel residue was measured. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of {sup 32}P transferred to water from the irradiated tooth. Results varied from 2.57 to 5.81 {mu}g of enamel /mm{sup 2} weared surface. There was no statistical difference ({alpha}=0.05) between dental enamel wear caused by the same porcelains glazed or polished. The results suggest that adequate surface finishing depend on the type of dental porcelain. (author)

  10. O treinamento nos valores da V200, FCpico e distância percorrida de cavalos da raça Árabe e Crioula Training in V200, HRpeak and worked distance values in Arabian and Criollo horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Moura Alonso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do treinamento em esteira sobre a velocidade na qual a frequência cardíaca (FC atinge o valor de 200 batimentos por minuto (V200, frequência cardíaca pico (FCpico e sobre a distância percorrida em duas raças de equinos com aptidões diferentes. Para tanto, foram utilizados cinco equinos adultos da raça Árabe (GA e cinco da raça Crioula (GC, submetidos ao teste padrão de exercício progressivo (TPEP com inclinação da esteira de 6%, velocidade inicial de 1,8m s-1 por 5 minutos, fases a 4m s-1 por 3 minutos, a 6m s-1 por 2 minutos e fases a 8m s-1, 9m s-1, 10m s-1 e 11m s-1 por 1 minuto cada, até os cavalos não acompanharem a velocidade da esteira, mesmo sendo estimulados. A V200 de cada cavalo foi determinada através da regressão linear da FC versus a velocidade antes (M0 e após o treinamento (M1. O consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max individual foi determinado para o cálculo da carga de trabalho nas nove semanas de treinamento, sendo cinco semanas com a carga de 35% VO2max, duas a 50% VO2max e duas a 100% VO2max. Os exercícios foram realizados uma vez por dia, cinco dias por semana e com inclinação de 6%. A média da V200 antes do treinamento (M0 foi 7,4±0,5 e 7,4±1,2m s-1, para o GA e GC, respectivamente, e após o treinamento (M1 foi 7,8±0,8 e 7,0±0,7m s-1, para o GA e GC, respectivamente. A média da FCpico no M0 foi 221,6±9,0 e 207,4±7,3bpm para o GA e GC, respectivamente, e no M1 foi 226,0±8,4 e 215,0±7,7bpm, para o GA e GC, respectivamente. A distância percorrida em metros no M0 foi de 3.391,0±252,0 e 2.446,0±96,3m para o GA e GC respectivamente, e no M1 foi de 3.850,8±462,2 e 2.698,6±335,8m para o GA e GC, respectivamente. Para a V200, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos (P=0,4643 e os momentos (P=1,0. Para a FCpico, houve diferença estatística entre os grupos (P=0,0064, mas não entre os momentos (P=0,1348 . Para a distância percorrida, houve diferença estatística entre os grupos (P=0,0002 e entre os momentos (P=0,0092. Provavelmente, o treinamento condicionou os equinos a antecipar o exercício quando encaminhados à esteira, elevando a FC e influenciando nos valores da V200. Conclui-se que a V200 foi ineficaz para a constatação de diferenças no desempenho atlético entre as duas raças e para avaliação do efeito do treinamento em esteira. Demonstrando a necessidade da associação de outros índices de desempenho como a distância percorrida para assegurar a devida interpretação do efeito de programas de treinamento sobre o desempenho de equinos em testes físicos de exercício.The effects of a training program on V200, HRpeak and worked distance were evaluated in two horse breeds with distinct aptitudes. Five Arabian (GA and five Crioulo (GC’ adult horses were subjected to incremental exercise tests on a 6% slope, which consisted of 5 minutes at 1.8m s-1, 3 minutes at 4m s-1, 2 minutes at 6m s-1, then 1 minute steps at 8m s-1, 9m s-1, 10m s-1 and 11m s-1 or until the horse could not keep up the speed even being encouraged. V200 was achieved through linear regression analyses of heart rate vs. speed. Individual maximum oxygen uptake (VO2máx was determined to establish speed during 9 weeks of training, being 35% of the VO2máx for 5 weeks, 50% for 2 weeks, and 100% for two additional weeks. Horses were exercised once a day, for 5 days a week, on a 6% slope. Mean V200 before training (M0 was 7.4±0.5m s-1 and 7.4±1.,2m s-1, for GA and GC, respectively, and after training (M1 was 7.8±0.8m s-1 and 7.0±0.7m s-1, for GA and GC, respectively. Mean HRpeak at M0 was 221.6±9.0 and 207.4±7.3 for GA and GC, respectively, and 226.0±8.4 and 215.0±7.7 at M1,for GA and GC respectively. Worked distance at M0 was 3391.0±252.0 and 2446.0±96.3 for GA e GC respectively, and at M1 was 3850.8±462.2 and 2698.6±335.8 for GA and GC respectively. No significant differences were observed between groups (P=0.4643 or moments (P=1.0 for V200. To HRpeak. there was statistical difference only between groups (P=0.0064. For the index of the distance traveled there was statistical difference between groups (P=0.0002 and moments (P=0.0092. Training probably conditioned horses to anticipate exercise when taken to the treadmill, therefore increasing heart rate and being an influence on V200 values. V200 was considered ineffective to assess differences in athletic performance between breeds and to evaluate the effect of treadmill training. Therefore it is necessary to associate other performance indicators as the distance to ensure appropriate interpretation of training effect programs on equine performance.

  11. Fechamento das placas epifisárias do metacarpiano principal, do rádio e da tíbia em potros Crioulos Closure time of the epiphyseal plates in the third metacarpus, radius and tibia in Criollo foals

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Colares Luiz; Flavio Desessards De La Corte; Karin Erica Brass

    2007-01-01

    Com o objetivo de determinar a idade do fechamento das placas de crescimento dos ossos longos, foram usados 92 potros da raça crioula com idades entre 6 a 29 meses, machos e fêmeas, provenientes de cinco criatórios diferentes. Foram radiografadas as placas epifisárias distais do terceiro metacarpiano, do rádio e da tíbia. A imagem radiográfica foi classificada quanto ao fechamento em: visível, parcialmente visível ou não visível. Foram avaliados a influência do sexo, da propriedade e do regim...

  12. Caracterização genética da raça bovina Crioulo Lageano por marcadores moleculares RAPD Genetic characterization of Criollo Lageano cattle by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Spritze

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi a caracterização genética da raça bovina Crioulo Lageano por marcadores RAPD em comparação com as raças Holandesa e Nelore. Foram selecionados 43 primers, que geraram 77 bandas polimórficas. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco subgrupos de Crioulo Lageano (I a V, e um subgrupo em cada uma das raças Holandesa (VI e Nelore (VII. A maior parte da variância genética total (65,05% foi causada pela diferença de indivíduos dentro dos grupos, e o restante pelas diferenças entre grupos. A análise conjunta dos grupos I a V apresentou variabilidade genética entre grupos de 25,28% e dentro dos grupos de 74,72%. A diversidade gênica vem se mantendo ao longo das gerações no núcleo de conservação do Crioulo Lageano. A raça Holandesa apresentou a menor diversidade gênica (0,1204, e a Crioulo Lageano a maior (0,3154. A maior distância genética (0,3747 foi entre as raças Nelore e Holandesa. Os grupos de Crioulo Lageano apresentaram diferenças entre si e apenas alguns indivíduos de cada grupo posicionaram-se junto a outros grupos. A técnica RAPD é capaz de estimar a distância genética entre raças ou populações e de auxiliar na escolha de indivíduos, visando aos trabalhos de conservação de recursos genéticos.The objective of this study was to characterize genetically the Crioulo Lageano cattle breed, using RAPD markers and compare it to the Holstein and Nelore breeds. Forty three primers were selected, and they generated 77 polymorphic bands. Seven groups were studied: 5 subgroups of Crioulo Lageano (I to V and one each Holstein (VI and Nellore (VII. Using all groups, the greater part of the genetic variance (65.05% was due to differences within groups and the rest due to differences between groups. Using five Crioulo Lageano groups (I to V the results showed 25.28% variation between groups and 74.72% within groups. Genetic diversity has been maintained throughout the generations in this conservation nucleus. The Holstein breed presented the lowest genetic diversity (0.1204 while the Crioulo Lageano herd presented the highest (0.3154. The observed genetic differences were highest between Nellore and Holstein breeds (0.3747, as expected. In general, the Crioulo Lageano groups formed distinct groups and only a few animals from one group were positioned within another group. The RAPD marker technique is adequate to estimate genetic distances between breeds and populations, as well as for use in the choice of individuals for breeding within populations, for conservation of genetic resources.

  13. Detección del virus de la leucosis bovina en ganado criollo colombiano mediante PCR-anidado Bovine leukemia virus detection in Creole Colombian breeds using nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Yovanny Hernández-Herrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la presencia del virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB en 360 muestras de ADN de ocho razas bovinas criollas: Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Casanareño (CAS, Costeño con Cuernos (CCC, Chino Santandereano (ChS, Caqueteño (CQT, Hartón del Valle (HV, Romosinuano (RS y San Martinero (SM, dos Razas Sintéticas Colombianas: Lucerna (LUC y Velásquez (VEL y dos razas foráneas: Brahmán (B y Holstein (H. Para la detección del pro-virus se amplificó una región del gen env viral, mediante PCR anidada. La presencia del VLB fue mayor en la raza HV seguido por ChS (83.3% y 60% respectivamente, VEL y LUC tuvieron el mismo porcentaje (50%, en CAS, CCC y CQT la presencia del virus fue de 26.7%, 23.3% y 16.7% respectivamente; no se encontró el virus en BON, SM y RS. En las razas foráneas la presencia fue de 83.3% para H y 6.7% para B. Se encontró dependencia altamente significativa entre la presencia del VLB y la raza, el sexo y región de origen de la muestra. El promedio de presencia en las razas criollas fue menor que en las foráneas, menor en los machos que en las hembras y en la región norte que en el suroccidente y el centro del país.Using 360 DNA samples from eight Creole bovine breeds Blanco Orejinegro (BON, Casanareño (CAS, Costeño con Cuernos (CCC, Chino Santandereano (ChS, Caqueteño (CQT, Hartón del Valle (HV, Romosinuano (RS and San Martinero (SM, two synthetic Colombian breeds: Lucerna (LUC and Velásquez (VEL and two introduced breeds Brahmán (B and Holstein (H; the presence of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV was evaluated through the amplification of a viral gene region env (provirus detection - nested-PCR. The percentage of presence and independence test were calculated (X². Presence of BLV was higher in HV breed, followed by ChS (83.3% and 60% respectively; VEL and LUC breeds showed the same percentage (50%. In CAS, CCC and CQT the presence of virus was 26.7%, 23.3% y 16.7% respectively. On the other hand, no virus presence was found in BON, SM and RS. For the introduced breeds the presence of virus was 83.3% for H and 6.7% for B. The average of presence for Creole bovine breeds was lower than introduced breeds. A high and significant dependence was found between the presence of BLV with breed, sex and sampling places. The presence was lower in males than in females and in the northern part than the southwestern and central areas of the country.

  14. Los derechos de propiedad intelectual y el maíz criollo mexicano: el caso de la gestión del conocimiento en la comunidad de Yaxcabá, Yucatán, México

    OpenAIRE

    Bárcenas Argüello, Rosa Josefina

    2012-01-01

    La situación de los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual y su relación con el Conocimiento Tradicional en México es un tema complicado, ya que el consenso generalizado es que el conocimiento tradicional no posee las características del conocimiento formal tales como la sistematización, experimentación, comprobación y registro escrito. En este documento, con un estudio de caso, se muestra que el Conocimiento Tradicional se integra por procesos que generan productos, prod...

  15. Molecular characterization of cocoa beans from different geographical origins: a metabolomics approach with a focus on peptides, amino acids and aroma compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Marseglia, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Il cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) e il cioccolato sono fra i prodotti alimentari più apprezzati nel mondo. Il nome 'Theobroma' significa 'cibo degli dei', sottolineando le quasi divine qualità nutritive del cacao e del cioccolato. I prodotti a base di cacao sono ottenuti a partire dalle fave di cacao, che rappresentano i semi della pianta del cacao, la quale cresce in una zona geografica limitata, di circa 20 gradi a nord e a sud dell'equatore. I prodotti a base di cioccolato sono ottenuti con un...

  16. Pasta aluminosa para o fabrico de isoladores cerâmicos

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Tiago Filipe Ramires

    2013-01-01

    Este relatório espelha o trabalho desenvolvido ao longo de um estágio na empresa Cerisol que produz isoladores em porcelana para alta tensão. A intenção principal do estágio era desenvolver uma pasta cerâmica aluminosa para o fabrico de isoladores, do tipo C130, designação dada segundo a norma ICE 60672-3 a porcelanas com elevado conteúdo em alumina. Preparou-se uma pasta usando bauxite calcinada como fonte de coríndon. Esta pasta, denominada de PB1 (pasta de bauxite 1), apresentou uma bai...

  17. Lessons from the Internal Control System of the CoCoA Aceh Utara Cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Novrizal

    2014-01-01

    The organic cacao cultivation practice at the CoCoA Aceh Utara Cooperative was started in 2007, with the foundation of the organic cacao cooperative. The foundation was facilitated by the government of Indonesia, in collaboration with the German agency for technical cooperation (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, GTZ), under the “Organic and Fairtrade Cacao in Aceh” Program. Through the GTZ program, the farmers received training on sustainable cacao cultivation system, which...

  18. 21 CFR 163.5 - Methods of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS General Provisions § 163.5 Methods of analysis. Shell and cacao fat content in cacao products shall be determined by the following methods of analysis prescribed in “Official...

  19. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  20. Facetas de Cerec

    OpenAIRE

    Llombart Jaques, Daniel; Cortada Colomer, Miquel; Ariño, A.; Cabratosa, J.

    1992-01-01

    Al moderno sistema de las facetas de porcelana, para la restauración de las caras labiales de los dientes, se le añade la variación técnica consistente en su realización mediante el sistema CAD-CAM. Se describe la técnica y sus ventajas.

  1. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless...

  2. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  3. Multi-element, multi-compound isotope profiling as a means to distinguish the geographical and varietal origin of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa

    2015-12-01

    Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions. PMID:26041233

  4. Study of Equipment Presses of Cocoa Powder (Theobroma cacao,L to Produce Quality Fat Cocoa and Analysis of the Resulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omil Charmyn Chatib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the performance of the press tool brands CARVER type Model 3912 Hydraulic Unit in producing cocoa fat and then analyzing the product. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Food and Agricultural Products Processing and Chemistry Laboratory, Agricultural Products Biochemistry Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Andalas, Padang in April-June 2014. In this study, conducted observations such as pressure, temperature, and time presses ideal in the process. While the manufacturing unit made a tool to improve the performance of the instrument and the acquisition of fat that is carried out according to treatment pressure of 8.05 MPa at a temperature of 130 oC, 150 oC and 170 oC for each repetition. After that, analyzing the free fatty acids, iodine number, saponification number, and the moisture content of the product is done. Based on studies conducted by the information obtained from the data base in the presses, pressure 8.05 MPa and a temperature of 130 oC obtained average - average yield of 51.57% fat for 3 repetitions. This explains that the tool operates properly. As for test analysis, free fatty acids, iodine number, saponification number, and moisture content for each sample at all treatment is not obtained in accordance with the quality standards of Fat Cocoa determined by ISO 3748:2009.

  5. 可可壳色素对真丝织物染色性能研究%Research on Dyeing Behavior of Silk Fabrics with Cacao Shell Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂超; 黎谦

    2015-01-01

    为了研究天然染料可可壳色素对真丝织物的染色性能和染色真丝织物防紫外线性能,通过正交实验方法获得最佳染色工艺,并测定了不同染色真丝织物的紫外光透过率及UPF值.结果表明:可可壳色素直接染色的最佳工艺为色素相对真丝织物的质量分数2%,pH值5,时间60 min,温度70℃,浴比1∶50,前媒法处理的最佳工艺条件为媒染剂质量分数2%,媒染时间30 min,媒染温度70 ℃,浴比1∶50.真丝织物经过可可壳色素染色能提高紫外线防护性能,获得较好的耐摩擦和耐皂洗色牢度,但是日晒色牢度较差.

  6. Suggestions on Development of Cacao Industry in Hainan%世界可可业概况与发展海南可可业的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱自慧

    2003-01-01

    介绍了可可的生长环境条件、开花结果特性,国内外生产科研现状以及海南发展可可的利弊条件和适宜的种植模式,提出了加速海南可可产业化发展的建议.

  7. Orígenes y desarrollo de una élite regional. Aristocracia y cacao en la provincia de Caracas, siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Langue

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Como lo demuestra la evolución de la historiografía americanista en los últimos diez años, la insistencia en la historia social y particularmente en la de las élites contempla, en la mayoría de los casos, el período  conocido como el de la "revolución en el gobierno", según la caracterización de Brading. A ese respecto, la naturaleza de los detentores de la riqueza y del poder en la provincia de Caracas — tal sería la definición más amplia del término élite —, una aristocracia criolla por exc...

  8. Effect of Roasting Conditions on the Browning Index and Appearance Properties of Pulp Pre-Conditioned and Fermented Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Appearance is an important quality determinant of cocoa beans and it is used as standard criteria to establish the degree of fermentation and drying of the beans. Changes in browning index and colour (L*a* b* during roasting of pulp pre-conditioned and fermented cocoa beans were studied using standard analytical methods. Increasing pod storage and roasting time at 120˚C led to variable increases in browning index (BI and b*-values of the beans with decreases in the L* and a* values. Cocoa pod stored for 10 days showed the highest BI (1.144 with the least L* value (24.15 whilst beans from the unstored pods showed the least BI (1.007 with the highest L* value (25.55. The rates of change in BI and colour (L*, a*, b* were however more pronounced during roasting than pod storage. Brown pigment formation (BI and the L* value were more pronounced after 30 minutes of roasting in beans from pods stored for 3 to 7 days. The colour changes in beans from 10 days pod storage was significant (p<0.05 after 45 minutes of roasting. The beans from the pods stored for 3 to 7 days showed consistent decrease in L* and a* values with increasing roasting time whiles the beans from the 10 days of pod storage were observed to produce lower L* value (darker beans after 45 minutes of roasting. Pod storage between 3 to 7 days could be used to improve the brownness and appearance of roasted cocoa nibs. Beans from cocoa pod stored between 3 to 7 days produced the most acceptable BI and L* value after roasting for 30 minutes at 120oC.

  9. Echecs de marchés et pauvreté : l’exemple de la filière cacao en Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Bonjean Catherine

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La question posée ici est donc de savoir si, dans une économie où les défaillances de marché sont multiples, le désengagement de l’État a conduit à une amélioration du bien-être des planteurs, plus particulièrement des pauvres, ou non. Nous montrons, dans un premier point, que la libéralisation a entraîné une rupture dans le mode de coordination des agents au sein de la filière, rupture dont les conséquences sur la pauvreté sont ensuite examinées. Quatre critères de pauvreté sont considérés [2] : le niveau de revenu, la vulnérabilité face au risque de revenu, l’accès aux biens et services publics et la participation des paysans aux décisions au sein de la filière.

  10. DESEMPENHO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DE OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM FARELO DE CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. EM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE SUBSTITUIÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mattos Veloso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e digestibilidade aparente de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau em substituição ao concentrado (milho e farelo de soja. Utilizaram-se dezesseis ovinos Santa Inês, fêmeas, não prenhes, não lactantes, com peso médio inicial de 25 kg e aproximadamente doze meses de idade, mantidos em baias individuais. O experimento teve a duração de 78 dias, sendo 15 de período pré-experimental e 63 dias de período experimental. Forneceram-se as dietas em mistura completa, na proporção 50:50% (volumoso:concentrado,sendo utilizado como volumoso o feno da parte aérea da mandioca, com níveis de inclusão de farelo de cacau no concentrado de 0%, 10%, 20% e 30%. Forneciam-se dietas pela manhã, sendo ajustadas de forma a sobrar 10%. Semanalmente, coletaram-se as sobras e amostras de alimentos para análises laboratoriais. Avaliaram-se o consumo, o ganho médio diário de peso, a conversão alimentar e a digestibilidade aparente. A inclusão do farelo de cacau não promoveu diferença nos consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro, no ganho de peso médio diário,na conversão alimentar e digestibilidade dos nutrientes. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido aumentou linearmente com a inclusão do farelo de cacau na dieta. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alimentação, concentrado, confinamento, ruminante, subproduto.

  11. 可可全基因组SSR标记的开发及分析%LARGE-SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF SSR MARKERS IN THE GENOME OF CACAO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹恒春; 王毅; 黄莉莎; 王玉军; 于元杰; 杨龙

    2013-01-01

    SSR标记是一种广泛应用的分子标记技术,在可可基因组的研究中发挥了重要的作用.本研究运用生物信息学的方法,对可可全基因组进行了扫描,共得到10,4653个SSR区段.对这些SSR区段进行分析,发现含有碱基数目不同的重复单元之间具有较大的差异:含有七核苷酸的重复单元最多,为70,414个,占所有重复单元总数的67.3%;其次为二核苷酸重复单元,为23,272个,占总数的22.2%.在各类SSR单元中,不同核苷酸重复单元出现的频率有明显的差异,其中富含A/T重复单元的SSR单元数目最多,占总数的67%;而C/G重复单元的SSR单元数目较少,约占总数的0.02%.利用SSR单元的位点信息,设计出了65,861对引物,并在可可基因组中进行了电子PCR扩增验证,结果显示100%的引物均能扩增出产物条带.在可可基因组中大规模开发的SSR标记,将为可可的进化、分类和遗传多样性研究提供参考.

  12. DESEMPENHO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DE OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM FARELO DE CACAU (Theobroma cacao L.) EM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE SUBSTITUIÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Mattos Veloso; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Robério Rodrigues Silva

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e digestibilidade aparente de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau em substituição ao concentrado (milho e farelo de soja). Utilizaram-se dezesseis ovinos Santa Inês, fêmeas, não prenhes, não lactantes, com peso médio inicial de 25 kg e aproximadamente doze meses de idade, mantidos em baias individuais. O experimento teve a duração de 78 dias, sendo 15 de período pré-experimental e 63 dias de período experimental. Forneceram...

  13. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J R; Almeida, M Helena; Nout, M J Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2011-09-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The formation of these precursors depends on the activity of different microbial groups on the beans pulp. A comparison of fermentations in different countries showed that a well-defined microbial succession does not always take place and that the role of Bacillus spp. in this process remains unclear. Considering the overriding importance of the fermentation to achieve high quality commercial cocoa beans, we discuss the need of addressing the impact of the farming system, the ripeness state of the pods, and the role of microbial interactions on the fermentation in future research. In addition, the problem of high acidification cocoa beans, aspects dealing with the volatile fraction of the flavor, and the cocoa butter properties, all were identified as critical aspects that need further investigation. The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain. PMID:21838556

  14. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. associated with Theobroma cacao and other plants in Panama: multilocus phylogenies distinguish host-associated pathogens from asymptomatic endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Colletotrichum interact with a vast but as yet undetermined number of plant species as pathogens and as asymptomatic endophytes. It is not known, however, whether these contrasting ecological modes are optional strategies exercised by individual species or whether species ecology is more ...

  15. Development of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers in Theobroma cacao and comparison to Simple Sequence Repeat markers for genotyping of Cameroon clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are increasingly being used in crop breeding programs, slowly replacing Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) and other markers. SNPs provide many benefits over SSRs, including ease of analysis and unambiguous results across various platforms. We have identifie...

  16. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  17. Effect of Roasting Conditions on the Browning Index and Appearance Properties of Pulp Pre-Conditioned and Fermented Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

    2014-01-01

    Appearance is an important quality determinant of cocoa beans and it is used as standard criteria to establish the degree of fermentation and drying of the beans. Changes in browning index and colour (L*a* b*) during roasting of pulp pre-conditioned and fermented cocoa beans were studied using standard analytical methods. Increasing pod storage and roasting time at 120˚C led to variable increases in browning index (BI) and b*-values of the beans with decreases in the L* and a* values. Cocoa p...

  18. Caracterización de la fibra de cacao y su efecto sobre la capacidad antioxidante en suero de animales de experimentación

    OpenAIRE

    Lecumberri, Elena; Mateos, Raquel; Ramos, Sonia; Alía, Mario; Rupérez Antón, Pilar; Goya, Luis; M. Izquierdo-Pulido; Bravo, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the physico-chemical properties of cocoa fibre (CF), to analyze its polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity in vitro, and to investigate the effect of the administration of a polyphenolic extract of this cocoa fiber on the antioxidant capacity of the serum in rats.-- Methods and materials: Dietary fiber (DF) composition and polyphenolic (PP) content of the cocoa fiber were analyzed. The antioxidant capacity of the CF was determined b...

  19. Muscle and genotype effects on fatty acid composition of goat kid intramuscular fat

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriano Domenech; Oliva Polvillo; Pilar Garcia; Adriana Bonvillani; Manuel Juárez; Francisco Peña

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the fatty acid composition of the major muscles in goats from different breeds. Forty entire male suckling kids, 20 Criollo Cordobes and 20 Anglo Nubian, were slaughtered at 75 days of age and the fatty acid composition of their longissimus thoracis (LT) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles was analysed to clarify the effects of genotype and muscle type on goat kid meat. Genotype had a great influence on the fatty acid composition of goat kid meat. Meat from Criollo Cordobes ...

  20. Fosfito de potássio na indução de resistência a Verticillium dahliae Kleb., em mudas de cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. Effect of potassium phosphite on the induction of resistance in cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao L. against Verticillium dahliae Kleb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martins Ribeiro Júnior

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Há vários relatos da utilização de fosfitos no controle de doenças de plantas, por meio de ação direta, antifúngica e indireta por indução de resistência. Essa atuação como indutor é questionada, não sendo encontradas, em muitos desses trabalhos, evidências de respostas de defesa ativadas pelos sais de fosfito. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de doses (0,62; 1,25; 2,5 e 5 mL.L-1 de água de fosfito de potássio na indução de resistência em mudas de cacaueiro a V. dahliae, além de investigar os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos na resposta de defesa. Foram realizados experimentos no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Parasitismo e casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Fitopatologia UFLA. A aplicação foliar do fosfito foi realizada 7 dias antes das inoculações e as avaliações de severidade foram realizadas aos 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 dias após a inoculação. Foi realizado também um experimento para verificar o efeito tóxico direto e outro para avaliar a atividade das enzimas peroxidases e polifenoloxidases e a concentração de lignina. O tratamento com o fosfito de potássio (1,25 mL.L-1 de água proporcionou 10% de redução na área abaixo da curva de progresso da severidade da murcha-de-Verticillium (AACPD, 60 dias após aplicação foliar, não diferindo de nenhuma das doses, nem da testemunha. Todas as doses utilizadas apresentaram efeito fungitóxico, inibindo a germinação de V. dahliae. A aplicação do fosfito de potássio (1,25 mL.L-1 de água não induziu aumento na atividade das enzimas peroxidases e polifenoloxidases em relação à testemunha. Plantas tratadas com esse produto apresentaram um pequeno incremento na concentração de lignina, não apresentando diferença significativa da testemunha absoluta.There are several reports concerning with the use of phosphites for controlling of plant diseases, through direct action, antifungal, and indirect, by resistance induction. The performance of phosphites as inducer of resistance is questioned, not finding in many of those papers, evidences of defense responses activated by these salts. The present work aimed at studying the effect of doses (0.62; 1.25; 2.5 and 5.0 mL.L-1 of water of potassium phosphite on the protection of cocoa seedlings against V. dahliae, besides investigating the possible mechanisms involved in the defense response. Experiments were accomplished at the laboratory of Physiopathology and in a greenhouse at the Plant Pathology Department - UFLA. Foliar applications of phosphite were carried out 7 days before inoculation and severity assessments at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after inoculation. Experiments were also set to verify the toxic effect of phosphites and to evaluate the action of the enzymes peroxidases and polyphenoloxidases and the lignin content. The treatment with the potassium phosphite (1.25 mL.L-1 of water provided only 10% reduction in the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, 60 days after spraying, not differing from none of the doses, nor from the dose zero. All the used doses presented antifungal effect, inhibiting the germination of V. dahliae conidia. The application of the potassium phosphite (1.25 mL.L-1 of water did not induce increase in the activities of the enzymes peroxidases and polyphenoloxidases in relation to the control. Treated plants with that product presented a small increment in the lignin content, not presenting a significant difference to the absolute control.